WorldWideScience

Sample records for preschool primary secondary

  1. Cognitive ability of preschool, primary and secondary school children in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Stiegmaier, Eva-Maria; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive abilities of children in Costa Rica and Austria were compared using three age groups (N = 385/366). Cognitive ability tests (mental speed, culture reduced/fluid intelligence, literacy/crystallized intelligence) were applied that differed in the extent to which they refer to school-related knowledge. Preschool children (kindergarten, 5-6 years old, N(CR) = 80, N(Au) = 51) were assessed with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM), primary school children (4th grade, 9-11 years old, N(CR) = 71, N(Au) = 71) with ZVT (a trail-making test), Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and items from PIRLS-Reading and TIMSS-Mathematics, and secondary school students (15-16 years old, N(CR) = 48, N(Au) = 48) with ZVT, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and items from PISA-Reading and PISA-Mathematics. Additionally, parents and pupils were given questionnaires covering family characteristics and instruction. Average cognitive abilities were higher in Austria (Greenwich-IQ M(CR) = 87 and M(Au) = 99, d(IQ) = 12 points) and differences were smaller in preschool than in secondary school (d(IQ) = 7 vs 20 points). Differences in crystallized intelligence were larger than in fluid intelligence (mental speed: d(IQ) = 12, Raven: d(IQ) = 10, student achievement tests: d(IQ) = 17 IQ points). Differences were larger in comparisons at the level of g-factors. Austrian children were also taller (6.80 cm, d = 1.07 SD), but had lower body mass index (BMI(CR) = 19.35 vs BMI(Au) = 17.59, d = -0.89 SD). Different causal hypotheses explaining these differences are compared.

  2. Aspirations, education and inequality in England: insights from the Effective Provision of Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Education Project

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, William; Sammons, Pam; Siraj, Iram; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Taggart, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Educational and occupational aspirations have become an important reference point in policy debates about educational inequality. Low aspirations are presented as a major barrier to closing educational attainment gaps and increasing levels of social mobility. Our paper contributes to this on-going debate by presenting data on the educational aspirations of students from the Effective Provision of Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education Project in England. We analyse factors that help pred...

  3. Competencies Required in Education Research and Teaching Systematization according to Students from the Preschool, Primary and Secondary Education Programs of the University of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Segura-Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the results of two online forums carried out with the participation of 42 students of the Licenciaturas  in Preschool Education, Primary Education and Secondary Education of the University of Costa Rica. The main purpose of the forums was to determine the insights of the participant students about the competencies they have achieved in the field of education research, and which have been the essential tools for them to systematize their own teaching practices. The discussion forums were part of the course FD5091 Métodos de Investigación Educativa [Education Research Methods] of the School of Teacher Education, delivered from March-April 2010.  Of the sample, 60 percent were students of the Preschool teaching program, 35 percent were from the Primary Education teaching program and 5 percent were from the Secondary Education teaching program in the fields of Science, Mathematics and Social Studies. According to the insights and beliefs showed by the participants –both, the future teachers and the profession practitioners–, there are no opportunities for research or systematization of their own teaching mediation, in the current work situation. (1 Translator’s Note: In Costa Rica, the “Licenciatura” is a one-year post-Bachelor study program, usually including thesis. “Primary Education” refers to students from the 1st to 6th grades, and “Secondary Education” refers to students from the 7th to 11th grades.

  4. [Primary and secondary encopresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Langer, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    While the difficulty of the child to part with its faeces in primary encopresis is linked to the incapability to experience the object as separated and independent from himself, secondary encopresis is a progressed psychical state of development. In this case we have to deal with regression caused by conflict. Two case-studies show clearly the differences.

  5. 43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. 17.220 Section 17.220 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.220 Preschool, elementary,...

  6. Transitions from preschool to primary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Einarsdottir, Johanna; Vrinioti, Kalliope

    2010-01-01

    political understanding. Then the authors define and reflect the word transition in theoretical terms using Bronfenbrenner's ecological developmental model. After a short review of international transition research the article focus on international research on children's transition problems......  The article deals with transition from preschool to primary school. Starting with a historical overview presenting Fröbel's transition understanding from 1852 over European politics in the 1960s and 1970s, recommendations by the Councils of Europe from the 1990s and ending with OECD's actual...... and in continuation of this a description of a number of so-called transition activities are described in order to ease children's transition to school....

  7. Summarizing primary and secondary effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Current methods for decomposing class differentials in educational decisions into primary and secondary effects produce many parameters, rendering them ill-equipped for parsimonious comparisons across countries or birth cohorts. This paper develops a parametric method that provides an optimal...... summary of primary and secondary effects across discrete class origins. Under the testable assumption that the pattern of effects of class origins on academic ability is proportional to the pattern of effects of class origins on educational choice net of academic ability, the method returns a single...

  8. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syeda, Maisha M.; Climie, Emma A.

    2014-01-01

    The "Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition" (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012a, 2012b) is a comprehensive clinical tool, intended for assessing cognitive functioning among children aged 2 years 6 months through 7 years 7 months. Published by Pearson, the WPPSI-IV is an individually administered tool, to be used by…

  9. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    My program examines the plant secondary metabolites (i.e. phenolics) important for human health, and which impart the organoleptic properties that are quality indicators for fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions; a...

  10. Modes of failures: primary and secondary stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1987-07-01

    The paper begins with a reminder that the purpose of stress classification is to ensure suitable margins with respect to failure modes. The distinction between primary stresses and secondary stresses is then examined and a method is given for assessing the degree of elastic follow up in the elastic plastic field. The importance of elastic follow up is then highlighted by an examination of the effect of primary and secondary stresses on crack behavior

  11. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni [Shoreham, NY; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Setauket, NY

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  12. Attitude towards Inclusive Education: The Perspective of Slovenian Preschool and Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štemberger, Tina; Kiswarday, Vanja Riccarda

    2018-01-01

    The paper is built on premises that teachers' attitude is one of the most important factors of implementing inclusive education and it focuses on preschool and primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education. The purpose of the study was to establish what attitude Slovenian preschool and primary school teachers hold towards…

  13. Primary care management of respiratory tract infections in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Schilder, Anne G M; Hoes, Arno W; de Jong, Vanya F G M; Hak, Eelko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine age-specific antibiotic prescription and referral rates in preschool children diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) in primary care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Research database of the Netherlands University Medical Center Utrecht Primary

  14. Teoría de la mente y empatía. Repercusiones en la aceptación por los iguales en niños y niñas de Educación Infantil, Primaria y Secundaria/Theory of mind and empathy. Repercussions on peer acceptance in Pre-school Primary and Secondary Education children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Trinidad Maldonado Recio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Mind (ToM and empathy are skills that play a crucial role in social interaction. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience are contributing to distinguishing between the cognitive and affective components of ToM and empathy, thus defining a conceptual relationship between them. This study analysed the impact of cognitive ToM, affective ToM, cognitive empathy, and affective empathy on the social acceptance of children. It also investigated the relative contribution of these factors in pre-school, primary school, and secondary school children. There were 127 participants in three age groups: 4 to 5 years (N = 31, 7 to 8 years (N = 38, and 12 to 14 years (N = 58. They were administered a selection of ToM tasks, the Basic Empathy Scale, and a sociometric questionnaire. The results confirmed a positive association between affective empathy and peer acceptance in the 4 to 5 year age group, a negative association between ToM and peer acceptance in the 7 to 8 year age group, and a positive association between cognitive empathy and peer acceptance in the 12 to 14 year age group. The attribution of mental states and empathy is useful in the perception of signals in the social environment and its appropriate use allows adaptation to the group. However, its relevance changes according to the different stages of development.

  15. Designing instruction and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2013). Designing education and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(6), 597-613. doi:10.1080/13603116.2012.696727

  16. GOOD PRACTICES REGARDING PRESCHOOL AND PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS` INITIAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela V. KELEMEN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The training of future preschool and primary school teachers at a high quality level is a main goal of our institution and all our efforts are channelled towards fulfilling it. Being a teacher is a science, a science based on competences acquired while attending well-structured lectures that mingle theoretical knowledge with practical assignments. Students acquire knowledge, abilities and develop field related competences during initial training but three years of study are not enough. The Law of Education regulates the following amendment: in order for a teacher to be well trained to meet the requirements of the third millennium it is necessary for him/her to continue the training in level II i.e. master degree, which provides additional competences. In this article we discuss a master programme developed within an European project that offers educational training according to the requirements of a high quality training both practical and theoretical. The components of the Master programme entitled Psychopedagogy of early education and young schooling containa curriculum adjusted to the requirements of a competitive higher education, the courses and seminars are the result of a thorough analysis of different educational models that have been implemented in other European countries. Currently, we are at the end of the first year and we want to share the good practices obtained so far.

  17. Primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Agnieszka; Kamińska, Marzena; Sygit, Katarzyna; Budny, Agnieszka; Surdyka, Dariusz; Kukiełka-Budny, Bożena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2017-12-23

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e.g. mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, breast self-examination, as well as modern and more precise imaging methods) help the early detection of tumours or lesions predisposing to tumours. The aim of this study paper is to review current knowledge and reports regarding primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. It is estimated that nearly 70% of malign tumours are caused by environmental factors, whereas in breast cancer this percentage reaches 90-95%. There are national programmes established in many countries to fight cancer, where both types of prevention are stressed as serving to decrease morbidity and mortality due to cancers. Cancer prevention is currently playing a key role in the fight against the disease. Behaviour modification, as well as greater awareness among women regarding breast cancer, may significantly contribute towards reducing the incidence of this cancer. Another important aspect is the number of women undergoing diagnostic tests, which still remains at an unsatisfactory level.

  18. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  19. [Management of malnutrition in preschool children: the role of primary health care services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerée, Tom; Kolsteren, Patrick; Roberfroid, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in developing countries is decreasing, it is still a major problem for many children under five. As socio-economic conditions are the main determinants, a final solution for this problem can only be envisaged in the long run. Still, short-term strategies need to be defined in order to relieve the sufferings of individual children and their families. Understanding the problem and consequently formulating intervention programs at the local level remains a complex and difficult issue. The first reason being that the process of malnutrition expresses itself in different forms and with variable consequences. A second reason making malnutrition a complex problem is that the primary causes -- the interaction between insufficient food supply and the frequent recurrence of infectious diseases -- are determined by a multitude of factors of different natures. This complexity -- of its expressions, effects, and causality -- makes it difficult to get a global vision and understanding of the problem, which clearly impedes the definition of rational and integrated intervention strategies. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of malnutrition and of the factors that influence the growth process in preschool age, will help to better direct actions. To this effect, a conceptual model will be built, based on recent insight in the process of malnutrition within this age group. From this model, two lines of action for increasing the chances of preschool children to express their initial growth potential, become apparent. A first series of activities could tackle the process that, via wasting and recurrence of infections, leads to an increased mortality risk. As timely intervention reduces the risk of depletion of energy reserves, these activities would also have an indirect impact on physical development. Elaborating strategies for secondary prevention and for treating severe cases belongs to the specific competence of the

  20. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths by cancer. Modifiable risk factors of CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, being overweight and obesity, eating processed meat, and drinking alcohol excessively. CRC screening programs are possible only in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographical areas with ageing populations and a western lifestyle. 19 , 20 Sigmoidoscopy screening done with people aged 55-64 years has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CRC by 33% and mortality by CRC by 43%. Objective To assess the effect on the incidence and mortality of CRC diet and lifestyle and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology A comprehensive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC and subsequently, a meta-analysis of the same blocks are performed. Results 225 articles related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were retrieved. Of these 145 were considered valid on meta-analysis: 12 on epidemiology, 56 on diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different screenings for early detection of CRC. Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no doubt whatsoever which environmental factors, probably diet, may account for these cancer rates. Excessive alcohol consumption and cholesterol-rich diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet poor in folic acid and vitamin

  1. Classification of mental health disorders in preschool and primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Khukhlaeva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are different types of mental health disorders in preschool and primary school children. In the case where a child has several violations, their differentiation is difficult. During the life of children, one should pay attention to the style of their behavior, especially in conflict situations. Based on the style of behavior in the conflict and on its content, one can make a classification of mental health disorders in preschool and primary school children. In particular, one should pay attention on children with pronounced line of activity, i.e., with a predominance of assimilation, who use aggressive behavior as a defense mechanism against feelings of surrounding world insecurity; on violations of psychological health, the origins of which lie in the preschool years, including accounting for family relations; on violations of psychological health, the origins of which lie at an early age (for example, if the child has no autonomy, no ability to self-selection, judgments, estimates.

  2. Bifactor Structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with…

  3. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition: Canadian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Melissa A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Canadian (WPPSI-IVCDN; Wechsler, 2012), published by NCS Pearson, is a newly updated, individually administered measure of cognitive intelligence for children aged 2:6 through 7:7. Suitable for educational, clinical, and research settings, the purposes of the WPPSI-IVCDN are…

  4. Unpacking socio-economic risks for reading and academic self-concept in primary school: Differential effects and the role of the preschool home learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James

    2017-09-01

    Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. n = 3,172 British children aged 3-10 years and their families. A secondary analysis of the nationally representative UK EPPE database. Multilevel structural equation modelling calculated the direct, indirect, and total impacts of early socio-economic risks (0-3 years) and preschool home learning environments (3-5 years) upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. Early socio-economic risk had different effects upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept. Early socio-economic risks affected children's reading at ages 7 and 10 both directly and indirectly via effects upon preschool home learning environments. By contrast, early socio-economic risks had only indirect effects upon children's academic self-concept via less stimulating home learning environments in the preschool period and by limiting reading abilities early on in primary school. Although the impacts of early socio-economic risks are larger and more easily observed upon reading than upon academic self-concept, they can impact both by making it less likely that children will experience enriching home learning environments during the preschool period. This has implications for social policymakers, early educators, and interventionists. Intervening early and improving preschool home learning environments can do more than raise children's reading abilities; secondary benefits may also be achievable upon children's self-concept. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Primary versus secondary achalasia: New signs on barium esophagogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate new signs on barium swallow that can differentiate primary from secondary achalasia. Materials and Methods: Records of 30 patients with primary achalasia and 17 patients with secondary achalasia were reviewed. Clinical, endoscopic, and manometric data was recorded. Barium esophagograms were evaluated for peristalsis and morphology of distal esophageal segment (length, symmetry, nodularity, shouldering, filling defects, and “tram-track sign”). Results: Mean age at presentation was 39 years in primary achalasia and 49 years in secondary achalasia. The mean duration of symptoms was 3.5 years in primary achalasia and 3 months in secondary achalasia. False-negative endoscopic results were noted in the first instance in five patients. In the secondary achalasia group, five patients had distal esophageal segment morphology indistinguishable from that of primary achalasia. None of the patients with primary achalasia and 35% patients with secondary achalasia had a length of the distal segment approaching combined height of two vertebral bodies. None of the patients with secondary achalasia and 34% patients with primary achalasia had maximum caliber of esophagus approaching combined height of two vertebral bodies. Tertiary contractions were noted in 90% patients with primary achalasia and 24% patients with secondary achalasia. Tram-track sign was found in 55% patients with primary achalasia. Filling defects in the distal esophageal segment were noted in 94% patients with secondary achalasia. Conclusion: Length of distal esophageal segment, tertiary contractions, tram-track sign, and filling defects in distal esophageal segment are useful esophagographic features distinguishing primary from secondary achalasia. PMID:26288525

  6. Are There Any Differences in Personality Traits and Life Satisfaction between Future Preschool and Primary School Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkapic, Sanja Tatalovic; Cepic, Renata; Šekulja, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine personality traits and life satisfaction of future preschool and primary school teachers and to examine if there are differences between these two groups of students. The study was conducted on a sample of 290 students of the University of Rijeka attending Early and Preschool Education and Teacher…

  7. Preschool and Primary School Influences on the Development of Children's Early Numeracy Skills between the Ages of 3 and 7 Years in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Grosse, Christiane; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Ebert, Susanne; Weinert, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how preschool and primary school interact to influence children's cognitive development. The present investigation explores German children's numeracy skills between age 3 (1st year of preschool) and age 7 (1st year of primary school). We first identified the influence of preschool experience on development while…

  8. New developments in seismic analysis of primary and secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    Primary and secondary systems often must be analyzed using decoupled models. This paper presents recent advances made at NCSU in the seismic analysis of these systems. Algorithms are presented by which coupled mode shapes and frequencies can be evaluated without performing a new eigenvalue solution, given the mode shapes and frequencies of the decoupled models. Simple and accurate equations are presented to predict changes in frequencies and responses. With the coupled mode shapes and frequencies, one can obtain any primary or secondary response directly from the input spectrum. Alternatively, one can develop instructure spectra at various locations in the primary system accounting for the primary-secondary system interaction. Correlation between the support motions is also generated. Equations are presented for evaluating complex mode shapes and frequencies of coupled systems when due to unequal damping values of primary and secondary systems, the coupled system becomes nonproportionally damped. Recent progress, in case of tuned systems is also reported

  9. Hypophysiary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Jorge; Polania, Diana Ligia; Builes, Carlos Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    This is a 43 years old woman, complaining of galactorhea, headache and hyperprolactinaemia. A large macro adenoma of the pituitary with extensive suprasellar extension and displacement of the optic chiasm was detected on MRI and primary hypothyroidism was found. After treatment with levothyroxine for four months, her TSH and prolactin levels returned to normal, her symptoms improved and a marked shrinkage of the selar lesion was observed. The visual fields returned to normal. This is a case of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

  10. Changes in grouping practices over primary and secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Kutnick, P.

    2003-01-01

    The research detailed in this paper provides a systematic description and analysis of grouping practices in primary and secondary schools in England. Practices are compared to main findings in developmental and educational literature with regard to effective contexts for learning and recent ideas about pedagogy. The research is based on an analysis of 4924 groupings from 672 Reception, Year 2 and Year 5 classes in 331 primary schools and 248 Year 7 and Year 10 classes in 47 secondary schools....

  11. Pre-Schooling and Academic Performance of Lower Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre- ... for increased public investment in Early Child Development (ECD) as a strategic ..... students' academic performance: A case study of Islamia University sub-.

  12. Prediction of primary vs secondary hypertension in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, Rossana; Kapur, Gaurav; Mattoo, Tej; Jain, Amrish; Valentini, Rudolph; Ahmed, Maheen; Thomas, Ronald

    2012-05-01

    Despite current guidelines, variability exists in the workup of hypertensive children due to physician preferences. The study evaluates primary vs secondary hypertension diagnosis from investigations routinely performed in hypertensive children. This retrospective study included children 5 to 19 years with primary and secondary hypertension. The proportions of abnormal laboratory and imaging tests were compared between primary and secondary hypertension groups. Risk factors for primary vs secondary hypertension were evaluated by logistic regression and likelihood function analysis. Patients with secondary hypertension were younger (5-12 years) and had a higher proportion of abnormal creatinine, renal ultrasound, and echocardiogram findings. There was no significant difference in abnormal results of thyroid function, urine catecholamines, plasma renin, and aldosterone. Abnormal renal ultrasound findings and age were predictors of secondary hypertension by regression and likelihood function analysis. Children aged 5 to 12 years with abnormal renal ultrasound findings and high diastolic blood pressures are at higher risk for secondary hypertension that requires detailed evaluation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Salience of Primary and Secondary Colours in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    Primary colour terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in colour language than secondary colour terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary colours attract and sustain preverbal…

  14. Primary and Secondary Labor Markets: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…

  15. Chemoselective organocatalytic aerobic oxidation of primary amines to secondary imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2012-06-01

    Biomimetic aerobic oxidation of primary benzylic amines has been achieved by using a quinone catalyst. Excellent selectivity is observed for primary, unbranched benzylic amines relative to secondary/tertiary amines, branched benzylic amines, and aliphatic amines. The exquisite selectivity for benzylic amines enables oxidative self-sorting within dynamic mixtures of amines and imines to afford high yields of cross-coupled imine products.

  16. Blood pressure variability in children with primary vs secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Daniel; Meyers, Melissa; Schnall, Jeremy; Chorny, Nataliya; Frank, Rachel; Infante, Lulette; Sethna, Christine B

    2014-06-01

    Increased blood pressure variability (BPV) is correlated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events in adults. However, there has been limited research on its effect in the pediatric population. Additionally, BPV differences between primary and secondary hypertension (HTN) are not known. Children with primary and secondary HTN underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and echocardiography studies. BPV measures of standard deviation (SD), average real variability (ARV), and range were calculated for the 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime periods. Seventy-four patients (median age, 13.5 years; 74% boys) were examined, 40 of whom had primary HTN. Body mass index z score and age were independent predictors of systolic ARV (R(2) =0.14) and SD (R(2) =0.39). There were no statistically significant differences in overall or wake period BPV measures between secondary or primary HTN groups, but sleep period diastolic SD was significantly greater in the secondary HTN group (9.26±3.8 vs 7.1±2.8, P=.039). On multiple regression analysis, secondary HTN was associated with increased sleep period diastolic SD (P=.025). No metrics of BPV in the overall, wake, and sleep periods were found to be significantly associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The results of this study do not show a strong relationship between overall or wake BPV with primary vs secondary HTN, but the association of secondary HTN with sleep period diastolic BPV deserves further exploration. Contrary to expectation, the findings of this study failed to indicate a relationship between BPV and LVH for all patients as well for primary hypertensive and secondary hypertensive patients. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pediatric Primary Care-Based Obesity Prevention for Parents of Preschool Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E; JaKa, Meghan M; Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Hayes, Marcia G; Anderson, Julie D

    2015-12-01

    The Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids Preschool (HHHK-Preschool) pilot program is an obesity prevention intervention integrating pediatric care provider counseling and a phone-based program to prevent unhealthy weight gain among 2- to 4-year-old children at risk for obesity (BMI percentile between the 50th and 85th percentile and at least one overweight parent) or currently overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI pediatric primary care clinics were randomized to: (1) the Busy Bodies/Better Bites Obesity Prevention Arm or the (2) Healthy Tots/Safe Spots safety/injury prevention Contact Control Arm. Baseline and 6-month data were collected, including measured height and weight, accelerometry, previous day dietary recalls, and parent surveys. Intervention process data (e.g., call completion) were also collected. High intervention completion and satisfaction rates were observed. Although a statistically significant time by treatment interaction was not observed for BMI percentile or BMI z-score, post-hoc examination of baseline weight status as a moderator of treatment outcome showed that the Busy Bodies/Better Bites obesity prevention intervention appeared to be effective among children who were in the overweight category at baseline relative to those who were categorized as at risk for obesity (p = 0.04). HHHK-Preschool pilot study results support the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy in already overweight children of a pediatric primary care-based obesity prevention intervention integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching. What's New: Implementing pediatric primary care-based obesity interventions is challenging. Previous interventions have primarily involved in-person sessions, a barrier to sustained parent involvement. HHHK-preschool pilot study results suggest that integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching is a promising approach.

  18. [Colonization of Porphyromonas endodontalis in primary and secondary endodontic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li; Hai, Ji; Yan-Yan, He; Shenghui, Yang; Benxiang, Hou

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to assess and compare the prevalence of Porphyromonas endodontalis (P. endodontalis) in root canals associated with primary and secondary endodontic infections by using 16s rDNA PCR and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTFQ-PCR). A total of 120 adult patients with one radiographically documented periapical lesion were included. Sixty teeth presented with primary endodontic infections and 60 with secondary endodontic infections requiring retreatment. P. endodontalis was identified by using 16s rDNA PCR techniques. The positive DNA expression of P. endodontalis in two types of infected root canals were quantitatively compared by using SYBR GREEN I RTFQ-PCR. The prevalence of P. endodontalis in the root canals with primary endodontic infections was significantly higher than that in root canals with secondary endodontic infections (P = 0.001). However, RTFQ-PCR results showed no significant difference in DNA expression quantities between the primary and secondary endodontic infections root canals (P = 0.303). P. endodontalis is more highly associated with root canals having primary endodontic infections, although P. endodontalis colonize in both root canals with primary and secondary chronic apical periodontitis.

  19. Exploring personality traits and well-being among pre-school and primary school teachers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-school and primary school teachers are directly involved in the education of children. In addition to teachers’ competences, the quality of their work is significantly influenced by their psychological well-being. It is therefore important to focus on their well-being as well as on personality traits they have. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between life satisfaction, happiness, optimism and personality traits of pre-school and primary school teachers in Croatia. Participants and procedure The study was conducted on a sample of 103 pre-school teachers and 117 primary school teachers who completed self-evaluated scales on personality traits, life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. Results The results demonstrated high levels of all personality traits in both samples. High levels of life satisfaction were positively associated with happiness and optimism. Personality traits were also positively associated with life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. There were no differences in life satisfaction, happiness, optimism or personality traits between pre-school and primary school teachers, except for openness to experience being higher in pre-school teachers. Emotional stability was a significant predictor of teachers’ well-being. Conclusions The results have significant implications for improvement of teaching practice at primary school and pre-school levels. The findings highlight the importance of teachers’ personality traits and their well-being for the quality of their work with children.

  20. Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation, which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

  1. Clinical presentation and treatment of primary and secondary paranasal mucoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Chin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This retrospective study was conducted to describe and compare the clinical characteristics of primary mucoceles occurring in patients without a previous history of sinus surgery, the cause of mucoceles and secondary mucoceles resulting as a complication following endoscopic sinus surgery, and the Caldwell-Luc operation. Materials and Methods: This study reviewed 18 cases of primary mucoceles and 21 cases of secondary mucoceles, who were diagnosed and had received surgical intervention between 1995 and 2012. Results: The most common presenting symptoms in primary mucoceles were: Visual disturbance (18.6%, nasal obstruction (12.5%, and headache (12.5%. In secondary mucoceles, the most common symptoms were: Nasal obstruction (27.5%, rhinorrhea (15%, and postnasal drip (12.5%. The most common sites of origin for primary mucoceles were the ethmoid sinus (31.5% and sphenoid sinus (31.5%. In secondary mucoceles, the maxillary sinus was the most common site of origin (40.7%, followed by the ethmoid sinus (29.6%. All patients with secondary mucoceles had a history of sinus surgery. Conclusions: Mucoceles are benign lesions of the paranasal sinus. Cases of secondary mucoceles that occur following sinus endoscopic surgery develop more frequently in the ethmoid sinus compared to those following the Caldwell-Luc procedure. Endoscopic intranasal surgery of mucoceles is a reliable therapeutic measure with a favorable long-term outcome.

  2. Usefulness of ultrasonographic evaluation in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and ultrasonographic findings of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and correlate them with pathologic results. We reviewed 31 cases of surgically confirmed primary (n=22) and secondary (n=9) hyperparathyroidism. We used 10 or 7.5 MHz linear transducer and reviewed the location, contour, size and echogenicity of lesions. Then we evaluated the detection rate of parathyroid lesions based on surgical result and compared the result of 99m Tc-sestamibi scan (15 cases). Location of primary HPT was left lower in 9, left upper in 5, right lower in 4, right upper in 3, left midportion in 1 and superior mediastinum in 1. Lesions showed variable echogenicity-mild low echo (2), moderate low echo (10), severe low echo (2), isoecho (4) and heterogeneous echo pattern (1). All the lesions except 5 were well defined and 3 lesions had echogenic rim. Posterior enhancement and lateral shadowing were noted in 3 and 4 lesions, respectively. Nineteen of 23 primary lesions were detected by ultrasonography (82.6%) and well correlated with sestamibi scan. In case of secondary HPT, most were well defined low echoic nodular lesions, and we could detect 6 of 9 patients (67%) and 15 of 36 lesions (41.7%). Only 6 of 24 secondary lesion were detected by sestamibi scan (25%). The detection rate of ultrasonography in primary HPT was fairly good and well correlated with the result of the 99m Tc-sestamibi scan, but both diagnostic modalities were not promising in secondary HPT.

  3. Medical treatment of primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Thomsen, Susanna vid Strym

    2011-04-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a condition with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). The increase may be due to a) primary hyperparathyroidism which is caused by adenoma of one or more parathyroid glands or hyperplasia of all four glands, b) secondary hyperparathyroidism, which may be caused by deficiency in vitamin D or uremia, and 3) tertiary hyperparathyroidism, which most often is the result of a long-standing, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, which has turned autonomous once the cause of the secondary hyperparathyroidism has been removed. Many new treatment options have been introduced in recent years. Cinacalcet is calcium sensing receptor agonist, which by stimulating the receptor decreases PTH and calcium levels. It may be used in primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by uremia, which may not be controlled with calcium and activated vitamin D. It may also be used in tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Newer analogues of vitamin D such as paricalcitol have also been introduced, which may have an advantage over traditional compounds such as alphacalcidol and calcitriol.

  4. Input, Process, and Learning in primary and lower secondary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Nordenbo, Sven Erik; Holm, Anders

    What do we want to know? What empirical research has been carried out to examine the relationship between factors in primary and lower secondary schools (inputs and processes) and the learning achieved by primary and lower secondary school pupils (outputs and outcomes)? What are the results...... with weight of evidence of this empirical research? Who wants to know and why? The project was commissioned by the Danish Evaluation Institute (Danmarks Evalueringsinstitut) and was performed on behalf of the Nordic Indicator Workgroup (DNI). DNI is a workgroup nominated by the Nordic Evaluation Network...... and development etc. within the primary and lower secondary school sector. What did we find? From 1990 to 2008, 109 studies were published on malleable school factors within school effectiveness research. Of these studies, 71 are of high or medium weight of evidence. Synthesising these studies establishes that 11...

  5. [Diagnostics and treatment of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarivchatskiĭ, M F; Denisov, S A; Blinov, S A; Kolevatov, A P; Teplykh, N S

    2013-01-01

    The experience of treatment of 41 patients (aged 32-67 years) was presented in the article. The duration of disease was 2-5 years. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed in 16 patients and secondary--in 25. Diagnostics of the disease included clinical methods of treatment; studying levels of general and ionized calcium, phosphorus, parathormone; an ultrasound of thyroid and parathyroid glands, the substratum scintigraphy. All patients were undergone the operation. Adenomas of parathyroid glands were removed in the case of primary hyperparathyroidism including mini-access. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands (31/2) were disposed in the case of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Good immediate and long-term results were obtained.

  6. Dynamic assessment of word learning skills of pre-school children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Bernard; Law, James

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic assessment has been shown to have considerable theoretical and clinical significance in the assessment of socially disadvantaged and culturally and linguistically diverse children. In this study it is used to enhance assessment of pre-school children with primary language impairment. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a dynamic assessment (DA) has the potential to enhance the predictive capacity of a static measure of receptive vocabulary in pre-school children. Forty pre-school children were assessed using the static British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), a DA of word learning potential and an assessment of non-verbal cognitive ability. Thirty-seven children were followed up 6 months later and re-assessed using the BPVS. Although the predictive capacity of the static measure was found to be substantial, the DA increased this significantly especially for children with static scores below the 25th centile. The DA of children's word learning has the potential to add value to the static assessment of the child with low language skills, to predict subsequent receptive vocabulary skills and to increase the chance of correctly identifying children in need of ongoing support.

  7. Cosmic ray antimatter: Is it primary or secondary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1981-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic ray antiprotons, including the low energy measurement of Buffington, were examined. It is concluded that the cosmic ray antiproton data may be strong evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present antiproton data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having antiproton/proton approximately equal to .0032 + or - 0.7.

  8. Problems of discipline in primary and secondary school: Teachers' opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savović Branka B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations carried out in late 2001 in primary and secondary schools of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš comprised students, teachers and associates. The aim of investigations was to get insight into the state-of-the-arts problems and needs of our primary and secondary schools. The paper is a part of investigations, related to the results obtained for students' opinions of their interrelations with teachers as well as opinions of teachers themselves. The sample comprised 727 students of 4th grade of secondary vocational and high schools, 562 students of 8th grade of primary schools 168 secondary school and 107 primary school teachers. We investigated their interrelationships and within this framework the level of potential or current aggressive behavior. The majority of teachers (51% estimated student-teacher relationships mediocre - neither good nor bad. The most frequent problem in students' behavior is, according to the teachers instruction disturbance. One-quarter of teachers find that students offend them, ridicule them, or mock at them in front of others, and 5 per cent complain of physical injury intimidation on the part of students. When a problem comes up, 18 per cent of teachers talk with a student, and nearly 10 per cent of teachers give lower grades in their subject, so as to punish a student for undisciplined behaviors. In teachers' opinion, society, school the least, is to be blamed for the situation.

  9. Celebrating the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Celebrating the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education Curriculum ... Accordingly the thesis defended in this paper is that; contrary to public opinion, it is a ... from documentary analysis with special focus on Plato's Theory of Forms and ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  10. Characterization of primary and secondary metabolites of leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the primary and secondary metabolite profiles of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) stems and leaves to determine whether it can be utilized for therapeutic purposes as the roots. A total of six types of extracts were tested. The extracts showed high content of glycosaponins, polysaccharides, proteins and ...

  11. Primary and Secondary Selection Tools in an Optometry Admission Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Marlee M.

    2000-01-01

    A five-year evaluation of the admissions decision process at the University of Waterloo (Ontario) School of Optometry found that when primary tools (i.e., university grades, Optometry Admission Test scores) did not differentiate candidates, there was an increased emphasis on secondary tools (i.e., interview, autobiographic sketch, prerequisite…

  12. Short Communication Further refutation of the primary-secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary-secondary settlement hypothesis, that mussels first settle in algae and then move to mussel beds, was rejected as the only mode of recruitment for the brown mussel Perna perna in a previous study at one location over one year on the south coast of South Africa. We investigated recruitment of P. perna into ...

  13. Average Distance Travelled To School by Primary and Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated average distance travelled to school by students in primary and secondary schools in Anambra, Enugu, and Ebonyi States and effect on attendance. These are among the top ten densely populated and educationally advantaged States in Nigeria. Research evidences report high dropout rates in ...

  14. Medical treatment of primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; við Streym, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    years. Cinacalcet is calcium sensing receptor agonist, which by stimulating the receptor decreases PTH and calcium levels. It may be used in primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by uremia, which may not be controlled with calcium and activated vitamin D. It may also be used...

  15. Instructional Leadership in Primary and Secondary Schools in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Dimmock, Clive

    1993-01-01

    Investigates teachers' and principals' perceptions of instructional leadership in a sample of Western Australian government primary and secondary schools, using the Instructional Leadership Questionnaire. Instructional leadership was viewed as a shared responsibility; teachers felt principals were less involved than principals felt they were.…

  16. Computer attitudes of primary and secondary students in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, Chantal; Voogt, Joke; Meelissen, Martina R.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated computer attitudes of 240 students from eight primary and secondary schools in South Africa. The student population of six of the eight schools that participated in the study can be characterised as middle or upper class. Two schools were from South African townships. All

  17. Crossing the Primary and Secondary School Divide in Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Teacher education courses at universities qualify graduates to teach in age-related contexts of primary/early childhood/secondary that reflect the organisational structure of schools. In terms of teacher employment, for some considerable time, these longstanding organisational divisions have been by-passed whereby a shortage of teachers in…

  18. Phenomenon of primary and secondary extinction in textured material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshtab, T.G.; Palacios G, J.; Mazin, M.O.

    2002-01-01

    A new X-ray diffraction method is proposed for a more exact calculation of pole figures to determine the crystallite orientation distribution function (CODF) in textured materials, by the introduction of a correction of the integrated intensity of the diffracted beam due to the phenomenon of extinction. Besides, for the case of a symmetrical Bragg reflection from an ''infinitely thick'' flat parallel plate textured sample a simple solution is developed for the problem of separation and determination of primary and secondary extinction parameters, which can be present simultaneously. The determination of these parameters gives additional information about crystallite structure and allows us to evaluate the average subgrains size and their disorientation, respectively. In this work according to the dynamic diffraction theory, it is shown that the extinction length, which is directly connected with the phenomenon of primary extinction, in the Bragg geometry for σ polarization (perpendicular) is independent on the wavelength used for a given reflection. On the other hand, the additional contribution from secondary extinction depends on X-ray wavelength due to the change of effective absorption coefficient. Considering this fact, the calculations of pole density and the parameters of primary and secondary extinction are performed using the same strong reflection for two different wavelengths and, for one of these wavelengths, a second order of reflection. For confirmation of the proposed method a partially cold rolled aluminium sample and an aluminium powder standard sample were measured. The corrected pole densities, the values of primary and secondary extinction and the average sizes of perfect coherent areas and average angle of disorientation of subgrains in the selected directions were obtained. The obtained results show that the precise X-ray diffraction characterization of textured materials requires the consideration, in general, of primary as well as secondary

  19. Start App: a coding experience between primary and secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Bruni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a coding experience in primary school (“Colozza” in Campobasso. Within the theoretical framework offered by computational thinking, using App Inventor, it was created a calculator for smartphone in the Android environment. High school students (from a technical secondary school guided the pupils in primary school, making an interesting form of cooperation between primary and secondary schools. Start App: una esperienza di coding tra scuola primaria e scuola secondariaIl contributo presenta una esperienza di coding nella scuola primaria dell’Istituto Comprensivo statale “Colozza” di Campobasso. All’interno della cornice teorica offerta dal pensiero computazionale, utilizzando App Inventor, è stata realizzata una calcolatrice per smartphone in ambiente Android. A guidare gli allievi della primaria sono stati gli studenti dell’Istituto Tecnico Industriale “Marconi” di Campobasso realizzando una interessante forma di collaborazione tra istituti scolastici di ordine diverso.

  20. Lung Parenchymal Assessment in Primary and Secondary Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintcliffe, Oliver J; Edey, Anthony J; Armstrong, Lynne; Negus, Ian S; Maskell, Nick A

    2016-03-01

    The definition of primary spontaneous pneumothorax excludes patients with known lung disease; however, the assumption that the underlying lung is normal in these patients is increasingly contentious. The purpose of this study was to assess lung structure and compare the extent of emphysema in patients with primary versus secondary spontaneous pneumothorax and to patients with no pneumothorax in an otherwise comparable control group. We identified patients treated for pneumothorax by screening inpatient and outpatient medical records at one medical center in the United Kingdom. From this group, 20 patients had no clinically apparent underlying lung disease and were classified as having a primary spontaneous pneumothorax, and 20 patients were classified as having a secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. We assembled a control group composed of 40 subjects matched for age and smoking history who had a unilateral pleural effusion or were suspected to have a thoracic malignancy and had a chest computed tomography scan suitable for quantitative analysis. Demographics and smoking histories were collected. Quantitative evaluation of low-attenuation areas of the lung on computed tomography imaging was performed using semiautomated software, and the extent of emphysema-like destruction was assessed visually. The extent of emphysema and percentage of low-attenuation areas was greater for patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax than for control subjects matched for age and smoking history (median, 0.25 vs. 0.00%; P = 0.019) and was also higher for patients with secondary pneumothorax than those with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (16.15 vs. 0.25%, P pneumothorax who smoked had significantly greater low-attenuation area than patients with primary pneumothorax who were nonsmokers (0.7 vs. 0.1%, P = 0.034). The majority of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax had quantifiable evidence of parenchymal destruction and emphysema. The exclusion of patients

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and environment: what primary care providers say about pre-school vision screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-Tootle, Wendy L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Frazier, Marcela G; Crenshaw, Katie; Wall, Terry C

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and environment of primary care providers, and to develop a conceptual framework showing their impact on self-reported pre-school vision screening (PVS) behaviors. Eligible primary care providers were individuals who filed claims with Medicaid agencies in Alabama, South Carolina, or Illinois, for at least eight well child checks for children aged 3 or 4 years during 1 year. Responses were obtained on-line from providers who enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized trial to improve PVS. We calculated a summary score per provider per facet: (1) for behavior and knowledge, each correct answer was assigned a value of +1; and (2) for attitudes and environment, responses indicating support for PVS were assigned a value of +1, and other responses were assigned -1. Responses were available from 53 participants (43 of 49 enrolled pediatricians, 8 of 14 enrolled family physicians, one general physician, and one nurse practitioner). Recognizing that amblyopia often presents without outward signs was positively related to good PVS: [odds ratio (OR) = 3.9; p = 0.06]. Reporting that "preschool VS interrupts patient flow" posed a significant barrier (OR = 0.2; p = 0.05). Providers with high summed scores on attitudes (OR = 6.0; p = 0.03), or knowledge and attitudes (OR = 11.4; p attitudes or environment, and "good" PVS behavior (p = 0.04). PVS is influenced by positive attitudes, especially when combined with knowledge about amblyopia. Interventions to improve PVS should target multiple facets, emphasizing (1) asymptomatic children are at risk for amblyopia, (2) specific evidence-based tests have high testability and sensitivity for amblyopia in pre-school children, and (3) new tests minimize interruptions to patient flow.

  2. Enhanced primary and secondary performance through cognitive relaying and leveraging primary feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2014-06-01

    We consider a spectrum-sharing system, where the primary terminal operates in a time-slotted fashion and is active only when it has a packet to send. The secondary terminal uses spectrum sensing results and the primary automatic repeat request (ARQ) feedback to access the channel probabilistically. To enhance the primary\\'s system performance, the secondary user (SU) acts as a relay for the primary user (PU) in the event of transmission failure on the direct link of the latter. Closed-form expressions for the primary and secondary throughputs are obtained for the described scheme. The optimal medium access probabilities are then obtained by maximizing the secondary throughput subject to constraints that guarantee the stability of the considered queues, a minimum primary throughput, and a maximum primary queueing delay. The results clearly indicate the benefits of cognitive relaying in enhancing the throughput performance for both the PU and SU. Furthermore, by guaranteeing minimum rate and maximum delay requirements, our scheme is shown to provide a definitive notion of protection for the licensed users of the network. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Enhanced primary and secondary performance through cognitive relaying and leveraging primary feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We consider a spectrum-sharing system, where the primary terminal operates in a time-slotted fashion and is active only when it has a packet to send. The secondary terminal uses spectrum sensing results and the primary automatic repeat request (ARQ) feedback to access the channel probabilistically. To enhance the primary's system performance, the secondary user (SU) acts as a relay for the primary user (PU) in the event of transmission failure on the direct link of the latter. Closed-form expressions for the primary and secondary throughputs are obtained for the described scheme. The optimal medium access probabilities are then obtained by maximizing the secondary throughput subject to constraints that guarantee the stability of the considered queues, a minimum primary throughput, and a maximum primary queueing delay. The results clearly indicate the benefits of cognitive relaying in enhancing the throughput performance for both the PU and SU. Furthermore, by guaranteeing minimum rate and maximum delay requirements, our scheme is shown to provide a definitive notion of protection for the licensed users of the network. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Primary and secondary fragmentation of crystal-bearing intermediate magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas J.; McNamara, Keri; Eychenne, Julia; Rust, Alison C.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Scheu, Bettina; Edwards, Robyn

    2016-11-01

    Crystal-rich intermediate magmas are subjected to both primary and secondary fragmentation processes, each of which may produce texturally distinct tephra. Of particular interest for volcanic hazards is the extent to which each process contributes ash to volcanic plumes. One way to address this question is by fragmenting pyroclasts under controlled conditions. We fragmented pumice samples from Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat, by three methods: rapid decompression in a shock tube-like apparatus, impact by a falling piston, and milling in a ball mill. Grain size distributions of the products reveal that all three mechanisms produce fractal breakage patterns, and that the fractal dimension increases from a minimum of 2.1 for decompression fragmentation (primary fragmentation) to a maximum of 2.7 by repeated impact (secondary fragmentation). To assess the details of the fragmentation process, we quantified the shape, texture and components of constituent ash particles. Ash shape analysis shows that the axial ratio increases during milling and that particle convexity increases with repeated impacts. We also quantify the extent to which the matrix is separated from the crystals, which shows that secondary processes efficiently remove adhering matrix from crystals, particularly during milling (abrasion). Furthermore, measurements of crystal size distributions before (using x-ray computed tomography) and after (by componentry of individual grain size classes) decompression-driven fragmentation show not only that crystals influence particular size fractions across the total grain size distribution, but also that free crystals are smaller in the fragmented material than in the original pumice clast. Taken together, our results confirm previous work showing both the control of initial texture on the primary fragmentation process and the contributions of secondary processes to ash formation. Critically, however, our extension of previous analyses to characterisation

  5. Psychological functioning in primary progressive versus secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vleugels, L; Pfennings, L E; Pouwer, F

    1998-01-01

    Psychological functioning in two types of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is assessed: primary progressive (PP) and secondary progressive (SP) patients. On the basis of differences in clinical course and underlying pathology we hypothesized that primary progressive patients and secondary...... progressive patients might have different psychological functioning. Seventy patients treated in an MS centre were examined cross-sectionally. Forty had an SP course of MS and 30 a PP course. The 33 male and 37 female patients had a mean age of 48.4 years (SD 11.2) and mean age of onset of MS of 30.7 years...... (SD 11.1). Patients completed questionnaires measuring among others the following aspects of psychological functioning: depression (BDI, SCL-90), anxiety (STAI, SCL-90), agoraphobia (SCL-90), somatic complaints (SCL-90), hostility (SCL-90) and attitude towards handicap (GHAS). Patients with a PP...

  6. Small bowel volvulus with jejunal diverticulum: Primary or secondary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Wen-Xian; Cao, Ke; Wang, Hao; Du, Jun-Feng

    2015-09-28

    Small bowel volvulus, which is torsion of the small bowel and its mesentery, is a medical emergency, and is categorized as primary or secondary type. Primary type often occurs without any apparent intrinsic anatomical anomalies, while the secondary type is common clinically and could be caused by numerous factors including postoperative adhesions, intestinal diverticulum, and/or tumors. Here, we report a rare case of a 60-year-old man diagnosed with small bowel volvulus using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography. Further discovery by laparotomy showed one jejunal diverticulum, longer corresponding mesentery with a narrower insertion, and a lack of mesenteric fat. This case report includes several etiological factors of small bowel volvulus, and we discuss the possible cause of small bowel volvulus in this patient. We also highlight the importance of MDCT angiography in the diagnosis of volvulus and share our experience in treating this disease.

  7. Dabigatran experience in primary and secondary prevention of cardioembolic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Alekseyevich Domashenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban in stroke prevention and also own data of administration of dabigatran in primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke in 45 patients with cerebrovascular diseases are presented. Most patients received dabigatran 14 days after the first stroke associated with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In other cases dabigatran was used for primary prevention of stroke in patients with chronic forms of cerebrovascular diseases and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran shows good tolerability and efficacy. Recurrent strokes were diagnosed in 2 patients. The reasons for these events were arterial hypertension in one case and symptomatic atherosclerotic plaque in the other case.

  8. Nuclear fuel assembly incorporating primary and secondary structural support members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Gjertsen, R.K.; Miller, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly, comprising: (a) an upper end structure; (b) a lower end structure; (c) elongated primary structural members extending longitudinally between and rigidly interconnecting the upper and lower end structures, the upper and lower end structures and primary structural members together forming a rigid structural skeleton of the fuel assembly; (d) transverse grids supported on the primary structural members at axially spaced locations therealong between the upper and lower end structures; (e) fuel rods extending through and supported by the grids between the upper and lower end structures so as to extend in generally side-by-side spaced relation to one another and to the primary structural members; and (f) elongated secondary structural members extending longitudinally between but unconnected with the upper and lower end structures, the secondary structural members extending through and rigidly interconnected with the grids to extend in generally side-by-side spaced relation to one another, to the fuel rods and to the primary structural members so as to bolster the stiffness of the structural skeleton of the fuel assembly

  9. Internet evolved : from secondary to primary competitive intelligence data

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowska, Dominika

    2011-01-01

    Primary data is an important source ofinformation for Competitive Intelligence. Traditionally, it has been collected from interviews with stakeholders, talks at conferences and other means of direct interpersonal communication. The role of the Internet in the data collection – if it was used at all – was that of a provider of supplementary secondary data. Here, this approach is challenged and, using three examples of Social Media, it is shown that the Internet can and does provide valuable pr...

  10. [Management of adult secondary insomnia in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, Luís Filipe; Ribeiro, Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in adults, with secondary insomnia being the most prevalent. This sleep disorder is associated with important medical and social consequences. The General Practitioner (GP) plays a key role in the diagnosis of insomnia, which may affect about 69% of their patients in the PHC (Primary Health Care). Recognize the differential diagnosis of secondary insomnia in adults, evaluate and manage these patients in the PHC, appropriately use the treatments available and meet the criteria for referral. Bibliographic search in MEDLINE databases, and evidence based review databases, using the MeSH terms: Primary Health Care, Sleep Disorders, Insomnia, for articles published since January 2000 until July 2009, in English, Portuguese, French and Spanish. Index de Revistas Médicas Portuguesas and scientific societies dedicated to sleep disorders were searched. Mood and anxiety disorders are the main co-morbidities associated with secondary insomnia, being present in 30% to 50% of patients with insomnia. The medical pathology and substance abuse are present respectively in 10% of patients. It is essential a proper clinical history, with a history of sleep, sleep diary and the partner information. There is evidence that the combination of specific pharmacological treatments (benzodiazepines and the benzodiazepine receptor agonists) with the nonpharmacological (cognitive-behavioral therapy) may be useful in secondary insomnia, as co-adjuvant treatment of the underlying disease. There are several treatment options with their indications and adverse effects. The criteria for referral should be defined according to the availability of human resources. Due to the high prevalence and the serious consequences of secondary insomnia in adults, it must be systematically managed by the GP. It is important to know and to use non-pharmacological therapy in GP consultation, because this therapy was shown to be important in treating this type of insomnia

  11. School Counselors' Job Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Preschool and Primary-School Counselors in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas (Dalçiçek), Esref; Sak, Ramazan; Sahin Sak, Ikbal Tuba

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods research compared job satisfaction among counselors working in pre-schools and primary-schools. Its quantitative phase included 223 counselors, 70 of whom also participated in the qualitative phase. A demographic information form, job-satisfaction scale and a semi-structured interview protocol were used to collect data.…

  12. Astronomy in Primary and Secondary Education in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomboc, Andreja

    2015-08-01

    I will present the status of astronomy in educational system in Slovenia. In primary schools astronomy is offered as an optional course in the last 3 grades (12-15 yrs old), while in secondary schools a few astronomical topics are present only as part of other subjects (e.g. physics, geography). I will describe a pilot project of an astronomy course in secondary schools, which was carried out in the school year 2013/14. The main focus of my presentation will be the experience gained with organisation of the Slovenian National Astronomy Competition. It is organised by the Slovenian Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers since 2009, building on an extensive network of over 200 primary and secondary school teachers who participated in IYA2009 activities, and who now represent majority of mentors for the competition. In 2013, only 5 years after the start of competition, our pupils attended the International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics for the first time and with great success. Supporting activities include the Slovenian version of the Portal to the Universe (www.portalvvesolje.si) and translation of Space Scoop astronomy news for children.

  13. Seasonality of primary and secondary production in an Arctic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, M.; Huryn, A.; Deegan, L.

    2011-12-01

    Rivers and streams that freeze solid for 8-9 months each year provide excellent examples of the extreme seasonality of arctic habitats. The communities of organisms inhabiting these rivers must complete growth and development during summer, resulting in a rapid ramp-up and down of production over the short ice-free period. The effects of recent shifts in the timing of the spring thaw and autumn freeze-up on the duration and pattern of the period of active production are poorly understood. We are currently investigating: 1) the response of the biotic community of the Kuparuk River (Arctic Alaska) to shifts in the seasonality of the ice-free period, and 2) the community response to increases in phosphorous (P) supply anticipated as the volume of the permafrost active-layer increases in response to climate warming. Here algal production supports a 2-tier web of consumers. We tracked primary and secondary production from the spring thaw through mid-August in a reference reach and one receiving low-level P fertilization. Gross primary production/community respiration (GPP/R) ratios for both reaches were increasing through mid-July, with higher GPP/R in response to the P addition. Understanding the degree of synchrony between primary and secondary production in this Arctic river system will enhance further understanding of how shifts in seasonality affect trophic dynamics.

