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Sample records for preschool preposition test

  1. Testing the stem dominance hypothesis: meaning analysis of inflected words and prepositional phrases.

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    Minna Lehtonen

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like "from the house". To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem. Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words.

  2. Testing the stem dominance hypothesis: meaning analysis of inflected words and prepositional phrases.

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    Lehtonen, Minna; Harrer, Gabor; Wande, Erling; Laine, Matti

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like "from the house". To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem) or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem). Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words.

  3. More Negative Findings for Positive Prepositions.

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    Abkarian, G. G.

    1983-01-01

    Three- and four-year-old children were tested in their comprehension of locative prepositions. Results showed that those prepositions characterized as positive were comprehended less well than their ostensibly negative counterparts, contrary to theoretical predictions. An explanatory hypothesis concerning children's developing spatial…

  4. Common Preposition Errors Committed by Iranian Students

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    Samaneh Yousefi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.

  5. Prepositions in Use: Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Possession and Prepositions of Accompaniment

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    AlQbailat, Naji Masned; Al-Momani, Islam M.; Almahameed, Yazan Shaker

    2016-01-01

    The current research paper attempted at investigating the use of prepositions of standard, prepositions of possession and prepositions of accompaniment by some Jordanian learners of English. A total of 53 Jordanian English Majors participated in the study from the department of English language at Princess Alia University College. In collecting…

  6. Neuroanatomical correlates of locative prepositions.

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    Tranel, Daniel; Kemmerer, David

    2004-10-01

    Very little research has explored which neural systems may be important for retrieving the meanings of locative prepositions (e.g., in, on, around). To begin to address this knowledge gap, we conducted a lesion study in which we tested the hypothesis that processing the meanings of locative prepositions depends on neural structures in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and left inferior parietal cortex. Seventy-eight subjects with focal, stable lesions to various parts of the telencephalon and a comparison group of 60 normal participants were studied with tasks that require production, comprehension, and semantic analysis of locative prepositions. In support of our hypothesis, we found that in subjects with impaired knowledge of locative prepositions, the highest region of lesion overlap was in the left frontal operculum and the left supramarginal gyrus, and in the white matter subjacent to these two areas. In a second study, focused on six subjects who had pervasive defects for locative preposition knowledge, we confirmed that such defects were associated specifically with damage to the posterior left frontal operculum, white matter subjacent to this region, and white matter underneath the inferior parietal operculum. These subjects did not have basic impairments in spatial processing or working memory, and they had relatively well-preserved processing of conceptual knowledge for actions and various categories of concrete entities (e.g., persons, animals, tools). All six subjects, however, had defects in naming actions, and some of them also had defective naming of some categories of concrete entities. Overall, the findings converge nicely with recent results from functional imaging approaches, and with classic studies from the aphasia-based literature, and suggest that the left inferior prefrontal and left inferior parietal regions have crucial-albeit not exclusive-roles in processing knowledge associated with locative prepositions.

  7. Prepositions in Krio

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    Marleen van de Vate

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of Peter Svenonius’ Adposition Seminar at the University of Tromsø which was taught in 2005-2006. The main focus was the distinction between locative path and locative place constructions. The aim of this paper is descriptive in nature and focuses on the complete prepositional system of Krio, an English-based Creole language spoken in Sierra Leone. The paper starts with a general introduction to prepositions in Krio. Three different categories are distinguished. This is followed by a description of each preposition individually and a discussion of intransitive prepositions and verb-particle constructions.

  8. Persian Preposition Classes

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    Marina Pantcheva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present the prepositional system in Persian. I show that Persian prepositions can be divided into three classes (Class 1, Class 2a and Class 2b which exhibit distinct syntactic behavior. Then I examine the question of the categorial status of Class 2 prepositions and demonstrate that they are not to be regarded as nouns. Finally I present the extended PP projection of Persian spatial prepositions and argue for a feature-based analysis of the properties they manifest.

  9. Prepositions: Meaning and Method.

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    Lindstromberg, Seth

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a new approach to teaching prepositions and directional adverbs based on work by Brugman (1981) and Lakoff (1987). The article aims to familiarize readers with the gist of prototype semantics as applied to prepositions, and to suggest pedagogical applications and benefits, with particular reference to the word "on." (15 references)…

  10. The Cooperative Preschool Inventory: Test Review.

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    O'Brien, Francis J., Jr.

    This paper is a brief psychometric review of the Cooperative Preschool Inventory (CPI-R), Revised Edition intended to supplement the review of CPI in the "Seventh Mental Measurements Yearbook." The 1970 revision of the CPI-R is a brief screening test for teacher-administered testing of three-to-six-year-old children. It is intended to…

  11. On the Content of Prepositions in Prepositional Collocations

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    Eva Sicherl

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to shed some light on the problems faced by non-native speakers in the formation of so-called prepositional collocations (i.e. typical, recurrent combinations of verbal, nominal or adjectival bases with prepositional collocators. The reasons for frequent mistakes mainly lie in the meaning of the preposition used as part of collocation, which tends to be even more dispersed, abstract and difficult to define than that of the preposition used in a free combination. However, the preposition when used as a collocator seems to act, at least to some extent, as a carrier of some content; this can be proven by valency patterns: meaning-related content words (collocational bases tend to regularly combine with identical prepositions. The fact that prepositions used in collocations also have their semantic part to contribute to the whole unit should also be considered in the classification of collocations into grammatical and lexical ones.

