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Sample records for preschool-aged autistic children

  1. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  2. Research of Fears of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkabayeva, Aiman E.; Dakhbay, Beybitkhan D.; Oleksyuk, Z?ryana Ya.; Tykezhanova, Gulmira M.; Alshynbekova, Gulnaziya K.; Starikova, Anna Ye.

    2016-01-01

    One of the symptoms of neurosis at preschool age children is fear. In our opinion, research in this area will help to solve a number of problems of children of preschool age, including difficulties of acceptance on themselves in the new social roles in relation from kindergarten transition to school adjustment problems and a number of other…

  3. BUDESONIDE TREATMENT IN CHILDREN PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma remains disease with wide prevalence in children different age. Inhalation corticosteroids are medications of first line of therapy in children. The article describes the ways of treatment with budesonide (Pulmicort in children preschool age. The data from different studies prove the effectiveness and safety of treatment with as turbuhaler, as nebulizer form of this drug. Key words: children, bronchial asthma, inhalational corticosteroids, budesonide.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:76-80

  4. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

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    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  5. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  6. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  7. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  8. Investigation of Environmental Problem Solving Skills of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…

  9. Decoding and Encoding Facial Expressions in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Przewuzman, Sylvia J.

    1979-01-01

    Preschool-age children drew, decoded, and encoded facial expressions depicting five different emotions. Accuracy of drawing, decoding and encoding each of the five emotions was consistent across the three tasks; decoding ability was correlated with drawing ability among female subjects, but neither of these abilities was correlated with encoding…

  10. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  11. Gender labelling of toys in children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Knapeková, Lívia

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with preschool children's play in the context of gender. The theoretical part is divided into three main chapters. The first one is devoted to the essence of play and its function for the child, the second one describes the main areas of child development at preschool age and the last chapter is devoted mainly to gender socialization and role of play in it. The practical part has the form of semi- structured interviews, which aimed to find out the extent of gender de...

  12. Sensory Subtypes in Preschool Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchek, Scott D; Little, Lauren M; Myers, John; Dunn, Winnie

    2018-06-01

    Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research has investigated how sensory features elucidate subtypes that enhance our understanding of etiology and tailored treatment approaches. Previous studies, however, have not integrated core developmental behaviors with sensory features in investigations of subtypes in ASD. Therefore, we used latent profile analysis to examine subtypes in a preschool aged sample considering sensory processing patterns in combination with social-communication skill, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. Results showed four subtypes that differed by degree and quality of sensory features, age and differential presentation of developmental skills. Findings partially align with previous literature on sensory subtypes and extends our understanding of how sensory processing aligns with other developmental domains in young children with ASD.

  13. Naps Enhance Executive Attention in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremone, Amanda; McDermott, Jennifer M; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2017-09-01

    Executive attention is impaired following sleep loss in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults. Whether naps improve attention relative to nap deprivation in preschool-aged children is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare executive attention in preschool children following a nap and an interval of wake. Sixty-nine children, 35-70 months of age, completed a Flanker task to assess executive attention following a nap and an equivalent interval of wake. Overall, accuracy was greater after the nap compared with the wake interval. Reaction time(s) did not differ between the nap and wake intervals. Results did not differ between children who napped consistently and those who napped inconsistently, suggesting that naps benefit executive attention of preschoolers regardless of nap habituality. These results indicate that naps enhance attention in preschool children. As executive attention supports executive functioning and learning, nap promotion may improve early education outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Predictors of Intrusive Sexual Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children.

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    Smith, Tyler J; Lindsey, Rebecca A; Bohora, Som; Silovsky, Jane F

    2018-04-10

    Intrusive sexual behaviors (ISBs) are a specific type of problematic sexual behavior characterized by the invasive nature of the acts (e.g., touching others' private parts, attempting intercourse; Friedrich, 1997). The limited amount of research on ISBs has focused on sexual abuse history as the primary predictor. However, Friedrich, Davies, Feher, and Wright (2003) found that ISBs in children up to age 12 were related to four broad conceptual factors: (a) exposure to sexual content, (b) exposure to violent behavior, (c) family adversity, and (d) child vulnerabilities. The current study sought to replicate Friedrich's study using a clinical sample of 217 preschool-aged children (ages two to six). Results supported variables from within the child vulnerabilities construct (externalizing behaviors, β EXT  = 0.032, p = 0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria met (β PTSD  = 0.177, p = 0.02), and an inverse relationship with age (β AGE  = -0.206, p = 0.024). These results highlight the importance of considering childhood behavioral patterns and reactivity to traumatic events as correlates of ISBs in young children.

  15. The importance of stimulation of sensory perception by preschool-aged children with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    NOHAVOVÁ, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis engages in the topic "Stimulation of sense perception for sight-impaired children at preschool age". The theoretical section of the bachelor thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter focuses on the sight-impaired individual, the second chapter deals with the development of a preschool-aged child, the next chapter is concerned with the preschool education of sight-impaired children and the last chapter focuses on sense perception for those children. The main ...

  16. Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children: Opportunity for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joy M; Watterworth, Jessica C; Haines, Jess; Duncan, Alison M; Mirotta, Julia A; Ma, David W L; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2018-03-01

    Dietary patterns established in childhood track into adulthood. Despite this, little research has explored preschoolers' snacking. This study examined snacking patterns (frequency, quality, quantity) of preschool-aged boys and girls. Cross-sectional data were collected on 52 children (23 males; 3.4 ± 1.1 years of age; BMI 16.1 ± 1.4 kg/m 2 ) enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study pilot. Parent-reported 3-day food records were analyzed for children's snacking patterns including frequency (number of snacking occasions per day), quantity (percent energy from snacks) and quality (inclusion of food groups from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide, macronutrient distribution, sugary and salty snacks). Mann-Whitney U tests examined sex differences in snacking patterns. Ninety-six percent of children snacked daily, consuming a mean of 2.3 ± 0.7 snacks per day. Snacks accounted for one-third of daily energy. 78% of boys' versus 63% of girls' snacks contained a food group (P = 0.016). Boys consumed significantly fewer sugary snacks (0.5 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.6 snacks per day, P = 0.016), although the percent of snack calories from sugar for both boys and girls was high (group mean 37.2 ± 6.7%). Nearly all preschoolers in this study snacked daily, and consumed a variety of snack foods. Boys' and girls' snacking preferences begin to diverge early in life. Preschool children should be encouraged to consume healthful snacks.

  17. Predictors of Dietary Energy Density among Preschool Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilmani N.T. Fernando

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a global problem with many contributing factors including dietary energy density (DED. This paper aims to investigate potential predictors of DED among preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data for 209 mother–child pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial was conducted. Data for predictors (maternal child feeding and nutrition knowledge, maternal dietary intake, home food availability, socioeconomic status were obtained through questionnaires completed by first-time mothers when children were aged 4 or 18 months. Three 24-h dietary recalls were completed when children were aged ~3.5 years. DED was calculated utilizing three methods: “food only”, “food and dairy beverages”, and “food and all beverages”. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between predictors and these three measures of children’s DED. Home availability of fruits (β: −0.82; 95% CI: −1.35, −0.29, p = 0.002 for DEDfood; β: −0.42; 95% CI: −0.82, −0.02, p = 0.041 for DEDfood+dairy beverages and non-core snacks (β: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.20, p = 0.016 for DEDfood; β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.010 for DEDfood+dairy beverages were significantly associated with two of the three DED measures. Providing fruit at home early in a child’s life may encourage the establishment of healthful eating behaviors that could promote a diet that is lower in energy density later in life. Home availability of non-core snacks is likely to increase the energy density of preschool children’s diets, supporting the proposition that non-core snack availability at home should be limited.

  18. The student`s training to creating computer games for preschool-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мардарова И.К.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the special aspects of future kindergartner training to creating computer games for children of preschool age. The scratch-projects technology and recommendation for use at kindergarten pedagogical process are described in it.

  19. Stability and change of IQ scores in preschool children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, C.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Daalen, E. van; Engeland, H.M. van

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate cognitive development in preschool-age children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD; N = 39) compared with that of children diagnosed with mental retardation (MR; N = 14) and normally developing children (NC; N = 36). METHOD: In a prospective longitudinal study,

  20. "Where Is My Daddy's House?" Preschool-Age Children of Divorce and Transitional Phenomena--A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirtzinger, Ruth

    1986-01-01

    Presents study comparing preschool-age children of divorce not living in family home (N=4) with children (N=4) remaining in home. Those not in home showed specific discrete longing for it. After divorce the family home may allow the preschool-age child the necessary mental image of access to both his parents despite decreasing family structure.…

  1. An Insight into the Challenges Faced by Academic Women with Pre-School Age Children in Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günçavdi, Gizem; Göktürk, Söheyda; Bozoglu, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the challenges academic women, especially those who were mothers of pre-school age children, went through. The main guiding question of this study was "How do academic mothers with pre-school age children survive in the academia from pregnancy through all the various stages of parenting and motherhood?". This…

  2. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  3. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  4. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  5. Developing a medical picture book for reducing venipuncture distress in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ying; Kuo, Hui-Chen; Lee, Hsui-Chuan; Yiin, Shuenn-Jiun

    2017-10-01

    Distress associated with needle-related procedures is a major concern in preschool-aged children nursing. This study developed a medical picture book for supporting preschool-aged children facing a venipuncture and determined the effectiveness of such a book intervention in decreasing behavioural distress. The picture book was designed in 3 stages: developing stories on medical situations, penning the text, and drafting the book. We conducted a quasiexperimental study to examine the effectiveness of the book. The behavioural distress of the control and picture book groups were assessed before, during, and after the intervention by using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised (OSBD-R). We created a 12-page picture book, Sick Rui-Rui Bear, in which cartoon characters were depicted undergoing venipunctures, as a guide for vein injection and for facilitating positive venipuncture outcomes in preschool-aged children. Over time, the OSBD-R scores of the picture book group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P book be routinely read and used during venipunctures to decrease procedural distress in preschool-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Language Maintenance and Loss in Preschool-Age Children of Mexican Immigrants: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark M.; Barrett, Karen C.; Jancosek, Elizabeth G.; Itano, Christine Yoshinaga

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors plotted the Spanish language usage of 10 preschool-age children over the course of 3 years and assigned them to one of two groups: language maintenance and language loss. The authors then compared the groups' scores on structured tasks, language behaviors, and language usage/exposure variables. They found that children…

  7. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  8. Relationship between Social Cognition and Temperament in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBounty, Jennifer; Bosse, Lindsey; Savicki, Stephanie; King, Jaline; Eisenstat, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between temperament and social cognition, including theory of mind and emotion understanding, in 34 preschool-aged children (aged 3-4 years). Theory of mind was measured with a belief-desire reasoning assessment, and emotion understanding was measured with an affective…

  9. The Effect of Institutionalization on Psychomotor Development of Preschool Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kouliousi, Chrysoula; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Fahantidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Development can be altered by several factors which can either facilitate or obstruct development. The aim of the current study was the examination and the detection of differences in the developmental profiles of preschool aged children living in conventional institution facilities (N = 28), in SOS villages (N = 20) and in natural family…

  10. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  11. Attachment security and obesity in US preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Whitaker, Robert C

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the association between attachment security in children aged 24 months and their risk for obesity at 4½ years of age. Insecure attachment is associated with unhealthy physiologic and behavioral responses to stress, which could lead to development of obesity. Cohort study. National sample of US children born in 2001. Children and mothers participating in the 2003 and 2005-2006 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. Our analytic sample included 6650 children (76.0% of children assessed in both waves). Attachment security at 24 months was assessed by trained interviewers during observation in the child's home. Insecure attachment was defined as lowest quartile of attachment security, based on the security score from the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 Item. Obesity at 4½ years of age (sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile for age). The prevalence of obesity was 23.1% in children with insecure attachment and 16.6% in those with secure attachment. For children with insecure attachment, the odds of obesity were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.62) times higher than for children with secure attachment after controlling for the quality of mother-child interaction during play, parenting practices related to obesity, maternal body mass index, and sociodemographic characteristics. Insecure attachment in early childhood may be a risk factor for obesity. Interventions to increase children's attachment security should examine the effects on children's weight.

  12. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  13. Footwear suitability in Turkish preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Yasin; Sener, Gul; Yakut, Yavuz

    2014-06-01

    Unsuitable footwear worn in childhood may cause some foot problems by interfering normal development of foot. To compare footwear suitability rate of indoor and outdoor footwear at all points in preschool children and investigate factors which could affect footwear suitability. A cross-sectional survey study. A total of 1000 healthy preschool children (4-6 years old) participated in this study. Indoor and outdoor footwear of children were evaluated through Turkish version of Footwear Assessment Score. Effect of factors like age, sex, number of siblings, educational and occupational situation of parents, and behavior of school management about selecting footwear was investigated. Children got better footwear score for outdoor than indoor ones (p footwear score for both indoor and outdoor ones than girls (p footwear score was found in favor of children who were going to schools that gave guidance about selecting footwear for both indoor and outdoor in comparison to children going to other schools (p footwear for their children. Performing education programs and investigation of their effect with comprehensive follow-up studies in future is essential. This study reflects footwear habits of Turkish preschool children and factors affecting this issue. Results may give way to education programs about suitable footwear worn in childhood for healthy foot development. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  14. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    VASILEVA Neli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Method...

  15. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Emotional reactivity and regulation in preschool-age children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntourou, Katerina; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A

    2013-09-01

    This study experimentally investigated behavioral correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation and their relation to speech (dis)fluency in preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not (CWNS) stutter during emotion-eliciting conditions. Participants (18 CWS, 14 boys; 18 CWNS, 14 boys) completed two experimental tasks (1) a neutral ("apples and leaves in a transparent box," ALTB) and (2) a frustrating ("attractive toy in a transparent box," ATTB) task, both of which were followed by a narrative task. Dependent measures were emotional reactivity (positive affect, negative affect), emotion regulation (self-speech, distraction) exhibited during the ALTB and the ATTB tasks, percentage of stuttered disfluencies (SDs) and percentage of non-stuttered disfluencies (NSDs) produced during the narratives. Results indicated that preschool-age CWS exhibited significantly more negative emotion and more self-speech than preschool-age CWNS. For CWS only, emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., distraction, self-speech) during the experimental tasks were predictive of stuttered disfluencies during the subsequent narrative tasks. Furthermore, for CWS there was no relation between emotional processes and non-stuttered disfluencies, but CWNS's negative affect was significantly related to nonstuttered disfluencies. In general, present findings support the notion that emotional processes are associated with childhood stuttering. Specifically, findings are consistent with the notion that preschool-age CWS are more emotionally reactive than CWNS and that their self-speech regulatory attempts may be less than effective in modulating their emotions. The reader will be able to: (a) communicate the relevance of studying the role of emotion in developmental stuttering close to the onset of stuttering and (b) describe the main findings of the present study in relation to previous studies that have used different methodologies to investigate the role of emotion in developmental

  17. Dietary habits and nutritional status of children in preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Dzidrova, Violeta; Nikolovska, Lence; Sumanov, Gorgi; Jovevska, Svetlana; Panova, Blagica; Panov, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is the most important for the overall development of the personality. During this period, each child realizes that it is an independent entity, and it expresses certain requirements, desires, actions, proceedings and behaviour. Our research aims to display nutritional status and degree of obesity among preschool children in the Republic of Macedonia and nutritional quality of their diet. Because of the increasing incidence of obesity in childhood and it...

  18. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  19. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  20. Emergent name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Zucker, Tricia A; McGinty, Anita S

    2009-01-01

    The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of children with LI to those of their typical language (TL) peers. Fifty-nine preschool-age children with LI were administered a battery of emergent literacy and language assessments, including a task in which the children were asked to write their first names. A subset of these children (n=23) was then compared to a TL-matched sample to characterize performance differences. Results showed that the name-writing abilities of preschoolers with LI were associated with skills in alphabet knowledge and print concepts. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that only alphabet knowledge uniquely contributed to the variance in concurrent name-writing abilities. In the matched comparison, the TL group demonstrated significantly more advanced name-writing representations than the LI group. Children with LI lag significantly behind their TL peers in name-writing abilities. Speech-language pathologists are encouraged to address the print-related skills of children with LI within their clinical interventions.

  1. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

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    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  2. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed.

  3. Estimation of physical and mental development of children of the senior pre-school age

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    Pasichnyk V.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work is conducted physical and mental development of children of the senior preschool age. In the experiment, 90 children took part in the fifth year of life, among which 55 boys and 35 girls. It is noted that the children surveyed rate the physical development of the index corresponds to level - above the average. It was determined that the parameters of the functional state of preschool age children meet the age norm. It is revealed that in determining physical performance among boys set a good level, and satisfactory in girls. It is established that the results of physical fitness of boys is slightly higher than in girls. It was found that the diagnosis of the level of mental development in children fifth year of life, the average productivity and stability of attention, visual and auditory memory, visual-imagery and visual-thinking, and perception of speech correspond to the average level, and cognitive processes such as switching and distribution attention, imagination - a low level.

  4. Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschool-Age Children: How Fathers Spend Time with Their Children in Different Family Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Nina; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time, physical activities, fathers' attitude towards…

  5. Pedagogical and didactical rationale of phonemic stimulation process in pre-school age children

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    López, Yudenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main results of a regional research problem dealing with education in pre-school age. It examines the effectiveness of the didactic conception of the process of phonemic stimulation in children from 3 to 5 years old. The pedagogical and didactic rationale of the process, viewed from the evolutionary, ontogeny, systemic perspective is explained. Likewise, possible scaffolding is illustrated. The suggested procedures focus the provision of support on a systematic and purposely practice which involve first the discrimination of non-verbal sounds and the discrimi-nation of verbal sound later, aiming to the creation of a phonological consciousness.

  6. The effect of fine motor skills on handwriting legibility in preschool age children.

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    Seo, Sang-Min

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that fine motor skills have on handwriting legibility in children of preschool age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 52 children of normal growth and development. In order to ascertain handwriting legibility, a Korean alphabet writing assessment was used; to measure fine motor skills, fine motor precision and manual dexterity, sub-items of BOT-2 were measured. Furthermore, in order to measure in-hand manipulation skills, a Functional Dexterity Test was conducted. [Results] The results of the study showed a high level of correlation between fine motor skills and handwriting legibility. The study revealed that the accuracy of hand and in-hand manipulation skills is factors that have an effect on handwriting legibility. [Conclusion] Through the current research, occupational therapists can provide activities that aid the development of fine motor precision and in-hand manipulation skills for children during the instruction and treatment of handwriting to preschool age children, which helps to conduct better legibility in their handwriting.

  7. [Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with Down Syndrome in Preschool Age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2017-11-01

    Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with Down Syndrome in Preschool Age Research suggests that parenting stress is elevated in parents of children with intellectual disabilities. However, data are inconsistent if this holds true for parents of children with Down syndrome. As part of the Heidelberg Down syndrome study, 52 mothers of children with Down syndrome (mean age: 5 years) completed the German adaptation of the Parenting Stress Index. These results show significantly elevated stress scores in scales measuring demanding and less acceptable behavior of the children (child characteristics). Scores in scales measuring parent characteristics do not differ significantly from the norms. Global stress scores are associated with the degree of behavioral problems (SDQ) and adaptive competence (VABS-II). A regression analysis points to optimism as a dispositional trait of the mother which makes a significant contribution to the prediction of parenting stress scores. The implications for early intervention are discussed.

  8. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  9. Shared Reading Quality and Brain Activation during Story Listening in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, John S; Phelan, Kieran; Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Dudley, Jonathan; Altaye, Mekibib; DeWitt, Tom; Holland, Scott K

    2017-12-01

    To explore the relationship between maternal shared reading quality (verbal interactivity and engagement) and brain function during story listening in at-risk, preschool-age children, in the context of behavioral evidence and American Academy of Pediatrics, recommendations. In this cross-sectional study, 22 healthy, 4-year-old girls from low socioeconomic status households completed functional magnetic resonance imaging using an established story listening task, followed by videotaped observation of uncoached mother-daughter reading of the same, age-appropriate picture book. Shared reading quality was independently scored applying dialogic reading and other evidence-based criteria reflecting interactivity and engagement, and applied as a predictor of neural activation during the functional magnetic resonance imaging task, controlling for income and maternal education. Shared reading quality scores were generally low and negatively correlated with maternal distraction by smartphones (P reading quality is positively correlated with brain activation supporting complex language, executive function, and social-emotional processing in at-risk, preschool-age children. These findings represent novel neural biomarkers of how this modifiable aspect of home reading environment may influence foundational emergent literacy skills, reinforce behavioral evidence and American Academy of Pediatrics, recommendations, and underscore the potential of dialogic reading interventions to promote healthy brain development, especially in at-risk households. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The curious relation between theory of mind and sharing in preschool age children.

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    Cowell, Jason M; Samek, Anya; List, John; Decety, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Young children have long been known to act selfishly and gradually appear to become more generous across middle childhood. While this apparent change has been well documented, the underlying mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. The current study examined the role of early theory of mind and executive functioning in facilitating sharing in a large sample (N = 98) of preschoolers. Results reveal a curious relation between early false-belief understanding and sharing behavior. Contrary to many commonsense notions and predominant theories, competence in this ability is actually related to less sharing. Thus, the relation between developing theory of mind and sharing may not be as straightforward as it seems in preschool age children. It is precisely the children who can engage in theory of mind that decide to share less with others.

  11. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-08-29

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, informal musical activities can also influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-aged children.

  12. Adapting a receptive vocabulary test for preschool-aged Greek-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Syrika, Asimina; Beckman, Mary E; Edwards, Jan R

    2011-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary is an important measure for language evaluations. Therefore, norm-referenced receptive vocabulary tests are widely used in several languages. However, a receptive vocabulary test has not yet been normed for Modern Greek. To adapt an American English vocabulary test, the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-II (ROWPVT-II), for Modern Greek for use with Greek-speaking preschool children. The list of 170 English words on ROWPVT-II was adapted by (1) developing two lists (A and B) of Greek words that would match either the target English word or another concept corresponding to one of the pictured objects in the four-picture array; and (2) determining a developmental order for the chosen Greek words for preschool-aged children. For the first task, adult word frequency measures were used to select the words for the Greek wordlist. For the second task, 427 children, 225 boys and 202 girls, ranging in age from 2;0 years to 5;11 years, were recruited from urban and suburban areas of Greece. A pilot study of the two word lists was performed with the aim of comparing an equal number of list A and list B responses for each age group and deriving a new developmental list order. The relative difficulty of each Greek word item, that is, its accuracy score, was calculated by taking the average proportion of correct responses across ages for that word. Subsequently, the word accuracy scores in the two lists were compared via regression analysis, which yielded a highly significant relationship (R(2) = 0.97; p word item from the two lists was a better fit. Finally, new starting levels (basals) were established for preschool ages. The revised word list can serve as the basis for adapting a receptive vocabulary test for Greek preschool-aged children. Further steps need to be taken when testing larger numbers of 2;0 to 5;11-year-old children on the revised word list for determination of norms. This effort will facilitate early identification and remediation

  13. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Attention Problems and Expressive Language and Emerging Academic Skills in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Ryan, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attention problems and expressive language and academic readiness skills in preschool-aged children from middle-class families. Forty-three children (44% female) were assessed individually for expressive language skills and knowledge of basic academic concepts (e.g. colours, letters and numbers). The…

  14. Dyadic and Triadic Behaviours in Infancy as Precursors to Later Social Responsiveness in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between dyadic (eye contact and affect) and triadic (joint attention) behaviours in infancy, and social responsiveness at pre-school age, was investigated in 36 children with Autistic Disorder. Measures of eye contact and affect, and joint attention, including requesting behaviours, were obtained retrospectively via parental…

  15. Family food involvement is related to healthier dietary intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H

    2018-03-27

    Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Growth measures among preschool-age Inuit children living in Canada and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Niclasen, Birgit V L; Muckle, Gina; Young, Kue; Egeland, Grace M

    2012-12-01

    The present study reports findings from a study of preschool-age Inuit children living in the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland. We compare stature and obesity measures using cutoffs from the Centers for Disease Control and the International Obesity Task Force references. The sample is comprised of 1121 Inuit children (554 boys and 567 girls) aged 3-5 years living in Nunavut (n=376) and Nunavik (n=87), Canada, in the capital city of Nuuk, Greenland (n=86), and in Greenland's remaining towns and villages (n=572). Greenland Inuit children were significantly taller than their Canadian counterparts, with greatest height and weight observed among children from Nuuk. Overall prevalence of stunting was low with the three cutoffs yielding similar values for height-for-age z-scores. Obesity prevalence was higher among Canadian Inuit children than their Greenland counterparts. Inuit children have stature values consistent with those of the Centers for Disease Control reference and low prevalence of stunting, though geographic variability in mean stature values between Canadian and Greenlandic samples likely reflects differences in both socioeconomic status and genetic admixture. Obesity prevalence is high among both Canadian and Greenland Inuit preschoolers, with children living in the city of Nuuk exhibiting lower obesity prevalence than children living in either Nunavut or Nunavik, Canada or Greenland's towns and villages. Varying obesity prevalence may reflect varying degrees of food security in remote locations as well as the influence of stature and sitting height which have not been well studied in young Inuit children.

  17. Caries Risk Profiles amongst Preschool Aged Children Living in the Sleman District of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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    Elastria Widita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the caries risk factors of preschool aged children. Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 85 preschool children and their mothers. An interview, and a clinical and microbiology assessment was included in this study. Clinical examinations were performed to measure the dental caries experience and plaque visibility of the children and mothers. The presence and levels of Mutans Streptococci (MS in the saliva was measured using a commercial kit by Dentocult SM and evaluated using the manufacturer’s chart. Results: Sixty-five children had a high risk of caries (76.5%, 12.9% had a low risk, and 10.6% had a moderate risk of caries. Active cavities were found in more than half of the mothers and children. The majority of the child subjects had a snacking habit between meals (85.9%. High risk scores of 2 and 3, indicating salivary levels of MS, was found in 41.1% of children. Fluoride exposure experienced by the study population was very limited. Conclusion: Results suggest that the majority of the population had a high caries risk. There was a high occurrence of teeth with cavities in children and active carious lesions in the mothers. There was a high frequency in snacking habits, the presence of plaque and bleeding gums, high levels of salivary MS, and low protective factors for the children. Results suggest that management of caries related factors are needed in order to prevent caries in the future. 

  18. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: a cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Anna Christina; Lee, Lay Wah; Murugaiah, Puvaneswary

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent Training and Emotion Socialization Program for Families of Hyperactive Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Jasmin L.; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that…

  20. A Preliminary Study of Low-Income African American Fathers' Play Interactions with Their Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    1996-01-01

    Examined play interactions of 33 low-income African American fathers with their preschool-age children in relation to the fathers' psychological characteristics, love for the child's mother, employment status, education, and coresidence with the child. The fathers' self-esteem was the best predictor of play interactions. Coresidence with the child…

  1. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

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    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  2. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-aged children in Sahelian rural communities in Mali

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    Doumbo Ogobara K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass chemotherapy with praziquantel is the main control strategy for schistosomiasis in Mali. However, in the national control programme for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, infants and preschool-aged children are overlooked in preventive chemotherapy campaigns. We therefore determined the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in children between the ages 1-4 years in three villages across Diema health district, a rural community with endemic schistosomiasis in Mali. For Schistosoma haematobium diagnosis, a single urine sample of 10 ml obtained from each child was subjected to the standard urine filtration method. Results Of the 338 children examined 173 (51.2% were infected. Both prevalence and intensity of infection varied significantly between communities (p Conclusion Our study showed that preschool children living closely to lakes across in Mali are at high risk to be infected by schistosomiasis and contributed largely to the transmission; therefore schistosomiasis control interventions should also target infants in addition to school children and adults in endemic areas.

  3. Testing Models of Psychopathology in Preschool-aged Children Using a Structured Interview-based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents’ (typically mothers’) reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n=541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology. PMID:24652485

  4. Investigation of habitual pitch during free play activities for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Kimelman, Mikael D Z; Micco, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to compare the habitual pitch measured in two different speech activities (free play activity and traditionally used structured speech activity) for normally developing preschool-aged children to explore to what extent preschoolers vary their vocal pitch among different speech environments. Habitual pitch measurements were conducted for 10 normally developing children (2 boys, 8 girls) between the ages of 31 months and 71 months during two different activities: (1) free play; and (2) structured speech. Speech samples were recorded using a throat microphone connected with a wireless transmitter in both activities. The habitual pitch (in Hz) was measured for all collected speech samples by using voice analysis software (Real-Time Pitch). Significantly higher habitual pitch is found during free play in contrast to structured speech activities. In addition, there is no showing of significant difference of habitual pitch elicited across a variety of structured speech activities. Findings suggest that the vocal usage of preschoolers appears to be more effortful during free play than during structured activities. It is recommended that a comprehensive evaluation for young children's voice needs to be based on the speech/voice samples collected from both free play and structured activities.

  5. Relationship between communication skills and gross motor function in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-11-01

    To explore the communication skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at 24 months' corrected age with reference to typically developing children, and to determine the relationship between communication ability, gross motor function, and other comorbidities associated with CP. Prospective, cross-sectional, population-based cohort study. General community. Children with CP (N=124; mean age, 24mo; functional severity on Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]: I=47, II=14, III=22, IV=19, V=22). Not applicable. Parents reported communication skills on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Two independent physiotherapists classified motor type, distribution, and GMFCS. Data on comorbidities were obtained from parent interviews and medical records. Children with mild CP (GMFCS I/II) had mean CSBS-DP scores that were 0.5 to 0.6 SD below the mean for typically developing peers, while those with moderate-severe impairment (GMFCS III-V) were 1.4 to 2.6 SD below the mean. GMFCS was significantly associated with performance on the CSBS-DP (F=18.55, Pgross motor ability accounting for 38% of the variation in communication. Poorer communication was strongly associated with gross motor function and full-term birth. Preschool-aged children with CP, with more severe gross motor impairment, showed delayed communication, while children with mild motor impairment were less vulnerable. Term-born children had significantly poorer communication than those born prematurely. Because a portion of each gross motor functional severity level is at risk, this study reinforces the need for early monitoring of communication development for all children with CP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  7. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth eFulton; Elizabeth eFulton; Valsamma eEapen; Valsamma eEapen; Rudi eČrnčec; Amelia eWalter; Amelia eWalter; Sally eRogers

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  8. Proprioceptive versus Visual Control in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, B. A.; Biederman, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    The autistic children's presumed preference for proximal over distal sensory input was studied by requiring that "autistic," retarded, and "normal" children (7-15 years old) adapt to lateral displacement of the visual field. Only autistic Ss demonstrated transfer of adaptation to the nonadapted hand, indicating reliance on proprioception rather…

  9. Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  11. Bedtime and evening light exposure influence circadian timing in preschool-age children: A field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lameese D. Akacem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Light exposure and sleep timing are two factors that influence inter-individual variability in the timing of the human circadian clock. The aim of this study was to quantify the degree to which evening light exposure predicts variance in circadian timing over and above bedtime alone in preschool children. Participants were 21 children ages 4.5–5.0 years (4.7±0.2 years; 9 females. Children followed their typical sleep schedules for 4 days during which time they wore a wrist actigraph to assess sleep timing and a pendant light meter to measure minute-by-minute illuminance levels in lux. On the 5th day, children participated in an in-home dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO assessment. Light exposure in the 2 h before bedtime was averaged and aggregated across the 4 nights preceding the DLMO assessment. Mean DLMO and bedtime were 19:22±01:04 and 20:07±00:46, respectively. Average evening light exposure was 710.1±1418.2 lux. Children with later bedtimes (lights-off time had more delayed melatonin onset times (r=0.61, p=0.002. Evening light exposure was not independently associated with DLMO (r=0.32, p=0.08; however, a partial correlation between evening light exposure and DLMO when controlling for bedtime yielded a positive correlation (r=0.46, p=0.02. Bedtime explained 37.3% of the variance in the timing of DLMO, and evening light exposure accounted for an additional 13.3% of the variance. These findings represent an important step in understanding factors that influence circadian phase in preschool-age children and have implications for understanding a modifiable pathway that may underlie late sleep timing and the development of evening settling problems in early childhood.

  12. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznar, Melissa M; Carlson, John S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Pavangadkar, Amol S; Scott, Marci K; Hoerr, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine the parent feeding guide Eat Healthy, Your Children are Watching, A Parent's Guide to Raising a Healthy Eater. An interdisciplinary planning team developed a five-topic, multimedia, interactive guide addressing the strategies most associated with improved diet quality and weight status of children aged 3 to 5 years. Research staff conducted iterative phases of field testing, reformatting, in-depth interviews, and materials testing with Head Start or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education caregivers (N=38) of children aged 3 to 5 years during 2011 and 2012. Convergence of feedback from caregivers' interviews and each booklet's attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction subscale scores were used to determine and affirm areas for improvement. Lower than desired attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction scores (optimal score=5) in 2011 and too much text resulted in revisions and reformatting that improved scores from 3.8 to 4.9 in 2012. The revision of materials to reflect less text, additional white space, checklists of mealtime behaviors, and learning activities for preschool-aged children resulted in dramatically improved materials and greater acceptance by parents, as shown by both quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Formative evaluation procedures involving the use of data-based decision making allowed for the development of intervention materials that met the unique needs of the population served. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Child Care Providers' Knowledge About Dental Injury First Aid in Preschool-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2. Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information. Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  14. Associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity and effortful control in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M

    2015-07-01

    We tested whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity in response to each of three self-regulation tasks (bird and dragon; knock-tap; and gift wrap) would predict self-regulation performance in a sample of 101 preschool-age children (M age = 4.49, SD = .64). While controlling for baseline RSA, decreases in RSA from bird and dragon to knock-tap (but not from baseline to bird and dragon) predicted a latent variable measuring self-regulation. Furthermore, increases in RSA from the knock-tap to gift wrap-the only task involving delay of gratification-were related to concurrent task performance while controlling for the relation between RSA reactivity and the latent self-regulation variable. Results suggest that the relations between RSA reactivity and self-regulatory ability are influenced by task-specific demands and possibly by task order. Furthermore, RSA reactivity appears to relate differently to performance on motivationally salient self-regulation tasks such as delay of gratification relative to cool executive function tasks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. © 2013.

  16. Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala Is Disrupted in Preschool-Aged Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mark D; Li, Deana D; Keown, Christopher L; Lee, Aaron; Johnson, Ryan T; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Rogers, Sally J; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Amaral, David G; Nordahl, Christine Wu

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether functional connectivity of the amygdala is altered in preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to assess the clinical relevance of observed alterations in amygdala connectivity. A resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging study of the amygdala (and a parallel study of primary visual cortex) was conducted in 72 boys (mean age 3.5 years; n = 43 with ASD; n = 29 age-matched controls). The ASD group showed significantly weaker connectivity between the amygdala and several brain regions involved in social communication and repetitive behaviors, including bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes, and striatum (p amygdala and frontal and temporal lobes was significantly correlated with increased autism severity in the ASD group (p amygdala and regions of the brain important for social communication and language, which might be clinically relevant because weaker connectivity was associated with increased autism severity. Moreover, although amygdala connectivity was associated with behavioral domains that are diagnostic of ASD, altered connectivity of primary visual cortex was related to sensory hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n=30) with a preschool-age child were videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: `Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), `Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and `Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in `action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. PMID:24183134

  18. Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures.

  19. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. COMPETENCIA MATEMÁTICA EN NIÑOS EN EDAD PREESCOLAR - MATH COMPETENCY IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYRIAM ESTHER ORTIZ PADILLA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the characteristics of Mathematical competency in pre-school age children in the Magdalena region. The population was represented by 101 children, to whom the Basic Mathematics Competency Test, Item 3, in its Spanish version, was administered. Quantitative methodology was used, from an empirical and analytical approach and a cross-sectional design was implemented. The results indicate that 31% of children evaluated obtaineda Mathematics Competency Global Index average, with 57% for descriptors: below averageand 22% above average. The private institutions placed a higher percentage of students aboveaverage. The sex and age variable does not provide significant differences.

  1. Sibling Relationships of Preschool-Aged Children in Gross Motor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaugh, Sarah J.; Clifton, Marguerite A.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviors and interactions of preschool-aged siblings in object-oriented and body-oriented conditions were observed to discover if the child's siblings significantly influenced motor skill development. This study focused on categories of sibling behaviors and interactions. (Author/DF)

  2. Modern knowledge about prevention and correction of functional disorders of the supporting-motor apparatus of the senior preschool age children in the process of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashuba V.A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of correction of violations of carriage is developed for the children of senior preschool age taking into account spatial organization of their body. Possibilities of application of technology are rotined in the system of physical education of child preschool age and in a medical physical culture. The flowsheet of organization of employments is offered correction-prophylactic macrocycle. Pulling in is selected in a chart, correcting and supporting sanitary the stages.

  3. Guelph Family Health Study's Home-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention Increases Fibre and Fruit Intake in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirotta, Julia A; Darlington, Gerarda A; Buchholz, Andrea C; Haines, Jess; Ma, David W L; Duncan, Alison M

    2018-06-01

    The Guelph Family Health Study (GFHS) pilot was designed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of a home-based obesity prevention intervention on health behaviours and obesity risk. The objective of this analysis was to determine the effect of the 6-month intervention on preschool-aged children's dietary intakes. Families with children aged 1.5-5 years old were randomized to receive one of the following: 4 home visits with a health educator as well as tailored emails and mailed incentives (4HV; n = 19 children); 2 home visits with a health educator as well as tailored emails and mailed incentives (2HV; n = 14 children); or general health advice through emails (control; n = 12 children). Three-day food records were completed by parents for their children before and after the 6-month intervention and analyzed for 3-day average intakes of energy, nutrients, and MyPlate food groups. After the 6-month intervention, the 4HV group had significantly higher fibre intake and the 4HV and 2HV groups had significantly higher fruit intake, both compared with the control group. This study provides support for a home-based intervention approach to improve the diet quality of preschool-aged children.

  4. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  5. The Preschool-Aged and School-Aged Children Present Different Odds of Mortality than Adults in Southern Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Hui; Huang, Chun-Ying; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Yang, Li-Hui; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2018-04-25

    Background : This study aimed to profile the epidemiology of injury among preschool-aged and school-aged children in comparison to those in adults. Methods : According to the Trauma Registry System of a level I trauma center, the medical data were retrieved from 938 preschool-aged children (aged less than seven years), 670 school-aged children (aged 7⁻12 years), and 16,800 adults (aged 20⁻64 years) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2016. Two-sided Pearson’s, chi-squared, and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical data. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Games-Howell post-hoc test was used to assess the differences in continuous variables among different groups of patients. The mortality outcomes of different subgroups were assessed by a multivariable regression model under the adjustment of sex, injury mechanisms, and injury severity. Results : InFsupppjury mechanisms in preschool-aged and school-aged children were remarkably different from that in adults; in preschool-aged children, burns were the most common cause of injury requiring hospitalization (37.4%), followed by falls (35.1%) and being struck by/against objects (11.6%). In school-aged children, injuries were most commonly sustained from falls (47.8%), followed by bicycle accidents (14%) and being struck by/against objects (12.5%). Compared to adults, there was no significant difference of the adjusted mortality of the preschool-aged children (AOR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.38⁻2.12; p = 0.792) but there were lower adjusted odds of mortality of the school-aged children (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.10⁻0.85; p = 0.039). The school-aged children had lower odds of mortality than adults (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06⁻0.74; p = 0.012), but such lower odds of risk of mortality were not found in preschool-aged children (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.29⁻1.81; p = 0.646). Conclusions : This study suggests that specific types of injuries from different injury mechanisms are predominant among preschool-aged

  6. Echolalia and Comprehension in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The study with 10 autistic children (ages 4-17) found that those children with poor receptive language skills produced significantly more echolalic utterances than those children whose receptive skills were more age-appropriate. (Author/DB)

  7. Self-Recognition in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; McKissick, Fawn Celeste

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen autistic children (four to six years old) were assessed for visual self-recognition ability, as well as for object permanence and gestural imitation. It was found that 13 of 15 autistic children showed evidence of self-recognition. Consistent relationships were suggested between self-cognition and object permanence but not between…

  8. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eFulton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children.

  9. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli VASILEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Methods: The dynamics of the visual per-ception (visual gnosis in typically develop¬ing children were tested with an adapted version of the Poppelreuter-Ghent Test for figure-ground segregation. The total number of overlapping objects is 33, grouped accor¬ding to the level of difficulty. The children are given a group of objects separately in a following sequence and they should segregate and name the objects. Results: A number of 365 typically developing children without diagnosis of visual disorders and without corrected visus took part in the research. All children, aged 4, 5, and 6 from three different settlements attend state nursery schools and have Bulgarian as a mother tongue. A three-factor dispersion analysis was held to define the statistical significance of the independent factors age, gender and settlement. The research’s data define the 5 year olds as sensitive about the dynamics of the complex forms of visual perception, compared to the four year old children (pchildren (pchildren from the big town compared to the capital (pchildren at the age of six demonstrate a low rating

  10. Setters and samoyeds: the emergence of subordinate level categories as a basis for inductive inference in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, S R; Lynch, E B; Casey, K L; Baer, L

    1997-11-01

    Basic level categories are a rich source of inductive inference for children and adults. These 3 experiments examine how preschool-age children partition their inductively rich basic level categories to form subordinate level categories and whether these have inductive potential. Children were taught a novel property about an individual member of a familiar basic level category (e.g., a collie). Then, children's extensions of that property to other objects from the same subordinate (e.g., other collies), basic (e.g., other dogs), and superordinate (e.g., other animals) level categories were examined. The results suggest (a) that contrastive information promotes the emergence of subordinate categories as a basis of inductive inference and (b) that newly established subordinate categories can retain their inductive potential in subsequent reasoning over a week's time.

  11. The impact of group occupational therapy using a cueing system on executive function of preschool-aged children with brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Min

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates the effects of group occupational therapy using a cueing system on the executive function of preschool-aged children with brain lesions. [Subjects and Methods] Six preschool-aged children with brain lesions participated in this study. A 24-session occupational therapy program (1 session/week, 50 minutes/session) designed based on a cueing system was administered to examine the changes in the participants' executive function. The behavior rating inventory of executive function-preschool (BRIEF-P) was used to check the magnitude of improvement of executive functions after therapy. [Results] A Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed that occupational therapy significantly improved all domains, indices, and the global executive composite in the BRIEF-P. [Conclusion] The occupational therapy intervention incorporating a type of cognitive behavioral approach known as the cueing system may assist improving executive functions in preschool-aged children with brain lesions.