  14. Primary and secondary organic aerosols in summer 2016 in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rongzhi; Wu, Zepeng; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yujue; Shang, Dongjie; Xiao, Yao; Li, Mengren; Zeng, Limin; Wu, Zhijun; Hallquist, Mattias; Hu, Min; Guo, Song

    2018-03-01

    To improve air quality, the Beijing government has employed several air pollution control measures since the 2008 Olympics. In order to investigate organic aerosol sources after the implementation of these measures, ambient fine particulate matter was collected at a regional site in Changping (CP) and an urban site at the Peking University Atmosphere Environment Monitoring Station (PKUERS) during the Photochemical Smog in China field campaign in summer 2016. Chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling and the tracer yield method were used to apportion primary and secondary organic sources. Our results showed that the particle concentration decreased significantly during the last few years. The apportioned primary and secondary sources explained 62.8 ± 18.3 and 80.9 ± 27.2 % of the measured OC at CP and PKUERS, respectively. Vehicular emissions served as the dominant source. Except for gasoline engine emissions, the contributions of all the other primary sources decreased. In addition, the anthropogenic SOC, i.e., toluene SOC, also decreased, implying that deducting primary emissions can reduce anthropogenic SOA. In contrast to the SOA from other regions in the world where biogenic SOA was dominant, anthropogenic SOA was the major contributor to SOA, implying that deducting anthropogenic VOC emissions is an efficient way to reduce SOA in Beijing. Back-trajectory cluster analysis results showed that high mass concentrations of OC were observed when the air mass was from the south. However, the contributions of different primary organic sources were similar, suggesting regional particle pollution. The ozone concentration and temperature correlated well with the SOA concentration. Different correlations between day and night samples suggested different SOA formation pathways. Significant enhancement of SOA with increasing particle water content and acidity was observed in our study, suggesting that aqueous-phase acid-catalyzed reactions may be the important SOA formation

  15. Primary and secondary organic aerosols in summer 2016 in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve air quality, the Beijing government has employed several air pollution control measures since the 2008 Olympics. In order to investigate organic aerosol sources after the implementation of these measures, ambient fine particulate matter was collected at a regional site in Changping (CP and an urban site at the Peking University Atmosphere Environment Monitoring Station (PKUERS during the Photochemical Smog in China field campaign in summer 2016. Chemical mass balance (CMB modeling and the tracer yield method were used to apportion primary and secondary organic sources. Our results showed that the particle concentration decreased significantly during the last few years. The apportioned primary and secondary sources explained 62.8 ± 18.3 and 80.9 ± 27.2 % of the measured OC at CP and PKUERS, respectively. Vehicular emissions served as the dominant source. Except for gasoline engine emissions, the contributions of all the other primary sources decreased. In addition, the anthropogenic SOC, i.e., toluene SOC, also decreased, implying that deducting primary emissions can reduce anthropogenic SOA. In contrast to the SOA from other regions in the world where biogenic SOA was dominant, anthropogenic SOA was the major contributor to SOA, implying that deducting anthropogenic VOC emissions is an efficient way to reduce SOA in Beijing. Back-trajectory cluster analysis results showed that high mass concentrations of OC were observed when the air mass was from the south. However, the contributions of different primary organic sources were similar, suggesting regional particle pollution. The ozone concentration and temperature correlated well with the SOA concentration. Different correlations between day and night samples suggested different SOA formation pathways. Significant enhancement of SOA with increasing particle water content and acidity was observed in our study, suggesting that aqueous-phase acid-catalyzed reactions may be

  16. Factors that affect television viewing time in preschool and primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songül Yalçin, Siddika; Tugrul, Belma; Naçar, NazIre; Tuncer, Murat; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2002-12-01

    Excessive viewing of television (TV) has been linked to aggressive behavior, violence and childhood obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted among preschool children and primary schoolchildren in Ankara during March and April 1999 to detect the factors that affect TV viewing time and to evaluate their parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to TV. The parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire about TV habits of their family, the number and location of TVs in the household and the effect of TV on children. Of 400 questionnaires, 350 answered the questions appropriately for this study. Children were divided into two groups, preschool children and primary schoolchildren. Television viewing time was given daily, as a mean of weekday. The mean age for becoming a TV viewer was 2.7 +/- 1.6 years. Of all, 62% of children spent >/= 2h/day watching TV and 8.3% of children spent > 4 h. The TV viewing time of child was significantly and positively correlated with that of siblings, mother and father for both groups. Age and sleeping time of the child, age and the education level of mother, presence of TV in the child's room and the starting age watching TV did not affect the viewing time. One-half of parents reported that the TV programs watched included violence, and one-third thought TV depicts child abuse, especially emotional abuse. It was found that the TV watching habits of parents had an influence on those of their children. Therefore, pediatricians should take 'TV histories' of children and their parents and educate parents how to become good TV viewers.

  17. Appendectomy in primary and secondary staging operations for ovarian malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P G; Reale, F R; Fisher, A; Hunter, R E

    1991-01-01

    Appendectomy was performed at primary or secondary staging operations in 100 patients with ovarian malignancies. Of 80 patients who underwent appendectomy at the time of their primary surgery, 25 (31.2%) had appendiceal metastases. Among 47 patients who were believed to have disease limited to the pelvis at the time of surgery--stage I (N = 34), II (N = 7), IIIA (N = 5), and those designated stage IIIC solely on the basis of microscopic para-aortic nodal metastasis (N = 1)--the appendix was involved with disease in only two patients (4.3%). However, among 33 patients with advanced disease--stage IIIB (N = 6), IIIC except those designated IIIC solely on the basis of microscopic paraaortic nodal metastasis (N = 19), and IV (N = 8)--the appendix was involved with disease in 23 patients (69.7%) (P less than .001). Poorly differentiated tumors and serous histologic cell types more frequently metastasized to the appendix (64, 15, 6, and 8% for grades 3, 2, and 1 and borderline histology, respectively; P less than .001; and 48, 13, and 8% for serous, endometrioid, and mucinous; P less than .001). Of 20 patients who underwent appendectomy at their secondary staging procedure, two had metastases. Metastatic disease in the appendix was microscopic in nine of 27 patients. Because the frequency of appendiceal metastasis is similar to that of other metastatic sites in stages I and II ovarian cancer, it should be removed at primary staging procedures. Appendectomy should also be performed in patients with advanced ovarian malignancies if it contributes to cytoreduction or at the time of secondary staging procedures.

  18. Modified Valsalva test differentiates primary from secondary cough headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Russell J M; Davies, Paul T G

    2013-03-28

    The current definition of cough headache includes provocation of the symptom by Valsalva manoeuvre, and it is generally believed that all cough headache results from a sudden increase in intracranial pressure. We sought to question that presumption and to determine whether the Valsalva test might distinguish primary from secondary cough headache. We examined 16 consecutive cough headache patients using a modified Valsalva test (exhalation into the connecting tube of a standard anaeroid sphygmomanometer to 60 mm Hg for 10 seconds). A positive response was recorded if the manoeuvre provoked headache. All patients subsequently underwent brain MRI. None of the patients had neurological signs. Eleven had positive modified Valsalva tests. Ten were found subsequently to have posterior fossa pathologies (secondary cough headache: 8 Chiari Type 1 malformations, 2 posterior fossa meningiomas). The cough headache was relieved following surgery in all cases. One patient with a positive Valsalva test had an apparently normal brain MRI but measurements of hindbrain and posterior fossa dimensions were consistent with 'posterior fossa crowdedness'. The remaining 5 patients had negative (4 patients) or equivocal (1 patient) Valsalva tests and normal MRI scans (primary cough headache). These findings suggest that secondary cough headache results from a transient increase in intracranial CSF pressure during exertion in the presence of obstruction to normal cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. The modified Valsalva test can also determine whether tonsillar herniation found on brain MRI is symptomatic. Primary cough headache appears to be caused by a different mechanism, possibly through congestion of the orbital venous plexus in the presence of jugular venous incompetence and a reduced threshold for trigeminal sensory activation.

  19. Envisioning DIY learning in primary and secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Maria Sancho-Gil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The DIYLab project (Do it yourself in Education: expanding digital competence to foster student agency and collaborative learning. European Commission seeks to explore the changes (and its educational effects occurring in the last decade regarding digital competencies, especially in relation to the emergence of a culture of collaboration, that connects youth learning, technology and DIY (Kafai & Peppler, 2011. To achieve the project's objective, we are following a methodology based on the principles of collaborative action research (CAR. This paper focuses on the first step of the CAR process and shows the main challenges identified by teachers, students and parents in order to implement the project’s learning philosophy in the current curricula and schools organisation. We carried out a series of focus groups with teachers, students and parents from primary and secondary schools and the university to discuss what DIY learning looks like in the participants’ educational contexts. Based on these discussions we have begun to analyse how each context imagines DIY learning and how it relates to the notion of virtual space. This paper focuses in the Spanish primary and secondary school participating in the project.

  20. Media literacy between primary and secondary students in Andalusia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Aguaded

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The media consumption by children and young people in our society is a fact. Since 2010 there has been an R&D project that aims to assess media literacy in compulsory education in Andalusia. The content was defined in terms of six dimensions developed to assess the skill levels of citizenship. This article analyzes the degree of media literacy in primary and secondary school population in Andalusia. It is an important challenge for the information society to prepare media literate students. The study reports the comparative results of two surveys conducted in a varied sample of Andalusian schools. Both tools are designed to be implemented online with real-time tracking of the platform, to identify needs and gaps and plan for future strategies at school. The study defines media literacy and analysis of its dimensions and various categories of the quantitative study. This research concludes that the population of primary and secondary media literacy lacks the dimensions analyzed. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a course in media education in the school curriculum.

  1. A Study on Primary and Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Greenhouse Effect (Erzurum Sampling)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Seyda; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine what level of primary and secondary school students' misconceptions related to greenhouse effect is. Study group consists of totally 280 students attended to totally 8 primary and secondary schools (4 primary school, 4 secondary school) which were determined with convenient sampling method from center of…

  2. Corrosion of alloy 800 in PHWR primary and secondary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, A.J.G.; Blesa, M.A.; Villegas, M.; Olmedo, A.M.; Bordoni, R.; Alvarez, M.G.; Sainz, R.

    1998-01-01

    A hot leg section of a steam generator tubing was removed for destructive examination from one of the steam generators (SG) of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant. The tube material is Alloy 800 and carbon steel is the tube support plate material. Samples of the deposits were taken at the first tube support plate and at the top, mid-height and bottom of the sludge pile. Transverse sections were taken at several locations along the tube length measuring the oxide thicknesses and studying the morphology of the oxide layer by scanning electron microscopy on the primary and secondary side at each location. Deposit layers on the outer tube surface revealed iron as major component and the presence of calcium, phosphorous, zinc and manganese. The oxide scale thickness at the secondary side in the open area was around 22 to 30 μm. The oxide thickness grown under isothermal conditions on the corrosion test samples installed in the autoclaves facilities of the primary circuit of the plant was measured and compared with that found on the inner surface of the examined tube section. The oxide thickness of the test samples was around 1-2 μm showing the influence of the deposition of corrosion products from the coolant. Deposition and precipitation of oxide was also found in the actual tube, where the common feature was the irregularity of the oxide layer on the primary side and thicknesses values in the range 4 to 10 μm were measured. The autoclave tests and SG tubing examination permit to compare the influence of materials and of operating (flow rate, isothermal vs non-isothermal) conditions on corrosion and deposition. (author)

  3. Assessment of Bacterial Aerosol in a Preschool, Primary School and High School in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Brągoszewska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of healthy educational buildings is a global concern because children are particularly at risk of lung damage and infection caused by poor indoor air quality (IAQ. This article presents the results of a preliminary study of the concentration and size distribution of bacterial aerosol in three educational buildings: a preschool, primary school, and high school. Sampling was undertaken in the classrooms with an Andersen six-stage impactor (with aerodynamic cut-off diameters of 7.0, 4.7, 3.3, 2.1, 1.1 and 0.65 μm during spring 2016 and 2017, as well as the outside of the buildings. After incubation, bioaerosol particles captured on nutrient media on Petri dishes were quantitatively evaluated and qualitatively identified. The highest average concentration of bacterial aerosol was inside the primary school building (2205 CFU/m3, whereas the lowest average concentration of indoor culturable bacteria was observed in the high school building (391 CFU/m3. Using the obtained data, the exposure dose (ED of the bacterial aerosol was estimated for children attending each educational level. The most frequently occurring species in the sampled bacterial aerosol were Gram-positive cocci in the indoor environment and Gram-positive rod-forming endospores in the outdoor environment.

  4. Health promotion in primary and secondary schools in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Krølner, Rikke; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schools are important arenas for interventions among children as health promoting initiatives in childhood is expected to have substantial influence on health and well-being in adulthood. In countries with compulsory school attention, all children could potentially benefit from health...... promotion at the school level regardless of socioeconomic status or other background factors. The first aim was to elucidate time trends in the number and types of school health promoting activities by describing the number and type of health promoting activities in primary and secondary schools in Denmark....... The second aim was to investigate which characteristics of schools and students that are associated with participation in many (≥3) versus few (0-2) health promoting activities during the preceding 2-3 years. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the 2006- and 2010-survey of the Health Behaviour...

  5. Cerebral hydatid disease: Is it primary or secondary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onteddu Joji Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a serious medical problem in Mediterranean and particularly among sheep farming countries, caused by larval stages of dog tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus. Hydatid cysts may affect every organ in the human body; however, multiple organ involvement (spleen, adrenal gland, heart, pericardium, intravascular growth of hydatids and brain without affecting the two major filters in the body liver and the lung was very rare. In this case, myocardial hydatid cyst is considered as primary and involvement of other organs such as brain, spleen, adrenal glands, and vascular involvement are considered as secondary involvement due to the rupture of hydatid in heart. Rarity of this atypical presentation of hydatid disease leads to this case report.

  6. The Relationship between the Duration of Preschool Education and Primary School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Özgül; Yavuz, Ezgi Aksin

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood experiences have a great effect on the course of a child's life. Preschool education can offer benefits for children, particularly those who do not have advantages at home, including benefits related to academic skills, social-emotional development, and communication. Thus, preschool experiences are a potential key to improving…

  7. MRI features of primary, secondary and metastatic medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehring, U.; Strayle-Batra, M.; Kueker, W.; Freudenstein, D.; Scheel-Walter, H.-G.

    2002-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent paediatric malignant brain tumour. The purpose of this study was to define imaging characteristics and contrast uptake patterns of primary and recurrent medulloblastoma using MRI. The MRI examinations of 17 histologically proven cases of medulloblastoma diagnosed in our institution (13 males and 4 females; mean age 13 years, 7 months) were reviewed in retrospect. Only patients with pre-treatment and follow-up examinations including T2-weighted images (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery or turbo spin echo) and T1-weighted images after contrast injection (0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA) were included in this study. Whereas 6 of 7 tumours (n=17) were hyperintense on T2-weighted images, contrast enhancement was detected in 13 patients. Fifteen tumours occurred in the cerebellar vermis, two were located in the cerebellar hemispheres. Mean size at the time of presentation was 30.1 mm. All patients presented with some extent of an occlusive hydrocephalus. Local recurrent tumour or metastases were seen in 6 patients (3 months to 7 years, mean age 2.5 years). Whereas the T2 signal intensity of recurrent tumour or subarachnoidal metastases resembled the primary neoplasms, the contrast uptake tended to be less pronounced (n=3) or was completely absent (n=2); thus, suggestive signs of primary medulloblastoma are location in the vermis, hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and hydrocephalus. The amount of contrast enhancement is variable and nonspecific. Secondary medulloblastoma manifestation is characterized by T2 hyperintensity but not by contrast uptake. (orig.)

  8. Lead in drinking water: sampling in primary schools and preschools in south central Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Anne R; Steele, Janet E

    2012-03-01

    Studies in Philadelphia, New York City, Houston, Washington, DC, and Greenville, North Carolina, have revealed high lead levels in drinking water. Unlike urban areas, lead levels in drinking water in suburban and rural areas have not been adequately studied. In the study described in this article, drinking water in primary schools and preschools in five suburban and rural south central Kansas towns was sampled to determine if any exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) guidance level for schools and child care facilities of 20 parts per billion (ppb). The results showed a total of 32.1% of the samples had detectable lead levels and 3.6% exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance level for schools and child care providers of 20 ppb. These results indicate that about one-third of the drinking water consumed by children age six and under in the five suburban and rural south central Kansas towns studied has some lead contamination, exposing these children to both short-term and long-term health risks. The authors suggest a need for increased surveillance of children's drinking water in these facilities.

  9. Antecedents of primary and secondary acute social withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Frankova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The phenomenon of acute social withdrawal (ASW is becoming more common and widespread nowadays and can be characterized by complete solitude/alienation from society for 6 months or longer. Previous studies of the ASW included patients with mental disorders and were focused on the psychopathological features of secondary ASW caused by depression, social phobia, or bulimia. Aim. To increase the effectiveness of acute social withdrawal differential diagnostics by determining the etiopathogenetic factors of its development and psychopathological features to improve further management of this condition. Materials and methods. At the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy of Bogomolets National Medical University 70 patients with ASW were examined: the first experimental group (EG1 - patients with mental disorders and ASW (n = 42, and the second (EG2 - a mentally healthy contingent with primary ASW (n = 28. Healthy people without ASW (n=56, control group, CG as well were examined. The following methods were used: Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory, Victim Behavior Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26, Leongard-Schmishek Accentuated Personality Trait Questionnaire, Life Event Questionnaire (LEQ, Chaban Quality of Life Scale. Results. Comparing EG and CG regarding significance, there were determined several differences. The level of alexithymia in the EG was significantly higher than in the CG (p<0.005. The quality of life in the EG was significantly lower than in the CG (p<0.005.  According to the Leongard-Schmishek test in EG accentuated personality traits such cyclothymia, hyperthymia, dysthymia, anxiety (p<0.005, pedantic (p<0.05, demonstrativeness (p <0.1 were significantly higher than in the CG. According to the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, such indicators as resentment (p<0.005, irritability (p<0.05, suspicion (p<0.05 and, as a consequence, an index of aggression (IA, (p<0.05 were significantly higher

  10. Cerebral Damage May Be the Primary Risk Factor for Visual Impairment in Preschool Children Born Extremely Premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Fledelius, Hans Callø

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of cerebral damage and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for visual impairment in preschool children born extremely premature and to determine the primary risk factor of the two. METHODS A clinical follow-up study of a Danish national cohort of children born......, 3.0-25.2; P visual impairment in children born extremely premature, and cerebral damage may be the primary risk...... participants were identified through the National Birth Register and invited to participate in a clinical examination. The children were evaluated with regard to visual acuity, foveal sequelae, and maximum ROP stage and the presence of global developmental deficits (an indicator for cerebral damage...

  11. Experiences with surgically treated primary or secondary hepatic sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrner, René; Dennler, Sandra G C; Dondorf, Felix; Ardelt, Michael; Rauchfuss, Falk; Settmacher, Utz

    2017-06-01

    Liver resection in hepatic sarcoma is rare, but other alternative treatment options are scarce. Surgery offers the only aggressive approach to achieve a tumour-free state. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the outcome and survival of these patients at a single hepato-biliary university hospital. Between January 2004 and July 2013, 896 anatomical liver resections were performed. Eleven liver resections (1.2%) were performed due to primary hepatic sarcoma or hepatic sarcoma metastases. The demographic and clinical parameters were collected from the institutional patients' records. In eight patients (83%), liver resection was performed due to hepatic sarcoma metastases. The surgical procedures were as follows: two patients (18%) had segmentectomy, six patients (55%) had hemihepatectomy or extended hemihepatectomy and three patients (27%) had multivisceral resections. In nine patients (82%), the resection margins were tumour free. In 55% (n = 6) of the patients, the maximal tumour diameter was greater than 10 cm. The postoperative morbidity was low with a Clavien-Dindo score of 2 (range 0-5). One patient died on postoperative day 2 after multivisceral resection. During the follow-up of 932 days (range 2-2.220 days) the 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 91, 63 and 45%, respectively. Tumour recurrence was detected in seven patients (63%). Liver resections in patients with primary or secondary hepatic sarcoma are rare. The main goal in these patients is to achieve complete tumour resection because chemotherapy offers no suitable alternative, but the long-term survival rates are limited because of high a recurrence rate even after aggressive surgical approaches.

  12. Coordination between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wadmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insights into effective policy strategies for improved coordination of care is needed. In this study we describe and compare the policy strategies chosen in Denmark and Sweden, and discuss them in relation to interorganisational network theory. Policy practice: The policy initiatives to improve collaboration between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden include legislation and agreements aiming at clarifying areas of responsibility and defining requirements, creation of links across organisational boarders. In Denmark many initiatives have been centrally induced, while development of local solutions is more prominent in Sweden. Many Danish initiatives target the administrative level, while in Sweden initiatives are also directed at the operational level. In both countries economic incentives for collaboration are weak or lacking, and use of sanctions as a regulatory mean is limited. Discussion and conclusion: Despite a variety of policy initiatives, lacking or poorly developed structures to support implementation function as barriers for coordination. The two cases illustrate that even in two relatively coherent health systems, with regional management of both the hospital and general practice sector, there are issues to resolve in regard to administrative and operational coordination. The interorganisational network literature can provide useful tools and concepts for interpreting such issues.

  13. Primary Nonfunction of Renal Allograft Secondary to Acute Oxalate Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Parasuraman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary nonfunction (PNF accounts for 0.6 to 8% of renal allograft failure, and the focus on causes of PNF has changed from rejection to other causes. Calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition is common in early allograft biopsies, and it contributes in moderate intensity to higher incidence of acute tubular necrosis and poor graft survival. A-49-year old male with ESRD secondary to polycystic kidney disease underwent extended criteria donor kidney transplantation. Posttransplant, patient developed delayed graft function (DGF, and the biopsy showed moderately intense CaOx deposition that persisted on subsequent biopsies for 16 weeks, eventually resulting in PNF. The serum oxalate level was 3 times more than normal at 85 μmol/L (normal <27 μmol/L. Allograft nephrectomy showed massive aggregates of CaOx crystal deposition in renal collecting system. In conclusion, acute oxalate nephropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of DGF since optimal management could change the outcome of the allograft.

  14. An analysis model of the secondary tunnel lining considering ground-primary support-secondary lining interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seong-Ho; Chang, Seok-Bue [Yooshin Engineering Corporation, Seoul(Korea); Lee, Sang-Duk [Ajou University, Suwon(Korea)

    2002-06-30

    It is the common practice to over design the reinforcement for the secondary tunnel lining due to the lack of rational insight into the ground loosening loads, and due to the conservative application of the empirical design methods. The main loads of the secondary lining are the ground loosening loads and the ground water pressure, and the ground load is critical in the reinforcement design of the secondary lining in the case of drained tunnel. If the external load is absent around a tunnel. the reasons of the load for secondary tunnel lining are the deterioration of the primary supports such as shotcrete, steel rib, and rock bolts. Accordingly, the analysis method considering the ground-primary supports-secondary lining interaction should be required for the rational design of the secondary tunnel lining. In this paper, the interaction was conceptually described by the simple mass-spring model and the load transfer from the ground and primary supports to the secondary lining is showed by the ground-primary supports-secondary lining reaction curves for the theoretical solution of a circular tunnel, And also, the application of this proposed model to numerical analysis is verified in order to check the potential for the tunnel with the complex analysis conditions. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  15. Bifactor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marley W; Beaujean, A Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with general intelligence (g) as the second-order factor that explained all the covariation of several first-order factors but failed to consider a bifactor model. The WPPSI-IV normative sample contains 1,700 children aged 2 years and 6 months through 7 years and 7 months, bifurcated into 2 age groups: 2:6-3:11 year olds (n = 600) and 4:0-7:7 year olds (n = 1,100). This study applied confirmatory factor analysis to the WPPSI-IV normative sample data to test the fit of a bifactor model and to determine the reliability of the resulting factors. The bifactor model fit the WPPSI-IV normative sample data as well as or better than the higher-order models favored by Wechsler (2012). In the bifactor model, the general factor accounted for more variance in every subtest than did its corresponding domain-specific factor and the general factor accounted for more total and common variance than all domain-specific factors combined. Further, the domain-specific factors exhibited poor reliability independent of g (i.e., ωh coefficients of .05 to .33). These results suggest that only the general intelligence dimension was sufficiently robust and precise for clinical use. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy of Short Forms of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence: Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, Petra; Hendriksen, Jos; Dek, Joelle; Kooij, Andress

    2016-04-01

    This article investigated the accuracy of six short forms of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third edition (WPPSI-III-NL) in estimating intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in healthy children aged 4 to 7 years (N = 1,037). Overall, accuracy for each short form was studied, comparing IQ equivalences based on the short forms with the original WPPSI-III-NL Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores. Next, our sample was divided into three groups: children performing below average, average, or above average, based on the WPPSI-III-NL FSIQ estimates of the original long form, to study the accuracy of WPPSI-III-NL short forms at the tails of the FSIQ distribution. While studying the entire sample, all IQ estimates of the WPPSI-III-NL short forms correlated highly with the FSIQ estimates of the original long form (all rs ≥ .83). Correlations decreased significantly while studying only the tails of the IQ distribution (rs varied between .55 and .83). Furthermore, IQ estimates of the short forms deviated significantly from the FSIQ score of the original long form, when the IQ estimates were based on short forms containing only two subtests. In contrast, unlike the short forms that contained two to four subtests, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence short form (containing the subtests Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning) and the General Ability Index short form (containing the subtests Vocabulary, Similarities, Comprehension, Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Concepts) produced less variations when compared with the original FSIQ score. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Clozapine Patients at the Interface between Primary and Secondary Care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, Marita

    2018-02-26

    outcomes for patients included BMI, total cholesterol, and HbA1clevels, which were elevated in 75%, 54% and 17% respectively. Patients prescribed clozapine did not receive a seamless service, between primary and secondary care settings. Community pharmacists were not informed of clozapine, prescribed for their patients, in two thirds of cases. Patients in this study were exposed to clozapine-related drug-drug interactions and hence potential adverse effects. This study supports reports in the literature of substandard management of the physical health of this patient group. This study shows that there is an opportunity for pharmacists to develop active roles in the management of all clozapine-related effects, in addition to their traditional obligatory role in haematological monitoring. This study supports the need for a clinical pharmacist to review inpatients commencing on clozapine, monitor for drug-drug interactions and provide counselling.

  18. Clozapine Patients at the Interface between Primary and Secondary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Barrett

    2018-02-01

    /patient. Secondary outcomes for patients included BMI, total cholesterol, and HbA1c levels, which were elevated in 75%, 54% and 17% respectively. Patients prescribed clozapine did not receive a seamless service, between primary and secondary care settings. Community pharmacists were not informed of clozapine, prescribed for their patients, in two thirds of cases. Patients in this study were exposed to clozapine-related drug-drug interactions and hence potential adverse effects. This study supports reports in the literature of substandard management of the physical health of this patient group. This study shows that there is an opportunity for pharmacists to develop active roles in the management of all clozapine-related effects, in addition to their traditional obligatory role in haematological monitoring. This study supports the need for a clinical pharmacist to review inpatients commencing on clozapine, monitor for drug-drug interactions and provide counselling.

  19. Different angiogenic phenotypes in primary and secondary glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Sibylle; Steiner, Hans-Herbert; Ahmadi, Rezvan; Zoubaa, Saida; Vasvari, Gergely; Bauer, Harry; Unterberg, Andreas; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2006-05-01

    Primary and secondary glioblastomas (pGBM, sGBM) are supposed to evolve through different genetic pathways, including EGF receptor and PDGF and its receptor and thus genes that are involved in tumor-induced angiogenesis. However, whether other angiogenic cytokines are also differentially expressed in these glioblastoma subtypes is not known so far, but this knowledge might be important to optimize an antiangiogenic therapy. Therefore, we studied the expression of several angiogenic cytokines, including VEGF-A, HGF, bFGF, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, G-CSF and GM-CSF in pGBMs and sGBMs as well as in gliomas WHO III, the precursor lesions of sGBMs. In tumor tissues, expression of all cytokines was observed albeit with marked differences concerning intensity and distribution pattern. Quantification of the cytokines in the supernatant of 30 tissue-corresponding glioma cultures revealed a predominant expression of VEGF-A in pGBMs and significantly higher expression levels of PDGF-AB in sGBMs. HGF and bFGF were determined in nearly all tumor cultures but with no GBM subtype or malignancy-related differences. Interestingly, GM-CSF and especially G-CSF were produced less frequently by tumor cells. However, GM-CSF secretion occurred together with an increased number of simultaneously secreted cytokines and correlated with a worse patient prognosis and may thus represent a more aggressive angiogenic phenotype. Finally, we confirmed an independent contribution of each tumor-derived cytokine analyzed to tumor-induced vascularization. Our data indicate that an optimal antiangiogenic therapy may require targeting of multiple angiogenic pathways that seem to differ markedly in pGBMs and sGBMs. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Impact Of Secondary-Primary Pumps Operating Sequence On The Electrical Power Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Rusdiyanto; Kiswanto

    2001-01-01

    The operating procedure of the reactor cooling system has decided that the primary cooling pump should be operated before secondary cooling pump as known primary-secondary pumps operating sequence. This decision is based on consideration that starting current of the primary pump is higher than secondary pump. Therefore, the primary-secondary pumps operating sequence can avoid the power supply system failure. However, this operating procedure has to take a consequence that in case of primary pump failure, the shutdown time period of the reaktor to be longer caused to re operate the primary pump has required that the running secondary pump should be shutted off. To solve this problem, an impact analysis of the secondary-primary pumps operating sequence on the electric power supply system was carried out to identify the revision possibility of the cooling pump operating procedure. The analysis by discussion of the measuring results of the secondary and primary pump starting current related to another electrical loads has been measured. From discussion it can be concluded that secondary-primary pumps operating sequence has no impact to failure in electric power supply system

  1. Bangladesh: Summary Report. Financing Primary and Secondary Education in Bangladesh. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Qazi Kholiquzzaman

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to gain an understanding on educational expenditure at primary and secondary levels in Bangladesh. In estimating educational expenditure by source, it has been sought to determine: (1) sources of financing of primary and secondary education; (2) rural-urban variation; (3) variation between boys and girls; (4)…

  2. How Do Primary and Lower Secondary Teachers Compare? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2018

    2018-01-01

    While policy debate is often focused on the whole teaching profession, primary and secondary teachers differ in more ways than one. While all countries require teachers to have at least a bachelor degree to enter the profession in primary or lower secondary education, the structure and content of the programmes vary and are less geared towards…

  3. Amino Acid Molecular Units: Building Primary and Secondary Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido R. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the learning quality and suitable knowledge  use  about structural biology, it is fundamental to  exist, since the beginning of  students’ formation, the possibility of clear visualization of biomolecule structures. Nevertheless, the didactic books can only bring  schematic  drawings; even more elaborated figures and graphic computation  do not permit the necessary interaction.  The representation of three-dimensional molecular structures with ludic models, built with representative units, have supplied to the students and teachers a successfully experience to  visualize such structures and correlate them to the real molecules.  The design and applicability of the representative units were discussed with researchers and teachers before mould implementation.  In this stage  it  will be presented the  developed  kit  containing the  representative  plastic parts of the main amino acids.  The kit can demonstrate the interaction among the amino acids  functional groups  (represented by colors, shapes,  sizes and  the peptidic bonds between them  facilitating the assembly and visuali zation of the primary and secondary protein structure.  The models were designed for  Ca,  amino,  carboxyl groups  and  hydrogen. The  lateral chains have  well defined models that represent their geometrical shape.  The completed kit set  will be presented in this meeting (patent requested.  In the last phase of the project will be realized  an effective evaluation  of the kit  as a facilitative didactic tool of the teaching/learning process in the Structural Molecular Biology area.

  4. Primary and secondary prophylaxis to the use of inhaled glucocorticoid in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.R.; Jorgensen, N.R.; Schwarz, P.

    2008-01-01

    into criteria for recommending prophylaxis with calcium and vitamin D for patients in actual IGC treatment, routine examinations for osteoporosis before starting asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment with IGC, and criteria for starting anti-osteoporotic treatment (bisphosphonates...... + calcium + vitamin D) for patients in IGC treatment. A total of 535 questionnaires were eligible for evaluation and covered almost 25% of the Danish population. In general, the questionnaires documented that physicians do not use primary nor secondary prophylaxis in their patients treated with IGC...... with or without risk factors of osteoporosis. CONCLUSION: More studies are warranted to verify the effects of IGC treatment on bone health and the importance of prophylaxis to prevent osteoporosis in IGC-treated patients before outlining specific recommendations for the management of the disease Udgivelsesdato...

  5. The impact of BWR MK I primary containment failure dynamics on secondary containment integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    During the past four years, the ORNL BWRSAT Program has developed a series of increasingly sophisticated BWR secondary containment models. These models have been applied in a variety of studies to evaluate the severe accident mitigation capability of BWR secondary containments. This paper describes the results of a recent ORNL study of the impact of BWR MK I primary containment failure dynamics on secondary containment integrity. A 26-cell MELCOR Browns Ferry secondary containment model is described and the predicted thermodynamic response of the secondary containment to a variety of postulated primary containment failure modes is presented. The effects of primary containment failure location, timing, and ultimate hole size on secondary containment response is investigated, and the potential impact of hydrogen deflagrations on secondary containment integrity is explored

  6. [Skeletal manifestations of primary and secondary hyperparathyroiditis. Differential radiological diagnostic problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melella, A; Basilico, L; Lupini, A; Renda, F

    1978-10-31

    Primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism are both marked by widespread skeletal demineralisation, subperiosteal erosion of the cortex, brown tumours, osteosclerosis, and extraosseous calcification. Differential diagnosis is guided by the different association of these findings. Brown tumours and more extensive erosion are marks of the primary form, whereas osteosclerosis and extra-osseous calcification are a prominent feature of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Radiologists, therefore, should direct their attention to features suggesting the presence of secondary forms in addition to looking for bone alterations associated with hyperparathyroidism.

  7. Primary and secondary cases in Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks: a statistical analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Snedeker, Kate G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157), at least 10-15% of cases are thought to have been acquired by secondary transmission. However, there has been little systematic quantification or characterisation of secondary outbreak cases worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterise secondary outbreak cases, estimate the overall proportion of outbreak cases that were the result of secondary transmission and to analyse the relationships between primary and secondary outbreak cases by mode of transmission, country and median age. METHODS: Published data was obtained from 90 confirmed Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in Great Britain, Ireland, Scandinavia, Canada, the United States and Japan, and the outbreaks were described in terms of modes of primary and secondary transmission, country, case numbers and median case age. Outbreaks were tested for statistically significant differences in the number of ill, confirmed, primary and secondary cases (analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis) and in the rate of secondary cases between these variables (Generalised Linear Models). RESULTS: The outbreaks had a median of 13.5 confirmed cases, and mean proportion of 0.195 secondary cases. There were statistically significant differences in the numbers of ill, confirmed, primary and secondary cases between modes of primary transmission (p < 0.021), and in primary and secondary cases between median age categories (p < 0.039) and modes of secondary transmission (p < 0.001).Secondary case rates differed statistically significantly between modes of secondary and primary transmission and median age categories (all p < 0.001), but not between countries (p = 0.23). Statistically significantly higher rates of secondary transmission were found in outbreaks with a median age <6 years and those with secondary transmission via person to person spread in nurseries. No statistically significant interactions were found between country, mode of transmission and age

  8. A Multi-Antenna Framework for Spectrum Reuse Based on Primary-Secondary Cooperation

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Omar

    2008-10-01

    This paper proposes a new framework for spectrum reuse. Existing architectures have centered on secondary users (cognitive radios) that can reliably sense primary users and opportunistically transmit, without directly interacting with the primary system. We present a paradigm in which the primary and secondary systems cooperate, to minimize interference to primary users and provide predictable access for secondary users. Because this architecture gives the primary system full control over spectrum sharing, it could be more favorable in the current economic and political environment. We illustrate a concrete instance of our framework by showing how secondary radios can reuse the entire uplink channel of a cellular network, with only modest changes to the primary infrastructure. ©2008 IEEE.

  9. A Multi-Antenna Framework for Spectrum Reuse Based on Primary-Secondary Cooperation

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Omar; Johnson, Mark; Wild, Ben; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new framework for spectrum reuse. Existing architectures have centered on secondary users (cognitive radios) that can reliably sense primary users and opportunistically transmit, without directly interacting with the primary system. We present a paradigm in which the primary and secondary systems cooperate, to minimize interference to primary users and provide predictable access for secondary users. Because this architecture gives the primary system full control over spectrum sharing, it could be more favorable in the current economic and political environment. We illustrate a concrete instance of our framework by showing how secondary radios can reuse the entire uplink channel of a cellular network, with only modest changes to the primary infrastructure. ©2008 IEEE.

  10. Primary care nurses: effects on secondary care referrals for diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.; Hansen, J.; Velden, L. van der; Nijpels, G.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary care nurses play an important role in diabetes care, and were introduced in GP-practice partly to shift care from hospital to primary care. The aim of this study was to assess whether the referral rate for hospital treatment for diabetes type II (T2DM) patients has changed with

  11. Comparison of depression symptoms between primary depression and secondary-to-schizophrenia depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Twana; Rashid, Roshe

    2017-11-01

    This study exclusively aimed to clinically assess which symptom pattern discriminates primary depression from depression-secondary to-schizophrenia. A total of 98 patients with primary depression and 71 patients with secondary-to-schizophrenia depression were assessed for identifying the clinical phenomena of depression. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed by Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Each participant was, however, assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) for possible concurrent depressive symptoms. Depressed mood, loss of interest, reduced energy and pathological guilt were more common in primary depression, whereas sleep disturbance and guilty ideas of reference were more amounting towards the diagnosis of depression secondary-to-schizophrenia. It is clinically hard to differentiate primary from secondary-to-schizophrenia depression, especially in the absence of obvious psychotic symptoms. However, the classical symptoms of depression like subjective depressed mood, anhedonia, reduced energy and pathological guilt are more prominent in the primary depression.

  12. Development of caries risk assessment tool for Iranian preschoolers: A primary validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Mortazavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to develop a dental caries risk assessment tool for Iranian preschoolers. Methods: In a validation and cross-sectional study, a random sample of 150 preschool children was involved. This study was conducted in three phases: questionnaire design (expert panel and peer evaluation, questionnaire testing (pilot evaluation and field testing, and validation study. The initial assessments include interview, dental examination, and laboratory investigations. Validity and reliability indices, content validity index (CVI, content validity ratio (CVR, impact score, and test-retest and Cronbach's alpha were measured. Decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft scores were calculated according to the WHO guidelines. Results: The Iranian version of caries risk assessment (CRA questionnaire contained 17 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.86 indicated a suitable internal consistency. The mean scores for the CVI and the CVR were 0.87 and 0.78, respectively. The prevalence rate of dental caries in the study group was 69.3%, and the mean dmft was 4.57 (range 0–19. Conclusions: The Persian version of CRA questionnaire was adapted to the Iranian population. The findings demonstrated overall acceptable validity and also reliability in the application of test-retest. The results of the present study provide initial evidence that the designed CRA form could be a useful tool for CRA in the Iranian preschoolers.

  13. Long-Term Performance of Primary and Secondary Electroactive Biofilms Using Layered Corrugated Carbon Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudler, André; Riedl, Sebastian; Schröder, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The performance of primary and secondary electroactive biofilms grown on layered corrugated carbon (LCC) electrodes was studied over a period of several months. With an average projected current density of 6.7 mA cm −2 , the studied secondary electroactive biofilms outperformed the primary biofilms (3.0 mA cm −2 ) over the entire experimental period. At the same time, both, primary and secondary biofilms, exhibited a constant Coulomb efficiency of about 89%. The study further illustrates that three-dimensional electrodes such as LCC allow a sustained long-term performance without significant decrease in electrode performance.

  14. Long-Term Performance of Primary and Secondary Electroactive Biofilms Using Layered Corrugated Carbon Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudler, André; Riedl, Sebastian; Schröder, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.schroeder@tu-bs.de [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-07-30

    The performance of primary and secondary electroactive biofilms grown on layered corrugated carbon (LCC) electrodes was studied over a period of several months. With an average projected current density of 6.7 mA cm{sup −2}, the studied secondary electroactive biofilms outperformed the primary biofilms (3.0 mA cm{sup −2}) over the entire experimental period. At the same time, both, primary and secondary biofilms, exhibited a constant Coulomb efficiency of about 89%. The study further illustrates that three-dimensional electrodes such as LCC allow a sustained long-term performance without significant decrease in electrode performance.

  15. Trans arterial embolization of primary and secondary tumors of the skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeleff, B.; Eiers, M.; Lopez-Benitez, R.; Noeldge, G.; Hallscheidt, P.; Grenacher, L.; Libicher, M.; Zeifang, F.; Meeder, P.J.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Richter, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Percutaneous transcatheter al embolization s of primary and secondary bone tumors are important minimal invasive angiographic interventions of the skeletal system. In most of the cases embolization is performed for preoperative devascularization or as a palliative measure to treat tumor-associated pain or other tumor bulk symptoms. The transarterial embolization of primary and secondary tumors of the skeletal system has been developed to a safe and very effective method. Indications, techniques, results and complications of this minimal invasive interventional therapy for treatment of primary and secondary bone tumors are described and discussed and compared with the newer literature and our own results

  16. Primary Molecular Disorders and Secondary Biological Adaptations in Bartter Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Georges; Fila, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Bartter syndrome is a hereditary disorder that has been characterized by the association of hypokalemia, alkalosis, and the hypertrophy of the juxtaglomerular complex with secondary hyperaldosteronism and normal blood pressure. By contrast, the genetic causes of Bartter syndrome primarily affect molecular structures directly involved in the sodium reabsorption at the level of the Henle loop. The ensuing urinary sodium wasting and chronic sodium depletion are responsible for the contraction of the extracellular volume, the activation of the renin-aldosterone axis, the secretion of prostaglandins, and the biological adaptations of downstream tubular segments, meaning the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct. These secondary biological adaptations lead to hypokalemia and alkalosis, illustrating a close integration of the solutes regulation in the tubular structures. PMID:21941653

  17. Primary Molecular Disorders and Secondary Biological Adaptations in Bartter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Deschênes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartter syndrome is a hereditary disorder that has been characterized by the association of hypokalemia, alkalosis, and the hypertrophy of the juxtaglomerular complex with secondary hyperaldosteronism and normal blood pressure. By contrast, the genetic causes of Bartter syndrome primarily affect molecular structures directly involved in the sodium reabsorption at the level of the Henle loop. The ensuing urinary sodium wasting and chronic sodium depletion are responsible for the contraction of the extracellular volume, the activation of the renin-aldosterone axis, the secretion of prostaglandins, and the biological adaptations of downstream tubular segments, meaning the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct. These secondary biological adaptations lead to hypokalemia and alkalosis, illustrating a close integration of the solutes regulation in the tubular structures.

  18. Analysis of violence against primary and secondary schools students

    OpenAIRE

    Knafelc, Breda

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis studies peer and domestic violence on elementary and secondary schools pupils from the theoretical and practical point of view. The first part of the theoretical part in detail studies the notion of violence. Forms of violence are presented with its specific forms, goals and consequences of individual forms of violence. In detail are presented forms of physical violence which represent one of the roughest forms of overpowering an individual, psychological violence as ...

  19. Primary vs. secondary antibody deficiency: clinical features and infection outcomes of immunoglobulin replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai S Duraisingham

    Full Text Available Secondary antibody deficiency can occur as a result of haematological malignancies or certain medications, but not much is known about the clinical and immunological features of this group of patients as a whole. Here we describe a cohort of 167 patients with primary or secondary antibody deficiencies on immunoglobulin (Ig-replacement treatment. The demographics, causes of immunodeficiency, diagnostic delay, clinical and laboratory features, and infection frequency were analysed retrospectively. Chemotherapy for B cell lymphoma and the use of Rituximab, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive medications were the most common causes of secondary antibody deficiency in this cohort. There was no difference in diagnostic delay or bronchiectasis between primary and secondary antibody deficiency patients, and both groups experienced disorders associated with immune dysregulation. Secondary antibody deficiency patients had similar baseline levels of serum IgG, but higher IgM and IgA, and a higher frequency of switched memory B cells than primary antibody deficiency patients. Serious and non-serious infections before and after Ig-replacement were also compared in both groups. Although secondary antibody deficiency patients had more serious infections before initiation of Ig-replacement, treatment resulted in a significant reduction of serious and non-serious infections in both primary and secondary antibody deficiency patients. Patients with secondary antibody deficiency experience similar delays in diagnosis as primary antibody deficiency patients and can also benefit from immunoglobulin-replacement treatment.

  20. Primary vs. Secondary Antibody Deficiency: Clinical Features and Infection Outcomes of Immunoglobulin Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisingham, Sai S.; Buckland, Matthew; Dempster, John; Lorenzo, Lorena; Grigoriadou, Sofia; Longhurst, Hilary J.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary antibody deficiency can occur as a result of haematological malignancies or certain medications, but not much is known about the clinical and immunological features of this group of patients as a whole. Here we describe a cohort of 167 patients with primary or secondary antibody deficiencies on immunoglobulin (Ig)-replacement treatment. The demographics, causes of immunodeficiency, diagnostic delay, clinical and laboratory features, and infection frequency were analysed retrospectively. Chemotherapy for B cell lymphoma and the use of Rituximab, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive medications were the most common causes of secondary antibody deficiency in this cohort. There was no difference in diagnostic delay or bronchiectasis between primary and secondary antibody deficiency patients, and both groups experienced disorders associated with immune dysregulation. Secondary antibody deficiency patients had similar baseline levels of serum IgG, but higher IgM and IgA, and a higher frequency of switched memory B cells than primary antibody deficiency patients. Serious and non-serious infections before and after Ig-replacement were also compared in both groups. Although secondary antibody deficiency patients had more serious infections before initiation of Ig-replacement, treatment resulted in a significant reduction of serious and non-serious infections in both primary and secondary antibody deficiency patients. Patients with secondary antibody deficiency experience similar delays in diagnosis as primary antibody deficiency patients and can also benefit from immunoglobulin-replacement treatment. PMID:24971644

  1. Secondary access based on sensing and primary ARQ feedback in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of primary/secondary spectrum sharing, we propose a randomized secondary access strategy with access probabilities that are a function of both the primary automatic repeat request (ARQ) feedback and the spectrum sensing outcome. The primary terminal operates in a time slotted fashion and is active only when it has a packet to send. The primary receiver can send a positive acknowledgment (ACK) when the received packet is decoded correctly. Lack of ARQ feedback is interpreted as erroneous reception or inactivity. We call this the explicit ACK scheme. The primary receiver may also send a negative acknowledgment (NACK) when the packet is received in error. Lack of ARQ feedback is interpreted as an ACK or no-transmission. This is called the explicit NACK scheme. Under both schemes, when the primary feedback is interpreted as a NACK, the secondary user assumes that there will be retransmission in the next slot and accesses the channel with a certain probability. When the primary feedback is interpreted as an ACK, the secondary user accesses the channel with either one of two probabilities based on the sensing outcome. Under these settings, we find the three optimal access probabilities via maximizing the secondary throughput given a constraint on the primary throughput. We compare the performance of the explicit ACK and explicit NACK schemes and contrast them with schemes based on either sensing or primary ARQ feedback only. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Fetal antigen 2 in primary and secondary brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H Boje; Teisner, B; Schrøder, H D

    1991-01-01

    Immunohistochemical deposition and distribution of fetal antigen 2 (FA2) was examined in normal brain tissue and in primary and metastatic tumors of the brain. In normal brain tissue FA2 was exclusively found linearly around the vessels, along pia and in arachnoidea. A similar localization was seen...

  3. Baseline survey of oral health of primary and secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the issues that determine the performance of a child at school is health. In recognition of this, the Uganda government has embarked on a school health program for the success of universal primary education. Although dental health is an important component of school health there is little information on ...

  4. Corot 310266512: A Light Curve With Primary, Secondary And Tertiary Eclipses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Fernández Javier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the photometric study of an interesting target in the CoRoT exoplanet database: CoRoT 310266512. Its light curve shows primary, secondary and tertiary eclipses that suggests the presence of at least three celestial bodies. The primary and secondary eclipses have the same orbital period, 7.42 days, and the tertiary eclipse has an orbital period of 3.27 days. Two of the tertiary eclipses fall within a primary eclipse and a secondary eclipse. The properties of the light curve indicate the presence of two physically separated systems. The primary and secondary eclipses corresponds to a binary system (System I. The tertiary eclipses correspond to a star-planet system or a star-dwarf system (System II. Some parameters of these two systems are obtained from JKTEBOP [1] program.

  5. Primary versus secondary intraocular lens implantation in the management of congenital cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa H Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Primary IOL implantation was found to be safe and effective in the management of congenital cataract; it leads to lower incidence of complications and better visual outcomes compared with aphakia and secondary IOL implantation.

  6. An experimental investigation of the interaction of primary and secondary stresses in fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Yahr, G.T.

    1996-01-01

    If the load is not relieved as a structure starts to yield, the induced stress is defined as primary stress. If the load relaxes, as a structure begins yield the induced stress is defined as secondary stress. In design it is not uncommon to give more weight to primary stresses than to secondary stresses. However, knowing when this is good design practice and when it is not good design practice represents a problem. In particular, the fuel plates in operating reactors contain both primary stresses and secondary stresses and to properly assess a design there is a need to assign design weights to the stresses. Tests were conducted on reactor fuel plates intended for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) to determine the potential of giving different design weights to the primary and secondary stresses. The results of these tests and the conclusion that the stresses should be weighted the same are given in this paper

  7. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English

  8. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted fever rickettsiosis to Syphilis, primary and secondary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted fever rickettsiosis to Syphilis, primary and secondary - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000...

  10. Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Breast Cancer in African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hargreaves, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Study objectives are to develop a quantitative assessment tool to describe barriers to primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer, to use this tool to establish preliminary norms in an urban...

  11. Potato cv. Romano reaction to primary and secondary infection with potato necrotic strain Y virus (PVYNTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary infections with PVYNTN were investigated on forty plants of the potato cv. Romano inoculated in a greenhouse in Serbia in 2012 and 2013. PVY isolates were collected from the potato growing region of Čačak and identified by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. The sequence of the Serbian isolate 3D (Acc. No. KJ946936 showed 100% match with seven PVY isolates deposited in GenBank and described as NTN. A significant difference was detected between PVYNTN symptoms exibited on leaves of the cv. Romano under primary and secondary infections. The findings are significant because they are based on symptoms observed, so that it is clear that there are two distinct types of infection: primary and secondary. Symptoms of primary and secondary infection were the same on potato tubers and had the form of necrotic rings.

  12. An experimental investigation on the interaction of primary and secondary stresses in fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Yahr, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    If the load is not relieved as a structure starts to yield, the induced stress is defined as primary stress. If the load relaxes, as a structure begins to yield the induced stress is defined as secondary stress. In design, it is not uncommon to give more weight to primary stresses than to secondary stresses. However, knowing when this is good design practice and when it is not good design practice represent a problem. In particular, the fuel plates in operating reactors contain both primary stresses and secondary stresses, and to properly assess a design there is a need to assign design weights to the stresses. Tests were conducted on reactor fuel plates intended for the advanced neutron source (ANS) to determine the potential of giving different design weights to the primary and secondary stresses. The results of these tests and the conclusion that the stresses should be weighted the same are given in this paper

  13. Primary and Secondary Variants of Psychopathy in a Volunteer Sample Are Associated With Different Neurocognitive Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Arjun; McCrory, Eamon; Puetz, Vanessa; Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Brigidi, Bartholomew D; Hariri, Ahmad R; Viding, Essi

    2018-04-12

    Recent work has indicated that there at least two distinct subtypes of psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by low anxiety and thought to result from a genetic predisposition, whereas secondary psychopathy is characterized by high anxiety and thought to develop in response to environmental adversity. Primary psychopathy is robustly associated with reduced neural activation to others' emotions and, in particular, distress. However, it has been proposed that the secondary presentation has different neurocognitive correlates. Primary (n = 50), secondary (n = 100), and comparison (n = 82) groups were drawn from a large volunteer sample (N = 1444) using a quartile-split approach across psychopathic trait (affective-interpersonal) and anxiety measures. Participants performed a widely utilized emotional face processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The primary group showed reduced amygdala and insula activity in response to fear. The secondary group did not differ from the comparison group in these regions. Instead, the secondary group showed reduced activity compared with the comparison group in other areas, including the superior temporal sulcus/inferior parietal lobe, thalamus, pallidum, and substantia nigra. Both psychopathy groups also showed reduced activity in response to fear in the anterior cingulate cortex. During anger processing, the secondary group exhibited reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex compared with the primary group. Distinct neural correlates of fear processing characterize individuals with primary and secondary psychopathy. The reduced neural response to fear that characterizes individuals with the primary variant of psychopathic traits is not observed in individuals with the secondary presentation. The neurocognitive mechanisms underpinning secondary psychopathy warrant further systematic investigation. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Enjoyment of Learning and Learning Effort in Primary School: The Significance of Child Individual Characteristics and Stimulation at Home and at Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, David; Lehrl, Simone; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The present paper was written under the auspices of the interdisciplinary research group "Educational Processes, Competence Development, and Selection Decisions at Preschool and Primary School Age (BiKS)" (FOR 543), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The surveys were conceptualised and supervised as part of the developmental…

  15. Supporting and Stimulating the Learning of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Children--Perspectives of Parents and Educators in the Transition from Preschool to Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Ann-Kathrin; Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    When children move from preschool to primary school in Germany, this involves a transition between two distinct systems with regard to political responsibility. Following Rimm-Kaufman and Pianta's (2000) ecological and dynamic model of transition, the research project focuses on the perspectives of parents and professionals on the learning…

  16. Concurrent validity of the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2 1/2-7-Revised with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, C; O'Keefe, SL; Lawhon, D; Tellegen, P

    This study examined the concurrent validity of the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test-Revised compared to the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised Subjects were 25 4-yr.-olds of lower, lower-middle, and middle socioeconomic status from both urban and rural areas of

  17. Factorial Structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Between the Ages of 4 and 6 1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Susan; Bromberg, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    For each of the six age groups comprising the complete standardization sample reported in the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) manual, the matrix of intercorrelations among the subtests was separately factor analyzed. Results suggest that the Perceptual Organization factor of the WPPSI may be a valid measure of Witkin's…

  18. Modeling PWR systems for monitoring primary-to-secondary leakage using tritium tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffer, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques available for monitoring primary to secondary leakage, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each. A mathematical model of Millstone 2 describes the behavior of tritium activity in the secondary plant water when a leak exists. Real data from Millstone 2 illustrate the accuracy and reliability of the model and use of the model to measure the mass of water in the secondary system

  19. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Livia T.C., E-mail: livia.vilela@ifrj.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IF-RJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-09-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  20. Animal models for the study of primary and secondary hypertension in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hiu Yu; Lee, Yee Ting; Chan, Yin Wah; Tse, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is defined as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP) >140 and 90 mmHg, respectively. Individuals with an SBP between 120 and 139, or DBP between 80 and 89 mmHg, are said to exhibit pre-hypertension. Hypertension can have primary or secondary causes. Primary or essential hypertension is a multifactorial disease caused by interacting environmental and polygenic factors. Secondary causes are renovascular hyper...