  12. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

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    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  13. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

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    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  14. Uncovering Prepositional Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tine

    This dissertation is concerned with the semantics of Danish prepositions in an ontology-based information retrieval framework. In such a framework, conceptual indexing of texts is needed and, for us, the goal of this indexing process is to index texts based on the conceptual content of larger text...... of these data stem from a small pre-defined set of relations, and the ontological type information stems from the SIMPLE ontology. The resulting data set was used as input to a machine-learning algorithm, and the result was a set of rules that predict the semantic relation of a preposition based...... chunks – ideally based on the conceptual content of sentences. The conceptual content of text chunks is mapped into a so-called generative ontology, which is to be understood as a non-finite set of concepts. Basically, a generative ontology consists of a given finite ontology ordered by the ISA relation...

  15. Neural correlates of locative prepositions

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    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as “to the le

  16. Neural correlates of locative prepositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as “to the

  17. Effects of animation on naming and identification across two graphic symbol sets representing verbs and prepositions.

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    Schlosser, Ralf W; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-10-01

    The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more readily named than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS in particular with prepositions. Animation did not facilitate identification. ALP symbols for prepositions were identified better than PCS, but there was no difference for verbs. Finally, older children guessed and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation improves the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. For prepositions, ALP symbols are named more accurately and are more readily identifiable than PCS. Naming and identifying symbols are learned skills that develop over time. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  18. The Ability of Hearing Impaired Children to Comprehend the Semantics of English Prepositions.

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    Kluwin, Thomas N.

    Hearing impaired adolescents were administered one of four tests of syntax in preposition usage. Results indicated a clear developmental sequence: generally prepositions are first acquired in locative phrases, then as temporals, and then as manner relationships. The acquisition process is detailed. The author concludes that the complexity and…

  19. Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification

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    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods: A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to…

  20. Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification

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    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods: A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to…

  1. Neural correlates of locative prepositions.

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    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Ramsey, Nick F; Postma, Albert

    2008-04-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as "to the left of" and "to the right of" were reliably associated with cerebral activity in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) located in the left inferior parietal lobe. The higher activity associated with spatial as compared to non-spatial sentences in this region was not dependent on the context (verbal or visual-spatial) in which the sentence was read. Therefore, the function of this activity appears to be to create a general, amodal representation of locative prepositions that allow for flexible comparisons to either verbal or visual-spatial material.

  2. On the Distinction between Preposition Stranding and Orphan Prepositions

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    Roberge, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Poplack, Zentz and Dion (PZD; Poplack, Zentz & Dion, 2011, this issue) examine the often unquestioned assumption that the existence of preposition stranding (PS) in Canadian French is linked to the presence of a contact situation with English in the North American context. Although this issue has been the topic of previous research from a…

  3. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

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    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  4. Drawing Test Performance of Black and White Preschoolers as a Function of Biracial Testing.

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    Ratusnik, David L.; Koenigsknecht, Roy A

    Six speech and language clinicians, 3 black and 3 white, administered the Goodenough Drawing Test (1926) to 144 preschoolers. The 4 groups, lower-socioeconomic black and white and middle-socioeconomic black and white, were equally divided by sex. The biracial clinical setting was shown to influence test scores in black preschool age children.…

  5. A double dissociation between the meanings of action verbs and locative prepositions.

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    Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel

    2003-10-01

    Abstract We describe two patients who manifested opposite patterns of performance on test batteries that evaluated production, comprehension, and semantic analysis of action verbs on the one hand (e.g. smile, wave, run ) and locative prepositions on the other (e.g. in, on, over ). JP failed all of the verb tests but passed all of the preposition tests, suggesting impaired knowledge of the meanings of action verbs but intact knowledge of the meanings of locative prepositions. In contrast, RR exhibited the reverse dissociation: he passed many of the verb tests but failed all of the preposition tests, suggesting mostly intact knowledge of the meanings of action verbs but impaired knowledge of the meanings of locative prepositions. This behavioral double dissociation reflects the fact that the two categories of words differ along several conceptual parameters. To a large extent, the patients exhibited a neuroanatomical double dissociation as well, since JP's lesion is predominantly in the left frontal operculum whereas RR's is predominantly in the left inferior parietal lobe and the posterior superior temporal region. This constitutes preliminary evidence that the meanings of action verbs and locative prepositions are represented by partially independent neural networks in the brain.

  6. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

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    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  7. Locative prepositional phrases in severe aphasia.

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    Weinrich, M; McCall, D; Shoosmith, L; Thomas, K; Katzenberger, K; Weber, C

    1993-07-01

    Six severely aphasic patients were trained on C-VIC, a computerized alternative communication system. Patients with both global and Broca's aphasia were able to produce and comprehend locative prepositions using C-VIC. The Broca's aphasic patients were able to produce and interpret symbol order correctly in C-VIC locative prepositional phrases, despite their difficulties in performing the same tasks using English. One patient's verbal production of locative prepositional phrases improved markedly after C-VIC training. These results suggest that the "mapping" impairment suffered by some Broca's aphasics may be ameliorated by use of alternative communication system, such as C-VIC.