  12. Autistic children and the object permanence task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, J L; Tanguay, P; Barthélémy, C; Martineaú, J; Perrot, A; Hameury, L; Sauvage, D

    1993-01-01

    Many mentally retarded autistic children can understand the concept of object permanence, but, in comparison to developmental-age matched normal children, the behavioral strategies they employ in carrying out the Casati-Lezine Object Permanence Test are deficient and lead to failure. These deficiencies appear unrelated to interference of stereotypic or other bizarre behavior in task performance. Similar problem-solving deficiencies can be found in mentally retarded children who are not autistic, suggesting that the deficiencies themselves are less related to the social-communication deficits of autistic children, but more to the general problem-solving difficulties found in children with a lower developmental quotient. Nevertheless, the qualitative analysis of results shows a tendency in autistic children, despite their better developmental level, to use less coordinated and regular sequences to solve the task than normal or mentally retarded children.

  13. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  14. Social-cognitive predictors of low-income parents' restriction of screen time among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2-6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use.

  15. The relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Putri Noer Fadilah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of dental caries among children has increased in the past decades. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology, including host (saliva and teeth, microbiology (plaque, substrate (diet, and time. The role of fermentable carbohydrates intake as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in rural and urban areas of the city of Cimahi, Indonesia. Methods: The method used was an analytical cross-sectional study with pathfinder survey based on the WHO basic methods of oral health surveys. The data were collected through intraoral examination, and nutritional status measurement was done by using food frequency questionnaire. Statistical analysis used was the chi-square test. Results: From the study towards 100 preschool children resulted the prevalence of dental caries in rural and urban area respectively was 96% and 92%. The average value of def-t index in urban area was as much as 8.46 (95% CI:7.00-9.91 and was as much as 7.98 (95% CI:6.50-9.45 in rural area. The average value of sucrose intake frequency in urban area was as much as 237.14 (95% CI:204.95-269.32, whilst in rural area was as much as 177.54 (95% CI:155.66-199.41. There was a relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake in the rural and urban area (p < 0,05. Conclusion: There was a relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in the rural and urban area of the city of Cimahi, Indonesia.

  16. AUTISTIC FEATURES IN CHILDREN WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Nilamadhab; Khanna, Rakesh; Kar, Gopal Chandra

    1997-01-01

    Most of the autistic disorder patients are also mentally retarded and many mentally retarded persons exhibit autistic symptoms. By using a standard instrument (Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Rating Scale) the autistic features of the mentally retarded children were studied. The study also examined the influence of age, sex and level of mental retardation on the occurrence of autistic symptoms. Children who came for consultation to child psychiatric unit were compared with those at a school for children with mental retardation receiving stimulation. Male children from child psychiatric unit had significantly higher scores than those from the school. Social and language impairment could be reliably identified and grouped. It was possible to diagnose the syndrome of autism in children with mental retardation in a significant number (9.6%)as compared to that was possible only clinically (1.9%). More number of children with severe/ profound mental retardation could be diagnosed as autistic. The autistic syndrome in children with mental retardation can be picked up more effectively by the use of structured instrument. PMID:21584097

  17. Modern technologies used in the process of physical education and rehabilitation for violations of posture and flat feet in children of older preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Futornyi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: analyze and summarize scientific information on the problem of technologies that are used in the process of physical education and rehabilitation for violations of posture and flat feet in children of older preschool age, according to special scientific and methodological literature. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of literary and documentary sources included the use of a number of the following methods: the method of reconstruction, the method of apperceptions, aspect analysis, hermeneutic analysis, problem analysis. Results: despite a significant number of scientific studies on the prevention and correction of human posture disorders, recent results and their undoubted value for science and practice, it can be stated that the proposed technologies and methods do not fully allow to effectively cope with the steadily growing number of children senior preschool age with various functional disorders of the locomotor system. Conclusion: every year the number of children of senior preschool age with functional disorders of posture increases. Inadequate efficiency of health-improving measures for violations of the posture of children of senior preschool age by many researchers is due to the insufficiently developed technology for assessing her condition. Obtained data indicate the need to develop a technology for measuring and analyzing the level of the biogeometric profile of the posture of children aged 5–6 years in the frontal and sagittal planes.

  18. Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths among preschool-aged children in Chuahit, Dembia district, Northwest Ethiopia: prevalence, intensity of infection and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Agersew; Tegegne, Yalewayker; Damte, Demekech; Melku, Mulugeta

    2016-05-23

    Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted from February 2 to March 27 2015. Four hundred one preschool-aged children were included in the study by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collected data via face-to-face interview technique. A single stool specimen was collected, and a portion of the sample was processed by Kato Katz method. Of the total children, 141 (35.2 %) harbored one or more intestinal helminthes. Schistosoma mansoni was found in 45 (11.2 %) of preschool age children. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate, 77 (19.2 %) followed by S. mansoni, 45 (11.2 %). The least parasites isolated were Tania species, 2 (0.5 %). After adjusting for other variables, being mothers who did not have the habit of washing hands after toilet (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI: 2.97-17.95), being occupationally housewife mothers (AOR = 8.9, 95%CI: 2.27-25.4), using protected spring water as a main family source of water (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.2-12.3) and child habit of not wearing shoe (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01-3.64) were significantly associated with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among preschool-age children in Chuahit. The current study showed that relatively higher level of STH and S. mansoni among preschool-aged children in Chuahit. This finding calls for a need of public health education

  19. Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths among preschool-aged children in Chuahit, Dembia district, Northwest Ethiopia: prevalence, intensity of infection and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agersew Alemu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted from February 2 to March 27 2015. Four hundred one preschool-aged children were included in the study by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collected data via face-to-face interview technique. A single stool specimen was collected, and a portion of the sample was processed by Kato Katz method. Results Of the total children, 141 (35.2 % harbored one or more intestinal helminthes. Schistosoma mansoni was found in 45 (11.2 % of preschool age children. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate, 77 (19.2 % followed by S. mansoni, 45 (11.2 %. The least parasites isolated were Tania species, 2 (0.5 %. After adjusting for other variables, being mothers who did not have the habit of washing hands after toilet (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI: 2.97–17.95, being occupationally housewife mothers (AOR = 8.9, 95%CI: 2.27–25.4, using protected spring water as a main family source of water (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.2–12.3 and child habit of not wearing shoe (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01–3.64 were significantly associated with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among preschool-age children in Chuahit. Conclusion The current study showed that relatively higher level of STH and S. mansoni among preschool-aged children in

  20. [Behaviour problems of children with Down syndrome in preschool-age - Results from the Heidelberg Down syndrome study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We report on the frequency and the correlations of behaviour problems among children with Down syndrome in preschool-age. As part of a longitudinal study 48 mothers of children with Down syndrome completed the German version of the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire” (SDQ-D) and the Parenting Stress Inventory (PSI). The mothers were asked to fill out the questionnaires when the children had a mean age of five years. The results were compared to norms from children with typical development. Thirty per cent of the children with Down syndrome were rated as abnormal. Specifically, mean scores indicating problems with children of the same age and hyperactivity were elevated. A regression analysis predicting the total problem score of the SDQ-D revealed maternal educational level, optimistic attitude, and subjective parental stress at the age of one year and the degree of behavioural abnormalities at the age of three years as significant influential factors. Early intervention for Down syndrome children should include supporting parenting competence and coping skills in order to prevent behaviour problems.

  1. The Influence of Horticultural Activities on Preschool-Aged Children's Peer Interaction and Task Engagement in an Inclusive Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedeman-Rouse, Teri

    2012-01-01

    There is great concern by teachers, school administrators and parents regarding the increase in the number of preschool-aged students who exhibit challenging behavior in early childhood settings (Benedict, Horner & Squires 2007), need for early intervention procedures that focus on young children who may be at risk for developing patterns of…

  2. The Co-Occurring Development of Executive Function Skills and Receptive Vocabulary in Preschool-Aged Children: A Look at the Direction of the Developmental Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Barata, M. Clara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between EF skills, including all EF components, and vocabulary skills among preschool-aged children. In this paper, we…

  3. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

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    Herman Allison N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1 prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2 use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3 be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1 being nagged by children’s food requests, 2 being

  4. FLUIDITY SPEECH FORMATION AS A QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ORAL STATEMENT OF PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN WITH STUTTER

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    E. A. Borisova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to disclose the subject matter of speech therapy work focused on fluidity speech formation of preschool age children, suffering stutter. Stutter is a difficult disorder of articulation organs suchthat the tempo-rhythmical organisation of statements is distressed that leads to defects and failures of dialogue system, negatively influences on individual development of the child; more specifically it generates the mental stratifications, specific features of emotional-volitional sphere, and causes undesirable qualities ofcharacter such as shyness, indecision, isolation, negativism. The author notes that the problem of early stutter correction among junior preschool-aged children considered as topical and immediate issue. Methods. Concerning the clinical, physiological, psychological and psychologic-pedagogical positions, the author summarizes theoretical framework; an experimentally-practical approbation of an author's method of speech fluidity and stutter abolition of preschool children is described. Stage-by-stage process of correction,spontaneous and non-convulsive speech formation: 1. restraint mode application in order to decrease incorrect verbal output; 2. training exercises to long phonatory and speech expiration; 3. development of coordination and movements rhythm helping to pronounce words and phrases; 4. formation of situational speech, at first consisted of short sentences, then passing to long ones; 5. training to coherent text statements. The research demonstrates data analyses of postexperimental diagnostic examination of stuttering preschool children, proving the efficiency of the author’s applied method. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate a specific approach to correction and stutter abolition of preschool children. Proposed author’s approach consists of complementary to each other directions of speech therapy work which are combines in the following way: coherent speech

  5. Mastering of musical rhythm by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings

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    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that regular listening to specially selected music develops children’s cognitive abilities. Musical influence optimizes many important functions of brain: increases mental workability; accelerates processing of information; improves short term memory. Besides, sensitivity of visual and hearing analyzers strengthens, as well as regulation of arbitrary movements; indicators of verbal and non verbal intellect improve. Purpose: to determine peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings. Material: the categories of the tested children: children of age - 4-5 and 5-6 years with speech disorders and healthy pre-school age children. Children of 4-5 years’ age composed: main group (n=12, control group (n=16; group of healthy children (n=24. For assessment of verbal thinking and rhythm-motor (or dance abilities we used complex of tests of constantly increasing difficulty. Results: we found that under influence of dance-correcting exercises activation of rhythm-motor abilities and development of cognitive functions happened in children. We also found main functional peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children. It was determined that by the end of pedagogic experiment, main groups of children approached to groups of healthy peers by all tested characteristics. Conclusions: it is recommended to include correcting components (fit ball - dance gymnastic, tales-therapy, logo-rhythm trainings, and game fitness in trainings by choreographic program.

  6. Feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Gromis, Judy C; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Thirty-two parents of 2- to 6-year-old children. The feeding practices and styles of low-income parents of preschoolers. Qualitative interviews analyzed iteratively following a thematic approach; quantitative data analyzed using nonparametric and chi-square tests. Qualitative analyses revealed parents used a myriad of feeding practices to accomplish child-feeding goals. Racial/ethnic differences were seen; East Asian parents used more child-focused decision-making processes, whereas black parents used more parent-focused decision-making processes. Quantitative analyses substantiated racial/ethnic differences; black parents placed significantly higher demands on children for the amounts (H = 5.89, 2 df, P = .05; Kruskal-Wallis) and types (H = 8.39, 2 df, P = .01; Kruskal-Wallis) of food eaten compared to parents of other races/ethnicities. In contrast, significantly higher proportions of East Asian parents were classified as having an indulgent feeding style compared to black parents and parents of other races/ethnicities (chi(2)[4, n = 32] = 9.29, P < .05). Findings provide support for tailoring nutrition education programs to meet the diverse needs of this target audience. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the school and home language environments of preschool-aged children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sloane; Audet, Lisa; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to begin to characterize and compare the school and home language environments of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Naturalistic language samples were collected from each child, utilizing Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) digital voice recorder technology, at 3-month intervals over the course of one year. LENA software was used to identify 15-min segments of each sample that represented the highest number of adult words used during interactions with each child for all school and home language samples. Selected segments were transcribed and analyzed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT). LENA data was utilized to evaluate quantitative characteristics of the school and home language environments and SALT data was utilized to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics of language environment. Results revealed many similarities in home and school language environments including the degree of semantic richness, and complexity of adult language, types of utterances, and pragmatic functions of utterances used by adults during interactions with child participants. Study implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. The reader will be able to, (1) describe how two language sampling technologies can be utilized together to collect and analyze language samples, (2) describe characteristics of the school and home language environments of young children with ASD, and (3) identify environmental factors that may lead to more positive expressive language outcomes of young children with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parent-reported indicators for detecting feeding and swallowing difficulties and undernutrition in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Arvedson, Joan; Boyd, Roslyn N; Bell, Kristie L

    2017-11-01

    To determine the most accurate parent-reported indicators for detecting (1) feeding/swallowing difficulties and (2) undernutrition in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP). This was a longitudinal, population-based study, involving 179 children with CP, aged 18 to 60 months (mean 34.1mo [SD 11.9] at entry, 111 males, 68 females [Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, 84; II, 23; III, 28; IV, 18; V, 26], 423 data points). Feeding/swallowing difficulties were determined by the Dysphagia Disorders Survey and 16 signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment. Undernutrition was indicated by height-weight and skinfold composite z-scores less than -2. Primary parent-reported indicators included mealtime duration, mealtime stress, concern about growth, and respiratory problems. Other indicators were derived from a parent feeding questionnaire, including 'significant difficulty eating and drinking'. Data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects regression and diagnostic statistics. Primary parent-reported indicators associated with feeding/swallowing were 'moderate-severe parent stress' (odds ratio [OR]=3.2 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.3-7.8]; ppalsy. Most accurate screening questions were 0-10 scales for 'difficulty eating' and 'difficulty drinking'. Supplementation of these scales with additional indicators would improve detection. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Parental feeding behaviour and motivations regarding pre-school age children: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylatt, Louise; Cartwright, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Poor childhood diet is a major risk factor for disease and obesity, and parents of pre-school children are in a powerful position to influence diet for life. The technique of thematic synthesis (Thomas & Harden, 2008) was used to synthesise recent qualitative research on parental feeding of pre-school age children (18 months-6 years). The aim was to inform development of nutrition advice by gaining a comprehensive picture of parental feeding behaviours and motivations. Six key parental feeding behaviours were identified: modelling, rewards, pressure and encouragement, repeated exposure, creativity, and limiting intake. Four overarching themes regarding motivations were identified: promoting good health (balance and variety, and weight control); building positive relationships (child involvement, and parental engagement and responsiveness); practicalities and constraints (time, cost, and lack of culinary skill, and pressure and flexibility); and emotional motivations (problem avoidance, and emotional investment). Practicalities and constraints, and emotional motivations impacted more significantly on low income parents. In order to be effective, nutrition advice ought to tap into parents' strong desire to build positive relationships and promote good health while remaining sensitive to the significant constraints and practicalities faced. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Association of childcare arrangement with overweight and obesity in preschool-aged children: a narrative review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyden, K; Sisson, S B; Lora, K; Castle, S; Copeland, K A

    2017-01-01

    The time children spend in childcare overlaps with daily meals and opportunities to be active. Thus these environments have the opportunity to promote-or hinder-healthy weight gain among children who attend them. The purpose of this narrative review was to compile findings from studies examining childcare type and weight outcomes among preschool-age children. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and ERIC. Inclusion criteria were infant- to 5-year-old children exposed to any type of childcare with a cross-sectional or longitudinal weight outcome. Among 385 studies screened, 18 were included. For comparison across studies, type of childcare was categorized as: childcare center, Head Start, nanny/babysitter, non-relative care/family childcare home and relative care. Four studies found no association with childcare type and obesity, and 10 studies reported mixed results by type of care or subpopulation analyses. Two studies found an overall positive association, and two reported an inverse association. There were differences in direction of associations and findings by type of care arrangement. For Head Start, three of eight studies demonstrated a negative relationship with obesity; none demonstrated a positive association. No other childcare type demonstrated this inverse association. Informal types of care (relative and non-relative care in a home) were positively associated with child obesity in 3 of 10 studies. This association was less commonly reported among formal childcare centers (2 of 15 studies). The majority of studies, however, reported mixed findings or no association by childcare type. Results suggested no consistent evidence for a relationship between childcare and obesity risk, except Head Start. This review exposed the need for a consistent definition of childcare type and the exploration of unmeasured confounders, such as the nutrition and physical activity environment of childcare settings, to understand how they contribute to

  11. The cost of community-managed viral respiratory illnesses in a cohort of healthy preschool-aged children

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    Allen Kelly M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs during childhood are often caused by respiratory viruses, result in significant morbidity, and have associated costs for families and society. Despite their ubiquity, there is a lack of interdisciplinary epidemiologic and economic research that has collected primary impact data, particularly associated with indirect costs, from families during ARIs in children. Methods We conducted a 12-month cohort study in 234 preschool children with impact diary recording and PCR testing of nose-throat swabs for viruses during an ARI. We used applied values to estimate a virus-specific mean cost of ARIs. Results Impact diaries were available for 72% (523/725 of community-managed illnesses between January 2003 and January 2004. The mean cost of ARIs was AU$309 (95% confidence interval $263 to $354. Influenza illnesses had a mean cost of $904, compared with RSV, $304, the next most expensive single-virus illness, although confidence intervals overlapped. Mean carer time away from usual activity per day was two hours for influenza ARIs and between 30 and 45 minutes for all other ARI categories. Conclusion From a societal perspective, community-managed ARIs are a significant cost burden on families and society. The point estimate of the mean cost of community-managed influenza illnesses in healthy preschool aged children is three times greater than those illnesses caused by RSV and other respiratory viruses. Indirect costs, particularly carer time away from usual activity, are the key cost drivers for ARIs in children. The use of parent-collected specimens may enhance ARI surveillance and reduce any potential Hawthorne effect caused by compliance with study procedures. These findings reinforce the need for further integrated epidemiologic and economic research of ARIs in children to allow for comprehensive cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive and therapeutic options.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infancy and Social Emotional Development in Preschool-Aged Chinese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.; Wang, L.; Wang, Y.; Brouwer, I.D.; Kok, F.J.; Lozoff, B.; Chen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to compare affect and behavior of 3 groups of nonanemic 4-year-old children: children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy whose anemia was not corrected before 24 months (chronic IDA) (n = 27); children with IDA in infancy whose anemia was corrected before 24 months

  13. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  14. Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children of Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Iron-deficiency anemia is almost certainly the most prevalent nutritional disorder among infants and young children in the United States. Anemia is frequently seen among children of low socioeconomic status but is probably also the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease seen among children cared for by private doctors. Possible reasons for…

  15. The Effectiveness of Managing Split Attention among Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliee, Zeinab Shams; Jomhari, Nazean; Rezaei, Reza; Alias, Norlidah

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common problems in autistic children is split attention. Split attention prevents autism children from being able to focus attention on their learning, and tasks. As a result, it is important to identify how to make autistic individuals focus attention on learning. Considering autistic individuals have higher visual abilities in…

  16. [Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcal serotypes in healthy pre-school aged children after 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vera, César; Ruiz Andrés, María Ángeles; Arana Navarro, Teresa; Moneo Hernández, Isabel; Castillo Laita, José Antonio; Macipe Costa, Rosa; Revillo Pinilla, María José

    2011-06-11

    To determine the characteristics influencing pneumococcal serotype colonization in healthy pre-school aged children, the distribution of serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (VNC-7 v). SUJETOS AND METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children under 6 years of age attending well-child examinations in the province of Zaragoza (Spain). Logistic regression was used to study different variables related to the status of the carriers. Of the 371 children studied 30.7% were found to be carriers. With a vaccine coverage rate of 66%, factors related with presence of pneumococcal carriage were found to be the number of siblings (OR 1.44; CI 95% 1.05-1.97 for each sibling), attending a school or child day care centre (OR 3.99; CI 95% 2.00-7.96) and suffering from a minor upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (OR 1.72; CI 95% 1.02-2.90). Only 8.7% corresponded to VNC-7 v serotypes. The most common non VNC-7 v serotypes isolated were 19A, 6A, 15B, 11, and 15A. Significantly greater resistance was detected among VNC-7 v serotypes. Children in the setting of this study carried pneumococci more commonly when they have siblings, attend school or day care, or suffer from minor URTI. In the VNC-7 v vaccine era, VNC-7 v serotypes have become rare occurrences (8.7%) and emerging serotypes present better susceptibility to antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Iron-deficiency anemia in infancy and social emotional development in preschool-aged Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Suying; Wang, Li; Wang, Yuying; Brouwer, Inge D; Kok, Frans J; Lozoff, Betsy; Chen, Chunming

    2011-04-01

    We aimed to compare affect and behavior of 3 groups of nonanemic 4-year-old children: children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy whose anemia was not corrected before 24 months (chronic IDA) (n = 27); children with IDA in infancy whose anemia was corrected before 24 months (corrected IDA) (n = 70); and children who were nonanemic in infancy and at 24 months (n = 64). Mother and child dyads were invited to a local clinic room. Children's social referencing, wariness, frustration-tolerance behavior, and affect were observed during a set of situations encountered in the laboratory, including free play, stranger approach, novel toy, and delay of gratification. The whole procedure was videotaped. The children's affective and behavioral displays were coded by using a time-sampling (5-second segments) code scheme. Iron status of children was determined on the basis of hemoglobin concentration measured with the cyanomethemoglobin method in blood samples obtained by fingerstick in infancy and at the ages of 24 months and 4 years. Children who had chronic IDA in infancy displayed less positive affect, less frustration tolerance, more passive behavior, and more physical self-soothing in the stranger approach and delay of gratification. In contrast, the behavior and affect of children whose anemia was corrected before the age of 24 months were comparable to those of children who were nonanemic throughout infancy. The results point to the potential benefits of preventing iron deficiency in infancy and treating it before it becomes chronic or severe.

  18. [Relations between maternal food practices and diet of preschool age Quebec children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulude, Geneviève; Marquis, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the relationships between mothers' food practices and the diets of their preschool children. Daycare facilities on the Island of Montréal recruited 122 mothers to complete a self-administered questionnaire that addressed the impact of parents' food practices on their children's diets, particularly the frequency of intake and food preferences. Correlations were observed between three maternal food practices--restrictions, pressure to eat and food reward--and children's eating behaviour. These three practices correlated with less desirable eating behaviours in children. This study suggests that in Quebec, mothers' food practices have a direct impact on the food practices of their children. Mothers must therefore be informed about the counterproductive nature of some food practices and given tools to develop healthier food strategies by focusing on children's appetites and emphasizing the pleasure of eating.

  19. Parent-Reported Psychological and Sleep Problems in a Preschool-Aged Community Sample: Prevalence of Sleep Problems in Children with and without Emotional/Behavioural Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Salater, Julie; Røhr, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Objective : To examine (a) the prevalence of sleep problems among 4-year-olds in the general population, (b) the prevalence of sleep problems among children with emotional and/or behavioural problems, and (c) whether specific sleep problems are associated with particular emotional/behavioural problems. Method: Using The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) , data about sleep and emotional/behavioural problems was obtained from 727 parents of 4-year-olds, recruited for a large...

  20. SENSITIZATION TO STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES AT CHILDREN OF EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS — PREDICTORS OF RHEUMATIC PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shabaldina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is the reason of rheumatism and a post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Primary colonization of mucosal with this microorganism develops in the period of early ontogenesis. It was confirmed that at a carriage of this microorganism children at them activate immunopathological reactions. Clinic and immune features of the children with recurrent respiratory infections of early and preschool age having the immune response to S. pyogenes were studied. Position of risk of formation of rheumatic diseases at these children was studied. 771 children, in an age interval of 2–6 years are examined. Immune and clinical indicators in two groups of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes (n = 306 and not having it (n = 465 were analyzed. It was shown that in group of the children with immune response to S. pyogenes were authentically higher: point of an hereditary predisposition, expressiveness of placental insufficiency and a fetal hypoxia during the real pregnancy, and in the post-natal period degree of a thymomegaly, a pharyngeal lymphoid ring hypertrophy, skin manifestations of food allergy on the first year of life, the frequency of sharp respiratory infections within one year — in comparison with control. The group of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes had a high level in a nasal secret of TNFα, IL-4, IFNα, and in blood — ASL-O, ASG, RF, CRP and immunoglobulin E. It was shown that at the children with a sensitization to S. pyogenes were lowered in peripheral blood: the general leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes (CD3 positive, T-helpery (CD3 and CD4 positive, an immunoregulatory index (the relation of CD4 of positive lymphocytes to CD8 to positive lymphocytes, phagocytosis (in test with nitro blue tetrazolium chloride — NBT and immunoglobulin A — in comparison with control. The atopic immune response to S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, H

  1. Autistic disorder in 2 children with mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Chang-Yong; Mendell, Jerry R

    2007-09-01

    Autistic disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. The majority of the cases are idiopathic, and only a small number of the autistic children have associated secondary diagnosis. This article reports 2 children with mitochondrial disorders associated with autistic disorder fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association Manual of Psychiatric Diseases, 4th edition, and briefly reviews the literature on autistic disorder associated with mitochondrial disorders.

  2. Attachment Representations in a Sample of Neglected Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venet, Michele; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Gosselin, Catherine; Capuano, France

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies (see Ethier, 1999) have shown that neglect has a deleterious impact on children's development. However, the effect of neglect on a child's internal representations of their family still needs to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the attachment patterns observed in a subsample of neglected children as…

  3. How Effectively Do Parents Discern Their Children's Cognitive Deficits at a Preschool Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chen

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that parents' initial concerns about their children's multiple or speech developmental problems were relatively highly correlated with cognitive deficits. It is recommended that clinicians should guide parents to voice and organize their concerns regarding the perception of their children's developmental progress, and further precisely analyze and utilize significant information.

  4. Construction of Graphic Symbol Sequences by Preschool-Aged Children: Learning, Training, and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupart, Annick; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems based on graphic symbols requires children to learn to combine symbols to convey utterances. The current study investigated how children without disabilities aged 4 to 6 years (n = 74) performed on a simple sentence (subject-verb and subject-verb-object) transposition task (i.e., spoken…

  5. Prevalence of behavioral inhibition among preschool aged children in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipasha Meysamie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the identified risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescence and adulthood is inhibited behaviors in childhood. The present study sought to examine the relationship between behavioral inhibition with some of the internal (personal and external (family environment factors in a sample of preschool children in kindergartens. In a cross sectional study in 2009, data was collected trough a structured questionnaire completed by parents and teachers in day-care centers. A total of 1403 children were assessed. Analysis was performed through complex sample analysis. The results showed that 7.4% (CI95%= 6.1%-9.1% of children according to parents' and 8.1% (CI95%= 6%- 10.7% according to teachers' evaluation classified as behaviorally inhibited. The higher levels of behavioral inhibition were shown by girls, first children, single parent families and older children. Birth year before 2004, birth rank, living in a single parent family and maternal level of education were independent predictors for behavioral inhibition in logistic regression modeling. There is relatively high prevalence of inhibited behaviors among Iranian children. Further examination of diagnosed children with behavioral inhibition by experienced psychiatrists is needed. Also establishing consultation centers for behaviorally inhibited children and instructing their parents and teachers are recommended.

  6. Preschool-Aged Children Have Difficulty Constructing and Interpreting Simple Utterances Composed of Graphic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Ann; Trudeau, Natacha; Morford, Jill; Rios, Monica; Poirier, Marie-Andree

    2010-01-01

    Children who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems while they are in the process of acquiring language face unique challenges because they use graphic symbols for communication. In contrast to the situation of typically developing children, they use different modalities for comprehension (auditory) and expression…

  7. THE CAUSES AND THE COURSE OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE

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    T. Yu. Abaseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on etiology and clinical course of CKD stage  3 to 5 in children of preschool  age could help obstetricians, pediatricians, and nephrologists with proper diagnostics and management of this condition and prediction of outcomes. Aim: To study causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool  children. Materials and methods: The causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 were investigated in 55 preschool children aged from 7 months  to 8 years. Twenty four had  CKD stage  3 to 4 and  31 children with endstage  CKD  were  on  peritoneal  dialysis. Results:96% of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool children were due  to  congenital/genetic kidney abnormalities. Predictors  of renal  replacement therapy  beginning in the first 5 years of life were as follows: antenatal detection of congenital  abnormalities  of the kidney and urinary tract, oligohydroamnion, high neonatal  BUN levels.  Anemia, hyperparathyroidism, arterial hypertension were more prevalent  in children on the dialysis stage of CKD, and myocardial hypertrophy and/or of the left ventricle dilatation were found in 26% of them. Forty two percent of children had growth retardation, and 40% had delayed  speech  development. Conclusion: The course CKD in preschool  children is characterized by a combination of typical metabolic  disorders with the growth  retardation (often dramatic and delayed mental development that significantly limits the possibilities of the social adaptation of these children and social activities of their parents. Participation  of  neuropsychiatrists,  clinical psychologists, and teachers, rather than pediatricians and  nephrologists only, is desirable  in management of preschool children with CKD stage 3 to 5.

  8. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE THE SPORTS DANCE

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    VARNACOVA ELEONORA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.

  9. THE CAUSES AND THE COURSE OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    T. Yu. Abaseeva; T. E. Pankratenko; A. A. Burov; Kh. M. Emirova; A. L. Muzurov

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on etiology and clinical course of CKD stage  3 to 5 in children of preschool  age could help obstetricians, pediatricians, and nephrologists with proper diagnostics and management of this condition and prediction of outcomes. Aim: To study causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool  children. Materials and methods: The causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 were investigated in 55 preschool children aged from 7 months  to 8 years. Twenty four had...

  10. Transforming the representations of preschool-age children regarding geophysical entities and physical geography

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    MARIA KAMPEZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A semi-structured interview was individually administered to 76 preschoolers. The interview raised questions about the conceptual understanding of certain geophysical entities. A teaching intervention designed to attempt an understanding of the relationship between them and earth’s surface was implemented with groups of 5-9 children in order to help children construct a more “realistic” model of earth. The intervention’s effectiveness was consequently evaluated (after two weeks using an interview similar to that conducted prior to the intervention. The results of the study indicated that prior to the intervention many children faced difficulties in descriptive understanding of even familiar geographic features, such as rivers, lakes and islands. After the intervention the majority of children readily conceptualized certain aspects of most of the geophysical entities and correlated them with earth’s surface. Educational and research implications are discussed.

  11. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    OpenAIRE

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are...

  12. Developing a Treatment Program for Obesity in Preschool Age Children: Preliminary Data

    OpenAIRE

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Stark, Lori J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed and tested the feasibility of a behavioral intervention that utilizes clinic and home visitations to reduce overweight in preschool children above the 95th BMI percentile. Five families of preschool children ages 2 to 5 years with a BMI above the 95th percentile and one overweight parent were enrolled in a 24-week behavioral weight management program. Phase I, Intensive Treatment included 12 weekly sessions, alternating group-based clinic sessions and home settings. Phase II, Mai...

  13. The Relationship Between Speech, Language, and Phonological Awareness in Preschool-Age Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, MaryAnn

    2018-05-03

    A number of intrinsic factors, including expressive speech skills, have been suggested to place children with developmental disabilities at risk for limited development of reading skills. This study examines the relationship between these factors, speech ability, and children's phonological awareness skills. A nonexperimental study design was used to examine the relationship between intrinsic skills of speech, language, print, and letter-sound knowledge to phonological awareness in 42 children with developmental disabilities between the ages of 48 and 69 months. Hierarchical multiple regression was done to determine if speech ability accounted for a unique amount of variance in phonological awareness skill beyond what would be expected by developmental skills inclusive of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. A range of skill in all areas of direct assessment was found. Children with limited speech were found to have emerging skills in print knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness. Speech ability did not predict a significant amount of variance in phonological awareness beyond what would be expected by developmental skills of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. Children with limited speech ability were found to have receptive language and letter-sound knowledge that supported the development of phonological awareness skills. This study provides implications for practitioners and researchers concerning the factors related to early reading development in children with limited speech ability and developmental disabilities.

  14. What we can learn from naming errors of children with language impairment at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Michal; Novogrodsky, Rama; Harel-Nov, Efrat; Gil, Mali; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva

    2018-01-01

    Naming is a complex, multi-level process. It is composed of distinct semantic and phonological levels. Children with naming deficits produce different error types when failing to retrieve the target word. This study explored the error characteristics of children with language impairment compared to those with typical language development. 46 preschool children were tested on a naming test: 16 with language impairment and a naming deficit and 30 with typical language development. The analysis compared types of error in both groups. In a group level, children with language impairment produced different error patterns compared to the control group. Based on naming error analysis and performance on other language tests, two case studies of contrasting profiles suggest different sources for lexical retrieval difficulties in children. The findings reveal differences between the two groups in naming scores and naming errors, and support a qualitative impairment in early development of children with naming deficits. The differing profiles of naming deficits emphasise the importance of including error analysis in the diagnosis.

  15. Development of selective attention in preschool-age children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds

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    Amanda Hampton Wray

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task. The lower SES group was followed longitudinally for one year. At age four, the higher SES group exhibited a significant attention effect (larger ERP response to attended compared to unattended condition, an effect not observed in the lower SES group. At age five, the lower SES group exhibited a significant attention effect comparable in overall magnitude to that observed in the 4-year-old higher SES group, but with poorer distractor suppression (larger response to the unattended condition. Together, these findings suggest both a maturational delay and divergent developmental pattern in neural mechanisms for selective attention in young children from lower compared to higher SES backgrounds. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of studying neurodevelopment within narrow age ranges and in children from diverse backgrounds.

  16. Development of selective attention in preschool-age children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton Wray, Amanda; Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Isbell, Elif; Bell, Theodore; Neville, Helen

    2017-08-01

    Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task. The lower SES group was followed longitudinally for one year. At age four, the higher SES group exhibited a significant attention effect (larger ERP response to attended compared to unattended condition), an effect not observed in the lower SES group. At age five, the lower SES group exhibited a significant attention effect comparable in overall magnitude to that observed in the 4-year-old higher SES group, but with poorer distractor suppression (larger response to the unattended condition). Together, these findings suggest both a maturational delay and divergent developmental pattern in neural mechanisms for selective attention in young children from lower compared to higher SES backgrounds. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of studying neurodevelopment within narrow age ranges and in children from diverse backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Family-Based Obesity Prevention: Perceptions of Canadian Parents of Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Carley; Wallace, Angela; Wilson, Laura; Annis, Angela; Ma, David W L; Haines, Jess

    2018-03-01

    Our objectives were to explore the perspectives of a community-based sample of Canadian parents with 2-5-year-old children on: (i) strategies to support the development of healthful weight-related behaviours and (ii) assessment approaches to measure weight-related behaviours and outcomes among children and families. We conducted 4 focus groups with 28 parents (89% mothers and 68% identified as White). Transcripts were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Regarding parent's perceptions of strategies to support healthful behaviours, we found that parents largely valued: home-based interventions, expert opinion, practical health behaviour strategies delivered in a nonjudgmental manner, and opportunities for social support. Regarding perceptions of assessment procedures, parents had mixed views on children providing blood samples, but looked upon it more favourably if it would contribute to research on child health. Our results suggest that to increase parental engagement interventions focused on improving weight-related behaviours among families with young children should be delivered within the home and include easy-to-implement behaviour change strategies communicated by experts, such as dietitians working in the clinical or public health setting. Using social media to share information and provide a platform for social support may also be an effective way to engage parents of young children.

  18. Extending Use of the NRT to Preschool-Aged Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevy, Patricia; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Leonard, Laurence B.; Goffman, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) in a sample of four- and five-year-olds with and without specific language impairment (SLI), and to evaluate its feasibility for use in universal screening. Method The NRT was administered to 29 children with SLI and 47 age-matched children with typical development (TD). Diagnostic accuracy was computed using alternative scoring methods, which treated out-of-inventory phonemes either as errors or as unscorable. To estimate accuracy in a universal screening context, probability of identifying a child at risk for language impairment was computed using the prevalence of SLI (7%) as the base rate. Results Diagnostic accuracy was acceptable using both scoring methods. The resulting likelihood ratios (LR+ = 22.66, 19.43; LR- = .05, .05) were similar to those reported for older children. The probability of accurate detection of children with SLI in the general population increased from 7% to 61%. However this value suggests that many false positives could be expected. Conclusions The NRT yielded results similar to those reported for older children. However, despite its strengths, the NRT is not sufficient for screening the general population of four- and five-year-olds. PMID:20421612

  19. Extending use of the NRT to preschool-age children with and without specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevy, Patricia; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Leonard, Laurence B; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) using a sample of 4- and 5-year-olds with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and to evaluate its feasibility for use in universal screening. The NRT was administered to 29 children with SLI and 47 age-matched children with typical development. Diagnostic accuracy was computed using alternative scoring methods, which treated out-of-inventory phonemes either as errors or as unscorable. To estimate accuracy in a universal screening context, the probability of identifying a child at risk for language impairment was computed using the prevalence of SLI (7%) as the base rate. Diagnostic accuracy was acceptable using both scoring methods. The resulting likelihood ratios (LR+ = 22.66, 19.43; LR- = .05, .05) were similar to those reported for older children. The probability of accurate detection of children with SLI in the general population increased from 7% to 61%. However, this value suggests that many false positives could be expected. The NRT yielded results similar to those reported for older children. However, despite its strengths, the NRT is not sufficient for screening the general population of 4- and 5-year-olds.

  20. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Original article The effects of kangaroo mother care in a sample of preterm, preschool aged children

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    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The research has shown that kangaroo mother care has a protective impact both on health and future cognitive skills of prematurely born babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the early skin-to-skin contact and the cognitive and emotional-social functioning of preschool aged preterm babies. Participants and procedure The study group included 99 preterm babies. The children participated in a psychological examination conducted using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and the Terman-Merrill Test. The data concerning the skin-to-skin contact during the child’s hospitalisation were acquired during interviews with mothers. The emotional development was assessed on the basis of interviews with mothers, conducted using the Rescorla DSM-IV Orientation Scale (2005. Results The study showed no relation between kangaroo mother care and cognitive development. Nevertheless the early skin-to-skin contact turned out to be connected with the emotional functioning of the subjects. Preterm babies who used to experience kangaroo mother care experienced fewer anxiety and depressive disorders than those who did not. In addition it was revealed that the children who suffered from early damage to the brain in the forms of intraventricular and periventricular haemorrhages and experienced kangaroo mother care demonstrated less intense depressive symptoms than those who did not. Conclusions The obtained results, combined with the review of the foreign literature of the subject, indicate the usefulness of introducing kangaroo mother care to neonatal wards and encouraging parents to care about their prematurely born babies in such a way.

  2. Schematic drawings of facial expressions for emotion recognition and interpretation by preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, P M; Kirkpatrick, S W; Sullivan, L A

    1996-11-01

    Schematic drawings of facial expressions were evaluated as a possible assessment tool for research on emotion recognition and interpretation involving young children. A subset of Ekman and Friesen's (1976) Pictures of Facial Affect was used as the standard for comparison. Preschool children (N = 138) were shown drawing and photographs in two context conditions for six emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise). The overall correlation between accuracy for the photographs and drawings was .677. A significant difference was found for the stimulus condition (photographs vs. drawings) but not for the administration condition (label-based vs. context-based). Children were significantly more accurate in interpreting drawings than photographs and tended to be more accurate in identifying facial expressions in the label-based administration condition for both photographs and drawings than in the context-based administration condition.

  3. Parenting approaches and digital technology use of preschool age children in a Chinese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Fowler, Cathrine; Lam, Winsome Yuk Yin; Wong, Ho Ting; Wong, Charmaine Hei Man; Yuen Loke, Alice

    2014-05-07

    Young children are using digital technology (DT) devices anytime and anywhere, especially with the invention of smart phones and the replacement of desktop computers with digital tablets. Although research has shown that parents play an important role in fostering and supporting preschoolers' developing maturity and decisions about DT use, and in protecting them from potential risk due to excessive DT exposure, there have been limited studies conducted in Hong Kong focusing on parent-child DT use. This study had three objectives: 1) to explore parental use of DTs with their preschool children; 2) to identify the DT content that associated with child behavioral problems; and 3) to investigate the relationships between approaches adopted by parents to control children's DT use and related preschooler behavioral problems. This exploratory quantitative study was conducted in Hong Kong with 202 parents or guardians of preschool children between the ages of 3 and 6 attending kindergarten. The questionnaire was focused on four aspects, including 1) participants' demographics; 2) pattern of DT use; 3) parenting approach to manage the child's DT use; and 4) child behavioral and health problems related to DT use. Multiple regression analysis was adopted as the main data analysis method for identifying the DT or parental approach-related predictors of the preschooler behavioral problems. In the multiple linear regression model, the 'restrictive approach score' was the only predictor among the three parental approaches (B:1.66, 95% CI: [0.21, 3.11], p children also significantly increased the tendency of children to have behavioral problem (B:3.84, 95% CI: [1.66, 6.02], p children's cognitive and functional abilities are still in the developmental stage, parents play a crucial role in fostering appropriate and safe DT use. It is suggested that parents practice a combination of restrictive, instructive and co-using approaches, rather than a predominately restrictive

  4. Healthy Living Behaviors Among Chinese-American Preschool-Aged Children: Results of a Parent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; Brown, Alison; Lee, Victoria; Must, Aviva; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho

    2017-07-17

    Associations between diet, physical activity, parenting, and acculturation among Chinese-American children are understudied. Parents/caregivers of children attending child-care programs in Boston Chinatown completed a self-administered survey on demographics, child's diet, physical activities, anthropometrics, and parenting practices. Associations were evaluated in multivariable regression analysis, stratified by survey language preference, a proxy for acculturation. Responding Asian families = 132; 86.4% were immigrants; 75.8% completed the Chinese-version survey. Children (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 1.1 years) did not eat vegetables (31.8%), or play actively outside (45.4%) daily, 64.8% watched television/screens daily; 32.6% were overweight/obese (based on parent report). Parenting practices associated with obesity were apparent. Although healthy-living behavioral outcomes were less prevalent among less acculturated parents; multivariable adjustment attenuated the observed significant differences. Findings suggest opportunities for improvement in study children's diet and healthy-living behaviors, and underscore the need for further research on acculturation, and parenting styles in this population.

  5. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imitation by combination: preschool age children evidence summative imitation in a novel problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys; Krajkowski, Edward; Price, Elizabeth E; Etz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Children are exceptional, even 'super,' imitators but comparatively poor independent problem-solvers or innovators. Yet, imitation and innovation are both necessary components of cumulative cultural evolution. Here, we explored the relationship between imitation and innovation by assessing children's ability to generate a solution to a novel problem by imitating two different action sequences demonstrated by two different models, an example of imitation by combination, which we refer to as "summative imitation." Children (N = 181) from 3 to 5 years of age and across three experiments were tested in a baseline condition or in one of six demonstration conditions, varying in the number of models and opening techniques demonstrated. Across experiments, more than 75% of children evidenced summative imitation, opening both compartments of the problem box and retrieving the reward hidden in each. Generally, learning different actions from two different models was as good (and in some cases, better) than learning from 1 model, but the underlying representations appear to be the same in both demonstration conditions. These results show that summative imitation not only facilitates imitation learning but can also result in new solutions to problems, an essential feature of innovation and cumulative culture.