  1. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION OF STUDENT TEACHERS IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCIENCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, Trine

    The students attending teacher training at University College Capital in Copenhagen, Denmark fall into two groups with different subject profiles: One group prefers to teach at the primary level, the other prefers to teach at the secondary level. The students of primary level science combine...... with other subjects such as History, Danish or Physical Education. The students of secondary level science combine with subjects such as Mathematics and related science subjects: Biology, Geography, Physics and Chemistry....

  2. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, Livia T.C.; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M.

    2013-01-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  3. Iridium-Catalyzed Condensation of Primary Amines To Form Secondary Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh; Jensen, Paw; Madsen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Symmetric secondary amines are readily obtained by heating a neat primary amine with 0.5 mol% of bis(dichloro[eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iridium). The products are isolated by direct distillation in good yields.......Symmetric secondary amines are readily obtained by heating a neat primary amine with 0.5 mol% of bis(dichloro[eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iridium). The products are isolated by direct distillation in good yields....

  4. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia T. C. Crespo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA. The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture.

  5. Quasi-resonant converter with divided resonant capacitor on primary and secondary side

    OpenAIRE

    Shiroyama, Hironobu; Matsuo, Hirofumi; Ishizuka, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a quasi-resonant converter with divided resonant capacitor on primary and secondary side of the isolation transformer. A conventional quasi-resonant converter using flyback topology can realize soft switching with simple circuit. However, relatively large surge voltage is generated in the switching device. To suppress such surge voltage, resonant capacitor is divided on primary side and secondary side in the proposed converter. In case of prototype 95W converter, the volta...

  6. The production of direct object clitics in pre-school- and primary school-aged children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Palma, Silvia; Genovese, Elisabetta; Stagi, Paolo; Saladini, Gabriella; Arosio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Third-person direct object (DO) clitic pronoun production is examined through an elicited production method in pre-school- and primary school-aged groups of Italian children with specific language impairment (SLI) to establish whether there is an improvement from age 5 years to age 7 years and whether there are qualitative differences in the two groups' responses. It was found that 5- and 7-year-old Italian children with SLI produce fewer third-person DO clitics than same-age peers. The kind of responses they provide changes: at 5 years, children with SLI tend to omit clitics, while at 7 years, they use a full noun. Production of third-person DO clitics is a persistent challenge for children with SLI and is confirmed to be a good clinical marker both at 5 and 7 years of age.

  7. Conditional standard errors of measurement for composite scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Larry R; Raju, Nambury; Lurie, Anna; Wilkins, Charles; Zhu, Jianjun

    2006-02-01

    A specific recommendation of the 1999 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education is that test publishers report estimates of the conditional standard error of measurement (SEM). Procedures for calculating the conditional (score-level) SEM based on raw scores are well documented; however, few procedures have been developed for estimating the conditional SEM of subtest or composite scale scores resulting from a nonlinear transformation. Item response theory provided the psychometric foundation to derive the conditional standard errors of measurement and confidence intervals for composite scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition.

  8. Factor structure and sex differences on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in China, Japan and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Lynn, Richard

    2011-08-01

    This study presents data on the factor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and sex and cultural differences in WPPSI test scores among 5- and 6-year-olds from China, Japan, and the United States. Results show the presence of a verbal and nonverbal factor structure across all three countries. Sex differences on the 10 subtests were generally consistent, with a male advantage on a subtest of spatial abilities (Mazes). Males in the Chinese sample obtained significantly higher Full Scale IQ scores than females and had lower variability in their test scores. These observations were not present in the Japan and United States samples. Mean Full Scale IQ score in the Chinese sample was 104.1, representing a 4-point increase from 1988 to 2004.

  9. Primary versus secondary closure of cutaneous abscesses in the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam J; Taira, Breena R; Chale, Stuart; Bhat, Rahul; Kennedy, David; Schmitz, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous abscesses have traditionally been treated with incision and drainage (I&D) and left to heal by secondary closure. The objective was to compare the healing rates of cutaneous abscesses following I&D after primary or secondary closure. This was a randomized, controlled, trial, balanced by center, with blocked randomization created by a random-number generator. One urban and one suburban academic emergency department (ED) participated. Subjects were randomized to primary or secondary wound closure following I&D of the abscess. Main outcome measures were the percentage of healed wounds (wound was completely closed by visual inspection; a 40% difference in wound healing was sought) and overall failure rate (need for additional intervention including suture removal, additional drainage, antibiotics, or admission within 7 days after drainage). Fifty-six adult patients with simple localized cutaneous abscesses were included; 29 were randomized to primary closure, and 27 were randomized to secondary closure. Healing rates at 7 days were similar between the primary and secondary closure groups (69.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.1% to 84.4% vs. 59.3%, 95% CI = 40.7% to 75.5%; difference 10.3%, 95% CI = -15.8% to 34.1%). Overall failure rates at 7 days were also similar between the primary and secondary closure groups (30.4%, 95% CI = 15.6% to 50.9% vs. 28.6%, 95% CI = 15.2% to 47.1%; difference 1.8%, 95% CI = -24.2% to 28.8%). The rates of wound healing and treatment failure following I&D of simple abscesses in the ED are similar after primary or secondary closure. The authors did not detect a difference of at least 40% in healing rates between primary and secondary closure. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  10. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  11. Secondary visual workload capability with primary visual and kinesthetic-tactual displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, R. D.; Burke, M. W.; Jagacinski, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Subjects performed a cross-adaptive tracking task with a visual secondary display and either a visual or a quickened kinesthetic-tactual (K-T) primary display. The quickened K-T display resulted in superior secondary task performance. Comparisons of secondary workload capability with integrated and separated visual displays indicated that the superiority of the quickened K-T display was not simply due to the elimination of visual scanning. When subjects did not have to perform a secondary task, there was no significant difference between visual and quickened K-T displays in performing a critical tracking task.

  12. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 2. Potential Effectiveness of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Skamp, Boyes, & Stanisstreet, 2009b), students' beliefs and willingness to act in relation to 16 specific actions related to global warming were compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those…

  13. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 1. Students' Beliefs and Willingness to Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Using survey methodology, students' beliefs, and willingness to act, about 16 specific actions related to global warming are compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between…

  14. Radionuclide imaging in primary and secondary disorders of the myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follansbee, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    The list of all potential causes of myocardial disease or injury is an extensive one: a condensed version is presented. Conceptually these processes can be categorized into those which are, or appear to be, primary to the myocardium and those which secondarily involve it. Nuclear imaging procedures, particularly those used to assess ventricular function, are in a general sense potentially applicable to the clinical evaluation of any of these entities. In certain of these conditions, however, nuclear cardiac procedures have a demonstrated or potential additional and more specific role for the diagnosis and quantification of the entity. A number of these, including coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, cor pulmonale, and myocardial trauma, are the topics of other chapters and, therefore, are not dealt with further here. The remainder of the myocardial disorders in which nuclear imaging procedures have a recognized or potential specific role are the focus of this discussion

  15. Preschoolers' Emotion Expression and Regulation: Relations with School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Kristina J.; Bailey, Craig S.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2013-01-01

    Children's expression and regulation of emotions are building blocks of their experiences in classrooms. Thus, the authors' primary goal was to investigate whether preschoolers' expression or ability to regulate emotions were associated with teachers' ratings of school adjustment. A secondary goal was to investigate how boys and girls differed…

  16. Relay-Assisted Primary and Secondary Transmissions in Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shafie, Ahmed El

    2016-09-27

    We assume a set of cognitive relay nodes that assists both primary and secondary transmissions in a time-slotted cognitive radio networks. To regulate the channel access of the various nodes in the network, we propose an overlapped spectrum sensing strategy for channel sensing, where the secondary source node senses the channel from the beginning of the time slot and the cognitive relay nodes sense the channel for double the sensing time used by the secondary source node to detect the activities of both the primary and secondary source nodes. Hence, the secondary source node has an intrinsic priority over the relay nodes. The relay nodes help both the primary user and the secondary user to deliver their unsuccessfully decoded packets at their destinations. In a given time slot, the scheduled relay node for data transmission starts its transmission when both the primary and secondary users are sensed to be inactive (i.e. have no data to transmit). We propose two optimization-based formulations with quality-of-service (QoS) constraints involving average queueing delay and average service rate requirements. We investigate both cases of perfect and imperfect spectrum sensing. To further enhance the users\\' QoS requirements, we propose three packet decoding strategies at the relay nodes and compare their performance. We derive an upper bound on the secondary queue average service rate to determine which decoding strategy can achieve that bound. Our numerical results show the benefits of relaying and its ability to enhance the performance of both the primary and secondary users. Moreover, the performance of the proposed schemes is close to the derived upper bound.

  17. Oxidation of the Primary Alcoholic Moiety Selectively in the Presence of the Secondary Alcoholic Moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin Myint Htwe

    2011-12-01

    Both primary and secondary alcoholic moieties are very sensitive to oxidation reactions. But sometimes it is necessary to oxidized only the primary alcoholic moiety. Such cases are usually found in Food Industries. In this situation, TEMPO (1, 1, 6, 6-Tetramethyl-1-Piperidine Oxoammonium) was used as an oxidizing agent. In this paper, Alpha starch was successfully oxidized using TEMPO as the oxidizing agent in combination with sodium hypochlorite with and without sodium bromide. The oxidation of primary alcoholic moiety only and the remaining untouched secondary alcoholic moiety were proved by infrared spectroscopy method.

  18. Trabectome surgery for primary and secondary open angle glaucomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jens F; Wecker, Thomas; van Oterendorp, Christian; Anton, Alexandra; Reinhard, Thomas; Boehringer, Daniel; Neuburger, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    In most forms of open angle glaucoma, the trabecular meshwork is the main barrier for aqueous humor outflow, causing elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). The Trabectome is a minimal invasive device for the surgical treatment of open angle glaucoma, particularly eliminating the juxtacanalicular meshwork. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness and complication profile among different glaucoma subgroups. Single center prospective observational study. There were 557 consecutive eyes of 487 patients included in this study. Trabectome surgery was performed either alone or in combination with cataract surgery. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were documented systematically. Main outcome measures were IOP reduction over time and the preoperative and postoperative number of IOP-lowering medications. Due to subgroup sizes, only data from eyes with primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma were processed for statistical analysis. For the 261 eyes classified as primary open angle glaucoma, preoperative IOP was 24 ± 5.5 mmHg (mean ± SD) under 2.1 ± 1.3 IOP-lowering medications. After a mean follow-up of 204 ± 238 days, IOP was reduced to 18 ± 6.1 mmHg, and medication was reduced to 1.2 ± 1.1. For the 173 eyes classified as pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, after a mean follow-up of 200 ± 278 days, IOP was reduced from 25 ± 5.9 mmHg to 18 ± 8.2 mmHg, and medication was reduced from 2.0 ± 1.2 to 1.1 ± 1.1. A Cox proportional hazards model hinted forward superiority of the combined surgery cases (Trabectome + Phaco + intraocular lens) in comparison to Trabectome surgery only in phakic or pseudophakic eyes. No serious complications were observed. Minimal invasive glaucoma surgery with the Trabectome seems to be safe and effective. The subgroup analysis of different kinds of open angle glaucomas presented in this study may help in first-line patient selection. The lack of ocular surface alterations makes it a valuable addition to

  19. Hyponatraemia secondary to nivolumab-induced primary adrenal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Trainer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab and pembrolizumab, have transformed the prognosis for patients with advanced malignant melanoma and squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, and their use will only expand as experience is gained in a variety of other malignancies, for instance, renal and lymphoma. As the use of checkpoint inhibitors increases, so too will the incidence of their unique side effects, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs, which can affect dermatological, gastrointestinal, hepatic, endocrine and other systems. Nivolumab is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the human programmed death receptor-1 ligand (PD-L1 found on many cancer cells and is licensed for the treatment of advanced malignant melanoma. We describe the first case of nivolumab-induced adrenalitis resulting in primary adrenal failure presenting with hyponatraemia in a 43-year-old man with malignant melanoma. The case highlights the potentially life-threatening complications of checkpoint inhibitors and the need for patient education and awareness of irAEs among the wider clinical community because such side effects require prompt recognition and treatment.

  20. The role of university research in primary and secondary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, A.; Llopart, M.; Ramos, L.; Roger, T.; Rafols, R.; Redondo, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the most important roles of educators at all levels(transversally and inter-generationally between adult education, university and the primary schools, specially in sciences is to estimulate the quest for new knowledge and to help to provide the basic thinking tools of the proper scientific method. An innovative plan has been set up though the Campus Universitari de la Mediterrania that integrates the UPC, the local Education authorities and the local governement in Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona. To coordinate university professors invited to lecture in summer courses, so their research and lecturing materials may be used as school level material (as a CD collection) and to help younger students to iniciate their own research proyects. During 2006-2008 a series of Environmental science seminars, group proyects decided by the students or proposed jointly by the CUM were started. Examples of these works, such as Cetacean comunication (with the help of the Laboratory of Bioacustic Applications of the UPC), Shapes and patterns in the environment (Cosmocaixa Science Museum), the Rainbow, Waves and Tides, Turbulence, The growth of snails and the Fibonacci sequence, etc... will be presented, showing the importance of comunicating scientific interest to the younger generations.

  1. The transition from primary to secondary school in mainstream education for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Murin, Marianna; Baykaner, Ozlem; Staunton, Sara; Hellriegel, Josselyn; Anderson, Seonaid; Skuse, David

    2016-01-01

    The transition from primary to secondary education (hereafter 'school transition') is a major ecological shift that poses considerable social, emotional, academic and organisational challenges. It is commonly assumed that this school transition is especially difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder, but that idea is mainly based on anecdotal evidence and requires systematic investigation. We describe change and continuity for children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 28, mean age = 11.29 years, mean full-scale IQ = 87.86) transitioning in mainstream education from primary to secondary school. Levels of psychopathology, adaptive functioning and peer victimisation were measured by parent, self and teacher report in the last year of primary school, and again after one term of secondary school. At follow-up, all participants were still in their secondary school, and there was no evidence for a marked escalation of difficulties during the transition. Instead, we observed high levels of psychopathology and maladaption at baseline which persisted across the transition and were in some cases under-recognised. By parent report, levels of bullying fell from primary to secondary school. Future research should investigate factors, such as school characteristics, that influence the move to secondary education in autism spectrum disorder, to inform the development of interventions to promote successful school transition. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Transitional woes: On the impact of L2 input continuity from primary to secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone E. Pfenninger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the problem of articulation between levels in the educational system, as the transition from a rather more communicative, contentbased and holistic approach to English as a foreign language (EFL teaching at primary level to more formal and explicit ways of foreign language (FL teaching at secondary is often experienced as problematic by students and teachers alike (see, e.g., Muñoz, Tragant, & Camuñas, 2015. The results of a mixed methods analysis are presented, in which we analyzed, through a questionnaire and language experience essays, perceived continuity between input received in primary school and secondary school, as well as learners’ beliefs, attitudes and self-efficacy before and after they transitioned to secondary school. Twelve primary schools and six secondary schools in Switzerland participated in the study, with a total of 280 early learners of EFL (biological age 12-13 years, age of onset 8 years. We will argue that one of the main reasons why early FL instruction seems not to bear fruit later in secondary school is that, on the one hand, coherence in curriculum design and practice vary in a few—but crucial—aspects within and between primary schools. On the other hand, the fact that secondary education becomes a meeting point for mixed ability classes also seems to mitigate the potential advantages of an earlier start.

  3. Psychologic and sexual dysfunction in primary and secondary infertile male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac Sahin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare depression and sexual dysfunctions observed in primary and secondary infertile patients. Material and method: The study was performed in 39 primary and 31 secondary infertile male patients. Male sexual health was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF score and depression with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results: Mean age of the participants and their partners were 31.54 ± 5.37 (range, 24-48 yrs, and 28.16 ± 5.58 (range, 20- 46 yrs years, respectively. Mean duration of their marriage ranged between 1 and 17 years (mean, 5.06 ± 4.15 yrs. A statistically significant intergroup difference was detected between groups as for BDI scores (p = 0.015; p < 0. 05. BDI scores of the primary group were significantly lower than those of the secondary group. A statistically and extremely significant difference was detected between IIEF scores of the groups (p = 0.006; p < 0.01. IIEF scores of the primary infertile group were higher than those of the secondary group. Conclusion: Our study, frequency of the depression and erectile dysfunction seen in the patients with secondary infertility was seen significantly higher than the patients with primary infertility.

  4. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188

  5. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population: study design and demographic data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Butte, Nancy F; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Shreela V; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H

    2015-02-01

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2-12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3-83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity.

  6. Comparison of endotoxin levels found in primary and secondary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Brenda P F A; Endo, Marcos S; Martinho, Frederico C

    2012-08-01

    This clinical study was conducted to compare the levels of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides [LPSs]) found in primary and secondary endodontic infections with apical periodontitis by correlating LPS contents with clinical/radiographic findings. In addition, the presence of target gram-negative anaerobic bacteria was also investigated. Samples were taken from 15 root canals with primary infections and 15 with secondary infections by using paper points. The limulus amebocyte lysate assay was used to quantify endotoxins, and the polymerase chain reaction technique (16S rDNA) was used for bacterial investigation. Endotoxins were detected in 100% of the root canal samples collected from primary (15/15) and secondary (15/15) infections with median values of 7.49 EU/mL and 3.96 EU/mL, respectively (P asymptomatic teeth with primary infections (P 3 mm) (P < .05). Prevotella nigrescens (10/15, 4/15), Fusobacterium nucleatum (5/15, 1/15), Treponema denticola (3/15, 1/15), and Treponema socranskii (5/15, 1/15) were detected in teeth with primary and secondary infections, respectively. P. endodontalis was present only in teeth with primary infections (5/15). Teeth with primary endodontic infections had higher contents of endotoxins and a more complex gram-negative bacterial community than teeth with secondary infections. Moreover, the levels of endotoxins were related to the severity of bone destruction in periapical tissues as well as the development of clinical features in teeth with primary infections. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the data handling procedures for the reported data). 2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY...

  8. Relationship between markers of body fat and calcaneal bone stiffness differs between preschool and primary school children: results from the IDEFICS baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Mouratidou, Theodora; Herrmann, Diana; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Marild, Staffan; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Siani, Alfonso; Gianfagna, Francesco; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between markers of body fat and bone status assessed as calcaneal bone stiffness in a large sample of European healthy pre- and primary school children. Participants were 7,447 children from the IDEFICS study (spread over eight different European countries), age 6.1 ± 1.8 years (range 2.1-9.9), 50.5 % boys. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, bioelectrical impedance, waist and hip circumference, and tricipital and subscapular skinfold thickness) as well as quantitative ultrasonographic measurements to determine calcaneal stiffness index (SI) were performed. Partial correlation analysis, linear regression analysis, and ANCOVA were stratified by sex and age group: preschool boys (n = 1,699) and girls (n = 1,599) and primary school boys (n = 2,062) and girls (n = 2,087). In the overall study population, the average calcaneal SI was equal to 80.2 ± 14.0, ranging 42.4-153. The results showed that preschool children with higher body fat had lower calcaneal SI (significant correlation coefficients between -0.05 and -0.20), while primary school children with higher body fat had higher calcaneal SI (significant correlation coefficients between 0.05 and 0.13). After adjusting for fat-free mass, both preschool and primary school children showed an inverse relationship between body fat and calcaneal stiffness. To conclude, body fat is negatively associated with calcaneal bone stiffness in children after adjustment for fat-free mass. Fat-free mass may confound the association in primary school children but not in preschool children. Muscle mass may therefore be an important determinant of bone stiffness.

  9. Investigation of the conservatism associated with different combinations between primary and secondary piping responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Bezler, P.

    1983-01-01

    This report includes the findings of an investigation of the conservatism associated with different combinations between the primary and secondary stress components for piping systems under dynamic loading, such as in an earthquake event. The primary stresses are induced by piping response to its mass inertia effects. The secondary stresses are induced by relative displacements of piping supports. The study involves an independnent time history analysis of several typical piping models to predict a best estimate of the actual dynamic and pseudo-static pipe responses to an earthquake. These piping systems are also analyzed using the response spectrum method to obtain the maximum primary stress components. Secondary stresses are next calculated by performing a set of static analyses which provide the worst stress condition. The two components are then combined by both SRSS and absolute sum methods as the results are compared with time history solutions. It is found that the SRSS combination of the primary and secondary stress components yield acceptable results provided the secondary stress component is calculated in the most unfavorable phasing relationship among displacements of piping supports

  10. Parametric study of the primary and secondary systems of the CAREM-25 reactor on steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpert, Silvia; Vazquez, Luis

    2000-01-01

    In the CAREM-25 reactor the primary coolant flows by natural convection that's why the flow is established when the balance between the buoyancy force and friction pressure drop through circuit is obtained. This paper presents a parametric study on primary and secondary systems of the reactor on steady state, for different values of some thermohydraulics parameters: safety factor on friction loss pressure calculations (f), steam generator heat transfer area (A T ) and primary pressure (P P ). The ESCAREM 2.08 thermohydraulic code, which calculates the primary system behavior for steady state conditions, was used for this study. The conclusions of this study are: -) There was a variation of the 15% on the primary coolant flow when the safety factor was changed a 50 %; -) The primary and secondary systems conditions do not change when the power is less than 100 MW; -) Between 100 and 110 MW the decrease of the heat transfer area produces an important change on the secondary systems conditions: the outlet steam generator temperature decrease and there is an important rice in the flow; -) The primary pressure could decrease up to 11.4 MPa without violating turbine requirements. (author)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging appearances in primary and secondary angiosarcoma of the breast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Ailbhe C

    2014-04-01

    Angiosarcomas are malignant tumours of endovascular origin. They are rare tumours accounting for 0.04-1% of all breast malignancies. Two different forms are described: primary, occurring in young women, and secondary angiosarcoma, which occurs in older women with a history of breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Imaging findings on mammography and ultrasound are non-specific, but magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic contrast enhancement is more informative. We present two cases - one of primary and one of secondary angiosarcoma - and review the imaging findings.

  12. What Do Primary and Secondary School Teachers Know About ADHD in Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr-Jensen, Christina; Steen-Jensen, T.; Bang-Schnack, Maria

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify what primary and secondary school teachers know about ADHD in children and, furthermore, to identify which factors predict their knowledge. METHOD: A 29-item questionnaire about ADHD was distributed to a random, nationwide, and representative sample of Danish primary...... and secondary school teachers. Data were analyzed descriptively and by hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 528 teachers were included. Most teachers identified the symptoms of ADHD (79%-96%) and effective classroom intervention strategies (75%-98%). However, knowledge about other...... knowledge about ADHD to successfully include and manage children with ADHD and, additionally, to ensure positive working environments for teachers and support constructive school-home working collaborations....

  13. Mechanism of the N-Hydroxylation of Primary and Secondary Amines by Cytochrome P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Signe T.; Rydberg, Patrik; Olsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize alkyl- and arylamines, generating several different products. For the primary and secondary amines, some of these reactions result in hydroxylated amines, which may be toxic. Thus, when designing new drugs containing amine groups, it is important to be able...... to predict if a given compound will be a substrate for CYPs, in order to avoid toxic metabolites, and hence to understand the mechanism that is utilized by CYPs. Two possible mechanisms, for the N-hydroxylation of primary and secondary amines mediated by CYPs, are studied by density functional theory (DFT...

  14. Parental education, children's performance and the transition to higher secondary education: trends in primary and secondary effects over five Dutch school cohorts (1965-99).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Rianne; Ruiter, Stijn; de Graaf, Paul M; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2009-06-01

    According to Boudon, social background affects educational transitions as a result of differences in children's academic performance (primary effects) and differences in transition probabilities given children's level of academic performance (secondary effects). This study addresses historical changes in both primary and secondary effects on the educational transition from primary school to higher secondary education in The Netherlands. In addition, it considers changes over time in the relative importance of these effects. The study compares five cohorts of Dutch pupils, specifically those enrolling in secondary education in 1965, 1977, 1989, 1993 and 1999, and it employs counterfactual analyses. The main findings are that secondary effects have been stable and primary effects have fluctuated to some extent. As a result, the proportion of the total effect of social background accounted for by primary effects has increased somewhat, from 53 per cent to 58 per cent.

  15. Investigating Power System Primary and Secondary Reserve Interaction under High Wind Power Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Jin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krad, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Rui [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Power system frequency needs to be maintained close to its nominal value at all times to successfully balance load and generation and maintain system reliability. Adequate primary frequency response and secondary frequency response are the primary forces to correct an energy imbalance at the second-to-minute level. As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio, there is an increased need for wind to provide frequency response. This paper addresses one of the major concerns about using wind for frequency regulation: the unknown factor of the interaction between primary and secondary reserves. The lack of a commercially available tool to model this has limited the energy industry's understanding of when the depletion of primary reserves will impact the performance of secondary response or vice versa. This paper investigates the issue by developing a multi-area frequency response integration tool with combined primary and secondary capabilities. The simulation is conducted in close coordination with economical energy scheduling scenarios to ensure credible simulation results.

  16. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Cryogenically Ground Samples from Primary and Secondary/Persistent Endodontic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cangül; Demiryürek, Ebru Özsezer; Onuk, Ertan Emek

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities of primary and secondary/persistent endodontic infections using high-throughput pyrosequencing from the pulverized samples. The roots of 20 extracted human teeth with primary endodontic infection and 20 teeth with secondary/persistent endodontic infection were collected. The outer surfaces of the roots were disinfected, and whole roots were cryopulverized. 16S amplicon pyrosequencing data from the DNA extracted from the pulverized root powders were obtained, and microorganism abundance and diversity were calculated. Data were analyzed using statistical and bioinformatic methods. Pyrosequencing analysis resulted a total of 2,606,128 sequences from 40 samples. A total of 15 phyla, 160 genera, and 368 species were detected. No significant difference between primary and secondary/persistent endodontic infections was found regarding the diversity and richness of operational taxonomic units at the phyla, genera, and species levels (P > .005). The present study revealed that the microbial diversity of secondary/persistent endodontic infections did not differ than those of primary endodontic infections. A new archaeal species, Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum limnia, was detected in root canals of 1 patient with primary endodontic infection for the first time. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inequality, Preschool Education and Cognitive Development in Ethiopia: Implication for Public Investment in Pre-Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehanna, Tassew

    2016-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data from the Young Lives Project in Ethiopia to examine the main factors relating to preschool access and their potential effects on cognitive performance of children aged five and eight years. The results show that only one quarter of the preschool-aged children have the opportunity to attend this vital stage of…

  18. Primary prevention of overweight in preschool children, the BeeBOFT study (breastfeeding, breakfast daily, outside playing, few sweet drinks, less TV viewing): design of a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raat, Hein; Struijk, Mirjam K; Remmers, Teun; Vlasblom, Eline; van Grieken, Amy; Broeren, Suzanne M L; te Velde, Saskia J; Beltman, Maaike; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; L'Hoir, Monique P

    2013-10-19

    Two overweight prevention interventions were developed to be offered by preventive Youth Health Care (YHC) in addition to the currently applied overweight prevention protocol to parents of 0-3 year old children. The two interventions aim to support parents of preschool children to realize healthy child nutrition and activity behaviors of their young child. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of the two overweight prevention interventions with regard to child health behaviors and child Body Mass Index. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among parents and their preschool children who attend one of 51 participating YHC teams. The teams were randomly allocated to one of the two intervention groups, or to the control group (care as usual).The 'BBOFT+' intervention focuses on effective child rearing by parents from birth onwards by enlarging parental skills concerning healthy behavioural life-style habits. Parents who are allocated to the 'E-health4Uth Healthy toddler' intervention group, at the child age of circa 18 and 24 months old, are invited to complete an online E-health module providing tailored health education regarding healthy child nutrition and activity behaviors. The E-health messages are discussed and reinforced during the subsequent regularly scheduled visits by YHC professionals, and were repeated after 4 weeks.The primary outcome measures at child age 3 years are: overweight inducing/reducing behaviors, (for 'BBOFT+' only) healthy sleep, Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight and obesity. Secondary outcome measures are attitudes and other cognitive characteristics of the parents regarding the overweight-related behaviors of their child, parenting styles and practices, and health-related quality of life of the children. We hypothesize that the use of the additional interventions will result in a healthier lifestyle of preschool children and an improved BMI and less development of overweight and obesity compared to usual

  19. Continuous-flow oxidative cyanation of primary and secondary amines using singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Dmitry B; Gilmore, Kerry; Kopetzki, Daniel; McQuade, D Tyler; Seeberger, Peter H

    2014-01-07

    Primary and secondary amines can be rapidly and quantitatively oxidized to the corresponding imines by singlet oxygen. This reactive form of oxygen was produced using a variable-temperature continuous-flow LED-photoreactor with a catalytic amount of tetraphenylporphyrin as the sensitizer. α-Aminonitriles were obtained in good to excellent yields when trimethylsilyl cyanide served as an in situ imine trap. At 25°C, primary amines were found to undergo oxidative coupling prior to cyanide addition and yielded secondary α-aminonitriles. Primary α-aminonitriles were synthesized from the corresponding primary amines for the first time, by an oxidative Strecker reaction at -50 °C. This atom-economic and protecting-group-free pathway provides a route to racemic amino acids, which was exemplified by the synthesis of tert-leucine hydrochloride from neopentylamine. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Using Misoprostol for Primary versus Secondary Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage - Do Costs Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Sarkar, Anupam; Rao, Krishna D

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum heammorrhage (PPH), defined as blood loss greater than or equal to 500 ml within 24 hours after birth, is the leading cause of maternal deaths globally and in India. Misoprostol is an important option for PPH management in setting where oxytocin (the gold standard for PPH prevention and treatment) in not available or not feasible to use. For the substantial number of deliveries which take place at home or at lower level heatlh facilities in India, misoprostol pills can be adminstered to prevent PPH. The standard approach using misoprostol is to administer it prophylactically as primary prevention (600 mcg). An alternative strategy could be to administer misoprostol only to those who are at high risk of having PPH i.e. as secondary prevention. This study reports on the relative cost per person of a strategy involving primary versus secondary prevention of PPH using misoprostol. It is based on a randomized cluster trial that was conducted in Bijapur district in Karnataka, India between December 2011 and March 2014 among pregnant women to compare two community-level strategies for the prevention of PPH: primary and secondary. The analysis was conducted from the government perspective using an ingredient approach. The cluster trial showed that there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the two study arms. However, the results of the cost analysis show that there is a difference of INR 6 (US$ 0.1) per birth for implementing the strategies primary versus secondary prevention. In India where 14.9 million births take place at sub-centres and at home, this additional cost of INR 6 per birth translates to an additional cost of INR 94 (US$ 1.6) million to the government to implement the primary prevention compared to the secondary prevention strategy. As clinical outcomes did not differ significantly between the two arms in the trial, taking into account the difference in costs and potential issues with sustainability, secondary prevention

  1. Assessing the role of appropriate primary health care on the use of dental services by Brazilian low-income preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Baldani, Márcia Helena; Rocha, Juliana Schaia; Fadel, Cristina Berger; Nascimento, Antonio Carlos; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between the quality of primary health care (PHC) and the use of dental services by preschoolers served by the Family Health Strategy (FHS), controlling for socio-demographic determinants and perceived need. The sample encompassed 438 children aged 3-5 years, enrolled in 19 FHS facilities in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil. Individual level variables were collected by interviewing parents or caregivers at home. They answer...

  2. Management of primary-to-secondary leaks at Loviisa nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohnsen, B.; Jaenkaelae, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The Loviisa Nuclear power plant consisting of two VVER-440 type press water reactor units has been in commercial operation since the late 1970`s. Specific features for VVER-440 reactors are six primary loops with horizontal steam generators and main gate valves. The structure of the horizontal steam generators construction may cause a large primary to secondary leak in case of a break in the cover of the primary collector. An accident where two primary collector covers opened totally and two covers opened partly took place in Rovno, Ukraine January 1982. Primary to secondary leaks are one of the main contributors to the core melt frequency in VVER reactors according to the Loviisa 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The high core damage contribution has set requirements for the development of effective means to cope with all sizes of primary to secondary leaks in the steam generator. A concept for all leak sizes has been developed for Loviisa 1 and 2. The solution includes four main areas which are a new steam generator leakage monitoring system based on nitrogen-16 measurement, an upgraded pressurizer spray system, an increased emergency cooling water reserve and an automated isolation of the defected steam generator.

  3. Management of primary-to-secondary leaks at Loviisa nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohnsen, B; Jaenkaelae, K [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The Loviisa Nuclear power plant consisting of two VVER-440 type press water reactor units has been in commercial operation since the late 1970`s. Specific features for VVER-440 reactors are six primary loops with horizontal steam generators and main gate valves. The structure of the horizontal steam generators construction may cause a large primary to secondary leak in case of a break in the cover of the primary collector. An accident where two primary collector covers opened totally and two covers opened partly took place in Rovno, Ukraine January 1982. Primary to secondary leaks are one of the main contributors to the core melt frequency in VVER reactors according to the Loviisa 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The high core damage contribution has set requirements for the development of effective means to cope with all sizes of primary to secondary leaks in the steam generator. A concept for all leak sizes has been developed for Loviisa 1 and 2. The solution includes four main areas which are a new steam generator leakage monitoring system based on nitrogen-16 measurement, an upgraded pressurizer spray system, an increased emergency cooling water reserve and an automated isolation of the defected steam generator.

  4. In vivo and ex vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary and secondary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, Roger M.; Stanwell, Peter; Stretch, Jonathan R.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Thompson, John F.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Lean, Cynthia L

    2005-03-01

    In vivo magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 1.5T was performed on a large polypoid cutaneous melanoma, and two enlarged lymph nodes containing metastatic melanoma, from three patients. Spectra were acquired in vivo from voxels wholly within the primary tumour or secondary lymph node and were thus uncontaminated by signals from adjacent tissue. Tissue biopsies taken after resection of primary tumours and secondary lymph nodes were examined by 8.5T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the results compared with the in vivo spectra, and with spectra from normal skin and a benign skin lesion. There was good agreement between the dominant features of 1.5T spectra acquired in vivo and 8.5T spectra acquired from resected tissue. However, less intense resonances observed at 8.5T in malignant biopsy tissue were not consistently observed at 1.5T in vivo. In vivo spectra from primary and metastatic melanoma showed high levels of choline metabolites. An intense lactate resonance was also present in the in vivo spectrum of primary melanoma. All 8.5T spectra of biopsies from primary and secondary melanoma showed high levels of choline metabolites and lactate, and additional resonances consistent with elevated levels of taurine, alanine, lysine, and glutamate/glutamine relative to normal and benign tissue. Elevated levels of choline, lactate, taurine, and amino acids appear to be clinically useful markers for identifying the pathology of primary and metastatic melanoma.

  5. Management of primary-to-secondary leaks at Loviisa nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohnsen, B.; Jaenkaelae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The Loviisa Nuclear power plant consisting of two VVER-440 type press water reactor units has been in commercial operation since the late 1970's. Specific features for VVER-440 reactors are six primary loops with horizontal steam generators and main gate valves. The structure of the horizontal steam generators construction may cause a large primary to secondary leak in case of a break in the cover of the primary collector. An accident where two primary collector covers opened totally and two covers opened partly took place in Rovno, Ukraine January 1982. Primary to secondary leaks are one of the main contributors to the core melt frequency in VVER reactors according to the Loviisa 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The high core damage contribution has set requirements for the development of effective means to cope with all sizes of primary to secondary leaks in the steam generator. A concept for all leak sizes has been developed for Loviisa 1 and 2. The solution includes four main areas which are a new steam generator leakage monitoring system based on nitrogen-16 measurement, an upgraded pressurizer spray system, an increased emergency cooling water reserve and an automated isolation of the defected steam generator

  6. Feline hyperparathyroidism: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of primary and secondary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Valerie J; Gilor, Chen; Chew, Dennis J

    2015-05-01

    Hyperparathyroidism exists in primary and secondary forms. Primary hyperparathyroidism has typically been considered a disease that uncommonly affects cats, but this condition is more prevalent than previous diagnoses would suggest. Secondary hyperparathyroidism may be caused by either nutritional influences (ie, nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism) or chronic kidney disease (ie, renal secondary hyperparathyroidism). Tertiary hyperparathyroidism has yet to be documented in veterinary medicine, but it is possible that this condition occurs in some cats following longstanding renal secondary hyperparathyroidism. Diagnosis of this group of calcium metabolic disorders presents a number of challenges for the clinician. For example, clinical signs can be non-specific and, especially in the case of primary hyperparathyroidism, there is often a low index of suspicion for the disease; careful sample handling is required for testing of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and ionized calcium levels; and there is currently no feline-specific assay for PTH, which has implications for test sensitivity and interpretation of results. This article briefly outlines PTH and calcium physiology by way of introduction to a review of PTH measurement and interpretation. Various forms of feline hyperparathyroidism are then described, encompassing diagnosis and treatment options. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  7. Effects of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education on Conflict Intensity in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius A. Agbor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of different schooling dimensions (primary, secondary and tertiary on the intensity of intra-state conflicts in 25 African states during the period 1989–2008. It uses fixed-effects and Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM estimators in an annualized panel data framework. Parameter estimates suggest the following (1 primary schooling broadly mitigates conflicts in Africa. However, in environments with high natural resource rents, it could ignite conflicts; (2 there is evidence, although not overwhelming, that secondary schooling potentially drives conflicts in Africa. There is also evidence that urbanization potentially drives conflicts in Africa. However, although secondary schooling and urbanization potentially drives conflicts, in environments where secondary schooling (urbanization is high, urbanization (secondary schooling mitigates conflicts; (3 there is no evidence of a strong direct positive impact of tertiary education on conflicts and conditioning on tertiary schooling, income inequality potentially drives conflicts in African states. However, in contexts where income inequality (tertiary schooling is high, tertiary schooling (inequality mitigates conflict. Two important policy implications follow from this study. First, in contexts where income inequality is high (for instance, in South Africa, governments should strive to foster tertiary education in order to reduce conflict. Second, where urbanization rates are high, they should foster both secondary and tertiary education. This study contributes to existing knowledge by clearly demonstrating the utility of distinguishing between different educational dimensions and the contexts wherein they matter for conflict mitigation in Africa.

  8. Secondary pigmentary glaucoma in patients with underlying primary pigment dispersion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraman KR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kavitha R Sivaraman, Chirag G Patel, Thasarat S Vajaranant, Ahmad A ArefDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Primary pigment dispersion syndrome (PPDS is a bilateral condition that occurs in anatomically predisposed individuals. PPDS may evolve into pigmentary glaucoma, but it is difficult to predict which patients will progress. Secondary pigment dispersion is more often unilateral and acquired as a result of surgery, trauma, or intraocular tumor, but can likewise lead to pigmentary glaucoma. We report two cases of patients with bilateral PPDS who developed secondary pigment dispersion and pigmentary glaucoma in one eye. Patients with PPDS who acquire a secondary mechanism of pigment dispersion may be at an increased risk of progression to pigmentary glaucoma, presumably due to an increased burden of liberated pigment. In addition to regular surveillance for progression to glaucoma from PPDS, secondary causes of pigmentary dispersion in these eyes should be considered when patients present with grossly asymmetric findings. When secondary pigment dispersion is identified in eyes with PPDS, we recommend prompt intervention to alleviate the cause of secondary pigment dispersion and/or aggressive control of intraocular pressure to limit glaucomatous damage.Keywords: primary pigment dispersion syndrome, pigmentary glaucoma

  9. Evolutionary Rate Heterogeneity of Primary and Secondary Metabolic Pathway Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dola; Mukherjee, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2015-11-10

    Primary metabolism is essential to plants for growth and development, and secondary metabolism helps plants to interact with the environment. Many plant metabolites are industrially important. These metabolites are produced by plants through complex metabolic pathways. Lack of knowledge about these pathways is hindering the successful breeding practices for these metabolites. For a better knowledge of the metabolism in plants as a whole, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes is a prerequisite. In this study, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes has been analyzed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Primary metabolic pathway genes were found to be more conserved than secondary metabolic pathway genes. Several factors such as gene structure, expression level, tissue specificity, multifunctionality, and domain number are the key factors behind this evolutionary rate variation. This study will help to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of plant metabolism. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Multimodal Robots As Educational Tools In Primary And Lower Secondary Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal humanoid robots have been used as educational tools in primary and lower secondary schools. The pupils involved were between 11 and 16 years old. The learning goals included: programming, language learning, ethics, technology and mathematics, e.g. practised by 7th grade pupils who...

  11. Impact of E-Learning and Digitalization in Primary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunmibi, Sunday; Aregbesola, Ayooluwa; Adejobi, Pascal; Ibrahim, Olaniyi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines into the impact of e-learning and digitalization in primary and secondary schools, using Greensprings School in Lagos State, Nigeria as a case study. Questionnaire was used as a data collection instrument, and descriptive statistical method was adopted for analysis. Responses from students and teachers reveal that application…

  12. Prevention Rather than Cure? Primary or Secondary Intervention for Dealing with Media Exposure to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of primary versus secondary intervention in moderating state anxiety and state anger from media-based exposure to terrorism. Two hundred participants, allocated to a terrorism or nonterrorism media exposure and to antecedent or subsequent therapeutic or control intervention, were assessed for state anxiety and…

  13. Development of Questionnaire on Emotional Labor among Primary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Zhang, Dajun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, based on the analysis of existing definitions of emotional labor, operational definition of teachers' emotional labor is given and questionnaire on emotional labor among primary and secondary school teachers is developed. Research results: exploratory factor analysis shows that teacher's emotional labor involves three dimensions…

  14. Old Anticipations, New Anxieties? A Contemporary Perspective on Primary to Secondary Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David; Delamont, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The transfer from primary to secondary school in England and Wales is a status passage, from child to teenager. Research on the anxieties and anticipations surrounding that transfer over a 30-year period shows continuities and discontinuities. As well as the contrast of sociological approaches, the perceptions of children in 1977-1978 and…

  15. [Appraisal of occupational stress and strain in primary and secondary school teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Lan, Y; Li, J; Wang, M

    2001-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess occupational stress and strain in primary and secondary school teachers. A test of occupational stress and strain was carried out by using Occupational Stress Inventory Revised Edition (OSI-R) in 1460 primary and secondary school teachers (teacher group) and 319 mental workers in non-educational area (non-teacher group as control). The results showed the level of occupational stress in role overload and physical environment in the teacher group was significantly higher than that in the non-teacher group (P < 0.05). In teacher group the level of occupational stress and strain increased with age; the occupational stress and strain in male teachers were significantly higher than those in female teachers (P < 0.01); the occupational stress and strain in secondary school teachers were significantly higher than those in primary school teachers. These results indicate: to protect and promote primary and secondary school teacher's health, particularly male teachers' health, to mitigate their work pressure and to raise the quality of education are important tasks in the area of occupational health.

  16. Transitional Woes: On the Impact of L2 Input Continuity from Primary to Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenninger, Simone E.; Lendl, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the problem of articulation between levels in the educational system, as the transition from a rather more communicative, content-based and holistic approach to English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching at primary level to more formal and explicit ways of foreign language (FL) teaching at secondary is often experienced…

  17. Perspective Changing in Primary and Secondary Learning: A Gender Difference Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L.; Risetti, M.; Nori, R.; Tanzilli, A.; Bernardi, L.; Guariglia, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of 106 (55 males, 51 females) college students to recall an 8-step path from different viewpoints (0 degrees; 90 degrees; 180 degrees and 270 degrees) after primary and secondary learning without a time limit. For each participant, we computed the time and number of repetitions necessary to learn…

  18. 5. International seminar on primary and secondary side water chemistry of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The major subjects of the meetings are: water chemistry of primary and secondary coolant circuits of PWR type reactors (mainly WWER types), corrosion of steam generators, decontamination processes, treatment of radioactive waste waters and related subjects. All the 29 papers were individually indexed and abstracted for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  19. 5. International seminar on primary and secondary side water chemistry of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The major subjects of the meetings are: water chemistry of primary and secondary coolant circuits of PWR type reactors (mainly WWER types), corrosion of steam generators, decontamination processes, treatment of radioactive waste waters and related subjects. All the 29 papers were individually indexed and abstracted for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  20. Which features of primary care affect unscheduled secondary care use? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Alyson; Lasserson, Daniel; Wye, Lesley; Morris, Richard; Checkland, Kath; England, Helen; Salisbury, Chris; Purdy, Sarah

    2014-05-23

    To conduct a systematic review to identify studies that describe factors and interventions at primary care practice level that impact on levels of utilisation of unscheduled secondary care. Observational studies at primary care practice level. Studies included people of any age of either sex living in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries with any health condition. The primary outcome measure was unscheduled secondary care as measured by emergency department attendance and emergency hospital admissions. 48 papers were identified describing potential influencing features on emergency department visits (n=24 studies) and emergency admissions (n=22 studies). Patient factors associated with both outcomes were increased age, reduced socioeconomic status, lower educational attainment, chronic disease and multimorbidity. Features of primary care affecting unscheduled secondary care were more complex. Being able to see the same healthcare professional reduced unscheduled secondary care. Generally, better access was associated with reduced unscheduled care in the USA. Proximity to healthcare provision influenced patterns of use. Evidence relating to quality of care was limited and mixed. The majority of research was from different healthcare systems and limited in the extent to which it can inform policy. However, there is evidence that continuity of care is associated with reduced emergency department attendance and emergency hospital admissions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Validity of the rey visual design test in primary and secondary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, P.; van Klink, M.; van Klink, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rey Visual Design Learning Test (Rey, 1964, cited in Spreen & Strauss, 1991, Wilhelm, 2004) assesses immediate memory span, new learning, delayed recall and recognition for nonverbal material. Two studies are presented that focused on the construct validity of the RVDLT in primary and secondary

  2. Brazilian Primary and Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Science and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszeck, Amauri Betini; Bartoszeck, Flavio Kulevicz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand in an exploratory way pupils' perception of science and the image of scientists at primary and secondary school levels. Data was collected by means of a survey questionnaire and a drawing representing pupils' depiction what scientists do during their working hours. A questionnaire anchored on a Likert…

  3. Interactions Between a Belowground Herbivore and Primary and Secondary Root Metabolites in Wild Cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geem, Moniek; Harvey, J.A.; Cortesero, A.M.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Gols, R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are attacked by both above- and belowground herbivores. Toxic secondary compounds are part of the chemical defense arsenal of plants against a range of antagonists, and are subject to genetic variation. Plants also produce primary metabolites (amino acids, nutrients, sugars) that function as

  4. English Vocabulary Acquisition of Bilingual Learners at the Primary and Secondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholsward, Ruja; Boonprasitt, Donrutai

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports research findings of English vocabulary acquisition of bilingual learners at the levels of Primary 6 and Secondary 3 at Satit Bilingual School of Rangsit University. The purpose was to find out the extent to which learners at these levels have acquired English vocabulary to communicate their ideas about themselves and their…

  5. Assertive Skills and Academic Performance in Primary and Secondary Education, Giftedness, and Conflictive Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugan de Miguelsanz, Montserrat; Carbonero Martin, Miguel Angel; Palazuelo Martinez, Ma Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the level of assertiveness in various samples of students from Primary and Secondary Education. With the data obtained, on the one hand, we analyzed the relation between assertiveness and academic performance and, on the other, we verified whether students who are excluded from the norm, either because of their…

  6. The Impact of ISO Quality Management Systems on Primary and Secondary Schools in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas Díaz, Jorge Antonio; Martínez-Mediano, Catalina

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of quality management systems (QMS) based on international standards of quality in education (ISO 9001:2008) and ascertain the influence of this quality model on primary and secondary schools in Spain. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in 26 publicly funded,…

  7. A Bridge Too Far: The Decline in Shared Science Activities during Primary-Secondary Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the use of "bridging units" in science to improve curriculum continuity during transition from primary to secondary school. Based on research evidence collected over several decades, it suggests that the use of these units rose to a peak around the time of the millennium, but that in recent years few schools have…

  8. Reading Performance Profile of Children with Dyslexia in Primary and Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Emine; Çayir, Aybala

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to provide information to the community about the reading subskill profiles of children with dyslexia in primary and secondary school students. 175 children (aged 7-15 yrs) were examined on a varied set of phonological coding, spelling and fluent reading tasks. For this purpose, students' fluent reading were…

  9. Inequality in the Transition from Primary to Secondary School: School Choices and Educational Disparities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Marcus; Stubbe, Tobias C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the mechanisms of educational pathway decision making at the transition from primary to secondary school in the German education system by analysing data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). The highly reliable data of the German sample of the 2001 PIRLS make it possible to take into…

  10. Emergent Communities of Practice: Secondary Schools' Interaction with Primary School Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael; Fisher, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an account of the response of secondary schools to the primary school foreign language teaching initiative recently introduced by the UK government. The paper also explores defining features of the process of cross-phase interaction and the role that knowledge and collaborative practice plays in generating change…

  11. Classroom-Based Assessment and the Issue of Continuity between Primary and Secondary School Languages Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This article presents selected findings from an ethnographic study of classroom-based assessment practices in languages classrooms (Indonesian) in the final year of primary (Year 6) and the first year of secondary (Year 7), respectively. In particular, the paper focuses on differences between the respective year levels in how learning was assessed…

  12. Primary Versus Secondary Contributions to Particle Number Concentrations in the European Boundary Layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reddington, C.L.; Carslaw, K.S.; Spracklen, D.V.; Frontoso, M.G.; Collins, L.; Merikanto, J.; Minikin, A.; Hamburger, T.; Coe, H.; Kulmala, M.; Aalto, P.; Flentje, H.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Wehner, B.; Tuch, T.; Sonntag, A.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Jennings, S.G.; Dupuy, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Tunved, P.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.; Boulon, J.; Putaund, J.-P.; Gruening, C.; Swietlicki, E.; Roldin, P.; Henzing, J.S.; Moerman, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kouvarakis, G.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Zíková, Naděžda; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Duchi, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 23 (2011), s. 12007-12036 ISSN 1680-7316 Grant - others:EUCAARI(XE) 036833-2; GFME(DE) FE370343200 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : primary aerosol * secondary aerosol * boundary layer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2011

  13. Relay-Assisted Primary and Secondary Transmissions in Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shafie, Ahmed El; Khattab, Tamer; Salem, Ahmed Sultan

    2016-01-01

    We assume a set of cognitive relay nodes that assists both primary and secondary transmissions in a time-slotted cognitive radio networks. To regulate the channel access of the various nodes in the network, we propose an overlapped spectrum sensing

  14. Evaluation of primary and secondary stability of titanium implants using different surgical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabassum, A.; Meijer, G.J.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of different surgical techniques on the primary and secondary implant stability using trabecular bone of goats as an implantation model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the iliac crest of eight goats, 48 cylindrical-screw-type implants with a diameter of 4.2 mm

  15. The Development of Local Private Primary and Secondary Schooling in Hong Kong, 1841-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Randall, E. Vance; Tam, Man Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is a historical review of the development of private primary and secondary education in Hong Kong from 1841-2012. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolving relationship between the state and private schools in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes sources from published official documents,…

  16. Primary and Secondary Education in Morocco: From Access to School into Generalization to Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zoulal; Moumine, Mohamed El Amine

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of school wastage, namely repetition and dropout in primary and secondary schools in Morocco. It describes how this phenomenon has progressed since school was implemented in the 1960s. It shows that the fundamental principles of the education system established in the aftermath of Morocco?s independence in 1956…

  17. Cost-effectiveness of increasing statin adherence for primary and secondary prevention in community pharmacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, S.; Oosterhof, P.; Van Boven, J.F.; Stuurman-Bieze, A.G.G.; Hiddink, E.G.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Therapy persistence is important to achieve optimal clinical benefits of statin therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies, aimed to increase persistence with statin therapy for both primary and secondary

  18. Primary and secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease : an old-fashioned concept?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, FV; Stolk, RP; Banga, JD; Erkelens, DW; Grobbee, DE

    Objective. Is the concept of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention an old-fashioned concept that needs to be re-defined? Design. Discussion paper. Results. Cardiovascular prevention means reduction of absolute risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), irrespective of clinical stage.