  8. Animation of graphic symbols representing verbs and prepositions: effects on transparency, name agreement, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

    2012-04-01

    The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to guess the meaning of symbols and to identify a target symbol among foils given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more transparent than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs. Animated verbs were named more accurately than static verbs, but there was no difference between animated and static prepositions. Verbs were identified more accurately compared with prepositions, but there was no difference between symbol formats. Older children guessed, named, and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation enhances transparency and name agreement, especially for verbs, which reduces the instructional burden that comes with nontransparent symbols. Animation does not enhance identification accuracy. Verbs are easier to identify than prepositions. A developmental effect was observed for each measure. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

  9. Teaching English locative prepositions: a cognitive perspective

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    Silva Bratož

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prepositions are notoriously hard to learn, and frequently subject to negative transfer. In addition, prepositional meanings are commonly extended from the spatial to abstract domains and are, as a consequence, often unpredictable and arbitrary. Traditional approaches to second language preposition teaching have, therefore, suggested that the best way to learn prepositions would be through rote learning. On the other hand, a cognitive linguistics approach argues that the multiple uses of prepositions can be seen as related in systematic ways. Several pedagogical implications of applying cognitive linguistics findings in second language teaching and learning will be discussed, suggesting ways of translating theory into practical consideration and effective teaching materials. The second part of the article presents an instructional model for teaching the locative prepositions in, on and at from a cognitive perspective, and discusses the results of a study conducted to observe the learners’ response to instruction, based on cognitive linguistics findings. In addition, the benefits of focusing on the cross-linguistic differences between the native and target language, in an explicit and systematic way, will be discussed. In this context, reference will be made to several insights and ideas promoted by the CEFR. The article will end by considering some suggestions and ideas for future research.

  10. Conjunctive and prepositional comparatives in Slovenian

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    Sašo Živanović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the distribution of conjunctive and prepositional comparative structures in Slovenian. They are introduced by the complementiser kot and the preposition od, respectively. Comparative structures are categorised along three dimensions: (i the morphological environment of the comparative morpheme (yielding amount and quality comparatives; (ii the syntactic environment of the comparative morpheme (eight syntactic environments are discussed: (nominative subject, (accusative direct object, (dative indirect object, prepositional object, locative adverbial, temporal adverbial, some other adverbial, and predicate; (iii the syntactic environment (the same environments as above are discussed of the associate (the non-elided phrase in the comparative complement is the remnant; its counterpart with the same grammatical function in the matrix clause is the associate. The comparison of conjunctive and prepositional comparatives shows that the distribution of the latter is more restricted and also exhibits more inter-speaker variation than the former. Conjunctive comparatives are acceptable in virtually all combinations of the above-mentioned parameters, the only exception being quality comparatives withan adverbial or predicate associate where the comparative morpheme is embedded in the associate. The only absolute generalisation that can be made about prepositional comparatives is that the associate must be either a subject or a direct object; all other generalisations are merely tendencies.

  11. Preposition use in oral and written learner language

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    Susan Nacey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns preposition use in oral language produced by advanced Norwegian learners of English, using primary data from an oral learner corpus (LINDSEI-NO. We investigate the frequency of inappropriate preposition use in approximately 13 hours of transcribed informal interviews, as well as the possible extent to which L1 transfer may play a role in production. The contextually inappropriate prepositions were categorized in terms of factors that may influence preposition use, with particular focus on the congruence between L1 and L2 with respect to syntactic structure and basic meaning. These results about spoken preposition use are then contrasted with results from a corresponding investigation into preposition use in a written learner corpus (NICLE, allowing for comparison of preposition usage across modes.

  12. Semantic Multisense Features and Translation of English Preposition OF

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    张招霞

    2009-01-01

    The linguist often claims,"English is a language of the preposition".It is a difficult point to understand and translate it though the preposition is simple in form.The preposition OF is such a simple preposition.On the surface,it seems very simple,indeed insufficient for talk,to OF which belongs to the simple preposition and prepositional phrases formed by it,but there are many kinds of its usages.This article help readers further understanding of semantic multisense features and translation of English prepositions and offer a kind of research for the fact that the English-Chinese machine translation system choose for its model.

  13. The Effect of Written Corrective Feedback on Omani Students’ Accuracy in the Use of English Prepositions

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    Ahmed Ali Saleh Al Ajmi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examin the effectiveness of providing written corrective feedback (WCF to Arab speakers of English on ten uses of English prepositions. Arab speakers commonly find it difficult to correctly use English propositions, mainly due to the differences between the two languages (e.g. Ortega, 2009. Examples of prepositions misuse are “married from,” “die from,” and “kind with.” The WCF implementation lasted for seven weeks.  The students’ being in intact classes made random assignments to different groups difficult. The data were derived from three tests: pre-test, immediate post-test and delayed post-test as well as an open-ended questionnaire. The experimental group (n= 25 received WCF on their writing, oral meta-linguistic tutorials, and a treatment task for their pre-test. For both the immediate post-test and the delayed post-test, they only received WCF on their writings. The control group (n= 25 only received general comments, like “good organization of the story events.” The statistical results of the independent samples t-test show the experimental group outperforming the control group on the target features. The analysis of the questionnaire data also shows the benefits of WCF for improving preposition use. The results also have pedagogical implications with regard to WCF. Keywords: WCF, writing, prepositions, students’ views, Arabic, EFL

  14. What is the "Sense" of Prepositions?

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    Dreike, Beate

    1975-01-01

    Examines the semantics of certain prepositions to show that the interpretation of relationships between linguistic units in a sentence is not always deducible from the logical structure underlying it, if this study does not include the study of pragmatic factors. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (Author/TL)

  15. What is the "Sense" of Prepositions?

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    Dreike, Beate

    1975-01-01

    Examines the semantics of certain prepositions to show that the interpretation of relationships between linguistic units in a sentence is not always deducible from the logical structure underlying it, if this study does not include the study of pragmatic factors. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (Author/TL)