  7. Brain white matter structure and language ability in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Matthew; Dewey, Deborah; Lebel, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5.6 years who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and participated in assessments of Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography revealed relationships between Phonological Processing and diffusion parameters in bilateral ventral white matter pathways and the corpus callosum. Phonological Processing was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy and negatively correlated with mean diffusivity. The relationships observed in left ventral pathways are consistent with studies in older children, and demonstrate that structural markers for language performance are apparent as young as 3 years of age. Our findings in right hemisphere areas that are not as commonly found in adult studies suggest that young children rely on a widespread network for language processing that becomes more specialized with age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children With Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers with normal hearing (NH). All were tested on normed measures of working memory, inhibition-concentration, and organization-integration. Parents completed a normed rating scale of problem behaviors related to EF. Comparisons of EF skills of children with CIs were made to peers with NH and to published nationally representative norms. Results Preschoolers with CIs showed significantly poorer performance on inhibition-concentration and working memory compared with peers with NH and with national norms. No group differences were found in visual memory or organization-integration. When data were controlled for language, differences in performance measures of EF remained, whereas differences in parent-reported problems with EF were no longer significant. Hearing history was generally unrelated to EF. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that EF deficits found in older children with CIs begin to emerge as early as preschool years. The ability to detect these deficits early has important implications for early intervention and habilitation after cochlear implantation. PMID:24686747

  9. Validation of the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale for Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilain, Christine S.; Parlade, Meaghan V.; McBee, Matthew T.; Coman, Drew C.; Owen, Taylor; Gutierrez, Anibal; Boyd, Brian; Odom, Samuel; Alessandri, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention, or the shared focus of attention between objects or events and a social partner, is a crucial milestone in the development of social communication and a notable area of deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder. While valid parent-report screening measures of social communication are available, the majority of these…

  10. Biofilms for Babies: Introducing Microbes and Biofilms to Preschool-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian M. Couto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are beneficial to life on our planet as they facilitate natural processes such as global nutrient cycling in our environment. This article details a 30-minute activity to introduce pre-school children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age to microbes and biofilms in the natural environment.

  11. School-Based Social Skills Training for Preschool-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; Hanglein, Jeanine; Arak, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder display impairments in social interactions and communication that appear at early ages and result in short- and long-term negative outcomes. As such, there is a need for effective social skills training programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder--particularly interventions capable of being…

  12. Investigation of parenting attitudes of parents whose children are at preschool age

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    Erhan Alabay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine parental attitudes of parents with children between 48-72 months old, depending upon different variables while they are raising their children. Out of quantitative research patterns, descriptive survey model was used in the research. As data collecting tool, Parental Attitude Scale (PAS, developed by Demir and Şendil (2008 and which consists of 46 items in total and determines democratic, authoritative, overprotective, and permissive attitudes of parents in raising children was used. The sample of the research was composed of 422 parents who were selected in accordance with random sampling method and residing in İstanbul Province, Pendik District. Within context of the research, gender of parents, educational background, average income, family structure, number of children, whether or not they joined a seminar on pediatric development, the amount of time they spend with their child and the gender of the child were determined as independent variables and it was examined, based on these independent variables, whether there is a significant difference in parental attitude points which are dependent variables. In the analysis of data obtained from the research, it was concluded that non-employed parents are relatively more protective than employed parents, the fact that parents joined a seminar on pediatric development decreased the authoritative and overprotective attitude average points and parents adopted a more authoritative manner towards boys compared to girls. Also, in line with research findings, a significant difference was detected on parental attitude scale sub-dimension points depending on the independent variables of parents’ ages, educational background, income level and number of children.

  13. Developmental risk factors in Vietnamese preschool-age children: Cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) strongly influences children's basic learning, school success, economic participation, social citizenry and health. Although some risk factors related to childhood development are documented, further exploration is necessary considering various sociodemographic, nutritional, and psychosocial factors. This study investigated factors affecting ECD in Vietnamese preschoolers. We used data from the representative, cross-sectional round of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey 2011. Early Childhood Development Index questionnaires were administered to mothers of all children aged 36-59 months in the household (n = 1459). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis. In Vietnam, 17.2% of children did not reach their full developmental potential within the first 5 years. Children who had been breast-fed (AOR, 2.78; 95%CI: 1.28-6.02), attended preschool (AOR, 1.75; 95%CI: 1.28-2.39), were of major ethnicity (AOR, 2.41; 95%CI: 1.55-3.74), had a mother with secondary or higher education (AOR, 1.69; 95%CI: 1.19-2.38) and had relatives who engaged with them in four or more activities that promote learning (AOR, 1.55; 95%CI: 1.13-2.14) were more likely to have a normal developmental trajectory. Furthermore, children who experienced physical punishment and stunting were 0.69-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.95) and 0.71-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.98) less likely to be on track for ECD, respectively. The risk factors associated with delayed ECD were low level of maternal education; family ethnicity; lack of preschool attendance; relatives who did not engage with them in learning; physical punishment; not being breast-fed; and stunting. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Assessment and affects hamstrings contracture on the formation of posture defects in children of preschool age

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    Magda Kucharczuk-Kopycińska

    2016-12-01

    Results. Executed tests shown that 47,5% from examined group of children have fault posture. Occurrence of hamstrings contracture, which was diagnosed in 40%, disrupts pelvis balance causing oblique position of pelvis. Conclusion. 1. Posture faults are major problem in our population. During examination near half of the group possessed at least one of the fault posture. 2. Hamstrings contracture disrupts pelvis balance causing oblique position of pelvis. Further it leads to increase frequency of fault posture. 3. Proper rehabilitation can prevent hamstring contracture, in advance prevents also occurrence of fault posture. 4. Rehabilitation study, in which analysis of specified anthropometric points and a few functional tests will be a component, can detect and correct diagnose fault posture among children.

  15. Study on Nutritional Problems in Preschool Aged Children of Kaski District of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, J.; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Murphy, Jane; Hind, Martin

    2015-01-01

    bstract Undernutrition remains a key public health burden in Nepal. This study aimed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about nutritious food amongst mothers of 3 – 5 year olds from rural and urban areas. A cross-sectional mixed-methods approach comprised a quantitative survey and qualitative focus groups. The community-based survey included 524 mothers of children who are no longer breastfed. Open-ended and structured questions investigated knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about nu...

  16. Parent Perspectives on Pain Management in Preschool-Age Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelsey; Reinman, Laura; Schatz, Jeffrey; Roberts, Carla W

    Pain episodes occur for many preschoolers with sickle cell disease (SCD), but little is known about parent perceptions of managing pain episodes in young children. We surveyed parents of young children with SCD who had managed pain episodes in the past year to assess their management and satisfaction with their strategies, challenges of pain management, and interest in additional education. Parents were recruited from health maintenance visits at a SCD specialty clinic. Forty-two of 51 parents (82%) of 2- to-6-year-olds reported managing pain over the past year. Parents who had managed pain primarily reported using medications. These parents reported at least moderate satisfaction with current management strategies and resources. At least one-third of parents found each facet of pain management queried as at least somewhat challenging. Identifying when their child was in pain, encouraging functional activities, and managing irritable behavior were reported as most challenging. Parents of young children with SCD reported interest in additional pain management education, which could promote better parent and child coping skills.

  17. Catch-up growth assessment in long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool age male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliván, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    catch-up growth for height (improvement height Z = +.61 SD). At placement, the both long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool age male children showed a mild form of chronic malnutrition with growth failure. Growth failure was reversible after the first year of stay, which demonstrates that this delay in growth was secondary to nutritional and psychosocial factors. Placement in foster residential care was beneficial for the catch-up growth of these patients. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-age children in an endemic area of Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2016

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    Samwel Bushukatale Ng`weng`weta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the magnitude of Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium infection and the factors associated with exposure of preschool children in Kigogo Ward, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey of Class I pupils (preschool-age in 2015 was carried out from May to June 2016 to examine the prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection and associated factors. Urine samples were examined for haematuria, S. haematobium eggs and intensity. Parents or guardians were interviewed on their awareness and level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis disease (symptoms, mode of transmission, treatment and prevention, as well as their perceived risk of infection to young children. Potential sites of transmission were identified and searched for Bulinus spp., snails and the activities that exposed young children to infection were recorded. Results: A total of 424 pupils and 408 female parents or guardians were recruited. Haematuria was detected in 51 (12.0% pupils, S. haematobium eggs were observed in 8 (1.9% pupils and all were light infection. Bulinus spp., snails were identified mostly at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (91.7% of parents or guardians were aware of urinary schistosomiasis disease, but three quarter (76% did not consider it as a health problem. More than two thirds (71.3% reported that anybody could get urinary schistosomiasis; two thirds (65.9% reported that infection was likely to be acquired at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (> 90% had the notion that young children could be exposed; and all the activities that might lead a child to come into contact with potentially infested waters were judged to be risk factors. The larger majority (83.6% had a high level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis (transmission, symptoms, availability of modern treatment and the preventive measures, reflecting the ongoing advocacy campaigns. Conclusions: Young children left

  19. Contribution of Beverage Selection to the Dietary Quality of the Packed Lunches Eaten by Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2018-02-16

    Sweet drinks early in life could predispose to lifelong consumption, and the beverage industry does not clearly define fruit drinks as part of the sweet drink category. To ascertain the relationship between beverage selection and dietary quality of the lunches packed for preschool-aged children evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Foods packed by parents (n=607) were observed at 30 early care and education centers on two nonconsecutive days. Three-level regression models were used to examine the dietary quality of lunches by beverage selection and the dietary quality of the lunch controlling for the nutrient composition of the beverage by removing it from the analysis. Fruit drinks were included in 25% of parent-packed lunches, followed by 100% fruit juice (14%), milk (14%), and flavored milk (3.7%). Lunches with plain milk had the highest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (59.3) followed by lunches with 100% fruit juice (56.9) and flavored milk (53.2). Lunches with fruit drinks had the lowest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores at 48.6. After excluding the nutrient content of the beverage, the significant difference between lunches containing milk and flavored milk persisted (+5.5), whereas the difference between fruit drinks and 100% fruit juice did not. Dietary quality is associated with the type of beverage packed and these differences hold when the lunch is analyzed without the nutrient content of the beverage included. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The functional organization of preschool-age children's emotion expressions and actions in challenging situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tracy A; Cole, Pamela M; Wiggins, Crystal N; Cohen, Laura H; Zalewski, Maureen

    2009-08-01

    Although functional links between emotion and action are implied in emotion regulation research, there is limited evidence that specific adaptive actions for coping with a challenge are more probable when certain negative emotions are expressed. The current study examined this question among 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 113; M age = 47.84 months, SD = 6.19). Emotion expressions and actions were observed during 2 challenging tasks: children waited for a gift while the mother worked, and children worked alone to retrieve a prize from a locked box with the wrong key. Angry and happy expressions, compared with sad expressions, were associated with more actions. These actions varied with the nature of the task, reflecting appreciation of situational appropriateness. In addition, when waiting with the mother, happiness was associated with the broadest range of actions, whereas when working alone on the locked box, anger was associated with the broadest range of actions. Results are discussed in terms of the adaptive function of negative emotions and in terms of functional and dimensional models of emotion. Findings have implications for the development of emotion regulation and social-emotional competence. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Potential immediate hypersensitivity reactions following immunization in preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C-M; Clothier, H J; Perrett, K P

    2018-04-06

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) are rare but potentially serious adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Surveillance of Adverse Events following Vaccination in the Community (SAEFVIC) is an enhanced passive surveillance system that collects, analyses and reports information about AEFI in Victoria, Australia. We describe the incidence, timing and type of potential IHR following vaccination in preschool children reported over an 8-year period. A total of 2110 AEFI were reported in 1620 children, of which 23.5% (496) were classified as potential IHR. Of these, 37.1% (184) were suspected to be IgE-mediated, (including anaphylaxis, angioedema and/or urticaria) and 83.5% (414) occurred within 15 minutes of vaccination. The incidence of potential IHR was 5.4 per 100,000 doses, with that of suspected IgE-mediated IHR being 2.0 per 100,000 doses. The incidence of anaphylaxis was extremely low (0.13 per 100,000 doses) and is consistent with other published studies. Potential IHR following immunization should be reported to appropriate local pharmacovigilance systems and patients reviewed by specialists able to evaluate, investigate and manage future vaccinations.

  2. Differences in preschool-age children's dietary intake between meals consumed at childcare and at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Sisson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preschool children need optimal nutrition, including a variety of nutrient-dense foods, for growth and development. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in foods and nutrients consumed at childcare and home environments. Children ages 3-to-5 years (n = 90, 3.8 ± 0.7 years; 56% female from 16 childcare centers participated in this cross-sectional study from 2011 to 2014. Lunches at childcare were observed for two days; three days of dinners at home were reported by caregivers. Nutrient-dense and energy-dense foods were counted and nutrient content of meals was determined using FoodWorks®. More servings of fruit (0.92 ± 0.82 vs. 0.15 ± 0.26; p ≤ 0.0001, vegetables (1.47 ± 1.43 vs. 0.62 ± 0.60; p ≤ 0.0001, and low-fat dairy (0.83 ± 0.32 vs. 0.07 ± 0.19; p ≤ 0.0001 were consumed at childcare than at home. More servings of high-fat, high-sugar foods (0.08 ± 0.18 vs. 0.43 ± 0.39, p ≤ 0.0001 and sugary drinks (0.22 ± 0.41 vs. 0.39 ± 0.35. p ≤ 0.001 were consumed at home than at childcare. There were no differences between environments in whole-grains, high-fat meats, or high-fat high-sugar condiments consumed. On average, children consumed 333.0 ± 180.3 kcal at childcare and 454.7 ± 175.3 at home (p ≤ 0.0001. There were no differences in macronutrient profiles or in iron, zinc, folate, or vitamin B6 intake. More calcium (86.2 ± 44.6 vs. 44.6 ± 22.2 mg/kcal, p ≤ 0.0001 and vitamin A/kcal (56.1 ± 36.9 vs. 26.5 ± 24.2 RAE/kcal, p ≤ 0.0001 were consumed at childcare than at home. Preschool children are consuming more nutrient-dense foods and a more servings of fruit and vegetables at childcare during lunch than at home during dinner. Childcare and parents should work together to provide early and consistent exposure to nutrient-rich foods to ensure optimal nutrition for developing children.

  3. The effect of medical clowns on performance of spirometry among preschool aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Vered; Schichter-Konfino, Vered; Kassem, Eias; Klein, Adi

    2018-04-02

    Medical clowns (MCs) are known to assist in reducing pain and alleviating anxiety. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of MCs to assist preschoolers in performing spirometry. A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Children aged 3-6 years participated. After a first spirometry, children were divided into two groups: the first performed a second spirometry with an MC. The second repeated spirometry with the technician. Primary outcome was second spirometry values compared between the groups. Secondary outcome were change in spirometry values within groups, and difference between the groups. A total of 140 children participated. The groups did not differ in age, sex, mother tongue, or weight. Nor in mean FVC (MC 89.2% ± 16.7, control 89.5% ± 16.3) mean FEV1 (MC 91.3% ± 15.6, control 94.2% ± 16.8), and expiratory time (MC 1.58 ± 0.43, control 1.7 ± 0.44) in first spirometry. In second spirometry the control group had a similar FVC, FEV1, and expiratory time. The MC group had a significant improvement in all parameters: FVC: MC 95.3% ± 15.5, control 89.3% ± 19.1, FEV1: MC 98.0% ± 15.6, control 91.8% ± 19.3, and expiratory time MC 1.96 ± 0.55, control 1.84 ± 0.52. The differences between the groups between first and second attempt were significant (P-value FVC 0.000, FEV1 0.000, expiratory time 0.003). MCs improved performance of spirometry among preschoolers. It is possible that laughter and relief of stress had a physiological effect. Further studies are required to better establish the ability of MCs to improve active participation and to better understand whether the mechanism of the improvement is better cooperation or true physiological change. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Measurement Properties and Classification Accuracy of Two Spanish Parent Surveys of Language Development for Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the concurrent validity and classification accuracy of 2 Spanish parent surveys of language development, the Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ; Squires, Potter, & Bricker, 1999) and the Pilot Inventario-III (Pilot INV-III; Guiberson, 2008a). Method: Forty-eight Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children…

  5. Brain activity elicited by positive and negative feedback in preschool-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Mai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the processing of positive vs. negative feedback in children aged 4-5 years, we devised a prize-guessing game that is analogous to gambling tasks used to measure feedback-related brain responses in adult studies. Unlike adult studies, the feedback-related negativity (FRN elicited by positive feedback was as large as that elicited by negative feedback, suggesting that the neural system underlying the FRN may not process feedback valence in early childhood. In addition, positive feedback, compared with negative feedback, evoked a larger P1 over the occipital scalp area and a larger positive slow wave (PSW over the right central-parietal scalp area. We believe that the PSW is related to emotional arousal and the intensive focus on positive feedback that is present in the preschool and early school years has adaptive significance for both cognitive and emotional development during this period.

  6. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Omitola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05 between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  7. A review of early influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Mesa, Tatiana; Salas, Carlos F

    2017-07-01

    Promoting physical activity (PA) is a key component of preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Despite well-documented benefits of PA, globally, rates of PA among young children have declined over the past decades, and most children are not accruing sufficient PA daily. Helping children develop the foundation for PA habits early in life is critical for the promotion of health in childhood and prevention of chronic diseases later in life, and will ultimately promote longer and healthier lives for individuals and the general population. The purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of current evidence on influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children in high-income countries. A systematic review of three databases was performed. Studies conducted in high-income countries and published from 2000 onward that addressed influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children were identified and reviewed. Additionally, reference lists of identified articles and relevant published reviews were reviewed. Studies that met the following inclusion criteria were considered: (a) sample included preschoolers (age ≤5 years); (b) PA and/or sedentary behaviors or factors associated with PA and/or sedentary behaviors was assessed; (c) published in English; (d) used either quantitative or qualitative methods; and (e) conducted in a high-income country. Data were extracted from selected studies to identify influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children and organized using the social-ecological model according to multiple levels of influence. Results from included studies identify multiple factors that influence PA and sedentary behaviors of young children in high-income countries at the various levels of the social-ecological model including intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental, organizational, and policy. Given pediatric nurses' role as primary care providers, and their frequent and continued contact with parents

  8. Audio Linguistic Disorders in Autistic Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashry, K. M., E-mail: kmashry@hotmail.com [Health Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology. Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-01

    Objective: To explore auditory function abnormalities and language disorder in autistic children. Twelve children with criteria of infantile autism were tested using Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA), Immitancemetry, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission Test (TEOAE), Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), Standardized Arabic Test of Early Language Development (for both receptive and expressive language). For comparison twlive normal children were chosen as control group. Statistically significant increase in hearing threshold level for the autistic children at low frequency region 250, 500 and 1000 Hz, significant reduction of the amplitude of TEOAE test and significant increase in wave I and V latency and I-V inter-peak latency at both RR 21.2 and 51.2 msec when compared to the control group. A positive correlation was found in this study between the changes in ABR latency and the severity of verbal disability. These resuts leed to the conclusion that Auditory dysfunction in autistic children can be verified through the presence of cochlear involvement and a delay in the brain stem transmission time in those patients. Disturbed verbal communication can be due to dysfunction in the auditory processing mechanisms.

  9. Audio Linguistic Disorders in Autistic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore auditory function abnormalities and language disorder in autistic children. Twelve children with criteria of infantile autism were tested using Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA), Immitancemetry, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission Test (TEOAE), Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), Standardized Arabic Test of Early Language Development (for both receptive and expressive language). For comparison twlive normal children were chosen as control group. Statistically significant increase in hearing threshold level for the autistic children at low frequency region 250, 500 and 1000 Hz, significant reduction of the amplitude of TEOAE test and significant increase in wave I and V latency and I-V inter-peak latency at both RR 21.2 and 51.2 msec when compared to the control group. A positive correlation was found in this study between the changes in ABR latency and the severity of verbal disability. These resuts leed to the conclusion that Auditory dysfunction in autistic children can be verified through the presence of cochlear involvement and a delay in the brain stem transmission time in those patients. Disturbed verbal communication can be due to dysfunction in the auditory processing mechanisms

  10. Pitch perception in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.; Williams, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of musical pitch detection in children with autistic spectrum disorders as compared with typically developing children. Seventeen children on the autistic spectrum (Mage=9.34, SDage=1.12) and 13 typically developing, chronological age-matched children (Mage=9.13,

  11. Comparative investigation of indicators of growth and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age in Isfahan during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yousefi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.

  12. Styles of parent-child interactions in families with preschool-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to cultural-historical and activity approaches, collaborative activity with an adult, including communication as a type of meta-activity, is considered to be the necessary mechanism of child development. A child is considered to be an active partner, possessing his/her own motives, and is guided by mental representations of the parent and interactions with him/her. Russian psychologists have developed a range of parenting style classifications; however, these styles primarily emphasize a parent’s position, contrary to methodological perspectives, with inadequate consideration of a child’s own agency. The aims of the current research were to investigate actual goal-oriented interactions between preschoolers and their parents and to outline certain patterns (types of interactions, considering both partners and analyzing interac- tions according to the activity model. A total of 75 parent-child dyads (children aged from 4.6 years to 6.11 years participated in “collaborative activity trials” in which the observational method was based on the activity approach. Cluster analysis (k-means clusterization revealed five different groups of parent-child dyads: conflictual, harmonious, distant and two-fold dominant (with dominant parent or dominant child. Between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in a range of parameters of activity and emotional components of interactions. The harmonious type of interactions is not prevalent, although subgroups with different types of domination are the most common, which may be attributed to cultural peculiarities. Domination-subordination misbalance does not seem to seriously distort the normal developmental trajectory; however, in cases of conflictual and distant dyads, interactional issues might hinder the course of goal-oriented activity, which might serve as a predictor for potential difficulties in further learning.

  13. Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity in Preschool-Aged Children: A Prospective Study of up to 48,922 Children of the Jiaxing Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenglei; Liu, Huijuan; Wan, Yi; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Jusheng; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-11-01

    To examine the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children. A total of 48,922 3-year old children enrolled in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, who provided sleep information and anthropometric data, were included in the present study as baseline and were followed up to 5 years of age. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 10 hours, 11-12 hours, and ≥ 13 hours. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the cut point criteria in China. Prevalence ratios and risk ratios were used to assess the association between sleep duration and risk of overweight/obesity. In cross-sectional analyses at baseline, the adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) of overweight (with 11-12 h of sleep being considered the reference group) for children sleeping ≤ 10 h and ≥ 13 h were 1.13 (1.06-1.20) and 1.16 (1.09-1.24), respectively, whereas the adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) of obesity were 1.25 (1.11-1.40) and 1.25 (1.11-1.42). In longitudinal analyses, the adjusted risk ratios (95% confidence interval) of overweight for children sleeping ≤ 10 h and ≥ 13 h were 1.48 (1.26-1.74) and 1.13 (0.96-1.34), while adjusted risk ratios (95% confidence interval) of obesity were 1.77 (1.30-2.40) and 1.19 (0.85-1.66). Restricted cubic splines regression supported U-shaped curvilinear associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Both short and overlong sleep duration are associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children. Optimizing sleep duration may be an important modifiable intervention for overweight and obesity. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. The influence of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot on the biomechanics characteristics of foot of children of pre-school age

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    Bychuk I.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article is defined linear and angular biomechanics descriptions of children's foot of senior preschool age. It is analysed the dynamics and increase of the explored indexes during realization of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot in the teaching process. In experiment took part teachers and instructors of physical culture; control and experimental group consist of 20 children at the age of 5-6 years old. Efficiency of the offered program of prophylaxis of flat foot is proved.

  15. Efficacy and safety of praziquantel in preschool-aged children in an area co-endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium.

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    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the recommended strategy to control schistosomiasis is preventive chemotherapy. Emphasis is placed on school-aged children, but in high endemicity areas, preschool-aged children are also at risk, and hence might need treatment with praziquantel. Since a pediatric formulation (e.g., syrup is not available outside of Egypt, crushed praziquantel tablets are used, but the efficacy and safety of this treatment regimen is insufficiently studied.We assessed the efficacy and safety of crushed praziquantel tablets among preschool-aged children (<6 years in the Azaguié district, south Côte d'Ivoire, where Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium coexist. Using a cross-sectional design, children provided two stool and two urine samples before and 3 weeks after treatment. Crushed praziquantel tablets, mixed with water, were administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Adverse events were assessed and graded 4 and 24 hours posttreatment by interviewing mothers/guardians.Overall, 160 preschool-aged children had at least one stool and one urine sample examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette for S. mansoni, and urine filtration for S. haematobium diagnosis before and 3 weeks after praziquantel administration. According to the Kato-Katz and urine filtration results, we found high efficacy against S. mansoni (cure rate (CR, 88.6%; egg reduction rate (ERR, 96.7% and S. haematobium (CR, 88.9%; ERR, 98.0%. POC-CCA revealed considerably lower efficacy against S. mansoni (CR, 53.8%. Treatment was generally well tolerated, but moderately severe adverse events (i.e., body and face inflammation, were observed in four Schistosoma egg-negative children.Crushed praziquantel administered to preschool-aged children at a dose of 40 mg/kg is efficacious against S. mansoni and S. haematobium in a co-endemic setting of Côte d'Ivoire. Further research is required with highly sensitive

  16. Results from an experimental trial at a Head Start center to evaluate two meal service approaches to increase fruit and vegetable intake of preschool aged children

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    Harnack Lisa J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption of preschool aged children are needed. Objectives Evaluate the independent effects of the following meal service strategies on intake of fruits and vegetables of preschool children: 1. Serving fruits and vegetables in advance of other menu items as part of traditional family style meal service; and 2. Serving meals portioned and plated by providers. Methods Fifty-three preschool aged children completed a randomized crossover experiment conducted at a Head Start center in Minneapolis, MN. Over a six week trial period each of the experimental meal service strategies (serving fruits and vegetable first and serving meals portioned by providers was implemented during lunch service for two one-week periods. Two one-week control periods (traditional family style meal service with all menu items served at once were also included over the six week trial period. Childrens lunch intake was observed as a measure of food and nutrient intake during each experimental condition. Results Fruit intake was significantly higher (p Conclusions Serving fruits in advance of other meal items may be a low cost easy to implement strategy for increasing fruit intake in young children. However, serving vegetables first does not appear to increase vegetable intake. Results provide support for current recommendations for traditional family style meal service in preschool settings.

  17. Desired Outcomes for Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Bryony; Tozer, Rosemary; Rabiee, Parvaneh; Sloper, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Within children's services, frameworks for assessing outcomes have been developed in the absence of consultation with children with autistic spectrum disorders and their parents. The research reported here worked with parents, other key adults and children with autistic spectrum disorders to identify desired outcomes. It found similarities with…

  18. Single versus double dose praziquantel comparison on efficacy and Schistosoma mansoni re-infection in preschool-age children in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, Allen; Nuwaha, Fred; Tukahebwa, Edridah Muheki

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni infection is proven to be a major health problem of preschool-age children in sub-Saharan Africa, yet this age category is not part of the schistosomiasis control program. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of single and double dose praziquantel...... (PZQ) treatment on cure rates (CRs), egg reduction rates (ERRs) and re-infection rates 8 months later, in children aged 1-5 years living along Lake Victoria, Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infected children (n= 1017) were randomized to receive either a single or double dose of PZQ. Initially...... all children were treated with a single standard oral dose 40 mg/kg body weight of PZQ. Two weeks later a second dose was administered to children in the double dose treatment arm. Side effects were monitored at 30 minutes to 24 hours after each treatment. Efficacy in terms of CRs and ERRs for the two...

  19. Sentinel surveillance of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in preschool-aged and school-aged children in selected local government units in the Philippines: follow-up assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Totañes, Francis Isidore G; de Leon, Winifreda U; Ciro, Raezelle Nadine T; Lumampao, Yvonne F

    2015-03-01

    This study was a follow-up to the baseline nationwide survey of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in preschool-aged children in the Philippines and in school-aged children in selected sentinel sites to assess the Integrated Helminth Control Program of the Department of Health. The objective of the study was to describe the current prevalence and intensity of STH infections in preschool-aged and school-aged children in 6 sentinel provinces and to compare these data with baseline findings. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Parasitological assessment involved the examination of stool samples by the Kato-Katz method. Although parasitological parameters in the 2 age groups at follow-up showed significant reductions from the baseline, these parameters remained high despite 3 years of mass drug administration (MDA). Efforts toward achieving high MDA coverage rates, provision of clean water, environmental sanitation, and promotion of hygiene practices must be prioritized. © 2013 APJPH.

  20. Echoing in Autistic Children: A Chronometric Study of Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Theodore; Lucy, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Explores the idea that echoing in autistics differs from normal imitation and represents a different species of production. Subjects were five autistic children, ranging in age from 3 years 10 months to 6 years 8 months, and two normal children, aged 2 years 6 months and 3 years 11 months. (MP)

  1. Model playground for autistic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thais; Castro, Alberto; Lima, David

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism often have difficulties in learning the social skills and norms of peer social interaction, which severely affect and limit their social lives. Aiming at addressing this issue, through design, we developed a digital-analogue model playground to help them understand and cope...... of social skills and norms through peer learning activities amongst children with autism....

  2. Study on CT changes in autistic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaguchi, Katsumi

    1993-01-01

    Since 1979 we have performed CT examinations on 132 autistic children. Neurological diagnosis of the lesion was established by Dr. Segawa's group. On the CT of many autistic children, we found a small low density change located in the anterior wall of the temporal horn, or localized dilatation of the inferior horn near the damaged brain. We reviewed 96 of these patients who all had the obvious low density changes, or localized irregular dilatations in the anterior wall of the temporal horn. By measuring the distance of damage from the midline, we divided the 96 cases into two groups. Group 1 consisted of those with damage located laterally more than 30 mm line from the midline. Group 2 consisted of those with damage medially to the 30 mm line from the midline. Those cases with a large lesion both laterally and medially of the 30 mm line were categorized into group 1. In the adult brain the lateral border of the amygdaloid nucleus was never located laterally more than 30 mm from the midline. Laterally over the 30 mm line there were two marked fiber systems running near the anterior wall of the temporal horn: the fiber of the anterior commissure and the uncinate fascicle. Group 1 consisted of 62 patients and group 2 of 34 patients. The majority of the two group patients were pure autism children. This suggested that the main lesion in autism was in the amygdala. (author)

  3. Proportion of preschool-aged children meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and associations with adiposity: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

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    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years have been released in 2017. According to the guidelines, within a 24-h period, preschoolers should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity (of which at least 60 min is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, engage in no more than 1 h of screen time, and obtain between 10 and 13 h of sleep. This study examined the proportions of preschool-aged (3 to 4 years Canadian children who met these new guidelines and different recommendations within the guidelines, and the associations with adiposity indicators. Methods Participants were 803 children (mean age: 3.5 years from cycles 2–4 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of Canadians. Physical activity was accelerometer-derived, and screen time and sleep duration were parent-reported. Participants were classified as meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines if they met all three specific time recommendations for physical activity, screen time, and sleep. The adiposity indicators in this study were body mass index (BMI z-scores and BMI status (World Health Organization Growth Standards. Results A total of 12.7% of preschool-aged children met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, and 3.3% met none of the three recommendations. A high proportion of children met the sleep duration (83.9% and physical activity (61.8% recommendations, while 24.4% met the screen time recommendation. No associations were found between meeting individual or combined recommendations and adiposity. Conclusions Very few preschool-aged children in Canada (~13% met all three recommendations contained within the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. None of the combinations of recommendations were associated with adiposity in this sample. Future work should focus on identifying innovative ways to reduce screen time in this population, and should examine the associations of

  4. Teenage outcomes after speech and language impairment at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Ulla; Norrelgen, Fritjof; Westerlund, Joakim; Dahlman, Andrea; Hultby, Elizabeth; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, we published developmental data on a representative group of children (n = 25) with moderate or severe speech and language impairment, who were attending special preschools for children. The aim of this study was to perform a follow-up of these children as teenagers. Parents of 23 teenagers participated in a clinical interview that requested information on the child's current academic achievement, type of school, previous clinical assessments, and developmental diagnoses. Fifteen children participated in a speech and language evaluation, and 13 participated in a psychological evaluation. Seven of the 23 teenagers had a mild intellectual disability, and another three had borderline intellectual functioning. Nine had symptoms of disorders on the autism spectrum; five of these had an autism spectrum disorder, and four had clear autistic traits. Six met criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/subthreshold ADHD. Thirteen of 15 teenagers had a moderate or severe language impairment, and 13 of 15 had a moderate or severe reading impairment. Overlapping disorders were frequent. None of the individuals who underwent the clinical evaluation were free from developmental problems. A large number of children with speech and language impairment at preschool age had persistent language problems and/or met the criteria for developmental diagnoses other than speech and language impairment at their follow-up as teenagers. Language impairment in young children is a marker for several developmental disorders, particularly intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

  5. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  6. Oral health status of children with autistic disorder in Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu Rekha, C; Arangannal, P; Shahed, H

    2012-06-01

    To assess the oral health status of autistic children in Chennai. Oral health status was assessed for 483 children with autism, solicited from special education schools, autistic child centres and therapy centres. Conditions assessed were plaque accumulation, gingival health, dental caries, malocclusion, developmental anomalies, oral injuries and restorations. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests of significance were used to compare groups. Proportions test was used to compare the significance of the parameters between boys and girls. Autistic children with primary dentition showed significantly higher incidence of dental caries (24%), when compared to other oral conditions. Children with mixed dentition had more gingivitis (50%) and children with permanent dentition had more gingivitis (48.96%) and malocclusion (71.15%). All the oral conditions were seen more in boys than girls. Autistic children have significantly poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of malocclusion and dental caries when compared to other oral conditions.

  7. Social interactions of autistic and nonhandicapped children during free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, S M

    1983-01-01

    Ten small groups of second and third graders participated in weekly play sessions with autistic children over a period of ten weeks. Observations of 28 nonhandicapped children indicated that the frequency of their social interaction and communication increased across the week of their daily visits. Autistic children displayed increases in social interaction and decreases in solitary behavior from the first to the tenth week of observation.

  8. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. METHODOLOGY: A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering 'trace' as negative (t-, and single CCA with 'trace' as positive (t+, was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t- as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t- or CCA(t+ was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t- and CCA(t+ was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are warranted

  9. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Eliane F; Magalhães, Lívia C; Campos, Alexandre F; Bouzada, Maria Cândida F

    2014-01-01

    to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS). preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC-2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p=0.002). In the CMMS (p=0.034), the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75) and 103.0 (± 12.25) for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p=0.001) and required more assistance from the caregiver (p=0.010) than term children. this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic observation of play behavior in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, M; Freeman, B J; Montgomery, J

    1975-12-01

    The play behavior, defined as interaction with peers and objects, of five autistic children was systematically observed in four environments, i.e., a stark environment, a theraplay unit, a playroom, and an outside play deck. The preliminary results suggested that (1) with some children environment has little or no effect on their play behavior; (2) with multiple objects, autistic children frequently related to the objects rather than to their peers; (3) object play was most frequently at the manipulative stage and often included repetitive and negative behavior; (4) within a confined space with no objects present, autistic children frequently engaged in solitary repetitive behavior; and (5) within a confined space designed to facilitate a movement flow (theraplay), autistic children modeled and imitated and were involved in gross motor play together.

  11. Encouraging early preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children enrolled in Medicaid: using the extended parallel process model to conduct formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth; Kuthy, Raymond; Ortiz, Cristina; Hanson, Jessica D; Damiano, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by three coders who employed closed coding strategies. Parents' perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents' self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. [The specific features of the clinical course of acute suppurative otitis media of viral and mixed viral-bacterial etiology in the children of the preschool age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtsig, E Yu; Bugaichuk, O V

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the spectrum of the pathogenic agents responsible for the development of acute suppurative otitis media in the children of the preschool age and to reveal the specific clinical features of this disease depending on its etiological factors. The study involved 138 patients (186 ears) of either sex at the age from 1 year to 84 months who presented with acute suppurative otitis media. The following methods were employed for the purpose of the study: analysis of the patients' complaints and the past medical histories, examination of the ENT organs, microbiological (bacteriological and virological) studies of secretion from the tympanic cavity, diagnostic endoscopy of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx, laboratory investigations. The study allowed to reveal the characteristic clinical manifestations of the pathology of interest depending on its etiology.

  13. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers.

  14. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  15. [Sleep disturbances in children with autistic spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I A

    2015-01-01

    An association between sleep disorders and autistic spectrum disorders in children is considered. Characteristic variants of sleep disorders, including resistance to going to bed, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, changes in sleep structure, primarily, the decrease in the percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, are presented. Attention is focused on the possibility of the direct relationship between sleep disturbance and the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders. A role of pathological alterations in the production of neuromediators and morphological changes in the brain structures characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders in the genesis of sleep disorders in children is discussed. Possible non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches are suggested.

  16. Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, M H; Milstein, J P

    1989-01-01

    We assessed the effects of video modeling on acquisition and generalization of conversational skills among autistic children. Three autistic boys observed videotaped conversations consisting of two people discussing specific toys. When criterion for learning was met, generalization of conversational skills was assessed with untrained topics of conversation; new stimuli (toys); unfamiliar persons, siblings, and autistic peers; and other settings. The results indicated that the children learned through video modeling, generalized their conversational skills, and maintained conversational speech over a 15-month period. Video modeling shows much promise as a rapid and effective procedure for teaching complex verbal skills such as conversational speech. PMID:2793634

  17. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. Methods: this was a cross‐sectional study of 124 four‐year‐old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children – second edition (MABC‐2, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI, and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS. Results: preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC‐2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p = 0.002. In the CMMS (p = 0.034, the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75 and 103.0 (± 12.25 for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p = 0.001 and required more assistance from the caregiver (p = 0.010 than term children. Conclusion: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers. Resumo: Objetivo: comparar o desenvolvimento da coordenação motora, o desenvolvimento cognitivo e o desempenho funcional de crianças nascidas pré‐termo e a termo, aos quatro anos de idade. Métodos: estudo transversal com 124 crianças de quatro anos de idade, distribuídas em dois grupos distintos, de acordo com a idade gestacional e peso ao nascimento, pareadas com relação ao sexo, idade e nível socioeconômico. Todas as crianças foram avaliadas pelos testes Movement Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (MABC‐2, Inventário de Avaliação Pediátrica de Incapacidade (PEDI e Escala de Maturidade Mental Colúmbia (EMMC. Resultados: as crianças pr

  18. The Evaluation of Food Allergy on Behavior in Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khakzad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many efforts, the etiology of autism remains unknown. Food allergy has been suggested as a pathogenic factor in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Our aim in this study was to determine whether food allergy could be considered as a risk factor for autistic children. Methods: Thirty-nine autistic children were examined by the skin prick test (SPT, and total serum IgE was evaluated by ELISA. SPTs were performed for egg whites, oranges, peanuts, tomatoes, tuna fish, walnuts, aubergines, melons, grapes, and cow milk. Parents and teachers were then asked to exclude these items from the childrens’ diets for six months. After the treatment period, the autistic children who tested positive for food allergies were re-assessed by a standard questionnaire to obtain further information about their medical histories. Results: Three of the study’s 39 autistic children (7.7% tested positive on the SPT. Total serum IgE levels were elevated in 56.4% of the subjects (mean=164±24.5, cut-off >155 IU/ml. The results showed a decreased mean in the childrens’ autistic behaviors on the Children Autism Rating Scale (CARS after both eight weeks and six months; however, this decrease was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Food allergy may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism. We conclude that avoidance of certain foods benefits the behavior of autistic children.

  19. Adaptation of a paradigm for examining the development of fear beliefs through the verbal information pathway in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Lara S; Schofield, Casey A; Beard, Courtney; Armstrong, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Verbal threat information has been shown to induce fear beliefs in school-age children (i.e. 6-12 years; for a review see Muris & Field, 2010). The current study adapted an existing paradigm (Field & Lawson, 2003) to examine the impact of verbal threat information on self-report and behavioral measures of fear in preschool-age children. Thirty children (aged 3-5) were provided with threat, positive, or no information about three novel Australian marsupials. There was a significant increase in fear belief for the animal associated with threat information compared to the animal associated with positive or no information. Verbal threat information did not impact behavioral avoidance in the complete sample; however, findings from an exploratory subgroup analysis excluding three-year-olds indicated that children demonstrated significant behavioral avoidance for the threat condition compared to the positive condition. These findings provide additional support for Rachman's theory of fear acquisition (1977, 1991) and suggest this paradigm may be used to examine the age at which verbal threat information becomes a relevant mode of fear acquisition for young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Do different parenting patterns impact the health and physical growth of 'left-behind' preschool-aged children? A cross-sectional study in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiuting; Xu, Lingzhong; Luo, Huiwen; Wang, Xinhai; Zhang, Furong; Gai Tobe, Ruoyan

    2016-02-01

    Many migrants from rural China seek work in urban areas and leave their children in their home villages to be raised by relatives. These children are often referred to as 'left-behind children'. Parental migration tends to have a profound impact on a child's growth. This study sought to assess the prevalence of illness and malnutrition among children in rural areas raised with different parenting patterns and to explore factors affecting their health and development. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the physical health of children raised with different parenting patterns and to explore associated risk factors. In total, this study examined 735 children ages 3-6 years in eight rural villages in two counties of Shandong Province. Their primary caregivers were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken and their nutritional status was determined according to WHO Child Growth Standards. This study found a relatively high prevalence of wasting, overweight and obesity among left-behind children. After potential confounders were controlled for, the parenting pattern, annual household income and health literacy of the primary caregiver significantly influenced the health and developmental indicators of children. This study highlighted the impact of the characteristics of the primary caregiver on a child's health and development and the importance of practical interventions for preschool-aged children who are left behind and raised with different parenting patterns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. "What do you think of when I say the word 'snack'?" Towards a cohesive definition among low-income caregivers of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younginer, Nicholas A; Blake, Christine E; Davison, Kirsten K; Blaine, Rachel E; Ganter, Claudia; Orloski, Alexandria; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2016-03-01

    Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3-5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60-90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low serum myeloperoxidase in autistic children with gastrointestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Russo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Russo1, Arthur Krigsman2, Bryan Jepson2, Andy Wakefield21Research Director, Health Research Institute/Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Warrenville, IL, USA; 2Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX, USAAim: To assess serum myeloperoxidase (MPO levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI disease and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between serum MPO concentration and inflammatory GI disease, including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA, previously seen in a subgroup of autistic children.Subjects and methods: Serum from 40 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel and/or stomach, and 48 controls (12 age-matched autistic children with no GI disease, 20 age-matched children without autism or GI disease, and 16 nonautistic individuals with no family history of autism were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to quantitate serum MPO levels. MPO serum concentration of autistic children with GI disease was compared to GI disease severity (including LNH and erythema and presence of ANCA.Results: We found that a significant number of autistic children with chronic digestive disease had low serum levels of MPO. However, there was no significant relationship between these levels and severity of GI disease, including the presence of ANCA.Discussion: These results suggest a relationship between low MPO levels and GI disease seen in a subpopulation of autism spectrum disorders individuals. MPO concentration may therefore be a useful biomarker for GI disease in this group of autistic children.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, autism, myeloperoxidase, GI disease, oxidative stress

  3. Systemic multimodal approach to speech therapy treatment in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Daniela; Marković, Slavica; Milankov, Vesela

    2013-01-01

    Conditions in which speech therapy treatment is applied in autistic children are often not in accordance with characteristics of opinions and learning of people with autism. A systemic multimodal approach means motivating autistic people to develop their language speech skill through the procedure which allows reliving of their personal experience according to the contents that are presented in the their natural social environment. This research was aimed at evaluating the efficiency of speech treatment based on the systemic multimodal approach to the work with autistic children. The study sample consisted of 34 children, aged from 8 to 16 years, diagnosed to have different autistic disorders, whose results showed a moderate and severe clinical picture of autism on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. The applied instruments for the evaluation of ability were the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and Ganzberg II test. The study subjects were divided into two groups according to the type of treatment: children who were covered by the continuing treatment and systemic multimodal approach in the treatment, and children who were covered by classical speech treatment. It is shown that the systemic multimodal approach in teaching autistic children affects the stimulation of communication, socialization, self-service and work as well as that the progress achieved in these areas of functioning was retainable after long time, too. By applying the systemic multimodal approach when dealing with autistic children and by comparing their achievements on tests applied before, during and after the application of this mode, it has been concluded that certain improvement has been achieved in the functionality within the diagnosed category. The results point to a possible direction in the creation of new methods, plans and programs in dealing with autistic children based on empirical and interactive learning.