  19. The value of arteriography in the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary Raynaud's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.H.; Alexander, K.

    1985-01-01

    Arteriograms of the hands were carried out in 348 patients. Functional and organic changes were analysed in an attempt to differentiate primary from secondary Raynaud's syndrome. The value and limitations of this technique are illustrated by a number of examples. (orig.) [de

  20. Constructing Assessment Model of Primary and Secondary Educational Quality with Talent Quality as the Core Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Benyou

    2014-01-01

    Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…

  1. Email communication at the medical primary-secondary care interface: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Rod; Barbour, Rosaline; Wilson, Philip

    2016-07-01

    There is little published research into the influence of email communication between primary and secondary care clinicians on patient care. To explore the use of email communication between clinicians across the primary- secondary care interface, and how this may relate to patient care. A qualitative study involving primary and secondary care services in the NHS Highland Health Board area, Scotland. Ten GPs and 12 hospital consultants were purposively sampled to reflect diversity. Eligible clinicians were invited to take part in a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Key themes that emerged for clinicians included general perceptions of email; using email in practice (managing workload, impact on patient journeys, and 'quick answers'); system issues (variability and governance); relational aspects; and email skills. Email communication between primary and secondary care clinicians generally has a positive impact on patient access to specialist expertise. Governance issues around the use of clinical email need to be defined. There may currently be a two-tier health service for those patients (and their GPs) requiring 'quick answers'. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  2. The Transition from Primary to Secondary School in Mainstream Education for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Murin, Marianna; Baykaner, Ozlem; Staunton, Sara; Hellriegel, Josselyn; Anderson, Seonaid; Skuse, David

    2016-01-01

    The transition from primary to secondary education (hereafter "school transition") is a major ecological shift that poses considerable social, emotional, academic and organisational challenges. It is commonly assumed that this school transition is especially difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder, but that idea is mainly…

  3. Support Required for Primary and Secondary Students with Communication Disorders and/or Other Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; McKinnon, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Prioritization of school students with additional learning needs is a reality due to a finite resource base. Limited evidence exists regarding teachers' prioritization of primary and secondary school students with additional learning needs. The aim of the present article was to differentiate teachers' perceptions of the level of support required…

  4. A Case Study on Primary, Secondary and University Students' Environmentally Responsible Behaviors in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to prove the environmentally responsible behaviors of primary, secondary and university students in Turkey. The students', who attended the study as participants, environmentally political behaviors, consumer/economical behaviors, direct behaviors toward protecting the environment and individual and public persuasion…

  5. Primary School Text Comprehension Predicts Mathematical Word Problem-Solving Skills in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the extent to which primary school text comprehension predicts mathematical word problem-solving skills in secondary school among Finnish students. The participants were 224 fourth graders (9-10 years old at the baseline). The children's text-reading fluency, text comprehension and basic calculation…

  6. Students' perceptions about science: The impact of transition from primary to secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speering, Wendy; Rennie, Léonie

    1996-09-01

    As students move through school, attitudes to school in general, and science in particular, become less positive. This paper reports on a longitudinal study which mapped, from the students' point of view, the transition between primary and secondary school in Western Australia. The study focused on the subject of science, and used both quantitative and qualitative methods. During the transition, there is a considerable change in the organisation of the school, the curriculum and the teacherstudent relationship. Students in this study, especially the girls, were generally disenchanted with the teaching strategies used in their secondary science classrooms, and regretted the loss of the close teacher-student relationship of their primary school years. Their perceptions were that science in secondary school was not what they had expected, and this experience may have long term implications for their subject and career choices.

  7. Ruthenium-catalyzed self-coupling of primary and secondary alcohols with the liberation of dihydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Ilya; Madsen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The dehydrogenative self-condensation of primary and secondary alcohols has been studied in the presence of RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene). The conversion of primary alcohols into esters has been further optimized by using magnesium nitride as an additive, which allows the reaction to take place...... at a temperature and catalyst loading lower than those described previously. Secondary alcohols were dimerized into racemic ketones by a dehydrogenative Guerbet reaction with potassium hydroxide as the additive. The transformation gave good yields of the ketone dimers with a range of alkan-2-ols, whereas more...... substituted secondary alcohols were unreactive. The reaction proceeds by dehydrogenation to the ketone, followed by an aldol reaction and hydrogenation of the resulting enone. © 2013 American Chemical Society....

  8. Normal variability of children's scaled scores on subtests of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary scale of Intelligence - third edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, P P M; Hendriksen, J G M; Dek, J E; Kooij, A P

    2013-01-01

    Intelligence tests are included in millions of assessments of children and adults each year (Watkins, Glutting, & Lei, 2007a , Applied Neuropsychology, 14, 13). Clinicians often interpret large amounts of subtest scatter, or large differences between the highest and lowest scaled subtest scores, on an intelligence test battery as an index for abnormality or cognitive impairment. The purpose of the present study is to characterize "normal" patterns of variability among subtests of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III-NL; Wechsler, 2010 ). Therefore, the frequencies of WPPSI-III-NL scaled subtest scatter were reported for 1039 healthy children aged 4:0-7:11 years. Results indicated that large differences between highest and lowest scaled subtest scores (or subtest scatter) were common in this sample. Furthermore, degree of subtest scatter was related to: (a) the magnitude of the highest scaled subtest score, i.e., more scatter was seen in children with the highest WPPSI-III-NL scaled subtest scores, (b) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores, i.e., higher FSIQ scores were associated with an increase in subtest scatter, and (c) sex differences, with boys showing a tendency to display more scatter than girls. In conclusion, viewing subtest scatter as an index for abnormality in WPPSI-III-NL scores is an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs within a population of healthy children aged 4:0-7:11 years.

  9. Whooping cough in school age children presenting with persistent cough in UK primary care after introduction of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kay; Fry, Norman K; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Harrison, Timothy G; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony

    2014-06-24

    To estimate the prevalence and clinical severity of whooping cough (pertussis) in school age children presenting with persistent cough in primary care since the introduction and implementation of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination. Prospective cohort study (November 2010 to December 2012). General practices in Thames Valley, UK. 279 children aged 5 to 15 years who presented in primary care with a persistent cough of two to eight weeks' duration. Exclusion criteria were cough likely to be caused by a serious underlying medical condition, known immunodeficiency or immunocompromise, participation in another clinical research study, and preschool pertussis booster vaccination received less than one year previously. Evidence of recent pertussis infection based on an oral fluid anti-pertussis toxin IgG titre of at least 70 arbitrary units. Cough frequency was measured in six children with laboratory confirmed pertussis. 56 (20%, 95% confidence interval 16% to 25%) children had evidence of recent pertussis infection, including 39 (18%, 13% to 24%) of 215 children who had been fully vaccinated. The risk of pertussis was more than three times higher (21/53; 40%, 26% to 54%) in children who had received the preschool pertussis booster vaccination seven years or more previously than in those who had received it less than seven years previously (20/171; 12%, 7% to 17%). The risk of pertussis was similar between children who received five and three component preschool pertussis booster vaccines (risk ratio for five component vaccine 1.14, 0.64 to 2.03). Four of six children in whom cough frequency was measured coughed more than 400 times in 24 hours. Pertussis can still be found in a fifth of school age children who present in primary care with persistent cough and can cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. These findings will help to inform consideration of the need for an adolescent pertussis booster vaccination in the United Kingdom. UK

  10. Dengue virus activates polyreactive, natural IgG B cells after primary and secondary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavamalar Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and has four serotypes. Cross-protection to other serotypes lasting for a few months is observed following infection with one serotype. There is evidence that low-affinity T and/or B cells from primary infections contribute to the severe syndromes often associated with secondary dengue infections. such pronounced immune-mediated enhancement suggests a dengue-specific pattern of immune cell activation. This study investigates the acute and early convalescent B cell response leading to the generation of cross-reactive and neutralizing antibodies following dengue infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assayed blood samples taken from dengue patients with primary or secondary infection during acute disease and convalescence and compared them to samples from patients presenting with non-dengue related fever. Dengue induced massive early plasmablast formation, which correlated with the appearance of polyclonal, cross-reactive IgG for both primary and secondary infection. Surprisingly, the contribution of IgG to the neutralizing titer 4-7 days after fever onset was more than 50% even after primary infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Poly-reactive and virus serotype cross-reactive IgG are an important component of the innate response in humans during both primary and secondary dengue infection, and "innate specificities" seem to constitute part of the adaptive response in dengue. While of potential importance for protection during secondary infection, cross-reactive B cells will also compete with highly neutralizing B cells and possibly interfere with their development.

  11. Peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection of primary, secondary and tertiary treated municipal wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, J; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2005-11-01

    The efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection against enteric bacteria and viruses in municipal wastewaters was studied in pilot-scale. Disinfection pilot-plant was fed with the primary or secondary effluent of Kuopio municipal wastewater treatment plant or tertiary effluent from the pilot-scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit. Disinfectant doses ranged from 2 to 7 mg/l PAA in the secondary and tertiary effluents, and from 5 to 15 mg/l PAA in the primary effluents. Disinfection contact times were 4-27 min. Disinfection of secondary and tertiary effluents with 2-7 mg/l PAA and 27 min contact time achieved around 3 log reductions of total coliforms (TC) and enterococci (EC). PAA disinfection also significantly improved the hygienic quality of the primary effluents: 10-15 mg/l PAA achieved 3-4 log reductions of TC and EC, 5 mg/l PAA resulting in below 2 log reductions. F-RNA coliphages were more resistant against the PAA disinfection and around 1 log reductions of these enteric viruses were typically achieved in the disinfection treatments of the primary, secondary and tertiary effluents. Most of the microbial reductions occurred during the first 4-18 min of contact time, depending on the PAA dose and microorganism. The PAA disinfection efficiency remained relatively constant in the secondary and tertiary effluents, despite of small changes of wastewater quality (COD, SS, turbidity, 253.7 nm transmittance) or temperature. The disinfection efficiency clearly decreased in the primary effluents with substantially higher microbial, organic matter and suspended solids concentrations. The results demonstrated that PAA could be a good alternative disinfection method for elimination of enteric microbes from different wastewaters.

  12. Primary versus secondary hypertension in children followed up at an outpatient tertiary unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Romina S; Quirino, Isabel G; Pereira, Regina M; Vitor, Breno M; Leite, Alysson F; Oliveira, Eduardo A; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina

    2011-03-01

    Childhood hypertension has classically been recognized as a secondary disease. However, primary hypertension also occurs in children. The aim of this study was to compare clinical features of pediatric patients with elevated blood pressure, which were referred to an outpatient tertiary unit, and to detect variables associated with the identification of primary hypertension. The records of 220 patients with hypertension followed between 1996 and 2006 were analyzed. The variable of interest was primary hypertension. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify clinical variables that were independently associated with primary hypertension. Of 220 patients, 33 (15%) had primary hypertension, and 187 (85%) exhibited secondary hypertension. No statistically significant differences were detected in gender, race, age at diagnosis, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure levels between both groups. After adjustment, four variables at baseline remained independently associated with primary hypertension: absence of signs/symptoms (OR 18.87, 95% CI 6.32-56.29), normal serum creatinine (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.27), family history of hypertension (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.04-8.79), and elevated body weight (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10). The absence of signs/symptoms, normal serum creatinine, family history of hypertension, and overweight/obesity at admission are clues to diagnose primary hypertension in childhood.

  13. Electrocardiogram interpretation and arrhythmia management: a primary and secondary care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Gordon; Willan, Kathryn; Tyndall, Keith; Pepper, Chris; Tayebjee, Muzahir

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing desire among service commissioners to treat arrhythmia in primary care. Accurate interpretation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is fundamental to this. ECG interpretation has previously been shown to vary widely but there is little recent data. To examine the interpretation of ECGs in primary and secondary care. A cross-sectional survey of participants' interpretation of six ECGs and hypothetical management of patients based on those ECGs, at primary care educational events, and a cardiology department in Leeds. A total of 262 primary care clinicians and 20 cardiology clinicians were surveyed via questionnaire. Answers were compared with expert electrophysiologist opinion. In primary care, abnormal ECGs were interpreted as normal by 23% of responders. ST elevation and prolonged QT were incorrectly interpreted as normal by 1% and 22%, respectively. In cardiology, abnormal ECGs were interpreted as normal by 3%. ECG provision and interpretation remains inconsistent in both primary and secondary care. Primary care practitioners are less experienced and less confident with ECG interpretation than cardiologists, and require support in this area. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  14. Attitudes of Preschool and Primary School Pre-Service Teachers towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraska, Jake; Boyle, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' attitudes towards inclusion are important as they have the primary responsibility of implementing inclusive education. Attitudes at the beginning of teaching careers are likely to predict future attitudes. Some studies show a drop in attitudes after leaving university education. Using the Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion (Amended)…

  15. Primary and secondary exercise dependence in a community-based sample of road race runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Karr, Trisha M; Zunker, Christie; Mitchell, James E; Thompson, Ron; Sherman, Roberta; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Erickson, Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine exercise dependence (EXD) in a large community-based sample of runners. The secondary purpose of this study was to examine differences in EXD symptoms between primary and secondary EXD. Our sample included 2660 runners recruited from a local road race (M age = 38.78 years, SD = 10.80; 66.39% women; 91.62% Caucasian) who completed all study measures online within 3 weeks of the race. In this study, EXD prevalence was lower than most previously reported rates (gamma = .248, p < .001) and individuals in the at-risk for EXD category participated in longer distance races, F(8,1) = 14.13, p = .01, partial eta squared = .05. Group differences were found for gender, F(1,1921) 8.08, p = .01, partial eta squared = .004, and primary or secondary group status, F(1,1921) 159.53, p = .01, partial eta squared = .077. Implications of primary and secondary EXD differences and future research are discussed.

  16. Variant selection of primary, secondary and tertiary twins in a deformed Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Sijia; Jonas, John J.; Gottstein, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Samples of magnesium alloy AZ31 were deformed in plane strain compression in a channel die at 100 °C and a strain rate of 5 × 10 −3 s −1 . The initial texture was favorably oriented for extension twinning. At a true strain of ε = −0.11, many primary extension twins were observed to consume their parent grains completely. Furthermore, numerous secondary contraction twins formed within the primary extension twins and some tertiary extension twins grew within the secondary contraction twins. The orientations of the parent grains and all three generations of twins were measured. The twin variants selected during each of the three stages of twinning were determined by electron backscatter diffraction techniques and the absent potential twin variants were also identified. The way in which the selected primary extension twins grow so as to consume the parent grains and contact all the neighboring grains is explained in terms of the accommodation strains imposed on the neighboring grains. The analysis shows that the primary twin selected is not necessarily the variant with the highest Schmid factor but the one that requires the least accommodation work in most of the neighboring grains. The same principle was found to hold for the secondary and tertiary twins. By contrast, potential high Schmid factor twins that required the consumption of appreciable accommodation energy did not form. A Taylor simulation produced similar results and indicates that the accommodation strain concept is consistent with the principle of the minimization of plastic work.

  17. Unpacking socio-economic risks for reading and academic self-concept in primary school: differential effects and the role of the preschool home learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James

    2017-01-01

    Background: uncertainty remains concerning how children’s reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. Aims: to contrast the impacts of early socioeconomic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children’s reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7-10 years.Sample: n=3,172 British children aged 3-10 years and their families.Methods: a secondary analysis of the nati...

  18. Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Therapy for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Usefulness in Primary and Secondary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrias, Axel; Galve, Enrique; Sabaté, Xavier; Moya, Àngel; Anguera, Ignacio; Núñez, Elaine; Villuendas, Roger; Alcalde, Óscar; García-Dorado, David

    2015-06-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of sudden death. Clinical practice guidelines indicate defibrillator implantation for primary prevention in patients with 1 or more risk factors and for secondary prevention in patients with a history of aborted sudden death or sustained ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of the present study was to analyze the follow-up of patients who received an implantable defibrillator following the current guidelines in nonreferral centers for this disease. This retrospective observational study included all patients who underwent defibrillator implantation between January 1996 and December 2012 in 3 centers in the province of Barcelona. The study included 69 patients (mean age [standard deviation], 44.8 [17] years; 79.3% men), 48 in primary prevention and 21 in secondary prevention. The mean number of risk factors per patient was 1.8 in the primary prevention group and 0.5 in the secondary prevention group (P=.029). The median follow-up duration was 40.5 months. The appropriate therapy rate was 32.7/100 patient-years in secondary prevention and 1.7/100 patient-years in primary prevention (P<.001). Overall mortality was 10.1%. Implant-related complications were experienced by 8.7% of patients, and 13% had inappropriate defibrillator discharges. In patients with a defibrillator for primary prevention, the appropriate therapy rate is extremely low, indicating the low predictive power of the current risk stratification criteria. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. CATHARE-2 prediction of large primary to secondary leakage (PRISE) at PSB-VVER experimental facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabotinov, L.; Chevrier, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2007-07-01

    The large primary to secondary leakage (PRISE) is a specific loss-of-coolant accident in VVER reactors, related to the break of the steam generator collector cover, leading to loss of primary mass inventory and possible direct radioactive release to atmosphere. The best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHARE-2 Version 2.5-1 was used for post-test analysis of a PRISE experiment, conducted at the large scale test facility PSB-VVER in Russia. The PSB rig is 1:300 scaled model of VVER-1000 NPP. The accident is calculated with a 1.4% break size, which corresponds to 100 mm leak from primary to secondary side in the real NPP. A computer model has been developed for CATHARE-2 V2.5-1, taking into account all important components of the PSB facility: reactor model (lower plenum, core, bypass, upper plenum, downcomer), 4 separate loops, pressurizer, horizontal multi-tube steam generators, break section. The secondary side is presented by recirculation model. A large number of sensitivity calculations has been performed regarding break modeling, reactor pressure vessel modeling, counter current flow modeling, hydraulic losses, heat losses, steam generator level regulation. Comparison between calculated and experimental results shows good prediction of the basic thermal-hydraulic phenomena and parameters such as primary and secondary pressures, temperatures, loop flows, etc. Some discrepancies were observed in the calculations of primary mass inventory and loop seal clearance. Nevertheless the final core heat up, which is one of the most important safety criteria, was correctly predicted. (authors)

  20. Secondary pigmentary glaucoma in patients with underlying primary pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Kavitha R; Patel, Chirag G; Vajaranant, Thasarat S; Aref, Ahmad A

    2013-01-01

    Primary pigment dispersion syndrome (PPDS) is a bilateral condition that occurs in anatomically predisposed individuals. PPDS may evolve into pigmentary glaucoma, but it is difficult to predict which patients will progress. Secondary pigment dispersion is more often unilateral and acquired as a result of surgery, trauma, or intraocular tumor, but can likewise lead to pigmentary glaucoma. We report two cases of patients with bilateral PPDS who developed secondary pigment dispersion and pigmentary glaucoma in one eye. Patients with PPDS who acquire a secondary mechanism of pigment dispersion may be at an increased risk of progression to pigmentary glaucoma, presumably due to an increased burden of liberated pigment. In addition to regular surveillance for progression to glaucoma from PPDS, secondary causes of pigmentary dispersion in these eyes should be considered when patients present with grossly asymmetric findings. When secondary pigment dispersion is identified in eyes with PPDS, we recommend prompt intervention to alleviate the cause of secondary pigment dispersion and/or aggressive control of intraocular pressure to limit glaucomatous damage.

  1. 45 CFR 605.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 605.38 Section 605... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on the...

  2. Differentiation to improve the articulation between levels : In the teaching of English in primary and secondary education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. de Kraay

    2016-01-01

    In 1986, English became a compulsory subject in primary education in The Netherlands1. While secondary schools have, by law, been required to offer English since 1863 (Wilhelm, 2005) the articulation between Dutch primary and secondary education levels of English language teaching has always been

  3. Variability in the primary emissions and secondary gas and particle formation from vehicles using bioethanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, E; Papapostolou, V; Reyes, F; Vásquez, Y; Castillo, M; Oyola, P; López, G; Cádiz, A; Ferguson, S; Wolfson, M; Lawrence, J; Koutrakis, P

    2018-04-01

    Bioethanol for use in vehicles is becoming a substantial part of global energy infrastructure because it is renewable and some emissions are reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and total hydrocarbons (THC) are reduced, but there is still controversy regarding emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), aldehydes, and ethanol; this may be a concern because all these compounds are precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The amount of emissions depends on the ethanol content, but it also may depend on the engine quality and ethanol origin. Thus, a photochemical chamber was used to study secondary gas and aerosol formation from two flex-fueled vehicles using different ethanol blends in gasoline. One vehicle and the fuel used were made in the United States, and the others were made in Brazil. Primary emissions of THC, CO, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from both vehicles decreased as the amount of ethanol in gasoline increased. NO x emissions in the U.S. and Brazilian cars decreased with ethanol content. However, emissions of THC, CO, and NO x from the Brazilian car were markedly higher than those from the U.S. car, showing high variability between vehicle technologies. In the Brazilian car, formation of secondary nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) was lower for higher ethanol content in the fuel. In the U.S. car, NO 2 and O 3 had a small increase. Secondary particle (particulate matter [PM]) formation in the chamber decreased for both vehicles as the fraction of ethanol in fuel increased, consistent with previous studies. Secondary to primary PM ratios for pure gasoline is 11, also consistent with previous studies. In addition, the time required to form secondary PM is longer for higher ethanol blends. These results indicate that using higher ethanol blends may have a positive impact on air quality. The use of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Given the extent of

  4. Using Misoprostol for Primary versus Secondary Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage - Do Costs Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Postpartum heammorrhage (PPH, defined as blood loss greater than or equal to 500 ml within 24 hours after birth, is the leading cause of maternal deaths globally and in India. Misoprostol is an important option for PPH management in setting where oxytocin (the gold standard for PPH prevention and treatment in not available or not feasible to use. For the substantial number of deliveries which take place at home or at lower level heatlh facilities in India, misoprostol pills can be adminstered to prevent PPH. The standard approach using misoprostol is to administer it prophylactically as primary prevention (600 mcg. An alternative strategy could be to administer misoprostol only to those who are at high risk of having PPH i.e. as secondary prevention.This study reports on the relative cost per person of a strategy involving primary versus secondary prevention of PPH using misoprostol. It is based on a randomized cluster trial that was conducted in Bijapur district in Karnataka, India between December 2011 and March 2014 among pregnant women to compare two community-level strategies for the prevention of PPH: primary and secondary. The analysis was conducted from the government perspective using an ingredient approach.The cluster trial showed that there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the two study arms. However, the results of the cost analysis show that there is a difference of INR 6 (US$ 0.1 per birth for implementing the strategies primary versus secondary prevention. In India where 14.9 million births take place at sub-centres and at home, this additional cost of INR 6 per birth translates to an additional cost of INR 94 (US$ 1.6 million to the government to implement the primary prevention compared to the secondary prevention strategy.As clinical outcomes did not differ significantly between the two arms in the trial, taking into account the difference in costs and potential issues with sustainability, secondary

  5. Primary and secondary esophageal contractions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Aben-Athar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the primary and secondary esophageal peristalsis in 36 patients with heartburn and acid regurgitation and in 14 asymptomatic volunteers. Primary peristalsis was elicited by ten swallows of a 5-mL bolus of water and secondary peristalsis was elicited by intra-esophageal infusion of 5, 10, and 15 mL water, 0.1 N hydrochloric acid and air. Esophageal contractions were measured by an 8-lumen manometric catheter assembly incorporating a 6-cm sleeve device. Contractions were registered at 3, 9, and 15 cm from the upper margin of the sleeve and the infusion was done through a side hole located at 12 cm. Twenty patients had normal endoscopic esophageal examination, 10 with normal (group I and 10 with abnormal pH-metric examination (group II, and 16 had esophagitis (group III. The amplitude of contractions after swallows was lower (97.8 ± 10.0 mmHg in the distal esophagus of group III patients than in controls (142.3 ± 14.0 mmHg. Patients of group III had fewer secondary contractions (water: 25% of infusion than patients of the other groups and controls (67% of infusion. Patients of group III also had a lower amplitude of secondary peristalsis in the distal esophagus (water: 70.1 ± 9.6 mmHg than controls (129.2 ± 18.2 mmHg. We conclude that patients with esophagitis have an impairment of primary and secondary peristalsis in the distal esophagus.

  6. Understanding radiation and risk: the importance of primary and secondary education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Junichiro

    1999-01-01

    In Japan's primary and secondary schools, radiation and radioactivity are taught as part of the curriculum dealing with social science subjects. Students learn much about the hazardous features of radiation, but lack the scientific understanding necessary to build a more balanced picture. Although the same point applies to education covering the harmful effects of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, electrical storms and so on, public understanding of these events is relatively high and students are generally able to make informed judgments about the risks involved. By contrast, their limited understanding of radiation often contributes to fears that it is evil or even supernatural. To correct this distortion, it is important that primary and secondary education includes a scientific explanation of radiation. Like heat and light, radiation is fundamental to the history of the universe; and scientific education programs should give appropriate emphasis to this important subject. Students would then be able to make more objective judgments about the useful and hazardous aspects of radiation. (author)

  7. Future time orientation and temperament: exploration of their relationship to primary and secondary psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnebekk, Gunnar; Gjesme, Torgrim

    2009-08-01

    The present study combines Lykken's theory about the role of reward sensitivity and punishment insensitivity in the development of antisocial behavior with Gjesme's theory of future time orientation. 158 adolescents comprised a target group of 79 adolescents who had defined behavioral problems and a matched referential group of 79 adolescents who did not have notable behavioral problems. The results suggest that attributes related to primary psychopathy are associated with a relatively weak or hyporeactive behavioral inhibition system, behavioral approach reactivity, and low future time orientation. Moreover, attributes related to secondary psychopathy are related to an overly sensitive (hyper-reactive) behavioral approach system and low future time orientation. Robust positive associations for behavioral approach reactivity and low future time orientation with primary and secondary psychopathy suggest that high behavioral approach/low future time orientation may represent a core feature common to the two factors of psychopathy.

  8. Representation of Migration Issues in Geography Textbooks for Primary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Đorđević

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the population, migratory movements and the consequences of these developments contribute to the formation of all-round development of personality of students and their scientific view of the world. A migration issue through varied and always current content encourages thinking and independent reasoning. It is therefore necessary to examine in detail the phenomenon of migration. In this way children develop critical thinking towards important socio-geographical and globalization processes. Consequently, they get acquainted with the ways of dealing with migration flows, which represent a global challenge today. The aim is to analyze the migration point to their representation in the geography textbooks for primary and secondary school. Bearing in mind that the socio-geographical theme interdisciplinary comparison is conducted geography curricula in Serbia, as well as selected European countrie. The results show the specificity and their underrepresentation in geography textbooks for primary and secondary school.

  9. Techniques for Primary-to-Secondary Leak Monitoring in PWR Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Wook; Chi, Jun Hwa; Kang, Duck Won; Tae, Jeong Woo

    2006-01-01

    Historically, corrosion and mechanical damage have made steam generator tubes in PWR plants see various types of degradation from both the primary and secondary sides of the tubes. Since the tube degradation can lead to through-wall failure, the plant personnel should make efforts to prevent the failure. One of such preventive efforts is to monitor primary-to-secondary leakage (PSL) that usually precedes the tube rupture. Thus the objective of PSL monitoring is to make operators to determine when to shutdown the plant in order to minimize the likelihood of propagation of leaks to tube rupture under normal and faulted conditions This paper addresses briefly the status of techniques for PSL monitoring used in PWR plants

  10. A Proposed Evaluation Technique for Computer Science Studies in Primary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham OCHOCHE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Education in Nigeria is an instrument for effecting the development of its citizens in particular, and the nation in general. Operators of education at the primary and secondary levels need to constantly engage in such a process that systematically and objectively determine the relevance, effectiveness and impact of activities at these levels in the light of the stated objectives. The teaching process is not complete without one form of evaluation or the order, as it helps the teacher and other stakeholders in determining the effectiveness of their teaching-learning process. The paper proposes a revolutionary approach to the evaluation of students at both primary and secondary schools. The procedure being proposed takes on more the characteristics of a survey designed to assess not just the achievements of students, the course and the programme, but also the effectiveness of the teachers who form a major part of the whole education machinery.

  11. ACCURATE MASSES FOR THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY IN THE ECLIPSING WHITE DWARF BINARY NLTT 11748

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Agueeros, M. A.; Camilo, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    We measure the radial velocity curve of the eclipsing detached white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. The primary exhibits velocity variations with a semi-amplitude of 273 km s -1 and an orbital period of 5.641 hr. We do not detect any spectral features from the secondary star or any spectral changes during the secondary eclipse. We use our composite spectrum to constrain the temperature and surface gravity of the primary to be T eff = 8690 ± 140 K and log g = 6.54 ± 0.05, which correspond to a mass of 0.18 M sun . For an inclination angle of 89. 0 9 derived from the eclipse modeling, the mass function requires a 0.76 M sun companion. The merger time for the system is 7.2 Gyr. However, due to the extreme mass ratio of 0.24, the binary will most likely create an AM CVn system instead of a merger.

  12. Experimental tests on ratchet of structural elements diagrams for primary tension and secondary twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Roche, R.L.; Cousseran, P.

    1980-05-01

    Design by analysis of pressure vessels is not complete without an appraisal of failure by progressive distortion or stress ratchet. Ratchet tests under constant axial stress associated with cyclic torsion deformation have been carried out on 304 L and 316 L thin tubular specimens, at room temperature. Results are given in the form of iso-deformation curves ranging from 0.1% to 2.5%, in the field definite by the primary and secondary stress intensities (Bree's diagram type). The use of an effective primary stress is proposed, as a practical way, to assess the elongation due to the ratchet effect

  13. [Primary and secondary prevention procedures of temporo-mandibular joint disease in the evolutive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, D; Mastrovincenzo, M; Sabatucci, A; Campisi, G; Di Cosola, M; Suriano, M; Lo Muzio, L

    2009-02-01

    In the last years prevention of temporomandiboular joint (TMJ) disease had acquired great importance. According to the neuro-occlusal rehabilitation (RNO) it is possible to say that TMJ disease starts since first years of life. So it is important both for dentist and for pediatric know what are the conditions and the atypical functions which predispose to this pathology. The aim of this work was to show how it is possible to intercept since primary teeth and the correct norms of primary and secondary prevention.

  14. VGB primary and secondary side water chemistry guidelines for PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neder, H.; Wolter, D.; Staudt, U.

    2007-01-01

    The recent revision of the VGB Water Chemistry Guidelines was issued in 2005 and published in the second half of 2006. These guidelines are based on the primary and secondary side operating chemistry experience with all Siemens designed pressurized water reactors gained since the beginning of the 1980s. These guidelines cover For the primary side chemistry Modified lithium boron chemistry, Zinc chemistry for dose rate reduction, Enriched boric acid (EBA) chemistry for high duty core design For the secondary side chemistry High all-volatile treatment (AVT) chemistry (high pH operation) Oxygen injection in the secondary side Especially for the secondary side chemistry, compared with the water chemistry guidelines of other organizations worldwide, these Guidelines are less stringent, providing more operational flexibility to the plant operation, and can be applied for all new designs of steam generators with egg-crates or broached hole tube supports and with I 690TT or I 800 tubing materials. This paper gives an overview of the 2006 revision of the VGB Water Chemistry Guidelines for PWR plants and describes the fundamental goals of water chemistry operation strategies. In addition, the reasons for the selected control parameters and action levels, to achieve an adequate plant performance, are presented based on the operating experience. (orig.)

  15. Structure and reactivity of boron-ate complexes derived from primary and secondary boronic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Kathryn; Berionni, Guillaume; Mayr, Herbert; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2015-06-05

    Boron-ate complexes derived from primary and secondary boronic esters and aryllithiums have been isolated, and the kinetics of their reactions with carbenium ions studied. The second-order rate constants have been used to derive nucleophilicity parameters for the boron-ate complexes, revealing that nucleophilicity increased with (i) electron-donating aromatics on boron, (ii) neopentyl glycol over pinacol boronic esters, and (iii) 12-crown-4 ether.

  16. Hospital burden of road traffic injury: major concern in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Khan, T F; Faruque, M; Svanström, L; Rahman, F

    2010-04-01

    To assess the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh, and its economic impact on affected families. Cross-sectional study. The study was carried out in February and March 2001. To estimate the burden of RTI patients and the length of stay in hospital, the discharge records of primary and secondary level hospitals were used as data sources. Records from 16 district hospitals and 45 Upazila health complexes (subdistrict level hospitals), selected at random, were included in this study. A direct interview method was adopted to estimate the patient costs of RTI; this involved interviewing patients or their attendants. In this study, patient costs included money spent by the patient for medicine, transport, food and lodging (including attendants). Approximately 33% of the beds in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh were occupied by injury-related patients, and more than 19% of the injury patients had been injured in a road traffic accident. People aged 18-45 years were the major victims of RTI, and constituted 70% of the total RTI-related admissions in primary and secondary level hospitals. More than two-thirds of RTI patients were male. The average duration of hospital stay was 5.7 days, and the average patient cost for each RTI patient was US$86 (5834 BDT). RTI is a major cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh, and represents an economic and social burden for the family and the nation. A national strategy and road safety programme need to be developed to reduce the hospital burden and minimize the economic and social impact. 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between Primary and Secondary Dental Care in Public Health Services in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Renata Castro; Reis, Clarice Magalhães Rodrigues Dos; Matta Machado, Antonio Thomaz Gonzaga da; Amaral, João Henrique Lara do; Werneck, Marcos Azeredo Furquim; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between primary and secondary oral health care in Brazil. For this purpose, data from the National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care were used. Dentists from 12,403 oral health teams (OHTs) answered a structured questionnaire in 2012. The data were analyzed descriptively and by cluster analysis. Of the 12,387 (99.9%) OHTs that answered all the questions, 62.2% reported the existence of Dental Specialties Centers (DSCs) to which they could refer patients. The specialties with the highest frequencies were endodontics (68.4%), minor oral surgery (65.8%), periodontics (63.0%), radiology (46.8%), oral medicine (40.2%), orthodontics (20.5%) and implantology (6.2%). In all percentiles, the shortest wait time for secondary care was for radiology, followed by oral medicine and the other specialties. In the 50th percentile, the wait for endodontics, periodontics, minor oral surgery and orthodontics was 30 days, while for implantology, the wait was 60 days. Finally, in the 75th percentile, the wait for endodontics, orthodontics and implantology was 90 days or more. Two clusters, with different frequencies of OHT access to specialties, were identified. Cluster 1 (n = 7,913) included the OHTs with lower frequencies in all specialties except orthodontics and implantology compared with Cluster 2 (n = 4,474). Of the Brazilian regions, the South and Southeast regions had the highest frequencies for Cluster 2, with better rates for the relationship between primary and secondary care. This study suggests certain difficulties in the relationship between primary and secondary care in specific specialties in oral health, with a great number of OHTs with limited access to DSCs, in addition to different performance in terms of OHT access to DSCs across Brazilian regions.

  18. Improving the submicro determination of vanadium in natural water using primary-secondary wavelength spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khongven Gao

    1999-01-01

    In acidic solution and in the presence of ammonium persulfate, the conventional reaction of vanadium(5) with gallic acid to form an orange complex has been used for the improvement of the determination of trace amounts of vanadium in water by the updated method named primary-secondary wavelength spectrophotometry. The results show that the analytical precision and accuracy were improved and gave higher determination sensitivity than ordinary spectrophotometry. The relative standard deviations were less than 5.6 % [ru

  19. Physical activity and inactivity in primary and secondary school boys' and girls' daily program

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Hubáčková; Dorota Groffik; Lukasz Skrzypnik; Karel Frömel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's and youth education is becoming more and more demanding. In conjunction with development of information technology, this fact negatively affects lifestyle of children and youth. Apart from families, schools should play a crucial role in healthy lifestyle promotion in children and youth. Objective: The present study aimed to assess differences in physical activity (PA) and physical inactivity (PI) among primary and secondary school boys and girls in specific segments of ...

  20. Radiological contribution in the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, K.; Hoffmann, G.; Loeffler, T.; Hausamen, T.

    1986-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with primary and secondary liver tumors has been improved recently by more aggressive operative, chemotherapeutic and embolization treatment. In a personal series of 40 patients with liver metastases colorectal cancer, regional intraarterial chemotherapy was superior to systematic intravenous treatment, with a tumor remission rate in 66% in comparison to 48% of the cases. But the benefit of intraarterial chemotherapy is still questionable considering the higher complication rate and the absence of prognostic data of the procedure. (orig.) [de

  1. Sedentary behaviour across the primary-secondary school transition: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Haycraft, Emma; P Johnston, Julie; Atkin, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    The transition from primary/middle school to secondary/high school is likely to be a key period in children's development, characterised by significant changes in their social and physical environment. However, little is known about the changes in sedentary behaviour that accompany this transition. This review aimed to identify, critically appraise and summarise the evidence on changes in sedentary behaviour across the primary - secondary school transition. Published English language studies were located from computerised and manual searches in 2015. Inclusion criteria specified a longitudinal design, baseline assessment when children were in primary/middle school with at least one follow-up during secondary/high school and a measure of sedentary behaviour at both (or all) points of assessment. Based on data from 11 articles (19 independent samples), tracking coefficients were typically in the range of 0.3 to 0.5 and relatively consistent across the different sedentary behaviours examined and durations of follow-up. Both screen-based sedentary behaviour and overall sedentary time increased during the school transition. Overall there was an increase of approximately 10-20min per day per year in accelerometer-assessed sedentary time. Consistent with the broader age-related changes in behaviour observed during this period, sedentary behaviour increases during the transition from primary/middle to secondary/high school. Investigating features of the social and physical environment that might exacerbate or attenuate this trend would be a valuable next step. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Secondary pigmentary glaucoma in patients with underlying primary pigment dispersion syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaraman, Kavitha R; Patel, Chirag G; Vajaranant, Thasarat S; Aref, Ahmad A

    2013-01-01

    Kavitha R Sivaraman, Chirag G Patel, Thasarat S Vajaranant, Ahmad A ArefDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Primary pigment dispersion syndrome (PPDS) is a bilateral condition that occurs in anatomically predisposed individuals. PPDS may evolve into pigmentary glaucoma, but it is difficult to predict which patients will progress. Secondary pigment dispersion is more oft...

  3. The Centers for Disease Control program to prevent primary and secondary disabilities in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Houk, V N; Thacker, S B

    1989-01-01

    The Disabilities Prevention Program builds on traditional Centers for Disease Control (CDC) strengths in public health surveillance, epidemiology, and technology transfer to State and local governments in translating the findings of research into prevention programs. The objectives of the CDC program are to provide a national focus for the prevention of primary and secondary disabilities, build capacity at the State and community levels to maintain programs to prevent disabilities, and increa...

  4. Primary and secondary metabolites production in signal grass around the year under nitrogen fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Maryam Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a number of substances and products and primary and secondary metabolites (SM) are amongst them with many benefits but limitation as well. Usually, the fodder are not considered toxic to animals or as a source having higher SM. The Brachiaria decumbens has a considerable nutritional value, but it is considered as a toxic grass for causing photosensitization in animals, if the grass is not harvested for more than 30 days or solely. The absence of detailed information in the lite...

  5. Socialization and organizational citizenship behavior among Turkish primary and secondary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuş, Mustafa Fedai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of organizational socialization levels of employees on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). A total of 185 (70 female, 115 male) teachers were sampled at 27 primary and secondary schools. Their ages ranged from 23 to 55 years, with a mean (SD) of 36 (5.1). In this sample, 100 (54.1%) worked in primary schools, and 85 (45.9%) worked in secondary schools. A three-part questionnaire was designed for the study. The research scales were self-report measures of organizational socialization, OCB, and demographic variables. The hypothesized model was tested using Pearson correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses. The teachers demonstrated high level socialization (Mean 4.2, SD 0.7) and OCB (Mean 4.0, SD 0.54). Understanding, coworker support, and performance proficiency explained significant variance in organizational citizenship behavior; however, there was no relationship (p=0.286) between the organizational goals and values and OCB. The findings contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the level of organizational socialization and organizational citizenship behavior in educational settings. These findings suggest that high level organizational socialization supports organizational citizenship behavior in primary and secondary school teachers.

  6. [Effects of mental workload on work ability in primary and secondary school teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanmei; Li, Weijuan; Ren, Qingfeng; Ren, Xiaohui; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the change pattern of primary and secondary school teachers' work ability with the changes in their mental workload. A total of 901 primary and secondary school teachers were selected by random cluster sampling, and then their mental workload and work ability were assessed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaires, whose reliability and validity had been tested. The effects of their mental workload on the work ability were analyzed. Primary and secondary school teachers' work ability reached the highest level at a certain level of mental workload (55.73work ability had a positive correlation with the mental workload. Their work ability increased or maintained stable with the increasing mental workload. Moreover, the percentage of teachers with good work ability increased, while that of teachers with moderate work ability decreased. But when their mental workload was higher than the level, their work ability had a negative correlation with the mental workload. Their work ability significantly decreased with the increasing mental workload (P work ability decreased, while that of teachers with moderate work ability increased (P work ability. Moderate mental workload (55.73∼64.10) will benefit the maintaining and stabilization of their work ability.

  7. IEA-R1 primary and secondary coolant piping systems coupled stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainer, Gerson; Faloppa, Altair A.; Oliveira, Carlos A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform the stress analysis of a coupled primary and secondary piping system of the IEA-R1 based on tridimensional model, taking into account the as built conditions. The nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 is a pool type reactor projected by Babcox-Willcox, which is operated by IPEN since 1957. The operation to 5 MW power limit was only possible after the conduction of life management and modernization programs in the last two decades. In these programs the components of the coolant systems, which are responsible for the water circulation into the reactor core to remove the heat generated inside it, were almost totally refurbished. The changes in the primary and secondary systems, mainly the replacement of pump and heat-exchanger, implied in piping layout modifications, and, therefore, the stress condition of the piping systems had to be reanalyzed. In this paper the structural stress assessment of the coupled primary and secondary piping systems is presented and the final results are discussed. (author)

  8. Factors affecting job satisfaction among primary and secondary school teachers in the autonomous province of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Nebojša Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper analyses the impact of the individual factors of mental and physical health and life satisfaction, as well as the importance of some organizational factors such as the climate in schools, the composition of classes in the case of class teachers, and certain demographic characteristics on primary and secondary school teachers' job satisfaction. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 176 teachers of primary and secondary schools in Serbia's autonomous province of Vojvodina, of different ages, genders, and years of service. The principal results indicate that job satisfaction is higher among teachers who perceive the climate in their school as positive, among teachers with higher life satisfaction, and among teachers who are in good health and, most importantly, lacking depressive reactions. When it comes to perceptions of the climate, the best predictor of job satisfaction is the degree of respondents' satisfaction with collaboration with colleagues and with decision making processes. The results also indicate that secondary school teachers report a higher level of overall job satisfaction, specifically, a higher level of satisfaction with school governance, co-workers and communication than primary school teachers. As regards demographic characteristics, the results suggest that there are no significant gender differences in job satisfaction levels and that job satisfaction declines with the number of years of service, with respondents who had between 21 and 30 years of service reporting the lowest levels of job satisfaction, which tended to rise towards the end of the teaching career.

  9. Executive Functions as Predictors of School Performance and Social Relationships: Primary and Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorza, Juan Pablo; Marino, Julián; Acosta Mesas, Alberto

    2016-05-12

    This study examined the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and school performance in primary and secondary school students aged 8 to 13 years (N = 146, M = 10.4, 45.8% girls). EFs were evaluated using the Trail Making Test (TMT), Verbal Fluency (VF), and the Stroop Test. Students' GPAs and teachers' assessment of academic skills were used to measure school performance. To evaluate the students' social behavior, participants were asked to rate all their classmates' prosocial behavior and nominate three students with whom they preferred to do school activities; teachers also provided evaluations of students' social skills. EF measures explained 41% (p = .003, f 2 = .694) of variability in school performance and 29% (p = .005, f 2 = .401) of variance in social behavior in primary school students. The predictive power of EFs was found to be lower for secondary school students, although the TMT showed significant prediction and explained 13% (p = .004, f 2 = .149) of variance in school performance and 15% (p = .008, f 2 = .176) in peer ratings of prosocial behavior. This paper discusses the relevance of EFs in the school environment and their different predictive power in primary and secondary school students.

  10. Oral mucosal manifestations in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome and dry mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Błochowiak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : One of the most important symptoms of Sjögren syndrome is xerostomia. The oral cavity deprived of saliva and its natural lubricative, protective and antibacterial properties is prone to a number of unfavourable consequences. Aim : To present the most important lesions on the oral mucosa in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome and in dry mouth syndrome. Material and methods: The study group comprised 55 patients including 52 women and 3 men aged 20–72 years (average: 28.25 years. Results : Basing on the accepted criteria, primary Sjögren syndrome was diagnosed in 22 (40% patients, secondary Sjögren syndrome in 18 (32.7% patients, and dry mouth syndrome in 15 (27.27% patients. The physical examination and the examination of the mouth were performed and history was elicited from every patient. Conclusions : The most common pathologies appearing on the oral mucosa in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome are angular cheilitis, cheilitis, increased lip dryness as well as non-specific ulcerations, aphthae and aphthoid conditions.

  11. On the coexistence of primary and secondary users in spectrum-sharing broadcast channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we consider a broadcast channel in spectrum-sharing networks, where the base station schedules licensed primary users (PUs) and cognitive secondary users (SUs) simultaneously. Based on such a framework, we present a transmission strategy in the light of dirty paper coding. In order to promise the PUs\\' quality of service (QoS) in the broadcasting, the base station chooses codewords for the users by taking into account that the codewords pertaining to SUs can be pre-subtracted from those pertaining to PUs as if there were no interference from the secondary\\'s data to the primary\\'s data. For the purpose of performance evaluation, by taking capacity behavior and bit error rate (BER) as metrics, we study the achievable data rate regions for both types of users with the introduced design, and analyze the BER performance in corresponding systems implemented with hierarchical modulation. Numerical results substantiate that with flexible management of the spectrum resources, our proposed scheme provides more communication opportunities for SUs while maintaining PUs\\' QoS at an acceptable level. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Stress sources and manifestations in a nation-wide sample of pre-primary, primary and secondary educators in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eKourmousi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTeachers experience high levels of stress as a result of their professional duties and research has shown a growing interest in this phenomenon during the recent years. Aim of this study was to explore the associations of stress sources and manifestations with individual and job-related characteristics in educators of all levels. MethodsIn a cross–sectional design, following an informative e-campaign on the study aims through the official and the main teachers’ portals in Greece, respondents completed online the Teachers Stress Inventory (TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14. 974 male and 2473 female pre-primary, primary and secondary educators with a mean age of 41.2 years responded. ResultsWomen and younger teachers reported significantly higher levels of stress, mainly due to lack of time and other work-related stressors, and also more emotional and gastronomic manifestations. Increased age and working experience were associated with lower levels of several stress sources. Teachers of administrative positions had increased time management stressors, but less professional distress, professional investment and discipline and motivation stressors. Additionally, working and residing far from family increased teachers’ stress levels associated to control, motivation and investment. Teachers of pre-primary education had reduced professional investment and motivation stress factors while vocational lyceum teachers of secondary education reported less work-related stressors and manifestations and more discipline and motivation related ones. Having students supported or in need of support from special educators and students with difficulties in speaking or comprehension was associated with most of the teachers' stress sources and manifestations (i.e. TSI subscales. Finally, colleagues’ and mainly supervisors' support seemed to provide a strong and consistent protection against both stress sources and manifestations

  13. Stress Sources and Manifestations in a Nationwide Sample of Pre-Primary, Primary, and Secondary Educators in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmousi, Ntina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2016-01-01

    Teachers experience high levels of stress as a result of their professional duties, and research has shown a growing interest in this phenomenon during the recent years. Aim of this study was to explore the associations of stress sources and manifestations with individual and job-related characteristics in educators of all levels. In a cross-sectional design, following an informative e-campaign on the study aims through the official and the main teachers' portals in Greece, respondents completed online the teachers stress inventory (TSI) and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale. Nine hundred seventy-four male and 2473 female pre-primary, primary, and secondary educators with a mean age of 41.2 years responded. Women and younger teachers reported significantly higher levels of stress, mainly due to lack of time and other work-related stressors, and also more emotional and gastronomic manifestations. Increased age and working experience were associated with lower levels of several stress sources. Teachers of administrative positions had increased time management stressors, but less professional distress, professional investment, and discipline and motivation stressors. Additionally, working and residing far from family increased teachers' stress levels associated with control, motivation, and investment. Teachers of pre-primary education had reduced professional investment and motivation stress factors, while vocational lyceum teachers of secondary education reported less work-related stressors and manifestations and more discipline and motivation-related ones. Having students supported or in need of support from special educators and students with difficulties in speaking or comprehension was associated with most of the teachers' stress sources and manifestations (i.e., TSI subscales). Finally, colleagues' and mainly supervisors' support seemed to provide a strong and consistent protection against both stress sources and manifestations. Stress factors and

  14. Hypomineralized second primary molars: prevalence, defect characteristics and relationship with dental caries in Melbourne preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M L; Ghanim, A; Elsby, D; Manton, D J

    2018-03-01

    Dental caries and enamel defects (DDE) are prevalent amongst children. The presence of DDE, especially enamel hypomineralization, may increase caries experience. The reported prevalence of hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM) is 2.7-21.8%, although the occurrence in Australian children remains unknown. These HSPM represent a potential predictive factor for molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). In total, 623 children aged 3-5 years from 30 randomly selected kindergartens participated. The HSPM were recorded using an index combining the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry MIH Judgment Criteria and modified DDE Index. Caries was recorded using International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria. In total, 144 HSPM were observed in 88 of the 623 (14.1%) children, a tooth-level prevalence of 5.8%. The prevalence of dentinal carious lesions was 13.2%, and caries prevalence (d 2-6 mft > 0) was 36.4%. Cavitated carious lesions affected 30.7% of HSPM. The relationship between an increase in HSPM lesion extent and increasing number of HSPM per child was statistically significant. A positive association between HSPM severity and extent at tooth level existed (P < 0.05). There was a positive relationship between the extent of HSPM and carious lesion severity (P < 0.05). In this population, children with HSPM did not have overall greater caries experience. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Primary and secondary patient data in contrast: the use of observational studies like RABBIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Adrian; Meißner, Yvette; Strangfeld, Anja; Zink, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The study of secondary patient data, particularly represented by claims data, has increased in recent years. The strength of this approach involves easy access to data that have been generated for administrative purposes. By contrast, collection of primary data for research is time-consuming and may therefore appear outdated. Both administrative data and data collected prospectively in clinical care can address similar research questions concerning effectiveness and safety of treatments. Therefore, why should we invest the precious time of rheumatologists to generate primary patient data? This article will outline some features of primary patient data collection illustrated by the German biologics register RABBIT (Rheumatoid arthritis: observation of biologic therapy). RABBIT is a long-term observational cohort study that was initiated more than 15 years ago. We will discuss as quality indicators: (i) study design, (ii) type of documentation, standardisation of (iii) clinical and (iv) safety data, (v) monitoring of the longitudinal follow-up, (vi) losses to follow-up as well as (vii) the possibilities to link the data base. The impact of these features on interpretation and validity of results is illustrated using recent publications. We conclude that high quality and completeness of data prospectively-collected offers many advantages over large quantities of non-standardised data collected in an unsupervised manner. We expect the enthusiasm about the use of secondary patient data to decline with more awareness of their methodological limitations while studies with primary patient data like RABBIT will maintain and broaden their impact on daily clinical practice.