  16. One sententional model with the prepositional accusativ AS proleptic subject

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    Antonić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is a model of two-predicate sentence in which with the matrix predication, which makes the so-called sentential-transitive verb, there appears accusative with the preposition ZA (for and the complement clause with the conjunction DA (that. On the basis of such formal structure, it represents a sentence with two objects - one non-propositional object in the form of the prepositional accusative - indirect type and the other propositional object, sententially formalized. Conducted analysis showed that this is a specific sentential model which could be viewed at several relevant levels: at the syntactic, syntactic-semantic, semantic and pragmatic level, because only that way one can view all its features. It turned out that the status of complement clause was not problematic - it is a propositional-sentential object, obligatorily postponed both to the basic predication and to the prepositional accusative, but the prepositional accusative, though placed in the matrix sentence, is not in the direct correlation with its predication, so it is not its object, but has the function of PROLEPTIC SUBJECT of the complement clause (in the periphrasis test, the prepositional accusative is turned into nominative and is placed inside the complement clause, and semantically it is a pseudoagent: the bearer of the feature expressed in the predicate of the complement clause whose referent most frequently has the feature ‘alive’ ‘human’, but can also be abstract. Therefore, the verbs which appear in the matrix predication are the verbs of simple, obligatorily propositional-sentential transitivity which in addition also belong to specific semantic classes: it is the case with the verbs of cognition: primarily the basic verb of having knowledge znati (know and the verbs of acquiring knowledge saznati, doznati (get to know; the verbs of a different degree of certainty about the factual situation: the verb garantovati (guarantee and the

  17. The preposition potential in formation of conjunctional means

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    Konjuškevič Marija I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the ability of preposition to form conjunction or its equivalent has been considered. The mechanism of denominalization has been shown on the Russian material with the involvement of the author’s observations on prepositions in the Belarusian language - the morphological form transformation in to the subordinate part of complex sentence. The author’s conception is: 1 the syntaxeme is the actant position in the sentence; 2 the syntaxeme consists of the formant (preposition + flexion and nominative component (substantive; 3 at the level of the complex sentence the same actant position may take the predicative unit (subordinate part of the complex sentence; 4 the formant of the predicative syntaxeme in transforms is the conjunctional combination “preposition + demonstrative pronoun that + subordinate part conjunction“. The preposition at case syntaxeme transformation in to predicative does not change its function, but it is included in to the conjunctional formant as one of the elements of more complex formant - conjunctional combination. Each element of the conjunctional combination fulfills its function: the preposition still forms the syntaxeme, but with more complex nominative component as predicative unit, the pronoun that is “flection“ of this nominative component (subordinate part, and the conjunction acts as the explicator, providing grammatical connection of the nominative component of syntaxeme with the “flexion“ and the preposition. It is noted that the mechanism and the results of denominalization depend on the syntaxemes repertoire and character and on the preposition meaning: the same preposition, with different meaning has different conjunctional potential. In to the mechanism of denominalization are involved categorematic names (classifiers, which initially are used as structural vocabulary for forming secondary prepositions, and together with them, for forming conjunctional combinations. The methods

  18. The Production of Locative Prepositions by Young School Children.

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    Durkin, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a study to examine the extent to which young English children volunteer prepositions in a simple but structured task of spatial description. Results show that children 3 to 7 years have an extensive and often inventive grasp of locative prepositions. (Author/KC)

  19. A speech reception in noise test for preschool children (the Galker-test)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Maj-Britt Glenn; Kreiner, Svend; Söderström, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates initial validity and reliability of the “Galker test of speech reception in noise” developed for Danish preschool children suspected to have problems with hearing or understanding speech against strict psychometric standards and assesses acceptance by the children....... The analysis showed that 35 items fitted the Rasch model. Reliability was 0.75 before and after exclusion of the 15 non-fitting items. In the stepwise linear regression model age group of children could explain 20% of the variation in Galker-35-score, sex 1%, second language at home 4%, tympanometry in best...

  20. Word Order in Adjective-Noun Pairs Inside and Outside the Prepositional Phrase: A Contribution to the 15th International Congress of Slavists (Minsk, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R. Minlos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a statistical correlation between possessive prenominal placement and the presence of a preposition. The data from mediaeval Russian, Czech, and Croatian are validated against standard statistical measures (chisquare (X2 test and phi (φ coefficient. Different explanations for the correlation are proposed; the most natural and simple one links the syntactic feature with the phonetic chunking of preposition and adjacent possessive, strengthened by their frequent co-occurence.

  1. Competition in the Sandbox: A Test of the Effects of Preschool Competition on Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gary T.; Gordon, Craig S.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of publicly subsidized preschool raises important policy questions about the role of market forces and, in places where competition to provide these services exists, presents a setting in which the effects of competition on educational outcomes can be tested. We test neo-institutional hypotheses concerning the effects of competition…

  2. Executive functioning of Portuguese preschoolers in the Shape School test: A cross cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Joana Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Filipa; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2017-02-22

    The Shape School is a neuropsychological test of executive functions (EF) for preschool-aged children. The purposes of this study were: (a) to adapt the use of the Shape School for European Portuguese preschool children and (b) to examine the cultural sensitivity of this test comparing the performance of Portuguese sample and U.S. normative sample. The executive functioning of 233 typically developing children aged 3 to 5 years old (M = 57.52; SD = 10.25; in months) was analyzed and according to our results, the adapted version was appropriate to obtain the discrimination among age-groups. Portuguese and American preschoolers show similar EF profiles. It was possible, in both samples, to note the sensitivity of the measurement to age-related differences, with the older age groups outperforming the younger. Therefore, the Portuguese version of the Shape School was considered suitable for research and clinical purposes.