  4. Risk Factors in Preschool Children for Predicting Asthma During the Preschool Age and the Early School Age: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yixia; Chen, Zhimin; Liu, Enmei; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Deyu; Hong, Jianguo

    2017-11-18

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of asthma among children asthma during the preschool age and early school age (≤ 10 years of age). MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 30, 2017. Prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies were included. Studies had to have evaluated risk factors or a predictive model for developing asthma in children ≤ 6 years of age or persistent asthma in early school age. A total of 17 studies were included in the analysis. Factors associated with developing asthma in children ≤ 10 years of age (both pre-school and early school age) included male gender (pooled OR = 1.70, P asthma (pooled OR = 2.20, P asthma in early school age (pooled OR = 1.51, P = 0.030 and pooled OR = 2.59, P asthma predictive models (e.g., API, PIAMA, PAPS) had relatively low sensitivity (range, 21% to 71.4%) but high specificity (range, 69% to 98%). The study found that male gender, exposure to smoke, atopic dermatitis, family history of asthma, history of wheezing, and serum IgE level ≥ 60 kU/l or having specific IgE were significantly associated with developing asthma by either preschool or early school age. Asthma predictive models can be developed by those risk factors.

  5. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  6. Modular playware as a playful diagnosis tool for autistic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    children. Using artificial neural networks for automatic classification of the individual construction practices, we may compare this classification with the diagnosis of the children, and possible obtain a supplementary diagnosis tool which is based on the autistic children's free play with the modular...

  7. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  8. Effect of Time-Dependent Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants During Pregnancy on Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Development in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupattelli, Angela; Wood, Mollie; Ystrom, Eivind; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Handal, Marte; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on children's behavioral, emotional, and social development by age 5 years, and over time since age 1.5 years. The prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We included women who reported depressive/anxiety disorders before and/or during pregnancy. Children born to women who used SSRIs in early (weeks 0-16), mid- (weeks 17-28), or late (> week 29) pregnancy were compared to those who were unexposed. Children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors (Child Behavior Checklist) and temperament traits (Emotionality, Activity and Shyness Temperament Questionnaire) were measured at 1.5, 3, and 5 years. Mean scores were calculated and standardized. General linear marginal structural models were fitted to account for time-varying exposure and confounders, and censoring; 3-level growth-curve models were used. A total of 8,359 mother-child dyads were included, and 4,128 children had complete outcome data at age 5 years. Children exposed to SSRIs in late pregnancy had an increased risk of anxious/depressed behaviors by age 5 years compared with unexposed children (adjusted β = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.96). Such risk was not evident for earlier timings of exposure. There was no evidence for a substantial prenatal SSRI effect on externalizing, social, and emotional problems. These findings suggest no substantial increased risk for externalizing, emotional, or social problems in preschool-aged children following prenatal SSRI exposure. Although the role of chance and potential unmeasured confounding cannot be ruled out, late-pregnancy SSRI exposure was associated with greater anxious/depressed behaviors in the offspring. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants of Stunting, Wasting, and Anemia in Guinean Preschool-Age Children: An Analysis of DHS Data From 1999, 2005, and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Wirth, James P; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Beaulière, Jean Max; Mamady, Daffe; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Rohner, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    Wasting, stunting, and anemia are persistent and important forms of malnutrition in preschool-age children in the less developed world, in particular the Republic of Guinea, which was the site of a large outbreak of Ebola virus disease in 2014 to 2015. We analyzed data from 3 Demographic and Health Surveys done in Guinea in 1999, 2005, and 2012 to identify possible determinants of wasting, stunting, and anemia. All analyses, both bivariate and multivariate, were carried out separately for each of 3 age groups: less than 6 months, 6 to 23 months, and 24 to 59 months. Variables found statistically significantly associated with stunting, wasting, or anemia in bivariate analysis were placed in an age-specific logistic regression model for that outcome. Overall, anthropometric indices were available for 9228 children and hemoglobin concentrations were available for 5681 children. Logistic regression found relatively few variables associated with nutrition outcomes in children younger than 6 months. More variables were associated with nutrition outcomes in children aged 6 to 23 months. Such variables measured a wide variety of conditions, including estimated birth size, child health and nutritional status, child caring practices, mother's nutritional and health status, and household water source and sanitation. A similarly broad range of variables was statistically significantly associated with one or more nutrition outcomes in children aged 24 to 59 months. Few of the standard infant and young child feeding indicators were associated with any nutrition outcome. Improvement in the nutritional status of young children in Guinea may require a broad range of nutrition and health interventions.

  10. Trends in state/territorial obesity prevalence by race/ethnicity among U.S. low-income, preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Grummer-Strawn, L M; McGuire, L C; Park, S; Blanck, H M

    2016-10-01

    Understanding state/territorial trends in obesity by race/ethnicity helps focus resources on populations at risk. This study aimed to examine trends in obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children from 2008 through 2011 in U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity. We used measured weight and height records of 11.1 million children aged 2-4 years who participated in federally funded health and nutrition programmes in 40 states, the District of Columbia and two U.S. territories. We used logistic regression to examine obesity prevalence trends, controlling for age and sex. From 2008 through 2011, the aggregated obesity prevalence declined among all racial/ethnic groups (decreased by 0.4-0.9%) except American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs); the largest decrease was among Asians/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs). Declines were significant among non-Hispanic whites in 14 states, non-Hispanic blacks in seven states/territories, Hispanics in 13 states, A/PIs in five states and AI/ANs in one state. Increases were significant among non-Hispanic whites in four states, non-Hispanic blacks in three states, Hispanics in two states and A/PIs in one state. The majority of the states/territories had no change in obesity prevalence. Our findings indicate slight reductions in obesity prevalence and variations in obesity trends, but disparities exist for some states and racial/ethnic groups. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. A Direct Comparison of Self-Injurious and Stereotyped Motor Behavior Between Preschool-Aged Children With and Without Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, John; Spofford, Lisa; Dimian, Adele; Tervo, Raymond; MacLean, William E; Symons, Frank J

    2016-06-01

    To compare the prevalence of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and stereotyped motor behavior (STY) of preschool-aged children with developmental delays (DD group) and their peers without developmental delays (TD group) using a standardized caregiver report scale. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised was completed by caregivers of children with developmental delays and their peers without developmental delays. Frequency of occurrence and severity ratings for SIB and STY were compared between groups. SIB and STY were reported more often and at a greater level of severity in the DD group. Older chronological age was associated with more severe STY in the DD group but not the TD group. Gender was not related to STY or SIB for either group. Differences in STY and SIB were evident between preschoolers with and without DD. Findings are discussed from developmental and behavioral psychology perspectives regarding the expression of repetitive behavior in developmentally at-risk pediatric populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Intestinal Protozoan Infections in Preschool-Aged Children in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiemjoy, Kristen; Gebresillasie, Sintayehu; Stoller, Nicole E; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Tadesse, Zerihun; Chanyalew, Melsew; Aragie, Solomon; Callahan, Kelly; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-04-01

    AbstractIntestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method. A total of 212 samples were collected from 255 randomly selected children. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , and hookworm were 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6-15.1), 1.4% (95% CI = 0-3.0), and 0% (95% CI = 0-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of the pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica / dispar were 10.4% (95% CI = 6.2-14.6) and 3.3% (95% CI = 0.09-5.7), respectively. Children with A. lumbricoides infections had lower height-for-age z -scores compared with those without, but were not more likely to have stunting. Compared with those without G. lamblia , children with G. lamblia infections had lower weight-for-age and weight-for-height z -scores and were more than five times as likely to meet the z -score definition for wasting (prevalence ratio = 5.42, 95% CI = 2.97-9.89). This article adds to a growing body of research on child growth and intestinal parasitic infections and has implications for their treatment and prevention in preschool-aged children.

  13. Association between Autistic Traits in Preschool Children and Later Emotional/Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Aya; Stickley, Andrew; Haraguchi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Kamio, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Although children with a greater number of autistic traits are likely to have other mental health problems, research on the association between earlier autistic traits in preschool children and later emotional/behavioral outcomes is scarce. Using data from 189 Japanese community-based children, this study examined whether autistic traits at age 5…

  14. Maternal BMI as a predictor of methylation of obesity-related genes in saliva samples from preschool-age Hispanic children at-risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelsner, Kathryn Tully; Guo, Yan; To, Sophie Bao-Chieu; Non, Amy L; Barkin, Shari L

    2017-01-09

    The study of epigenetic processes and mechanisms present a dynamic approach to assess complex individual variation in obesity susceptibility. However, few studies have examined epigenetic patterns in preschool-age children at-risk for obesity despite the relevance of this developmental stage to trajectories of weight gain. We hypothesized that salivary DNA methylation patterns of key obesogenic genes in Hispanic children would 1) correlate with maternal BMI and 2) allow for identification of pathways associated with children at-risk for obesity. Genome-wide DNA methylation was conducted on 92 saliva samples collected from Hispanic preschool children using the Infinium Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA), which interrogates >484,000 CpG sites associated with ~24,000 genes. The analysis was limited to 936 genes that have been associated with obesity in a prior GWAS Study. Child DNA methylation at 17 CpG sites was found to be significantly associated with maternal BMI, with increased methylation at 12 CpG sites and decreased methylation at 5 CpG sites. Pathway analysis revealed methylation at these sites related to homocysteine and methionine degradation as well as cysteine biosynthesis and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, eight of the 17 CpG sites reside in genes (FSTL1, SORCS2, NRF1, DLC1, PPARGC1B, CHN2, NXPH1) that have prior known associations with obesity, diabetes, and the insulin pathway. Our study confirms that saliva is a practical human tissue to obtain in community settings and in pediatric populations. These salivary findings indicate potential epigenetic differences in Hispanic preschool children at risk for pediatric obesity. Identifying early biomarkers and understanding pathways that are epigenetically regulated during this critical stage of child development may present an opportunity for prevention or early intervention for addressing childhood obesity. The clinical trial protocol is available at Clinical

  15. A Developmental Examination of the Psychometric Properties and Predictive Utility of a Revised Psychological Self-Concept Measure for Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ, Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-aged children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower-order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor Analysis revealed three latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., Sociability, Control, and Assurance) from the lower-order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for Sociability and Assurance, not for Control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the three latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale – Short Form (SCBE-SF, LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in Sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in Control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in Assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. PMID:26098231

  16. A developmental examination of the psychometric properties and predictive utility of a revised psychological self-concept measure for preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2016-02-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-age children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed 3 latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., sociability, control, and assurance) from the lower order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for sociability and assurance, not for control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the 3 latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale-Short Form (SCBE-SF; LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Smartphone App for Families With Preschool-Aged Children in a Public Nutrition Program: Prototype Development and Beta-Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela; Emerson, Janice S; Quirk, Meghan E; Canedo, Juan R; Jones, Jessica L; Vylegzhanina, Violetta; Schmidt, Douglas C; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Beech, Bettina M; Briley, Chiquita; Harris, Calvin; Husaini, Baqar A

    2017-08-02

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in the United States provides free supplemental food and nutrition education to low-income mothers and children under age 5 years. Childhood obesity prevalence is higher among preschool children in the WIC program compared to other children, and WIC improves dietary quality among low-income children. The Children Eating Well (CHEW) smartphone app was developed in English and Spanish for WIC-participating families with preschool-aged children as a home-based intervention to reinforce WIC nutrition education and help prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes the development and beta-testing of the CHEW smartphone app. The objective of beta-testing was to test the CHEW app prototype with target users, focusing on usage, usability, and perceived barriers and benefits of the app. The goals of the CHEW app were to make the WIC shopping experience easier, maximize WIC benefit redemption, and improve parent snack feeding practices. The CHEW app prototype consisted of WIC Shopping Tools, including a barcode scanner and calculator tools for the cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables, and nutrition education focused on healthy snacks and beverages, including a Yummy Snack Gallery and Healthy Snacking Tips. Mothers of 63 black and Hispanic WIC-participating children ages 2 to 4 years tested the CHEW app prototype for 3 months and completed follow-up interviews. Study participants testing the app for 3 months used the app on average once a week for approximately 4 and a half minutes per session, although substantial variation was observed. Usage of specific features averaged at 1 to 2 times per month for shopping-related activities and 2 to 4 times per month for the snack gallery. Mothers classified as users rated the app's WIC Shopping Tools relatively high on usability and benefits, although variation in scores and qualitative feedback highlighted several barriers that

  18. A Smartphone App for Families With Preschool-Aged Children in a Public Nutrition Program: Prototype Development and Beta-Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Janice S; Quirk, Meghan E; Canedo, Juan R; Jones, Jessica L; Vylegzhanina, Violetta; Schmidt, Douglas C; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Beech, Bettina M; Briley, Chiquita; Harris, Calvin; Husaini, Baqar A

    2017-01-01

    Background The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in the United States provides free supplemental food and nutrition education to low-income mothers and children under age 5 years. Childhood obesity prevalence is higher among preschool children in the WIC program compared to other children, and WIC improves dietary quality among low-income children. The Children Eating Well (CHEW) smartphone app was developed in English and Spanish for WIC-participating families with preschool-aged children as a home-based intervention to reinforce WIC nutrition education and help prevent childhood obesity. Objective This paper describes the development and beta-testing of the CHEW smartphone app. The objective of beta-testing was to test the CHEW app prototype with target users, focusing on usage, usability, and perceived barriers and benefits of the app. Methods The goals of the CHEW app were to make the WIC shopping experience easier, maximize WIC benefit redemption, and improve parent snack feeding practices. The CHEW app prototype consisted of WIC Shopping Tools, including a barcode scanner and calculator tools for the cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables, and nutrition education focused on healthy snacks and beverages, including a Yummy Snack Gallery and Healthy Snacking Tips. Mothers of 63 black and Hispanic WIC-participating children ages 2 to 4 years tested the CHEW app prototype for 3 months and completed follow-up interviews. Results Study participants testing the app for 3 months used the app on average once a week for approximately 4 and a half minutes per session, although substantial variation was observed. Usage of specific features averaged at 1 to 2 times per month for shopping-related activities and 2 to 4 times per month for the snack gallery. Mothers classified as users rated the app’s WIC Shopping Tools relatively high on usability and benefits, although variation in scores and qualitative

  19. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases and Schistosomiasis in Preschool Age Children in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga South District, Kirinyaga County, and Their Potential Effect on Physical Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH, schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information. Both intestinal helminth and protozoan infections were detected, and, among the soil-transmitted helminth parasites, there were Ascaris lumbricoides (prevalence, 3%, Ancylostoma duodenale (<1%, and Trichuris trichiura (<1%. Other intestinal helminths were Hymenolepis nana (prevalence, 3.6% and Enterobius vermicularis (<1%. Schistosoma mansoni occurred at a prevalence of 5.5%. Interestingly, the protozoan, Giardia lamblia (prevalence, 14.7%, was the most common among the PSAC. Other protozoans were Entamoeba coli (3.9% and Entamoeba histolytica (<1. Anthropometric indices showed evidence of malnutrition. Intestinal parasites were associated with hand washing behavior, family size, water purification, and home location. These findings suggest that G. lamblia infection and malnutrition may be significant causes of ill health among the PSAC in Mwea, and, therefore, an intervention plan is needed.

  20. Mental Health Aspects of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokauskas, N.; Gallagher, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported variable and at times opposite findings on comorbid psychiatric problems in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Aims: This study aimed to examine patterns of comorbid psychiatric problems in children with ASD and their parents compared with IQ matched controls and their parents. Methods:…

  1. Absence of dry season Plasmodium parasitaemia, but high rates of reported acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea in preschool-aged children in Kaédi, southern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touray, Sunkaru; Bâ, Hampâté; Bâ, Ousmane; Koïta, Mohamedou; Salem, Cheikh B Ould Ahmed; Keïta, Moussa; Traoré, Doulo; Sy, Ibrahima; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2012-09-07

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Senegal River Gorgol valley, southern Mauritania, requires particular attention in the face of ongoing and predicted environmental and climate changes. While "malaria cases" are reported in health facilities throughout the year, past and current climatic and ecological conditions do not favour transmission in the dry season (lack of rainfall and very high temperatures). Moreover, entomological investigations in neighbouring regions point to an absence of malaria transmission in mosquito vectors in the dry season. Because the clinical signs of malaria are non-specific and overlap with those of other diseases (e.g. acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea), new research is needed to better understand malaria transmission patterns in this region to improve adaptive, preventive and curative measures. We conducted a multipurpose cross-sectional survey in the city of Kaédi in April 2011 (dry season), assessing three major disease patterns, including malaria. Plasmodium spp. parasite rates were tested among children aged 6-59 months who were recruited from a random selection of households using a rapid diagnostic test and microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea were the two other diseases investigated, administering a parental questionnaire to determine the reported prevalence among participating children. No Plasmodium infection was found in any of the 371 surveyed preschool-aged children using two different diagnostic methods. Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea were reported in 43.4% and 35.0% of the participants, respectively. About two thirds of the children with acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea required medical follow-up by a health worker. Malaria was absent in the present dry season survey in the capital of the Gorgol valley of Mauritania, while acute respiratory infections and diarrhea were highly prevalent. Surveys should be repeated

  2. Ferritin and iron levels in children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergüner, Sabri; Keleşoğlu, Fatih Mehmet; Tanıdır, Cansaran; Cöpür, Mazlum

    2012-01-01

    Iron has an important role on cognitive, behavioral, and motor development. High prevalence of iron deficiency has been reported in autism. The aim of this study was to investigate iron status in a group of children with autistic disorder. The sample was composed of 116 children between 3 and 16 years with a diagnosis of autistic disorder according to DSM-IV criteria. Serum ferritin, iron, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and red cell distribution width values were measured. We found that 24.1% of subjects had iron deficiency, and 15.5% had anemia. There was a significant positive correlation between age and ferritin and hematological measures. Results of this study confirmed that iron deficiency and anemia are common in children with autistic disorder. These findings suggest that ferritin levels should be measured in subjects with autism as a part of routine investigation.

  3. FEATURES OF MEMORY IN CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE WITH CONSEQUENCES OF PERINATAL LESIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Krivonogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of memory was investigated in 524 children, aged 4 to 7; with remote consequences of perinatal damage of the central nervous system (CNS. A weak memory ability was detected in 42% of children with dysfunctions of the general and fine motility and in 59% of children with impaired speech. Severe gestosis, anemia in pregnancy (stage II and a delayed intrauterine fetal development were found to have a negative influence on memory shaping process.

  4. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child.

  5. Shyness, Child-Teacher Relationships, and Socio-Emotional Adjustment in a Sample of Italian Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead teachers…

  6. The Impact of Animated Books on the Vocabulary and Language Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Two School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broemmel, Amy D.; Moran, Mary Jane; Wooten, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of electronic media over the past two decades, young children have been found to have increased exposure to video games, computer-based activities, and electronic books (e-books). This study explores how exposure to animated ebooks impacts young children's literacy development. A stratified convenience sample (n = 24) was…

  7. Cumulative risk exposure moderates the association between parasympathetic reactivity and inhibitory control in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Roos, Leslie E; Farrar, Jessica D; Skowron, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-01

    A child's cumulative risk for early exposure to stress has been linked to alterations of self-regulation outcomes, including neurobiological correlates of inhibitory control (IC). We examined whether children's ability to engage the parasympathetic nervous system impacts how risk affects IC. Children ages 3-5 years completed two laboratory measures of IC while respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured, indexing parasympathetic activity. Children with greater risk demonstrated lower IC; risk also moderated associations between RSA reactivity and IC. For children with less risk, greater RSA withdrawal during IC tasks was associated with better IC. In contrast, greater risk was associated with poor IC, regardless of RSA withdrawal. Effects of risk were more pronounced for cumulative than individual measures. Results suggest that cumulative risk exposure disrupts connectivity between physiological and behavioral components of self-regulation in early childhood. Parasympathetic withdrawal to cognitive tasks may be less relevant for performance in developmental samples experiencing greater life stress. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hyperlexia III: separating 'autistic-like' behaviors from autistic disorder; assessing children who read early or speak late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffert, Darold A

    2011-12-01

    Three conditions -- Hyperlexia (children who read early), Einstein syndrome (children who speak late), and "Blindisms" (in children with impaired vision) -- can present with "autistic-like" symptoms, traits, and behaviors that need to be differentiated from autistic disorder. Careful attention to that critical difference has important epidemiologic, etiologic, treatment, and outcome implications. This paper describes these conditions, makes suggestions for proper identification that can prevent unnecessary worry and distress for parents and other caregivers, and suggests appropriate management.

  9. The Effects of Echolalia on Acquisition and Generalization of Receptive Labeling in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, Marjorie H.

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments, with about five autistic children (two to 14 years old) in each experiment, assessed the effects of autistic immediate echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling tasks. These results indicated that echolalia faciliated generalization for echolalic autistic children but not for functionally mute autistic…

  10. ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age: prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bunt, G; Liakopoulos, A; Mevius, D J; Geurts, Y; Fluit, A C; Bonten, M J M; Mughini-Gras, L; van Pelt, W

    2017-02-01

    ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in preschool children and their parents. From April 2013 to January 2015, each month 2000 preschool children were randomly selected from Dutch population registries. The parents were invited to complete an epidemiological questionnaire and to obtain and send a faecal sample from the selected child and from one parent. Samples were tested for ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for ESBL/AmpC carriage in children and parents, and findings were internally validated by bootstrapping. In total, 1016 families were included and ESBL/AmpC prevalence was 4.0% (95% CI 3.2%-5.0%); 3.5% (95% CI 2.5%-4.8%) in children and 4.5% (95% CI 3.4%-6.0%) in parents. Attending a daycare centre (DCC) was the only significant risk factor for children (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.3). For parents, the only significant risk factor was having one or more children attending DCCs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). For parents of ESBL/AmpC-positive children the OR for ESBL/AmpC carriage was 19.7 (95% CI 9.2-42.4). Co-carriage of specific ESBL/AmpC genotypes in child and parent occurred more often than expected by chance (14.6% versus 1.1%, P < 0.001). In this study, intestinal carriage with ESBL/AmpCs was detected in ∼4% of households with preschool children. DCC attendance was a risk factor in both children and parents and co-carriage of specific genotypes frequently occurred in child-parent pairs. These findings suggest household transmission or/and family-specific exposure to common sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  11. Assessing musical skills in autistic children who are not savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela

    2009-05-27

    Descriptions of autistic musical savants suggest that they possess extraordinary skills within the domain. However, until recently little was known about the musical skills and potential of individuals with autism who are not savants. The results from these more recent studies investigating music perception, cognition and learning in musically untrained children with autism have revealed a pattern of abilities that are either enhanced or spared. For example, increased sensitivity to musical pitch and timbre is frequently observed, and studies investigating perception of musical structure and emotions have consistently failed to reveal deficits in autism. While the phenomenon of the savant syndrome is of considerable theoretical interest, it may have led to an under-consideration of the potential talents and skills of that vast majority of autistic individuals, who do not meet savant criteria. Data from empirical studies show that many autistic children possess musical potential that can and should be developed.

  12. Amplitude by peak interaction but no evidence of auditory mismatch response deficits to frequency change in preschool age children with FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabella, Danielle M; Flynn, Lucinda; Peters, Amanda; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa; Stephen, Julia M

    2018-05-24

    Prior studies indicate that the auditory mismatch response is sensitive to early alterations in brain development in multiple developmental disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to impact early auditory processing. The current study hypothesized alterations in the mismatch response in young children with FASD. Participants in this study were 9 children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and 17 control children (Control) aged 3 to 6 years. Participants underwent MEG and structural MRI scans separately. We compared groups on neurophysiological Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses to auditory stimuli measured using the auditory oddball paradigm. Frequent (1000 Hz) and rare (1200Hz) tones were presented at 72 dB. There was no significant group difference in MMN response latency or amplitude represented by the peak located ~200 ms after stimulus presentation in the difference timecourse between frequent and infrequent tones. Examining the timecourses to the frequent and infrequent tones separately, RM-ANOVA with condition (frequent vs. rare), peak (N100m and N200m), and hemisphere as within-subject factors and diagnosis and sex as the between-subject factors showed a significant interaction of peak by diagnosis (p = 0.001), with a pattern of decreased amplitude from N100m to N200m in Control children and the opposite pattern in children with FASD. However, no significant difference was found with the simple effects comparisons. No group differences were found in the response latencies of the rare auditory evoked fields (AEFs). The results indicate that there was no detectable effect of alcohol exposure on the amplitude or latency of the MMNm response to simple tones modulated by frequency change in preschool-age children with FASD. However, while discrimination abilities to simple tones may be intact, early auditory sensory processing revealed by the interaction between N100m and N200m amplitude indicates that auditory sensory processing may be altered in

  13. Food Insecurity and Violence in the Home: Investigating Exposure to Violence and Victimization Among Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Lynch, Kellie R; Helton, Jesse J; Vaughn, Michael G

    2018-03-01

    Children experiencing or witnessing violence in the home are at risk of a number of cognitive, social, and behavioral challenges as they age. A handful of recent studies have suggested that food insecurity may be one factor associated with violence against children in the home. The present study uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to explore the link between household food insecurity during the first three waves of data collection (i.e., the first few years of life) and witnessing or being the victim of violence in the home among very young children (~ age 4). The results suggest that the predicted probability of early childhood exposure to violence and/or victimization in the home is nearly 6 times more likely in persistently food-insecure households (i.e., households that are food insecure across all three waves) relative to food secure households. Limitations and avenues for future research are noted.

  14. Incremental Net Benefit of Early Intervention for Preschool-Aged Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L; Dickerson, John F; Saldana, Lisa; Fisher, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Of 1 million cases of child maltreatment identified every year in the United States, one-fifth result in foster care. Many of these children suffer from significant emotional and behavioral conditions. Decision-makers must allocate highly constrained budgets to serve these children. Recent evidence suggests that Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers can reduce negative outcomes for these children, but the relative benefits and costs of the program have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess net benefit, over 24 months, of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers compared to regular foster care. Data were from a randomized controlled trial of 117 young children entering a new foster placement. A subsample exhibited placement instability (n = 52). Intervention services including parent training, lasted 9-12 months. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers significantly increased permanent placements for the placement instability sample. Average total cost for the new intervention sample was significantly less than for regular foster care (full sample: $27,204 vs. $30,090; P = .004; placement instability sample: $29,595 vs. $36,061; P = .045). Incremental average net benefit was positive at all levels of willingness to pay of zero or greater, indicating that the value of benefits exceeded costs. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers has significant benefit for preschool children in foster care with emotional and behavioral disorders compared to regular foster care services. At even modest levels of willingness to pay, benefits exceed costs indicating a strong likeliness that this program is an efficient choice for improving outcomes for young children with emotional and behavioral disorders in foster care.

  15. The frequency of outdoor play for preschool age children cared for at home-based child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Zhou, Chuan; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Given that more than 34% of U.S. children are cared for in home-based child care settings and outdoor play is associated with physical activity and other health benefits, we sought to characterize the outdoor play frequency of preschoolers cared for at home-based child care settings and factors associated with outdoor play. Cross-sectional study of 1900 preschoolers (representing approximately 862,800 children) cared for in home-based child care settings (including relative and nonrelative care) using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Only 50% of home-based child care providers reported taking the child outside to walk or play at least once/day. More than one-third of all children did not go outside to play daily with either their parent(s) or home-based child care provider. There were increased odds of going outside daily for children cared for by nonrelatives in the child's home compared with care from a relative. Children with ≥3 regular playmates had greater odds of being taken outdoors by either the parents or child care provider. We did not find statistically significant associations between other child level (age, sex, screen-time), family level (highest education in household, mother's race, employment, exercise frequency), and child care level (hours in care, provider's educational attainment, perception of neighborhood safety) factors and frequency of outdoor play. At a national level, the frequency of outdoor play for preschoolers cared for in home-based child care settings is suboptimal. Further study and efforts to increase outdoor playtime for children in home-based child care settings are needed. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors Predisposing to Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in Children of Pre-School Age in the City of Zagreb, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lulić-Dukić, O.; Jurić, H.; Dukić, W.; Glavina, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a c...

  17. Teaching to Play Performing a Main Role -- Effective Method of Pretend Play Facilitation in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrova, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of teacher's direct and indirect intervention into pretend play. Three hundred sixty-eight kindergarten children and 92 qualified kindergarten teachers were involved in the study. In the control group, a teacher indirectly initiated a play, creating a playing corner adjusted to the theme of the pretend play and during…

  18. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Low-Income Parents' Restriction of Screen Time among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents ("N" = 147) of…

  19. Effects of a Social Story Intervention with a Modified Perspective Sentence on Preschool-Age Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasch, Delilah Jean

    2013-01-01

    Young children with autism often experience delays in social skills and social competence. These delays result in poor relationships and decreased social interactions and engagement, and eventually, social isolation and withdrawal. Social skills deficits are also correlated to behavioral and emotional difficulties. Addressing these delays is…

  20. Functioning of very preterm born children at preschool age: Follow-up of an early intervention programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, G.J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents the effects of the multicentre RCT on the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) in children born preterm, with a gestation of less than 32 weeks and/or a birth weight below 1500 grams (VLBW), at the age of school entry. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  1. Variables Involved in Personal, Social and School Adjustment in a Sample of Preschool-Aged Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Parra, Antonio; Lopez-Rubio, Sonia; Carles, Rosario; Mata, Sara; Vives, Maria del Carmen; Navarro, Elena; Marquez, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The continuing incorporation of immigrant populations into the Spanish educational system poses an important challenge in that all participants must cooperate toward creating the best possible adaptation process at the academic level as well as on the personal and social levels. A number of different factors appear to influence children's…

  2. The Math Gap: a description of the mathematics performance of preschool-aged deaf/hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Over decades and across grade levels, deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) student performance in mathematics has shown a gap in achievement. It is unclear, however, exactly when this gap begins to emerge and in what areas. This study describes preschool d/hh children's knowledge of early mathematics concepts. Both standardized and nonstandardized measures were used to assess understanding in number, geometry, measurement, problem solving, and patterns, reasoning and algebra. Results present strong evidence that d/hh students' difficulty in mathematics may begin prior to the start of formal schooling. Findings also show areas of strength (geometry) and weakness (problem solving and measurement) for these children. Evidence of poor foundational performance may relate to later academic achievement.

  3. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skröder, Helena [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hawkesworth, Sophie [Medical Research Council (MRC), International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. (United Kingdom); Kippler, Maria [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Arifeen, Shams [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Wagatsuma, Yukiko [Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. (Japan); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  4. Parent Perceptions of Mobile Device Use Among Preschool-Aged Children in Rural Head Start Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Morgan; Johnson, Susan L; Benz, Cristen; Thompson, Darcy A; Chamberlin, Barbara; Clark, Lauren; Bellows, Laura L

    2018-01-01

    To describe child use and parents' beliefs and comfort with young children's use of mobile devices in low-income, rural communities. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The survey, which consisted of 18 multiple-part questions, was distributed to families at 5 Head Start/preschool centers in Colorado. In total, 192 surveys were returned (28.5% response rate). Most children (92%) used a smartphone or tablet at some frequency and most parents (90%) had downloaded apps specifically for their child. Education and ethnicity were related to parents' technology beliefs. Parent comfort with technology was positively associated with greater child use of technology (P Mobile device use was relatively high in this sample. Mobile devices appear to be a feasible platform to offer nutrition and physical activity education for this audience. Ensuring parent comfort with technology and apps will be important. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in children of pre-school age in the city of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulić-Dukić, O; Jurić, H; Dukić, W; Glavina, D

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a classic case-control study. The mean value of dmfs index among the cases amounted to 8.6, in comparison to 5.2 in the control group (pteeth-brushing habit after first 24 months did (p importance of early introduction of teeth-brushing and giving up the nightly consumption of sweet beverages in prevention of ECC.

  6. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  7. Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton Susan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating, child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food, and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI. Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term.

  8. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristen L; Brann, Lynn S

    2017-01-01

    Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants ( n = 20) were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1) childcare providers perceptions of children's fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider's perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.

  9. Healthy Habits, Happy Homes: randomized trial to improve household routines for obesity prevention among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; McDonald, Julia; O'Brien, Ashley; Sherry, Bettylou; Bottino, Clement J; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-11-01

    Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities exist across risk factors for childhood obesity. To examine the effectiveness of a home-based intervention to improve household routines known to be associated with childhood obesity among a sample of low-income, racial/ethnic minority families with young children. Randomized trial. The intervention was delivered in the families' homes. The study involved 121 families with children aged 2 to 5 years who had a television (TV) in the room where he or she slept; 111 (92%) had 6-month outcome data (55 intervention and 56 control). The mean (SD) age of the children was 4.0 (1.1) years; 45% were overweight/obese. Fifty-two percent of the children were Hispanic, 34% were black, and 14% were white/other. Nearly 60% of the families had household incomes of $20,000 or less. The 6-month intervention promoted 4 household routines, family meals, adequate sleep, limiting TV time, and removing the TV from the child's bedroom, using (1) motivational coaching at home and by phone, (2) mailed educational materials, and (3) text messages. Control subjects were mailed materials focused on child development. Change in parent report of frequency of family meals (times/wk), child sleep duration (hours/d), child weekday and weekend day TV viewing (hours/d), and the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept from baseline to 6 months. A secondary outcome was change in age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Compared with control subjects, intervention participants had increased sleep duration (0.75 hours/d; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.44; P = .03), greater decreases in TV viewing on weekend days (-1.06 hours/d; 95% CI, -1.97 to -0.15; P = .02), and decreased body mass index (-0.40; 95% CI, -0.79 to 0.00; P = .05). No significant intervention effect was found for the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept or family meal frequency. Our results suggest that promoting

  10. Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, M.E.J.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Gerrits, B.J.L.; Congedo, M.; Schie, H.T. van

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children’s heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation

  11. Using Aberrant Behaviors as Reinforcers for Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, Marjorie H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the efficacy of various reinforcers to increase correct task responding in a total of 10 autistic children, aged 6-9. Of the reinforcers used (stereotypy, delayed echolalia, perseverative behavior, and food), task performance was highest with opportunities to engage in aberrant behaviors, and lowest with edible…

  12. Analysis of Functions of Delayed Echolalia in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizant, Barry M.; Rydell, Patrick J.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen functional categories of delayed echolalia in three autistic children (4-14 years old) were derived from videotape analyses. Individual differences in functional usage were apparent across Ss. Delayed echolalia varied along the dimensions of interactiveness, comprehension of the utterance produced, and relevance to linguistic or…

  13. Impaired Antioxidant Status and Reduced Energy Metabolism in Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, M. M.; Braidy, N.; Waly, M. I.; Al-Farsi, Y. M.; Al-Sharbati, M.; Subash, S.; Amanat, A.; Al-Shaffaee, M. A.; Guillemin, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress induced mechanisms are believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we recruited 19 Omani autistic children with age-matched controls to analyze their plasma and serum redox status and the levels of ATP, NAD[superscript +] and NADH using well established…

  14. Hair mercury measurement in Egyptian autistic children | El-baz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    difficulties, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, which comprise the three DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of autism. The aim of this work was to measure the concentration of total mercury trace elements in the hair of some Egyptian autistic children and to correlate these levels with severity of the disease. Methods: ...

  15. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in "Assessment of autism spectrum disorders." Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in "J Autism Dev Disord" 34(1):19-27, 2004).…

  16. Mimicking expressiveness of movements by autistic children in game play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteroo, D.; Shirzad, A.; Serras Pereira, M.; Zwinderman, M.J.; Duy, L.; Barakova, E.I.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)have marked impairments in social interaction. Imitation is a basic social interaction behavior, and mimicking as an element of imitation can be a diagnostic marker for autism and thus a skill that can be targeted by behavioral training. In a comparative

  17. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants (n=20 were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1 childcare providers perceptions of children’s fruit and vegetable consumption and (2 components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider’s perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.

  18. Anthropometric assessment of a Middle Eastern group of autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa A Meguid; Wafaa A Kandeel; Khaled E Wakeel; Aly A El-Nofely

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth abnormalities are uniquely associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, the extent to which growth abnormalities are present has hardly been investigated. The current study aims to compare the differences in anthropometric parameters in a group of autistic Egyptian children and the healthy normal population. Methods: We recruited 100 children with ASD from the Outpatient Clinic for "Autistic Children" at the Medical Research Hospital of Excellence, National Research Centre in Cairo, Egypt. They were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Of these children at age of 3-10 years, 71 were males and 29 females. Eight anthropometric parameters were assessed in view of data of the healthy Egyptians of pertinent sex and age. Results: Weight and body mass index increased because of a signifi cant increase in subcutaneous fat thickness. This tendency with a probable decrease in muscle mass was more evident in male or in older children, likely resulting from sedentary life style and food selectivity. Conclusions: The Z head circumference score and its variance signifi cantly increased especially in males or older children, suggesting the relative overgrowth of the brain in a substantial percentage of Egyptian children with autism. We concluded that increased fat composition in Egyptian autistic children with decreased muscle mass necessitates tailoring a specially designed food supplementation program to ameliorate the severity of autism symptoms.

  19. Effects of Yoga on Attention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity in Preschool-Aged Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samantha C L; Harvey, Danielle J; Shields, Rebecca H; Shields, Grant S; Rashedi, Roxanne N; Tancredi, Daniel J; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hansen, Robin L; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2018-04-01

    Behavioral therapies are first-line for preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies support yoga for school-aged children with ADHD; this study evaluated yoga in preschoolers on parent- and teacher-rated attention/challenging behaviors, attentional control (Kinder Test of Attentional Performance [KiTAP]), and heart rate variability (HRV). This randomized waitlist-controlled trial tested a 6-week yoga intervention in preschoolers with ≥4 ADHD symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Preschool Version. Group 1 (n = 12) practiced yoga first; Group 2 (n = 11) practiced yoga second. We collected data at 4 time points: baseline, T1 (6 weeks), T2 (12 weeks), and follow-up (3 months after T2). At baseline, there were no significant differences between groups. At T1, Group 1 had faster reaction times on the KiTAP go/no-go task (p = 0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI], -371.1 to -59.1, d = -1.7), fewer distractibility errors of omission (p = 0.009, 95% CI, -14.2 to -2.3, d = -1.5), and more commission errors (p = 0.02, 95% CI, 1.4-14.8, d = 1.3) than Group 2. Children in Group 1 with more severe symptoms at baseline showed improvement at T1 versus control on parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire hyperactivity inattention (β = -2.1, p = 0.04, 95% CI, -4.0 to -0.1) and inattention on the ADHD Rating Scale (β = -4.4, p = 0.02, 95% CI, -7.9 to -0.9). HRV measures did not differ between groups. Yoga was associated with modest improvements on an objective measure of attention (KiTAP) and selective improvements on parent ratings.

  20. Absence of dry season Plasmodium parasitaemia, but high rates of reported acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea in preschool-aged children in Kaédi, southern Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touray Sunkaru

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of malaria in the Senegal River Gorgol valley, southern Mauritania, requires particular attention in the face of ongoing and predicted environmental and climate changes. While “malaria cases” are reported in health facilities throughout the year, past and current climatic and ecological conditions do not favour transmission in the dry season (lack of rainfall and very high temperatures. Moreover, entomological investigations in neighbouring regions point to an absence of malaria transmission in mosquito vectors in the dry season. Because the clinical signs of malaria are non-specific and overlap with those of other diseases (e.g. acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea, new research is needed to better understand malaria transmission patterns in this region to improve adaptive, preventive and curative measures. Methods We conducted a multipurpose cross-sectional survey in the city of Kaédi in April 2011 (dry season, assessing three major disease patterns, including malaria. Plasmodium spp. parasite rates were tested among children aged 6–59 months who were recruited from a random selection of households using a rapid diagnostic test and microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea were the two other diseases investigated, administering a parental questionnaire to determine the reported prevalence among participating children. Findings No Plasmodium infection was found in any of the 371 surveyed preschool-aged children using two different diagnostic methods. Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea were reported in 43.4% and 35.0% of the participants, respectively. About two thirds of the children with acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea required medical follow-up by a health worker. Conclusions Malaria was absent in the present dry season survey in the capital of the Gorgol valley of Mauritania, while acute respiratory

  1. Australian Cerebral Palsy Child Study: protocol of a prospective population based study of motor and brain development of preschool aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Jordan, Rachel; Pareezer, Laura; Moodie, Anne; Finn, Christine; Luther, Belinda; Arnfield, Evyn; Pym, Aaron; Craven, Alex; Beall, Paula; Weir, Kelly; Kentish, Megan; Wynter, Meredith; Ware, Robert; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; McKinlay, Lynne; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2013-06-11

    describes a large population-based study of early motor development and brain structure in a representative sample of preschool aged children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. The results of this study will be published in peer reviewed journals and presented at relevant international conferences. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN1261200169820).