  16. Neural systems underlying aversive conditioning in humans with primary and secondary reinforcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R Delgado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Money is a secondary reinforcer commonly used across a range of disciplines in experimental paradigms investigating reward learning and decision-making. The effectiveness of monetary reinforcers during aversive learning and its neural basis, however, remains a topic of debate. Specifically, it is unclear if the initial acquisition of aversive representations of monetary losses depends on similar neural systems as more traditional aversive conditioning that involves primary reinforcers. This study contrasts the efficacy of a biologically defined primary reinforcer (shock and a socially defined secondary reinforcer (money during aversive learning and its associated neural circuitry. During a two-part experiment, participants first played a gambling game where wins and losses were based on performance to gain an experimental bank. Participants were then exposed to two separate aversive conditioning sessions. In one session, a primary reinforcer (mild shock served as an unconditioned stimulus (US and was paired with one of two colored squares, the conditioned stimuli (CS+ and CS-, respectively. In another session, a secondary reinforcer (loss of money served as the US and was paired with one of two different CS. Skin conductance responses were greater for CS+ compared to CS- trials irrespective of type of reinforcer. Neuroimaging results revealed that the striatum, a region typically linked with reward-related processing, was found to be involved in the acquisition of aversive conditioned response irrespective of reinforcer type. In contrast, the amygdala was involved during aversive conditioning with primary reinforcers, as suggested by both an exploratory fMRI analysis and a follow-up case study with a patient with bilateral amygdala damage. Taken together, these results suggest that learning about potential monetary losses may depend on reinforcement learning related systems, rather than on typical structures involved in more biologically based

  17. [Knowledge, attitude and practice on drinking water of primary and secondary students in Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxin; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Du, Songming; Pan, Hui; Dai, Xingbi; Ma, Guansheng

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the status on drinking water related knowledge, attitude and practice of primary and secondary students in Shenzhen. All 832 primary and secondary students from three schools in Shenzhen were selected by using multi-stage random sampling method. The information of drinking water related knowledge, time of drinking water and the type of drink chose in different situations were collected by questionnaires. 87.3% of students considered plain water being the healthiest drink in daily life, and the percent in girls (90.6%) was significantly higher than that in boys (84.4% ) (chi2 = 7.13, P = 0.0089). The awareness percent of the harm of dehydration was 84.5%. The percent in high school students (96.4%) was significantly higher than that in primary (73.9%) and middle school students (94.2%) (chi2 = 73.77, P water was in the morning with an empty stomach, and 46.3% chose when they felt thirsty. However, 63.7% drank water when they felt thirsty, and 50.6% drank water in the morning with an empty stomach. The percent of drinking plain water at school was the highest (83.4%), followed by at home (64.1%) and in public (26.2%). There were 45.2% and 53.3% of students, respectively, choosing sugary drinks as their favorite drink and most frequently drinking in public places. Primary and secondary students in Shenzhen have a good awareness of drinking water, which is inconsistent with their practice. Meanwhile, a considerable proportion of students towards choosing drinks have many misconceptions. The education of healthy drinking water should be strengthened.

  18. Conceptions and Misconceptions about Neuroscience in Preschool Teachers: A Study from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, M. J.; Segretin, M. S.; Soni García, A.; Lipina, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teachers' conceptions and misconceptions about neuroscience are crucial in establishing a proper dialogue between neuroscience and education. In recent years, studies in different countries have examined primary and secondary school teachers' conceptions. However, although preschool education has proved its importance to later academic…

  19. Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Primary Care Setting in Taiwan: Comparison with Secondary/Tertiary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Yuan Tai

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: Diabetes control was poorer in primary care than in secondary/tertiary care patients, but control of blood pressure was better in primary care patients. The shorter duration of diabetes and better control of blood pressure in primary care patients and in patients aged < 65 years compared with their elderly counterparts might be related to a lower prevalence of complications.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of emission controls on primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the primary and secondary sources of fine organic aerosols after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12 h PM2.5 values were measured at an urban site at Peking University (PKU and an upwind rural site at Yufa during the CAREBEIJING-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in BEIJING and surrounding region summer field campaign. The average PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5 ± 43.6 μg m−3 and 64.3 ± 36.2 μg m−3 (average ± standard deviation, below as the same at PKU and Yufa, respectively, showing the lowest concentrations in recent years. Combining the results from a CMB (chemical mass balance model and secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracer-yield model, five primary and four secondary fine organic aerosol sources were compared with the results from previous studies in Beijing. The relative contribution of mobile sources to PM2.5 concentrations was increased in 2008, with diesel engines contributing 16.2 ± 5.9% and 14.5 ± 4.1% and gasoline vehicles contributing 10.3 ± 8.7% and 7.9 ± 6.2% to organic carbon (OC at PKU and Yufa, respectively. Due to the implementation of emission controls, the absolute OC concentrations from primary sources were reduced during the Olympics, and the contributions from secondary formation of OC represented a larger relative source of fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period prior to the Olympics, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% at the urban site and 24% at the rural site. The reductions in coal combustion contributions were 57% at PKU and 7% at Yufa. Our results demonstrate that the emission control measures implemented in 2008 significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, additional studies are needed to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the emission control effectiveness on SOA formation.

  1. Radiation leakage monitoring method and device from primary to secondary coolant systems in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, Yoshiaki; Umehara, Toshihiro; Yamada, Masataka.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention monitors radiation leaked from any one of primary cooling systems to secondary cooling systems in a plurality of steam generators. That is, radiation monitoring means each corresponding to steam each generators are disposed to the upstream of a position where main steam pipes are joined. With such a constitution, since the detection object of each of radiation monitoring means is secondary coolants before mixing with secondary coolants of other secondary loops or dilution, lowering of detection accuracy can be avoided. Except for the abnormal case, that is, a case neither of radiation leakage nor of background change, the device is adapted as a convenient measuring system only with calculation performance. Once abnormality occurs, a loop having a value exceeding a standard value is identified by a single channel analyzer function. The amount of radiation leakage from the steam generator belonging to the specified loop is monitored quantitatively by a multichannel analyzer function. According to the method of the present invention, since specific spectrum analysis is conducted upon occurrence of abnormality, presence of radiation leakage and the scale thereof can be judged rapidly. (I.S.)

  2. Rescue of Primary Incomplete Microkeratome Flap with Secondary Femtosecond Laser Flap in LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Razgulyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK retreatments with a previous unsuccessful mechanical microkeratome-assisted surgery, some surgical protocols have been described as feasible, such as relifting of the flap or the creation of a new flap and even the change to a surface ablation procedure (photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. This case shows the use of femtosecond technology for the creation of a secondary flap to perform LASIK in a cornea with a primary incomplete flap obtained with a mechanical microkeratome. As we were unable to characterize the interface of the first partial lamellar cut, a thick flap was planned and created using a femtosecond laser platform. As the primary cut was very thick in the nasal quadrant, a piece of loose corneal tissue appeared during flap lifting which was fitted in its position and not removed. Despite this condition and considering the regularity of the new femtosecond laser cut, the treatment was uneventful. This case report shows the relevance of a detailed corneal analysis with an advanced imaging technique before performing a secondary flap in a cornea with a primary incomplete flap. The femtosecond laser technology seems to be an excellent tool to manage such cases successfully.

  3. What imaging techniques should be used in primary versus secondary prevention for further risk stratification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, François; Navarese, Eliano Pio; Visoná, Adriana; Ray, Kausik

    2017-04-01

    An accurate assessment of the cardiovascular (CV) risk of an individual is key for guiding the appropriate treatment strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although conventional risk factors for CVD are well established, there can be substantial variation in the extent of atherosclerosis between patients. The use of a variety of imaging modalities can be beneficial in the primary prevention stage and in the classification of an individual's CV risk. Therefore, appropriate implementation of these imaging techniques for risk assessment purposes, in line with clinical guidelines, can influence the outcomes of CVD prevention. The expert working group collaborated to review current invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques available to healthcare practitioners and how they can be used in the measurement of preclinical vascular damage and CV risk assessment. After evaluation of the current guideline recommendations and clinical data available, the expert working group collaborated to produce recommendations regarding the use of imaging in the risk stratification in primary prevention, CV risk in peri-acute coronary syndrome and CV risk assessment in secondary prevention. Overall, a variety of both invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities were highlighted by the expert working group as having the potential to assist in the risk assessments of patients at risk of CVD. These imaging techniques can be utilised in both primary and secondary prevention strategies and have the potential to be important risk modifiers, improving the outcome of CV risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution of Primary Fe-Rich Compounds in Secondary Al-Si-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Alberto; Capuzzi, Stefano; Timelli, Giulio

    Although iron is usually added in die cast Al-Si foundry alloys to prevent die soldering, primary Fe-rich particles are generally considered as "hardspot" inclusions which compromise the mechanical properties of the alloy, namely ductility and toughness. As there is no economical methods to remove the Fe excess in secondary Al-Si alloys at this time, the control of solidification process and chemical composition of the alloy is a common industrial practice to overcome the negative effects connected with the presence of Fe-rich particles. In this work, the size and morphology as well as the nucleation density of primary Fe-rich particles have been studied as function of cooling rate and alloy chemical composition for secondary Al-Si-Cu alloys. The solidification experiments were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry whereas morphology investigations were conducted using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Mcrosegregations and chemical composition of primary Fe-rich particles were examined by energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  5. Effect of primary and secondary radicals on chain breaks in ribosomal RNA in E. coli ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Bishop, J.

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown previously that, in dilute aerated solutions, ribosomes are inactivated by OH radicals and by secondary radicals produced from added alcohols (Singh and Vadasz 1983 a). In de-aerated solutions, both radicalH and e - sub(aq) also inactivate ribosomes (Singh and Vadasz 1983 b). The results of these studies and other on different systems (Adams et al. 1973, Aldrich and Cundall 1969, Dewey and Stein 1970, Masuda et al. 1971, Nabben et al. 1982, 1983, Samuni et al. 1980, Singh and Singh 1982) have shown that damage to biological systems occurs by diverse mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves chain breaks in RNA (Pollard and Weller 1967). The purpose of this study was to determine which of the primary and secondary radicals cause chain breaks in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) within the ribosomes. (author)

  6. Time course of primary and secondary hyperalgesia after heat injury to the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Kehlet, H

    1993-01-01

    the injury in any volunteer. These findings suggest post-injury development of secondary hyperalgesia to be a dynamic process, closely related in time to a peripheral nociceptive input, with reversal to normal when the peripheral lesion disappears. These observations may be relevant to the concept of "pre......We have examined the time course of, and relationship between, primary and secondary hyperalgesia after thermal injury to the skin in humans. Burn injuries (15 x 25 mm rectangular thermode, 49 degrees C, 5 min) were produced in eight healthy, unmedicated male volunteers, on the medial side...... of the right calf, on two occasions at least 8 days apart. Heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT), heat pain tolerance (HPT), mechanical pain detection threshold (MPDT) and the intensity of burn-injury induced erythema (skin erythema index, SEI) were assessed inside the burn injury. HPT was assessed only in one...

  7. Primary and secondary creep in aluminum alloys as a solid state transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Bruno, G.; González-Doncel, G.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the massive literature and the efforts devoted to understand the creep behavior of aluminum alloys, a full description of this phenomenon on the basis of microstructural parameters and experimental conditions is, at present, still missing. The analysis of creep is typically carried out in terms of the so-called steady or secondary creep regime. The present work offers an alternative view of the creep behavior based on the Orowan dislocation dynamics. Our approach considers primary and secondary creep together as solid state isothermal transformations, similar to recrystallization or precipitation phenomena. In this frame, it is shown that the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation, typically used to analyze these transformations, can also be employed to explain creep deformation. The description is fully compatible with present (empirical) models of steady state creep. We used creep curves of commercially pure Al and ingot AA6061 alloy at different temperatures and stresses to validate the proposed model.

  8. Disability differentials in educational attainment in England: primary and secondary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzitheochari, Stella; Platt, Lucinda

    2018-04-17

    Childhood disability has been largely overlooked in social stratification and life course research. As a result, we know remarkably little about mechanisms behind well-documented disability differentials in educational outcomes. This study investigates educational transitions of disabled youth using data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We draw on social stratification literature on primary and secondary effects as well as that on stigma and labelling in order to explain disabled young people's educational outcomes. We find that disability differentials in transition rates to full-time academic upper secondary education and to university are largely the result of primary effects, reflected in differences in school performance between disabled and non-disabled young people. However, we also find evidence for secondary effects, with similarly achieving disabled young people less likely to pursue full-time academic upper secondary education compared to their non-disabled peers. We examine the extent to which these effects can be explained by disabled youth's suppressed educational expectations as well as their experiences of being bullied at school, which we link to the stigma experienced by disabled young people and their families. We find that educational expectations play an important role at crucial transitions in the English school system, while the effect of bullying is considerably smaller. By drawing attention to different social processes contributing to disability differentials in attainment, our study moves beyond medical models that implicitly assume a naturalized association of disability with poor educational outcomes, and demonstrates the parallels of disability with other ascriptive inequalities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  9. Source Apportionment of Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Matter in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Zhang, H.; Ying, Q.

    2015-12-01

    In the past few decades, China have been facing extreme particulate matter (PM) pollution problems due to the combination of fast increase of population, industrialization, urbanization and associated energy consumption and lagging of sufficient emission control measures. Studies have identified the major components of fine PM (PM2.5) in China include primary PM (which is directly emitted into the atmosphere), sulfate and nitrate (which are mainly secondary PM, i.e., formed from gaseous precursors), and organic aerosols (which can be primary or secondary). Contributions of different source sectors to the different PM components are substantially different; therefore source apportionment of these components can provide critical information needed for policy makers to design effective emission control strategies. In the current study, a source-oriented version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that directly tracks the contributions from multiple emission sources to primary and secondary PM2.5 is developed, and then applied to determine the regional contributions of power, industry, transportation and residential sectors to primary PM, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in China. Four months in 2012-2013 are simulated to predict the seasonal variations of source contributions. Model predictions are evaluated with ambient measured concentrations. The source-oriented CMAQ model is capable of reproducing most of the available PM10 and PM2.5 mass, and PM2.5 EC, POC, nitrate and sulfate observations. Predicted source contributions for EC also generally agree with to the source contributions estimated by receptor models reported in previous studies. Model predictions suggest residential is a major contributor to primary PM (30-70%) in the spring and winter, and industrial contributes 40-60% of primary PM in the summer and fall; Transportation is an important source for EC (20-30%); Power sector is the dominating source of nitrate and sulfate in both

  10. Emergency management of dental trauma: knowledge of Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cecilia; Wong, K Y; Cheung, L K

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVES. To investigate the level of knowledge about emergency management of dental trauma among Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers. DESIGN. Questionnaire survey. SETTING. A teachers' union that unites 90% of teachers in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. Randomly selected primary and secondary school teachers. RESULTS. Only 32.8% of respondents correctly stated that a person sustaining dental trauma should go to dentists directly. In all, 73.1% of teachers correctly stated that a dental trauma patient should go for treatment immediately. Only 32.5% knew that a fractured tooth should be put in liquid. Even fewer (23.2%) realised that the displaced tooth should be repositioned back to the original position. Relatively more respondents (74.7%) understood that an avulsed baby tooth should not be put back. Disappointingly, only 16.3% of teachers knew that an avulsed permanent tooth should be replanted. Furthermore, only 29.6% of teachers thought that they were able to distinguish between deciduous teeth and permanent teeth, whilst 20.4% correctly identified at least one of the appropriate mediums: milk, physiological saline or saliva, for storing an avulsed tooth. Teachers who previously received first-aid training with dental content or acquired dental injury information from other sources, scored significantly higher than teachers without such training or acquired information. CONCLUSION. The knowledge on emergency management of dental trauma among primary and secondary school teachers in Hong Kong is insufficient, particularly on the handling of permanent tooth avulsion and the appropriate storage medium for avulsed teeth. Receipt of first-aid training with dental contents and acquisition of dental injury information from other sources were positively correlated with knowledge in managing dental trauma.

  11. Evidence for an Evolutionary Cheater Strategy--Relationships Between Primary and Secondary Psychopathy, Parenting, and Shame and Guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Minna T

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, shame and guilt proneness were investigated in relation to primary and secondary psychopathy, looking at parental care as a possible mediator. A sample of 388 volunteers participated in an on-line study, completing several self-report measurements. Primary psychopathy, robust to parental care and sex of the participant, was associated with lower guilt proneness after a private transgression and lower negative self-evaluations after a public transgression. Secondary psychopathy was not associated with guilt or shame proneness. Paternal care played a mediating role between primary psychopathy and guilt, but only in male participants. High paternal care was associated with lower guilt repair in high psychopathy males, suggesting that a positive father-son relationship might be essential for development of exploitive strategies in primary psychopathy. The results highlight the fundamental differences between primary and secondary psychopathy, and provide support for the idea that primary psychopathy is an evolutionary cheater-strategy.

  12. Interim design status and operational report for remote handling fixtures: primary and secondary burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The HTGR reprocessing flowsheet consists of two basic process elements: (1) spent fuel crushing and burning and (2) solvent extraction. Fundamental to these elements is the design and development of specialized process equipment and support facilities. A major consideration of this design and development program is equipment maintenance: specifically, the design and demonstration of selected remote maintenance capabilities and the integration of these into process equipment design. This report documents the current status of the development of remote handling and maintenance fixtures for the primary and secondary burners

  13. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin; Chen, Chaohuang; Li, Huaifeng; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Tan, Jianwei; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Genetic and clinical characteristics of primary and secondary glioblastoma is associated with differential molecular subtype distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rui; Li, Hailin; Yan, Wei; Yang, Pei; Bao, Zhaoshi; Zhang, Chuanbao; Jiang, Tao; You, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is classified into primary (pGBM) or secondary (sGBM) based on clinical progression. However, there are some limits to this classification for insight into genetically and clinically distinction between pGBM and sGBM. The aim of this study is to characterize pGBM and sGBM associating with differential molecular subtype distribution. Whole transcriptome sequencing data was used to assess the distribution of molecular subtypes and genetic alterations in 88 pGBM and...

  15. Turbulent Mixing of Primary and Secondary Flow Streams in a Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, J. M.; Greene, M. U.; Pal, S.; Santoro, R. J.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the turbulent mixing of primary and secondary flow streams in a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine. A significant RBCC ejector mode database has been generated, detailing single and twin thruster configurations and global and local measurements. On-going analysis and correlation efforts include Marshall Space Flight Center computational fluid dynamics modeling and turbulent shear layer analysis. Potential follow-on activities include detailed measurements of air flow static pressure and velocity profiles, investigations into other thruster spacing configurations, performing a fundamental shear layer mixing study, and demonstrating single-shot Raman measurements.

  16. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin

    2013-11-11

    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Multiple hepatic abscesses due to Yersinia enterocolitica infection secondary to primary haemochromatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, T K; Vinding, K; Hey, H

    2001-01-01

    A case of hepatic abscesses due to Yersinia enterocolitica in an immunocompetent male is presented. Re-examination after 3 months showed that the patient had primary haemochromatosis. Treatment with repeated phlebotomies was instituted. Two years after the patient was first admitted to hospital. 17...... showed that prior to this case only 45 cases of hepatic abscess secondary to Yersinia enterocolitica have been registered. Of the 45 reported cases, 64% had underlying haemochromatosis and 29% had diabetes mellitus. The overall mortality was 31%. Mortality before 1987 was 60% (n = 20) and since 1987...

  18. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  19. Primary prevention of overweight in preschool children, the BeeBOFT study (breastfeeding, breakfast daily, outside playing, few sweet drinks, less TV viewing): design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Two overweight prevention interventions were developed to be offered by preventive Youth Health Care (YHC) in addition to the currently applied overweight prevention protocol to parents of 0-3 year old children. The two interventions aim to support parents of preschool children to realize healthy child nutrition and activity behaviors of their young child. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of the two overweight prevention interventions with regard to child health behaviors and child Body Mass Index. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among parents and their preschool children who attend one of 51 participating YHC teams. The teams were randomly allocated to one of the two intervention groups, or to the control group (care as usual). The ‘BBOFT+’ intervention focuses on effective child rearing by parents from birth onwards by enlarging parental skills concerning healthy behavioural life-style habits. Parents who are allocated to the ‘E-health4Uth Healthy toddler’ intervention group, at the child age of circa 18 and 24 months old, are invited to complete an online E-health module providing tailored health education regarding healthy child nutrition and activity behaviors. The E-health messages are discussed and reinforced during the subsequent regularly scheduled visits by YHC professionals, and were repeated after 4 weeks. The primary outcome measures at child age 3 years are: overweight inducing/reducing behaviors, (for ‘BBOFT+’ only) healthy sleep, Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight and obesity. Secondary outcome measures are attitudes and other cognitive characteristics of the parents regarding the overweight-related behaviors of their child, parenting styles and practices, and health-related quality of life of the children. Discussion We hypothesize that the use of the additional interventions will result in a healthier lifestyle of preschool children and an improved BMI and less

  20. Collimation system for a laboratory of primary and secondary ionizing radiation calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.R.; David, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This work is part of a cooperation plan between the LNMRI/IRD and the LCR/UERJ, for the a primary calibration at the IRD and a secondary laboratory at the LCR, both calibrated for mammographic beams which will be part a Calibration National Network. For the mounting of the primary laboratory, the first step was to install two additional collimators in order to guarantee that the beam area over the ionization chamber to satisfy the calibration international standards. So, the collimators were constructed obeying the geometric rules, the first being of conic format and the second of the cylindrical format, therefore avoiding the effects of the scattering radiation on the edges. By using this collimation system it was possible to verify the uniformity of the radiation field incident the ionization chamber to be over 98% of the total area, guaranteeing better precision of the measurement

  1. Failure by void coalescence in metallic materials containing primary and secondary voids subject to intense shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    Failure under intense shearing at close to zero stress triaxiality is widely observed for ductile metallic materials, and is identified in experiments as smeared-out dimples on the fracture surface. Numerical cell-model studies of equal sized voids have revealed that the mechanism governing...... this shear failure mode boils down to the interaction between primary voids which rotate and elongate until coalescence occurs under severe plastic deformation of the internal ligaments. The objective of this paper is to analyze this failure mechanism of primary voids and to study the effect of smaller...... secondary damage that co-exists with or nucleation in the ligaments between larger voids that coalesce during intense shearing. A numerical cell-model study is carried out to gain a parametric understanding of the overall material response for different initial conditions of the two void populations...

  2. Use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among privately insured adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Esther Y; Cohn, Lisa; Freed, Gary; Rocchini, Albert; Kershaw, David; Ascione, Frank; Clark, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    To compare the use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension. We conducted retrospective cohort analysis of claims data for adolescents and young adults (12-21 years of age) with ≥3 years of insurance coverage (≥11 months/year) in a large private managed care plan during 2003-2009 with diagnosis of primary hypertension or secondary hypertension. We examined their use of antihypertensive medications and identified demographic characteristics and the presence of obesity-related comorbidities. For the subset receiving antihypertensive medications, we examined their diagnostic test use (echocardiograms, renal ultrasounds, and electrocardiograms). The study sample included 1,232 adolescents and young adults; 84% had primary hypertension and 16% had secondary hypertension. The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 2.6%. One quarter (28%) with primary hypertension had one or more antihypertensive medications, whereas 65% with secondary hypertension had one or more antihypertensive medications. Leading prescribers of antihypertensives for subjects with primary hypertension were primary care physicians (80%), whereas antihypertensive medications were equally prescribed by primary care physicians (43%) and sub-specialists (37%) for subjects with secondary hypertension. The predominant hypertension diagnosis among adolescents and young adults is primary hypertension. Antihypertensive medication use was higher among those with secondary hypertension compared with those with primary hypertension. Further study is needed to determine treatment effectiveness and patient outcomes associated with differential treatment patterns used for adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Constraints on primary and secondary particulate carbon sources using chemical tracer and 14C methods during CalNex-Bakersfield

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The present study investigates primary and secondary sources of organic carbon for Bakersfield, CA, USA as part of the 2010 CalNex study. The method used here...

  4. The samarium Grignard reaction. In situ formation and reactions of primary and secondary alkylsamarium(III) reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, D.P.; Totleben, M.J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-07-15

    This work shows that primary and secondary radicals are rapidly reduced in THF/HMPA to form primary- and secondary-alkylsamarium reagents. The primary- and secondary-radicals can be formed either by direct SmI{sup 2} reductions of primary- and secondary-halides or by a previous rapid radical cyclization. The samarium reagents have moderate stability in solution, and they react with a variety of typical electrophiles, including aldehydes and ketones. The work further shows that organosamarium intermediates can be involved in the traditional samarium Barbier reaction of aldehydes and ketones conducted in THF/HMPA. A new procedure called the {open_quotes}samarium Grignard{close_quotes} method is introduced, and it is suggested that this new procedure will have considerably more scope and generality than the samarium Barbier reaction. 37 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Demographic and clinical characteristics of primary and secondary care patients with osteoarthritis of hip and knee are quite similar.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanson, S.; Lucas, C.; Veenhof, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As is stated in many guidelines for patients with osteoarthritis, it is advised to treat patients conservatively before patients are referred to secondary care. Therefore, it can be expected that secondary care patietns with osteoarthritis differ from primary care patients. The purpose of

  6. Primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism among vitamin D deficient Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients and the need for a parathyroid scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazokopakis, Elias; Papadomanolaki, Maria; Skarakis, Spyridon-Nikitas N; Tsekouras, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    The patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis must be investigated mainly for secondary hyperparathyroidism due to vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. Parathyroid scintigraphy has no place in the diagnosis of primary, secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism or in the decision for surgical treatment. Parathyroid scintigraphy is a useful preoperative technique for the localization of the pathological parathyroid glands.

  7. A Balance of Primary and Secondary Values: Exploring a Digital Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L. Cushing

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory research explores the concept of a digital legacy as a general concept and as a collection of digital possessions with unique characteristics. The results reported in this article are part of a larger study. In Cushing (2013, the author identified the characteristics of a digital possession. In this study, these characteristics of a digital possession were utilized to explore how the characteristics of several digital possessions could form a collection, or a digital legacy. In addition to being explored as a collection of digital possessions, data was collected about the general concept of a digital legacy. In part I of the study, 23 participants from three age groups were interviewed about their general concept of a digital legacy. Five general characteristics describing a digital legacy were identified. In part II of the study, interview data from Cushing (2013 was used to create statements describing digital possessions. The statements were classified utilizing the archival concept of primary and secondary values, as well as the consumer behavior concepts of self extension to possessions and possession attachment. Primary value refers to the purpose for which the item was created, while secondary value refers to an additional value that the participants can perceive the item to hold, such as a perception that an item can represent one's identity. Using standard Q method procedure, 48 participants were directed to rank their agreement with 60 statements (written on cards, along a distribution of -5 to +5, according to the characteristics of the digital possession they would most like to maintain for a digital legacy. The ranked statements were analyzed using Q factor analysis, in order to perceive the most common statements associated with maintaining digital possessions for a digital legacy. Q method results suggested that most individuals described the digital possessions they wanted to maintain for a digital legacy using

  8. The importance of motivation factors in career development of primary and secondary school professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Stepišnik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the career motivation factors among Slovene teachers. They go hand in hand with two other processes: the psycho-social development of individuals and their family life. We present the results of the empirical research that was carried out on a sample of 360 professionals from primary and secondary schools. We established a scale for determining the importance of motivation factors by asking the professionals to grade their level of agreement with the statements considering the following motivational factors: the legislation and the organization of files in the context of school, the organisational climate and culture at schools, the school management, schools as learning organisations, the need of individuals for career development. We were interested if there exist any differences in the opinions of professionals in primary and secondary schools regarding the importance of individual motivation factors. We were also interested if there exists an interdependence between the final results and the individual variables. The findings are important for professionals and school management in schools that encourage career development. It would be sensible to take these findings into consideration when planning, as well as monitoring career development of school professionals.

  9. Survey and Research on Continuing Education Curriculum Construction for Primary and Secondary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing education curriculum construction is the key work to complete the teachers’ continuing education system, it is also an important part of the teachers’ specialization. This study aims to master the main problems of the current primary and secondary school teachers’ continuing education curriculum construction and put forward the corresponding improvement countermeasures. Research in Yunnan province of China as a case, through the Questionnaire Method, Interview Method and Factors Analysis Method, this study make an thorough analysis on the prominent questions of the curriculum resources informationization level, curriculum structure, curriculum practicability, curriculum management and curriculum evaluation mechanism of the primary and secondary school teachers continuing education curriculums construction. Study found that the curriculum construction should also increase the intensity of curriculum resources informatization, develop diversified curriculum resources, complete six modules, carry out a standardized and scientific management and diversified curriculum evaluation mechanism. Research data and conclusions both enrich the theory of the con-struction of the teachers continuing education curriculum, and also provide a practical reference for the admin-istrative department of education and teacher training institutions to formulate measures.

  10. Morphological studies in the diagnosis of primary and secondary bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveeva O.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to show the possibility of morphological studies in the diagnosis of primary and secondary tumors of bones. Material and Methods. 105 (72% patients with primary bone tumors aged from 15 to 66 years and 42 (28% patients with metastatic bone lesions aged from 42 to 70 years were examined and treated for the period from 2008 till 2015. Material for morphological studies was prepared using an open biopsy tissue slices and a scraping resected tumor during surgery. Soft-tissue component is subjected to cytology. The material for histological study included changes in bone and soft tissue. Results. Giant cell tumor was verified in 45% of cases by histological examination. Multiple myeloma was diagnosed in 15% of patients. Osteogenic sarcoma was diagnosed in 14% of cases. Ewing's sarcoma was diagnosed in 3%, 2% of cases were matched by diagnosed chordoma. According to the data received, cancer metastasis of kidney and lung is mostly diagnosed in men from the group of patients with secondary bone defeat. Metastasis of cancer of the breast in women was predominated. Conclusion. The morphological (histological, cytological study plays an important role in the diagnosis of bone tumors. The coincidence of the cytological and histological diagnoses was 97%.

  11. Understanding radiation and risk: the importance of primary and secondary education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Junichiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8), Mikaduki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    In Japan's primary and secondary schools, radiation and radioactivity are taught as part of the curriculum dealing with social science subjects. Students learn much about the hazardous features of radiation, but lack the scientific understanding necessary to build a more balanced picture. Although the same point applies to education covering the harmful effects of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, electrical storms and so on, public understanding of these events is relatively high and students are generally able to make informed judgments about the risks involved. By contrast, their limited understanding of radiation often contributes to fears that it is evil or even supernatural. To correct this distortion, it is important that primary and secondary education includes a scientific explanation of radiation. Like heat and light, radiation is fundamental to the history of the universe; and scientific education programs should give appropriate emphasis to this important subject. Students would then be able to make more objective judgments about the useful and hazardous aspects of radiation. (author)

  12. Homeostatic migration and distribution of innate immune cells in primary and secondary lymphoid organs with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolich-Žugich, J; Davies, J S

    2017-03-01

    Ageing of the innate and adaptive immune system, collectively termed immune senescence, is a complex process. One method to understand the components of ageing involves dissociating the effects of ageing on the cells of the immune system, on the microenvironment in lymphoid organs and tissues where immune cells reside and on the circulating factors that interact with both immune cells and their microenvironment. Heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical union of two organisms of disparate ages, is ideal for this type of study, as it has the power to dissociate the age of the cell and the age of the microenvironment into which the cell resides or is migrating. So far, however, it has been used sparingly to study immune ageing. Here we review the limited literature on homeostatic innate immune cell trafficking in ageing in the absence of chronic inflammation. We also review our own recent data on trafficking of innate immune subsets between primary and secondary lymphoid organs in heterochronic parabiosis. We found no systemic bias in retention or acceptance of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells or natural killer cells with ageing in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. We conclude that these four innate immune cell types migrate to and populate lymphoid organs (peripheral lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow), regardless of their own age and of the age of lymphoid organs. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  13. UV light selectively coinduces supply pathways from primary metabolism and flavonoid secondary product formation in parsley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, Elke; Tavernaro, Annette; Schulz, Wolfgang; Somssich, Imre E.; Hahlbrock, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The UV light-induced synthesis of UV-protective flavonoids diverts substantial amounts of substrates from primary metabolism into secondary product formation and thus causes major perturbations of the cellular homeostasis. Results from this study show that the mRNAs encoding representative enzymes from various supply pathways are coinduced in UV-irradiated parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum) with two mRNAs of flavonoid glycoside biosynthesis, encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase. Strong induction was observed for mRNAs encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (carbohydrate metabolism, providing substrates for the shikimate pathway), 3-deoxyarabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (shikimate pathway, yielding phenylalanine), and acyl-CoA oxidase (fatty acid degradation, yielding acetyl-CoA), and moderate induction for an mRNA encoding S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase (activated methyl cycle, yielding S-adenosyl-methionine for B-ring methylation). Ten arbitrarily selected mRNAs representing various unrelated metabolic activities remained unaffected. Comparative analysis of acyl-CoA oxidase and chalcone synthase with respect to mRNA expression modes and gene promoter structure and function revealed close similarities. These results indicate a fine-tuned regulatory network integrating those functionally related pathways of primary and secondary metabolism that are specifically required for protective adaptation to UV irradiation. Although the response of parsley cells to UV light is considerably broader than previously assumed, it contrasts greatly with the extensive metabolic reprogramming observed previously in elicitor-treated or fungus-infected cells. PMID:10677554

  14. Influence of Handwriting Skills during Spelling in Primary and lower Secondary Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie ePontart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We sought to identify, the impact of handwriting skills on the efficiency and temporal course of word spelling across Grades 2-9. Eighty-four students, drawn from primary and lower secondary schools, were asked to perform a dictation task to assess their word spelling. They also had to write out the letters of the alphabet, as well as their firstnames and surnames, from memory to assess their handwriting skills. Handwriting kinematics were recorded using a digitizing tablet and a computer running Eye and Pen software. Results revealed that graphomotor skills (as assessed by the name writing task influenced the success and temporal course of spelling, but only in primary grades, whereas the influence of orthographic knowledge (as assessed by the alphabet task could still be observed in the lower secondary grades, even if it ceased to influence the temporal course and only affected errors. We discuss what these findings tell us about changes in transcription processes over the course of child development.

  15. Influence of handwriting skills during spelling in primary and lower secondary grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontart, Virginie; Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Lambert, Eric; Morisset, Pauline; Flouret, Lisa; Alamargot, Denis

    2013-01-01

    We sought to identify, the impact of handwriting skills on the efficiency and temporal course of word spelling across Grades 2–9. Eighty-four students, drawn from primary and lower secondary schools, were asked to perform a dictation task to assess their word spelling. They also had to write out the letters of the alphabet, as well as their firstnames and surnames, from memory to assess their handwriting skills. Handwriting kinematics were recorded using a digitizing tablet and a computer running Eye and Pen software. Results revealed that graphomotor skills (as assessed by the name writing task) influenced the success and temporal course of spelling, but only in primary grades, whereas the influence of orthographic knowledge (as assessed by the alphabet task) could still be observed in the lower secondary grades, even if it ceased to influence the temporal course and only affected errors. We discuss what these findings tell us about changes in transcription processes over the course of child development. PMID:24204357

  16. Health promotion in schools of Primary and Secondary Education in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenita Maria Dias de Sousa Aguiar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Health is a topic under discussion. It is a theme with a particular range that must be worked out and discussed since the first steps until old age. As information and education are ways of stimulating the interest and the knowledge of the population on the aspects related to the sanitary monitoring, the Brazilian National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance (Anvisa conceived the Education and Information Project. It develops educative actions in schools of Primary and Secondary Education starting from the theme health, aiming to increase the level of citizens’ awareness. It considers the multiplying factor represented by the children and the social function of school. This paper presents an experience account developed through an action defined by the Education and Information Project, which aimed to work out the health promotion with primary and secondary students of public schools. Amongst the results the following ones are highlighted: the identification of healthy practices with regard to the preservation of health; the distinction between drugs and medicines; greater awareness of the care with medicines; and obtaining more information on “selfmedication”.

  17. Challenges and opportunities for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassi, A; Dias, J C P; Marin-Neto, J A; Rassi, A

    2009-04-01

    A century after its discovery, Chagas' disease still represents a major public health challenge in Latin America. Moreover, because of growing population movements, an increasing number of cases of imported Chagas' disease have now been detected in non-endemic areas, such as North America and some European countries. This parasitic zoonosis, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted to humans by infected Triatominae insects, or occasionally by non-vectorial mechanisms, such as blood transfusion, mother to fetus, or oral ingestion of materials contaminated with parasites. Following the acute phase of the infection, untreated individuals enter a chronic phase that is initially asymptomatic or clinically unapparent. Usually, a few decades later, 40-50% of patients develop progressive cardiomyopathy and/or motility disturbances of the oesophagus and colon. In the last decades several interventions targeting primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of Chagas' disease have been attempted. While control of both vectorial and blood transfusion transmission of T cruzi (primary prevention) has been successful in many regions of Latin America, early detection and aetiological treatment of asymptomatic subjects with Chagas' disease (secondary prevention) have been largely underutilised. At the same time, in patients with established chronic disease, several pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are currently available and have been increasingly used with the intention of preventing or delaying complications of the disease (tertiary prevention). In this review we discuss in detail each of these issues.

  18. On the symmetry of nuclear identity between relativistic primary and secondary nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerman, L.

    2002-01-01

    Do secondary hadrons, freshly created in the collision of a relativistic heavy ion nucleus, have the same properties of nuclear interaction as those of an otherwise identical primary? To explore this question two types of experiments were performed, one in fact and one in fiction. The first was the scanning and measurement of an emulsion stack exposed to a 1.8 A GeV 40 Ar beam from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevatron. This emulsion experiment is the first full-stack scan of a major exposure ever performed and includes 1418 stars of primary interactions, 1850 secondary stars, and tens of thousands of shower and slow heavily ionizing particles. As such it constitutes a dataset uniquely powerful in exploring questions of symmetry between primary and secondary populations. One of the emulsion results is the experimental determination (and to a particularly high accuracy for Z=2) that total (geometric) cross-section does not change with generation for the secondaries under study. The 'fictional' experiments are a set of Monte-Carlo simulations based on the transport code RHIP, itself built upon the results of the emulsions experiment. RHIP is designed to attack a number of problems ranging from particle physics to NASA's need to model the nuclear cascades induced by Galactic Cosmic Rays impinging on manned spacecraft. The major version of RHIP dealt with here is BFHL, a detailed modeling of a 1.8 A GeV 40 Ar beam on cylindrically symmetric sets of Cu targets. BFHL was then applied to the Copper Calorimetry Experiments also performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The exhaustive simulation and analysis presented here shows that all but one of the variables considered can neither quantitatively nor qualitatively explain the results of the Copper Calorimetry Experiments. Amongst many others these failures of fit include all transport variables, the total cross-section (i.e. short mean free path), and a higher than normal Pt for shower particles. Instead, the Copper

  19. Primary Metabolism during Biosynthesis of Secondary Wall Polymers of Protoxylem Vessel Elements1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Keiko; Sawada, Yuji; Sano, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shiro; Matsuda, Mami; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-01-01

    Xylem vessels, the water-conducting cells in vascular plants, undergo characteristic secondary wall deposition and programmed cell death. These processes are regulated by the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN (VND) transcription factors. Here, to identify changes in metabolism that occur during protoxylem vessel element differentiation, we subjected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 suspension culture cells carrying an inducible VND7 system to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based wide-target metabolome analysis and transcriptome analysis. Time-course data for 128 metabolites showed dynamic changes in metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis. The concentration of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, an important intermediate of the glycolysis pathway, immediately decreased in the initial stages of cell differentiation. As cell differentiation progressed, specific amino acids accumulated, including the shikimate-related amino acids and the translocatable nitrogen-rich amino acid arginine. Transcriptome data indicated that cell differentiation involved the active up-regulation of genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing fructose 6-phosphate biosynthesis from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate biosynthesis from oxaloacetate, and phenylalanine biosynthesis, which includes shikimate pathway enzymes. Concomitantly, active changes in the amount of fructose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate were detected during cell differentiation. Taken together, our results show that protoxylem vessel element differentiation is associated with changes in primary metabolism, which could facilitate the production of polysaccharides and lignin monomers and, thus, promote the formation of the secondary cell wall. Also, these metabolic shifts correlate with the active transcriptional regulation of specific enzyme genes. Therefore, our observations indicate that primary metabolism is actively regulated during protoxylem vessel element differentiation to alter the cell’s metabolic

  20. Uptake and transport of manganese in primary and secondary olfactory neurones in pike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjälve, H; Mejàre, C; Borg-Neczak, K

    1995-07-01

    gamma-spectrometry and autoradiography were used to examine the axoplasmic flow of manganese in the olfactory nerves and to study the uptake of the metal in the brain after application of 54Mn2+ in the olfactory chambers of pikes. The results show that the 54Mn2+ is taken up in the olfactory receptor cells and is transported at a constant rate along the primary olfactory neurones into the brain. The maximal velocity for the transported 54Mn2+ was 2.90 +/- 0.21 mm/hr (mean +/- S.E.) at 10 degrees, which was the temperature used in the experiments. The 54Mn2+ accumulated in the entire olfactory bulbs, although most marked in central and caudal parts. The metal was also seen to migrate into large areas of the telencephalon, apparently mainly via the secondary olfactory axons present in the medial olfactory tract. A transfer along fibres of the medial olfactory tract probably also explains the labelling which was seen in the diencephalon down to the hypothalamus. The results also showed that there is a pathway connecting the two olfactory bulbs of the pike and that this can carry the metal. Our data further showed a marked accumulation of 54Mn2+ in the meningeal epithelium and in the contents of the meningeal sacs surrounding the olfactory bulbs. It appears from our study that manganese has the ability to pass the synaptic junctions between the primary and the secondary olfactory neurones in the olfactory bulbs and to migrate along secondary olfactory pathways into the telencephalon and the diencephalon.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for primary or secondary oligometastatic lung cancer using Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Heng-Jui; Ko, Hui-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Ren-Hong; Yeh, Yu-Wung; Jiang, Jiunn-Song; Kao, Shang-Jyh; Chi, Kwan-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively review the outcome of patients with primary or secondary oligometastatic lung cancer, treated with hypofractionated Tomotherapy. Between April 2007 and June 2011, a total of 33 patients with oligometastatic intrapulmonary lesions underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy by Tomotherapy along with appropriate systemic therapy. There were 24 primary, and 9 secondary lung cancer cases. The radiation doses ranged from 4.5 to 7.0 Gy per fraction, multiplied by 8–16 fractions. The median dose per fraction was 4.5 Gy (range, 4.5-7.0 Gy), and the median total dose was 49.5 Gy (range, 45–72 Gy). The median estimated biological effective dose at 10 Gy (BED 10 ) was 71.8 Gy (range, 65.3–119.0 Gy), and that at 3 Gy (BED 3 ) was 123.8 Gy (range, 112.5–233.3 Gy). The mean lung dose (MLD) was constrained mainly under 1200 cGy. The median gross tumor volume (GTV) was 27.9 cm 3 (range: 2.5–178.1 cm 3 ). The median follow-up period was 25.8 months (range, 3.0–60.7 months). The median overall survival (OS) time was 32.1 months for the 24 primary lung cancer patients, and >40 months for the 9 metastatic lung patients. The median survival time of the patients with extra-pulmonary disease (EPD) was 11.2 months versus >50 months (not reached) in the patients without EPD (p < 0.001). Those patients with smaller GTV (≦27.9 cm 3 ) had a better survival than those with larger GTV (>27.9 cm 3 ): >40 months versus 12.85 months (p = 0.047). The patients with ≦2 lesions had a median survival >40 months, whereas those with ≧3 lesions had 26 months (p = 0.065). The 2-year local control (LC) rate was 94.7%. Only 2 patients (6.1%) developed ≧grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. Using Tomotherapy in hypofractionation may be effective for selected primary or secondary lung oligometastatic diseases, without causing significant toxicities. Pulmonary oligometastasis patients without EPD had better survival outcomes than those with EPD. Moreover, GTV is more significant than

  2. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for primary or secondary oligometastatic lung cancer using Tomotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To retrospectively review the outcome of patients with primary or secondary oligometastatic lung cancer, treated with hypofractionated Tomotherapy. Methods Between April 2007 and June 2011, a total of 33 patients with oligometastatic intrapulmonary lesions underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy by Tomotherapy along with appropriate systemic therapy. There were 24 primary, and 9 secondary lung cancer cases. The radiation doses ranged from 4.5 to 7.0 Gy per fraction, multiplied by 8–16 fractions. The median dose per fraction was 4.5 Gy (range, 4.5-7.0 Gy), and the median total dose was 49.5 Gy (range, 45–72 Gy). The median estimated biological effective dose at 10 Gy (BED10) was 71.8 Gy (range, 65.3–119.0 Gy), and that at 3 Gy (BED3) was 123.8 Gy (range, 112.5–233.3 Gy). The mean lung dose (MLD) was constrained mainly under 1200 cGy. The median gross tumor volume (GTV) was 27.9 cm3 (range: 2.5–178.1 cm3). Results The median follow-up period was 25.8 months (range, 3.0–60.7 months). The median overall survival (OS) time was 32.1 months for the 24 primary lung cancer patients, and >40 months for the 9 metastatic lung patients. The median survival time of the patients with extra-pulmonary disease (EPD) was 11.2 months versus >50 months (not reached) in the patients without EPD (p 27.9 cm3): >40 months versus 12.85 months (p = 0.047). The patients with ≦2 lesions had a median survival >40 months, whereas those with ≧3 lesions had 26 months (p = 0.065). The 2-year local control (LC) rate was 94.7%. Only 2 patients (6.1%) developed ≧grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. Conclusion Using Tomotherapy in hypofractionation may be effective for selected primary or secondary lung oligometastatic diseases, without causing significant toxicities. Pulmonary oligometastasis patients without EPD had better survival outcomes than those with EPD. Moreover, GTV is more significant than lesion number in

  3. Pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD – available resources and utilization in Swedish primary and secondary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundh J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Josefin Sundh,1 Helena Lindgren,2 Mikael Hasselgren,2 Scott Montgomery,3–5 Christer Janson,6 Björn Ställberg,7 Karin Lisspers7 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, 2Medical Programme, School of Medical Sciences, 3Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College, London, UK; 6Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, 7Department of Public Health and Caring Science, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction: Pulmonary rehabilitation is effective in all stages of COPD. The availability and utilization of pulmonary rehabilitation resources, and the characteristics of COPD patients receiving rehabilitation, were investigated in primary and secondary care in central Sweden. Materials and methods: Data on available pulmonary rehabilitation resources were collected using questionnaires, to 14 hospitals and 54 primary health care centers, and information on utilization of different rehabilitation professionals was obtained from questionnaires completed by 1,329 COPD patients from the same centers. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations with having received rehabilitation in the previous year. Results: In primary care, nurse-based asthma/COPD clinics were common (87%, with additional separate access to other rehabilitation professionals. In secondary care, rehabilitation was more often offered as part of a multidisciplinary teamwork (71%. In total, 36% of the patients met an asthma/COPD nurse in the previous year. Utilization was lower in primary than in secondary care for physiotherapists (7% vs 16%, occupational therapists (3% vs 10%, nutritionists (5% vs 13%, and counselors (1% vs 4%. A higher COPD Assessment Test score

  4. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for primary or secondary oligometastatic lung cancer using Tomotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heng-Jui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To retrospectively review the outcome of patients with primary or secondary oligometastatic lung cancer, treated with hypofractionated Tomotherapy. Methods Between April 2007 and June 2011, a total of 33 patients with oligometastatic intrapulmonary lesions underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy by Tomotherapy along with appropriate systemic therapy. There were 24 primary, and 9 secondary lung cancer cases. The radiation doses ranged from 4.5 to 7.0 Gy per fraction, multiplied by 8–16 fractions. The median dose per fraction was 4.5 Gy (range, 4.5-7.0 Gy, and the median total dose was 49.5 Gy (range, 45–72 Gy. The median estimated biological effective dose at 10 Gy (BED10 was 71.8 Gy (range, 65.3–119.0 Gy, and that at 3 Gy (BED3 was 123.8 Gy (range, 112.5–233.3 Gy. The mean lung dose (MLD was constrained mainly under 1200 cGy. The median gross tumor volume (GTV was 27.9 cm3 (range: 2.5–178.1 cm3. Results The median follow-up period was 25.8 months (range, 3.0–60.7 months. The median overall survival (OS time was 32.1 months for the 24 primary lung cancer patients, and >40 months for the 9 metastatic lung patients. The median survival time of the patients with extra-pulmonary disease (EPD was 11.2 months versus >50 months (not reached in the patients without EPD (p 3 had a better survival than those with larger GTV (>27.9 cm3: >40 months versus 12.85 months (p = 0.047. The patients with ≦2 lesions had a median survival >40 months, whereas those with ≧3 lesions had 26 months (p = 0.065. The 2-year local control (LC rate was 94.7%. Only 2 patients (6.1% developed ≧grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. Conclusion Using Tomotherapy in hypofractionation may be effective for selected primary or secondary lung oligometastatic diseases, without causing significant toxicities. Pulmonary oligometastasis patients without EPD had better survival outcomes than those with

  5. Calculation of primary and secondary dose in proton therapy of brain tumors using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghbel Esfahani, F.; Alamatsaz, M.; Karimian, A.

    2012-01-01

    High-energy beams of protons offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum - Bragg peak - near the end of range with a sharp falloff at the distal edge. Therefore, research must be done to investigate the possible negative and positive effects of using proton therapy as a treatment modality. In proton therapy, protons do account for the vast majority of dose. However, when protons travel through matter, secondary particles are created by the interactions of protons and matter en route to and within the patient. It is believed that secondary dose can lead to secondary cancer, especially in pediatric cases. Therefore, the focus of this work is determining both primary and secondary dose. Dose calculations were performed by MCNPX in tumoral and healthy parts of brain. The brain tumor has a 10 mm diameter and is located 16 cm under the skin surface. The brain was simulated by a cylindrical water phantom with the dimensions of 19 x 19cm 2 (length x diameter), with 0.5 cm thickness of plexiglass (C 4 H 6 O 2 ). Then beam characteristics were investigated to ensure the accuracy of the model. Simulations were initially validated with against packages such as SRIM/TRIM. Dose calculations were performed using different configurations to evaluate depth-dose profiles and dose 2D distributions.The results of the simulation show that the best proton energy interval, to cover completely the brain tumor, is from 152 to 154 MeV. (authors)

  6. Performance modeling of a two-tier primary-secondary network with IEEE 802.11 broadcast scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Khabazian, Mehdi

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of a two-tier primary-secondary network based on IEEE 802.11 broadcast scheme. We assume that a number of primary and secondary users coexist in the radio environment and share a single band. To protect the primary users\\' priority, the secondary users are allowed to contend for the channel only if they sense it idle for a certain sensing time. Considering an exponential packet inter-arrival time for the primary network, we model each primary user as an independent M/G/1 queue. Subsequently, we determine the primary users\\' average medium access delay in the presence of secondary users as well as the hybrid network\\'s throughput. Numerical results and discussions show the effects of parameters pertaining to the secondary users, such as as sensing time, packet payload size and population size, on the performance of the primary network. Furthermore, we provide simulation results which confirm the accuracy of the proposed analysis. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Performance modeling of a two-tier primary-secondary network with IEEE 802.11 broadcast scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Khabazian, Mehdi; Aissa, Sonia; El Kefi, Rania

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of a two-tier primary-secondary network based on IEEE 802.11 broadcast scheme. We assume that a number of primary and secondary users coexist in the radio environment and share a single band. To protect the primary users' priority, the secondary users are allowed to contend for the channel only if they sense it idle for a certain sensing time. Considering an exponential packet inter-arrival time for the primary network, we model each primary user as an independent M/G/1 queue. Subsequently, we determine the primary users' average medium access delay in the presence of secondary users as well as the hybrid network's throughput. Numerical results and discussions show the effects of parameters pertaining to the secondary users, such as as sensing time, packet payload size and population size, on the performance of the primary network. Furthermore, we provide simulation results which confirm the accuracy of the proposed analysis. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Human norovirus in untreated sewage and effluents from primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos J A; Avant, Justin; Lowther, James; Till, Dale; Lees, David N

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater treatments are considered important means to control the environmental transmission of human norovirus (NoV). Information about NoV concentrations in untreated and treated effluents, their seasonality and typical removal rates achieved by different treatment processes is required to assess the effectiveness of sewage treatment processes in reducing human exposure to NoV. This paper reports on a characterisation of concentrations of NoV (genogroups I and II) in untreated sewage (screened influent) and treated effluents from five full scale wastewater treatment works (WwTW) in England. Results are shown for effluent samples characteristic of primary- (primary settlement, storm tank overflows), secondary- (activated sludge, trickling filters, humus tanks) and tertiary (UV disinfection) treatments. NoV occurrence in untreated sewage varied between years. This variation was consistent with the annual variation of the virus in the community as indicated by outbreak laboratory reports. Significant differences were found between mean NoV concentrations in effluents subject to different levels of treatment. Primary settlement achieved approximately 1 log10 removal for both genogroups. Concentrations of NoV and Escherichia coli in untreated sewage were of the same order of magnitude of those in storm tank overflows. Of the secondary treatments studied, activated sludge was the most effective in removing NoV with mean log10 removals of 3.11 and 2.34 for GI and GII, respectively. The results of this study provide evidence that monitoring of NoV in raw sewage or treated effluents could provide early warning of an elevated risk for NoV and potentially help prevent outbreaks through environmental exposure. They also provide evidence that elimination of stormwater discharges and improvement of the efficiency of activated sludge for NoV removal would be effective for reducing the risk of environmental transmission. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. A national day with near zero emissions and its effect on primary and secondary pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Traffic related air pollution is a major health concern in many countries. The potential costs and benefits of different abatement policies are usually estimated by either models, case studies or previously implemented intervention measures. Such estimations have, however, limited ability to predict the effect of a reduction in primary pollutants' emissions on secondary pollutants such as ozone, because of the nonlinear nature of the photochemical reactions. This study examines the short term effects of a drastic change in emissions on a national scale during the Jewish holiday of Day of Atonement (DA) in Israel. During the holiday nearly all anthropogenic emission sources are ceased for a period of 25 h, including all vehicles, commercial, industrial and recreational activities. DAs during the 15 years period of 1998-2012 are analyzed at three sites with respect to primary and secondary air pollutants, and in greater details for 2001. A dramatic decrease in primary pollutants emissions (83-98% in NO) causes an 8 ppbv increase in ozone at the urban core. Downwind (27 km), ozone decreases by only 5 ppbv. Nighttime O3 is shown to increase to 20 ppbv at the urban sites and 30 ppbv downwind. In spite of the striking reduction in emissions, changes in ozone are not greater than what is reported in the literature about less significant events like the ozone weekend effect. Changes in ambient pollution levels observed during DA provide some indication to the possible outcomes of a major change in anthropogenic emissions. These may be considered as the best case scenario for emissions reduction intervention measures and thus aid policy makers in evaluating potential benefits of such measures.