  3. A Modified Version of the Timed Up and Go Test for Children Who Are Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbecque, Evi; Vereeck, Luc; Boudewyns, An; Van de Heyning, Paul; Hallemans, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated factors predicting the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in children who are preschoolers, using a modified protocol of the TUG. This was a cross-sectional study of children 3 to 5 years old (n = 192). Regression analysis identified predictive factors for TUG performances. Differences in mean values (standard deviation) were calculated for each age group. The results of 172 children were analyzed. Age and ethnicity were predictive of TUG performance (R = 0.280). Children who are preschoolers with Flemish ethnicity need less time to perform the TUG than their peers with another ethnicity (P < .05), but this difference is not significant for the age groups. The TUG performance differs significantly among all age groups (P < .05). A modified protocol for the TUG, which is sensitive to age-related changes in dynamic balance control, is proposed for children who are preschoolers.

  4. L1 Transfer in Post-Verbal Preposition: An Inter-level Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mollaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study intended to investigate the well-known issue of L1 transfer in L2acquisition. The primary aim of this research was to compare the extent to which L1 transfer may take place in different developmental stages in L2 learning procedure. Persian learners of English have been observed to misuse a number of the prepositions with some of the verbs. Having scrutinized more than a hundred pieces of students’ writing assignments, the authors came up with a pattern of errors in this area. It was observed that the majority of these errors could be attributed to Persian: the learners’ choice of preposition mirror the corresponding case in their L1, Persian. Moreover, the pattern of mistakes was put to test to check whether these mistakes increase or decrease according to the level of proficiency of the learners. To this end, two groups of students, one in elementary and the other in intermediate level, were tested on their use of proper prepositions with different verbs and the results of these tests were compared to see whether any significant difference exists between the two groups of students. The results showed no significant difference between the students of the two proficiency levels.

  5. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  6. Preschool Children's Performance on the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Linda I.; Donoghue, James T.

    1976-01-01

    The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices were given to two samples of preschool children to investigate differences between problem children and nonproblem children as well as sex differences. Some comparisons were significant. Tables are presented and results are discussed. (JKS)

  7. Trainable Children Can Learn Adjectives, Polars, and Preposition!

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Mitchell, Marlys

    1977-01-01

    A program utilizing a multisensory approach and active involvement was used to teach 12 trainable mentally retarded children (6-19 years old) the correct use of adjectives, polars, and locative prepositions. (DB)

  8. A Rule-Based Approach To Prepositional Phrase Attachment Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, E; Brill, Eric; Resnik, Philip

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new corpus-based approach to prepositional phrase attachment disambiguation, and present results comparing performance of this algorithm with other corpus-based approaches to this problem.

  9. RUSSIAN PREPOSITION ПРИ IN ARKHANGELSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kachinskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article preposition при in Arkhangelsk dialects is considered from the point of view of its syntactic role (use with certain cases, in its stressed and unstressed variants, and semantics: locative, komitative, temporal, possessive and comparative. It is proved that in the dialects preposition при have more meanings than in the Russian literary language; it is used not only with locative, but with genitive, dative, accusative cases.

  10. The Comprehension and Use of English Spatial Prepositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗平

    2009-01-01

    The traditional semantic accounts of spatial prepositions, mainlly focusing on the geometric relationship be-tween the locating object and the located object, are proved to be inadequate to explain the comprehension and use of spatial prepositions in all the .real situations. To compensate the deficiency, it is necessary to take into consideration the functional relationship between the Figure and the Ground, as well as the cognitive constraint on the choice of the Fig-ure and the Ground.

  11. Can 28-Month-Old Children Learn Spatial Prepositions Robustly from Pictures? Yes, When Narrative Input Is Provided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Nachtigäller, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The learning of spatial prepositions is assumed to be based on experience in space. In a slow mapping study, we investigated whether 31 German 28-month-old children could robustly learn the German spatial prepositions hinter [behind] and neben [next to] from pictures, and whether a narrative input can compensate for a lack of immediate experience in space. One group of children received pictures with a narrative input as a training to understand spatial prepositions. In two further groups, we controlled (a) for the narrative input by providing unconnected speech during the training and (b) for the learning material by training the children on toys rather than pictures. We assessed children’s understanding of spatial prepositions at three different time points: pretest, immediate test, and delayed posttest. Results showed improved word retention in children from the narrative but not the control group receiving unconnected speech. Neither of the trained groups succeeded in generalization to novel referents. Finally, all groups were instructed to deal with untrained material in the test to investigate the robustness of learning across tasks. None of the groups succeeded in this task transfer. PMID:27471479

  12. Can 28-month-old children learn spatial prepositions robustly from pictures? Yes, when narrative input is provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina J. Rohlfing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The learning of spatial prepositions is assumed to be based on experience in space. In a slow mapping study, we investigated whether 31 German 28-month-old children could robustly learn the German spatial prepositions hinter [behind] and neben [next to] from pictures, and whether a narrative input can compensate for a lack of immediate experience in space. One group of children received pictures with a narrative input as a training to understand spatial prepositions. In two further groups, we controlled for the (a for the narrative input by providing unconnected speech during the training and (b for the learning material by training the children on toys rather than pictures. We assessed children’s understanding of spatial prepositions at three different time points: pretest, immediate test and delayed posttest. Results showed improved word retention in children from the narrative but not the control group receiving unconnected speech. Neither of the trained groups succeeded in generalization to novel referents. Finally, all groups were instructed to deal with untrained material in the test to investigate the robustness of learning across tasks. None of the groups succeeded in this task transfer.