  2. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  3. Media Exposure in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children Is Associated with Multiple Measures of Self-Regulatory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzer, Tiffany G; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred A; Contreras, Dawn; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C; Radesky, Jenny

    2018-05-01

    Excessive screen media exposure in childhood is associated with parent-reported self-regulation difficulties. No studies have used laboratory-based or teacher-reported measures of child self-regulatory behaviors. This study examines cross-sectional associations between preschooler screen media exposure and multiple measures of self-regulatory behaviors. Preintervention data were used from 541 preschoolers in the Growing Healthy study, an obesity prevention trial (2011-2015). Screen media exposure was measured by daily screen media exposure (hr/d), television (TV) in the bedroom, frequency of background TV, and TV with meals (1 = rarely/never, 4 = frequently). Child self-regulatory behaviors were measured by the following: child ability to delay gratification, a standardized waiting paradigm; teacher-reported Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation; and parent-reported difficult temperament on the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). Multivariate regression analyses modeled screen media exposure predicting each self-regulatory measure, adjusting for child age, sex, parent age, education, marital status, income-to-needs ratio, number of adults in household, parent depressive symptoms, and sensitivity. Children were aged 4.1 years (SD = 0.5), parents were aged 29.6 years (SD = 6.8), 48% had high school education or less, and 67% were married. Daily screen media exposure and background TV were associated with weaker observed self-regulation (β: -10.30 seconds for each hr/d media, -12.63 seconds for 1-point increase, respectively). Background TV and TV with meals were associated with greater parent-reported difficult temperament (β: 0.04 and 0.05 CBQ, respectively, for 1-point increase). Greater screen media exposure had small but significant associations with weaker observed and parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, self-regulatory behaviors. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the directionality of associations.

  4. Levels of depression and anxiety among parents of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunay Firat

    2016-09-01

    Results: Participants in the study were parents of 26 male (65% and 14 female (35% autistic children. The average age of the children was 62.9+/-16.6 months. .Mothers had higher levels of depression and anxiety scores. Mothers of autistic children who participated in the study received higher scores on depression, state anxiety and trait anxiety compared to fathers. Among mothers, a significant relationship was found between level of education and level of state anxiety. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that mothers have higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to fathers. This finding might be explained with reference to customs and traditions of the Turkish society in which the study was conducted, which require women to take more responsiblity for family matters. It is recommended that special education and rehabilitation centers provide counseling to parents about the effects of having an autistic children on their lives, and advise them on seeking psychological help if necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 539-547

  5. Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main linguistic indications of Lithuanian preschoolers’ narratives. The analysis is based on experimental data of 24 typically developing monolingual Lithuanian children (6–7 years of age from middle-class families, attending a state kindergarten in Kaunas (Lithuania. During the experiment, the children were asked to tell a story according to the Cat Story (Hickmann 1993 picture sequence. The stories were recorded, transcribed and annotated for an automatic analysis using CHILDES software. During the analysis, the syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, and general productivity (MLUw and type/token ratio of the narratives were investigated. The results indicated the main microstructural tendencies of Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa8.02

  6. Event-based prospective memory in mildly and severely autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Daniel P; Kvavilashvili, Lia; Ryder, Nuala

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of research into the development of prospective memory (PM) in typically developing children but research is limited in autistic children (Aut) and rarely includes children with more severe symptoms. This study is the first to specifically compare event-based PM in severely autistic children to mildly autistic and typically developing children. Fourteen mildly autistic children and 14 severely autistic children, aged 5-13 years, were matched for educational attainment with 26 typically developing children aged 5-6 years. Three PM tasks and a retrospective memory task were administered. Results showed that severely autistic children performed less well than typically developing children on two PM tasks but mildly autistic children did not differ from either group. No group differences were found on the most motivating (a toy reward) task. The findings suggest naturalistic tasks and motivation are important factors in PM success in severely autistic children and highlights the need to consider the heterogeneity of autism and symptom severity in relation to performance on event-based PM tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Teenage outcomes after speech and language impairment at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek U

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ulla Ek1, Fritjof Norrelgen3,4, Joakim Westerlund2, Andrea Dahlman5, Elizabeth Hultby5, Elisabeth Fernell61Department of Special Education, 2Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, 5CLINTEC/Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6The Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and the Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenAim: Ten years ago, we published developmental data on a representative group of children (n = 25 with moderate or severe speech and language impairment, who were attending special preschools for children. The aim of this study was to perform a follow-up of these children as teenagers.Methods: Parents of 23 teenagers participated in a clinical interview that requested information on the child's current academic achievement, type of school, previous clinical assessments, and developmental diagnoses. Fifteen children participated in a speech and language evaluation, and 13 participated in a psychological evaluation.Results: Seven of the 23 teenagers had a mild intellectual disability, and another three had borderline intellectual functioning. Nine had symptoms of disorders on the autism spectrum; five of these had an autism spectrum disorder, and four had clear autistic traits. Six met criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/subthreshold ADHD. Thirteen of 15 teenagers had a moderate or severe language impairment, and 13 of 15 had a moderate or severe reading impairment. Overlapping disorders were frequent. None of the individuals who underwent the clinical evaluation were free from developmental problems.Conclusion: A large number of children with speech and language impairment at preschool age had persistent language problems and/or met the

  8. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikl Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardized Movement Assessment Battery test for Children 2 (MABC-2. Objective testing of this group of children is relatively difficult. There were successfully tested 36 children with ASD during this phase of research. The research demonstrated evident motor disorder at 86% of children in the observed sample. Statistically significant were worse results in the field of fine motor skills compared to the results in gross motor skills and balance.

  9. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author)

  10. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author).

  11. Clinical polymorphism and variability in education of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov S.A.Morozova T.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders are considered a highly heterogeneous group by clinical signs, which makes it impossible to develop a common method of correctional and educational development for them. In this article, results of an analysis of clinical, psychological and pedagogic polymorphism in autism spectrum disorders are shown, emphasized are its main components and basic consequences necessary for organizing education. Results are viewed in the context of the principle of variability in education. A dual structure of variability in education of autistic children has been discovered. Shortly reviewed are some topical problems of correctional education process for autism spectrum disorders

  12. Características vocais acústicas de crianças pré-escolares Vocal acoustic characteristics in pre-school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Michele Cappellari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro passo em qualquer tratamento é a avaliação. Desta forma, parâmetros de normalidade são a base para uma adequada avaliação. OBJETIVO: Verificar as medidas e características vocais de 23 crianças pré-escolares, entre quatro e seis anos, de ambos os sexos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostragem contou com questionário, triagem auditiva, e avaliação perceptivo-auditiva vocal, por meio da escala R.A.S.A.T.. A análise acústica foi realizada por meio do Multidimensional Voice Program. ESTUDO: Prospectivo de corte transversal. RESULTADOS: A variação de freqüência (vf0 e a proporção harmônico-ruído (NHR foram maiores na amostra total que aos cinco e seis anos; à medida que a idade aumentou, o NHR reduziu; à medida que o quociente de perturbação de Amplitude (PPQ aumentou, a vf0, variação de amplitude (vAm, o índice de fonação suave (SPI e o NHR também aumentaram; à medida que o PPQ, quociente de perturbação de amplitude (APQ e índice de turbulência vocal (VTI aumentaram, o índice de fonação suave (SPI reduziu. CONCLUSÃO: Os parâmetros acústicos, aos quatro anos, evidenciaram a imaturidade das estruturas e a falta de controle neuromuscular nessa idade e que o início deste processo de maturação, possivelmente, ocorre próximo aos cinco e seis anos de idade.Evaluation is the first step for any treatment. Therefore, normal parameters are the bases for proper evaluation. AIM: Verify measures and vocal acoustic characteristics of 23 pre-school aged children of both genders, aged four to six years and eight months. METHODS: The sampling process comprised a questionnaire -that was sent to parents, auditory screening and vocal-perception auditory assessment, based on the R.A.S.A.T. scale. Acoustic analysis was carried out through the Multi Dimensional Voice Program. STUDY: Prospective and cross-sectional. RESULTS: The noise-harmonic ratio (NHR and frequency variation (vf0 of the total sample was higher than what

  13. Factors Impacting on the Outcomes of Greek Intervention Programmes for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the best predictors of the progress of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), on some developmental domains (autistic severity, language, communication and socialisation), which are related to the core features of ASD. Eighty-six children (2.5-14 years old) with ASD, from 10 schools in Greece, were included in the…

  14. Learning and Self-Stimulation in Mute and Echolalic Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chock, Patricia N.; Glahn, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of self-stimulation on task acquisition were studied in three mute low-functioning autistic and three echolic higher-functioning autistic children in multiple-baseline designs. The study found that the echolalic children were able to learn the task without external suppression of their self-stimulation but the mute Ss were not. (CL)

  15. Conductive Hearing Loss in Autistic, Learning-Disabled, and Normal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…

  16. The State of Deterministic Thinking among Mothers of Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Esbati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior education on decreasing deterministic thinking in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Participants were 24 mothers of autistic children who were referred to counseling centers of Tehran and their children’s disorder had been diagnosed at least by a psychiatrist and a counselor. They were randomly selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. Measurement tool was Deterministic Thinking Questionnaire and both groups answered it before and after education and the answers were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Results: The results indicated that cognitive-behavior education decreased deterministic thinking among mothers of autistic children, it decreased four sub scale of deterministic thinking: interaction with others, absolute thinking, prediction of future, and negative events (P<0.05 as well. Discussions: By learning cognitive and behavioral techniques, parents of children with autism can reach higher level of psychological well-being and it is likely that these cognitive-behavioral skills would have a positive impact on general life satisfaction of mothers of children with autism.

  17. Visual perspective taking impairment in children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Brindley, Rachel; Frith, Uta

    2009-10-01

    Evidence from typical development and neuroimaging studies suggests that level 2 visual perspective taking - the knowledge that different people may see the same thing differently at the same time - is a mentalising task. Thus, we would expect children with autism, who fail typical mentalising tasks like false belief, to perform poorly on level 2 visual perspective taking as well. However, prior data on this issue are inconclusive. We re-examined this question, testing a group of 23 young autistic children, aged around 8years with a verbal mental age of around 4years and three groups of typical children (n=60) ranging in age from 4 to 8years on a level 2 visual perspective task and a closely matched mental rotation task. The results demonstrate that autistic children have difficulty with visual perspective taking compared to a task requiring mental rotation, relative to typical children. Furthermore, performance on the level 2 visual perspective taking task correlated with theory of mind performance. These findings resolve discrepancies in previous studies of visual perspective taking in autism, and demonstrate that level 2 visual perspective taking is a mentalising task.

  18. Joint attention studies in normal and autistic children using NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Messinger, Daniel; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic. In this study Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being applied for the first time to study the difference in activation and connectivity in the frontal cortex of typically developing (TD) and autistic children between 4-8 years of age in response to joint attention task. The optical measurements are acquired in real time from frontal cortex using Imagent (ISS Inc.) - a frequency domain based NIRS system in response to video clips which engenders a feeling of joint attention experience in the subjects. A block design consisting of 5 blocks of following sequence 30 sec joint attention clip (J), 30 sec non-joint attention clip (NJ) and 30 sec rest condition is used. Preliminary results from TD child shows difference in brain activation (in terms of oxy-hemoglobin, HbO) during joint attention interaction compared to the nonjoint interaction and rest. Similar activation study did not reveal significant differences in HbO across the stimuli in, unlike in an autistic child. Extensive studies are carried out to validate the initial observations from both brain activation as well as connectivity analysis. The result has significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using NIRS.

  19. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  20. Language processing and forms of immediate echolalia in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccia, J M; Curcio, F

    1982-03-01

    Several aspects of echolalic speech produced by five autistic children were investigated. We found that the incidence of echolalia was influenced by the type of question addressed to the child and, to a lesser extent, by the child's comprehension of the specific relationships expressed in the question. Additionally, acoustic analysis showed that a substantial proportion of echoes involved a prosodic modification of the examiner's question. Further analyses indicated that some of these modified echoes represent more than just a primitive conversational strategy. Specifically, they seem to reflect a higher level of processing and serve a semantic function, that of affirming the examiner's question.

  1. Training Helps Autistic Children Emerge from Solitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Amother considers her child to be a continuation of her own life, and places her own desires that she cannot achieve on her child. A child is a mother’s sun, a mother’s hope. In this world, however, there exists another group of mothers whose children have autism. These children act as if they are completely alone, do not interact with others, and even refuse the love of

  2. Family Analysis of Immunoglobulin Classes and Subclasses in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Spiroski

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopment disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a pattern of repetitive stereotyped activities, behaviours and interests. There are strong lines of evidence to suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitative plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes, and subclasses in autistic patients and their families. The investigation was performed retrospectively in 50 persons with autistic disorder in the Republic of Macedonia. Infantile autistic disorder was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, and IgG and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 were determined using Nephelometer Analyzer BN-100. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between three pairs: male autistic from the fathers (p = 0,001, female autistic from the mothers (p = 0,008, as well as healthy sisters from the fathers (p = 0,011. Statistically significant differences found between three groups regarding autistic disorder (person with autistic disorder, father/mother of a person with autistic disorder, and brother/sister independent of sex belongs to IgA, IgG2, and IgG3 variables. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001, and healthy brothers and sisters from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001. Comparison between healthy children and children with autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.

  3. Determining the Effectiveness of a Modulated Parenting Skills Program on Reducing Autistic Symptoms in Children and Improvement of Parental Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Rezaee

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: The compiled parenting program is recommended to improve parental empowerment for the families of autistic children, because it is capable of reducing autistic symptoms in social interaction and relationships as well as improving marital adjustment in such families.

  4. Autistic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Miesen, Anna I R; de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Hartman, Catharina A

    2018-05-01

    Studies have shown an increase of symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in gender dysphoria (GD). Various hypotheses try to explain this possible co-occurrence (e.g., a role of resistance to change, stereotyped behaviors or prenatal testosterone exposure). This study examined ASD symptoms with the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in 490 children with GD compared to 2507 typically developing (TD) and 196 children with ASD. CSBQ total scores of the GD sample were in between scores from the TD and ASD sample. The GD sample showed elevated levels of autistic symptomatology on all subdomains, not only on stereotyped and resistance to change. Further, no gender differences and interaction effects were found on the total CSBQ, making a sole role for prenatal testosterone unlikely.

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children with autistic disorder: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnsil, Chawanun; Sriapai, Payupol

    2011-02-01

    (1) to examine the co-occurrence of attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms in children with autistic disorder, and (2) to study the correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and the severity of autistic disorder. This was a clinical based study. The authors used Childhood Autistic Rating scale (CARs) to evaluate the severity of autistic disorder Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Version IV (SNAP-IV) was used to measure attention deficit and hyperactive symptoms in children with autism. Thirty (n=30) children enrolled in this study. All participants displayed attention deficit symptoms and 18 participants demonstrated hyperactivity as well. Nonparametric correlation showed a high positive correlation (Spa = 0.90, p = 0.00) between the severity of autistic disorder and hyperactivity and not the attention deficit symptoms (Spa = 0.29, p = 0.16). The authors finding shows a high comorbid rate of attention deficit and hyperactive symptoms among the participants.

  6. Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in parents of children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Donald C; Smith, J Allegra; Benkers, Tara L; Camou, Suzanne L; Reite, Martin L; Rogers, Sally J

    2004-11-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities in the medial temporal lobe, particularly the hippocampus and amygdala, have been described in people with autism. The authors hypothesized that parents of children with a diagnosis of autistic disorder would show similar changes in these structures. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed in 17 biological parents of children with a diagnosis of DSM-IV autistic disorder. The scans were compared with scans from 15 adults with autistic disorder and 17 age-matched comparison subjects with no personal or familial history of autism. The volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, and total brain were measured in all participants. The volume of the left hippocampus was larger in both the parents of children with autistic disorder and the adults with autistic disorder, relative to the comparison subjects. The hippocampus was significantly larger in the adults with autistic disorder than in the parents of children with autistic disorder. The left amygdala was smaller in the adults with autistic disorder, relative to the other two groups. No differences in total brain volume were observed between the three groups. The finding of larger hippocampal volume in autism is suggestive of abnormal early neurodevelopmental processes but is partly consistent with only one prior study and contradicts the findings of several others. The finding of larger hippocampal volume for the parental group suggests a potential genetic basis for hippocampal abnormalities in autism.

  7. Domain Specificity and Everyday Biological, Physical, and Psychological Thinking in Normal, Autistic, and Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Siegal, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Examined reasoning in normal, autistic, and deaf individuals. Found that deaf individuals who grow up in hearing homes without fluent signers show selective impairments in theory of mind similar to those of autistic individuals. Results suggest that conversational differences in the language children hear accounts for distinctive patterns of…

  8. The Relationship between Intolerance of Uncertainty, Sensory Sensitivities, and Anxiety in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Louise; Olsson, Nora Choque; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Guided by a recent theory that proposes fundamental differences in how autistic individuals deal with uncertainty, we investigated the extent to which the cognitive construct "intolerance of uncertainty" and anxiety were related to parental reports of sensory sensitivities in 64 autistic and 85 typically developing children aged…

  9. Pharmacogenomics and Efficacy of Risperidone Long-Term Treatment in Thai Autistic Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuntamool, Nopphadol; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Vanwong, Natchaya; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Chamnanphon, Monpat; Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Limsila, Penkhae; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee; Wilffert, Bob; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of pharmacogenomic factors and clinical outcome in autistic children and adolescents who were treated with risperidone for long periods. Eighty-two autistic subjects diagnosed with DSM-IV and who were treated with risperidone for more than

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  11. Dietary intake and parents' perception of mealtime behaviors in preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockner, Donna W; Crowe, Terry K; Skipper, Betty J

    2008-08-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report that their children have selective eating behaviors and refuse many foods, which could result in inadequate nutrient intake. This preliminary cross-sectional descriptive study investigated dietary intake and parents' reported perception of food behaviors of 20 3- to 5-year-old children with ASD. Twenty typically developing children matched for sex, age, and ethnicity were also studied as a case-control comparison. Nutrient intake determined from 3-day food records was adjusted for day-to-day variation to determine the estimate of usual intake distribution for the two groups. This distribution was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement or Adequate Intake recommendations. The reported food behaviors and use of vitamin or mineral supplements were compared for matched pairs using the exact McNemar test. Nutrient intake was similar for both groups of children, with the majority of children consuming more than the recommended amounts for most nutrients. Nutrients least likely to be consumed in recommended amounts were vitamin A, vitamin E, fiber, and calcium. Children with ASD were more likely to consume vitamin/mineral supplements than typically developing children. Compared with parents of typically developing children, parents of children with ASD were more likely to report that their children were picky eaters and resisted trying new foods, and they were less likely to describe their children as healthy eaters or that they eat a variety of foods. Despite the similar and generally adequate nutrient intake for the 40 children in this study, parents of children with ASD had more negative perceptions of their children's dietary behaviors.

  12. Quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder: a sample from the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-02-01

    A growing body of research has sought to examine issues associated with the Quality of Life (QoL) of parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, no studies have examined the QoL of Arab parents whose parenting experience is expected to be substantially different from that of their western counterparts. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (1) to examine differences in the QoL between fathers and mothers of children with Autistic Disorder in a sample from an Arab country, and (2) to examine the psychosocial correlates of the QoL of Arab parents of children with Autistic Disorder. Self-administered questionnaires on parents' QoL, stress, coping strategies, and demographic characteristics were completed by 184 parents of children with Autistic Disorder. The participants were recruited using the convenience sampling design. Fathers and mothers of children with Autistic Disorder showed no significant differences in their physical, psychological, social, and environmental health. Further, both parents showed almost similar bivariate correlations between the reported QoL levels and their parenting stress, coping strategies, and demographic characteristics. This is the first study to examine the QoL of parents of children with Autistic Disorder in the Arab world and, in doing so, it highlighted the distinct lack of research in this area. The QoL of Arab parents of children with Autistic Disorder crosses lines with their stress levels, coping strategies, demographic characteristics, and to some extent their cultural context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of a 4.5 F semi-rigid ureteroscope with a 7.5 F rigid ureteroscope in the treatment of ureteral stones in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Murat; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Penbegul, Necmettin; Soylemez, Haluk; Bodakci, Mehmet Nuri; Hatipoglu, Namik Kemal; Bozkurt, Yasar; Cakmakci, Suleyman

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the success and complication rates of a 4.5 F ureteroscope with a 7.5 F ureteroscope in the treatment of urolithiasis in preschool-age children. We retrospectively reviewed 69 ureteroscopy (URS) procedures in a pediatric population (40 boys, 29 girls). We divided the patients into two groups according to the type of ureteroscope used: group 1 (n = 42, Storz 7.5 F) and group 2 (n = 27, Wolf 4.5 F). We statistically compared all the procedures performed in both groups regarding patient age, complication rates, whether the procedure was therapeutic, and whether we used a guidewire. Additionally, in cases with ureteral stones, we also compared the stone clearance rate and the necessity of X-ray imaging between the two groups. The mean patient age was 56.04 months in group 1 and 47.48 months in group 2 (p = 0.057). The stone-free rate was 78.6 % in group 1 and 92.6 % in group 2 (p > 0.05). However, when we compared the stone-free rates for patients younger than 3 years, the rate was 66.7 % in group 1 and 93.8 % in group 2 (p < 0.05). The difference was not statistically significant for patients between the ages of 4 and 7 years. The success and failure rates revealed better outcomes for treatment of ureteral stones with a 4.5 F ureteroscope. We recommend the use of the mini-ureteroscope, especially in infants and preschool-age children.

  14. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  15. Retrospectively Assessed Early Motor and Current Pragmatic Language Skills in Autistic and Neurotypical Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Lindley, Caitlin E; Murlo, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Autistic individuals often struggle developmentally, even in areas that are not explicit diagnostic criteria, such as motor skills. This study explored the relation between early motor skills, assessed retrospectively, and current pragmatic language skills. Caregivers of neurotypical and autistic children, matched on gender and age, completed assessments of their child's early motor development and current language abilities. Early motor skills were correlated with later pragmatic language skills, and autistic children exhibited fewer motor skills than neurotypical children. In fact, motor skills were a better predictor of an autism spectrum diagnosis than were scores on a measure of current pragmatic language. These results highlight the important role of motor skills in autism spectrum disorders.

  16. Prevalence of Parasomnia in Autistic Children with Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sleep related complaints is reported by questionnaire studies to be as high as 83.3% in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Questionnaire studies report the presence of various parasomnia in ASD. However, no polysomnographic study reports non-REM parasomnias and only a single study reports REM related parasomnias in ASD. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders by polysomnographic study and questionnaires in a cohort of 23 children with ASD and 23 age-matched children of a non-autistic comparison group. The results showed significantly more non-REM parasomnias in 14 children with ASD on polysomnograms (PSG and 16 ASD children by questionnaire, a finding that was not associated with medication use, other comorbid medical or psychiatric disorders, or sleep disordered breathing. Of the 14 children with ASD who had PSG evidence of parasomnia, 11 of them had a history suggestive of parasomnia by questionnaire. There was a high sensitivity but a low specificity of parasomnia in ASD by questionnaire in predicting the presence of parasomnia in the PSG. Of the parasomnias recorded in the laboratory, 13 ASD children had Disorders of Partial Arousal, consistent with sleep terrors or confusional arousals. Furthermore, multiple episodes of partial arousal occurred in 11 of the 13 ASD children who had PSG evidence of Disorders of Partial Arousal. Of the 11 ASD children with multiple episodes of partial arousal, 6 ASD children had multiple partial arousals during both nights’ PSG study. Sleep architecture was abnormal in children with ASD, characterized by increased spontaneous arousals, prolonged REM latency and reduced REM percentage. These results suggest a high prevalence of parasomnia in this cohort of children with ASD and a careful history intake of symptoms compatible with parasomnia could be prudent to diagnose parasomnia in ASD children when performing a PSG is not possible.

  17. Family analysis of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko; Trajkovski, Vladimir; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Hristomanova, Slavica; Djulejic, Eli; Paneva, Meri; Bozhikov, Jadranka

    2009-11-01

    Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopment disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a pattern of repetitive stereotyped activities, behaviours and interests. There are strong lines of evidence to suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitative plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes, and subclasses in autistic patients and their families. The investigation was performed retrospectively in 50 persons with autistic disorder in the Republic of Macedonia. Infantile autistic disorder was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, and IgG) and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) were determined using Nephelometer Analyzer BN-100. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between three pairs: male autistic from the fathers (p = 0,001), female autistic from the mothers (p = 0,008), as well as healthy sisters from the fathers (p = 0,011). Statistically significant differences found between three groups regarding autistic disorder (person with autistic disorder, father/mother of a person with autistic disorder, and brother/sister) independent of sex belongs to IgA, IgG2, and IgG3 variables. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.

  18. The organizing-pedagogical conditions of students‟ training for the leadership of preschool age children‟ manual work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Boryn

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of security the joint organizing-pedagogical conditions in the educationalprocess of higher educational institution, which would contribute to successful forming offuture educators’ readiness to leadership of preschool age children’ manual work through themastering of standard subjects’ content are substantiated in the article.Key words: professional training, preschool age children, organizing-pedagogicalconditions, manual work.

  19. Ensemble perception of emotions in autistic and typical children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themelis Karaminis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults. Participants received three tasks: a an ‘ensemble’ emotion discrimination task; b a baseline (single-face emotion discrimination task; and c a facial expression identification task. Children performed worse than adults on all three tasks. Unexpectedly, autistic and typical children were, on average, indistinguishable in their precision and accuracy on all three tasks. Computational modelling suggested that, on average, autistic and typical children used ensemble-encoding strategies to a similar extent; but ensemble perception was related to non-verbal reasoning abilities in autistic but not in typical children. Eye-movement data also showed no group differences in the way children attended to the stimuli. Our combined findings suggest that the abilities of autistic and typical children for ensemble perception of emotions are comparable on average.

  20. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  1. Cochlear implantation in autistic children with profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Magdalena; Pastuszka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2016-11-19

    Cochlear implants have become the method of choice for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss in both children and adults. Its benefits are well documented in the pediatric and adult population. Also deaf children with additional needs, including autism, have been covered by this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits from cochlear implantation in deafened children with autism as the only additional disability. This study analyzes data of six children. The follow-up time was at least 43 months. The following data were analyzed: medical history, reaction to music and sound, Ling's six sounds test, onomatopoeic word test, reaction to spoken child's name, response to requests, questionnaire given to parents, sound processor fitting sessions and data. After cochlear implantation each child presented other communication skills. In some children, the symptoms of speech understanding were observed. No increased hyperactivity associated with daily use cochlear implant was observed. The study showed that in autistic children the perception is very important for a child's sense of security and makes contact with parents easier. Our study showed that oral communication is not likely to be a realistic goal in children with cochlear implants and autism. The implantation results showed benefits that varied among those children. The traditional methods of evaluating the results of cochlear implantation in children with autism are usually insufficient to fully assess the functional benefits. These benefits should be assessed in a more comprehensive manner taking into account the limitations of communication resulting from the essence of autism. It is important that we share knowledge about these complex children with cochlear implants. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropsychological Assessment at Preschool Age: Adaptation and Validation of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities to 4 Year-old Basque-speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiarena, Ainara; Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2017-10-23

    Early neuropsychological assessment provides important information for clinical practice and research. As previously no tool for neuropsychological assessment has been developed in or adapted to Basque, the aim of this study was to adapt and validate the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities for 4 years old children. The adaptation and validation of the original instrument followed the methodological steps established by the International Test Commission. We examined the psychometric properties of the adapted instrument in 273 Basque preschool children (aged between 4 years and 4 months and 4 years and 11 months; 52.2% boys). Confirmatory factor analysis showed satisfactory fit indexes except for the General Cognitive and Memory scales. Most scales presented adequate internal consistency (Reliability coefficients ranged between .55 and .81). The Basque version also showed evidence of validity based on the relationship between neuropsychological development and sex, parental education, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviours and early neurodevelopment (p < .05; effect sizes ranged between Cohen's d = .26 and .52 and r = .15 and 39). The Basque MSCA can be regarded as a useful tool to evaluate cognitive and psychomotor development in preschool children.

  3. Anti-metallothionein IgG and levels of metallothionein in autistic children with GI disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A J Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A J RussoMount Saint Mary’s University, Emmitsburg, MD, USAAim: To assess both serum concentration of metallotionein (MT and anti-metallothionein (anti-MT immunoglobulin G (IgG in autistic children with gastrointestinal (GI symptoms and controls, and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between the presence of MT, anti-MT IgG, and inflammatory GI disease seen in many children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD.Subjects and methods: ELISAs were used to measure serum MT and anti-MT IgG in 41 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (many with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia [LNH] and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel, and/or stomach, and 33 controls (17 age-matched autistic children with no GI disease and 16 age-matched children without autism or GI disease.Results: Ten of 41 autistic children with chronic digestive disease had high serum concentration of MT compared to only one of the 33 controls (p < 0.01. Thirteen of the 41 autistic children with chronic digestive disease had anti-MT IgG compared to only four of 33 controls (p < 0.01. Nine of 10 (90% of autistic children with GI disease with high MT levels had a regressive onset (compared to the expected 25 of 41, or 61%, in this group (p < 0.05, whereas only nine of 13 of the autistic children with GI disease and anti-MT IgG had a regressive onset (70% which was not significantly higher than the expected. We didn’t find any correlation between severity of GI disease and MT concentration or anti-MT IgG.Discussion: These results suggest a relationship between MT, anti-MT IgG and GI disease seen in many ASD individuals.Keywords: autism, metallothionein, anti-metallothionein, GI disease

  4. Design, development, and clinical validation of therapeutic toys for autistic children

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Kevin C.; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] One of the characteristics of autistic children is social interaction difficulties. Although therapeutic toys can promote social interaction, however its related research remains insufficient. The aim of the present study was to build a set of cooperative play toys that are suitable for autistic children. [Subjects and Methods] This study used an innovative product design and development approach as the basis for the creation of cooperative play toys. [Results] The present study has...

  5. Affairs and Issues of Special Education for Autistic Children in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    渡部, かなえ

    2008-01-01

    In developing a curriculum for training educational specialists of autistic children, an inspection of the educational system for autistic children in Canada was carried out. A School Base Team (members:School Master, Head Teacher or Resource Teacher; Behavior Consultant, Classroom teacher) plans and practices IEPs (Individual Education Plan). To achieve the IEP goal, the School Board dispatches workers by the hour. An allowance is paid to the school and the guardian during compulsory school ...

  6. Unique features of creative designing at the preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilа Iryna Mykolayivna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to studying the specificity of creative designing at the preschool age. The author identifies the systematic approach on the design work and creative designing, knowledge adjustment, as well as the assessment criteria and performance indicators of creative designing by children at the preschool age. The article considers the psychological structure of the design activity, clarifies its characteristics and defines the role of each component of creative designing process at the preschool age. As a result of the empirical study it was proved that in the process of understanding the challenges pre-schoolers’s mind makes mental acts of comparison predominant. Their creative intention is determined by the focus on the structural and structural-functional characteristics of the subjects. The whole structure of the pre-schooler’s solution in the process of working with creative tasks on designing is integrated with the individual and regulatory aspect of creative designing that appears in the subjective mental actions, trends, and practice.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni-Associated Morbidity among Preschool-Aged Children along the Shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, Allen; Nuwaha, Fred; Tukahebwa, Edridah

    2017-01-01

    /916) of the children. Both liver and spleen were significantly more enlarged in the infected children than in the uninfected children (p ultrasonography. Physical palpation of the spleen was more often detected in the uninfected children. A significantly (p

  8. Training Parents to Use the Natural Language Paradigm to Increase Their Autistic Children's Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Karen E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Parents of four nonverbal and four echolalic autistic children, aged five-nine, were trained to increase their children's speech by using the Natural Language Paradigm. Following training, parents increased the frequency with which they required their children to speak, and children increased the frequency of their verbalizations in three…

  9. Can tactile sensory processing differentiate between children with autistic disorder and asperger's disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-05-01

    There are debates whether autistic disorder (autism) and Asperger's disorder are two distinct disorders. Moreover, interventional sensory occupational therapy should consider the clinical characteristics of patients. Already, commonalities and differences between Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder are not well studied. The aim of this study is to compare tactile sensory function of children with autistic disorder and children with Asperger's disorder. Tactile sensory function was compared between 36 children with autism and 19 children with Asperger's disorder. The two disorders were diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision. The parent-reported Tactile Dysfunction Checklist was used to assess the three aspects of hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity, and poor tactile perception and discrimination. Developmental coordination was also assessed. Developmental coordination problems total score was not associated with group. The mean (standard deviation) score of tactile hyper-responsivity was not different between the groups. Tactile hyporesponsivity and poor tactile perception and discrimination scores were statistically higher in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder group. These results for the first time indicated that at least some aspects of tactile perception can differentiate these two disorders. Children with autistic disorder have more tactile sensory seeking behaviors than children with Asperger's disorder. Moreover, the ability of children with autistic disorder for tactile discrimination and sensory perception is less than those with Asperger's disorder. Interventional sensory therapy in children with autistic disorder should have some characteristics that can be different and specific for children with Asperger's disorder. Formal intelligence quotient testing was not performed on all of the children evaluated, which is a limitation to this study. In some cases, a clinical estimation of

  10. Are there subgroups within the autistic spectrum? A cluster analysis of a group of children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, M; Eisenmajer, R; Leekam, S; Wing, L; Gould, J; Ong, B; Dowe, D

    1998-09-01

    Comprehensive data on the developmental history and current behaviours of a large sample of high-functioning individuals with diagnoses of autism, Asperger's syndrome, or other related disorder were collected via parent interviews. This provided the basis for a taxonomic analysis to search for subgroups. Most participants also completed theory of mind tasks. Three clusters or subgroups were obtained; these differed on theory of mind performance and on verbal abilities. Although subgroups were identified which bore some relationship to clinical differentiation of autistic, Asperger syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) cases, the nature of the differences between them appeared strongly related to ability variables. Examination of the kinds of behaviours that differentiated the groups suggested that a spectrum of autistic disorders on which children differ primarily in term of degrees of social and cognitive impairments could explain the findings.

  11. Interactive use of communication by verbal and non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Communication of autistic children. To assess the communication functionality of verbal and non-verbal children of the autistic spectrum and to identify possible associations amongst the groups. Subjects were 20 children of the autistic spectrum divided into two groups: V with 10 verbal children and NV with 10 non-verbal children with ages varying between 2y10m and 10y6m. All subjects were video recorded during 30 minutes of spontaneous interaction with their mothers. The samples were analyzed according to the functional communicative profile and comparisons within and between groups were conducted. Data referring to the occupation of communicative space suggest that there is an even balance between each child and his mother. The number of communicative acts per minute shows a clear difference between verbal and non-verbal children. Both verbal and non-verbal children use mostly the gestual communicative mean in their interactions. Data about the use of interpersonal communicative functions point out to the autistic children's great interactive impairment. The characterization of the functional communicative profile proposed in this study confirmed the autistic children's difficulties with interpersonal communication and that these difficulties do not depend on the preferred communicative mean.

  12. Reduced Incidence of Prevotella and Other Fermenters in Intestinal Microflora of Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Wallstrom, Garrick; LaBaer, Joshua; Adams, James B.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae. PMID:23844187

  13. Reduced incidence of Prevotella and other fermenters in intestinal microflora of autistic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Wook Kang

    Full Text Available High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae.

  14. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

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    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  15. Risperidone-induced enuresis in two children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergüner, Sabri; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2007-08-01

    Risperidone appears to be effective in treating behavioral problems in children with autistic disorder. Although increased appetite, weight gain, and sedation are among the most common side effects, risperidone-induced enuresis is rarely reported. We will present two cases with risperidone-induced enuresis, and discuss our findings in the context of current literature. Two children aged 11 and 10 years, diagnosed with autism and mental retardation, have developed new-onset diurnal and nocturnal enuresis respectively on their first and second weeks of risperidone monotherapy (1.5 and 1 mg/day). They did not experience sedation, and their medical history and workup were unremarkable. As enuresis did not resolve spontaneously, we decided to substitute risperidone with olanzapine. Enuresis ceased rapidly after discontinuation of risperidone with no emergence when patients were treated with olanzapine 5 mg/day for a period of 6 months and 1 year, respectively. Although the pathophysiology of antipsychotic-induced enuresis remains unclear, a number of mechanisms including alpha(1)-adrenergic blockade, dopamine blockade, and antimuscarinic effects has been proposed. Olanzapine has lower alpha(1)-adrenergic and dopaminergic blockade properties, thus changing risperidone to olanzapine may be an alternative modality in risperidone-induced enuresis when antipsychotic treatment is crucial. Clinicians should be more vigilant about screening for this side effect, especially in younger population with developmental disabilities.

  16. THE DANGER OF OVERVALUING DIAGNOSIS: INTRODUCTORY LABELS TO SCHOOL FAILURE OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Ester Orr ú

    2013-01-01

    The present article discusses the dangers of overvaluing diagnosis as an iatrogenic factor thatleads to school failure of children diagnosed as autistic. Our main goals are: 1) to discussdiagnosis as iatrogenesis that leads to the materialization of autistic symptoms in the child 2)to reflect on the danger of overvaluing the diagnosis which results in deficit and disease,overshadowing the individual and reifying him as such in society; and 3) to highlight theconsequences of the reification of...

  17. The effects of echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling in autistic children.

    OpenAIRE

    Charlop, M H

    1983-01-01

    This investigation, consisting of two experiments, was designed to assess the effects of autistic immediate echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling tasks. Experiment 1 addressed whether autistic children could use their echolalia to facilitate acquisition. The results indicated that incorporating echolalia (echo of the requested object's label) into the task before manual response (handing the requested object to the experimenter) facilitated receptive labeling. Expe...

  18. Do We Need Norms of Fitness for Children with Autistic Spectrum Condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Maurice; Dickinson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly sedentary habits of children, and rising obesity levels, are prompting concern for children's future health. Children with autistic spectrum condition (ASC) show a clear trend in this regard. Within school, an understanding of how an individual's fitness compares to age norms is important in order to design appropriate exercise…

  19. A Critical Analysis on Primary Schools Preparedness for the Transition of Autistic Children in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otina, Salmon O.; Thinguri, Ruth W.

    2016-01-01

    Autistic children, characterized by impaired social interactions, impaired communication, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviors, are also entitled to education just like the other children in the society. It is therefore important that primary schools in Kenya get prepared so that the children are able to transit to schools from their…

  20. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  1. Adjustment, Sibling Problems and Coping Strategies of Brothers and Sisters of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Penelope; Cuskelly, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) express more problem behaviours and experience more difficulties in their relationships than do children in families where all children are developing typically. We know little about what contributes to these difficulties. Method: Mothers of a child with ASD completed the…

  2. Current and Past Research on Autistic Children and Their Families. Conducted by Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children). TEACCH Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopler, Eric

    This report summarizes research conducted by, or in collaboration with, the Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped CHildren) of the Department of Psychiatry in the University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill. The summaries contain bibliographic citations for published papers…

  3. Constipation in children with autism and autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Karl H; Croaker, Geoffrey David Hain

    2011-04-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) have long been known to suffer from GIT symptoms. We planned to quantify the contribution of this group to our constipation clinic workload, and to discover defining group characteristics. The characteristics of the bowel habit of children with autism ± neuro-developmental psychiatric (NDP) diagnoses were compared with 'normal' children by retrospective chart review. Data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Office 2007), and compared between groups. One hundred and eighteen patients presented to the Paediatric Surgical Constipation clinic between April 2003 and May 2008. 90 patients were otherwise normal; 18 patients had NDP; 6 patients had ASD alone and 4 had ASD with other neurodevelopmental features. The median [interquartile range] age at onset in the ASD + NDP and normal groups was 2.5 (1-6) and 14 (4-36) months, respectively (p = 0.03) and the median duration of history in the ASD ± NDP and normal groups was 61 (47-89) and 27 (13-53) months, respectively (p = 0.007). Autism spectrum disorders are an order of magnitude more common in the constipation clinic than in the general population. 8.5% of patients who attended our Paediatric Surgical Constipation clinic had autism with or without NDP deficits. Children with autism ± NDP deficits have an earlier onset of symptoms, longer history, and some possess signs similar to those of slow transit constipation. These features may be inborn. A common genetic origin of gut and behavioural abnormalities suggests that specific targeted investigation and treatment for the constipation of ASD may in time be developed.

  4. Development of Motor-Life-Skills: Variations in Children at Risk for Motor Difficulties from the Toddler Age to Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Reikerås, Elin; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2018-01-01

    This article explores variations in development of everyday motor-life-skills in 661 children (329 girls and 332 boys) in Norwegian kindergartens of ages 2:9 (T1) and 4:9 (T2) years:months. The particular focus is on children at risk for problems in motor development (the 10% weakest children in the sample). The methodological approach chosen is…

  5. Aggression in low functioning children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Bronsard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parents, caregivers and mental health professionals have often reported violence and aggression in children or adolescents with autistic disorder. However, most of these observations derived from anecdotal reports, and studies on frequency and characterization of aggression in autism remain limited. Our objective was to better characterize and understand the different types of aggressive behaviors displayed by a large group of individuals with autism in different observational situations. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study was conducted on 74 children and adolescents with autism and 115 typically developing control individuals matched for sex, age and pubertal stage. Other-Injurious Behaviors (OIB were assessed in three observational situations (parents at home, two caregivers at day-care, a nurse and a child psychiatrist during blood drawing using validated scales. The frequency of OIB was significantly higher in individuals with autism compared to typically developing control individuals during the blood drawing (23% vs. 0%, P<0 .01. The parents observed significantly less OIB in their children than caregivers (34% vs. 58%, P<0.05. In addition, the most frequent concurrent behaviors occurring just before the appearance of OIB in individuals with autism were anxiety-related behaviors and excitation according to the parental as well as the caregiver observation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that in a stressful situation, such as the blood drawing, individuals with autism release their stress through behaviors such as OIB, whereas typically developing individuals regulate and express their stress through cognitive skills such as mental coping strategies, symbolization skills with representation and anticipation of the stressful situation, social interaction and verbal or non-verbal communication. The findings underline also the key role of the environment in assessing OIB and developing therapeutic perspectives, with an

  6. Design, development, and clinical validation of therapeutic toys for autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kevin C; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] One of the characteristics of autistic children is social interaction difficulties. Although therapeutic toys can promote social interaction, however its related research remains insufficient. The aim of the present study was to build a set of cooperative play toys that are suitable for autistic children. [Subjects and Methods] This study used an innovative product design and development approach as the basis for the creation of cooperative play toys. [Results] The present study has successfully developed cooperative play toys. Compared to the traditional game therapy for autism, cooperative play toy therapy can significantly improve the interactions between autistic children and their peers. [Conclusion] The most critical design theme of cooperative play toys focuses on captivating the interest of autistic children. Based on the needs of the individual cases, the design of the therapeutic toy set was specifically tailored, i.e., by reinforcing the sound and light effects to improve the attractiveness of the toys. In the future, different play modes can be combined with this toy set to further enhance the degree of interaction of autistic children and improve their quality of life and social skills.