  10. Dermis-Fat Graft in Children as Primary and Secondary Orbital Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta-Leoni, Francesco M; Sposato, Sabrina; Raglione, Pietro; Mastromarino, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    To report the experience with the use of dermis-fat graft in the pediatric population and to evaluate the outcome of this procedure as a primary or secondary orbital implant. Case series. Analysis of the clinical charts of 22 patients. Age at the time of surgery ranged from 2.1 to 13 years. Three patients affected were submitted to evisceration with primary dermis-fat graft. Six patients had explantation of exposed implants and a replacement with a dermis-fat graft. Three patients had a dermis-fat graft to repair contracted sockets. Ten patients were affected by congenital anophthalmia: 4 patients had a primary dermis-fat graft, 6 patients had a removal of a socket expander, or an orbital spherical expander, or pellet expanders and a replacement with a dermis-fat graft. This study adheres to the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. The patients' follow up ranged between 2.5 and 8 years. Only 1 child who had a primary dermis-fat graft experienced excessive growth of the implant, managed by surgical debulking. In the end, all the patients showed satisfactory orbital volume along with adequate fornices. The dermis-fat graft as a primary implant may be useful in children with severe scleromalacia or following ocular trauma. It is a suitable option in children affected by congenital anophthalmia as it helps continued socket expansion. It can also be considered in the pediatric population to address the volume deficit following explantation of exposed implants and in contracted sockets.

  11. Surgical management of pilonidal sinus patients by primary and secondary repair methods: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Barati B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Gross difference in return to work exists in pilonidal sinus patients operated by primary and secondary repair. This survey was to evaluate the results of surgical management of pilonidal sinus with primary or secondary closure."n"nMethods: In a randomized clinical trial, patients with pilonidal sinus referring to the surgical clinic of Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran between March 2007 and March 2009 were underwent either excision with midline closure (primary, n=40, or excision without closure (secondary, n=40. The recorded outcomes were hospital stay, healing time, time off work, postoperative pain, patient's satisfaction and the recurrence rate."n"nResults: Majority of the patients were male (87.50%. There was no significant difference in the hospital stay. Time off work (8.65±1.73 Vs. 11.53±2.33 days, p=0.001 and healing time (3.43±0.92 Vs. 5.3±0.79 days, p=0.001 were shorter in primary group; but, there were no significant differences in hospital stay and number of visits. Intensity of postoperative pain in the 1st (37.75±6.5 Vs. 43.63±5.06, p=0.001, 2nd (26.75±6.66 Vs. 34.63±5.48, p=0.001, 3rd (18.25±6.05 Vs. 27.88±6.88, p=0.001, and 7th (8.45±3.85 Vs. 17.88±6.19, p=0.001 days were

  12. Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, I.A.; Dremin, G.I.; Galtchanskaya, S.A.; Chmal, I.I.; Moloshnikov, A.S.; Gorbunov, Y.S.; Antonova, A.I.; Elkin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove

  13. Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, I.A.; Dremin, G.I.; Galtchanskaya, S.A.; Chmal, I.I.; Moloshnikov, A.S.; Gorbunov, Y.S.; Antonova, A.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center, EREC, Moscow (Russian Federation); Elkin, I.V. [RRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG

  14. Grade differences in reading motivation among Hong Kong primary and secondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-Ling

    2009-12-01

    Most previous studies in Western societies have demonstrated a general decline in school motivation. However, it is not clear whether motivational decline occurs uniformly for all students. The moderating effects of individual and cultural differences on students' motivational decline need to be further explored. This study aimed to examine the grade differences in students' reading motivation, including self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and social motivation, in a Chinese educational context. Grade by gender and grade by school-average achievement interactions were also checked to explore the role of individual differences in students' motivational changes. A total of 1,794 students (860 boys and 934 girls) volunteered to take part in this study, of whom 648 were Grade 4-6 students from 11 primary schools, 627 were Grade 7-9 students from 12 junior secondary schools, and 519 Grade 10-11 students from 6 senior secondary schools. A Chinese version of the Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (CRMQ) was administered to all participants during regular class periods by their teachers. Reliability analyses and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were first undertaken to assess the psychometric quality of the CRMQ. Then, multisample CFA was conducted to examine whether the factor structure of the CRMQ was equivalent across students at different grade levels. Grade differences in various reading motivation constructs as well as grade x gender and grade x school-average achievement interactions were examined using multiple-indicator-multiple-causes modelling. The findings of this study supported the reliability and the factor structure of the CRMQ in measuring the reading motivation of Chinese students at different grade levels. The factor pattern of the CRMQ was invariant across primary, junior secondary, and senior secondary students in multisample CFA. As far as the scores on the four reading motivation constructs were concerned, students scored

  15. Rare earth metals-primary resources and prospects of processing secondary resources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of Rare earth metals (REMs) in modern technological applications is associated with their spectroscopic and magnetic properties. The occurrence of rare earths in mixed form is commonly reported and their separation to the individual metal is a challenging task because of the similar chemical properties. The economical processing of the primary ores of rare earths is limited to a few countries and their supply at the international level is currently dominated by China. Hence assessing the present scenario of the primary resources of rare earths vis-à-vis their applications and demand is crucial at this stage, besides looking at the alternate resources to ensure availability of REMs; such aspects are covered in the manuscript. In view of the environmental concerns in the processing of ores such as monazite, xenotime, bastnasite, etc, and increasing demand of REMs, corresponding increase in demand of the raw materials has been recorded. It is therefore, necessary to utilize the end-of the-life rare earth containing materials as a rich resource by developing an appropriate recycling technology, which is emerging as a high priority area. To recover the REMs, major secondary resources such as electronic wastes, industrial wastes, spent catalysts and magnets, and phosphors powder, etc, have been considered for now. This will not only open the prospects of utilizing the wastes containing REMs, but will also limit the imports while lowering the production cost and decreasing the load on the primary reserves. The paper also examines the efficient recycling methods to recover a fairly good amount of rare earths which are relevant to India in view of the limited exploitation of the ores. Recovery of REMs from secondary resources using mechanical treatment followed by hydrometallurgical methods is prevalent and the same is reviewed in some detail. The recent R and D work pursued at CSIR-NML to extract (leaching and metal separation using some phosphatic reagents

  16. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70ºC prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, H.N.; Lu, Jingquan

    2005-01-01

    . The present study investigates the effect of the pre-treatment at 70 degrees C on thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge in continuously operated digesters. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 degrees C enhanced the removal of organic matter...... and the methane production during the subsequent anaerobic digestion step at 55 degrees C. It also greatly contributed to the destruction of pathogens present in primary sludge. Finally it results in enhanced microbial activities of the subsequent anaerobic step suggesting that the same efficiencies in organic...... matter removal and methane recovery could be obtained at lower HRTs....

  17. DESIGNING EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF FORMING SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN INCLUSIVE SECONDARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoia Shevtsiv

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of social and pedagogical competence of future primary school teacher in inclusive secondary schools. The aim of the article is to define the concept “design” and “pedagogical design”; to disclose methodological approaches and main features of pedagogical design of forming of social and pedagogical competence of future primary school teacher in inclusive secondary schools; to identify structural elements of social and pedagogical competence. The article analyzes the essence of the concept “design”. The process of designing educational system of social and pedagogical competence of future primary school teacher in inclusive secondary school is based on several interrelated methodological approaches, including systematic, axiological, active, person-centered, contextual acmeological, and competential ones. Important factors and theoretical starting positions are designing general principles of education: humanism and democracy; principles of teaching, scientific, professional orientation, integrity, communication theory and practice, consistency and systematic, variability, pedagogical creativity. The special principles are the following: problematic, technologizing, dialogization, and competence ones. Social and pedagogical competence of future primary school teachers in inclusive secondary school is structured by the cognitive, active, professional and personal components. Structure components are defined as a synthesis of social and pedagogical competences, educational and developmental, communicative, diagnostic, organizational, predictive, preventive, security and defense, correctional and rehabilitation, adaptation items. Established continuity of the educational process of forming social and pedagogical competence of future primary school teacher in inclusive secondary school takes place during the period of study in higher education establishments. The following conclusions are drawn that

  18. The Situation in Austria, Finland and Sweden and in the EFTA/EEA Countries (Iceland and Norway). Supplement to the Study on Pre-School and Primary Education in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report intends to fill the gap between the original document "Pre-School and Primary Education in the European Union" and the current state with the addition of the new Member States of Austria, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, and Norway. The report is divided into two parts. Part 1, "General Organisation," contains: (1)…

  19. Platelet aggregation inhibitors in primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ischaemic stroke (IS is one of the most frequent cause of death in Germany. Besides of non-drug many drug-based interventions are used in primary or secondary prevention of IS, among them the thrombocyte aggregation inhibitors (TAI. Objectives: The evaluation addresses the questions on medical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the TAI administration in the prevention of IS as compared to the management of risk factors alone as well as to the use of anticoagulant drugs. Methods: The literature search for articles published after 1997 was conducted in December 2003 in the most important medical and economic databases. The medical analysis was performed on the basis of the most up-to date meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCT as well as of new published RCT. The data from the studies for stroke, bleeding complications as well as for the combined endpoint "severe vascular events" (SVE: death or stroke or myocardial infarction were summarised in meta-analyses.In order to include grey literature contact has been taken up with the pharmaceutical manufacturers of TAI. Results are presented in a descriptive way. Results: The medical analysis included data from 184 RCT (vs. placebo and from 22 RCT (vs. anticoagulant drugs. The absolute reduction of IS (4.8% vs. 6.6%; p<0,00001 and SVE (10.0% vs. 12.4%; p<0,00001 were definitely higher than the absolute increase of bleeding complications (1.6% vs. 0.9%; p<0,00001, but relatively similar to this absolute increase in a subpopulation with a low risk for SVE. With regard to the stroke prevention, evidence of efficacy could be yielded for acetylsalicil acid (ASA, dipyridamole, cilostazol, ridogrel and the combination ASA with dipyridamole. ASA is less effective than anticoagulants in the prevention of ischaemic stroke in atrial fibrillation, however, it causes fewer bleeding complications.Low dosed ASA can be considered cost-effective in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke

  20. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Bakhtiar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7% was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4% (P=0.009. There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P=0.023, respiratory infections (P=0.036, deep sleep (P=0.007, corporal punishment at school (P=0.036, anal itching (P=0.043, and history of seizures (P=0.043. Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.

  1. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in primary school and preschool children of khorramabad in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.

  2. The Simplest Chronoscope V: A Theory of Dual Primary and Secondary Reaction Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montare, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Extending work by Montare, visual simple reaction time, choice reaction time, discriminative reaction time, and overall reaction time scores obtained from college students by the simplest chronoscope (a falling meterstick) method were significantly faster as well as significantly less variable than scores of the same individuals from electromechanical reaction timers (machine method). Results supported the existence of dual reaction time systems: an ancient primary reaction time system theoretically activating the V5 parietal area of the dorsal visual stream that evolved to process significantly faster sensory-motor reactions to sudden stimulations arising from environmental objects in motion, and a secondary reaction time system theoretically activating the V4 temporal area of the ventral visual stream that subsequently evolved to process significantly slower sensory-perceptual-motor reactions to sudden stimulations arising from motionless colored objects. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. MENTORING IN THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCHÁNKOVÁ, Eliška

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents the results of research focused on analysing methodical support for teacher education via mentoring, and familiarizes itself with the ascertained efficiency of the established mentoring programme in pilot schools in the Zlín region from the perspective of primary and secondary school teachers. The research shows that teachers’ evaluation of their own professional coaching competencies plays an important role in the perception of the mentoring’s efficiency. The higher the level of mastery of these competencies that the teachers attain in their own opinion, the better mentors they feel they are, the more they perceive mentoring as beneficial, and the more they use it in practice. At the same time, it is shown that the evaluation of own professional coaching competencies depends on the level of inner motivation to become involved in the mentoring course.

  4. Discerning Primary and Secondary Factors Responsible for Clinical Fatigue in Multisystem Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maughan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a common symptom of numerous acute and chronic diseases, including myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, heart failure, cancer, and many others. In these multi-system diseases the physiological determinants of enhanced fatigue encompass a combination of metabolic, neurological, and myofibrillar adaptations. Previous research studies have focused on adaptations specific to skeletal muscle and their role in fatigue. However, most have neglected the contribution of physical inactivity in assessing disease syndromes, which, through deconditioning, likely contributes to symptomatic fatigue. In this commentary, we briefly review disease-related muscle phenotypes in the context of whether they relate to the primary disease or whether they develop secondary to reduced physical activity. Knowledge of the etiology of the skeletal muscle adaptations in these conditions and their contribution to fatigue symptoms is important for understanding the utility of exercise rehabilitation as an intervention to alleviate the physiological precipitants of fatigue.

  5. Student dropout in primary and secondary education in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Ksenija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Student dropout from school is a serious problem in educational systems all over the world. This paper will provide an overview of the various dropout definitions and their consequences for measuring and monitoring. Since a diversity of factors (individual, familial, school and systematic is connected with student attrition in foreign research, the attempt has been made to systematise their results and provide data regarding similar Serbian studies. Considering the fact that there are no systematic analyses of students’ dropout rate in Serbia, the existing data from primary and secondary schools from a variety of statistical sources will be presented. We conclude that one way to reduce dropout in Serbia is to further develop research interest in the topic, as well as the strategies for monitoring, prevention and intervention.

  6. Coronary cineangiography and ionizing radiation exposure to patients: analysis of primary and secondary beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Alfredo; Leyton, Fernando; Silva, Ana Maria; Farias, Eric

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the level of exposure dose to patients during coronariographies in different areas of body. This study has presented the medical surveillance of 18 cases and the radiation monitoring of these patients by TLD in thyroid and pelvis (secondary beam) and, in the right and left scapular region (primary beam) for each one of these procedures. The ionizing radiation received was 215 ± 200 mGy in left scapular region (range 1-710) and 255±213 mGy in the right scapular region (range 22-635) p=NS. In the pelvic region the ionizing radiation was 0,22±0,06 mGy and in the thyroid region was 3,62±2,44 mGy

  7. The websites of primary and secondary schools in Portugal: an evaluation proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria SANTOS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an evaluation the quality in educational websites of two degrees of education, Primary School and the High school. To stablish this analysis was used a Model of Evaluation of the Quality of Educational Websites (EQEWS divided into Functional Aspects, with five criteria: authority, update, usability, accessibility and communication; and Technical-Aesthetic Aspects, with five principles: graphic design and multimedia quality, content, navigation, speed of access and interaction. This propose model of evaluation applied to 57 websites, according to the Likert scale of 0 to 4. We conclude that Secondary School web sites achieved better results in most of the evaluated criteria, it is verified that the authors of these resources are entirely identified with the needs and with the requirement that this degree of education requires the students, with levels of focused on achieving excellent results for university entrance.

  8. Mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy; Lloyd, Gareth P; Viswanath, K; Smith, Tenbroeck; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Vernon, Sally W; Turner, Gina; Hesse, Bradford W; Crammer, Corinne; von Wagner, Christian; Backinger, Cathy L

    2009-01-01

    People often seek and receive cancer information from mass media (including television, radio, print media, and the Internet), and marketing strategies often inform cancer information needs assessment, message development, and channel selection. In this article, we present the discussion of a 2-hour working group convened for a cancer communications workshop held at the 2008 Society of Behavioral Medicine meeting in San Diego, CA. During the session, an interdisciplinary group of investigators discussed the current state of the science for mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention. We discussed current research, new research areas, methodologies and theories needed to move the field forward, and critical areas and disciplines for future research.

  9. Primary and Secondary Prevention Trials in Alzheimer Disease: Looking Back, Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, David C.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    The field of Alzheimer disease (AD) prevention has been a culmination of basic science, clinical, and translational research. In the past three years since the new 2011 AD diagnostic guidelines, large-scale collaborative efforts have embarked on new clinical trials with the hope of someday preventing AD. This review will shed light on the historical and scientific contexts in which these trials were based on, as well as discuss potential challenges these trials may face in the coming years. Primary preventive measures, such as lifestyle, multidomain, medication, and supplemental interventions, will be analyzed. Secondary prevention as represented by disease-modifying interventions, such as anti-amyloid therapy and pioglitazone, will also be reviewed. Finally, hypotheses on future directions for AD prevention trials will be proposed. PMID:27697063

  10. An axisymmetric method of creep analysis for primary and secondary creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahed, Hamid; Bidabadi, Jalal

    2003-01-01

    A general axisymmetric method for elastic-plastic analysis was previously proposed by Jahed and Dubey [ASME J Pressure Vessels Technol 119 (1997) 264]. In the present work the method is extended to the time domain. General rate type governing equations are derived and solved in terms of rate of change of displacement as a function of rate of change in loading. Different types of loading, such as internal and external pressure, centrifugal loading and temperature gradient, are considered. To derive specific equations and employ the proposed formulation, the problem of an inhomogeneous non-uniform rotating disc is worked out. Primary and secondary creep behaviour is predicted using the proposed method and results are compared to FEM results. The problem of creep in pressurized vessels is also solved. Several numerical examples show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method

  11. The role of primary and secondary air on wood combustion in cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Thomas; Birzer, Cristian H.; Medwell, Paul R.; Holden, Liam

    2018-03-01

    A two-stage solid fuel research furnace was used to examine the claim that through forced draught greater mixing and more complete combustion could be achieved. By varying the primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) flow the influence on the combustion process was investigated. In the first part of the combustion, when the release of volatile compounds predominates, the variation of neither PA nor SA had a significant influence. In the second part when mainly char is oxidised an increase in both PA and SA lead to a rising nominal combustion efficiency (?)), with a greater impact observed with SA. Furthermore higher air flows caused the heat transfer, to a pot above the furnace, to decline. Therefore forced draught does lead to greater mixing and mitigation of emissions, but in the presented configuration a trade-off between a higher NCE and a lower heat transfer needs consideration.

  12. Lipoproteins as modulators of atherothrombosis: From endothelial function to primary and secondary coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouweneel, Amber B; Van Eck, Miranda

    2016-07-01

    Atherothrombosis is a complication of atherosclerosis that causes acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Circulating lipid levels are highly correlated with atherosclerotic plaque development. In addition, experimental evidence suggests that lipids also directly influence thrombosis and influence the risk and the outcome of acute cardiovascular events. Plasma lipoproteins influence three aspects important to atherothrombosis: endothelial function, platelet aggregation (primary coagulation) and secondary coagulation. Overall, VLDL, LDL and oxLDL promote thrombus formation, whereas HDL shows antithrombotic actions. In this review we will address the current knowledge about modulation of atherothrombosis by lipoproteins, summarizing findings from in vitro and in vivo animal studies, as well as from observational and interventional studies in humans. We will conclude with future perspectives for lipid modulation in the prevention of atherothrombosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patients' perspectives on the medical primary-secondary care interface: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Rod; Cooper, Jamie; Barbour, Rosaline; Polson, Rob; Wilson, Philip

    2015-10-15

    To synthesise the published literature on the patient experience of the medical primary-secondary care interface and to determine priorities for future work in this field aimed at improving clinical outcomes. Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore patients' perspectives of the medical primary-secondary care interface. International primary-secondary care interface. EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full text, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite, Biomedica Reference Collection: Comprehensive Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, eBook Collection, Web of Science Core Collection: Citation Indexes and Social Sciences Citation Index, and grey literature. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were full research papers employing qualitative methodology to explore patients' perspectives of the medical primary-secondary care interface. The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. The search identified 690 articles, of which 39 were selected for full-text review. 20 articles were included in the systematic review that encompassed a total of 689 patients from 10 countries. 4 important areas specific to the primary-secondary care interface from the patients' perspective emerged: barriers to care, communication, coordination, and 'relationships and personal value'. Patients should be the focus of any transfer of care between primary and secondary systems. From their perspective, areas for improvement may be classified into four domains that should usefully guide future work aimed at improving quality at this important interface. PROSPERO CRD42014009486. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of primary and secondary iliopsoas abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantasdemir, M.; Kara, B.; Cebi, D.; Selcuk, N.D.; Numan, F.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience with computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) of iliopsoas abscesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two iliopsoas abscesses in 21 patients (11 women, 10 men) aged between 18 and 66 years (mean 36 years) were treated with PCD. Abdominal CT demonstrated the iliopsoas abscesses, which were definitively determined by Gram staining and aspirate cultures. Twenty of the 22 iliopsoas abscesses were primary and two were secondary. All PCD procedures were performed under local anaesthesia using a single-step trocar technique (n=19) or Seldinger technique (n=3). RESULTS: PCD was an effective treatment in 21 out of the 22 iliopsoas abscesses. Recurrence was seen in three abscesses as minimal residual collections. Two of them resolved spontaneously with anti-tuberculous regimen. One required percutaneous needle aspiration. The procedure failed in a diabetic patient with a secondary abscess, who died due to sepsis. The length of time that catheters remained in place ranged from 21 to 75 days (mean 59.7 days). Complications included catheter dislocation in four abscesses, which required removal of dislocated catheters and indwelling new ones. CONCLUSION: CT-guided PCD is a safe and effective front-line treatment of iliopsoas abscesses. Surgery should be reserved for failure of PCD and presence of contraindications to PCD

  15. Involvement in sports clubs and informal sport activities of primary and secondary school children in Liechtenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kühnis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport involvement among children and adolescents has been a central field of research in sport science since years. This paper documents the participation of 11- to 15-year-olds in sport clubs and informal sport activities in Liechtenstein and examines possible gender- and age-specific differences. The analysis is based on four cross-sectional studies from 2004 to 2015 and includes the data of 1’262 children in primary (5th grade and secondary (7th and 9th grades school. According to our findings sports and exercise are considered to be one of the main leisure-time activities for all school levels (irrespective of gender. The percentage of fully sport-abstinent adolescents by 11- and 13-year-olds is about 5 %; by 15-year-olds is around 10 %. The culmination of sports club membership (with current 84.7 % appears to be at the age of 11 (5th grade. After the switch to secondary school the sports club commitment tends to decrease, while the high attendance of the informal sport activities (>85 % shows relatively stable age development. In contrast to other child and youth studies, our data indicates a levelling tendency and dissolution of classic gender differences not only in sports club commitment but also in informal sports among girls and boys.

  16. Secondary and multiple primary cancers relating radiation therapy for cancer of the oral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Junichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Takeda, Masamune; Takagi, Minoru.

    1985-01-01

    Secondary and multiple primary cancers relating radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma (s.c.c.) of the oral region including lip, oral cavity and oropharynx were analyzed. Out of 1,197 patients with s.c.c. treated with radiation during about 30 years from 1955 to 1983 June, 56 patients (4.7 %) were regarded as double or multiple cancer. The multiple cancer (s.c.c.) was observed frequently in the multicentric zone such as hypopharynx, esophagus and bronchus as well as in other sites of the oral cavity; 67.7 % (42 out of 62 sites). Frequency of synchronous double cancers was increased in recent ten years; 47.1 % (16/34). Careful examination to the above mentioned multicentric zone leads to early detection of secondary cancer and could be expected cure of the disease. Although possibility of radiation-induced cancer could not be ruled out as for 17 patients with late recurrence (more than 8 years), different histologic diagnosis from s.c.c. was obtained in only one (malignant fibrous histiocytoma). Therefore, it was difficult to discriminate radiation-induced cancer from late recurrence in the present study. (author)

  17. Assessment of the potential consequences of a large primary to secondary leakage accident. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.S.; Sartmadjiev, A.; Spalj, S.; Macek, J.; Kantee, H.; Elter, J.; Kostka, P.; Bukin, N.; Alexandrov, A.G.; Kristof, M.; Kvizda, B.; Matejovic, P.; Makihara, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper discusses one of the IAEA's Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs). The CRP was started in 2003 to evaluate complex phenomena of primary to secondary leakage (PRISE) accidents for WWER-440 reactors. The first Research Coordination Meeting (RCM), held in March 2003, identified the possible consequences of PRISE accidents (radioactive release to the atmosphere, pressurized thermal shock, boron dilution, loss of integrity of secondary systems and severe accidents) and designated six task groups to evaluate these, as well as uncertainties associated with PRISE analyses. The second RCM, held in March 2004, discussed the preliminary results of each task group and addressed the main safety concerns related to PRISE phenomena as well as providing recommendations on modelling for PRISE analyses and on operator actions. The third RCM, held in March 2005, discussed the results of the work performed in 2004. The CRP was concluded in 2005. Publication of the final results of the CRP is planned as an IAEA TECDOC. The paper provides a review of the final results of the project. (author)

  18. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C., E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  19. Tracing the social gradient in the health of Canadians: primary and secondary determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteniuk, Julie G; Dickinson, Harley D

    2003-07-01

    The social gradient in heath refers to the fact that inequalities in population health status are related to inequalities in social status. This study advances and tests a model of the relationships between what we term primary and secondary determinants of the social gradient in health. The primary determinants of health include socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Secondary determinants include stressors, control, self-esteem, social support, and social involvement. Health status is indicated by measures of physical health, self-reported health status, and mental distress. Data are taken from the Canadian National Population Health (NPH) Survey (1994-1995). The study sample consists of 7720 men and 9269 women 15 to over 80 years of age. Using path analysis, we found that higher household income, being retired and growing older are significantly associated with lower stressor levels. Higher stressor levels are associated with lower levels of control, self-esteem, and social support. Higher income Canadians experience greater levels of control and social support, while older Canadians experience lower rates of social support but higher rates of social involvement. Being employed and caring for one's family are positively associated with better physical and self-reported health status. Higher household income, being retired, and aging are associated with better physical health and lower mental distress when accounting for their role in lowering stressor levels and bolstering control, self-esteem, social support, and social involvement. Replicating this study with future samples of the NPH Survey should be of benefit in ascertaining whether the social gradient in Canadians' health status shows signs of declining.

  20. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  1. Primary and Secondary Yield Losses Caused by Pests and Diseases: Assessment and Modeling in Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Rolando; Avelino, Jacques; Gary, Christian; Tixier, Philippe; Lechevallier, Esther; Allinne, Clémentine

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of crop yield losses is needed for the improvement of production systems that contribute to the incomes of rural families and food security worldwide. However, efforts to quantify yield losses and identify their causes are still limited, especially for perennial crops. Our objectives were to quantify primary yield losses (incurred in the current year of production) and secondary yield losses (resulting from negative impacts of the previous year) of coffee due to pests and diseases, and to identify the most important predictors of coffee yields and yield losses. We established an experimental coffee parcel with full-sun exposure that consisted of six treatments, which were defined as different sequences of pesticide applications. The trial lasted three years (2013-2015) and yield components, dead productive branches, and foliar pests and diseases were assessed as predictors of yield. First, we calculated yield losses by comparing actual yields of specific treatments with the estimated attainable yield obtained in plots which always had chemical protection. Second, we used structural equation modeling to identify the most important predictors. Results showed that pests and diseases led to high primary yield losses (26%) and even higher secondary yield losses (38%). We identified the fruiting nodes and the dead productive branches as the most important and useful predictors of yields and yield losses. These predictors could be added in existing mechanistic models of coffee, or can be used to develop new linear mixed models to estimate yield losses. Estimated yield losses can then be related to production factors to identify corrective actions that farmers can implement to reduce losses. The experimental and modeling approaches of this study could also be applied in other perennial crops to assess yield losses.

  2. Historical intensity VIII earthquakes along the Rhone valley (Valais, Switzerland): primary and secondary effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsche, S.; Faeh, D.; Schwarz-Zanetti, G.

    2012-06-15

    In recent years the upper Rhone Valley has been one of the most intensively investigated regions by the Swiss Seismological Service. The high seismicity in the region encourages research in the seismological field and one main focus has been historical seismology. This report presents the state of the art of our historical investigations by giving an overview of the effects of four damaging earthquakes with intensity larger than VII, for which a fairly large number of documents could be found and analyzed. The overview includes the events of 1584 (Aigle, epicentral intensity VIII), 1755 (Brig, epicentral intensity VIII), 1855 (Visp, epicentral intensity VIII), and 1946 (Sierre, epicentral intensity VIII for the main shock and intensity VII for the largest aftershock). The paper focuses mainly on primary and secondary effects in the epicentral region, providing the key data and a general characterization of the event. Generally, primary effects such as the reaction of the population and impact on buildings took more focus in the past. Thus building damage is more frequently described in historic documents. However, we also found a number of sources describing secondary effects such as landslides, snow avalanches, and liquefaction. Since the sources may be useful, we include citations of these documents. The 1584 Aigle event, for example, produced exceptional movements in the Lake of Geneva, which can be explained by an expanded sub aquatic slide with resultant tsunami and seiche. The strongest of the aftershocks of the 1584 event triggered a destructive landslide covering the villages Corbeyrier and Yvorne, Vaud. All macroseismic data on the discussed events are accessible through the web page of the Swiss Seismological Service (http://www.seismo.ethz.ch). (authors)

  3. Equilibrium and Transport Properties of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines by Molecular Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, Gustavo A.; Nieto-Draghi, Carlos; Lachet, Veronique; Mackie, Allan D.

    2014-01-01

    Using molecular simulation techniques such as Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD), we present several simulation results of thermodynamic and transport properties for primary, secondary and tertiary amines. These calculations are based on a recently proposed force field for amines that follows the Anisotropic United Atom approach (AUA). Different amine molecules have been studied, including n-Butylamine, di-n-Butylamine, tri-n-Butylamine and 1,4-Butanediamine for primary, secondary, tertiary and multi-functional amines respectively. For the transport properties, we have calculated the viscosity coefficients as a function of temperature using the isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensemble. In the case of the pure components, we have investigated different thermodynamic properties using NVT Gibbs ensemble simulations such as liquid-vapor phase equilibrium diagrams, vaporization enthalpies, vapor pressures, normal boiling points, critical temperatures and critical densities. We have also calculated the excess enthalpies for water-n-Butylamine and n-heptane-n-Butylamine mixtures using Monte Carlo simulations in the NPT ensemble. In addition, we present the calculation of liquid-vapor surface tensions of n-Butylamine using a two-phase NVT simulation as well as the radial distribution functions. Finally, we have investigated the physical Henry constants of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and nitrogen (N 2 ) in an aqueous solutions of n-Butylamine. In general, we found a good agreement between the available experimental information and our simulation results for all the studied properties, ratifying the predictive capability of the AUA force field for amines. (authors)

  4. Psychopathy in Detained Boys: The Search for Primary and Secondary Variants in a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Olivier F; Fanti, Kostas A; Salekin, Randall T; Mulder, Eva; Andershed, Henrik

    2017-12-14

    This study investigates whether primary and secondary variants of psychopathy can be identified in an applied, forensic setting based on self-reports of psychopathy and anxiety. Data were available for two samples of detained boys (Sample A: N = 847, Sample B: N = 749). Using three psychopathy dimensions and anxiety as clustering variables, latent profile analysis arrived at 4 latent classes (LCs) that were tentatively labeled as control (LC1), high anxiety (LC2), moderate psychopathy (LC3), and high psychopathy (LC4). Boys in LC4 engaged in higher levels of alcohol/drug use, conduct problems, reactive and proactive aggression than their counterparts in LC1 and in higher levels of conduct problems, alcohol/drug use, and proactive aggression than boys in LC3. Findings further indicated that the risk for future nonviolent arrests was the highest in LC4 as compared with LC2 and LC3, though no class differences in risk for future violent arrests emerged. Overall, these findings were well replicated in Sample B. Exploratory analyses included additional measures of negative affect (depressed feeling and anger-irritability), maltreatment, and/or number of past arrests (as proxy of a 4th psychopathy dimension) as clustering variables and identified all but 1 (LC3) of the 4 aforementioned LCs. Notwithstanding that our findings challenge the expected relevance of differentiating primary and secondary variants of youth psychopathy, they do suggest that it is possible to identify detained boys with high levels of psychopathic traits who display features associated with adult psychopathy. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Maternal Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms, Self-Esteem, Body Dissatisfaction and Preschooler Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to cross-sectionally examine the associations between maternal psychosocial variables, child feeding practices, and preschooler body mass index z-score (BMI-z) in children (aged 2-4 years). A secondary aim was to examine differences in child weight outcomes between mothers scoring above and below specified…

  6. Suppressed hepatic bile acid signalling despite elevated production of primary and secondary bile acids in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Na; Baker, Susan S; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Liu, Wensheng; Nugent, Colleen A; Tsompana, Maria; Mastrandrea, Lucy; Buck, Michael J; Baker, Robert D; Genco, Robert J; Zhu, Ruixin; Zhu, Lixin

    2017-08-03

    Bile acids are regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, and modulate inflammation in the liver and other tissues. Primary bile acids such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are produced in the liver, and converted into secondary bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid by gut microbiota. Here we investigated the possible roles of bile acids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and the impact of the gut microbiome on bile acid signalling in NAFLD. Serum bile acid levels and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), liver gene expression profiles and gut microbiome compositions were determined in patients with NAFLD, high-fat diet-fed rats and their controls. Serum concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids were increased in patients with NAFLD. In per cent, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonistic DCA was increased, while the agonistic CDCA was decreased in NAFLD. Increased mRNA expression for cytochrome P450 7A1, Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and paraoxonase 1, no change in mRNA expression for small heterodimer partner and bile salt export pump, and reduced serum FGF19 were evidence of impaired FXR and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4)-mediated signalling in NAFLD. Taurine and glycine metabolising bacteria were increased in the gut of patients with NAFLD, reflecting increased secondary bile acid production. Similar changes in liver gene expression and the gut microbiome were observed in high-fat diet-fed rats. The serum bile acid profile, the hepatic gene expression pattern and the gut microbiome composition consistently support an elevated bile acid production in NAFLD. The increased proportion of FXR antagonistic bile acid explains, at least in part, the suppression of hepatic FXR-mediated and FGFR4-mediated signalling. Our study suggests that future NAFLD intervention may target the components of FXR signalling, including the bile acid converting gut microbiome. © Article

  7. Prognosis and continuity of child mental health problems from preschool to primary school: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Müller, Jörg M; Furniss, Tilman

    2012-08-01

    In a four-year longitudinal study, changes in and continuity of behavioral and emotional problems were examined in 814 subjects from kindergarten to primary school. Mental health problems were assessed by means of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The distribution of the CBCL broadband groups revealed a high level of continuity of internalizing symptoms over the four-year period and a shift from externalizing symptoms at baseline towards a combination of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at follow-up. The presence of mental health problems at follow-up was correlated with gender (higher amongst boys), pre-existing mental health problems at baseline, and separation or divorce of the parents, but not with single-family status or the age and educational level of the mother. The increasing number of children with a combination of internalizing and externalizing symptoms demonstrates the increasing complexity of child mental health problems in the developmental span from preschool age to school age.

  8. Prevalence of dental anomalies and enamel hypoplasia in primary dentition among preschool children of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh -A cross - sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Sahana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is axiomatic that Pediatric dental anomalies and enamel hypoplasia (E.H are routinely encountered in primary dentition and early detection and prudent management of the condition facilitates normal occlusal development. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of various dental anomalies and enamel hypoplasia in preschool children between two to six years of age. Materials & Method: A total of 1898 children, between two to six years were randomly selected and screened for dental anomalies and enamel hypoplasia The chi square test was used to analyze the data statistically. Results: The overall prevalence rate of dental anomalies and enamel hypoplasia in this study was 0.63% and 8.95% respectively. Double teeth were the most frequently reported dental anomaly while supernumerary teeth were least reported. None of them reported with hypodontia.

  9. Dynamic modeling of primary and secondary systems of IRIS reactor for transient analysis using SIMULINK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Mardson Alencar de Sa; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Silva, Mario Augusto Bezerra da

    2011-01-01

    The IRIS project has significantly advanced in the last few years in response to a demand for a new generation reactor, that could fulfill the essential requirements for a future nuclear power plant: better economics, safety-by-design, low proliferation risk and environmental sustainability. IRIS reactor is a integral type PWR in which all primary components are arranged inside the pressure vessel. This configuration involves important changes in relation to a conventional PWR. These changes require several studies to comply with the safe operational limits for the reactor. In this paper, a study has been conducted to develop a dynamic model (named MODIRIS) for transient analysis, implemented in the MATLAB'S software SIMULINK, allowing the analysis of IRIS behavior by considering the neutron point kinetics for power production. The methodology is based on generating a set of differential equations of neutronic and thermal-hydraulic balances which describes the dynamics of the primary circuit, as well as a set of differential equations describing the dynamics of secondary circuit. The equations and initialization parameters at full power were into the SIMULINK and the code was validated by the confrontation with RELAP simulations for a transient of feedwater reduction in the steam generators. (author)

  10. Free Diced Cartilage: A New Application of Diced Cartilage Grafts in Primary and Secondary Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Christian; Hoehne, Julius; Gubisch, Wolfgang; Rezaeian, Farid; Haack, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Irregularities or deformities of the nasal dorsum after hump reduction account for a significant number of revision rhinoplasties. The authors therefore developed a technique of meticulously dicing and exactly placing free diced cartilage grafts, harvested from septum, rib, or ear cartilage. The cartilage paste is used for smoothening, augmentation, or camouflaging of the nasal dorsum in primary or revision rhinoplasties. A retrospective analysis of multisurgeon consecutive open approach rhinoplasties from January to December of 2014 was conducted at a single center. The authors compared the outcome of three different techniques to augment or cover the nasal dorsum after an observation period of 7 months. In group I, 325 patients with free diced cartilage grafts as the only onlay were included. In group II, consisting of 73 patients, the dorsal onlay was either fascia alone or in combination with free diced cartilage grafts. Forty-eight patients in group III received a dorsal augmentation with the classic diced cartilage in fascia technique. Four hundred forty-six patients undergoing primary and secondary rhinoplasties in which one of the above-mentioned diced cartilage techniques was used were included in the study. The authors found revision rates for dorsal irregularities within the 7-month postoperative observation period of 5.2, 8.2, and 25 percent for groups I, II, and III, respectively. The authors' findings strongly support their clinical experience that the free diced cartilage graft technique presents an effective and easily reproducible method for camouflage and augmentation in aesthetic and reconstructive rhinoplasty.

  11. Artifacts Generated During Azoalkane Peroxy Radical Oxidative Stress Testing of Pharmaceuticals Containing Primary and Secondary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefliu, Marcela; Zelesky, Todd; Jansen, Patrick; Sluggett, Gregory W; Foti, Christopher; Baertschi, Steven W; Harmon, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    We report artifactual degradation of pharmaceutical compounds containing primary and secondary amines during peroxy radical-mediated oxidative stress carried out using azoalkane initiators. Two degradation products were detected when model drug compounds dissolved in methanol/water were heated to 40°C with radical initiators such as 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN). The primary artifact was identified as an α-aminonitrile generated from the reaction of the amine group of the model drug with formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, generated as byproducts of the stress reaction. A minor artifact was generated from the reaction between the amine group and isocyanic acid, also a byproduct of the stress reaction. We report the effects of pH, initiator/drug molar ratio, and type of azoalkane initiator on the formation of these artifacts. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used for structure elucidation, whereas mechanistic studies, including stable isotope labeling experiments, cyanide analysis, and experiments exploring the effects of butylated hydroxyanisole addition, were employed to support the degradation pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. A Unique Case of Acute Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Secondary to Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Syed F; Lodhi, Omair Ul Haq; Fatima, Zainab; Nasim, Saneeya; Malik, Waseem T; Saleem, Muhammad Sabih

    2017-09-16

    Primary varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, predominantly in the pediatric population, presents with pyrexia and a classic pruritic vesicular rash. In adults, although less common, it is more severe and linked to more complications. Neurological complications, which account for less than 1% of all VZV complications, include meningitis, encephalitis, arterial vasculopathy, and venous thrombosis. We present a case of a 39-year-old male who developed extensive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis following primary VZV infection. Venous thrombosis in VZV has been suggested to be caused by autoantibodies against protein S, pre-existing hypercoagulability, or endothelial damage. The patient was acutely managed using intravenous acyclovir and heparin. Long-term anticoagulation therapy with warfarin was continued after discharge. We concluded that clinicians should be aware of the rare complications of this common pathology so that a timely diagnosis can be made, followed by prompt management. Further studies need to be done to better understand acute cerebral venous sinus thrombosis secondary to VZV.

  13. Surgical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism: how to effectively reduce recurrence at the time of primary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Yin, Y; Hou, L; Dai, W

    2016-05-01

    Successful parathyroidectomy (PTX) often results in a dramatic drop in the parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, relieves the patient from clinical symptoms, and reduces mortality. Although PTX is generally a successful treatment for progressive secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) patients subjected to surgery, a significant proportion develops recurrent SHPT following PTX. SHPT requiring PTX occurs more commonly in progressive chronic kidney disease and in long-term lithium therapy. Operative approaches include subtotal PTX, total PTX with or without autotransplantation, and possible thymectomy. Each approach has its proponents, advantages, and disadvantages. Although PTX offers the highest percentage cure for SHPT, compared to all other medical and surgical treatment, recurrent hyperparathyroidism can be observed in some patients dependent on follow-up time. A literature review and analysis of recent data regarding how to reduce recurrence of SHPT at the time of primary surgery was performed. The current literature and our own experience in the field have confirmed that pre-operative imaging, thymectomy, stereo magnifier, and surgical procedure may effectively reduce recurrence of SHPT at the time of primary surgery.

  14. Scientific basis for the choice of primary/secondary water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnsey, R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the common scientific basis for the chemistry control strategies which have been developed. The evolution of chemistry control philosophies in some plant designs are outlined as examples. The essential requirement of water chemistry control is to preserve integrity of the circuit under all the environmental conditions experienced within that circuit. There may be specific additional requirements, as in the case of a PWR primary circuit, where boron concentration is used to control reactivity. The crucial requirement or concern can vary. In the primary circuit of a light water reactor the crucial requirement is to supress the activation and transportation of corrosion products and so minimize radiation fields around the circuit. On the secondary side of recirculating steam generators the critical requirement has been to preserve the integrity of generator tubing. In once-through steam generators the critical requirement may be the control of pressure losses associated with corrosion product deposits in the steam generator and the integrity of the turbine in addition to boiler integrity. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Professionals' perception of circuits of care for hypertensive or diabetic patients between primary and secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Moreno, Francisco Javier; Martell-Claros, Nieves; de la Figuera, Mariano; Escalada, Javier; Rodríguez, Marta; Orera, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    To determine the flow of care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension between primary care (PC) and specialized care (SC) in clinical practice, and the criteria used for referral and follow-up within the Spanish National Health System (NHS). A descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study. A probability convenience sampling stratified by number of physicians participating in each Spanish autonomous community was performed. Nine hundred and ninety-nine physicians were surveyed, of whom 78.1% (n=780) were primary care physicians (PCPs), while 11.9% (n=119) and 10.0% (n=100) respectively were specialists in hypertension and diabetes. KEY MEASUREMENTS: was conducted using two self administered online surveys. A majority of PCPs (63.7% and 55.5%) and specialists (79.8% and 45.0%) reported the lack of a protocol to coordinate the primary and specialized settings for both hypertension and T2DM respectively. The most widely used method for communication between specialists was the referral sheet (94.6% in PC and 92.4% in SC). The main reasons for referral to a specialist were refractory hypertension (80.9%) and suspected secondary hypertension (75.6%) in hypertensive patients, and suspicion of a specific diabetes (71.9%) and pregnancy (71.7%) in T2DM patients. Although results showed some common characteristics between PCPs and specialists in disease management procedures, the main finding was a poor coordination between PC and SC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Preschool Italian in Melbourne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Kindergarten in Victoria, Australia is the preschool year, attended by children who are four going on five, and who will go onto primary school the following year. These are part-time programs, run over a small number of sessions per week, typically for 3-5 hours per session for 10-12 hours per week. North West Brunswick Kindergarten, in the…

  17. Heterogeneous movement of insectivorous Amazonian birds through primary and secondary forest: A case study using multistate models with radiotelemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, James; Powell, Luke L.; Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Erik l.; Nichols, James D.; Stouffer, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Given rates of deforestation, disturbance, and secondary forest accumulation in tropical rainforests, there is a great need to quantify habitat use and movement among different habitats. This need is particularly pronounced for animals most sensitive to disturbance, such as insectivorous understory birds. Here we use multistate capture–recapture models with radiotelemetry data to determine the successional stage at which within-day movement probabilities of Amazonian birds in secondary forest are similar to those in primary forest. We radio-tracked three common understory insectivore species in primary and secondary forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments project near Manaus, Brazil: two woodcreepers, Glyphorynchus spirurus (n = 19) andXiphorhynchus pardalotus (n = 18), and the terrestrial antthrush Formicarius colma(n = 19). Forest age was a strong predictor of fidelity to a given habitat. All three species showed greater fidelity to primary forest than to 8–14-year-old secondary forest, indicating the latter’s relatively poor quality. The two woodcreeper species used 12–18-year-old secondary forest in a manner comparable to continuous forest, but F. colmaavoided moving even to 27–31-year-old secondary forest—the oldest at our site. Our results suggest that managers concerned with less sensitive species can assume that forest reserves connected by 12–18-year-old secondary forest corridors are effectively connected. On the other hand, >30 years are required after land abandonment before secondary forest serves as a primary forest-like conduit for movement by F. colma; more sensitive terrestrial insectivores may take longer still.

  18. Primary and Secondary Organic Marine Aerosol and Oceanic Biological Activity: Recent Results and New Perspectives for Future Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Rinaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important natural aerosol systems at the global level is marine aerosol that comprises both organic and inorganic components of primary and secondary origin. The present paper reviews some new results on primary and secondary organic marine aerosol, achieved during the EU project MAP (Marine Aerosol Production, comparing them with those reported in the recent literature. Marine aerosol samples collected at the coastal site of Mace Head, Ireland, show a chemical composition trend that is influenced by the oceanic biological activity cycle, in agreement with other observations. Laboratory experiments show that sea-spray aerosol from biologically active sea water can be highly enriched in organics, and the authors highlight the need for further studies on the atmospheric fate of such primary organics. With regard to the secondary fraction of organic aerosol, the average chemical composition and molecular tracer (methanesulfonic-acid, amines distribution could be successfully characterized by adopting a multitechnique analytical approach.

  19. A New Classification for Pathologies of Spinal Meninges-Part 2: Primary and Secondary Intradural Arachnoid Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekamp, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts are rare causes of radiculopathy or myelopathy. Treatment options include resection, fenestration, or cyst drainage. To classify intradural spinal arachnoid cysts and present results of their treatment. Among 1519 patients with spinal space occupying lesions, 130 patients demonstrated intradural arachnoid cysts. Neuroradiological and surgical features were reviewed and clinical data analyzed. Twenty-one patients presented arachnoid cysts as a result of an inflammatory leptomeningeal reaction related to meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intrathecal injections, intradural surgery, or trauma, ie, secondary cysts. For the remaining 109 patients, no such history could be elucidated, ie, primary cysts. Forty-six percent of primary and 86% of secondary cysts were associated with syringomyelia. Patients presented after an average history of 53 ± 88 months. There were 122 thoracic and 7 lumbar cysts plus 1 cervical cyst. Fifty-nine patients with primary and 15 patients with secondary cysts underwent laminotomies with complete or partial cyst resection and duraplasty. Mean follow-up was 57 ± 52 months. In the first postoperative year, profound improvements for primary cysts were noted, in contrast to marginal changes for secondary cysts. Progression-free survival for 10 years following surgery was determined as 83% for primary compared to 15% for secondary cysts. Despite differences in clinical presentation, progression-free survival was almost identical for patients with or without syringomyelia. Complete or partial resection leads to favorable short- and long-term results for primary arachnoid cysts. For secondary cysts, surgery can only provide clinical stabilization for a limited time due to the often extensive arachnoiditis. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  20. 45 CFR 84.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 84.38 Section 84.38..., and Secondary Education § 84.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on the basis of handicap...

  1. Effect of Primary Recrystallized Microstructure and Nitriding on Secondary Recrystallization in Grain Oriented Silicon Steel by Low Temperature Slab Reheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Gong-tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Different primary recrystallized grain sizes were obtained by controlling decarburization process in grain oriented silicon steel produced by low temperature slab reheating technique. The effect of primary grain size on secondary recrystallization and magnetic properties was studied. The appropriate nitrogen content after nitriding was explored in case of very large primary grain size, and the effect of {411}〈148〉 primary recrystallized texture on the abnormal growth behavior was discussed. The results show that an increase in average primary grain size from 10μm to 15μm leads to an increase of secondary recrystallization temperature and a sharper Goss texture with higher magnetic permeability, in the condition of a very large average primary grain size of 28μm, the suitable amount of nitrogen increases to about 6×10-4. The {411}〈148〉 oriented grains in primary recrystallized microstructure can easily grow into larger sizes due to their size advantage, and thus hinder the abnormal growth of secondary grains, moreover, the hindering effect is more pronounced in the abnormal growth of Brass-oriented grains due to their misorientation with low migration rate other than Goss grains.