  13. Can 28-Month-Old Children Learn Spatial Prepositions Robustly from Pictures? Yes, When Narrative Input Is Provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J; Nachtigäller, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The learning of spatial prepositions is assumed to be based on experience in space. In a slow mapping study, we investigated whether 31 German 28-month-old children could robustly learn the German spatial prepositions hinter [behind] and neben [next to] from pictures, and whether a narrative input can compensate for a lack of immediate experience in space. One group of children received pictures with a narrative input as a training to understand spatial prepositions. In two further groups, we controlled (a) for the narrative input by providing unconnected speech during the training and (b) for the learning material by training the children on toys rather than pictures. We assessed children's understanding of spatial prepositions at three different time points: pretest, immediate test, and delayed posttest. Results showed improved word retention in children from the narrative but not the control group receiving unconnected speech. Neither of the trained groups succeeded in generalization to novel referents. Finally, all groups were instructed to deal with untrained material in the test to investigate the robustness of learning across tasks. None of the groups succeeded in this task transfer.

  14. Preposition stranding versus pied-piping: Negative Shift of prepositional complements in dialects of Faroese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Engels

    2009-01-01

             These asymmetries will be accounted for within Fox and Pesetsky's (2003, 2005 cyclic linearization model, which requires non-string-vacuous movement to proceed through the left edge of Spell-out domains, deriving cross-linguistic variation as to Negative Shift from differences in the availability of these left-edge positions. Thereby, pied-piping is considered a last resort strategy, possible only if the prepositional complement cannot undergo Negative Shift on its own due to the unavailability of the relevant left-edge position.

  15. Preposition accuracy on a sentence repetition task in school age Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliancich-Klinger, Casey L; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2017-05-16

    Preposition knowledge is important for academic success. The goal of this project was to examine how different variables such as English input and output, Spanish preposition score, mother education level, and age of English exposure (AoEE) may have played a role in children's preposition knowledge in English. 148 Spanish-English children between 7;0 and 9;11 produced prepositions in English and Spanish on a sentence repetition task from an experimental version of the Bilingual English Spanish Assessment Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutierrez-Clellen, Iglesias & Goldstein, in development). English input and output accounted for most of the variance in English preposition score. The importance of language-specific experiences in the development of prepositions is discussed. Competition for selection of appropriate prepositions in English and Spanish is discussed as potentially influencing low overall preposition scores in English and Spanish.

  16. Locative and Directional Prepositions in Conceptual Spaces: The Role of Polar Convexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, J.; Gärdenfors, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We approach the semantics of prepositions from the perspective of conceptual spaces. Focusing on purely spatial locative and directional prepositions, we analyze both types of prepositions in terms of polar coordinates instead of Cartesian coordinates. This makes it possible to demonstrate that the

  17. Can music lessons increase the performance of preschool children in IQ tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Hossein; Mirbaha, Hilda; Pournaseh, Mehrangiz; Sagan, Olivia

    2014-02-01

    The impact of music on human cognition has a distinguished history as a research topic in psychology. The focus of the present study was on investigating the effects of music instruction on the cognitive development of preschool children. From a sample of 154 preschool children of Tehran kindergartens, 60 children aged between 5 and 6 were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving music lessons and the other (matched for sex, age and mother's educational level) not taking part in any music classes. Children were tested before the start of the course of music lessons and at its end with 4 subtests of the Tehran-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (TSB). The experimental group participated in twelve 75-min weekly music lessons. Statistical analysis showed significant IQ increase in participants receiving music lessons, specifically on the TSB verbal reasoning and short-term memory subtests. The numerical and visual/abstract reasoning abilities did not differ for the two groups after lessons. These data support studies that found similar skills enhancements in preschool children, despite vast differences in the setting in which the instruction occurred. These findings appear to be consistent with some neuroimaging and neurological observations which are discussed in the paper.

  18. An event-related potential observation of preposition processing in Chinese Is N280 a specific component for Chinese prepositions?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongping Zhang; Huanhai Fang; Qifeng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that closed-class words, such as preposititions and conjunctions, induce a left anterior negativity (N280), indicating that N280 should be a specific component of the word category. OBJECTIVE: To observe if Chinese prepositions and verbs exhibit different linguistic functions, to determine whether they are processed by different neural systems, and to verify that N280 is a specific component. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The observed neurolinguistics experiment was performed at Xuzhou Normal University between November and December 2006. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen undergraduate students, comprising 8 females and 8 males, with no mental or neuropathological history, were selected. METHODS: A total of 15 verbs and prepositions were used as linguistic stimuli, and each verb and preposition was combined to produce four correct phrase collocations and four incorrect ones. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Event-related potentials were recorded in the subjects while they read correct or incorrect phases flashed upon a video screen. RESULTS: Both verbs and prepositions elicited negativity at the frontal site in a 230-330 ms window, as well as at the fronto-temporal and central sites in a 350-500 ms window. Neither exhibited significant differences in peak [F(1, 15) = 0.144, P= 0.7101 and latency IF(1, 15) = 0.144, P= 0.7101. Both verbs and prepositions elicited negativity at the left and right hemisphere in a 270-400 ms window. CONCLUSION: There was no significant diffence between Chinese prepositions and verbs in the neural system process and N280 was not the specific component for closed-class words.