  7. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  8. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  9. Effect of Stress-Response Psycho-Training on the Stress Levels of Mothers with Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ömer

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of stress-response psycho-training on the stress levels of mothers with autistic children. The research was experimental in design encompassing a pretest-posttest model with control and placebo groups. Participation in the study was voluntary with a total of 28 mothers of autistic children included…

  10. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  11. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Achievement in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Melissa; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of autistic children. The between-subjects analysis included data from eight autistic children (ages 5 to 7) with four on a gluten-free diet and four serving as controls. The number of attempts needed before…

  12. Dialogue Design for a Robot-Based Face-Mirroring Game to Engage Autistic Children with Emotional Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalier, Pauline; Li, Jamy Jue; Ainger, Eloise; Alcorn, Alyssa M.; Babovic, Snezana; Charisi, Vicky; Petrovic, Suncica; Schadenberg, Bob Rinse; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Evers, Vanessa; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Yoshida, Eiichi; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Suzuki, Kenji; Cabibihan, John-John; Eyssel, Friederike; He, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    We present design strategies for Human Robot Interaction for school-aged autistic children with limited receptive language. Applying these strategies to the DE-ENIGMA project (large EU project addressing emotion recognition in autistic children) supported development of a new activity for in facial

  13. An integrated microcredit, entrepreneurial training, and nutrition education intervention is associated with better growth among preschool-aged children in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Lartey, Anna; Ahunu, Ben K; Birks, Katherine A; Butler, Lorna M; Reddy, Manju B; Jensen, Helen H; Huff-Lonergan, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Poor diet quality is a determinant of the high prevalence rates of malnutrition in Ghana. There is little evidence on the effectiveness of a multisector intervention to improve children's diets and nutritional status. The project tested whether participation in an entrepreneurial and nutrition education intervention with microcredit was associated with the nutritional status of children 2-5 y of age. A quasi-experimental 16-mo intervention was conducted with microcredit loans and weekly sessions of nutrition and entrepreneurship education for 179 women with children 2-5 y of age [intervention group (IG)]. Nonparticipating women and their children from the same villages (nonparticipant, n = 142) and from similar neighboring villages (comparison, n = 287) were enrolled. Repeated measures linear regression models were used first to examine children's weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) z scores at baseline and at 4 follow-up time points ∼4 mo apart. Time, intervention status, time-by-intervention interaction terms, region of residence, household wealth rank, household head occupation, number of children microcredit and education may improve nutritional outcomes of children living in poor, rural communities. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Environmental and individual determinants of core and non-core food and drink intake in preschool-aged children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, L; Croker, H; Wardle, J; Cooke, L J

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to achieve healthier diets for children are likely to benefit from an understanding of the determinants. We examined environmental and individual predictors of children's intake of 'core' foods (fruit and vegetables) and 'non-core' foods (snacks and sweetened beverages). Predictors included parental intake, home availability, parental feeding styles (Encouragement and Monitoring) and children's food preferences. Based on research with older children, we expected intake of both food types to be associated with maternal intake, core foods to be more associated with children's preferences and non-core food intake more with the home environment. Primary caregivers (n=434) of children (2-5 years) from preschools and Children's Centres in London, UK, completed a self-report survey in 2008. Multiple regression analyses indicated children's fruit intake was associated with maternal fruit intake (B=0.29; P=0.000), children's liking for fruit (B=0.81; P=0.000) and a Monitoring style of parental feeding (B=0.13; P=0.021). Children's vegetable intake was similarly associated with maternal intake (B=0.39; P=0.000), children's liking for vegetables (B=0.77; P=0.000), Encouragement (B=0.19; P=0.021) and Monitoring (B=0.11; P=0.029). Non-core snack intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.25; P=0.029), Monitoring (B=-0.16; P=0.010), home availability (B=0.10; P=0.022) and television viewing (TV) (B=0.28; P=0.012). Non-core drink intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.32; P=0.000) and TV (B=0.20; P=0.019). Results indicate commonalities and differences in the predictors of core and non-core food intake, with only maternal intake being important across all types. Effective interventions to improve young children's diets may need to call on different strategies for different foods.

  15. Predictors of quality of life for fathers and mothers of children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-06-01

    A constant challenge for Quality of Life (QoL) research is tapping the most predictive indicators for a specific population. This study has sought to examine predictors of QoL for fathers and mothers of children with Autistic Disorder. Two multiple regression analyses were performed for fathers (N=70) and mothers (N=114) of children with Autistic Disorder. Six predictors were entered into the regression equation: Parental Distress (PD), Parent-Child Dysfunction Interaction (PCDI), Difficult Child Characteristics (DC), Household income, and the child's with Autistic Disorder age and number of siblings. The analyses revealed that only PD was a significant predictor for both parent's QoL, whereas DC, household income, and number of siblings were able to predict only mothers' QoL. To our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on predictors of QoL among both fathers and mothers of children with Autistic Disorder. The results from the current study can have several implications for professionals and researchers targeting the primary force contributing to the wellbeing of children with Autistic Disorder, the parents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Livestock ownership is associated with higher odds of anaemia among preschool-aged children, but not women of reproductive age in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Colecraft, Esi K; Awuah, Raphael B; Boatemaa, Sandra; Lambrecht, Nathalie J; Adjorlolo, Leonard Kofi; Wilson, Mark L

    2018-04-02

    Livestock ownership may influence anaemia through complex and possibly contradictory mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to determine the association of household livestock ownership with anaemia among women aged 15-49 years and children aged 6-59 months in Ghana and to examine the contribution of animal source foods (ASFs) to consumption patterns as a potential mechanism mediating this association. We analysed data on 4,441 women and 2,735 children from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and 16,772 households from the Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 6. Haemoglobin measurements were used to define anaemia (non-pregnant women: <120 g/L; children: <110 g/L). Child- and household-level ASF consumption data were collected from 24-hour food group intake and food consumption and expenditure surveys, respectively. In multiple logistic regression models, household livestock ownership was associated with anaemia among children (OR, 95% CI: 1.5 [1.1, 2.0]), but not women (1.0 [0.83, 1.2]). Household ownership of chickens was associated with higher odds of anaemia among children (1.6 [1.2, 2.2]), but ownership of other animal species was not associated with anaemia among women or children. In path analyses, we observed no evidence of mediation of the association of household livestock ownership with child anaemia by ASF consumption. Ownership of livestock likely has limited importance for consumption of ASFs among young children in Ghana and may in fact place children at an increased risk of anaemia. Further research is needed to elucidate if and how pathogen exposure associated with livestock rearing may underlie this increased risk of anaemia. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Stunting and helminth infection in early preschool-age children in a resource-poor community in the Amazon lowlands of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Joseph, Serene A; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The World Health Organization recommends deworming of children aged 12-24 months in highly endemic areas. Our research objectives were to: 1) examine prevalence patterns of helminth infection in early childhood; 2) assess the association between helminth infection and socio-demographic characteristics; and 3) examine the effect of the intensity of helminth infection on stunting and anemia. A survey of children (7-9 and 12-14 months) living in Belén (Peru) was undertaken between July 2007 and February 2008. A questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics, blood and stool samples were collected, and length-for-age Z scores were calculated. The Kato-Katz method was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm infections. Of 370 participating children, 349 had parasitological results. Infections first appeared in children at 8 months of age. The prevalence of any helminth infection increased linearly to approximately 37.0% (95%CI: 24.3-51.3%) by 14 months of age. Multivariate analysis showed that age, female sex, and residing in the floodplain were significant determinants of helminth infection. Among infected children, moderate-to-heavy infection of any helminth was associated with stunting (βadjusted=-0.84; 95%CI: -1.48, -0.20). These results support the implementation of deworming programs aimed at young children in highly endemic areas. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Benefits of a Tangible User Interface for Children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William; Yuill, Nicola; Raffle, Hayes

    2010-01-01

    Tangible user interfaces (TUIs) embed computer technology in graspable objects. This study assessed the potential of Topobo, a construction toy with programmable movement, to support social interaction in children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Groups of either typically developing (TD) children or those with ASC had group play sessions…

  19. Spontaneous Lexical Alignment in Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Holly P.; Tosi, Alessia; Gillespie-Smith, Karri

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that adults converge on common referring expressions in dialogue, and that such lexical alignment is important for successful and rewarding communication. The authors show that children with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and chronological- and verbal-age-matched typically developing (TD) children also show spontaneous…

  20. Comparing Explicit and Implicit Learning of Emotional and Non-Emotional Words in Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Explicit and implicit memories have different cerebral origins and learning approaches. Defective emotional words processing in children with autism may affect the memory allocated to such words. The aim of this study was comparing two types of (explicit and implicit memories during processing the two types of (emotional and non-emotional words in autistic children and their healthy counterparts. Materials and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted on 14 autistic children, who had referred to Autism Medical Treatment Center on Tehran, and 14 healthy children in kindergartens and schools across Tehran. For the explicit memory, a list of words was presented to the subjects of our study and they were asked to repeat the words they heard one time immediately and one time with delay. For implicit memory, the subjects were asked to identify the heard words among the presented words. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that the normal children have higher efficiency in explicit and implicit memory than the children with autism (p<0.01. The two-way analysis of memory type and word type showed that the former affects memory significantly (p<0.05 while word type had no significant effect. Conclusion: Autistic children suffer from impaired memory. This defect is higher in implicit memory than in the explicit memory. It is recommended to apply rehabilitation, training, learning approaches and also explicit memory for interventions of autistic children.

  1. The Relationship between Parenting Stress and Behavior Problems of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Two 9- to 10-month-Iong studies (N = 137) examined the interaction between parenting stress and behavior problems in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Study 1 focused on very young children, and Study 2 employed a wider range of child ages; both studies assessed these factors at 2 points in time. The researchers noted a strong…

  2. Tangible technologies for the development of play skills in autistic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marti, P.; Giacolini, L.; Iacono, I.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe Game of Stimuli (GoS) an interactive tangible game for children and adolescents diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. The system is designed to engage children in play scenarios addressing different stages of development from practice play to rule-based play. The

  3. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  4. Comparison between hearing screening-detected cases and sporadic cases of delayed-onset hearing loss in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jingrong; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Yan; Li, Yun; Mei, Ling; Yao, Guoyin; Wang, Yu; Shen, Xiaoming; Wu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnosis and ages of intervention for cases of delayed-onset hearing loss identified sporadically or via a preschool hearing screening program. Retrospective study with the comparative analysis of two groups of children. Cases identified from screening were selected from 34 321 preschool children who underwent screening for delayed-onset hearing loss between October 2009 and May 2011. Sporadic cases of delayed-onset hearing loss were selected from pediatric clinical records. Cases from the first group were excluded from the latter to avoid duplication. Two groups were given the same questionnaire to record risk indicators, diagnosis, and age at intervention. The average age of 26 children at the time of diagnosis in the screening group (52.81 ± 13.23 months) was significantly earlier than in the 33 cases identified in the sporadic group (62.03 ± 12.86 months; p children with bilateral moderate to severe hearing loss in the screening group (50.40 ± 10.76 months) was also earlier than in the sporadic group (62.73 ± 13.77 months; p hearing screening for preschool children with no significant symptoms of delayed-onset hearing loss.

  5. Parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for monitoring the outcome of Community-Led Total Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Liwanag, Harvy Joy C; Naig, June Rose A; Chua, Paul Lester C; Madamba, Manuel I; Dahildahil, Roy O

    2015-01-01

    While preventive chemotherapy remains to be a major strategy for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) comprise the long-term strategy to achieve sustained control of STH. This study examined the parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines where two of the villages attained Open-Defecation-Free (ODF) status after introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). A total of 341 children (89.0% of the total eligible population) submitted stool samples which were examined using the Kato-Katz technique. Results showed that 27.9% of the total stool samples examined had at least one type of STH (cumulative prevalence), while 7.9% had moderate-heavy intensity infections. Between the two villages where CLTS was introduced, Buenavista had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of STH at 67.4% (pnutritional parameters, as well as the presence of CLTS in the village, suggesting the need to monitor the ODF status of villages on a regular basis even after the end of CLTS activities to ensure the sustainability of the CLTS approach. In order to achieve effective control of STH, deeper collaboration between the WASH and STH sectors are recommended where partners can work together in the area of monitoring and evaluation that may include improved parasitological and nutritional status in high-risk groups, as well as sustainable behavior change as outcome indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of Cognitive Group Therapy on Quality of Life and Happiness among Mothers of Autistic Children

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    A Ebrahimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Studies show that parents of children with autism disorders are more exposed to the stress of having disabled children than the parents of children with other psychological disorders. All the problems of these children can endanger the quality of life and happiness of their families. The more the ability of people for coping, so the present study with the aim of studying Effectiveness of Cognitive Group Therapy on Quality of Life and Happiness among Mothers of Autistic Children was done. Methods: The aim of the present study was to examine effectiveness of cognitive group therapy on quality of life and happiness among mothers of autistic children in Shiraz. This study was an experimental study with pretest and posttest with control group design. At first the Quality of Life Questionnaire and Happiness Inventory were administered to mothers of autistic children and after analyzing the data 30 mothers of autistic children who gained lower scores on these tests were selected based on simple random sampling and assigned two groups; experimental and control. The experimental group underwent treatment method for 12 sessions with two month follow up study, but the control group did not receive any treatment. Finding; Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and showed that there was a significant positive correlation between cognitive group therapy and improvement in quality of life and happiness in mothers with autistic children. Follow up studies showed that cognitive group therapy had a significant effect on in quality of life and happiness in the control sample. Conclusion: The results showed that the intervention which has been done could improve the quality of life and its dimensions in parents of children with autism, resulting in the increasing happiness of the  parents. Hence, this method of therapy can be used as therapy, either alone or in conjunction with other forms of mental health treatment

  7. The presence of serum anti-Ascaris lumbricoides IgE antibodies and of Trichuris trichiura infection are risk factors for wheezing and/or atopy in preschool-aged Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcântara-Neves Neuza M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of factors that trigger the development of transient wheezing in early childhood may be an important step toward understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases later in life. Transient wheezing has been mainly attributed to viral infections, although sensitisation to aeroallergens and food allergens may occur at an early age. In developing countries, intestinal helminthic infections have also been associated with allergy or atopy-related disorders. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association of Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infections with wheezing and atopy in early childhood. Study design A cross-sectional study using a Portuguese-language ISAAC phase I questionnaire, adapted for preschool-aged children, nested in a cohort study of childhood diarrhoea, was conducted on 682 children. Two faecal samples per child were examined for the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. IgE antibodies against three allergenic preparations (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Blomia tropicalis and common child food, as well as against A. lumbricoides antigens, were measured in a sub-sample of these children, whose parents allowed the procedure. Atopy was defined by the presence of levels of serum IgE antibodies ≥0.35 kU/L against at least one of the three tested allergenic preparations. Results Active T. trichiura infection but not A. lumbricoides infection was positively associated with wheezing in the total studied children population [adjusted OR = 2.60; CI = 1.54;4.38] and in the atopic children sub-population [adjusted OR = 3.07; CI = 1.00;9.43]. The association with atopy was also positive and statistically significant only in the brute analysis [OR = 2.13; CI = 1.03;4.40]. Anti-A. lumbricoides IgE antibodies, but not current A. lumbricoides infection, were positively associated with wheezing in atopic children [adjusted OR = 2.01; CI = 1.00;4.50] and in non

  8. CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL DESARROLLO COGNITIVO Y DEL LENGUAJE EN NIÑOS DE EDAD PREESCOLAR - CHARACTERISTICS OF LANGUAGE PRE-SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIA ANGELICA CAMPO TERNERA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Study aimed to describe the general characteristics of cognitive development and 229 children aged 3 to 7 of socioeconomic status to attending official educational institutions of Barranquilla in the garden, grades 3 language transition first, developed under a descriptive design and was used as Inventory Development Battelle and the Questionnaire Maturity Child Neuropsychological instruments CUMANIN. The results demonstrate the need for stimulation in areas: receptive and expressive language, perceptual discrimination, reasoning and conceptual skills, memory and pace, low development in these aspects will mean for these children disadvantages compared to their peers that have a development according to their age

  9. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the

  10. Attention and Word Learning in Autistic, Language Delayed and Typically Developing Children

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    Elena eTenenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measured participants’ recognition of these novel word-object pairings. Results indicated that greater attention to the speaker’s mouth was related to higher scores on standardized measures of language development for autistic and typically developing children (but not for language delayed children. This effect was mediated by age for typically developing, but not autistic children. When effects of age were controlled for, attention to the mouth among language delayed participants was negatively correlated with standardized measures of language learning. Attention to the speaker’s mouth and eyes while she was teaching the new words was also predictive of faster recognition of the newly learned words among autistic children. These results suggest that language delays among children with autism may be driven in part by aberrant social attention, and that the mechanisms underlying these delays may differ from those in language delayed participants without autism.

  11. Preschool-Age Children and Adults Flexibly Shift Their Preferences for Auditory versus Visual Modalities but Do Not Exhibit Auditory Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the claim that young children display preferences for auditory stimuli over visual stimuli. This study was motivated by concerns that the visual stimuli employed in prior studies were considerably more complex and less distinctive than the competing auditory stimuli, resulting in an illusory preference for…

  12. The Relationship of Violent Fathers, Posttraumatically Stressed Mothers and Symptomatic Children in a Preschool-Age Inner-City Pediatrics Clinic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J. Blake; Myers, Michael M.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to understand if greater severity of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), related to maternal report of interpersonal violence, mediates the effects of such violence on (a) child PTSS as well as on (b) child externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Study participants were mothers (N = 77) and children 18 to 48 months…

  13. The Effect of Social Isolation on Depressive Symptoms Varies by Neighborhood Characteristics: A Study of an Urban Sample of Women with Pre-School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; O'Campo, Patricia; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Muntaner, Carles

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how individual characteristics, social isolation, and neighborhood context affect depressive symptoms in a socio-economically diverse population of women with young children. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 261 mothers from 68 neighborhoods in Baltimore between 1998 and 2000. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  14. Simultaneous vs. Successive Bilingualism among Preschool-Aged Children: A Study of Four-Year-Old Korean-English Bilinguals in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah-Young; Park, Anne; Lust, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The current study compares simultaneous vs. successive bilingualism through a mixed-method research design with four four-year-old Korean-English bilingual children who were born and raised in the USA. Two simultaneous bilinguals were exposed to Korean and English from birth, whereas two successive bilinguals were exposed to Korean from birth, but…

  15. The developmental potential of art activities at the preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Večanski Vera D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional approaches to the teaching of art and arts activities at the preschool age, art has been viewed mostly in terms of emotional self-expression and development. According to this view, art and arts activities foster the development of creativity, imagination and emotions, but little consideration is given to their link to cognitive processes and to their synthetic character. In general education, art and arts activities are often relegated to marginal status. This paper presents a theoretical examination of the potential of arts activities to enhance the development of a well-rounded personality in children. Through a theoretical analysis of the relevant literature, research and ideas in recent theory which emphasize the synthetic character of art, the potential of arts activities in all segments of development and creativity at the preschool age has been examined. However, in obtaining the full benefit of arts activities in practice, the manner in which arts activities with children at this age are carried out is extremely important. Of particular importance in this process is the influence and role of early childhood educators, who should act as mediators, partners and co-explorers, facilitating, supporting, enriching and participating in the process of free exploration and creativity. Giving primacy to these roles of a teacher would help bring about a change in the child's position in early childhood education and would also change and expand the child's range of activities.

  16. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (pstress elicitation, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU's (pstress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Taste Receptor Genes Are Associated with Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children in the Guelph Family Health Study: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Chamoun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables. This study seeks to determine the cross-sectional associations between three taste receptor SNPs and snacking patterns among preschoolers in the Guelph Family Health Study. Preschoolers’ snack quality, quantity, and frequency were assessed using three-day food records and saliva was collected for SNP genotyping (n = 47. Children with the TT genotype in TAS1R2 consumed snacks with significantly more calories from sugar, and these snacks were consumed mostly in the evening. Total energy density of snacks was highest in the CC and CG genotypes compared to the GG genotype in TAS2R38, and also greater in the AA genotype in CD36 compared to G allele carriers, however this difference was not individually attributable to energy from fat, carbohydrates, sugar, or protein. Genetic variation in taste receptors may influence snacking patterns of preschoolers.

  18. Public School Programing for Autistic Chilren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopler, Eric; Olley, J. Gregory

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a statewide program (NC) for autistic and communication impaired children--Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children). (PHR)

  19. Screening for autistic spectrum disorder in children aged 14-15 months. II: population screening with the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Design and general findings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, C.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Daalen, E. van; Engeland, H.M. van; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage protocol for screening for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) was evaluated in a random population of 31,724 children aged 14-15 months. Children were first pre-screened by physicians at well-baby clinics using a 4-item screening instrument. Infants that screened positive were then

  20. Cost-effectiveness of fluticasone propionate administered via metered-dose inhaler plus babyhaler spacer in the treatment of asthma in preschool-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Price, M J; Maden, Christian Nicolai

    2001-01-01

    a metered-dose inhaler and a Babyhaler (Glaxo Wellcome; Middlesex, UK) spacer device. MEASUREMENTS: Effectiveness in terms of asthma exacerbations, control of cough and wheeze symptoms, symptom-free days, overall direct costs of asthma management in Danish kroner at 1999 prices, and mean and incremental......STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) in children aged 12 to 47 months with asthma symptoms. DESIGN: A retrospective economic analysis conducted from the perspective of the Danish health-care system, based on clinical data from a 12-week study...... cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS: FP, 200 microg/d, was significantly more effective than placebo treatment in terms of the proportion of exacerbation-free patients (73.7% vs 59.8%; p = 0.025) and patients experiencing a > or = 25% improvement in cough symptoms (57.9% vs 39.0%; p = 0.018). The costs...

  1. Changes in language development among autistic and peer children in segregated and integrated preschool settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S L; Handleman, J S; Kristoff, B; Bass, L; Gordon, R

    1990-03-01

    Five young children with autism enrolled in a segregated class, five other children with autism in an integrated class, and four normally developing peer children in the integrated class were compared for developmental changes in language ability as measured by the Preschool Language Scale before and after training. The results, based on Mann-Whitney U tests, showed that (a) all of the children as a group made better than normative progress in rate of language development, (b) the scores of the autistic children were significantly lower than the peers before and after treatment, and (c) there were no significant differences in changes in language ability between the autistic children in the segregated and integrated classes.

  2. Story time turbocharger? Child engagement during shared reading and cerebellar activation and connectivity in preschool-age children listening to stories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Hutton

    Full Text Available Expanding behavioral and neurobiological evidence affirms benefits of shared (especially parent-child reading on cognitive development during early childhood. However, the majority of this evidence involves factors under caregiver control, the influence of those intrinsic to the child, such as interest or engagement in reading, largely indirect or unclear. The cerebellum is increasingly recognized as playing a "smoothing" role in higher-level cognitive processing and learning, via feedback loops with language, limbic and association cortices. We utilized functional MRI to explore the relationship between child engagement during a mother-child reading observation and neural activation and connectivity during a story listening task, in a sample of 4-year old girls. Children exhibiting greater interest and engagement in the narrative showed increased activation in right-sided cerebellar association areas during the task, and greater functional connectivity between this activation cluster and language and executive function areas. Our findings suggest a potential cerebellar "boost" mechanism responsive to child engagement level that may contribute to emergent literacy development during early childhood, and synergy between caregiver and child factors during story sharing.

  3. Reliability and comparative validity of a Diet Quality Index for assessing dietary patterns of preschool-aged children in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunaratnam, Kanita; Halaki, Mark; Wen, Li Ming; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria M

    2018-03-01

    To report on the reliability and validity of a Diet Quality Index (DQI) to assess preschoolers dietary patterns using a short food frequency questionnaire (sFFQ) and 3-day food records (3d-FR). Seventy-seven preschool carers/parents completed a telephone interview on preschoolers (2-5-year olds) dietary habits in metropolitan Sydney. Agreement in scores was assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC) and paired t-tests for repeated sFFQ-DQI scores and Bland-Altman methods and paired t-tests for sFFQ-DQI and 3d-FR-DQI scores. Mean-total sFFQ-DQI ICC scores was high = 0.89, 95% CI (0.81, 0.93). There was weak agreement between sFFQ-DQI and 3d-FR-DQI scores (r = 0.36, p < 0.01). The 3d-FR-DQI scores were positively associated with carbohydrate, folate, ß-carotene, magnesium, calcium, protein, total fat and negatively associated with sugar, starch, niacin, vitamin C, phosphorus, polyunsaturated fat, and monounsaturated fat. The sFFQ-DQI demonstrated good reliability but weak validity. Associations between nutrients and 3d-FR-DQI scores indicate promising usability and warrants further investigation. Further research is needed to establish its validity in accurately scoring children's diet quality using sFFQ compared to 3d-FR before the tool can be implemented for use in population settings.

  4. Individual genetic variations related to satiety and appetite control increase risk of obesity in preschool-age children in the STRONG kids program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Wang, Anthony; Donovan, Sharon M; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The burden of the childhood obesity epidemic is well recognized; nevertheless, the genetic markers and gene-environment interactions associated with the development of common obesity are still unknown. In this study, candidate genes associated to satiety and appetite control pathways with obesity-related traits were tested in Caucasian preschoolers from the STRONG Kids project. Eight genetic variants in genes related to obesity (BDNF, LEPR, FTO, PCSK1, POMC, TUB, LEP, and MC4R) were genotyped in 128 children from the STRONG Kids project (mean age 39.7 months). Data were analyzed for individual associations and to test for genetic predisposition scores (GPSs) with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric traits (Z-scores, e.g. height-for-age Z-score, HAZ). Covariates included age, sex, and breastfeeding (BF) duration. Obesity and overweight prevalence was 6.3 and 19.5%, respectively, according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles. Individual genetic associations of MC4R and LEPR markers with HAZ were strengthened when BF duration was included as a covariate. Our GPSs show that, as the number of risk alleles increased, the risk of higher BMI and HAZ also increased. Overall, the GPSs assembled were able to explain 2-3% of the variability in BMI and HAZ phenotypes. Genetic associations with common obesity-related phenotypes were found in the STRONG Kids project. GPSs assembled for specific candidate genes were associated with BMI and HAZ phenotypes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Setting Effects on the Occurrence of Autistic Children's Immediate Echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, Marjorie H.

    1986-01-01

    Six autistic boys (ages 3-11) were presented with a receptive labeling task in several settings which varied in familiarity of person, room, and task stimuli. Results indicated that the greatest amount of echolalia occurred in settings in which an unfamiliar person presented unfamiliar task stimuli. (Author)

  6. The Functions of Immediate Echolalia in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizant, Barry M.; Duchan, Judith F.

    1981-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of verbal and nonverbal factors, response latency, and intonation, in four autistic boys (4 to 9 years old) revealed that immediate echolalia is far more than a meaningless behavior. Seven functional categories of echolalia were discovered and are discussed in reference to behavioral and linguistic features of each category.…

  7. Error and feedback processing in children with ADHD and children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder : An EEG event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Waggeveld, Brenda; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Performance monitoring was investigated in typically developing (TD) children, children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and medication-free children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods: Subjects performed a feedback-based

  8. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project Neurodevelopment Package: a novel method for the multi-dimensional assessment of neurodevelopment in pre-school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Fernandes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st Project is a population-based, longitudinal study describing early growth and development in an optimally healthy cohort of 4607 mothers and newborns. At 24 months, children are assessed for neurodevelopmental outcomes with the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package. This paper describes neurodevelopment tools for preschoolers and the systematic approach leading to the development of the Package. METHODS: An advisory panel shortlisted project-specific criteria (such as multi-dimensional assessments and suitability for international populations to be fulfilled by a neurodevelopment instrument. A literature review of well-established tools for preschoolers revealed 47 candidates, none of which fulfilled all the project's criteria. A multi-dimensional assessment was, therefore, compiled using a package-based approach by: (i categorizing desired outcomes into domains, (ii devising domain-specific criteria for tool selection, and (iii selecting the most appropriate measure for each domain. RESULTS: The Package measures vision (Cardiff tests; cortical auditory processing (auditory evoked potentials to a novelty oddball paradigm; and cognition, language skills, behavior, motor skills and attention (the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment in 35-45 minutes. Sleep-wake patterns (actigraphy are also assessed. Tablet-based applications with integrated quality checks and automated, wireless electroencephalography make the Package easy to administer in the field by non-specialist staff. The Package is in use in Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: The INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package is a multi-dimensional instrument measuring early child development (ECD. Its developmental approach may be useful to those involved in large-scale ECD research and surveillance efforts.

  9. "But Perhaps they could Reduce the Suffering?" Parents' Ambivalence toward Participating in Forced Peripheral Vein Cannulation Performed on their Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Edel Jannecke; Moen, Anne; Pedersen, Reidar; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2018-03-13

    The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of how parents experience the use of restraint during the performance of peripheral vein cannulation (PVC) on their child. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed with seven parents and one close relative who had accompanied their 3-5-year-old child while the child resisted the medical procedure of PVC. The analysis was guided by symbolic interactionism and resulted in two themes. The first theme that emerged, "Negotiating What Quality of Performance Should be Expected", was based on 1) Parents expected child-friendly encounters, 2) Performance of PVC caused unexpected and unnecessary suffering for the child, and 3) Parents explained and excused the performance of PVC. The second theme: "Negotiating One's Own Role and Participation in a Child's Suffering During the Procedure", was based on 1) Parents desired to be acknowledged and approached for suggestions regarding ways to ease the trauma surrounding the procedure, 2) Parents expressed uncertainty regarding the consequences that the procedure would have for the children, and 3) Parents desired to play a protective role, and they tended to engage in self-criticism. When the PVC was less child-friendly, poorly planned and chaotic or performed with lacking skills, the parents became unwilling partners in the unnecessary suffering of the child. A practical implication is that if pediatric health care providers are aiming for the reduction of restraint, they must better understand parents' expectations and experiences and ensure that the use of restraint is used as the last resort. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen Link; Erkanli, Alaattin; Keeler, Gordon; Potts, Edward; Walter, Barbara Keith; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability of a new interviewer-based psychiatric diagnostic measure (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment) for use with parents of preschoolers 2 to 5 years old. Method: A total of 1,073 parents of children attending a large pediatric clinic completed the Child Behavior Checklist 1 1/2-5. For 18 months,…

  11. Developmental Stability in Gender-Typed Preferences between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jillian E.; Ilksoy, Sibel D.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2018-01-01

    Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal…

  12. Application of a ketogenic diet in children with autistic behavior: pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangeliou, A.; Vlachonikolis, I.; Mihailidou, H.; Spilioti, M.; Skarpalezou, A.; Makaronas, N.; Prokopiou, A.; Christodoulou, P.; Liapi-Adamidou, G.; Helidonis, E.; Sbyrakis, S.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot prospective follow-up study of the role of the ketogenic diet was carried out on 30 children, aged between 4 and 10 years, with autistic behavior. The diet was applied for 6 months, with continuous administration for 4 weeks, interrupted by 2-week diet-free intervals. Seven patients could

  13. Psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index with parents of children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, L A; Ahmad, M M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. The factor structure for the PSI-SF was examined using confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. We found that the modified three-factor model (30 items) fits the data significantly better than the 36-item model. The results showed that the 12 items of the Parental Distress sub-scale support the original scale structure. However, items in the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction and Difficult Child sub-scales did not show stability in their structure. The results in this study showed that the PSI-SF in its 30-item model has endorsed the necessary validity of the scale with parents of children with autistic disorder. The study provides information on the effects of Arab culture on the validity of PSI-SF. It is recommended to use the new factors structure of the PSI-SF with the 30 items in the studies that intend to examine the stress among parents with children with autistic disorder in the Arab world. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Economic Consequences of Autistic Spectrum Disorder among Children in a Swedish Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarbrink, Krister

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the societal economic consequences of autistic spectrum disorder were investigated using a sample of parents of children identified with the disorder and living in a Swedish municipality. Cost information was collected using a postal questionnaire that was developed through experiences gained from an earlier study. Using…

  15. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Perrin, S.

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic

  16. Effectiveness of a Novel Community-Based Early Intervention Model for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Isabel M.; Koegel, Robert L.; Koegel, Lynn K.; Openden, Daniel A.; Fossum, Kristin L.; Bryson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Nova Scotia early intensive behavior intervention model--NS EIBI (Bryson et al., 2007) for children with autistic spectrum disorders was designed to be feasible and sustainable in community settings. It combines parent training and naturalistic one-to-one behavior intervention employing Pivotal Response Treatment--PRT (R. Koegel & Koegel,…

  17. Teaching Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Preschool Teacher Survey to Determine Best Practice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-Kliss, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    Teaching children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be the most challenging to preschool teachers because of the complexity of this brain disorder. A child s life is affected, whether its communication and language, social and play skills, activities of daily living, self-regulation behaviors, and sensory impairments. Therefore, a teacher…

  18. Irish Clinicians' Views of Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Katie; Guerin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated clinicians' perspectives on the effectiveness of interventions designed to support the development of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Researchers developed a semi-structured interview which was administered to 11 clinicians involved in the assessment and treatment of ASDs (5 = clinical…

  19. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  20. An Alternating Treatment Comparison of Oral and Total Communication Training Programs with Echolalic Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Richardo D.; Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the relative effectiveness of oral and total communication training models for teaching expressive labeling skills to three echolalic autistic children (six-nine years old) demonstrated that total communication was the most successful approach with each of the Ss. (Author/CL)

  1. Emotional Representation in Facial Expression and Script: A Comparison between Normal and Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Carrera, Alba

    2007-01-01

    The paper explored conceptual and lexical skills with regard to emotional correlates of facial stimuli and scripts. In two different experimental phases normal and autistic children observed six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust) and six emotional scripts (contextualized facial expressions). In…

  2. Behavioral Treatment and Normal Educational and Intellectual Functioning in Young Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovaas, O. Ivar

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of behavior modification treatment for two groups of similarly constituted, young autistic children. Pretreatment measures revealed no significant differences between the intensively treated experimental group and the minimally treated control groups. At follow-up, experimental group subjects (N=19) did significantly better…

  3. "Tunnel Vision": A Possible Keystone Stimulus Control Deficit in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, Arnold; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three autistic boys (ages 9-13) were trained to select a card containing a stimulus array comprised of three visual cues. Decreased distance between cues resulted in responses to more cues, increased distance to fewer cues. Distances did not affect the responding of children matched for mental and chronological age. (Author/JW)

  4. [Social intelligence deficits in autistic children and adolescents--subjective theories of psychosocial health care professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krech, M; Probst, P

    1998-10-01

    The paper is concerned with personal theories of health care professionals about deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic persons. In the component-model of social intelligence means the ability of individuals or groups, to interact with each other in social situations. This contains social perception, social behavior as well as social conceptions and refers to emotional, cognitive and normative aspects. 33 interviewees, working as psychologists or teachers in kindergartens, schools or therapy institutions, are questioned by a half-standardized single interview concerning their beliefs about nonverbal social abilities, social perspective taking, and construction of a theory of mind in autistic persons. The major finding is: The impairments can be found in all aspects of social intelligence. Especially emotional handicaps, which are quoted by more than 80% of the interviewees, and low cognitive preconditions of mastering social stimuli, which are quoted by nearly all interviewees, are relevant. The subjective theories of the interviewees are in accordance to the models of parents as well as the models of the leading experts. The professional relationship to autistic persons and the practical experiences of the health care professionals lead to their specific personal theories of deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic people with wide consequences in respect to the professional contact with the autistic children and young adults.

  5. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback in neuronal activation of the temporal lobe area in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Furtado da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study focused upon the functional capacity of mirror neurons in autistic children. 30 individuals, 10 carriers of the autistic syndrome (GCA, 10 with intellectual impairments (GDI, and 10 non-autistics (GCN had registered eletroencephalogram from the brain area theoretically related to mirror neurons. Data collection procedure occurred prior to brain stimulation and after the stimulation session. During the second session, participants had to alternately process figures evoking neutral, happy, and/or sorrowful feelings. Results proved that, for all groups, the stimulation process in fact produced additional activation in the neural area under study. The level of activation was related to the format of emotional stimuli and the likelihood of boosting such stimuli. Since the increase of activation occurred in a model similar to the one observed for the control group, we may suggest that the difficulty people with autism have at expressing emotions is not due to nonexistence of mirror neurons.

  6. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback in neuronal activation of the temporal lobe area in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vernon Furtado da; Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Nunes, Rodolfo Alkmim Moreira; Pimentel, Carlos Elias; Martins, Gabriela Paes; Oliveira, Patrícia da Cruz Araruna; Silva, Patrícia Bagno; Silva, Alair Pedro Ribeiro de Souza E

    2016-08-01

    This study focused upon the functional capacity of mirror neurons in autistic children. 30 individuals, 10 carriers of the autistic syndrome (GCA), 10 with intellectual impairments (GDI), and 10 non-autistics (GCN) had registered eletroencephalogram from the brain area theoretically related to mirror neurons. Data collection procedure occurred prior to brain stimulation and after the stimulation session. During the second session, participants had to alternately process figures evoking neutral, happy, and/or sorrowful feelings. Results proved that, for all groups, the stimulation process in fact produced additional activation in the neural area under study. The level of activation was related to the format of emotional stimuli and the likelihood of boosting such stimuli. Since the increase of activation occurred in a model similar to the one observed for the control group, we may suggest that the difficulty people with autism have at expressing emotions is not due to nonexistence of mirror neurons.

  7. Autistic traits and neuropsychological performance in 6- to-10-year-old children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyseni, Fjola; Blanken, Laura M E; Muetzel, Ryan; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2018-04-23

    Clinical studies of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide evidence for poorer neuropsychological performance within specific domains compared to age, gender, and sometimes IQ-matched controls. Since recent evidence suggests that autistic symptoms form a spectrum that extends into the general population, it was our goal to evaluate the nature of the relationship between autistic traits and neuropsychological performance across the continuum in the general population. We examined neuropsychological performance across five different domains in 1019 6-to-10-year-old children participating in a population-based study of child development. Autistic traits were assessed when the children were 6 years of age using the Social Responsiveness Scale and ASD diagnoses were obtained via medical records. Neuropsychological functioning was measured using the NEPSY-II-NL and included the domains of attention and executive function, memory and learning, sensorimotor functioning, language, and visuospatial functioning. We found that children with higher autistic traits showed significantly lower neuropsychological performance in all domains investigated and that this association remained even after excluding children with the highest autistic traits or confirmed ASD. When comparing 41 children with confirmed ASD diagnosis to typically developing controls, children with ASD showed significantly lower neuropsychological performance across all domains. Taken together, our results suggest that children with both ASD and subclinical autistic traits have lower neuropsychological performance. Thus, this may provide an understanding of why some children without an ASD diagnosis may require some additional assistance within academic settings.

  8. Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Intervention Guidance for Service Providers and Families of Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Service Guideline 1. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Birth to Three System, Hartford.

    This guide for parents and service providers contains information on autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children and is the product of a review of research-based programs and models and requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The document begins with discussion of the definition of ASD, possible causes of ASD, and…

  9. Linking Anxiety and Insistence on Sameness in Autistic Children: The Role of Sensory Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Karen R; Stevenson, Ryan A; Segers, Magali; Ncube, Busiswe L; Sun, Sol Z; Philipp-Muller, Aviva; Bebko, James M; Barense, Morgan D; Ferber, Susanne

    2017-08-01

    Sensory hypersensitivity and insistence on sameness (I/S) are common, co-occurring features of autism, yet the relationship between them is poorly understood. This study assessed the impact of sensory hypersensitivity on the clinical symptoms of specific phobia, separation anxiety, social anxiety and I/S for autistic and typically developing (TD) children. Parents of 79 children completed questionnaires on their child's difficulties related to sensory processing, I/S, and anxiety. Results demonstrated that sensory hypersensitivity mediated 67% of the relationship between symptoms of specific phobia and I/S and 57% of the relationship between separation anxiety and I/S. No relationship was observed between sensory hypersensitivity and social anxiety. These mediation effects of sensory hypersensitivity were found only in autistic children, not in TD children.

  10. Autistic Traits in Mothers and Children Associated With Child’s Gender Nonconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumer, Daniel E; Roberts, Andrea L; Reisner, Sari L; Lyall, Kristen; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-01-01

    We examined relationships between autistic traits in children, mothers, and fathers and gender nonconformity (GNC) in children using data from the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) and the Growing Up Today Study 1 (GUTS1). Autistic traits of mothers, fathers and children were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). GNC in children was measured using questions from the Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire. In multivariable analyses increase in child’s SRS score was associated with increased odds (OR 1.35; p=0.03) of being in a higher GNC category. Increase in maternal SRS score was also associated with increased odds (OR 1.46; p=0.005) of the child being in a higher GNC category. Paternal SRS scores were not related to child's GNC category. PMID:25358249

  11. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Reducing Autistic Children's Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tahan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of social skills training on reducing the behavioral problems of children with autism and pseudo-experimental. The statistical population of all autistic children is Mashhad. In this research, a goal-based sampling method is used. 30 children were selected from among children with autism and randomly assigned to two experimental groups (15 people and control (n = 15. The Shelli & Sorkab Communication Skills Questionnaire (2004 and Rutter's Behavioral Disorder (1964 Then, independent variable, ie social skills training (ten sessions 60 minutes, was performed on the experimental group, while no intervention was performed on the control group. After collecting data, the data were analyzed using covariance analysis. The results showed that social skills training has a positive and significant effect on reducing the behavioral problems of communication skills improvement in autistic children. Conclusion: Social skills training is a suitable method for reducing behavioral problems and improving communication skills in autistic children. These results can be used by psychologists and counselors.