  2. Primary and secondary aerosols in Beijing in winter: sources, variations and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yele; Du, Wei; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jie; Ge, Xinlei; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Chunmao; Ren, Lujie; Xu, Weiqi; Zhao, Jian; Han, Tingting; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wang, Zifa

    2016-07-01

    Winter has the worst air pollution of the year in the megacity of Beijing. Despite extensive winter studies in recent years, our knowledge of the sources, formation mechanisms and evolution of aerosol particles is not complete. Here we have a comprehensive characterization of the sources, variations and processes of submicron aerosols that were measured by an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer from 17 December 2013 to 17 January 2014 along with offline filter analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our results suggest that submicron aerosols composition was generally similar across the winter of different years and was mainly composed of organics (60 %), sulfate (15 %) and nitrate (11 %). Positive matrix factorization of high- and unit-mass resolution spectra identified four primary organic aerosol (POA) factors from traffic, cooking, biomass burning (BBOA) and coal combustion (CCOA) emissions as well as two secondary OA (SOA) factors. POA dominated OA, on average accounting for 56 %, with CCOA being the largest contributor (20 %). Both CCOA and BBOA showed distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) spectral signatures, indicating that PAHs in winter were mainly from coal combustion (66 %) and biomass burning emissions (18 %). BBOA was highly correlated with levoglucosan, a tracer compound for biomass burning (r2 = 0.93), and made a considerable contribution to OA in winter (9 %). An aqueous-phase-processed SOA (aq-OOA) that was strongly correlated with particle liquid water content, sulfate and S-containing ions (e.g. CH2SO2+) was identified. On average aq-OOA contributed 12 % to the total OA and played a dominant role in increasing oxidation degrees of OA at high RH levels (> 50 %). Our results illustrate that aqueous-phase processing can enhance SOA production and oxidation states of OA as well in winter. Further episode analyses highlighted the significant impacts of meteorological parameters on aerosol composition, size

  3. Local source impacts on primary and secondary aerosols in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) exhibits heterogeneity in composition across urban areas, leading to poor representation of outdoor air pollutants in human exposure assessments. To examine heterogeneity in PM composition and sources across an urban area, fine particulate matter samples (PM2.5) were chemically profiled in Iowa City, IA from 25 August to 10 November 2011 at two monitoring stations. The urban site is the federal reference monitoring (FRM) station in the city center and the peri-urban site is located 8.0 km to the west on the city edge. Measurements of PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol, inorganic ions, molecular markers for primary sources, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers were used to assess statistical differences in composition and sources across the two sites. PM2.5 mass ranged from 3 to 26 μg m-3 during this period, averaging 11.2 ± 4.9 μg m-3 (n = 71). Major components of PM2.5 at the urban site included organic carbon (OC; 22%), ammonium (14%), sulfate (13%), nitrate (7%), calcium (2.9%), and elemental carbon (EC; 2.2%). Periods of elevated PM were driven by increases in ammonium, sulfate, and SOA tracers that coincided with hot and dry conditions and southerly winds. Chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling was used to apportion OC to primary sources; biomass burning, vegetative detritus, diesel engines, and gasoline engines accounted for 28% of OC at the urban site and 24% of OC at the peri-urban site. Secondary organic carbon from isoprene and monoterpene SOA accounted for an additional 13% and 6% of OC at the urban and peri-urban sites, respectively. Differences in biogenic SOA across the two sites were associated with enhanced combustion activities in the urban area and higher aerosol acidity at the urban site. Major PM constituents (e.g., OC, ammonium, sulfate) were generally well-represented by a single monitoring station, indicating a regional source influence. Meanwhile, nitrate, biomass burning, food cooking, suspended dust, and

  4. Evaluation of primary and secondary stability of titanium implants using different surgical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Afsheen; Meijer, Gert J; Walboomers, X Frank; Jansen, John A

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the influence of different surgical techniques on the primary and secondary implant stability using trabecular bone of goats as an implantation model. In the iliac crest of eight goats, 48 cylindrical-screw-type implants with a diameter of 4.2 mm (Dyna(®) ; Bergen op Zoom, the Netherlands) were installed, using three different surgical techniques: (i) 5% undersized, using a final drill diameter of 4 mm; (ii) 15% undersized, using a final drill diameter of 3.6 mm; and (iii) 25% undersized, using a final drill diameter of 3.2 mm. Peak insertion torque values were measured by a Digital(®) (MARK-10 Corporation, New York, NY, USA) torque gauge instrument during placement. At 3 weeks after implantation, removal torque was measured. Histomorphometrically, the peri-implant bone volume was measured in three zones; the inner zone (0-500 μm), the middle zone (500-1000 μm) and the outer zone (1000-1500 μm). Evaluation of the obtained data demonstrated no statistically significant difference between different surgical techniques regarding removal torque values. With respect to the percentage peri-implant bone volume (%BV), also no significant difference could be observed between all three applied surgical techniques for both the inner, middle and outer zone. However, irrespective of the surgical technique, it was noticed that the %BV was significantly higher for the inner zone as compared to middle and outer zone (P < 0.05) around the implant. At 3 weeks after implant installation, independent of the used undersized surgical technique, the %BV in the inner zone (0-500 μm) peri-implant area was improved due to both condensation of the surrounding bone as also the translocation of host bone particles along the implant surface. Surprisingly, no mechanical beneficial effect of the 25% undersized surgical technique could be observed as compared to the 5% or 15% undersized surgical technique to improve primary or secondary implant stability. © 2013

  5. Utility of electronic patient records in primary care for stroke secondary prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashworth Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to inform the design of a pragmatic trial of stroke prevention in primary care by evaluating data recorded in electronic patient records (EPRs as potential outcome measures. The study also evaluated achievement of recommended standards of care; variation between family practices; and changes in risk factor values from before to after stroke. Methods Data from the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD were analysed for 22,730 participants with an index first stroke between 2003 and 2006 from 414 family practices. For each subject, the EPR was evaluated for the 12 months before and after stroke. Measures relevant to stroke secondary prevention were analysed including blood pressure (BP, cholesterol, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index (BMI, atrial fibrillation, utilisation of antihypertensive, antiplatelet and cholesterol lowering drugs. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were estimated by family practice. Random effects models were fitted to evaluate changes in risk factor values over time. Results In the 12 months following stroke, BP was recorded for 90%, cholesterol for 70% and body mass index (BMI for 47%. ICCs by family practice ranged from 0.02 for BP and BMI to 0.05 for LDL and HDL cholesterol. For subjects with records available both before and after stroke, the mean reductions from before to after stroke were: mean systolic BP, 6.02 mm Hg; diastolic BP, 2.78 mm Hg; total cholesterol, 0.60 mmol/l; BMI, 0.34 Kg/m2. There was an absolute reduction in smokers of 5% and heavy drinkers of 4%. The proportion of stroke patients within the recommended guidelines varied from less than a third (29% for systolic BP, just over half for BMI (54%, and over 90% (92% on alcohol consumption. Conclusions Electronic patient records have potential for evaluation of outcomes in pragmatic trials of stroke secondary prevention. Stroke prevention interventions in primary care remain suboptimal but important

  6. Secondary stressors and extreme events and disasters: a systematic review of primary research from 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Sarah; Rubin, G. James; Murray, Virginia; Rogers, M. Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Williams, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Extreme events and disasters, such as earthquakes and floods, cause distress and are associated with some people developing mental disorders. Primary stressors inherent in many disasters can include injuries sustained or watching someone die. The literature recognises the distress which primary stressors cause and their association with mental disorders. Secondary stressors such as a lack of financial assistance, the gruelling process of submitting an insurance claim, parents’ worries about their children, and continued lack of infrastructure can manifest their effects shortly after a disaster and persist for extended periods of time. Secondary stressors, and their roles in affecting people’s longer-term mental health, should not be overlooked. We draw attention in this review to the nature of secondary stressors that are commonly identified in the literature, assess how they are measured, and develop a typology of these stressors that often affect people after extreme events. Methods We searched for relevant papers from 2010 and 2011 using MEDLINE®, Embase and PsycINFO®. We selected primary research papers that evaluated the associations between secondary stressors and distress or mental disorders following extreme events, and were published in English. We extracted information on which secondary stressors were assessed, and used thematic analysis to group the secondary stressors into a typology. Results Thirty-two relevant articles published in 2010 and 2011 were identified. Many secondary stressors were poorly defined and difficult to differentiate from primary stressors or other life events. We identified 11 categories of secondary stressors, though some extend over more than one category. The categories include: economic stressors such as problems with compensation, recovery of and rebuilding homes; loss of physical possessions and resources; health-related stressors; stress relating to education and schooling; stress arising from media

  7. Distribution of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ebraheem, A.; Mersov, A.; Gurusamy, K.; Farquharson, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A microbeam synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSRXRF) technique has been used to determine the localization and the relative concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases. 24 colon and 23 liver samples were examined, all of which were formalin fixed tissues arranged as microarrays of 1.0 mm diameter and 10 μm thickness. The distribution of these metals was compared with light transmission images of adjacent sections that were H and E stained to reveal the location of the cancer cells. Histological details were provided for each sample which enable concentrations of all elements in different tissue types to be compared. In the case of liver, significant differences have been found for all elements when comparing tumour, normal, necrotic, fibrotic, and blood vessel tissues (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have also been found to be significantly different among tumour, necrotic, fibrotic, and mucin tissues in the colon samples (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have been compared between primary colorectal samples and colorectal liver metastases. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca are higher in all types of liver tissues compared to those in the colon tissues. Comparing liver tumour and colon tumour samples, significant differences have been found for all elements (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001). For necrotic tissues, significant increase has been found for Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001 for Fe and Zn, 0.014 for Ca, and 0.001 for Cu). The liver fibrotic levels of Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe were higher than the fibrotic colon areas (independent T test, P=0.007 for Zn and Mann Whitney test P<0.0001 for Cu, Fe and Ca). For the blood vessel tissue, the analysis revealed that the difference was only significant for Fe (P=0.009) from independent T test.

  8. Sun-related knowledge and attitudes of primary and secondary schoolchildren in western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuadens, Anne; Ackermann, Simone; Levi, Fabio; Bulliard, Jean-Luc

    2017-09-01

    Switzerland, particularly its western region, has the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. Although the risk of melanoma increases with sun overexposure during childhood, sun-related knowledge and attitudes of Swiss children are scarcely documented. We report the first investigation of the knowledge of the danger of ultraviolet radiation, attitudes towards a suntan and parental influence of schoolchildren in western Switzerland. All fifth, eighth and eleventh graders (average ages of 9, 12 and 15, respectively) in the 18 primary (fifth grade, n=431) and secondary (eighth and eleventh grades, n=837) public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds were surveyed during regular school classes. The response rate was 91% (1154/1268). Sun-related knowledge was high overall. Eight out of 10 children knew about the risk of skin cancer and recognized the most susceptible phototype. Knowledge increased significantly with age. Girls, older children, fair-skinned participants and those who preferred a tanned skin obtained the highest knowledge score. The main source of information on ultraviolet radiation and sun protection was their parents (76%), followed by the school (11%) and the media (9%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified higher sun-related knowledge, lower familial socioprofessional status and skin phototypes III-IV to be associated with a tan-seeking attitude. Parental sensitization (56%) and encouragement (61%) towards sun protection were more common among fair-skinned children and those of higher familial socioprofessional status. The high awareness of the risk of skin cancer among Swiss schoolchildren does not translate into appropriate attitudes. Community-wide intervention programmes involving parents, teachers, peers and primary care clinicians could be considered for Swiss prevention campaigns to improve children's sun behaviour and change their current pro-tan attitude.

  9. [Primary and secondary data on dementia care as an example of regional health planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Lisa-R; Schatz, Tanja R; Lappe, Veronika; Ihle, Peter; Barthen, Linda; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Erler, Antje

    2017-12-01

    Health service planning that takes into account as far as possible the regional needs and regional discrepancies is a controversial health issue in Germany. In a pilot scheme, we tested a planning process for regional healthcare services, based on the example of dementia care. The aim of this article is to present the strengths and limitations of this planning process. We developed an indicator set for dementia care based on routine regional data obtained from two German statutory health insurance companies. Additionally, primary data based on a questionnaire sent to all GPs in the area were evaluated. These data were expanded through the addition of official socio-demographic population data. Procedures and evaluation strategies, discussion of the results and the derivation of planning measures followed, in close agreement with a group of local experts. Few epidemiological data on regional variations in health care planning are publicly available. Secondary data from statutory health insurance companies can be assessed to support the estimation of regional health care needs, but interpretation is difficult. The use of surveys to collect primary data, and the assessment of results by the local health board may facilitate interpretation and may contribute towards more valid statements regarding regional health planning. Despite the limited availability of data and the considerable efforts involved in data analysis, the project demonstrates how needs-based health service planning can be carried out in a small region, taking into account the increasing demands of the local health care providers and the special local features.

  10. Basic Education from Early Childhood: Impacts of Free Primary Education and Subsidized Secondary Education on Public ECDE Centers in Nyahururu District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Peter Murage; Serem, T. D. K.

    2013-01-01

    Kenya must invest more in education to realize her vision 2030. The government commitment to Education for All's goal has been expressed through provision of basic education in pre-primary, primary and secondary school levels. To this end, the government introduced two kitties; Free Primary Education in 2003 and Subsidized Secondary Education in…

  11. A view from the top : a study on educational leadership in Roman Catholic Church primary and secondary schools in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi Cuschieri, Rose Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes a view and discusses the author’s current doctoral research on leadership in Roman Catholic primary and secondary schools in Malta. The study is taking a grounded approach in order to investigate what it is like to be a headteacher in a church-run school, through an exploration of attitudes, behaviours, leadership styles and managerial skills and approaches. The initial phase of the project involved interviews with 10 Roman Catholic school headteachers (5 primary and 5 second...

  12. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil- Centro de Lisboa, Radiology Department, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Casselman, Jan [A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  13. Primary and secondary organic aerosol origin by combined gas-particle phase source apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA, a prominent fraction of particulate organic mass (OA, remains poorly constrained. Its formation involves several unknown precursors, formation and evolution pathways and multiple natural and anthropogenic sources. Here a combined gas-particle phase source apportionment is applied to wintertime and summertime data collected in the megacity of Paris in order to investigate SOA origin during both seasons. This was possible by combining the information provided by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. A better constrained apportionment of primary OA (POA sources is also achieved using this methodology, making use of gas-phase tracers. These tracers made possible the discrimination between biogenic and continental/anthropogenic sources of SOA. We found that continental SOA was dominant during both seasons (24–50% of total OA, while contributions from photochemistry-driven SOA (9% of total OA and marine emissions (13% of total OA were also observed during summertime. A semi-volatile nighttime component was also identified (up to 18% of total OA during wintertime. This approach was successfully applied here and implemented in a new source apportionment toolkit.

  14. Gender differences in primary and secondary education: Are girls really outperforming boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert; van Langen, Annemarie

    2013-06-01

    A moral panic has broken out in several countries after recent studies showed that girls were outperforming boys in education. Commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Education, the present study examines the position of boys and girls in Dutch primary education and in the first phase of secondary education over the past ten to fifteen years. On the basis of several national and international large-scale databases, the authors examined whether one can indeed speak of a gender gap, at the expense of boys. Three domains were investigated, namely cognitive competencies, non-cognitive competencies, and school career features. The results as expressed in effect sizes show that there are hardly any differences with regard to language and mathematics proficiency. However, the position of boys in terms of educational level and attitudes and behaviour is much more unfavourable than that of girls. Girls, on the other hand, score more unfavourably with regard to sector and subject choice. While the present situation in general does not differ very much from that of a decade ago, it is difficult to predict in what way the balances might shift in the years to come.

  15. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra; Casselman, Jan

    2007-01-01

    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  16. Social Isolation and Mental Health at Primary and Secondary School Entry: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Objective We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. Method We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers’ and teachers’ reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers’ and teachers’ ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. Results At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Conclusion Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. PMID:25721188

  17. Exploring EFL Teachers’ Motivation in Greek State Primary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoena Gemelou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies within the field of educational psychology have addressed the issue of students’ motivation, not as much attention has been given to teacher motivation. The present study aims at examining the factors that motivate EFL teachers working at Greek State Primary and Secondary schools, highlighting the importance of these factors for the improvement and enhancement of the teaching performance. The results of the study indicated that EFL teachers are quite motivated. Motivating factors are mostly intrinsic in nature, while demotivation rises mainly from extrinsic factors. Among the most powerful motivators were the teachers’ relation with their students and the subject matter itself, while frequent educational reforms and poor remuneration were identified as highly demotivating factors. Given that teachers’ motivation directly influences students’ motivation, highly motivated teachers are crucial for an effective educational system. Consequently, an important part of education policy-making should be the enhancement of teacher motivation as well as the reduction or elimination of any factors that impede teachers’ performance.

  18. Clinical experience with RF thermotherapy for nonresectable primary and secondary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Fujimura, Takashi; Takegawa, Shigeru; Miyata, Ryuwa; Kamata, Toru; Miyazaki, Itsuo; Nakajima, Kazuyoshi; Hisazumi, Haruo; Saito, Yasuo

    1987-01-01

    Twenty two patients with primary or secondary liver tumors were treated by radiofrequency hyperthermia (8 MHz) combined with radiation or chemotherapy. Hyperthermia was administered twice a week for 40 - 60 minutes per session up to a total of 5 - 48 sessions. Five fractions per week of irradiation (10 MV X ray) at 180 - 200 cGy or intraarterial chemotherapy using mitomycin C, cis-diamminedichroloplatinum or adriamycine were carried out. Intratumor temperature over 42.5 deg C were obtained in 9 of 17 patients. Of the 22 patients treated, 2 (9 %) showed complete response, 8 (36 %) partial response, 3 (14 %) minor response, 7 (32 %) no change and 2 (9 %) progressive disease. 7 out of 14 tumors, heated over 42.5 deg C showed complete or partial response but only 1 out of 5 tumors, heated under 42.5 deg C was responder. Complication observed were thrombocytopenia and leukopenia in 30 % of cases. These results showed that combined treatment of hyperthermia radiation and chemotherapy appear to be useful from of therapy for the patients with liver tumor. (author)

  19. Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; Sturchio, Neil C.

    2003-01-01

    This project, renewal of a previous EMSP project of the same title, is in its first year of funding at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The purpose is to continue investigating rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals found in the Hanford subsurface and leaked waste tank solutions. The goals are to understand processes that result in (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. A post-doctoral scientist, Dr. Sherry Samson, has been hired and two masters of science students are beginning to conduct experimental research. One research project that is underway is focused on measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms. The first set of experiments is being conduced at room temperature. Subsequent experiments will examine the role of temperature because tank solutions in many cases were near boiling when leakage is thought to have occurred and temperature gradients have been observed beneath the SX and BX tank farms. The dissolution experiments are being conducted in stirred-flow kinetic reactors using powdered labradorite feldspar from Pueblo Park, New Mexico

  20. Preliminary clinical results of locoregional hyperthermia for primary and secondary bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.L.; Nagata, Yasushi; Kanamori, Shuichi; Mitsumori, Michihide; Okuno, Yoshishige; Horii, Naotoshi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Masunaga, Shinitiro; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2000-03-01

    Nineteen primary and secondary bone tumors in 16 patients were treated with hyperthermia plus radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy between 1982 and 1997 at Kyoto University Hospital. The thermometric and clinical results were analyzed retrospectively. In 55 of 86 hyperthermia sessions, the intratumor temperature was measured using a thermometer. Of the 19 tumors, 16 (84%) received heat treatment 4-7 times, and 3 (16%) received 1 or 2 treatments of hyperthermia. The mean maximum, mean minimum and average intratumor temperatures were 42.9, 40.4 and 41.6 deg C, respectively, and 12 (67%) reached a tumor maximum temperature above 42.5 deg C. The durations that intratumor points exceeded 42, 41 and 40 deg C were 27, 34 and 38 min, respectively. The local tumor response to treatment was assessed using X-ray computed tomography. The local response rate was 16% and the local pain relief rate was 63%. The 1-year cumulative survival rate was 60%. Our preliminary results indicated that thermoradiotherapy and thermochemotherapy are clinicaly feasible and potentially beneficial in the management of locally advanced bone tumors. (author)

  1. Dislocation based controlling of kinematic hardening contribution to simulate primary and secondary stages of uniaxial ratcheting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Dhar, S.; Acharyya, S. K.

    2017-07-01

    The primary and secondary stages of the uniaxial ratcheting curve for the C-Mn steel SA333 have been investigated. Stress controlled uniaxial ratcheting experiments were conducted with different mean stresses and stress amplitudes to obtain curves showing the evolution of ratcheting strain with number of cycles. In stage-I of the ratcheting curve, a large accumulation of ratcheting strain occurs, but at a decreasing rate. In contrast, in stage-II a smaller accumulation of ratcheting strain is found and the ratcheting rate becomes almost constant. Transmission electron microscope observations reveal that no specific dislocation structures are developed during the early stages of ratcheting. Rather, compared with the case of low cycle fatigue, it is observed that sub-cell formation is delayed in the case of ratcheting. The increase in dislocation density as a result of the ratcheting strain is obtained using the Orowan equation. The ratcheting strain is obtained from the shift of the plastic strain memory surface. The dislocation rearrangement is incorporated in a functional form of dislocation density, which is used to calibrate the parameters of a kinematic hardening law. The observations are formulated in a material model, plugged into the ABAQUS finite element (FE) platform as a user material subroutine. Finally the FE-simulated ratcheting curves are compared with the experimental curves.

  2. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.

  3. Impact of shelf life on content of primary and secondary metabolites in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veberic, Robert; Schmitzer, Valentina; Petkovsek, Maja M; Stampar, Franci

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the changes in apple fruit quality during shelf life. After a month of cold storage, apples of cultivars "Jonagold" and "Golden Delicious" were exposed to ambient temperatures for 21 d, with subsequent sampling every 3 or 4 d. Fruit firmness, changes in amounts of sugars, malic acid, and phenolics were observed during shelf life. Chemical analyses were done with HPLC-PDA system. An interchange between various sugars was noticed, but in general, the sum of sugars remained at the same level. The content of malic acid remained stable or dropped, resulting in sweeter fruit. Levels of phenolics were more constant in the pulp of both cultivars analyzed, while in the peel, the changes were more pronounced. In the pulp, a peak in the content of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanols was noticed on the 2nd or 3rd sampling and afterwards, the amounts remained constant. In the peel an initial decrease of all analyzed phenolic groups was observed in both cultivars, however it was more pronounced in "Jonagold." It can be concluded that changes in primary and secondary metabolites are not the main reason for the lower quality of fruit exposed to ambient temperatures. On the other hand, fruit firmness might be the limiting factor for shelf life duration. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. [Compliance with recommendations in secondary prevention of stroke in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Ojeda, Carmen; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Salvador-González, Betlem; Oriol-Torón, Pilar Ángeles; Rodríguez-Garrido, M Dolores; Muñoz-Segura, Dolores

    Knowing compliance with secondary prevention recommendations of stroke in primary care and to identify factors associated with compliance. Multi-centre cross-sectional. Health primary care centres in a metropolitan area (944,280 inhabitants). Patients aged 18years and over with ischemic brain disease diagnosis prior to 6months before the study. Clinical history records of demographic variables, risk factors and cardiovascular comorbidity, drugs, blood pressure values (BP), LDL-cholesterol and medical visits by doctor and nurses after the event. Good adherence was considered when BP <140/90 mmHg, LDL-cholesterol <100 mg/dL, smoking abstention and preventive drugs prescription (anti-platelet/anticoagulants, statins and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor-antagonists or diuretics) during the last 18months. A total of 21,976 patients, mean age 73.12 years (SD: 12.13), 48% women, 72.7% with stroke. Co-morbidity: hypertension 70.8%, dyslipidemia 55.1%, DM 30.9%, atrial fibrillation 14.1%, ischemic heart disease 13.5%, chronic renal failure 12.5%, heart failure 8.8%, peripheral arterial disease 6.2%, dementia 7.8%. No record was found for smoking in 3.7%, for BP in 3.5% and for LDL in 6.5%. Optimal control: abstention smoking in 3.7%, BP <140/90 in 65.7% and LDL <100 mg/dL in 41.0%. 86.2% anti-platelet/anticoagulants, 61.3% statins and 61.8% angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor-antagonists or diuretic. Registration and risk factors control was higher in 66-79years aged and lower in 18-40years aged. The implementation of clinical guidelines recommendations for stroke prevention in primary care must be improved, especially among younger population. Organizational changes and more active involvement by professionals and strategies against therapeutic inertia must be taken. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiovascular disease treatment among patients with severe mental illness: a data linkage study between primary and secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Charlotte; Ashworth, Mark; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Hotopf, Matthew; Schofield, Peter; Soncul, Murat; Stewart, Robert J; Henderson, Max J

    2016-06-01

    Suboptimal treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among patients with severe mental illness (SMI) may contribute to physical health disparities. To identify SMI characteristics associated with meeting CVD treatment and prevention guidelines. Population-based electronic health record database linkage between primary care and the sole provider of secondary mental health care services in south east London, UK. Cardiovascular disease prevalence, risk factor recording, and Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) clinical target achievement were compared among 4056 primary care patients with SMI whose records were linked to secondary healthcare records and 270 669 patients without SMI who were not known to secondary care psychiatric services, using multivariate logistic regression modelling. Data available from secondary care records were then used to identify SMI characteristics associated with QOF clinical target achievement. Patients with SMI and with coronary heart disease and heart failure experienced reduced prescribing of beta blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB). A diagnosis of schizophrenia, being identified with any indicator of risk or illness severity, and being prescribed with depot injectable antipsychotic medication was associated with the lowest likelihood of prescribing. Linking primary and secondary care data allows the identification of patients with SMI most at risk of undertreatment for physical health problems. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  6. Blood transfusion for preventing primary and secondary stroke in people with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Wang, Winfred C

    2017-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood transfusions may reduce the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke by diluting the proportion of sickled cells in the circulation. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002, and last updated in 2013. Objectives To assess risks and benefits of chronic blood transfusion regimens in people with sickle cell disease for primary and secondary stroke prevention (excluding silent cerebral infarcts). Search methods We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 04 April 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 25 April 2016. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing red blood cell transfusions as prophylaxis for stroke in people with sickle cell disease to alternative or standard treatment. There were no restrictions by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results We included five trials (660 participants) published between 1998 and 2016. Four of these trials were terminated early. The vast majority of participants had the haemoglobin (Hb)SS form of sickle cell disease. Three trials compared regular red cell transfusions to standard care in primary prevention of stroke: two in children with no previous long-term transfusions; and one in children and adolescents on long-term transfusion. Two trials compared the drug

  7. Blood transfusion for preventing primary and secondary stroke in people with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Wang, Winfred C

    2017-01-17

    Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood transfusions may reduce the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke by diluting the proportion of sickled cells in the circulation.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002, and last updated in 2013. To assess risks and benefits of chronic blood transfusion regimens in people with sickle cell disease for primary and secondary stroke prevention (excluding silent cerebral infarcts). We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 04 April 2016.We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 25 April 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing red blood cell transfusions as prophylaxis for stroke in people with sickle cell disease to alternative or standard treatment. There were no restrictions by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. We included five trials (660 participants) published between 1998 and 2016. Four of these trials were terminated early. The vast majority of participants had the haemoglobin (Hb)SS form of sickle cell disease.Three trials compared regular red cell transfusions to standard care in primary prevention of stroke: two in children with no previous long-term transfusions; and one in children and adolescents on long-term transfusion.Two trials compared the drug hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide) and phlebotomy to long-term transfusions and iron chelation therapy: one in

  8. Impact of Primary and Secondary Social Origin Factors on the Transition to University in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simonová, Natalie; Soukup, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2015), s. 707-728 ISSN 0142-5692 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : educational inequality * social origin * primary and secondary effects Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2013.854690

  9. Teacher Salaries and the Shortage of High-Quality Teachers in China's Rural Primary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuehui, An

    2018-01-01

    Teacher salary level and structure are not only important factors affecting the supply of primary and secondary school teachers, but they are also crucial to attracting, training, and retaining high-quality teachers, thereby impacting the overall quality of education and teaching in schools. The reform of China's basic education management system…

  10. The Contributions of Primary and Secondary Memory to Working Memory Capacity: An Individual Differences Analysis of Immediate Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J.; Brewer, Gene A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested the dual-component model of working memory capacity (WMC) by examining estimates of primary memory and secondary memory from an immediate free recall task. Participants completed multiple measures of WMC and general intellectual ability as well as multiple trials of an immediate free recall task. It was demonstrated that…

  11. Console Game-Based Pedagogy: A Study of Primary and Secondary Classroom Learning through Console Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Jennifer S.; Howells, Cathrin; Cranmer, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this research project was to identify the educational benefits of console game-based learning in primary and secondary schools. The project also sought to understand how the benefits of educational gaming could transfer to other settings. For this purpose, research was carried out in classrooms in Scotland to explore learning…

  12. Complex of primary and secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae and Signiphoridae) of Hypogeoccoccus spp. mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitoids, both primary and secondary (hyperparasitoids), of Hypogeococcus spp. mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are reviewed to report results of the surveys in the New World conducted during 2009–2017 for perspective natural enemies of the Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus sp., which ...

  13. The Social and Emotional Functioning of Students with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder during the Transition between Primary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The transition from the primary to the secondary phase in education can be a pivotal moment for many students, but for students who have autism, their difficulties with socialisation and emotional regulation can make this time period especially challenging. This article explores the experiences of key stakeholders regarding the issue of students…

  14. Self-beliefs mediate mathematical performance between primary and lower secondary school: A large scale longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, Helen; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that enhancement of self-beliefs should be one of the key goals ofeducation. However, very little is known about the relation between self-beliefs and performance when students move from primary to secondary school in highly differentiated educational systems with early tracking.

  15. The Construct of Teachers' Pay Satisfaction: A Case Study of Primary and Secondary Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yonghong; Bi, Yan; Wang, Li; Cravens, Xiu Chen; Li, Yanli

    2018-01-01

    The construct of teachers' pay satisfaction is important to the systemic appraisal of teachers' compensation. The study aims to probe the components of teachers' pay satisfaction and verify this construct in primary and secondary schools in China. In-depth interviews with 24 teachers were conducted to propose a construct model for teachers' pay…

  16. Physical Activity Patterns and Psychological Correlates of Physical Activity among Singaporean Primary, Secondary, and Junior College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. K. John; Koh, K. T.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Liu, W. C.; Chye, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine physical activity patterns and psychological correlates of physical activity among primary, secondary, and junior college students in Singapore. A sample of 3,333 school students aged 10 to 18 years took part in the study. Results showed that the younger students had significantly higher physical…

  17. Does the Implant Surgical Technique Affect the Primary and/or Secondary Stability of Dental Implants? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadid, Rola Muhammed; Sadaqah, Nasrin Rushdi; Othman, Sahar Abdo

    2014-01-01

    Background. A number of surgical techniques for implant site preparation have been advocated to enhance the implant of primary and secondary stability. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the association between the surgical technique and implant stability. Purpose. This review aimed to investigate the influence of different surgical techniques including the undersized drilling, the osteotome, the piezosurgery, the flapless procedure, and the bone stimulation by low-level laser therapy on the primary and/or secondary stability of dental implants. Materials and methods. A search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and grey literature was performed. The inclusion criteria comprised observational clinical studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in patients who received dental implants for rehabilitation, studies that evaluated the association between the surgical technique and the implant primary and/or secondary stability. The articles selected were carefully read and classified as low, moderate, and high methodological quality and data of interest were tabulated. Results. Eight clinical studies were included then they were classified as moderate or high methodological quality and control of bias. Conclusions. There is a weak evidence suggesting that any of previously mentioned surgical techniques could influence the primary and/or secondary implant stability. PMID:25126094

  18. Does the Implant Surgical Technique Affect the Primary and/or Secondary Stability of Dental Implants? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola Muhammed Shadid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A number of surgical techniques for implant site preparation have been advocated to enhance the implant of primary and secondary stability. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the association between the surgical technique and implant stability. Purpose. This review aimed to investigate the influence of different surgical techniques including the undersized drilling, the osteotome, the piezosurgery, the flapless procedure, and the bone stimulation by low-level laser therapy on the primary and/or secondary stability of dental implants. Materials and methods. A search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and grey literature was performed. The inclusion criteria comprised observational clinical studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs conducted in patients who received dental implants for rehabilitation, studies that evaluated the association between the surgical technique and the implant primary and/or secondary stability. The articles selected were carefully read and classified as low, moderate, and high methodological quality and data of interest were tabulated. Results. Eight clinical studies were included then they were classified as moderate or high methodological quality and control of bias. Conclusions. There is a weak evidence suggesting that any of previously mentioned surgical techniques could influence the primary and/or secondary implant stability.

  19. Development of a Mobile-Optimised Website to Support Students with Special Needs Transitioning from Primary to Secondary Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Dianne; Coffey, Anne

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing number of students with special needs being included in regular classroom environments, consideration of, and planning for, a smooth transition between different school settings is important for parents, classroom teachers and school administrators. The transition between primary and secondary school can be difficult for…

  20. Examination of Primary and Secondary School Teachers' Aspects towards Educational Use of Video Sharing Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Ertugrul; Atun, Handan

    2017-01-01

    Daily use of video has increased by televisions, but lately people have been using video sharing websites most frequently. This extended use of video sharing websites has emerged a new era for education; teachers and learners can use them to enhance learning in education. Hence, the purpose of this study is to examine primary and secondary school…

  1. The Influence of Surface and Deep Cues on Primary and Secondary School Students' Assessment of Relevance in Web Menus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouet, Jean-Francois; Ros, Christine; Goumi, Antonine; Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Dinet, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigated primary and secondary school students' Web menu selection strategies using simulated Web search tasks. It was hypothesized that students' selections of websites depend on their perception and integration of multiple relevance cues. More specifically, students should be able to disentangle superficial cues (e.g.,…

  2. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section 50.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL...

  3. Investigating the Relationship among the Level of Mobbing Experience, Job Satisfaction and Burnout Levels of Primary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okçu, Veysel; Çetin, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the level of mobbing experienced by primary and secondary school teachers and to determine how and to what extent this affects their job satisfaction and burnout levels. This research used a relational survey model. As a result of the study, it has been determined that there is a negative and medium-level…

  4. Processing of primary and secondary rewards: a quantitative meta-analysis and review of human functional neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sescousse, G.T.; Caldu, X.; Segura, B.; Dreher, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    One fundamental question concerning brain reward mechanisms is to determine how reward-related activity is influenced by the nature of rewards. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature and explicitly assess to what extent the representations of primary and secondary rewards overlap in the human

  5. [Nurse involvement in primary care: it is the key to improve the outcomes in primary and secondary prevention?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardi, Sabino; Gori, Pierpaolo; Umari, Paolo

    2010-06-01

    Difficulties in management of risk factors, lifestyle and medications adherence to achieve secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease were described. Many studies indicate that the benefit of cardiac rehabilitation therapy after acute coronary events is only partially maintained during the following year. Thereafter, new strategies of medical care are needed to improve the long-term outcomes in coronary patients. Nurse co-ordinated, multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitative programme could help patients to improve their lifestyle, to control their risk factors and to achieve their therapeutic goals for secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  6. Retinal genes are differentially expressed in areas of primary versus secondary degeneration following partial optic nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Chiha

    Full Text Available Partial transection (PT of the optic nerve is an established experimental model of secondary degeneration in the central nervous system. After a dorsal transection, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs with axons in ventral optic nerve are intact but vulnerable to secondary degeneration, whereas RGCs in dorsal retina with dorsal axons are affected by primary and secondary injuries. Using microarray, we quantified gene expression changes in dorsal and ventral retina at 1 and 7 days post PT, to characterize pathogenic pathways linked to primary and secondary degeneration.In comparison to uninjured retina Cryba1, Cryba2 and Crygs, were significantly downregulated in injured dorsal retina at days 1 and 7. While Ecel1, Timp1, Mt2A and CD74, which are associated with reducing excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation, were significantly upregulated. Genes associated with oxygen binding pathways, immune responses, cytokine receptor activity and apoptosis were enriched in dorsal retina at day 1 after PT. Oxygen binding and apoptosis remained enriched at day 7, as were pathways involved in extracellular matrix modification. Fewer changes were observed in ventral retina at day 1 after PT, most associated with the regulation of protein homodimerization activity. By day 7, apoptosis, matrix organization and signal transduction pathways were enriched. Discriminant analysis was also performed for specific functional gene groups to compare expression intensities at each time point. Altered expression of selected genes (ATF3, GFAP, Ecel1, TIMP1, Tp53 and proteins (GFAP, ECEL1 and ATF3 were semi-quantitatively assessed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively.There was an acute and complex primary injury response in dorsal retina indicative of a dynamic interaction between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative events; ventral retina vulnerable to secondary degeneration showed a delayed injury response. Both primary and secondary injury resulted in the

  7. Primary aerosol and secondary inorganic aerosol budget over the Mediterranean Basin during 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Jonathan; Marécal, Virginie; Josse, Béatrice; Arteta, Joaquim; Hamer, Paul

    2018-04-01

    In the frame of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx), we analyse the budget of primary aerosols and secondary inorganic aerosols over the Mediterranean Basin during the years 2012 and 2013. To do this, we use two year-long numerical simulations with the chemistry-transport model MOCAGE validated against satellite- and ground-based measurements. The budget is presented on an annual and a monthly basis on a domain covering 29 to 47° N latitude and 10° W to 38° E longitude. The years 2012 and 2013 show similar seasonal variations. The desert dust is the main contributor to the annual aerosol burden in the Mediterranean region with a peak in spring, and sea salt being the second most important contributor. The secondary inorganic aerosols, taken as a whole, contribute a similar level to sea salt. The results show that all of the considered aerosol types, except for sea salt aerosols, experience net export out of our Mediterranean Basin model domain, and thus this area should be considered as a source region for aerosols globally. Our study showed that 11 % of the desert dust, 22.8 to 39.5 % of the carbonaceous aerosols, 35 % of the sulfate and 9 % of the ammonium emitted or produced into the study domain are exported. The main sources of variability for aerosols between 2012 and 2013 are weather-related variations, acting on emissions processes, and the episodic import of aerosols from North American fires. In order to assess the importance of the anthropogenic emissions of the marine and the coastal areas which are central for the economy of the Mediterranean Basin, we made a sensitivity test simulation. This simulation is similar to the reference simulation but with the removal of the international shipping emissions and the anthropogenic emissions over a 50 km wide band inland along the coast. We showed that around 30 % of the emissions of carbonaceous aerosols and 35 to 60 % of the exported carbonaceous aerosols originates from the marine and

  8. Primary and secondary aerosols in Beijing in winter: sources, variations and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter has the worst air pollution of the year in the megacity of Beijing. Despite extensive winter studies in recent years, our knowledge of the sources, formation mechanisms and evolution of aerosol particles is not complete. Here we have a comprehensive characterization of the sources, variations and processes of submicron aerosols that were measured by an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer from 17 December 2013 to 17 January 2014 along with offline filter analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our results suggest that submicron aerosols composition was generally similar across the winter of different years and was mainly composed of organics (60 %, sulfate (15 % and nitrate (11 %. Positive matrix factorization of high- and unit-mass resolution spectra identified four primary organic aerosol (POA factors from traffic, cooking, biomass burning (BBOA and coal combustion (CCOA emissions as well as two secondary OA (SOA factors. POA dominated OA, on average accounting for 56 %, with CCOA being the largest contributor (20 %. Both CCOA and BBOA showed distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs spectral signatures, indicating that PAHs in winter were mainly from coal combustion (66 % and biomass burning emissions (18 %. BBOA was highly correlated with levoglucosan, a tracer compound for biomass burning (r2 = 0.93, and made a considerable contribution to OA in winter (9 %. An aqueous-phase-processed SOA (aq-OOA that was strongly correlated with particle liquid water content, sulfate and S-containing ions (e.g. CH2SO2+ was identified. On average aq-OOA contributed 12 % to the total OA and played a dominant role in increasing oxidation degrees of OA at high RH levels (> 50 %. Our results illustrate that aqueous-phase processing can enhance SOA production and oxidation states of OA as well in winter. Further episode analyses highlighted the significant impacts of meteorological parameters on

  9. Monte Carlo study of radial energy deposition from primary and secondary particles for narrow and large proton beamlet source models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, Christopher R; Titt, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    In spot-scanning intensity-modulated proton therapy, numerous unmodulated proton beam spots are delivered over a target volume to produce a prescribed dose distribution. To accurately model field size-dependent output factors for beam spots, the energy deposition at positions radial to the central axis of the beam must be characterized. In this study, we determined the difference in the central axis dose for spot-scanned fields that results from secondary particle doses by investigating energy deposition radial to the proton beam central axis resulting from primary protons and secondary particles for mathematical point source and distributed source models. The largest difference in the central axis dose from secondary particles resulting from the use of a mathematical point source and a distributed source model was approximately 0.43%. Thus, we conclude that the central axis dose for a spot-scanned field is effectively independent of the source model used to calculate the secondary particle dose. (paper)

  10. Interpreting stream sediment fingerprints against primary and secondary source signatures in agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Will H.; Haley, Steve; Smith, Hugh G.; Taylor, Alex; Goddard, Rupert; Lewin, Sean; Fraser, David

    2013-04-01

    Many sediment fingerprinting studies adopt a black box approach to source apportionment whereby the properties of downstream sediment are compared quantitatively to the geochemical fingerprints of potential catchment sources without consideration of potential signature development or modification during transit. Working within a source-pathway-receptor framework, this study aimed to undertake sediment source apportionment within 6 subcatchments of an agricultural river basin with specific attention to the potential role of contaminants (vehicle emissions and mine waste) in development of stream sediment signatures. Fallout radionuclide (FRN) and geochemical fingerprinting methods were adopted independently to establish source signatures for primary sediment sources of surface and subsurface soil materials under various land uses plus reworked mine and 'secondary' soil material deposited, in transit, along road networks. FRN data demonstrated expected variability between surface soil (137Cs = 14 ± 3 Bq kg-1; 210Pbxs = 40 ± 7 Bq kg-1) and channel bank materials (137Cs = 3 ± 1 Bq kg-1; 210Pbxs = 24 ± 5 Bq kg-1) but road transported soil material was considerably elevated in 210Pbxs (up to 673 ± 51 Bq kg-1) due to sediment interaction with pluvial surface water within the road network. Geochemical discrimination between surface and subsurface soil materials was dominated by alkaline earth and alkali metals e.g. Ba, Rb, Ca, K, Mg which are sensitive to weathering processes in soil. Magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals were important discriminators of road transported material which demonstrated transformation of the signatures of material transported via the road network. Numerical unmixing of stream sediment indicated that alongside channel bank erosion, road transported material was an important component in some systems in accord with FRN evidence. While mining spoil also ranked as a significant source in an affected catchment, perhaps related to legacy

  11. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharovsky, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m 3 /s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m / s, pump flow 6 x 22 m 3 /s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m 3 , max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the most tolerable

  12. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharovsky, M [Slovenske elektrarne, a.s., Vodne elektrarne Trencin (Slovakia)

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m{sup 3}/s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m{sup /}s, pump flow 6 x 22 m{sup 3}/s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m{sup 3}, max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the

  13. Socioeconomic variation in incidence of primary and secondary major cardiovascular disease events: an Australian population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Rosemary J; Soga, Kay; Joshy, Grace; Calabria, Bianca; Attia, John; Wong, Deborah; Banks, Emily

    2016-11-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) disproportionately affects disadvantaged people, but reliable quantitative evidence on socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence in Australia is lacking. This study aimed to quantify socioeconomic variation in rates of primary and secondary CVD events in mid-age and older Australians. Baseline data (2006-2009) from the 45 and Up Study, an Australian cohort involving 267,153 men and women aged ≥ 45, were linked to hospital and death data (to December 2013). Outcomes comprised first event - death or hospital admission - for major CVD combined, as well as myocardial infarction and stroke, in those with and without prior CVD (secondary and primary events, respectively). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each outcome in relation to education (and income and area-level disadvantage), separately by age group (45-64, 65-79, and ≥ 80 years), adjusting for age and sex, and additional sociodemographic factors. There were 18,207 primary major CVD events over 1,144,845 years of follow-up (15.9/1000 person-years), and 20,048 secondary events over 260,357 years (77.0/1000 person-years). For both primary and secondary events, incidence increased with decreasing education, with the absolute difference between education groups largest for secondary events. Age-sex adjusted hazard ratios were highest in the 45-64 years group: for major CVDs, HR (no qualifications vs university degree) = 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.77) for primary events, and HR = 1.49 (1.34-1.65) for secondary events; myocardial infarction HR = 2.31 (1.87-2.85) and HR = 2.57 (1.90-3.47) respectively; stroke HR = 1.48 (1.16-1.87) and HR = 1.97 (1.42-2.74) respectively. Similar but attenuated results were seen in older age groups, and with income. For area-level disadvantage, CVD gradients were weak and non-significant in older people (> 64 years). Individual-level data are important for quantifying socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence, which

  14. Specific serum protein changes associated with primary and secondary Strongylus vulgaris infections in pony yearlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, J E

    1987-03-01

    The concentrations of haptoglobin, immunoglobin (Ig)G(T) and IgG were measured in the serum of four previously parasite-free pony yearlings following a single dose of 700 (Group H) or 200 (Group L) stage three Strongylus vulgaris larvae (L3) and following a reinfection with the same doses 34 weeks later. The results are compared with an uninfected control pony. The haptoglobin concentration increased during Weeks 1 to 6 and 14 to 17 after infection in the serum of the ponies receiving 200 L3, but in only one pony dosed with 700 L3 (during Weeks 1 to 16). The serum haptoglobin also increased during the first seven weeks after the second infection, in three of the four ponies following the second dose of larvae. The serum IgG(T) concentration started to increase from Week 6 or 9 in the ponies given 700 L3, reaching peaks of 44 and 32 g/litre respectively, eight to nine weeks later, compared with a peak of 16 g/litre 20 to 22 weeks after infection in ponies dosed with 200 L3. The IgG(T) concentration increased to a maximum of 25 g/litre in the serum of only one of the four ponies after the reinfection. The serum IgG concentration in all ponies increased nearly twofold during the first eight weeks after both the primary and secondary dose of larvae. It is concluded that the measurement of specific proteins is more reliable and quicker than the electrophoretic separation and quantitation of protein bands, in tracing changes in serum proteins following the artificial infection of ponies with S vulgaris larvae.

  15. Knocking down mitochondrial iron transporter (MIT) reprograms primary and secondary metabolism in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Bashir, Khurram; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Lehmann, Martin; Casiraghi, Fabio Marco; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Seki, Motoaki; Geigenberger, Peter; Zocchi, Graziano; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2016-03-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, and its reduced bioavailability strongly impairs mitochondrial functionality. In this work, the metabolic adjustment in the rice (Oryza sativa) mitochondrial Fe transporter knockdown mutant (mit-2) was analysed. Biochemical characterization of purified mitochondria from rice roots showed alteration in the respiratory chain of mit-2 compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In particular, proteins belonging to the type II alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases accumulated strongly in mit-2 plants, indicating that alternative pathways were activated to keep the respiratory chain working. Additionally, large-scale changes in the transcriptome and metabolome were observed in mit-2 rice plants. In particular, a strong alteration (up-/down-regulation) in the expression of genes encoding enzymes of both primary and secondary metabolism was found in mutant plants. This was reflected by changes in the metabolic profiles in both roots and shoots of mit-2 plants. Significant alterations in the levels of amino acids belonging to the aspartic acid-related pathways (aspartic acid, lysine, and threonine in roots, and aspartic acid and ornithine in shoots) were found that are strictly connected to the Krebs cycle. Furthermore, some metabolites (e.g. pyruvic acid, fumaric acid, ornithine, and oligosaccharides of the raffinose family) accumulated only in the shoot of mit-2 plants, indicating possible hypoxic responses. These findings suggest that the induction of local Fe deficiency in the mitochondrial compartment of mit-2 plants differentially affects the transcript as well as the metabolic profiles in root and shoot tissues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Sun protective behaviour and sunburn prevalence in primary and secondary schoolchildren in western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Simone; Vuadens, Anne; Levi, Fabio; Bulliard, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Although solar overexposure during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of melanoma, determinants of sunburn and sun protective behaviours of Swiss children have scarcely been explored. We investigated sunburn occurrence and sun protective behaviours of schoolchildren in western Switzerland, the region with the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. Self-reported questionnaires were administered during regular classes to pupils in 5th (primary school, n = 431), 8th and 11th grades (secondary school, n = 837) in the 18 public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess predictors of sunburns and of three sun protective behaviours (sunscreen, shade, wear of covering clothes). Response rate was 91%. Sunburn prevalence over the preceding year was high (60% at least one sunburn, 30% at least two, 43% at least one severe sunburn). Younger age, fair skin, regular sunscreen use, higher sun-related knowledge and preference for a tanned skin were predictors of sunburn. Sunscreen was the most used protective measure (69%), followed by seeking shade (33%) and wearing long-sleeved shirts (32%). Decline in all protective measures was observed in older pupils and those with pro-tan attitudes. The wear of covering clothes was significantly associated with sunscreen use and seeking shade. Parental encouragement favoured sunscreen use and wearing of protective clothes. Sunscreen use as a last protective barrier against ultraviolet radiation should be better emphasised in prevention campaigns targeting children and adolescents. Multi-faceted interventions, including role models, parents and peers should help to improve children's sun protective behaviours.

  17. Social isolation and mental health at primary and secondary school entry: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-03-01

    We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers' and teachers' reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers' and teachers' ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous acoustic stimulation of human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices using transcranial focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhye; Chung, Yong An; Jung, Yujin; Song, In-Uk; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2016-10-26

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is gaining momentum as a novel non-invasive brain stimulation method, with promising potential for superior spatial resolution and depth penetration compared to transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation. We examined the presence of tactile sensations elicited by FUS stimulation of two separate brain regions in humans-the primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory areas of the hand, as guided by individual-specific functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Under image-guidance, acoustic stimulations were delivered to the SI and SII areas either separately or simultaneously. The SII areas were divided into sub-regions that are activated by four types of external tactile sensations to the palmar side of the right hand-vibrotactile, pressure, warmth, and coolness. Across the stimulation conditions (SI only, SII only, SI and SII simultaneously), participants reported various types of tactile sensations that arose from the hand contralateral to the stimulation, such as the palm/back of the hand or as single/neighboring fingers. The type of tactile sensations did not match the sensations that are associated with specific sub-regions in the SII. The neuro-stimulatory effects of FUS were transient and reversible, and the procedure did not cause any adverse changes or discomforts in the subject's mental/physical status. The use of multiple FUS transducers allowed for simultaneous stimulation of the SI/SII in the same hemisphere and elicited various tactile sensations in the absence of any external sensory stimuli. Stimulation of the SII area alone could also induce perception of tactile sensations. The ability to stimulate multiple brain areas in a spatially restricted fashion can be used to study causal relationships between regional brain activities and their cognitive/behavioral outcomes.

  19. Evaluation of primary and secondary metabolites in selected varieties of potatoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine primary and secondary metabolites in selected varieties of potatoes. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. are good source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenols as one of the most important components. The chemical composition with reducing sugar, starch, ascorbic acid, total polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed in five potato varieties (Agria, Marabel, Red Anna, Picasso, Princess. Values of dry matter content ranged from 20.34 to 23.64%. In terms of tubers storage, its content above 20% is required. The highest level of starch was detected in variety Princess (16.82%. The lowest reducing sugar content was recorded by variety Marabel (0.08%. Similarly, low values reached varieties Princess (0.12%, Agria (0.14 and Red Anna (0.16%. These would be appropriate to use for food processing and for production of fried potato chips or fries. Variety Red Anna reached the highest amount of vitamin C (73.72 mg.kg-1. The lower levels of this vitamin showed tubers of varieties Picasso (35.02 mg.kg-1 and Princess (36.89 mg.kg-1. The antioxidant activity was measured with radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as phosphomolybdenic assay. Potato varieties contained high levels of total polyphenols (0.474 – 1.550 mg GAE per dry weight and flavonoids (1.407 – 15.933 μg QE per dry weight. The consumption of potatoes can provide nutritional value along with antioxidant potential that can be helpful for proper functioning of the body physiological systems. Statistical evaluation by the single factor analysis of variance detected high significant impact of variety on the content of all the analytical parameters in evaluated varieties of potato tubers. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  20. Content Analysis of Primary and Secondary School Textbooks Regarding Malaria Control: A Multi-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Jun; Yasuoka, Junko; Ayi, Irene; Jayatilleke, Achini C.; Shrestha, Sabina; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Haque, Syed E.; Yi, Siyan

    2012-01-01

    Background In tropical settings, malaria education at school is potentially useful, but textbook content related to malaria education has so far received little attention. This study aimed to examine whether school textbooks contain sufficient knowledge and skills to help children in primary and lower secondary schools and their family members to cope with malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a descriptive, cross-country study. We collected textbooks that were used by children in grades one to nine from nine countries endemic for malaria: Laos, Cambodia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Zambia, Niger, Benin, and Ghana. Two reviewers per country identified descriptions about malaria by seeking the term “malaria” or a local word that corresponds to malaria in languages other than English. The authors categorized the identified descriptions according to the content of the descriptions. Additionally, the authors examined whether the identified contents addressed life skill messages. Of a total of 474 textbooks collected, 35 contained descriptions about malaria. The most commonly included content was transmission mode/vector (77.1%), followed by preventive measures (60.0%), epidemiology (57.1%), cause/agent (54.3%), signs/symptoms (37.1%) and treatment (22.9%). Treatment-related content was not included in any textbooks from four countries and textbooks failed to recommend the use of insecticide-treated bed nets in five countries. Very few textbooks included content that facilitated prompt treatment, protection of risk groups, and use of recommended therapy. Conclusion/Significance Textbooks rarely included knowledge and skills that are crucial to protect schoolchildren and their families from malaria. This study identified the need for improvement to textbook contents regarding malaria. PMID:22574203

  1. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Catherine M. G. C.; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars (‘Ariane’, ‘Melrose’ and ‘Smoothee’) managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the

  2. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Le Bourvellec

    Full Text Available Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee' managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26 over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013. The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic… encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside

  3. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Primary and Secondary Sjögren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, David A; Dana, Reza; Sullivan, Rose M; Krenzer, Kathleen L; Sahin, Afsun; Arica, Beril; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R; Papas, Athena S; Cermak, Jennifer M

    2018-01-01

    We hypothesized that women with primary (pSS) and secondary Sjögren syndrome (sSS; with systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE] or rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) have meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). We sought to test our hypothesis. Subjects with pSS, sSS + SLE, sSS + RA, and non-SS-related MGD were recruited from the Sjögren's Syndrome Foundation or outpatient clinics at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine or Brigham and Women's Hospital. The control population was recruited from the Greater Boston area. After providing written informed consent, the subjects underwent an eye examination and/or completed two questionnaires that assess symptoms of dry eye disease (DED). Our results demonstrate that pSS and sSS patients have MGD. These subjects had meibomian gland orifice metaplasia, an increased number of occluded meibomian gland orifices, and a reduced quality of meibomian gland secretions. Further, patients with pSS, sSS + SLE, sSS + RA, and MGD had significant alterations in their tear film, lid margin, cornea, and conjunctiva. Symptoms of DED were increased ∼10-fold in all pSS, sSS, and MGD groups relative to controls. Our findings support our hypothesis and show that individuals with pSS, sSS + SLE, and sSS + RA have MGD. In addition, our study indicates that patients with pSS and sSS have both aqueous-deficient and evaporative DED. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Expectations Compared of First-Year Students in Pre-School and Primary School Education Degrees at the University of Burgos in Relation to Characteristics and Practices in University Teaching most Desired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime IBÁÑEZ QUINTANA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this work is to detect and analyse the desired characteristics and teaching practices that first year students will be taught in different subjects, comparing Pre-school with Primary Education degree at Burgos University. For that purpose, we have analysed data obtained from 120 surveys (60 others the Pre-school degree and 60 from the Primary Education degree, the surveys are based on the five basic aspects that we consider fundamental of a university education: personal and professional characteristics, evaluation, tutorial, information and communications technology (ICT and methodologies of education/learning. The results show that the student body values more the professional characteristics of its teaching staff than the personal ones; and the image transmitted by the teaching staff that uses ICT is always positive, creating a favourable opinion of his teaching, and the student body reaches to consider that ICTs are indispensable to nowadays education.