  19. Putting theory to the test: modeling a multidimensional, developmentally-based approach to preschool disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Carter, Alice S; Burns, James L; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received scant attention. In this study, we tested a developmentally based, four-dimensional model of disruptive behavior theorized to represent the defining features of disruptive behavior at preschool age: Temper Loss, Noncompliance, Aggression, and Low Concern for Others. Model testing was conducted in two independent samples of preschoolers: Clinically Enriched Sample (n = 336) and Epidemiologic Sample (n = 532). The tau-equivalent confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the fit of the Developmental Model relative to three leading competing models (DSM opositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) Model, "Callous" Model, and an "Irritable/Headstrong/Hurtful" Model). Reliability of the four dimensions was also tested. Validity of the dimensions was tested by predicting multi-informant, multi-method ratings of disruptive behavior and impairment, and incremental utility relative to DSM symptoms. In both samples, the Developmental Model demonstrated a superior fit compared with the competing models within the full sample, and across key demographic subgroups. Validity was also demonstrated, including incremental utility relative to DSM-IV disruptive behavior symptoms. Critical next steps for achieving scientific consensus about the optimal dimensional model of disruptive behavior and its clinical application are discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was ...

  1. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  2. Prescribed Spatial Prepositions Influence How We Think about Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjec, Alexander; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Prepositions combine with nouns flexibly when describing concrete locative relations (e.g. "at/on/in" the school) but are rigidly prescribed when paired with abstract concepts (e.g. "at" risk; "on" Wednesday; "in" trouble). In the former case they do linguistic work based on their discrete semantic qualities, and in the latter they appear to serve…

  3. 33 CFR 154.1130 - Requirements for prepositioned response equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for prepositioned response equipment. 154.1130 Section 154.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... (7) Buckets, shovels, and various other tools. (8) Decontamination equipment. (9) Shoreline...

  4. 33 CFR 155.1130 - Requirements for prepositioned response equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for prepositioned response equipment. 155.1130 Section 155.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... various other tools; (8) Decontamination equipment; (9) Shoreline cleanup equipment; (10)...

  5. The Relationship between Understanding Prepositions and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Charles David

    The major objective of this study was to determine whether understanding prepositions and the relationships they signal is related to reading comprehension. A sample of 127 fourth grade students was selected from three socioeconomic levels of the Columbus, (Ohio) Public Schools using a stratified random sampling technique. The subjects were…

  6. [Work curve characteristics of preschool children by Uchida-Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, T; Yamada, K; Aoyagi, Y

    1984-12-01

    The work curve characteristics of preschool children aged five and six, were examined by Uchida-Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test; Scores were the amount of work, the effect of rest, PF profile fluctuation score and the relations among them. Subjects were 476 kindergarteners aged five and six. The results were as follows: The amounts of work increased with age, and girls' amount of work was larger than that of boys. The effect of rest was seen in the children aged six, but not in the children aged five. PF score tended to decrease as the amount of work increased. There was a negative correlation between the effect of rest and PF score.

  7. A Preposition Is Something You Can End a Sentence With: Learning English Stranded Prepositions through Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Mark A.; Antón-Méndez, Inés

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) learners of English could learn to produce stranded prepositions through structural priming. Structural priming is the tendency for speakers to repeat the structure of previously experienced sentences, without intention or conscious awareness of such behaviour, and is thought to be associated…

  8. A Preposition Is Something You Can End a Sentence With: Learning English Stranded Prepositions through Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Mark A.; Antón-Méndez, Inés

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) learners of English could learn to produce stranded prepositions through structural priming. Structural priming is the tendency for speakers to repeat the structure of previously experienced sentences, without intention or conscious awareness of such behaviour, and is thought to be associated…

  9. High School/Preschool Partnership Program: Administrative Guide [and] Curriculum Guide. Field Test Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinellas County School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    An administrative and curriculum guide are presented for the High School/Preschool Partnership Program in which high school students gain experience with handicapped preschoolers in a mainstreamed setting. The program is intended to expand services to high schoolers (parenting skills and career skills) as well as preschoolers. The administrative…

  10. Systematic review and proposal of a field-based physical fitness-test battery in preschool children: the PREFIT battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Artero, Enrique G; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Labayen, Idoia; Chillón, Palma; Löf, Marie; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-04-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful health marker in childhood and adolescence, and it is reasonable to think that it might be just as important in younger children, i.e. preschoolers. At the moment, researchers, clinicians and sport practitioners do not have enough information about which fitness tests are more reliable, valid and informative from the health point of view to be implemented in preschool children. Our aim was to systematically review the studies conducted in preschool children using field-based fitness tests, and examine their (1) reliability, (2) validity, and (3) relationship with health outcomes. Our ultimate goal was to propose a field-based physical fitness-test battery to be used in preschool children. PubMed and Web of Science. Studies conducted in healthy preschool children that included field-based fitness tests. When using PubMed, we included Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms to enhance the power of the search. A set of fitness-related terms were combined with 'child, preschool' [MeSH]. The same strategy and terms were used for Web of Science (except for the MeSH option). Since no previous reviews with a similar aim were identified, we searched for all articles published up to 1 April 2014 (no starting date). A total of 2,109 articles were identified, of which 22 articles were finally selected for this review. Most studies focused on reliability of the fitness tests (n = 21, 96%), while very few focused on validity (0 criterion-related validity and 4 (18%) convergent validity) or relationship with health outcomes (0 longitudinal and 1 (5%) cross-sectional study). Motor fitness, particularly balance, was the most studied fitness component, while cardiorespiratory fitness was the least studied. After analyzing the information retrieved in the current systematic review about fitness testing in preschool children, we propose the PREFIT battery, field-based FITness testing in PREschool children. The PREFIT battery is composed of the following