  12. Emerging role of aripiprazole for treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, Joan; Gabay, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a largely misunderstood and difficult to treat neurodevelopmental disorder. Three core domains of functioning are affected by autistic disorder, ie, socialization, communication, and behavior. Signs of autistic disorder may be present early, but are frequently overlooked, resulting in a delay in its diagnosis and a subsequent delay in treatment. No one definitive therapy is available, and treatment consists of early educational and behavioral interventions, as well as drug therapy. Atypical antipsychotics have often been used in the treatment of autistic disorder to target irritability, aggression, and self-injurious behavior, all of which can interfere with other aspects of treatment. One atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, has recently been approved for treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder. Based on the results from two randomized, controlled trials, with efficacy data from nearly 300 patients, treatment with aripiprazole was associated with reductions in irritability, global improvements in behavior, and improvements in quality of life from both the patient and caregiver perspectives. Dosage of aripiprazole ranged from 5 mg to 15 mg per day. Aripiprazole was well tolerated during clinical trials, with most adverse events considered mild or moderate. Clinically relevant weight gain occurred in about 30% of patients given aripiprazole, although when compared with other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole appears to have fewer metabolic effects and a lower risk of weight gain. However, pediatric patients taking any atypical antipsychotic should be carefully monitored for potential adverse events, because the long-term effects of antipsychotic therapy in this population are not well known. When used appropriately, aripiprazole has the potential to be an effective treatment for children with autistic disorder to improve irritability and aggressive behavior and improve quality of life.

  13. Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Irritability in Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kirino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed.

  14. Autistic traits and internet gaming addiction in Chinese children: The mediating effect of emotion regulation and school connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Yu, Chengfu; Conner, Bradley T; Wang, Suiping; Lai, Weiping; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    This report details an 18-month longitudinal study designed to investigate the influence of autistic traits' on internet gaming addiction (IGA) in children. A total of 420 Chinese children (220 boys, Mean age=9.74±0.45) participated in the research. Autistic traits were measured in the 4th grade and emotion regulation, school connectedness and IGA measured in both the 4th and 5th grades. After controlling for age, sex, and sensation seeking, results showed that autistic traits were related to decreased emotion regulation, which in turn was related to lower school connectedness, which was related to increased IGA. The results suggest that improving emotion regulation and school connectedness could reduce the risk of IGA. As a result, these findings may inform intervention and prevention programs targeting children with IGA, especially among those with high levels of autistic traits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Dohsa Training and Theory of Mind in High Functioning Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Naderi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The theory of mind hypothesis states that children with autism are impaired in the development of the ability to appreciate their own and other people's mental states. The people with Autism Spectrum Disorder needs treatment approach which to strengthen their movement, focus of attention, eye contact and relaxation. "Dohsa-hou" is a Japanese psycho-rehabilitation method by motor training, that many of researches investigated its effectiveness on many aspects of autism spectrum disorders The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Dohsa training on theory of mind in high-functioning autistic children. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test designs without control group, 6 children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder participated in the study Pre-test was administered for all participants by theory of mind questionnaire. Participants were given Dohsa training for a period of 4 weeks, 3 sessions of one hour a week. At the end of training, the post test was done by the same questionnaire. In the study, two tools for measuring the effect were used Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire and Theory of mind Questionnaire. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the subjects participated in treatment before and after the intervention, and indicated that in the subjects after the 2 weeks of enforcement of treatment and one month after performing the post-test there was no significant difference. Discussion: As data showed, Dohsa training was an effective treatment for autistic children and movement has very important role in cognition, learning and cognition performance, especially theory of mind because movement and rhythm stimulate the brain. Together these findings suggest that it may be the autistic children motivation to move in ways they have not tried before that led their improvement during this psycho-rehabilitative program which affect their cognition and theory of

  16. A Volumetric and Functional Connectivity MRI Study of Brain Arginine-Vasopressin Pathways in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Zeng, Xiang-Zhu; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Hui-Shu; Xing, Yan; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Wei, Qing-Yun; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Dysfunction of brain-derived arginine-vasopressin (AVP) systems may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Certain regions such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus are known to contain either AVP neurons or terminals and may play an important role in regulating complex social behaviors. The present study was designed to investigate the concomitant changes in autistic behaviors, circulating AVP levels, and the structure and functional connectivity (FC) of specific brain regions in autistic children compared with typically developing children (TDC) aged from 3 to 5 years. The results showed: (1) children with ASD had a significantly increased volume in the left amygdala and left hippocampus, and a significantly decreased volume in the bilateral hypothalamus compared to TDC, and these were positively correlated with plasma AVP level. (2) Autistic children had a negative FC between the left amygdala and the bilateral supramarginal gyri compared to TDC. The degree of the negative FC between amygdala and supramarginal gyrus was associated with a higher score on the clinical autism behavior checklist. (3) The degree of negative FC between left amygdala and left supramarginal gyrus was associated with a lowering of the circulating AVP concentration in boys with ASD. (4) Autistic children showed a higher FC between left hippocampus and right subcortical area compared to TDC. (5) The circulating AVP was negatively correlated with the visual and listening response score of the childhood autism rating scale. These results strongly suggest that changes in structure and FC in brain regions containing AVP may be involved in the etiology of autism.

  17. The facilitative effects of incidental teaching on preposition use by autistic children.

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, G G; Krantz, P J; McClannahan, L E

    1985-01-01

    In a comparison of incidental teaching and traditional training procedures, three language-delayed autistic children were taught expressive use of prepositions to describe the location of preferred edibles and toys. Traditional highly structured training and incidental teaching procedures were used in a classroom setting, and generalization was assessed during free-play sessions. Results clearly indicate that incidental teaching promoted greater generalization and more spontaneous use of prep...

  18. Precocious realists: perceptual and cognitive characteristics associated with drawing talent in non-autistic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Winner, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    A local processing bias in the block design task and in drawing strategy has been used to account for realistic drawing skill in individuals with autism. We investigated whether the same kind of local processing bias is seen in typically developing children with unusual skill in realistic graphic representation. Forty-three 5–11-year-olds who drew a still life completed a version of the block design task in both standard and segmented form, were tested for their memory for the block design items, and were given the Kaufmann Brief Intelligence Test-II. Children were classified as gifted, moderately gifted or typical on the basis of the level of realism in their drawings. Similar to autistic individuals, the gifted group showed a local processing bias in the block design task. But unlike autistic individuals, the gifted group showed a global advantage in the visual memory task and did not use a local drawing strategy; in addition, their graphic realism skill was related to verbal IQ. Differences in the extent of local processing bias in autistic and typically developing children with drawing talent are discussed. PMID:19528030

  19. Low-level lead exposure and autistic behaviors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    The association between lead exposure and autism spectrum disorder is inconclusive. We hypothesized an association between higher blood lead concentrations and more autistic behaviors, including impaired social interactions and communication, stereotypical behaviors, and restricted interests, among school-age children. Data from 2473 Korean children aged 7-8years who had no prior history of developmental disorders were analyzed. Two follow-up surveys were conducted biennially until the children reached 11-12years of age. Blood lead concentrations were measured at every survey, and autistic behaviors were evaluated at 11-12years of age using the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The associations of blood lead concentration with ASSQ and SRS scores were analyzed using negative binomial, logistic, and linear regression models. Blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age (geometric mean: 1.64μg/dL), but not at 9-10 and 11-12years of age, were associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, according to the ASSQ (β=0.151; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.061, 0.242) and SRS (β=2.489; 95% CI: 1.378, 3.600). SRS subscale analysis also revealed associations between blood lead concentrations and social awareness, cognition, communication, motivation, and mannerisms. Even low blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age are associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, underscoring the need for continued efforts to reduce lead exposure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The effect of musical movement activities on the balance function of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Atigh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autistic children with low level performance have problems in social interaction, communication skills and sensory processing as well as motor and balance function. Musical activity is one of the most effective therapeutic strategies to manage some of these core defects. The present study examined the effect of musical movement activities on the balance function of 7 to 14 years autistic children with low performance. Methods: Twenty-two autistic students with low performance at age range of 7 to 14 years old participated in the study were assigned to experimental and control group randomly. The interventions were consisted of musical movement activities for experimental and without music for control group. Balance performance of subjects was assessed before treatment, and after 12th and 24th therapeutic sessions using balancing subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOTMP. The assessments were double blinded. Data were analyzed employing repeated measures of ANOVA. The SPSS software-version 17was used. Results: The results indicated that the effect of interventions on two groups was significantly different (F; 1.2= 52.8, P<0.001. The improvement in the balancing performance has been observed in both groups after 12th and 24th sessions although the difference in balance scores between groups was higher after 24th treatment session (P<0.001; that is in experimental group more improvement was obtained. Conclusion: The findings suggest that musical movement activities can accelerate the improvement in balance function of autistic children with low performance.

  1. The Effect of Training Play Therapy to the Mothers of Autistic Children to Improve the Verbal and Nonverbal Skills of their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinus Amrollahi far

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of play therapy training to mothers of autistic children on verbal and non-verbal improvement of their children.Materials and Methods: 30 autistic children with intermediate degree of autism were selected based on availability sampling procedure and were divided into experimental and control groups. Having collected the intended data and analyzed them with SPSS software.Results: The study finally revealed that the play therapy training significantly improved the social skills of autistic children.Conclusion: These results suggested that applying play therapy with families and teach it to the mothers that have autistic children

  2. Keys to Success with Autistic Children: Structure, Predictability, and Consistency Are Essential for Students on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseminger, Scott H.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood and elementary music teachers face particular challenges when including children with special needs in the music classroom. Children with autism act out and misbehave not because they are autistic, but because their fears and anxieties are so great. Knowing that children with autism and other neurological disorders have distinct…

  3. Abnormal lung function at preschool age asthma in adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Katariina; Kalliola, Satu; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Sarna, Seppo; Malmberg, L Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna S; Mäkelä, Mika J

    2018-05-01

    Asthma often begins early in childhood. However, the risk for persistence is challenging to evaluate. This longitudinal study relates lung function assessed with impulse oscillometry (IOS) in preschool children to asthma in adolescence. Lung function was measured with IOS in 255 children with asthma-like symptoms aged 4-7 years. Baseline measurements were followed by exercise challenge and bronchodilation tests. At age 12-16 years, 121 children participated in the follow-up visit, when lung function was assessed with spirometry, followed by a bronchodilation test. Asthma symptoms and medication were recorded by a questionnaire and atopy defined by skin prick tests. Abnormal baseline values in preschool IOS were significantly associated with low lung function, the need for asthma medication, and asthma symptoms in adolescence. Preschool abnormal R5 at baseline (z-score ≥1.645 SD) showed 9.2 odds ratio (95%CI 2.7;31.7) for abnormal FEV1/FVC, use of asthma medication in adolescence, and 9.9 odds ratio (95%CI 2.9;34.4) for asthma symptoms. Positive exercise challenge and modified asthma-predictive index at preschool age predicted asthma symptoms and the need for asthma medication, but not abnormal lung function at teenage. Abnormal preschool IOS is associated with asthma and poor lung function in adolescence and might be utilised for identification of asthma persistence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abilities of phonological awareness in the context of cognitive development in preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grofčíková Soňa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is considered a key phenomenon having crucial position among abilities and processes which are important and responsible for the development of reading and writing (initial literacy. The paper deals with the significance and level of development of selected cognitive functions of a child in relation to the abilities of phonological awareness. The child’s current cognitive development is a predictor for certain level of phonological awareness. The paper is focused on a description of speech perception, language, oral vocabulary and phonological memory of children in preschool age. It is an output of the research project VEGA no. 1/0637/16 Development of a Diagnostic Tool to Assess the Level of Phonemic Awareness of Children in Preschool Age.

  5. The effect of a psycho-educational program on CARS scores and short sensory profile in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Antigone S; Nikaina, Irene; Rizou, Joanna; Alexandrou, Stratos

    2011-07-01

    There is great demand for effective management of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study aimed to investigate the effect of an individually tailored psycho-educational program for autistic children on the scores of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Short Sensory Profile (SSP). Forty children (36 males) were enrolled into an intervention program which consisted of occupational therapy including sensory integration techniques, speech therapy, social skills therapy and parent-directed approaches. Autism severity was assessed using CARS; sensory response capability with the SSP pre- and post-treatment. Eight children were intellectually normal; 12 borderline and 20 of low intelligence. Pre-treatment CARS showed that 8 were mildly autistic, 32 moderately-severely autistic. Post-treatment, 24 children changed category; 11 were no longer autistic. The percentage of children performing in the definitive difference region, according to total SSP score, changed slightly (45% vs 32.5%). Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment values revealed that CARS decreased significantly (p values (p educational therapy had a significant effect on autism severity according to CARS. Changes in the SSP scores were not significant. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid in urine of autistic children by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuzna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2010-09-01

    Studies suggest dopamine nervous systems are involved in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. Quantification of urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) can be a very important tool in the study of disorders of dopamine metabolism in autistic children. The urine specimens were collected from 20 autistic children and 36 neurologically normal children. Urinary HVA and VMA were simultaneously analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method involves extraction of HVA and VMA from urinary samples and derivatization to N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide derivatives. The detection limits are 0.15 microg/mL and 0.23 microg/mL for VMA and HVA, respectively. The levels of HVA and VMA were higher in the urine of autistic children (28.8+/-15.5 micromol/mmol creatinine and 22.2+/-13.0 micromol/mmol creatinine, respectively) compared with those of the generally healthy children (4.6+/-0.7 micromol/mmol creatinine for HVA and 3.8+/-0.6 micromol/mmol creatinine for VMA). We proposed a simple, rapid method for a routine analysis of human urine to detect HVA and VMA related to an abnormal functional imbalance of the dopamine system, and showed our experience of application of this method to patients with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. These results suggest significant differences in the levels of HVA and VMA between autistic and healthy children.

  7. Coping strategies and parental attitudes, a comparison of parents with children with autistic spectrum disorders and parents with non-autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivberg, Bengt

    2002-01-01

    This study focused on the coping strategies of parents' with children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and the relation between these strategies and parenting styles. Coping strategies were measured using the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the Purpose in Life Test (PIL-R). Parental attitudes toward loving care, stress, worry, and guilt feelings were assessed using the Family Impact Questionnaire. Two groups of participants were included: parents with children with ASD (EG) (n = 66) and a matched control group (CG) (n = 66). Paired Samples t-Test and Pearson's r correlation were used as methods of analysis. Main results distinguished significant (p fathers and probably an indicator of a stronger burnout effect of the mothers.

  8. Music Therapy with Autistic Children: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Sanchez, Celeste S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the researchers was to determine if there are alternative methods in treating children with autism. Children diagnosed with autism are currently attending special schools with a different type of curriculum. Many methods have been used by psychologists and psychiatrists to treat children diagnosed with autism. Children with mental or…

  9. Nadwaga a płaskostopie u dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym – raport z badań = Overweight and flat feet in children of preschool age – research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Srokowska

    2015-04-01

    2Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu Collegium Medicum w Bydgoszczy, Katedra Fizjoterapii, Bydgoszcz, Polska     Adres do korespondencji: mgr Anna Srokowska, Katedra i Zakład Podstaw Kultury Fizycznej UMK w Toruniu Collegium Medicum im. L. Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy, ul. Świętojańska 20, 85-077 Bydgoszcz, tel. 600341155, e-mail a.srokowska@cm.umk.pl   Słowa kluczowe: nadwaga, płaskostopie, dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym, różnice, zależności.   Streszczenie Stopa stanowi bardzo ważny element anatomiczny w ciele człowieka ze względu na swoją funkcję podporowo-nośną. Płaskostopie to wada postawy, która często występuje wśród dzieci, co uwidacznia się podczas badań przesiewowych.  Za jedną z przyczyn płaskostopia podaje się obciążenie układu kostno-stawowego nadmierną masą ciała. Celem pracy jest ocena zależności podwyższonego wskaźnika BMI i płaskostopia u dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym. Badaniem objęte zostały dzieci w wieku od 3 do 6 lat z Niepublicznych Przedszkoli „Tęcza” i „Ludzikowo” w Bydgoszczy. Grupa badawcza składała się z 95 dzieci (45 dziewczynek i 50 chłopców. Badania rozpoczęto pomiarami wskaźnika względnej masy ciała BMI. Kolejnym etapem była ocena stanu wysklepienia stóp badanych dzieci, zarówno wysklepienia podłużnego jak i poprzecznego. Pomiary kątów Clarke'a i Wejsfloga umożliwiły odpowiednią klasyfikację. Narzędziem badawczym był tradycyjny podoskop oraz nowoczesne urządzenie RSscan International Footscan. Podwyższone BMI wystąpiło w grupie badawczej jedynie w 6%. Płaskostopie zaś stwierdzono u ponad 1/3 badanych. Uzyskane wyniki badań ze względu na mały odsetek osób z nadwagą i otyłością nie pozwoliły na jednoznaczne powiązanie występowania płaskostopia i zwiększonego wskaźnika BMI.   Keywords:, overweight, flat feet, children of preschool age, differences, depending on.   Abstract Foot forms the basis of the

  10. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone plus topiramate in children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Vala; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Sahraian, Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2010-10-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that forms part of a spectrum of related disorders referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study assessed the effects of topiramate plus risperidone in the treatment of autistic disorder. Forty children between the ages of 4 and 12 years with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism who were outpatients from a specialty clinic for children were recruited. The children presented with a chief complaint of severely disruptive symptoms related to autistic disorder. Patients were randomly allocated to topiramate+risperidone (Group A) or placebo+risperidone (Group B) for an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 2 mg/day for children between 10 and 40 kg and 3 mg/day for children weighting above 40 kg. The dose of topiramate was titrated up to 200 mg/day depending on weight (100 mg/day for 30 kg). Patients were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after starting medication. Measure of outcome was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Rating Scale. Difference between the two protocols was significant as the group that received topiramate had a greater reduction in ABC-C subscale scores for irritability, stereotypic behavior and hyperactivity/noncompliance. The results suggest that the combination of topiramate with risperidone may be superior to risperidone monotherapy for children with autistic disorder. However the results need to be further confirmed by a larger randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Language in low-functioning children with autistic disorder: differences between receptive and expressive skills and concurrent predictors of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-10-01

    Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on receptive language, whereas both comparison groups showed the reverse pattern. Nonverbal mental age, joint attention, and symbolic understanding of pictures were analyzed in relation to concurrent receptive and expressive language abilities. In the group with autistic disorder and intellectual disability, symbol understanding and joint attention were most strongly related to language abilities. Nonverbal mental age was the most important predictor of language abilities in the comparison groups.

  12. Can the Children's Communication Checklist differentiate within the autistic spectrum?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verte, S; Geurts, H.M.; Roeyers, H.; Rosseel, Y.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The study explored whether children with high functioning autism (HFA), Asperger syndrome (AS), and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) can be differentiated on the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC). The study also investigated whether empirically derived

  13. Arriboflavinose clínica em pré-escolares, filhos de migrantes em trânsito pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento, na capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Clinical riboflavin deficiency in pre-school age children of migrants in transit through Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento in the Capital of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Wilson

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento clínico entre 109 pré-escolares, filhos de migrantes em trânsito pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN, tendo-se constatado altíssima prevalência de arriboflavinose. A única medida factível foi a administração de riboflavina a todas as crianças examinadas.A clinical study was carried out on 109 pre-school age children of migrants in transit through Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN. A very high prevalence rate regarding arriboflavinosis was found. The only feasible measure was administration of riboflavin in capsules to all children examined.

  14. Tryptophan-enriched antioxidant cereals improve sleep in children with autistic spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Galán, Carmen; Sánchez, Soledad; Franco, Lourdes; Bravo, Rafael; Rivero, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Ana Beatriz; Barriga, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Theintake of foods rich in tryptophan produces beneficial effects on sleep. Themajority of children with neurological disorders like autistic spectrum disorder(ASD), cerebral palsy or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) havesleep problems. To evaluate the effect of tryptophan-enriched cereal intake onsleep of children with neurological disorders. Involving 7 children with ASD, 9children with cerebral palsy and 6 children with ADHD. They carried a wrist actimeterto record activity....

  15. Autistic traits in children with ADHD index clinical and cognitive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miriam; Martin, Joanna; Langley, Kate; Hamshere, Marian; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) occur frequently in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the significance of their presence in terms of phenotype and underlying neurobiology is not properly understood. This analysis aimed to determine whether higher levels of autistic traits, as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), index a more severe presentation in a large, rigorously phenotyped sample of children with ADHD (N=711). Regression analyses were used to examine association of SCQ scores with core ADHD features, clinical comorbidities and cognitive and developmental features, with adjustment for putative confounders. For outcomes showing association with total SCQ score, secondary analyses determined levels of differential association of the three ASD sub-domains. Results suggest that increasing ASD symptomatology within ADHD is associated with a more severe phenotype in terms of oppositional, conduct and anxiety symptoms, lower full-scale IQ, working memory deficits and general motor problems. These associations persisted after accounting for ADHD severity, suggesting that autistic symptomatology independently indexes the severity of comorbid impairments in the context of ADHD. Sub-domain scores did not show unique contributions to most outcomes, except that social deficits were independently associated with oppositional symptoms and repetitive behaviours independently predicted hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and motor problems. It would be worthwhile for clinicians to consider levels of socio-communicative and repetitive traits in those with ADHD who do not meet diagnostic criteria for ASD, as they index higher levels of phenotypic complexity, which may have implications for efficacy of interventions.

  16. [Differences in cerebral blood flow following risperidone treatment in children with autistic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Dilşad Foto; Karabacak, Neşe Ilgin; Akkaş, Burcu; Akdemir, Ozgür; Unal, Fatih; Senol, Selahattin

    2009-01-01

    Functional changes in the brains of autistic children due to risperidone treatment and theirs relationship to the symptom clusters are yet unknown. In this autistic disorder case series we aimed to comparatively evaluate the clinical findings before and after risperidone treatment, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings with 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain SPECT. Eleven autistic patients (age range: 6-7 years; 4 girls, 7 boys) received risperidone therapy (1.5-2.5 mg d(-1)) and were followed-up for 3 months. All the patients underwent neurologic examinations, psychometric examinations, and SPECT imaging, both at the start of risperidone treatment and 3 months after the treatment started. Clinical observations, and the observations of parents and teachers were recorded. These results were compared with cerebral perfusion indices obtained from SPECT data. After 3 months of treatment changes in rCBF were observed in various regions and to varying degrees. We observed relationships between clinical symptoms and pre-therapy rCBF findings, and between clinical improvement and rCBF changes. Findings in the present case series are the first to demonstrate a relationship between clinical improvement and regional perfusion patterns after risperidone treatment. We think that these findings may contribute to the understanding of the neurofunctional mechanisms and hypothetical models of autism.

  17. Impaired eye region search accuracy in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Pruett

    Full Text Available To explore mechanisms underlying reduced fixation of eyes in autism, children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD and typically developing children were tested in five visual search experiments: simple color feature; color-shape conjunction; face in non-face objects; mouth region; and eye region. No group differences were found for reaction time profile shapes in any of the five experiments, suggesting intact basic search mechanics in children with ASD. Contrary to early reports in the literature, but consistent with other more recent findings, we observed no superiority for conjunction search in children with ASD. Importantly, children with ASD did show reduced accuracy for eye region search (p = .005, suggesting that eyes contribute less to high-level face representations in ASD or that there is an eye region-specific disruption to attentional processes engaged by search in ASD.

  18. Impaired eye region search accuracy in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, John R; Hoertel, Sarah; Constantino, John N; Moll, Angela LaMacchia; McVey, Kelly; Squire, Emma; Feczko, Eric; Povinelli, Daniel J; Petersen, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    To explore mechanisms underlying reduced fixation of eyes in autism, children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing children were tested in five visual search experiments: simple color feature; color-shape conjunction; face in non-face objects; mouth region; and eye region. No group differences were found for reaction time profile shapes in any of the five experiments, suggesting intact basic search mechanics in children with ASD. Contrary to early reports in the literature, but consistent with other more recent findings, we observed no superiority for conjunction search in children with ASD. Importantly, children with ASD did show reduced accuracy for eye region search (p = .005), suggesting that eyes contribute less to high-level face representations in ASD or that there is an eye region-specific disruption to attentional processes engaged by search in ASD.

  19. Broader autistic phenotype in parents of children with autism: Autism Spectrum Quotient-Turkish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Sezen; Bora, Emre; Erermiş, Serpil; Özbaran, Burcu; Bildik, Tezan; Aydın, Cahide

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a self-assessment screening instrument for measuring the degree to which an individual of normal intelligence shows autistic traits. Genetic factors could be responsible for the relatives of individuals with autism exhibiting higher than normal rates of autism-related impairments, referred to as the 'broader autism phenotype' (BAP). The aim of this study was to test whether there is a difference between the parents of autistic and those of typically developing children (TDC) on AQ scores in a Turkish sample. The AQ total and subscale scores of the 100 parents (47 fathers, 53 mothers) of children with autistic disorder (AD) were compared with the 100 parents (48 fathers, 52 mothers) of TDC. The parents of AD children scored significantly higher than the TDC parents on total AQ score, and two of five subscale scores; social skills, and communication. The other three subscales (attention to detail, attention switching, imagination) did not differentiate groups. There was no significant difference between mothers and fathers on any AQ scores, neither in the AD nor TDC group. The group × gender interaction was not significant on the total or the five subscale scores of AQ. Social skill and communication subscales differentiate AD parents more successfully, and are more sensitive, as reported in other studies. The present findings confirm that social skill and communication impairments in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders are indicators of BAP. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals",…

  1. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  2. Coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life (QoL) among parents of children with autistic disorder. The convenience sample of the study consisted of 184 parents of children with autistic disorder. Advanced statistical methods for analyses of mediator and moderator effects of coping strategies were used. The results revealed that 'accepting responsibility' was the only mediator strategy in the relationship between stress and QoL. The results also revealed that only 'seeking social support' and 'escape avoidance' were moderator strategies in the relationship between stress and QoL. This study is perhaps the first to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of coping on QoL of parents of children with autistic disorder. Recommendations for practice and future research are presented. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Play with online virtual pets as a method to improve mirror neuron and real world functioning in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric Lewin

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a severe disease with no known cause and no cure or treatment. Recently, ourselves and subsequently others found that so-called "mirror neurons" - neurons that respond not only when a person moves, but upon observation of movement in another - are dysfunctional in autistic children. Here I suggest an easy, simple, inexpensive and fun method to improve mirror neuron functioning in autistic children, increase appreciation in autistic children for the theory of mind and thinking of others, and most importantly hopefully to improve real world functioning: play with virtual online pets that are the "embodiment" of a stuffed animal the child has. Adoption and then care and play with online pets forces, in a fun way, one to think about the world through the eyes and needs of the pet. A simple method to test this play with online virtual pet therapy is described.

  4. Variation of global DNA methylation levels with age and in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Shui-Ying; Ahmad, Tanveer; Mat, Flora W K; Zhao, Cunyou; Xiao, Shifu; Xia, Kun; Xue, Hong

    2016-09-23

    The change in epigenetic signatures, in particular DNA methylation, has been proposed as risk markers for various age-related diseases. However, the course of variation in methylation levels with age, the difference in methylation between genders, and methylation-disease association at the whole genome level is unclear. In the present study, genome-wide methylation levels in DNA extracted from peripheral blood for 2116 healthy Chinese in the 2-97 age range and 280 autistic trios were examined using the fluorescence polarization-based genome-wide DNA methylation quantification method developed by us. Genome-wide or global DNA methylation levels proceeded through multiple phases of variation with age, consisting of a steady increase from age 2 to 25 (r = 0.382) and another rise from age 41 to 55 to reach a peak level of ~80 % (r = 0.265), followed by a sharp decrease to ~40 % in the mid-1970s (age 56 to 75; r = -0.395) and leveling off thereafter. Significant gender effect in methylation levels was observed only for the 41-55 age group in which methylation in females was significantly higher than in males (p = 0.010). In addition, global methylation level was significantly higher in autistic children than in age-matched healthy children (p < 0.001). The multiphasic nature of changes in global methylation levels with age was delineated, and investigation into the factors underlying this profile will be essential to a proper understanding of the aging process. Furthermore, this first report of global hypermethylation in autistic children also illustrates the importance of age-matched controls in characterization of disease-associated variations in DNA methylation.

  5. Aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Randall; Sikich, Linmarie; Marcus, Ronald N; Corey-Lisle, Patricia; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D; Carson, William H; Findling, Robert L

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder who were manifesting behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a combination of these. This 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted of children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with autistic disorder. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to flexibly dosed aripiprazole (target dosage: 5, 10, or 15 mg/day) or placebo. Efficacy outcome measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist irritability subscale and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score (CGI-I). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Ninety-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 51) or aripiprazole (n = 47). Mean improvement in Aberrant Behavior Checklist irritability subscale score was significantly greater with aripiprazole than with placebo from week 1 through week 8. Aripiprazole demonstrated significantly greater global improvements than placebo, as assessed by the mean CGI-I score from week 1 through week 8; however, clinically significant residual symptoms may still persist for some patients. Discontinuation rates as a result of adverse events (AEs) were 10.6% for aripiprazole and 5.9% for placebo. Extrapyramidal symptom-related AE rates were 14.9% for aripiprazole and 8.0% for placebo. No serious AEs were reported. Mean weight gain was 2.0 kg on aripiprazole and 0.8 kg on placebo at week 8. Aripiprazole was efficacious in children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder and was generally safe and well tolerated.

  6. A training study of theory of mind and executive function in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Naomi; Happé, Francesca

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between theory of mind and executive functioning in children with autistic spectrum disorders through a training study. Ten children were trained on theory of mind, whilst ten were trained in executive function. Seven children were assigned to a control group, receiving no intervention. Training programmes were administered individually, lasting for 25 minutes per day for 5-10 days. Children were tested before training, after training and at a two-month follow-up. Significant improvements were seen in performance on theory of mind tasks in both trained groups, whilst the control group showed no improvement. No improvement on the executive function tasks was seen in any of the groups. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Effect of Picture Exchange Communication System (pecs Training on Social Skills of Boys Children with Autistic Disorders

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    M. Gholami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of pecs training on social skills of children (boys with autistic disorders. Study procedure was experimental with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population of this research includes all children with autistic disorders in Shiraz in the academic year 2012- 2013. The sample size was 30 boys with autistic disorders that were selected in an available sampling method and assigned into experimental and control group, randomly. So each group consisted of 15 students. Both groups were assessed pre-test. The Experimental group received pecs training in 16 sessions while control group did not. After completion of intervention period for Experimental group the post-test was administered for both groups. The Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (Jackson, Volkmar & Minderaa, 1998 were administered to assess the social skills. The data analyses by ANCOVA showed that there were significantly increase in the mean scores of social skills and subscales (Not tune, Tendency to withdraw, Orientation problems, Not understanding, Stereotyped behavior, Fear of changes in experimental group (P<0.01. Findings indicated that pecs training intervention lead to improve social skills of boys with autistic disorders. Therefore, it is suggested to design and implemen pecs training in order to increase children’s social skills with autistic disorders.

  8. Health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral problems in mild to moderate prematures at (pre-)school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketharanathan, N.; Lee, W.; Mol, A.C. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a gap in the knowledge of longterm outcome of mild to moderate prematures compared to the extreme prematures or very low birth weight infants. AIM: Determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in (pre-)school age children

  9. Infant behavioral assessment and intervention program in very low birth weight infants improves independency in mobility at preschool age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Koldewijn, Karen; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Houtzager, Bregje; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program(©) (IBAIP) in very low birth weight infants on sensory processing and daily activities at preschool age. Follow-up of children included in a randomized controlled trial. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  10. Minor Neurological Dysfunctions (MNDs in Autistic Children without Intellectual Disability

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    Gabriele Tripi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD require neurological evaluation to detect sensory-motor impairment. This will improve understanding of brain function in children with ASD, in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs. Methods: We compared 32 ASD children without intellectual disability (IQ ≥ 70 with 32 healthy controls. A standardized and age-specific neurological examination according to Touwen was used to detect the presence of MNDs. Particular attention was paid to severity and type of MNDs. Results: Children with ASD had significantly higher rates of MNDs compared to controls (96.9% versus 15.6%: 81.3% had simple MNDs (p < 0.0001 and 15.6% had complex MNDs (p = 0.053. The prevalence of MNDs in the ASD group was significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than controls. With respect to specific types of MNDs, children with ASD showed a wide range of fine manipulative disability, sensory deficits and choreiform dyskinesia. We also found an excess of associated movements and anomalies in coordination and balance. Conclusions: Results replicate previous findings which found delays in sensory-motor behavior in ASD pointing towards a role for prenatal, natal and neonatal risk factors in the neurodevelopmental theory of autism.

  11. Can autistic children read the mind of an animated triangle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Gemma; Seigal, Anna; Claxton, Melanie; Lawrence, Kate; Skuse, David

    2008-07-01

    Are children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but normal-range intelligence, impaired on theory of mind skills measured by responses to abstract animations in the form of a computerized cartoon? Fifty-six cases and closely matched comparisons were tested. We rated verbal responses according to the length of their descriptions, their appropriateness and the children's use of 'mentalizing' terms. Children with ASD used 'mentalizing' language to describe the animations as well as comparisons, although the content of their descriptions was significantly less appropriate. Performance on this task was not well correlated with standardized measures of parent-reported behaviour or the child's interactions with an observer. The implications of our results are discussed in relation to previous studies that have used this methodology.

  12. [Mothers of children with autistic disorder: perceptions and trajectories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Michele; Lorenzini, Elisiane; da Silva, Eveline Franco

    2015-03-01

    Childhood autism is characterized by severe and global impairment in several areas of human development and demands extensive care and dependence on the parents. The objective of this study was to understand the perceptions of mothers of children with autism regarding changes suffered by the child and their trajectories in search of an autism diagnosis. This is an exploratory descriptive study with a qualitative approach conducted with ten participant mothers. Data were collected in 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews. Thematic content analysis produced the following categories: perceptions of mothers as to changes in behaviour and/or development of their children; and trajectories of mothers in search of a diagnosis for their children. After the perception of changes in behaviour/development, mothers face an arduous trajectory of healthcare service utilization.

  13. The Place of Complementary Medicine in the Treatment of Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Taşkıran Konaç

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to achieve a vision for autistic children and their parents aimed at generating interest in ideas such as “Sanitas Per Aquam” (SPA, massage and music therapy, which has begun to have widespread use and to attract attention. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out with autistic children and their parents from February to April 2015 in Muğla, Turkey. The study was began by interviewing experts in the field and by developing a suitable assessment questionnaire. In order to direct the flow of conversation between the researchers and the autisitc children and their parents, the researchers conducted semi-structured face to face interviews in a form that had been determined by using reports in the literature and the opinions of experts in the field. Results: Forty two boys (84% and eight girls (16% with autism participated in our study. Children in the 0 ─ 7 age group spent long time in the bathroom (P = 0.001. Boys liked to be hugged more than girls (P = 0.01. Children ages 0 ─ 7 years liked bright lighting while those 15 years of age and older liked gloomy lighting (P = 0.009. Except for these statistically significant sex- and age-related differences, no other statistically significant differences were noted in the parameters of this study. Although the result was not statistically significant, more children with mild autism disorder obeyed commands like inhale or exhale (P = 0.051. Conclusion: Treatment for autism spectrum disorders is not yet fully possible, so many studies are being done to alleviate some symptoms and to improve the quality of life for individuals with autism and their families. As a result of our study, whether touching the areas the children want touched and listening to their favorite music are required to stimulate the brain remain as questions in our minds.

  14. Virtual Reality Based Behavioural Learning for Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandiran, Chandra Reka; Jomhari, Nazean; Thiyagaraja, Shamala; Maria, Malissa

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a disorder in the growth and development of a brain or central nervous system that covers a large spectrum of impairment, symptoms and skills. The children who are suffering from autism face difficulties in communicating and adapting well in the community as they have trouble in understanding what others think and feel. Therefore, there…

  15. Autistic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Miesen, Anna I. R.; de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2018-01-01

    Studies have shown an increase of symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in gender dysphoria (GD). Various hypotheses try to explain this possible co-occurrence (e.g., a role of resistance to change, stereotyped behaviors or prenatal testosterone exposure). This study examined ASD symptoms with the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire…

  16. Parents of Autistic Children and Their Experiences with Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, David

    2017-01-01

    Assistive Technology (AT) has become an important tool used by special needs children for improving their quality of life by empowering their abilities, therefore improving their personal independence. The purpose of this Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) study was to closely examine the experiences and meaning-making of parents, of…

  17. Factor Structure of Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Rutter, Michael; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur. Factor analyses of ASD traits in children with and without ASD indicate the presence of social and restrictive-repetitive behaviour (RRB) factors. This study used exploratory factor analyses to determine the structure of ASD traits (assessed using…

  18. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-04-01

    Insomnia is the predominant sleep concern in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and its nature is most likely multifactorial, with neurochemical (abnormalities in serotonergic transmission or melatonin levels), psychiatric (anxiety), and behavioral (poor sleep habits) etiological factors involved. Children with ASD experience sleep problems similar to those of typically developing children, although the prevalence is markedly higher, occurring in 44-83% of school-aged children with ASD. Caregivers usually report that insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, described as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, restless sleep, bedtime resistance, co-sleeping, alterations of sleep hygiene, and early awakenings in the morning. Many actigraphic studies have added information on sleep disorders, confirming the questionnaire findings in the majority of cases. There are relatively few polysomnographic data for ASD, compared with questionnaire studies, and most of these studies reported a reduction in total sleep time and more undifferentiated sleep in the youngest patients. These findings were associated with several sleep microstructure alterations during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and with non-REM (NREM) sleep microstructure changes that appeared to be related to cognitive impairment rather than to the autistic core. Moreover, few data about other less frequent sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movements disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, bruxism, and the influence of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities, are available. Both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions have been suggested for the treatment of sleep problems in autistic children. The most common types of behavioral interventions are complete extinction (removing reinforcement to reduce a behavior) and various forms of graduated extinction. Melatonin has shown promising results in the treatment of insomnia in children with ASD. Although controlled studies are limited

  19. INTERVENTION IN SOCIAL SKILLS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDER: A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW

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    Inmaculada March-Miguez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence rates of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD have increased markedly in recent years. ASD is increasingly present in schools and in society, so it is essential for us to know more about this disorder and the possibilities for intervention. The objective of this work is to carry out a bibliographic review of the articles published in recent years in relation to different intervention programs and techniques that have recently been used to work with children with ASD to train them in the difficulties that most define the disorder: social skills. The most important conclusions indicate that, despite the symptomatic diversity of children with ASD and their different characteristics which can lead to diverse results, there are many programs that improve social skills in these children and notable results are obtained by interventions that include families in the sessions and that are carried out with the use of new technologies, such as computers or robots.

  20. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder

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    Angelidou Asimenia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. We measured by Milliplex arrays serum levels of 3 neuropeptides that could stimulate mast cells in children with autistic disorder (n = 19; 16 males and 3 females; mean age 3.0 ± 0.4 years and healthy, unrelated controls (n = 16; 13 males and 3 females; mean age 3 ± 1.2 years. Only neurotensin (NT was significantly increased from 60.5 ± 6.0 pg/ml in controls to 105.6 ± 12.4 pg/ml in autistic disorder (p = 0.004. There was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels of β-endorphin or substance P (SP. NT could stimulate immune cells, especially mast cells, and/or have direct effects on brain inflammation and ASD.

  1. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Zhang, Bodi; Theoharides, Athanasios; Lykouras, Lefteris; Sideri, Kyriaki; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2010-08-23

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. We measured by Milliplex arrays serum levels of 3 neuropeptides that could stimulate mast cells in children with autistic disorder (n = 19; 16 males and 3 females; mean age 3.0 ± 0.4 years) and healthy, unrelated controls (n = 16; 13 males and 3 females; mean age 3 ± 1.2 years). Only neurotensin (NT) was significantly increased from 60.5 ± 6.0 pg/ml in controls to 105.6 ± 12.4 pg/ml in autistic disorder (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels of β-endorphin or substance P (SP). NT could stimulate immune cells, especially mast cells, and/or have direct effects on brain inflammation and ASD.

  2. Sleep Problem of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Assessed by Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire-Abbreviated in Indonesia and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwanto; Rehatta, Nancy Margarita; Hartini, Sri; Takada, Satoshi

    2016-07-04

    Sleep problems are associated with problems of cognitive functioning, learning, attention and school performance. It has been found that sleep problems are highly prevalent in children with Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), with rates ranging from 40% to 80%. We aimed to identify the prevalence of sleep problems on children with ASD in Indonesia and Japan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Surabaya, Indonesia and Kobe, Japan. Children aged 4 -10 years old were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire-Abbreviated (CSHQ-A) was used in this research to assess the sleep problems, consisted of 22 questions (NICHD SECCYD-Wisconsin). Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test to compare the CSHQ-A scores between Indonesian and Japanese children, while the proportion of sleep problems was evaluated by chi-square test with 95% confidence interval. Fifty children with ASD were included in this study, 25 children from Kobe, Japan and 25 children from Surabaya, Indonesia. The prevalence of sleep problems on children with ASD was 60% (15 children) in Indonesia and 16% (4 children) in Japan respectively. There were significant differences in total waking during the night and in morning wake for the CSHQ-A between children from Indonesia and Japan (psleep problems on children with ASD was higher in children from Indonesia than from Japan.