  5. Factors Related to Self-Esteem among African American Youths: A Secondary Analysis of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom; McAdoo, Harriette Pipes

    1995-01-01

    Used Perry Preschool data on 121 African American adolescents to explore correlates of self-esteem. Higher self-esteem scores were expected for youths who had experienced success in areas important to them and who perceived that significant others regarded them highly. Data supported the hypothesis that the effects of teens' accomplishments and…

  6. [Individual linkage of primary data with secondary and registry data within large cohort studies - capabilities and procedural proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, C; Ahrens, W; Kaaks, R; Pigeot, I; Swart, E; Jacobs, S

    2015-02-01

    Some German cohort studies have already linked secondary and registry data with primary data from interviews and medical examinations. This offers the opportunity to obtain more valid information by taking advantage of the strengths of these data synergistically and overcome their individual weaknesses at the same time. The potential and the requirements for linking secondary and registry data with primary data from cohort studies is described generally and illustrated by the example of the "German National Cohort" (GNC). The transfer and usage of secondary and registry data require that administrative and logistic efforts be made over the whole study period. In addition, rigid data protection regulations for using social data have to be observed. The particular strengths of secondary and registry data, namely their objectivity and independence from recall bias, add to the strengths of newly collected primary data and improve the assessment of morbidity endpoints, exposure history and need of patient care. Moreover, new insights on quality and on the added value of linking different data sources may be obtained. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. The evaluation of mean platelet volume levels in patients with primary and secondary Raynaud’s Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Erdem Memetoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background — Mean platelet volume (MPV is an indicator of platelet activation. The pathophysiology of the primary and secondary Raynaud’s Phenomenon (RP have not been completely established. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between MPV and RP. Materials and Methods — Our study was a prospective randomized study carried out from January 2011 to March 2012. The study group consisted of 39 patients: 27 (70% patients having primary, 12 (30% patients having secondary RP. An age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched control group consisted of 40 healthy participants. We compared the MPV in patients with RP and control participants statistically. Results — MPV of RP group was 8.79±1.37 femtoliter (fL while MPV of control group was 8.39±1.36 fL. Comparison of MPV of RP group and control group showed no difference (p=0.274. The mean of MPV was significantly higher among patients with secondary RP (9.76±1.68 fl when compared with patients with primary RP (8.37±0.96 fl (p=0.018. Conclusion — The results of our study suggest that MPV may be used as a marker in secondary RP.

  8. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanen, Jenni; Simonen, Pauli; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kangasniemi, Oskari; Saukko, Erkka; Hillamo, Risto; Lehtoranta, Kati; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-07-01

    Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6-268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential was measured to be 9-20 mg kgfuel-1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize - more than half an hour - which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission source and system temperatures. Sulfate was

  9. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6–268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential was measured to be 9–20 mg kgfuel−1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize – more than half an hour – which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission

  10. Predictive and construct validity of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence with the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, For-Wey; Chen, Po-Fei; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the concurrent validity of the parent-report Taiwan Birth Cohort Study Developmental Instrument (TBCS-DI) with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Second Edition (BSID-II) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) at 6, 18, 36, and 60 months. 100 children were recruited at 6 months, 88 children followed-up at 18 months, 71 at 36 months, and 53 at 60 months. Longitudinally, the parent-report TBCS-DI, with the professional psychological assessments of the BSID-II and the WPPSI-R showed predictive validity. Looking at each time point in cross section, at 6 and 18 months the TBCS-DI had good concurrent validity with the BSID-II, and at 36 and 60 months the TBCS-DI was correlated only with the motor and performance domains of the BSID-II and WPPSI-R. With further investigation, the TBCS-DI may be used both in research and in clinical settings.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data.... Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone. 2.1 Data Reporting and Handling Conventions... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of...

  12. The localisation of treponemes and characterisation of the inflammatory infiltrate in skin biopsies from patients with primary or secondary syphilis, or early infectious yaws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelkens, H. J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Judanarso, J.; Vuzevski, V. D.; van Lier, J. B.; Godschalk, J. C.; van der Sluis, J. J.; Stolz, E.

    1993-01-01

    To study the localisation of treponemes and to analyse the inflammatory infiltrate in biopsy specimens from patients with primary or secondary syphilis, or early infectious yaws. Skin biopsies originating from human lesions of primary (29x) or secondary (15x) syphilis (Rotterdam), or early yaws

  13. Sun protective behaviour of primary and secondary school students in North-Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinau, Daphne; Meier, Christoph; Gerber, Nathalie; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Surber, Christian

    2012-02-24

    The skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is one of the highest in Europe and still on the rise. Sun protection is the main preventive measure and of utmost importance during childhood and adolescence, since sunburns within these early phases of life increase the risk of developing skin cancer in adulthood. The aim of this prospective study, the first of its kind in Switzerland, was to investigate the sun protective behaviour of primary and secondary school students in Basel (North-Western Switzerland) and to test their knowledge about adverse health effects of solar radiation and about protective measures. Between March and April 2010, supervised classroom surveys during regular school lessons were conducted in 13 public schools using a multiple-choice questionnaire. 960 questionnaires were handed out to 48 school classes. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed on the data of 887 (>90%) students from three different grades (3rd, 6th and 9th grade). Sun-related knowledge was high in one third of all respondents only and significantly depended on student's age and educational background. Although the oldest students reached the highest knowledge scores, they protected themselves the least from the sun. Sunscreen was the principal form of sun protection mentioned, but was insufficiently applied. Seeking shade and wearing clothing as protective measures were hardly used. High educational background (i.e., of the parents) was a determinant for routine use of sunscreen but was not associated with following other sun protective measures. The desire for a suntan had no impact on the use of sunscreen, but was a significant predictor for not seeking shade and wearing shoulderless shirts when in the sun. More than half of all study participants experienced at least one sunburn during the year preceding the survey. Fair skin type, higher grade, not seeking shade and wearing shoulderless shirts were directly associated with increased odds of

  14. Imbalance in Spatial Accessibility to Primary and Secondary Schools in China: Guidance for Education Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Compulsory education is an important aspect of the societal development. Meanwhile, education equality safeguards the effectiveness of education systems and is an important part of social equality. This study analyzes the inequality of compulsory education from the perspective of imbalanced spatial distribution. Unlike previous studies that have measured the spatial distribution of education simply based on the spatial position of primary and secondary schools, we explore spatial accessibility based on the shortest travel distance from residents to schools, and then analyze the inequality of compulsory education through the distribution of spatial accessibility. We use 2873 Chinese counties as statistical units, and perform a statistical and graphical analysis of their spatial accessibility using the Theil index and spatial autocorrelation analyses. To analyze the differences in the spatial accessibility distribution on the national and regional levels, we use three partitioned modes: the terrain partitioned mode, the economic development partitioned mode, and the province-level partitioned mode. We then analyze the spatial agglomeration characteristics and distribution patterns of compulsory education accessibility through global autocorrelation, local autocorrelation, and hot-spot and cold-spot analysis. The results demonstrate an obvious imbalance in the distribution of spatial accessibility to compulsory education at the national level. Accessibility and equality in eastern and central regions are significantly better than those in the western region; both are significantly better in coastal regions than in inland regions; and equality alone is better in the municipalities, such as Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing, than in other provinces and autonomous regions. The spatial pattern analysis shows significant global autocorrelation and obvious clusters. Counties in cold-spot areas (clusters of good spatial accessibility are large in number

  15. Body image in women with primary and secondary provoked vestibulodynia: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillé, Delphine L; Bergeron, Sophie; Lambert, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a women's genito-pelvic pain condition associated with psychosexual impairments, including depression. Body image (BI) has been found to be different in women with primary (PVD1) and secondary (PVD2) PVD. No controlled study has compared BI in women with PVD1 and PVD2 and investigated its associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain. The aims of this study were to (i) compare BI in women with PVD1, PVD2, and asymptomatic controls and (ii) to examine associations between BI and sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain during intercourse in women with PVD. Fifty-seven women (20 with PVD1, 19 with PVD2, and 18 controls) completed measures of BI, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain during intercourse, and depression. The main outcome measures were (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (ii) Female Sexual Function Index, and (iii) pain numerical rating scale. Controlling for depression, women with PVD1 reported more body exposure anxiety during sexual activities than women with PVD2 and controls F(2,51)=4.23, P=0.02. For women with PVD, more negative BI during sexual activities was associated with lower sexual satisfaction (β=-0.45, P=0.02) and function (β=-0.39, P=0.04) and higher pain during intercourse (β=0.59, P=0.004). More positive body esteem was associated with higher sexual function (β=0.34, P=0.05). Findings suggest that women with PVD1 present more body exposure anxiety during sexual activities than women with PVD2 and asymptomatic women. Body esteem and general attitudes toward women's genitalia were not significantly different between groups. Higher body exposure anxiety during sexual activities was associated with poorer sexual outcomes in women with PVD. Further studies assessing interventions targeting BI during sexual activities in this population are needed, as improving BI during sexual interactions may enhance sexual outcomes in women with PVD. © 2014 International

  16. Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C. difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne V. McFarland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infections are a global clinical concern and are one of the leading causes of nosocomial outbreaks. Preventing these infections has benefited from multidisciplinary infection control strategies and new antibiotics, but the problem persists. Probiotics are effective in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and may also be a beneficial strategy for C. difficile infections, but randomized controlled trials are scarce. This meta-analysis pools 21 randomized, controlled trials for primary prevention of C. difficile infections (CDI and four trials for secondary prevention of C. difficile recurrences and assesses the efficacy of specific probiotic strains. Four probiotics significantly improved primary CDI prevention: (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus casei DN114001, a mixture of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and a mixture of L. acidophilus, L. casei and L. rhamnosus. None of the tested probiotics significantly improved secondary prevention of CDI. More confirmatory randomized trials are needed to establish if probiotics are useful for preventing C. difficile infections. v

  17. Feeding and purge systems of coolant primary circuit and coolant secondary circuit control of the I sup(123) target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Service of IEN (Brazilian-CNEN) detected three faults in sup(123)I target cooling system during operation process for producing sup(123)I: a) non hermetic vessel containing contaminated water from primary coolant circuit; possibility of increasing radioactivity in the vessel due to accumulation of contaminators in cooling water and; situation in region used for personnels to arrange and adjust equipments in nuclear physics area, to carried out maintenance of cyclotron and target coupling in irradiation room. The primary circuit was changed by secondary circuit for target coolant circulating through coil of tank, which receive weater from secondary circuit. This solution solved the three problems simultaneously. (M.C.K.)

  18. Diverging Conclusions from the Same Meta-Analysis in Drug Safety: Source of Data (Primary Versus Secondary) Takes a Toll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada-Ramallal, Guillermo; Takkouche, Bahi; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2017-04-01

    Meta-analyses of observational studies represent an important tool for assessing efficacy and safety in the pharmacoepidemiologic field. The data from the individual studies are either primary (i.e., collected through interviews or self-administered questionnaires) or secondary (i.e., collected from databases that were established for other purposes). So far, the origin of the data (primary vs. secondary) has not been systematically assessed as a source of heterogeneity in pharmacoepidemiologic meta-analyses. The aim was to assess the impact of considering the source of exposure data as a criterion in sensitivity and subgroup analysis on the conclusions of drug safety meta-analyses. We selected meta-analyses published between 2013 and 2015 in which the intake of frequently used over-the-counter medicines was either the main exposure or a concomitant treatment and the outcome had short latency and induction periods. We stratified the results by origin of data (primary vs. secondary) and compared the new results to those presented originally in the meta-analyses. We used four meta-analyses that fulfilled our criteria of inclusion. The results were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: original estimate odds ratio (OR) = 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-2.04], OR primary data = 1.19 (95% CI 0.90-1.58), OR secondary data = 1.81 (95% CI 1.50-2.17); proton pump inhibitors and cardiac events: original estimate hazard ratio (HR) = 1.35 (95% CI 1.18-1.54), HR primary data = 1.05 (95% CI 0.87-1.26), HR secondary data = 1.43 (95% CI 1.23-1.66); non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and myocardial infarction: original estimate risk ratio (RR) = 1.08 (95% CI 0.95-1.22), RR primary data = 0.57 (95% CI 0.34-0.96), RR secondary data = 1.15 (95% CI 1.03-1.28); paracetamol during pregnancy and childhood asthma: original estimate OR = 1.32 (95% CI 1.14-1.52), OR primary data = 1.23 (95% CI 1.06-1.42), OR

  19. Use of a computerized decision support system for primary and secondary prevention of work-related MSD disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sarah K; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2005-09-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of a decision support system used to evaluate and control physical job stresses and prevent re-injury of workers who have experienced or are concerned about work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The software program is a database that stores detailed job information such as standardized work data, videos, and upper-extremity physical stress ratings for over 400 jobs in the plant. Additionally, the database users were able to record comments about the jobs and related control issues. The researchers investigated the utility and effectiveness of the software by analyzing its use over a 20-month period. Of the 197 comments entered by the users, 25% pertained to primary prevention, 75% pertained to secondary prevention, and 94 comments (47.7%) described ergonomic interventions. Use of the software tool improved primary and secondary prevention by improving the quality and efficiency of the ergonomic job analysis process.

  20. Defining upper gastrointestinal bleeding from linked primary and secondary care data and the effect on occurrence and 28 day mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Colin John; Card, Timothy Richard; West, Joe

    2012-11-13

    Primary care records from the UK have frequently been used to identify episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in studies of drug toxicity because of their comprehensive population coverage and longitudinal recording of prescriptions and diagnoses. Recent linkage within England of primary and secondary care data has augmented this data but the timing and coding of concurrent events, and how the definition of events in linked data effects occurrence and 28 day mortality is not known. We used the recently linked English Hospital Episodes Statistics and General Practice Research Database, 1997-2010, to define events by; a specific upper gastrointestinal bleed code in either dataset, a specific bleed code in both datasets, or a less specific but plausible code from the linked dataset. This approach resulted in 81% of secondary care defined bleeds having a corresponding plausible code within 2 months in primary care. However only 62% of primary care defined bleeds had a corresponding plausible HES admission within 2 months. The more restrictive and specific case definitions excluded severe events and almost halved the 28 day case fatality when compared to broader and more sensitive definitions. Restrictive definitions of gastrointestinal bleeding in linked datasets fail to capture the full heterogeneity in coding possible following complex clinical events. Conversely too broad a definition in primary care introduces events not severe enough to warrant hospital admission. Ignoring these issues may unwittingly introduce selection bias into a study's results.

  1. Stress Factors among Nurses at the Primary and Secondary Level of Public Sector Health Care: The Case of Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Starc

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working in nursing is mentally and physically demanding and is one of the most stressful professions. AIM: To determine the basic causes of stress and examine the symptoms of stress among healthcare professionals at the primary and secondary level of health care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research was based on the descriptive and causal non-experimental method of empirical research. The independent samples t-test was used. RESULTS: The survey results have shown that th...

  2. Development of a higher capacity, lower pressure drop steam/water separator with reduced primary-to-secondary spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruster, W.P.; Kidwell, J.H.; Eaton, A.M.; Wall, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of this development effort was to double the steam flow capacity of an existing module steam/water separator design without significantly increasing the pressure drop while simultaneously minimizing the vertical distance (spacing) between the primary and secondary separation stages. The development work included extensive air/water and steam/water testing. The steam/water tests were performed at a common pressure of 300 psia (2.1 MPa) with comparable water and steam flows

  3. Who teaches science in Alagoas? A quantitative analysis of non-specialist teaching at primary and secondary schools in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Robert; Fireman, Elton; Gomes, Jose Renan

    2013-01-01

    While non-specialist teaching increasingly becomes an object of public interest, there is little data available on the actual educational background of teachers giving classes outside their specialisation. This work analyses the data collected by the Brazilian Ministry of Education from public and private schools in Alagoas (Brazil), with a special focus on science education at primary and secondary schools. We find that the phenomena of non-specialist teaching is highly subject specific. For...

  4. Personality characteristics and their connection with learning efficiency of deaf and partially deaf pupils in mainstream primary and secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with personality characteristics and their connection with learning efficiency of deaf and partially deaf pupils and students in mainstream primary and secondary school. The theoretical part defines learning efficiency and focuses on the most significant factors of learning efficiency, including also personality characteristics of an individual. This thesis represents the idea of inclusion and its advantages and disadvantages and suggests to what extent it is present in our ...

  5. Tomographic imaging of matter using primary and secondary X-and gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, I.E.

    1991-04-01

    Gamma rays may interact with matter by a variety of processes, many of which give rise to secondary radiations. This thesis examines the possibility of performing tomographic imaging by means of these secondary photons using low-cost apparatus. The techniques are compared with each other and with transmission tomography, which plays such an important role in modern diagnostic imaging. The progress of industrial tomography is reviewed as are techniques of investigation using gamma ray scattering in both industry and medicine. Some new applications of a simple gamma ray computerized tomography (CT) scanner have been performed. A method of determining the spatial distribution of pure beta emitters in matter by performing tomographic imaging using the bremsstrahlung radiation produced by the beta particles has been demonstrated. This technique has been shown to permit imaging at depths in material greatly exceeding the range of beta particles in matter. All the imaging techniques using secondary radiation have displayed two principal limitations: long scanning times and poor quantitative accuracy. The low scanning rate results from the small number of secondary photons that are detected. The major contributing factors to poor accuracy are attenuation and the noise produced by unwanted in-scattering. The possible applications for secondary photon imaging have been briefly outlined and some suggestions for future work are included. Although techniques based upon imaging using secondary radiation will not be able to compete with transmission CT in the vast majority of applications, they may prove valuable in a range of specialised fields. (author)

  6. A station blackout simulation for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor using the integrated primary and secondary system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper deals with thermal-hydraulic analysis of ANSR's cooling systems during nominal and transient conditions, with the major effort focusing upon the construction and testing of computer models of the reactor's primary, secondary and reflector vessel cooling systems. The code RELAP5 was used to simulate transients, such as loss of coolant accidents and loss of off-site power, as well as to model the behavior of the reactor in steady state. Three stages are involved in constructing and using a RELAP5 model: (1) construction and encoding of the desired model, (2) testing and adjustment of the model until a satisfactory steady state is achieved, and (3) running actual transients using the steady-state results obtained earlier as initial conditions. By use of the ANSR design specifications, a model of the reactor's primary and secondary cooling systems has been constructed to run a transient simulating a loss of off-site power. This incident assumes a pump coastdown in both the primary and secondary loops. The results determine whether the reactor can survive the transition from forced convection to natural circulation

  7. The trickle-down effect of predictability: Secondary task performance benefits from predictability in the primary task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ewa Król

    Full Text Available Predictions optimize processing by reducing attentional resources allocation to expected or predictable sensory data. Our study demonstrates that these saved processing resources can be then used on concurrent stimuli, and in consequence improve their processing and encoding. We illustrate this "trickle-down" effect with a dual task, where the primary task varied in terms of predictability. The primary task involved detection of a pre-specified symbol that appeared at some point of a short video of a dot moving along a random, semi-predictable or predictable trajectory. The concurrent secondary task involved memorization of photographs representing either emotionally neutral or non-neutral (social or threatening content. Performance in the secondary task was measured by a memory test. We found that participants allocated more attention to unpredictable (random and semi-predictable stimuli than to predictable stimuli. Additionally, when the stimuli in the primary task were more predictable, participants performed better in the secondary task, as evidenced by higher sensitivity in the memory test. Finally, social or threatening stimuli were allocated more "looking time" and a larger number of saccades than neutral stimuli. This effect was stronger for the threatening stimuli than social stimuli. Thus, predictability of environmental input is used in optimizing the allocation of attentional resources, which trickles-down and benefits the processing of concurrent stimuli.

  8. The trickle-down effect of predictability: Secondary task performance benefits from predictability in the primary task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Magdalena Ewa; Król, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Predictions optimize processing by reducing attentional resources allocation to expected or predictable sensory data. Our study demonstrates that these saved processing resources can be then used on concurrent stimuli, and in consequence improve their processing and encoding. We illustrate this "trickle-down" effect with a dual task, where the primary task varied in terms of predictability. The primary task involved detection of a pre-specified symbol that appeared at some point of a short video of a dot moving along a random, semi-predictable or predictable trajectory. The concurrent secondary task involved memorization of photographs representing either emotionally neutral or non-neutral (social or threatening) content. Performance in the secondary task was measured by a memory test. We found that participants allocated more attention to unpredictable (random and semi-predictable) stimuli than to predictable stimuli. Additionally, when the stimuli in the primary task were more predictable, participants performed better in the secondary task, as evidenced by higher sensitivity in the memory test. Finally, social or threatening stimuli were allocated more "looking time" and a larger number of saccades than neutral stimuli. This effect was stronger for the threatening stimuli than social stimuli. Thus, predictability of environmental input is used in optimizing the allocation of attentional resources, which trickles-down and benefits the processing of concurrent stimuli.

  9. Validity and reliability of methods for the detection of secondary caries around amalgam restorations in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Minatel Braga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries has been reported as the main reason for restoration replacement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the performance of different methods - visual inspection, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent, radiography and tactile examination - for secondary caries detection in primary molars restored with amalgam. Fifty-four primary molars were photographed and 73 suspect sites adjacent to amalgam restorations were selected. Two examiners evaluated independently these sites using all methods. Agreement between examiners was assessed by the Kappa test. To validate the methods, a caries-detector dye was used after restoration removal. The best cut-off points for the sample were found by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC analysis, and the area under the ROC curve (Az, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the methods were calculated for enamel (D2 and dentine (D3 thresholds. These parameters were found for each method and then compared by the McNemar test. The tactile examination and visual inspection presented the highest inter-examiner agreement for the D2 and D3 thresholds, respectively. The visual inspection also showed better performance than the other methods for both thresholds (Az = 0.861 and Az = 0.841, respectively. In conclusion, the visual inspection presented the best performance for detecting enamel and dentin secondary caries in primary teeth restored with amalgam.

  10. Contrasting seasonal overlaps between primary and secondary growth are linked to wood anatomy in Mediterranean sub-shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, J J; Palacio, S; Montserrat-Martí, G

    2013-09-01

    Whole-plant approaches allow quantification of the temporal overlap between primary and secondary growth. If the amount of time available to grow is short, there may be a high temporal overlap between shoot growth and wood formation. We hypothesise that such overlap depends on the duration of the growing season and relates to wood anatomy. We evaluated wood anatomy, shoot longitudinal and radial growth rates, fine root production and the concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in the wood of six sub-shrub species growing in sites with contrasting climatic conditions (Lepidium subulatum, Linum suffruticosum, Salvia lavandulifolia, Satureja montana, Ononis fruticosa, Echinospartum horridum). Sub-shrub species living in sites with a short growing season displayed a high overlap between aboveground primary and secondary growth and formed wide vessels, whereas species from the warmest and driest sites presented the reverse characteristics. The highest overlap was linked to a rapid shoot extension and thickening through the enhanced hydraulic conductivity provided by wide vessels. The reductions in NSC concentrations when growth peaked were low or moderate, indicating that sub-shrubs accumulate NSC in excess, as do trees. The temporal overlap among primary and secondary growth in woody plants may be connected to the duration and rates of shoot and wood growth, which in turn depend on the vessel lumen area. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. A survey on evaluation function for contaminations and doses in the primary and the secondary radiation emergency hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yuji; Akashi, Makoto; Shiraishi, Kunio; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Endo, Akira; Sanada, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Kazushige; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Takada, Chie; Momose, Takumaro; Hoshi, Masaharu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2009-01-01

    The questionnaire on evaluation function for contaminations and doses was sent to the primary and the secondary radiation emergency hospitals in Japan by the network council for physical dosimetry in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) designated as the tertiary hospital. The recovery percentage from the 88 hospitals was 70%. It turned out that six primary hospitals in 37 hospitals did not have even the basic instruments on radiation measurement such as GM counter and personal dosimeter. 64% of the secondary hospitals have the whole body counter, but its operation frequency including exercise was considerably low. It is thought that the main cause originates in a chronic manpower shortage and the budget shortfall seen by all the primary and the secondary hospitals. And also peculiar difficulty of correspondence to the radiation emergency medical treatment and the few experience might promote the problem. Thus the anxiety of the site staff had been appeared to the result of the questionnaire survey in shape like the opinion and the demand, etc. It will be necessary to advance the enhancement of training and to make the manual for the contaminations and the doses evaluation in the hospitals. (author)

  12. The Analysis of Fourth Grade Primary Students' Reader Self-Perceptions in Terms of Gender and Preschool Educational Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagirli, Muhittin; Okur, Burçin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse perceptions of fourth grade primary school students on their reading ability. In study, screening model was used as a quantitative research method. The sample of this research was selected by convenience sampling. The sample consisted of 556 fourth grade students who received education in 8 public schools in…

  13. High-resolution simulations of cylindrical void collapse in energetic materials: Effect of primary and secondary collapse on initiation thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Schmidt, Martin J.; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-04-01

    Void collapse in energetic materials leads to hot spot formation and enhanced sensitivity. Much recent work has been directed towards simulation of collapse-generated reactive hot spots. The resolution of voids in calculations to date has varied as have the resulting predictions of hot spot intensity. Here we determine the required resolution for reliable cylindrical void collapse calculations leading to initiation of chemical reactions. High-resolution simulations of collapse provide new insights into the mechanism of hot spot generation. It is found that initiation can occur in two different modes depending on the loading intensity: Either the initiation occurs due to jet impact at the first collapse instant or it can occur at secondary lobes at the periphery of the collapsed void. A key observation is that secondary lobe collapse leads to large local temperatures that initiate reactions. This is due to a combination of a strong blast wave from the site of primary void collapse and strong colliding jets and vortical flows generated during the collapse of the secondary lobes. The secondary lobe collapse results in a significant lowering of the predicted threshold for ignition of the energetic material. The results suggest that mesoscale simulations of void fields may suffer from significant uncertainty in threshold predictions because unresolved calculations cannot capture the secondary lobe collapse phenomenon. The implications of this uncertainty for mesoscale simulations are discussed in this paper.

  14. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-07-14

    Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate estimates using non-standard definitions of ghostwriting nor conflate ghostwriting with

  15. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-01-01

    Background Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. Objective To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. Eligibility criteria All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Data extraction Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Results Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Conclusions Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate

  16. Moving Image Comprehension Strategies of Students in Primary and Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szíjártó

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wir haben untersucht, wie Studierende Bewegtbilder verstehen. Der Beitrag fasst dazu die Ergebnisse mehrerer Teilstudien zusammen. In diesen Studien haben wir Daten zur Konstruktion von Bedeutung während des Konsums von Filmen, Fernsehprogrammen und Onlinevideos erhoben. Dabei haben wir nach Antworten auf folgende Fragen gesucht: Welche Strategien zum Verstehen von Bewegtbildern werden im Sinneder Analyse von Bewegtbildinhalten verwendet? Gibt es Unterschiede zwischen Studierenden, die Filmwissenschaft studieren, und anderen Studierenden? Welche Medienkompetenzlevel können bei Kindern identifiziert werden? Welche Entwicklungsaufgaben können identifiziert werden? Für die Verstehensstrategien der Studierenden kann festgehalten werden, dass einige Aspekte von Bewegtbildinhalten (Genre, Plot, Trailer, Titel besonders relevant für die Rezeption und die Interpretation sind. Die formale Ausbildung hat eine nur sekundäre Funktion für die Entwicklung der Verstehenskompetenzen. Zwar ist bei bestimmten Aspekten die Rolle der Vermittlung der Bewegtbildkultur und der Medienwissenschaft erkennbar, so z.B. im Kontext von manchen Interpretationsgemeinschaften. Dennoch kann die Schulung nicht mit andere Sozialisationsfaktoren konkurrieren. Damit wird die Rolle der Medienerziehung erfassbar: Diese kann zu Ergebnissen führen, wenn in der Vermittlung der Bewegtbildkultur und in medienwissenschaftlichen Kursen an das Vorwissen der Studierenden angeschlossen wird. Dieses Ergebnis ist auch für die Planung von Medienerziehung in fächerübergreifenden Curricula relevant. Die Ergebnisse der Studien können in die Entwicklung von Kompetenzen zur Wissenskonstruktion integriert werden. Wir hoffen, dass die Studien einen Beitrag zum Verständnis der Konzeptualisierung von Bewegtbildern durch Studierende leisten und dieses Wissen genutzt werden kann, um die Ausbildung in formalen Settings zu verbessern. We looked at moving image comprehension strategies of primary

  17. Methods to induce primary and secondary traumatic damage in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchik, Y; Frantseva, M V; Weisspapir, M; Carlen, P L; Perez Velazquez, J L

    2000-04-01

    Organotypic brain slice cultures have been used in a variety of studies on neurodegenerative processes [K.M. Abdel-Hamid, M. Tymianski, Mechanisms and effects of intracellular calcium buffering on neuronal survival in organotypic hippocampal cultures exposed to anoxia/aglycemia or to excitotoxins, J. Neurosci. 17, 1997, pp. 3538-3553; D.W. Newell, A. Barth, V. Papermaster, A.T. Malouf, Glutamate and non-glutamate receptor mediated toxicity caused by oxygen and glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal cultures, J. Neurosci. 15, 1995, pp. 7702-7711; J.L. Perez Velazquez, M.V. Frantseva, P.L. Carlen, In vitro ischemia promotes glutamate mediated free radical generation and intracellular calcium accumulation in pyramidal neurons of cultured hippocampal slices, J. Neurosci. 23, 1997, pp. 9085-9094; L. Stoppini, L.A. Buchs, D. Muller, A simple method for organotypic cultures of nervous tissue, J. Neurosci. Methods 37, 1991, pp. 173-182; R.C. Tasker, J.T. Coyle, J.J. Vornov, The regional vulnerability to hypoglycemia induced neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal culture: protection by early tetrodotoxin or delayed MK 801, J. Neurosci. 12, 1992, pp. 4298-4308.]. We describe two methods to induce traumatic cell damage in hippocampal organotypic cultures. Primary trauma injury was achieved by rolling a stainless steel cylinder (0.9 g) on the organotypic slices. Secondary injury was followed after dropping a weight (0.137 g) on a localised area of the organotypic slice, from a height of 2 mm. The time course and extent of cell death were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the viability indicator propidium iodide (PI) at several time points after the injury. The initial localised impact damage spread 24 and 67 h after injury, cell death being 25% and 54%, respectively, when slices were kept at 37 degrees C. To validate these methods as models to assess neuroprotective strategies, similar insults were applied to slices at relatively low temperatures (30

  18. Decline in Coronary Mortality in Sweden between 1986 and 2002: Comparing Contributions from Primary and Secondary Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Björck

    Full Text Available The relative importance of risk factor reduction in healthy people (primary prevention versus that in patients with coronary heart disease (secondary prevention has been debated. We aimed to quantify the contribution of the two.We used the previously validated IMPACT model to estimate contributions from primary prevention (reducing risk factors in the population, particularly smoking, cholesterol and systolic blood pressure and from secondary prevention (reducing risk factors in coronary heart disease patients in the Swedish population.Between 1986 and 2002, about 8,690 fewer deaths were related to changes in the three major risk factors. Population cholesterol fell by 0.64 mmol/L, with approximately 5,210 fewer deaths attributable to diet changes (4,470 in healthy people740 in patients. plus 810 to statin treatment (200 in healthy people, 610 in patients. Overall smoking prevalence decreased by 10.3%, resulting in 1,195 fewer deaths, attributable to smoking cessation (595 in healthy people, 600 in patients. Mean population systolic blood pressure fell by 2.6 mmHg, resulting in 900 fewer deaths (865 in healthy people, 35 in patients, plus 575 fewer deaths attributable to antihypertensive medication in healthy people. The majority of falls in deaths attributable to risk factors occurred in people without known heart disease: 6,705 fewer deaths compared with 1,985 fewer deaths in patients (secondary prevention, emphasizing the importance of promoting health interventions in the general population.The largest effects on mortality came from primary prevention, giving markedly larger mortality reductions than secondary prevention.

  19. Surgical Interventions for Organ and Limb Ischemia Associated With Primary and Secondary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome With Arterial Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Carlos A; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Bermudez-Serrato, Karla; García-Alva, Ramón; Laparra-Escareno, Hugo; Torres-Machorro, Adriana; Lizola, Rene

    2017-11-01

    The association of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and hypercoagulability is well known. Arterial compromise leading to ischemia of organs and/or limbs in patients with APS is uncommon, frequently unrecognized, and rarely described. We evaluated our institutional experience. Retrospective review was conducted. From August 2007 to September 2016, 807 patients with diagnosis of APS were managed in our Institution. Patients with primary and secondary APS who required interventions were examined. Demographics, comorbidities, manifestations, procedures, complications, and other factors affecting outcomes were recorded. Fourteen patients (mean age 35 years old, standard deviation ±14) were evaluated and treated by our service. Six (43%) of them had primary APS and 8 (57%) had secondary APS; 11 (79%) were female. Two (14%) experienced distal aorta and iliac arteries involvement, 3 (21%) visceral vessels disease, 2 (14%) in upper and 7 (50%) in the lower extremity vasculatures. Thirteen (93%) patients underwent direct open revascularization and 1 with hand ischemia (Raynaud disease) underwent sympathectomy. During the mean follow-up period of 48 months, reinterventions included a revision of the proximal anastomosis of an aortobifemoral bypass graft, 1 (7%) abdominal exploration for bleeding, 1 (7%) graft thrombectomy, and 4 (29%) amputations (2 below the knee, 1 above the knee, and 1 transmetatarsal). One (7%) death occurred secondary to sepsis in a patient who had acute mesenteric ischemia. Significant differences in clinical manifestations and outcomes were not observed among patients with primary and secondary APS. All patients remained on systemic anticoagulation. APS is a prothrombotic disorder that may lead to arterial involvement with less frequency than the venous circulation but has significant morbidity and limb loss rate. Arterial reconstruction seems feasible in an attempt to salvage organs and limbs; however, research is necessary to establish the

  20. A comparative study of methanol as a supplementary carbon source for enhancing denitrification in primary and secondary anoxic zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Bowyer, Jocelyn C; Foley, Leah; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-04-01

    A comparative study on the use of methanol as a supplementary carbon source to enhance denitrification in primary and secondary anoxic zones is reported. Three lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBR) were operated to achieve nitrogen and carbon removal from domestic wastewater. Methanol was added to the primary anoxic period of the first SBR, and to the secondary anoxic period of the second SBR. No methanol was added to the third SBR, which served as a control. The extent of improvement on the denitrification performance was found to be dependent on the reactor configuration. Addition to the secondary anoxic period is more effective when very low effluent nitrate levels are to be achieved and hence requires a relatively large amount of methanol. Adding a small amount of methanol to the secondary anoxic period may cause nitrite accumulation, which does not improve overall nitrogen removal. In the latter case, methanol should be added to the primary anoxic period. The addition of methanol can also improve biological phosphorus removal by creating anaerobic conditions and increasing the availability of organic carbon in wastewater for polyphosphate accumulating organisms. This potentially provides a cost-effective approach to phosphorus removal from wastewater with a low carbon content. New fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) probes targeting methanol-utilising denitrifiers were designed using stable isotope probing. Microbial structure analysis of the sludges using the new and existing FISH probes clearly showed that the addition of methanol stimulated the growth of specific methanol-utilizing denitrifiers, which improved the capability of sludge to use methanol and ethanol for denitrification, but reduced its capability to use wastewater COD for denitrification. Unlike acetate, long-term application of methanol has no negative impact on the settling properties of the sludge.

  1. Constructing a Successful Cross-National Virtual Learning Environment in Primary and Secondary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligorio, Maria Beatrice; van Veen, Klaas

    2006-01-01

    Virtual environments are more and more used in primary schools. One of the most interesting potentialities of these environments is to foster cross-national applications. Yet, this specific feature is not fully exploited. This paper presents a successful virtual learning environment for primary

  2. Shifting the primary focus: Assessing the case for dialogic education in secondary classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higham, R.J.E.; Brindley, S.; van de Pol, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Dialogic theories and practices in education have grown over the last decade; in the United Kingdom, however, most research in the field has been carried out in primary schools. Six leading academic researchers in the field are interviewed to explore the reasons for this primary bias to date, and

  3. Effect of the fast pyrolysis temperature on the primary and secondary products of lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Pecha, Brennan; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; McDonald, Armando G.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results on the primary pyrolysis products of organosolv lignin at temperatures between 360 and 700 °C. To study the primary products, a vacuum screen heater (heating rate of 8000 °C/s, deep vacuum of 0.7 mbar, and very fast cooling at the wall temperature of −100 °C) was used.

  4. Meta-Analysis for Primary and Secondary Data Analysis: The Super-Experiment Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sally

    1991-01-01

    Considers the relation between meta-analysis statistics and analysis of variance statistics. Discusses advantages and disadvantages as a primary data analysis tool. Argues that the two approaches are partial paraphrases of one another. Advocates an integrative approach that introduces the best of meta-analytic thinking into primary analysis…

  5. Description and earlier quality review of the Dutch educational system (primary and secondary education)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, J; Luyten, H.; van Ravens, J.

    2011-01-01

    The chapter starts out with a brief overview of the structure of the Dutch education system. As compared to other national educational systems the Dutch secondary school system is strongly differentiated, featuring several separate school categories and sub-categories. Next, attention is paid to

  6. The Crisis of Disengagement: A discussion on motivation change and maintenance across the primary-secondary school transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yu Hung

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition from primary to secondary education signals a process of developing and maturing physically and mentally, but this ‘rite of passage’ for some young adolescents is often associated with a drifting interest in school education. This phenomenon, caused by a decreased motivation for learning, has been observed by many relevant studies. This article adopts the psychological approach to study this long-lasting educational phenomenon while employing ‘intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theory’ and ‘goal theory’ to investigate the gap between primary and secondary schools as well as what possible pedagogies there are to maintain or stimulate the pupils’ motivation. An intrinsically motivated student acquires knowledge out of curiosity and interest, and they are willing to face the more difficult challenges that secondary education provides. As identified in the conclusion, the creation of a more integral educational system can alleviate the decrease in motivation while pupils undergo this period. A more amiable educational environment can be maintained that enhances the pupils’ self-concept, learning efficacy, and a sense of volition as well as self-determination to circumvent this transitional crisis.

  7. The evolution of primary and secondary niobium carbonitrides in AISI 347 stainless steel during manufacturing and long-term ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erneman, J. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Schwind, M. [Outokumpu Stainless AB, PB 74, SE-774 22 Avesta (Sweden); Andren, H.-O. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, J.-O. [AB Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden)]. E-mail: jan-olof.nilsson@sandvik.com; Wilson, A. [AB Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden); Agren, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    Nb(C,N) precipitates were studied in a niobium-stabilised stainless steel (AISI 347) statically aged at 700 {sup o}C. Scanning electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the volume fraction and precipitate size of primary and secondary Nb(C,N) after ageing times between 0 and 70,000 h. The experimental data were correlated with simulations of Nb(C,N) formation based on the assumption that the process is controlled by diffusion. These simulations provide a rationale for the existence of two sets of niobium carbonitrides in commercial tubes of AISI 347. Growth of primary Nb(C,N) occurred essentially during manufacturing, with no significant growth at 700 {sup o}C. Rapid dissolution and re-precipitation of secondary Nb(C,N) occurred during manufacturing. Coarsening at 700 {sup o}C of secondary particles was modelled using the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory, which overestimated the coarsening rate. These problems were overcome with a model developed by the authors. This model takes both growth and coarsening into account.

  8. The evolution of primary and secondary niobium carbonitrides in AISI 347 stainless steel during manufacturing and long-term ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erneman, J.; Schwind, M.; Andren, H.-O.; Nilsson, J.-O.; Wilson, A.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nb(C,N) precipitates were studied in a niobium-stabilised stainless steel (AISI 347) statically aged at 700 o C. Scanning electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the volume fraction and precipitate size of primary and secondary Nb(C,N) after ageing times between 0 and 70,000 h. The experimental data were correlated with simulations of Nb(C,N) formation based on the assumption that the process is controlled by diffusion. These simulations provide a rationale for the existence of two sets of niobium carbonitrides in commercial tubes of AISI 347. Growth of primary Nb(C,N) occurred essentially during manufacturing, with no significant growth at 700 o C. Rapid dissolution and re-precipitation of secondary Nb(C,N) occurred during manufacturing. Coarsening at 700 o C of secondary particles was modelled using the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory, which overestimated the coarsening rate. These problems were overcome with a model developed by the authors. This model takes both growth and coarsening into account

  9. Assessing the role of appropriate primary health care on the use of dental services by Brazilian low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Márcia Helena; Rocha, Juliana Schaia; Fadel, Cristina Berger; Nascimento, Antonio Carlos; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2017-11-21

    This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between the quality of primary health care (PHC) and the use of dental services by preschoolers served by the Family Health Strategy (FHS), controlling for socio-demographic determinants and perceived need. The sample encompassed 438 children aged 3-5 years, enrolled in 19 FHS facilities in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil. Individual level variables were collected by interviewing parents or caregivers at home. They answered a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, oral hygiene habits and use of dental services. Parental perception of child's oral health related quality of life, as perceived need, was assessed by the Brazilian version of Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Normative need was assessed by oral examinations, according to guidelines standardized by the World Health Organization. The contextual level factor was defined as the extent of implementation of PHC in the facilities. Managers responded to PCATool-Brazil, a validated questionnaire which measures the extent of PHC. Dentists answered to a version of PCATool, which was adapted and pretested for dental services. Multilevel analysis, based on Andersen's behavioral model, fitted the adjustment of "having ever consulted a dentist" to contextual and individual covariates. We observed high prevalence of dental caries. Almost half of the sample had had dental appointments in life. Social gradients were observed for the use of dental services. Although it was not able to eliminate the impact of adverse social conditions, higher levels of PHC attributes in dental services favored the effective use of such services by low-income children.

  10. Differential Diagnosis of Primary and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Caused by Vitamin D Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Cherenko

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions. Short ergocalciferol treatment can be a valuable and reliable clinical method to differentiate isolated vitamin D deficiency and asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism combined with a lack of vitamin D.

  11. Nocturnal blood pressure in normotensive subjects and those with white coat, primary, and secondary hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Middeke, M.; Schrader, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the mean nocturnal blood pressure of patients with various forms of renal and endocrine hypertension with that in patients with primary and white coat hypertension, and normal blood pressure. DESIGN--Ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure over 24 hours in a prospective study. SETTING--Two German centres for outpatients with hypertension and kidney diseases. SUBJECTS--176 normotensive subjects, 490 patients with primary hypertension including mild and severe forms, 42 wi...

  12. Lower rates of symptom recurrence and surgical revision after primary compared with secondary endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Eric W; Goodwin, C Rory; Jusué-Torres, Ignacio; Elder, Benjamin D; Hoffberger, Jamie; Lu, Jennifer; Blitz, Ari M; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is the treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus; however, the success of ETV in patients who have previously undergone shunt placement remains unclear. The present study analyzed 103 adult patients with aqueductal stenosis who underwent ETV for obstructive hydrocephalus and evaluated the effect of previous shunt placement on post-ETV outcomes. METHODS This study was a retrospective review of 151 consecutive patients who were treated between 2007 and 2013 with ETV for hydrocephalus. One hundred three (68.2%) patients with aqueductal stenosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus were included in the analysis. Postoperative ETV patency and aqueductal and cisternal flow were assessed by high-resolution, gradient-echo MRI. Post-ETV Mini-Mental State Examination, Timed Up and Go, and Tinetti scores were compared with preoperative values. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed comparing the post-ETV outcomes in patients who underwent a primary (no previous shunt) ETV (n = 64) versus secondary (previous shunt) ETV (n = 39). RESULTS The majority of patients showed significant improvement in symptoms after ETV; however, no significant differences were seen in any of the quantitative tests performed during follow-up. Symptom recurrence occurred in 29 (28.2%) patients after ETV, after a median of 3.0 (interquartile range 0.8-8.0) months post-ETV failure. Twenty-seven (26.2%) patients required surgical revision after their initial ETV. Patients who received a secondary ETV had higher rates of symptom recurrence (p = 0.003) and surgical revision (p = 0.003), particularly in regard to additional shunt placement/revision post-ETV (p = 0.005). These differences remained significant after multivariate analysis for both symptom recurrence (p = 0.030) and surgical revision (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS Patients with obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis exhibit symptomatic improvement after ETV, with a

  13. Illness absenteeism rates in primary and secondary schools in 2013-2014 in England: was there any impact of vaccinating children of primary-school age against influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H K; Brousseau, N; Andrews, N; Selby, L; Pebody, R

    2016-09-09

    A phased introduction of routine influenza vaccination of healthy children was recommended in the UK in 2012, with the aim of protecting both vaccinated children and the wider population through reducing transmission. In the first year of the programme in 2013-2014, 4- to 11-year-olds were targeted in pilot areas across England. This study assesses if this was associated with school absenteeism, an important societal burden of influenza. During the spring 2014 term when influenza predominantly circulated, the proportion of absence sessions due to illness was compared between vaccination pilot and non-pilot areas for primary schools (to measure overall impact) and secondary schools (to measure indirect impact). A linear multilevel regression model was applied, adjusting for clustering within schools and potential school-level confounders, including deprivation, past absenteeism, and ethnicity. Low levels of influenza activity were reported in the community in 2013-2014. Primary schools in pilot areas had a significantly adjusted decrease in illness absenteeism of 0·05% relative to non-pilot schools; equivalent to an average of 4 days per school. In secondary schools, there was no significant indirect impact of being located in a pilot area on illness absenteeism. These insights can be used in conjunction with routine healthcare surveillance data to evaluate the full benefits of such a programme.

  14. Primary vesicles, vesicle-rich segregation structures and recognition of primary and secondary porosities in lava flows from the Paraná igneous province, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carla Joana S.; de Lima, Evandro F.; Goldberg, Karin

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on a volcanic succession of pāhoehoe to rubbly lavas of the Paraná-Etendeka Province exposed in a single road profile in southernmost Brazil. This work provides an integrated approach for examining primary vesicles and vesicle-rich segregation structures at the mesoscopic scale. In addition, this study provides a quantitative analysis of pore types in thin section. We documented distinct distribution patterns of vesicle and vesicle-rich segregation structures according to lava thickness. In compound pāhoehoe lavas, the cooling allows only vesicles (pipe vesicles to be frozen into place. In inflated pāhoehoe lavas, vesicles of different sizes are common, including pipe vesicles, and also segregation structures such as proto-cylinders, cylinders, cylinder sheets, vesicle sheets, and pods. In rubbly lavas, only vesicles of varying sizes occur. Gas release from melt caused the formation of primary porosity, while hydrothermal alteration and tectonic fracturing are the main processes that generated secondary porosity. Although several forms of porosity were created in the basaltic lava flows, the precipitation of secondary minerals within the pores has tended to reduce the original porosities. Late-stage fractures could create efficient channel networks for possible hydrocarbon/groundwater migration and entrapment owing to their ability to connect single pores. Quantitative permeability data should be gathered in future studies to confirm the potential of these lavas for store hydrocarbons or groundwater.

  15. Non-universal spectra of ultra-high energy cosmic ray primaries and secondaries in a structured universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigl, Guenter

    2007-01-01

    Analytical calculations of extra-galactic cosmic ray spectra above ∼ 10 17 eV are often performed assuming continuous source distributions, giving rise to spectra that depend little on the propagation mode, be it rectilinear or diffusive. We perform trajectory simulations for proton primaries in the probably more realistic case of discrete sources with a density of ∼ 10 -5 Mpc -3 . We find two considerable non-universal effects that depend on source distributions and magnetic fields: First, the primary extra-galactic cosmic ray flux can become strongly suppressed below a few 10 18 eV due to partial confinement in magnetic fields surrounding sources. Second, the secondary photon to primary cosmic ray flux ratio between ≅ 3 x 10 18 eV and ≅ 10 20 eV decreases with decreasing source density and increasing magnetization. As a consequence, in acceleration scenarios for the origin of highest energy cosmic rays the fraction of secondary photons may be difficult to detect even for experiments such as Pierre Auger. The cosmogenic neutrino flux does not significantly depend on source density and magnetization. (author)

  16. Primary Copper Smelter and Refinery as a Recycling Plant—A System Integrated Approach to Estimate Secondary Raw Material Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Forsén

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary production of sulfide concentrates includes smelting to copper matte or blister copper, conversion of matte to blister copper, and refining to copper. Smelting, converting, and fire-refining can use a limited amount of secondary materials. Molten copper can effectively dissolve many metals, from valuable noble metals to harmful impurities such as bismuth. However, some of the impurity metals in copper are valuable in other applications. In this paper, we outline the main material flows in copper smelting and electrorefining and describe how minor metals can be recovered from secondary raw materials using copper as a carrier material. We will use a system integrated approach to define the factors that affect the recovery of different metals and copper quality. Metals typical in copper production are used as examples, like noble metals, As, Bi, Se, and Te, including metals in the EU critical raw materials list like PGM and Sb.

  17. Study of intrarenal vasculature in cases of primary and secondary hypertension (by metallic impregnation technique on whole kidney section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of intrarenal vasculature was carried out by using the metallic impregnation technique on whole kidney sections in 31 [corrected] cases of (primary and secondary hypertension and 10 normal controls. Distinct patterns of intrarenal vasculature were noted in controls and in cases of hypertension. Gradual tapering of vessels, absence of tortuosity and good peripheral vascularisation were noted in controls. Abrupt tapering, tortuosity of vessels and poor peripheral vascularisation were noted in hypertensive cases. In essential hypertension moderate to severe changes of dilatation of the segmental and/or arcuate arteries was noted. The degree of dilatation was related to the level of systolic BP rather than diastolic in cases of essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension even if severe, rarely showed significant dilatation lesions. Avascular zones and conglomeration of vessels at poles was seen only in cases of pyelonephritis. This helped in distinguishing these, from cases of glomerulonephritis.

  18. Experimental evaluation of tritium permeation through stainless steel tubes of heat exchanger from primary to secondary water in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Nishi, Masataka

    2004-01-01

    Tritium permeation through heat exchanger from primary cooling water to secondary cooling water has been investigated experimentally with SS316L heat exchanger under simulated ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) operation condition in order to establish the tritium permeation evaluation method through the heat exchanger. As the result, the permeation rate of aqueous tritium was found to be about three orders smaller than that of the gaseous tritium. Tritium permeation through the heat exchanger in ITER was then evaluated, and it was revealed that total tritium permeation amount based on obtained aqueous permeability was about one order less than that with the former method with the gaseous permeability and putting the permeation reduction factor as 1000. Evaluated tritium permeation amount into secondary water during 20 years was quite small, which could be considered as negligible from the safety viewpoint

  19. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated...... by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals...... that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which...

  20. Dog Bite Injuries: Primary and Secondary Emergency Department Presentations—A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. Pfortmueller

    2013-01-01

    therapy (27/47 patients, 57.4%. Patients with injuries to the hand were at increased risk of secondary presentations (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.21–3.55, P<0.006. Conclusion. Dog bite injuries to the hands are a major problem. They often lead to infectious complications. Immediate antibiotic therapy should carefully be evaluated for each patient.