  3. Some generalization and follow-up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovaas, O. Ivar; Koegel, Robert; Simmons, James Q.; Long, Judith Stevens

    1973-01-01

    We have treated 20 autistic children with behavior therapy. At intake, most of the children were severely disturbed, having symptoms indicating an extremely poor prognosis. The children were treated in separate groups, and some were treated more than once, allowing for within- and between-subject replications of treatment effects. We have employed reliable measures of generalization across situations and behaviors as well as across time (follow-up). The findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Inappropriate behaviors (self-stimulation and echolalia) decreased during treatment, and appropriate behaviors (appropriate speech, appropriate play, and social non-verbal behaviors) increased. (2) Spontaneous social interactions and the spontaneous use of language occurred about eight months into treatment for some of the children. (3) IQs and social quotients reflected improvement during treatment. (4) There were no exceptions to the improvement, however, some of the children improved more than others. (5) Follow-up measures recorded 1 to 4 yr after treatment showed that large differences between groups of children depended upon the post-treatment environment (those groups whose parents were trained to carry out behavior therapy continued to improve, while children who were institutionalized regressed). (6) A brief reinstatement of behavior therapy could temporarily re-establish some of the original therapeutic gains made by the children who were subsequently institutionalized. PMID:16795385

  4. Impacts of Autistic Behaviors, Emotional and Behavioral Problems on Parenting Stress in Caregivers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed…

  5. Validation of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A.; Ahmad, Muayyad M.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has been used in many studies that target parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, the measure has yet to be validated and adapted to this sample group whose daily experiences are considered substantially different from those of parents of children…

  6. Quality Indicators for Single-Case Research on Social Skill Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a quality checklist that parents, teachers, clinicians, and policy-makers with basic research skills can use to systematically evaluate the methodological quality of single-case studies on social skill training of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). We provide a rationale for included quality indicators, and…

  7. Using Multimedia to Reveal the Hidden Code of Everyday Behaviour to Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Theresa; Arnedillo-Sanchez, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a framework which was developed for carers (teachers and parents) to help them create personalised social stories for children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). It explores the social challenges experienced by individuals with ASDs and outlines an intervention aimed at revealing the hidden code that underpins social…

  8. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  9. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  10. Brief Report: Dysregulated Immune System in Children with Autism: Beneficial Effects of Intravenous Immune Globulin on Autistic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sudhir; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children (ages 3-12) with autism (n=25) were given intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) treatments at 4-week intervals for at least 6 months. Marked abnormality of immune parameters was observed in subjects, compared to age-matched controls. IVIG treatment resulted in improved eye contact, speech, behavior, echolalia, and other autistic features.…

  11. Elicited Imitation: A Vehicle for Assessing the Language Functioning Level of Echolalic Autistic Children. Final Report 53.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Gudrun

    The booklet discusses and reports on a study of elicited imitation as a vehicle for assessing the language-functioning level of echolalic autistic children. An historical overview is presented of the diagnosis of early infantile autism. The question of whether or not early infantile autism is a distinct syndrome is addressed. The theoretical and…

  12. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  13. Effect of pivotal response treatment on social skill of 6-11 years old autistic children of Hamedan

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    Fereshteh Mohammad Zaheri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism is a lifetime developmental disability that determines with sever problem in social relations, communication and behavior. Regarding social interaction difficulties of these children and weakness of social skill interventions in creation of motivation. In this study we tried to examine effect pivotal response treatment method on social skill of autistic children.Material & Methods: In this randomized control trial (RCT study, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 autistic participants (6 to 11 years old that matched based on age, gender and mean length utterance, from especial clinics of Hamedan’s autistic persons selected and placed randomly in one of groups of intervention and control. Sessions was administered individually, lasting for 60 minutes and 2 days a week for 3 months. Both groups of children were tested before and after intervention by CCC (children’s communication checklist to assess social skill. Data analysis was done through descriptive statistics tests and covariance analysis.Results: Findings of study showed (according to covariance analysis between before and after of intervention in two groups there is significant changes in social skill’s ability in intervention group.Conclusion: The result of these study indicated effect of pivotal response treatment on social skills in autistic children, therefore this method recommended for speech and language pathologist.

  14. Early Social, Imitation, Play, and Language Abilities of Young Non-Autistic Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Karen; Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenson, Jessica; Fein, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Studies are needed to better understand the broad autism phenotype in young siblings of children with autism. Cognitive, adaptive, social, imitation, play, and language abilities were examined in 42 non-autistic siblings and 20 toddlers with no family history of autism, ages 18-27 months. Siblings, as a group, were below average in expressive…

  15. The development of Self-control of Cognitive Activity in Preschool Age

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    Chernokova T.E.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of self-control formation in the context of metacognitive development of children. The hypothesis of the study was that in the preschool age, the structure of self-cognition begins to form, which includes anticipating, process and final self-control. The aim of the study was to identify the dynamics of self-control of cognitive activity in the preschool years. We used an experimental technique in which children were asked to identify the problem and plan of the learning activities, implement it and evaluate the results. The study involved 60 children aged 4 to 7 years. In all age groups higher rates of current and total self-control were found, but the most intensive dynamics were identified in terms of predictive self-control. In the preschool age children occasionally show a formal self-control. At the age of 5-6 years old, the children start to develop the self-control structure, and significant correlations were found between the indicators of current and final self. The most advanced children demonstrate meaningful self-control. This is due not only to the development of self-awareness, arbitrariness and traditionally described cognitive processes, but also to the development of dialectical thinking and metacognitions.

  16. Low rates of depressed mood and depression diagnoses in a clinic review of children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Charles A; Nowinski, Lisa; Koesterer, Karmen; Ferrone, Christine; Spybrook, Jessaca; Bauman, Margaret

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression diagnoses and related clinical data in an outpatient sample of youth with autistic disorder. Records of 123 psychiatrically referred children and adolescents with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of autistic disorder were examined. Mood disorder diagnoses and chief complaints along with family mood disorder history were the primary variables analyzed. Four subjects (3%) presented with depressed mood. Irritability complaints were frequent (n=78, 63%). Six subjects (5%) received a mood disorder diagnosis; all with mood disorder, not otherwise specified. No subjects received a depressive disorder diagnosis. Family history of mood disorders was common. Findings raise questions about the appropriate characterization and potential misdiagnoses of depression in youth with autistic disorder.

  17. Seven-star needle stimulation improves language and social interaction of children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Sze, Sophia L; Leung, Winnie W

    2009-01-01

    This is a randomized controlled trial that aimed to evaluate the effect of the Seven-star Needle Stimulation treatment on children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Thirty-two children with ASD were assigned randomly into the treatment and control groups. Children in the treatment group underwent 30 sessions of stimulation over 6 weeks, while children in the control group were on a waiting list and did not receive treatment during this period of time. Intervention consisted of a treatment regime comprising of 30 sessions of Seven-star Needle Stimulation, delivered over 6 weeks. Each session lasted 5 to 10 min, children in the treatment group were stimulated at the front and back sides of their body and the head by using Seven-star Needles. The change in the children's behavior was evaluated using parents' report and neurophysiological changes were measured by quantitative EEG (qEEG). Results showed that the treatment group demonstrated significant improvement in language and social interaction, but not in stereotyped behavior or motor function, compared to the control group. qEEG spectral amplitudes in the treatment, but not in the control group, were also reduced significantly. The results suggested that Seven-star Needle Stimulation might be an effective intervention to improve language and social functioning of children with ASD.

  18. Teachers’ perspectives on handwriting and collaborative intervention for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

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    Therese McNamee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This study aims to investigate teacher perspectives on teaching handwriting to children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD and collaboration with occupational therapists. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive design was applied. Purpose-designed surveys were distributed to teachers of children with ASD (aged 4-12 years in the Republic of Ireland. A response rate of 35 per cent (N = 75 was obtained, with 25 responses analysed using descriptive statistics of closed questions and content analysis of open-ended questions. Findings - Of 139 children with ASD, 80 (58 per cent were reported to have difficulties with handwriting. Teachers reported specific difficulties with pencil grasp, letter formation and task concept among the children with ASD. Fourteen (56 per cent, N = 25 respondents did not give handwriting as homework. Teachers valued occupational therapy advice, individualised programmes and ongoing consultation during implementation. Interest in occupational therapy education regarding handwriting was reported. Practical implications - Occupational therapy collaboration to address handwriting difficulties for children with ASD should include involvement in teacher education, coordination of teacher–parent collaboration and the need for involvement in early intervention provision within an emergent literacy framework. Originality/value - Handwriting development is challenging for children with ASD. There is limited information on teaching or teacher–occupational therapy collaborative practices to address handwriting difficulties of children with ASD.

  19. Theory of mind and verbal working memory deficits in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcen, Sezen; Bora, Emre; Erermis, Serpil; Kesikci, Hande; Aydin, Cahide

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential values of executive function and social cognition deficits as endophenotypes of autism. While theory of mind (ToM) is generally accepted as a unitary concept, some have suggested that ToM may be separated into two components (mental state reasoning and decoding). In this study, both aspects of ToM and verbal working memory abilities were investigated with relatively demanding tasks. The authors used a neurocognitive battery to compare the executive function and social cognition skills of 76 parents of autistic probands with 41 parents of healthy children. Both groups were matched for IQ, age and gender. Index parents had verbal working memory deficits. They had also low performance on a mental state reasoning task. Index parents had difficulties in reasoning about others' emotions. In contrast to findings in the control group, low performance of mental state reasoning ability was not associated with working memory deficit in index parents. Social cognition and working memory impairments may represent potential endophenotypes, related to an underlying vulnerability for autistic spectrum disorders.

  20. Broad autism phenotype features of Chinese parents with autistic children and their associations with severity of social impairment in probands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Juan; Ou, Jian-Jun; Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Su-Hong; Zhou, Yuan-Yue; Zhu, Fu-Rong; Liu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Luo, Xue-Rong

    2015-07-23

    Parents of children with autism have higher rates of broad autism phenotype (BAP) features than parents of typically developing children (TDC) in Western countries. This study was designed to examine the rate of BAP features in parents of children with autism and the relationship between parental BAP and the social impairment of their children in a Chinese sample. A total of 299 families with autistic children and 274 families with TDC participated in this study. Parents were assessed using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), which includes self-report, informant-report, and best-estimate versions. Children were assessed using the Chinese version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Parents of children with autism were significantly more likely to have BAP features than were parents of TDC; mothers and fathers in families with autistic children had various BAP features. The total scores of the informant and best-estimate BAPQ versions for fathers were significantly associated with their children's SRS total scores in the autism group, whereas the total scores of the three BAPQ versions for mothers were significantly associated with their children's SRS total scores in the TDC group. In the autism group, the total SRS scores of children with "BAP present" parents (informant and best-estimate) were higher than the total SRS scores of children with"BAP absent" parents. In the TDC group, the total SRS scores of children with "BAP present" parents were higher than the total SRS scores of children with"BAP absent" parents (best-estimate). Parents of autistic children were found to have higher rates of BAP than parents of TDC in a sample of Chinese parents. The BAP features of parents are associated with their children's social functioning in both autism families and TDC families, but the patterns of the associations are different.

  1. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-06-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  2. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  3. Impacts of autistic behaviors, emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed that caregivers of children with mild/moderate autistic behavior problems perceived lower parenting stress than did those of children with no or severe problems. In addition, prosocial behaviors and conduct problems respectively predicted stress in the parent-child relationship and child-related stress. The findings can provide guidance in evaluations and interventions with a focus on mitigating parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.

  4. [Investigation of the behavioural phenotype of parents of autistic children through the new FAQ self-report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, H; Fortin, C; Noulhiane, M; Golse, B; Robel, L

    2007-01-01

    Autism is characterized by impairments in communication and socialization and by the presence of circumscribed and stereotyped interest. Previous studies have shown that genetic mechanisms may enhance the vulnerability to autism. These mechanisms are complex and may involve the combination of several genes, in interaction with the environment. The genetic mechanism involved in the vulnerability to autism may also concern other disorders and some features, with enhanced prevalence in relatives of autistic patients. It has been shown, for example, that the frequency of language disorders or serial difficulties is increased in the siblings of autistic patients. Characterization and taking into account the presence of such phenotypic traits in the relations may help in understanding the results of genetic studies, in particular association studies in sibling pairs or trios. In this study, we used a new self-report in order to identify endophenotype traits in socialization, communication, rigidity and imagination in parents of autistic children. This self-report is the French adaptation of the previous self-report created by Baron-Cohen et al., aimed at the identification of Asperger profiles in a population of students studying science. Ten autistic children and their parents from a clinical setting were asked to participate in the study. Autistic children were characterized using the ADI-R and various psychometric tests, according to the possibilities of the child (PEP-R, WPPSI-R, WISC3). Twenty parents of normal children were recruited from three different professional settings. There were no differences between the two groups of parents in terms of age or social status. Parents of both groups were asked to fill in the FAQ self-report. We performed a post-hoc analysis comparing the scores of the parents in the two groups. We found a main group, but no sex effect [F (1,37)=5.46; p<0.05]. Scores of autistic parents were higher in all domains compared to the control

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of maladaptive behaviour in young children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, S. L.; Sikora, D. M.; McCoy, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with Autistic Disorder (AD) evidence more co-occurring maladaptive behaviours than their typically developing peers and peers with intellectual disability because of other aetiologies. The present study investigated the prevalence of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours during early childhood and identified at-risk subgroups of young children with AD. Method Parents rated their child’s maladaptive behaviours on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) in 169 children with AD aged 1.5 to 5.8 years. Results One-third of young children with AD had a CBCL Total Problems score in the Clinically Significant range. The highest percentage of Clinically Significant scores were in the Withdrawal, Attention, and Aggression CBCL syndrome scales. There was a high degree of co-morbidity of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours. Several subject characteristic risk factors for maladaptive behaviours were identified. Conclusions Findings highlight the need to include behavioural management strategies aimed at increasing social engagement, sustained attention and decreasing aggressive behaviour in comprehensive intervention programmes for young children with AD. PMID:18444989

  6. Study of serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in Egyptian autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology. Objective: To assess serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in Egyptian autistic children patients. Subjects and methods: 40 participants have been subjected to thorough history taking, complete clinical examination, IQ assessment, estimation of serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between patients and controls as regards stereotypic movements, absent eye contact, delayed motor development, delayed speech and IQ (p < 0.01 for each item. Mean level of copper was significantly higher in patients than in controls (P < 0.001, also mean level of ceruloplasmin was significantly higher in patients than controls (P = 0.009. Conclusion: Serum copper level may have a role in the pathogenesis of autism. Keywords: Autism, Copper, Ceruloplasmin, Stereotypic movements

  7. Pharmacogenomics and Efficacy of Risperidone Long-Term Treatment in Thai Autistic Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuntamool, Nopphadol; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Vanwong, Natchaya; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Chamnanphon, Monpat; Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Limsila, Penkhae; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee; Wilffert, Bob; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of pharmacogenomic factors and clinical outcome in autistic children and adolescents who were treated with risperidone for long periods. Eighty-two autistic subjects diagnosed with DSM-IV and who were treated with risperidone for more than 1 year were recruited. Pharmacogenomics and clinical outcome (CGI-I, aggressive, overactivity and repetitive score) were evaluated. Almost all patients showed stable symptoms on aggressive behaviour (89.02%), overactivity (71.95%), repetitive (70.89%) behaviour and all clinical symptoms (81.71%). Only 4.48% of patients showed minimally worse CGI-I score. Patients in the non-stable symptom group had DRD2 Taq1A non-wild-type (TT and CT) frequencies higher than the clinically stable group (p = 0.04), whereas other gene polymorphisms showed no significant association. Haplotype ACCTCAT (rs6311, rs1045642, rs1128503, rs1800497, rs4436578, rs1799978, rs6280) showed a significant association with non-stable clinical outcome (χ 2  = 6.642, p = 0.010). Risperidone levels showed no association with any clinical outcome. On the other hand, risperidone dose, 9-OH risperidone levels and prolactin levels were significantly higher in the non-stable compared to the stable symptom group (p = 0.013, p = 0.044, p = 0.030). Increased appetite was the most common adverse drug reaction and associated with higher body-weight, whereas it was not significantly associated with genetic variations and non-genetic information. In conclusion, risperidone showed efficacy to control autism, especially aggressive symptoms in long-term treatment. However, Taq1A T - carrier of dopamine 2 receptor gene - is associated with non-stable response in risperidone-treated patients. This study supports pharmacogenomics testing for personalized therapy with risperidone in autistic children and adolescents. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  8. Theory of mind and emotion-recognition functioning in autistic spectrum disorders and in psychiatric control and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, J K; van der Wees, M; Swaab-Barneveld, H; van der Gaag, R J

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that weak theory of mind (ToM) and/or emotion recognition (ER) abilities are specific to subjects with autism. Differences in ToM and ER performance were examined between autistic (n = 20), pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (n = 20), psychiatric control (n = 20), and normal children (n = 20). The clinical groups were matched person-to-person on age and verbal IQ. We used tasks for the matching and the context recognition of emotional expressions, and a set of first- and second-order ToM tasks. Autistic and PDD-NOS children could not be significantly differentiated from each other, nor could they be differentiated from the psychiatric controls with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 9). The psychiatric controls with conduct disorder or dysthymia performed about as well as normal children. The variance in second-order ToM performance contributed most to differences between diagnostic groups.

  9. Validation of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire with parents of children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has been used in many studies that target parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, the measure has yet to be validated and adapted to this sample group whose daily experiences are considered substantially different from those of parents of children with typical development and parents of children with other disabilities. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the WHOQOL-BREF with a sample of 184 parents of children with Autistic Disorder. The factor structure for the WHOQOL-BREF was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Our analyses provided no evidence of a better model than the original 4-domain model. Nevertheless, some items in the measure were re-distributed to different domains based on theoretical meanings and/or clean loading criteria. The new model structure gained the measure's required validity with parents of children with Autistic Disorder.

  10. Theory of mind, severity of autistic symptoms and parental correlates in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar Shimoni, Hagit; Weizman, Abraham; Yoran, Roni Hegesh; Raviv, Amiram

    2012-05-15

    This study addresses the theory of mind (ToM) ability of Asperger's syndrome/high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) children and their parents and the severity of the autistic symptoms. Fifty-three families, each consisting of a mother, father and a child, participated in this study (N=159). The 53 children in the sample included 25 children diagnosed with AS/HFA and 28 typically developing (TD) children. The Social Attribution Task (SAT) and tests assessing autistic symptoms were used. AS/HFA children had lower scores than TD children on three of the SAT indices (Person, ToM Affective, and Salience). Fathers of AS/HFA children did not have lower scores than fathers of TD children on the SAT task, whereas mothers of AS/HFA children had lower scores on the Person index, a pattern similar to seen in their children, suggesting a possible genetic contribution of mothers to ToM deficit in AS/HFA children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neologisms and Idiosyncratic Language in Autistic Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Joanne; Lord, Catherine

    1991-01-01

    This study of 80 autistic (ages 6-18), mentally handicapped, and normal children found that more autistic subjects used neologisms and idiosyncratic language than age- and language-skill-matched control groups. More autistic children used words inappropriately that were neither phonologically nor conceptually related to intended English words than…

  12. Profile of children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder managed at a tertiary child development unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wee Bin; Ho, Selina Kah Ying

    2012-12-01

    There has been a rising trend in childhood developmental and behavioural disorders (CDABD). This study reports the profile of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) initially referred for evaluation of CDABD. The CDABD database prospectively collected data of all consenting children referred in 2003 to the then Child Development Unit at KK Women's and Children's Hospital. All received medical consultation, followed by further assessments and intervention. Patients were tracked for one year. Among 542 referred children, 32% (n = 170) received a diagnosis of ASD one year after the first consultation. Most were male, with a male to female ratio of 4.5:1. The median age at the first consultation was 41 (19,109) months. The main presenting concern was a delay in the development of speech and language skills in 78% of the children. A significant number had behavioural (63%) and social interaction (34%) issues. Criteria for the diagnosis of ASD according to the Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV-Revised were fulfilled in almost 90%. With the remaining refusing or deferring evaluation, only 74% received a psychological assessment. ASD was assessed to be severe or moderate in 86% of the children. Three-quarters remained on follow-up one year after the first consultation. The majority were referred for either centre- or school-based intervention programmes, with 70% assessed to have improved at the one-year mark. This is the first presentation of local data that aids programme planning and resource allocation. Children with ASD have varied outcomes. It is important to identify and intervene early in order to optimise development and functionality.

  13. Stressful life events during pregnancy as risk factors for developing autistic disorder in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Abdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to examine the role of prenatal stressful events in mothers of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2014. A total number of 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected by convenience method from the autism rehabilitation centers in Tabriz, Iran. Moreover, 112 typically developing (TD children and adolescents were selected from public schools using a random clustering method. Two groups were matched in terms of mother's and child's age and mother's educational level. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS semi-structured diagnostic interview was used to evaluate the presence of psychiatric disorders. The diagnosis of AD was made based on the DSM-IV criteria during separate diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The life stressful events’ inventory was used to assess the presence of stressful events during pregnancy. Results: According to Fisher's exact test, the frequency of stressful life events including failure to achieve life goals, high debt, frequent marital conflict, conflict with spouse's family, changes in sleeping habits, and sexual difficulties in the mothers of AD children during pregnancy was significantly higher than the mothers of TD children. Also, mothers of AD children reported significantly higher frequency for the positive stressful life events including the major job progress, starting or finishing education, change of education, location, and summer vacation during pregnancy. Conclusion: Some stressful life events in mothers during pregnancy may be considered as risk factors for developing AD in their children. Further researches are needed to establish the results of this study.

  14. Environmental risk factors associated with the persistence of conduct difficulties in children with intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Blacher, Jan; Einfeld, Stewart; Hatton, Chris; Robertson, Janet; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the association between exposure to environmental risks in early childhood and the prevalence and persistence of conduct difficulties (CD) in children with intellectual disability (ID) who did not have autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children. Results indicated that: (1) exposure to risk was associated with elevated prevalence of CD at age three and, for TD children and children with ID, increased risk of CD persisting to ages five and seven; (2) at all levels of risk, children with ASD were more likely to show persistent CD than other children; (3) children with ID were no more likely to show persistent CD than TD children at low levels of exposure to environmental risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; de la Cruz, Oscar Asensio; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; de Dicastillo, Maria D Martinez López; Zabaleta, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers. Lung function was assessed with spirometry in preschoolers aged 4.5 years (n=620) participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) models were applied to estimate individual residential exposures to benzene and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) during specific trimesters of pregnancy and early postnatal life (the first year of life). Recent and current (1 year and 1 week before lung function testing, respectively) exposures to NO₂ and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were also assessed. Exposure to higher levels of benzene and NO₂ during pregnancy was associated with reduced lung function. FEV1 estimates for an IQR increase in exposures during the second trimester of pregnancy were -18.4 mL, 95% CI -34.8 to -2.1 for benzene and -28.0 mL, 95% CI -52.9 to -3.2 for NO₂. Relative risk (RR) of low lung function (<80% of predicted FEV1) for an IQR increase in benzene and NO₂ during the second trimester of pregnancy were 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46 and 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.76, respectively. Associations for early postnatal, recent and current exposures were not statistically significant. Stronger associations appeared among allergic children and those of lower social class. Prenatal exposure to residential traffic-related air pollution may result in long-term lung function deficits at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Infant attachment disorganization and moderation pathways to level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2016-12-01

    This research examined the child, parent, and family conditions under which attachment disorganization was related to both level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool among a community sample. Using the ordinary least squares regression, we found that attachment disorganization at 12 months significantly predicted children's externalizing behavior at 36 months and this prediction was not contingent on any other factors tested. For predicting changes in externalizing behavior from 36 to 60 months, we found a significant main effect of family cumulative risk and an interaction effect between attachment disorganization at 12 months and maternal sensitivity at 24 months. Specifically, high disorganization was related to a significant decrease in externalizing behavior from 36 to 60 months when maternal sensitivity at 24 months was high. Our main-effect findings replicated the significant effect of attachment disorganization and cumulative risk on externalizing behavior with preschool-aged children. Our interaction finding provided support for understanding the parenting conditions under which infant attachment disorganization may be related to change in externalizing behavior during preschool ages. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  17. Early Social, Imitation, Play, and Language Abilities of Young Non-Autistic Siblings of Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Karen; Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenson, Jessica; Fein, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Studies are needed to better understand the broad autism phenotype in young siblings of children with autism. Cognitive, adaptive, social, imitation, play, and language abilities were examined in 42 non-autistic siblings and 20 toddlers with no family history of autism, ages 18–27 months. Siblings, as a group, were below average in expressive language and composite IQ, had lower mean receptive language, adaptive behavior, and social communication skills, and used fewer words, distal gestures,...

  18. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case–sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  19. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Penelope A E; Thomas, Philip; Esterman, Adrian; Fenech, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case-sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  20. Selection of words for implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS in non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carine; Bevilacqua, Monica; Ishihara, Mariana; Fiori, Aline; Armonia, Aline; Perissinoto, Jacy; Tamanaha, Ana Carina

    2017-03-09

    It is known that some autistic individuals are considered non-verbal, since they are unable to use verbal language and barely use gestures to compensate for the absence of speech. Therefore, these individuals' ability to communicate may benefit from the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS. The objective of this study was to verify the most frequently used words in the implementation of PECS in autistic children, and on a complementary basis, to analyze the correlation between the frequency of these words and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 31 autistic children, twenty-five boys and six girls, aged between 5 and 10 years old. To identify the most frequently used words in the initial period of implementation of PECS, the Vocabulary Selection Worksheet was used. And to measure the rate of maladaptive behaviors, we applied the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). There was a significant prevalence of items in the category "food", followed by "activities" and "beverages". There was no correlation between the total amount of items identified by the families and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. The categories of words most mentioned by the families could be identified, and it was confirmed that the level of maladaptive behaviors did not interfere directly in the preparation of the vocabulary selection worksheet for the children studied.

  1. Accentuated Virchow-Robin spaces in the centrum semiovale in children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Katherine H; Shaw, J Bryant; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A; Lane, David M; Hayman, L Anne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of abnormal Virchow-Robin (VR) spaces in children and adolescents with an autistic disorder (AD). An increased incidence of enlarged VR spaces in children has been reported in several developmental disorders. Sixteen children and adolescents (13 male, 3 female; mean age = 143.5 months; mean IQ = 95.1) with an AD, verified by use of standardized procedures (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Revised), received cranial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sixteen children and adolescents (13 male, 3 female; mean age = 160.7 months; mean IQ = 111.6) without AD, as determined using the same procedures, were scanned as a comparison group. The MR scans were performed using a 1.5-T scanner. Two T1-weighted spoiled GRASS sequences (0.7-mm coronal thin-slice, 0-mm gap; 1.5-mm sagittal, 0-mm gap) and a complementary T2-weighted fast spin echo sequence (1.5-mm, 0-mm gap) were obtained. A neuroradiologist and a neurobiologist without clinical information determined the incidence of normal, accentuated, and/or dilated VR spaces. Seven of 16 subjects with AD (approximately 44%) had dilated VR spaces in the centrum semiovale. No grossly abnormal spaces were present in the control subjects. Unusually large VR spaces are seen in at most 22% to 27% of MR scans in children with tension headaches and other psychiatric disorders, suggesting that the incidence of spaces of this type is greater in AD than in other abnormal populations. The origin and significance of this phenomenon remain unknown.

  2. Selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landowska, A.; Karpienko, K.; Wróbel, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this article the procedure of selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children is proposed. Authors designed and conducted an experiment in which a group of 30 health volunteers (16 females and 14 males) were examined. Under controlled conditions people were exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound (1kHz constant sound, which was gradually silenced and finished with a shot sound). For each of volunteers, a set of physiological parameters were recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The selected characteristics were measured in different locations in order to choose the most suitable one for the designed therapy supporting system. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design optoelectronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy of children with autism.

  3. Impact of risperidone on leptin and insulin in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Vanwong, Natchaya; Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Vanavanan, Somlak; Intachak, Boontarika; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Limsila, Penkhae; Sukasem, Chonlaphat; Kroll, Martin H

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of dose and duration of risperidone treatment on cardiovascular and diabetes risk biomarkers in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). In this cross-sectional analysis, a total of 168 ASDs patients (89% male) treated with a risperidone-based regimen for ≥12months were included. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lipid metabolic markers, adiponectin, leptin, prolactin, cortisol and high sensitive C-reactive protein. The mean concentrations of glucose, insulin, prolactin and leptin and HOMA-IR significantly rose with risperidone dosage (all P<0.025), but those of adiponectin and cortisol did not. Using regression analysis, insulin, leptin, prolactin and glucose concentrations and HOMA-IR show significant association with dosage. None of the markers except adiponectin showed dependence on duration of treatment. However, insulin and leptin concentrations and HOMA-IR clearly increased with increasing both dosage and duration. Dosage and duration of treatment had minimal effect on standard lipid profile and lipoprotein subclasses. Risperidone treatment disturbed glucose homeostasis and endocrine regulation (particularly leptin) in children and adolescents with ASDs, in a dose- and duration-dependent manner, being suggestive of leptin and insulin resistance mechanisms. Metabolic adverse effects, especially development of type 2 diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored, particularly in individuals receiving high doses and/or long-term risperidone treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to…

  5. 孤独症儿童家长生存质量的研究%Effects of life quality on autistic disorder children's parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 谢巧玲; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分析孤独症患儿对其父母生存质量的影响,为有关机构展开工作提供参考依据. [方法]采用普适性生存质量测定量表(SF-36),对90例孤独症患儿父母及120例正常儿童的父母进行评定. [结果]1)孤独症组父母的生存质量总分及各领域评分均低于正常父母组(P<0.01);2)低功能孤独症组的父母生存质量评分明显低于高功能孤独症组(P<0.01);3)患儿家长的生存质量与患儿病情程度呈负相关,与智力水平呈正相关(P<0.01). [结论]孤独症儿童对患儿父母生存质量有影响,低功能孤独症患儿则影响更大.%【Objective】 To investigate the quality of life and related factors in parents of children with autism. 【Methods】 90 parents of autistic children and 120 parents of normal children were participated. SF-36 was employed to e-valuate both groups by questionnaire. Parents of autistic children also completed Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABS) Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC),the Children Autistic Rating Scale (CARS)and Autistic children checked with the Gesell development diagnosis scale. 【Results】 1) Parents of autistic children reported substantially lower scores of SF-36 than that of parents with normal group (P<0. 01). 2) The quality of life of parents in low functioning intelligence group was worse than high functioning intelligence group(P<0. 01). 3) The quality of life of parents was positively correlated with intelligence of autistic children,and negative correlated with symptom of autistic children. 【Conclusion】 Children with autistic disorder took grievous influence on parents quality of life. Compared with high functioning intelligence group, the low functioning intelligence children's parents had even worse quality of life.

  6. A placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ronald N; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D; Carson, William H; Aman, Michael G

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a combination of these symptoms, were randomized 1:1:1:1 to aripiprazole (5, 10, or 15 mg/day) or placebo in this 8-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Efficacy was evaluated using the caregiver-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (primary efficacy measure) and the clinician-rated Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement score. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. At week 8, all aripiprazole doses produced significantly greater improvement than placebo in mean Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale scores (5 mg/day, -12.4; 10 mg/day, -13.2; 15 mg/day, -14.4; versus placebo, -8.4; all p autistic disorder.

  7. An open-label extension study of the safety and efficacy of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Justine M; Hough, David; Singh, Jaskaran; Karcher, Keith; Pandina, Gahan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in treating irritability and related behaviors in children and adolescents with autistic disorders. In this 6 month (26 week) open-label extension (OLE) study, patients (5-17 years of age, who completed the previous fixed-dose, 6 week, double-blind [DB] phase) were flexibly dosed with risperidone based on body weight. The maximum allowed dose was 1.25 mg/day for those weighing 20 to autistic, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders. Patients experienced some additional improvement in irritability and related behaviors. This phase-4 study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00576732).

  8. MRI or not to MRI! Should brain MRI be a routine investigation in children with autistic spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M; Al-Ogab, Marwa F; Al-Shaftery, Thouraya

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the routine usage of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain and estimate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in children presenting to the Neurodevelopment Clinic of Al-Khadra Hospital (NDC-KH), Tripoli, Libya with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The records of all children with ASD presented to NDC-KH over 4-year period (from January 2009 to December 2012) were reviewed. All MRIs were acquired with a 1.5-T Philips (3-D T1, T2, FLAIR coronal and axial sequences). MRIs were reported to be normal, abnormal or no significant abnormalities by a consultant neuroradiologist. One thousand and seventy-five children were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-two children (72.7 %) had an MRI brain of whom 555 (71 %) were boys. 26 children (24 males and 2 females) (3.3 %) demonstrated MRI abnormalities (8 leukodystrophic changes, 4 periventricular leukomalacia, 3 brain atrophy, 2 tuberous sclerosis, 2 vascular changes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 cerebellar angioma, 1 cerebellar hypoplasia, 3 agenesis of corpus callosum, 1 neuro-epithelial cyst). An unexpectedly high rate of MRI abnormalities was found in the first large series of clinical MRI investigations in children with autism. These results could contribute to further research into the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorder.

  9. Testing the predictive power of cognitive atypicalities in autistic children: evidence from a 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    This follow-up study investigated the predictive power of early cognitive atypicalities. Specifically, it examined whether early individual differences in specific cognitive skills, including theory of mind, executive function, and central coherence, could uniquely account for variation in autistic children's behaviors-social communication, repetitive behaviors, and interests and insistence on sameness-at follow-up. Thirty-seven cognitively able children with an autism spectrum condition were assessed on tests tapping verbal and nonverbal ability, theory of mind (false-belief prediction), executive function (planning ability, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control), and central coherence (local processing) at intake and their behavioral functioning (social communication, repetitive behaviors and interests, insistence on sameness) 3 years later. Individual differences in early executive but not theory of mind skills predicted variation in children's social communication. Individual differences in children's early executive function also predicted the degree of repetitive behaviors and interests at follow-up. There were no predictive relationships between early central coherence and children's insistence on sameness. These findings challenge the notion that distinct cognitive atypicalities map on to specific behavioral features of autism. Instead, early variation in executive function plays a key role in helping to shape autistic children's emerging behaviors, including their social communication and repetitive behaviors and interests. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Heterogeneity of subclinical autistic traits among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Identifying the broader autism phenotype with a data-driven method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Aydın, Aydan; Saraç, Tuğba; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Köse, Sezen

    2017-02-01

    Clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be conceptualized as the extreme end of the distribution of subclinical autistic traits related to genetic susceptibility factors (broad autism phenotype (BAP)) in the general population. Subclinical autistic traits are significantly more common among unaffected first-degree relatives of probands with autism. However, there is a significant heterogeneity of autistic traits in family members of individuals with ASD and severity of autistic traits are not significantly different from controls in the majority of these relatives. The current study investigated the heterogeneity of autistic traits using latent class analysis (LCA) of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) ratings of 673 parents of children with ASD and 147 parents of typically developing children. Two distinct subgroups, including a "low-scoring" and a "high-scorer (BAP)" groups, were found. In comparison to control parents, a significantly larger proportion (21.1% vs. 7.5%) of parents of ASD were members of BAP group. Communication subscale made a distinctive contribution to the separation of high and low-scoring groups (d = 2.77). Further studies investigating neurobiological and genetic biomarkers and stability of these two subgroups over time are important for understanding the nature of autistic traits in the general population. Autism Res 2017, 10: 321-326. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The effect of a movement-to-music video program on the objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity of preschool-aged children and their mothers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Kujala, Urho M; Luoto, Riitta M

    2017-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) and the avoidance of prolonged sitting are essential for children's healthy growth, and for the physical and mental wellbeing of both children and adults. In the context of exercise, music may promote behavioral change through increased exercise adherence and participation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a movement-to-music video program could reduce sedentary behavior (SB) and increase PA in mother-child pairs in the home environment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Pirkanmaa region, Finland, in 2014-2016. The participants consisted of 228 mother-child pairs (child age 5-7 years). The primary outcomes of interest were tri-axial accelerometer-derived SB and PA, which were measured in weeks one (baseline), two, and eight in both the intervention and control groups. Further, the mothers and children in the intervention group used a movement-to-music video program from the beginning of week two to the end of week eight. Secondary outcomes included self-reported screen time. The statistical methods employed comprised an intention-to-treat and linear mixed effects model design. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in primary or secondary outcomes. Among the children in the control group, light PA decreased significantly over time and screen time increased from 89 (standard deviation, SD 37) to 99 (SD 41) min/d. Among mothers and children in the intervention group, no statistical differences were found. In supplementary analysis, the children who stayed at home instead of attending daycare/preschool had on average 25 (95% confidence interval, CI 19-30) min/d more sedentary time and 11 (95% CI 8-14) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA than those who were at daycare/preschool. The higher body mass index of mothers was related with 5 (95% CI 2-7) min/d more sedentary time and 1 (95% CI 0-2) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA. The movement-to-music video program did not change

  12. Autism spectrum disorder and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: precursors and early signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Patrick F; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Steer, Colin D

    2012-03-01

    To chart the emergence of precursors and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the surviving offspring of 14,541 pregnant women from southwestern England with an expected delivery date between April 1991 and December 1992. Parents' contemporaneous reports of their infant's development (241 questionnaire responses collected up to 30 months of age) were examined in relation to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder by age 11 years (n = 86) and a measure of autistic traits, derived by factor analysis. Among the children later diagnosed with ASD, concerns about vision and hearing were more often reported in the first year, and differences in social, communication, and fine motor skills were evident from 6 months of age. Repetitive behaviors and differences in play, imitation, and feeding habits were reported in the second year. Differences in temperament emerged at 24 months of age and bowel habit by 30 months. All of these early signs were strongly associated with the presence of autistic traits in the rest of the population and these differences were often evident in the first year of development. Over the first 30 months of development, the best predictors of both later ASD and autistic traits included the Social Achievement and Communication scores from the Denver Developmental Screening Test, measures of communicative skills (Vocabulary and Combines Words) from the MacArthur Infant Communicative Development Inventories, and a repetitive behavior score. Precursors, early signs, and other developmental differences were reported in the first year of development among children from the general population who later developed autism spectrum disorder and subtler autistic traits. Other differences emerged and unfolded as development progressed. The findings confirm the long-held suspicion that early differences underscore the multifaceted

  13. Low oxytocin and melatonin levels and their possible role in the diagnosis and prognosis in Iraqi autistic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulamir, Haidar A.; Abdul-Rasheed, Omar F.; Abdulghani, Emad A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To test the possible association between oxytocin and melatonin levels with the severity of social and cognitive dysfunctions, and to study the correlation between these parameters in children with autism. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq. The study was performed on 60 male autistic patients recruited from the Pediatric Department of Al-Sader General Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq between November 2014 and April 2015. The levels of oxytocin and melatonin were measured in the serum of these autistic male patients, and categorized as mild, moderate, and severe (20 patients each), and was compared with 26 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Results: The data indicated that the levels of oxytocin (44.72 ± 36.1 µIU/mL) and melatonin in patients (23.08 ± 10.41 pg/mL) were significantly lower (pautistic patients with oxytocin (59.22 ± 27.32 µIU/mL) and melatonin (27.55 ± 14.71 pg/mL). These 2 parameters showed a significant positive correlation with each other in moderate (r=0.513; p=0.021), and severe patients (r=0.598; p=0.005). Conclusion: Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that oxytocin can be considered as a good diagnostic marker in severe autistic patients while melatonin can be considered as a good diagnostic marker in all autistic subgroups. This study proves the possibility of using oxytocin and melatonin in the diagnosis, and as markers of autism severity. PMID:26739971

  14. MRI Findings in 77 Children with Non-Syndromic Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddaert, Nathalie; Zilbovicius, Mônica; Philipe, Anne; Robel, Laurence; Bourgeois, Marie; Barthélemy, Catherine; Seidenwurm, David; Meresse, Isabelle; Laurier, Laurence; Desguerre, Isabelle; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Brunelle, Francis; Munnich, Arnold; Samson, Yves; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Chabane, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of MR scanning in children with autism is still an open question and must be considered in light of the evolution of this technology. MRI was judged to be of insufficient value to be included in the standard clinical evaluation of autism according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Neurology and Child Neurology Society in 2000 [1]. However, this statement was based on results obtained from small samples of patients and, more importantly, included mostly insufficient MRI sequences. Our main objective was to evaluate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in a large group of children with a non-syndromic autistic disorder (AD) using T1, T2 and FLAIR MRI sequences. Methodology MRI inspection of 77 children and adolescents with non-syndromic AD (mean age 7.4±3.6) was performed. All met the DSM-IV and ADI –R criteria for autism. Based on recommended clinical and biological screenings, we excluded patients with infectious, metabolic or genetic diseases, seizures or any other neurological symptoms. Identical MRI inspections of 77 children (mean age 7.0±4.2) without AD, developmental or neurological disorders were also performed. All MRIs were acquired with a 1.5-T Signa GE (3-D T1-FSPGR, T2, FLAIR coronal and axial sequences). Two neuroradiologists independently inspected cortical and sub-cortical regions. MRIs were reported to be normal, abnormal or uninterpretable. Principal Findings MRIs were judged as uninterpretable in 10% (8/77) of the cases. In 48% of the children (33/69 patients), abnormalities were reported. Three predominant abnormalities were observed, including white matter signal abnormalities (19/69), major dilated Virchow–Robin spaces (12/69) and temporal lobe abnormalities (20/69). In all, 52% of the MRIs were interpreted as normal (36/69 patients). Conclusions An unexpectedly high rate of MRI abnormalities was found in the first large series of clinical MRI investigations in non-syndromic autism. These

  15. Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior With Educational Computer Games in Young Children With Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : An Executive Function-Based Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning - Veenstra ,de Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.86.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

  16. Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior with Educational Computer Games in Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Executive Function-Based Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.8-6.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder…

  17. Key Factors Mediating the Use of a Mobile Technology Tool Designed to Develop Social and Life Skills in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Joseph; Branch, Corinne; March, Caty; Lerman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of late there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with social and life skills. There has also been a burgeoning interest in the potential use of mobile technology in the classroom and in the use of such technology to support children with ASD. Building on these…

  18. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration and psychomotor development at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development. The aim of this study is to assess if high concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that is below the clinical threshold (5-15 mIU/L) at neonatal screening is linked to psychomotor development impairments in the offspring at preschool age. A total of 284 Belgian preschool children 4-6 years old and their mothers were included in the study. The children were randomly selected from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009 and 2010 by the Brussels newborn screening centre. The sampling was stratified by gender and TSH range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Infants with congenital hypothyroidism (>15 mIU/L), low birth weight and/or prematurity were excluded. Psychomotor development was assessed using the Charlop-Atwell scale of motor coordination. The iodine status of children was determined using median urinary iodine concentration. Socioeconomic, parental and child potential confounding factors were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. TSH level was not significantly associated with total motor score (average change in z-score per unit increase in TSH is 0.02 (-0.03, 0.07), p=0.351), objective motor score (p=0.794) and subjective motor score (p=0.124). No significant associations were found using multivariate regression model to control confounding factors. Mild thyroid dysfunction in the newborn-reflected by an elevation of TSH that is below the clinical threshold (5-15 mIU/L)-was not associated with impaired psychomotor development at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Maternal reading fluency is positively associated with greater functional connectivity between the child's future reading network and regions related to executive functions and language processing in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Hutton, John S; Phelan, Kieran; Holland, Scott K

    2018-03-01

    The role of the parent or educator in a child's learning is a key feature in child development. Evidence supports the impact of early language exposure for future language and cognitive abilities and of home reading environment on neural circuits supporting language and reading. As shared parent-child reading is largely contingent on the reading ability of the parent, the aim of the current study was to explore association of parental reading ability on functional connectivity of brain networks involved with reading acquisition in their children. Twenty-two 4-year-old girls and their mothers participated in the current study. Maternal reading fluency was applied as predictors of functional connectivity analyses of a stories-listening functional MRI task. Results indicate a positive association between maternal fluency scores and greater functional connectivity between regions in the future reading network and brain regions supporting language and cognitive control in the children. Maternal reading fluency is important in facilitating development of a child's reading network. Implications regarding shared reading are discussed, and an extended ecological model for child language and literacy development is proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DOES FATHER INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE AFFECT, LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN? AN EARLY INTERVENTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tabitha LOUIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.