  11. ASYNCHRONOUS COMPUTER-MEDIATED CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK AND THE CORRECT USE OF PREPOSITIONS: Is It Really Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Behrooz HOSSEINI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An area that has recently attracted increasing attention is providing feedback on learners’ writing accuracy through the Internet. However, research in this area has largely focused on synchronous communication, i.e., chatting, with fewer studies assessing asynchronous technologies, i.e., e-mailing. Therefore, this study investigates the effectiveness of asynchronous computer-mediated corrective feedback-explicit and implicit, on increasing the correct use of prepositions. Forty-five Iranian elementary EFL learners at the ILI in Tehran were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, receiving explicit and implicit corrective feedback respectively, and one control group receiving no corrective feedback. Each group included 15 participants. After the treatment, a post-test was administered to assess the probable increase in the correct use of prepositions for the experimental groups compared to the control group. Analysis of the results through a one-way ANOVA revealed that the experimental group 1 who received explicit corrective feedback significantly outperformed the experimental group 2 and the control group. The experimental group 2 who received implicit corrective feedback showed no significant improvement over the experimental group 1 and the control group. Computer-mediated communication, asynchronous CMC, synchronous CMC, the Internet, corrective feedback, e-mail, chat. Although the findings support the current view on feedback through technology, due to the scarcity of research, more investigation is merited as there is much to gain regarding this burgeoning field.

  12. Role of Assessment Tests in the Stability of Intelligence Scoring of Pre-School Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Jong, Y-J.; Hsu, H-Y.; Lung, F-W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As part of an ongoing clinical service programme for pre-school children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analysed the effect of three assessment tests, that is, Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II, Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of…

  13. La preposición cero (Zero preposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gallardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El llamado "signo cero" tiene una realidad funcional y semántica en la lengua en aquellos casos en que una ausencia contrasta de modo sistemático con una presencia en un contexto dado. En el caso concretoel análisis sintáctico, Ambrosio Rabanales (1966 ha postulado que en el complemento directo "sin preposición" de hecho hay un contraste recurrente, sistemático y significativo con la preposición "a". El presente trabajo sistematiza los planteamientos de Rabanales y ofrece ejemplos y argumentos para avalar la existencia de esta "preposición cero". (The notion of "zero sign" is both functionally and semantically valid in those cases where an absence (a silence systematically contrasts with a presence in a given context. Rabanales (1966 has posited the existence in Spanish of a recurrent "zero preposition" in the direct object, when the preposition "a" contrasts with an absence of a preposition. This paper offers cases and analyses that corroborate his position.

  14. Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    reporting requirement.3 In our prior reports, we identified a number of long - term and ongoing challenges to DOD’s prepositioned stocks related to strategic...prepositioned stocks and the extent to which these shortfalls contribute to operational risk . View GAO-15-570. For more information, contact Cary Russell...shortfalls, Page 5 GAO-15-570 Prepositioned Stocks risks , and mitigation efforts. We also compared DOD’s definitions of prepositioning and

  15. Reliability and validity of the test of gross motor development-II in Korean preschool children: applying AHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Il; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Il-Hyeok

    2014-04-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development-II (TGMD-II) is a frequently used assessment tool for measuring motor ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of TGMD-II's weighting scores (by comparing pre-weighted TGMD-II scores with post ones) as well as examine applicability of the TGMD-II on Korean preschool children. A total of 121 Korean children (three kindergartens) participated in this study. There were 65 preschoolers who were 5-years-old (37 boys and 28 girls) and 56 preschoolers who were 6-years-old (34 boys and 22 girls). For internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity, only one researcher evaluated all of the children using the TGMD-II in the following areas: running; galloping; sliding; hopping; leaping; horizontal jumping; overhand throwing; underhand rolling; striking a stationary ball; stationary dribbling; kicking; and catching. For concurrent validity, the evaluator measured physical fitness (strength, flexibility, power, agility, endurance, and balance). The key findings were as follows: first, the reliability coefficient and the validity coefficient between pre-weighted and post-weighted TGMD-II scores were quite similar. Second, the research showed adequate reliability and validity of the TGMD-II for Korean preschool children. The TGMD-II is a proper instrument to test Korean children's motor development. Yet, applying relative weighting on the TGMD-II should be a point of consideration.

  16. Preposition Entries in UK Monolingual Learners' Dictionaries: Problems and Possible Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstromberg, Seth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective examination of the entries of the preposition "on" in five advanced learners' dictionaries published in the United Kingdom. The principal concern is the preposition "on" as a signifier of contact with a surface--especially an upper surface. (Author/VWL)

  17. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  18. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…

  19. Unifying Prepositions and Prefixes in Russian: Conceptual structure versus syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Tolskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to unify the polysemous verbal prefixes and prepositions in Russian. At first glance, the variety of possible denotations of a given prefix might appear a chaotic set of idiomatic meanings, e.g., the prefix za- may refer to beginning of an action, movement to a position behind an object, a brief deviation from a path, completion of an action, while the corresponding preposition za can mean ‘behind,’ ‘after,’ ‘for,’ ‘in’ (like in ‘in an hour’, ‘at’ (like in ‘at the table’. I will propose a unified analysis, where the differences in meaning are claimed to arise from different syntactic positions, while the lexical entry of a prefix remains the same. The main focus is on the verbs of motion due to the consistent duality displayed by the prefix meanings when added to directional and non-directional motion verbs. It will turn out that many prefixes appear to modify path when added onto a directional motion verb and to refer to movement in time with non-directional motion verbs. This semantic distinction corresponds to distinct sets of syntactic properties, specific for each set of prefixes. These two classes of prefixes correspond to the lexical versus superlexical distinction. However, a tripartite division will emerge in each set, corresponding to source, path, and goal of motion (FROM, VIA and TO for lexical prefixes and to initiation, process and result for superlexical prefixes. This leads to the suggestion that the syntactic representation of a VP contains at least six distinct nodes for the Russian verbal prefixes, each characterized by predictable semantic and syntactic properties. The same prefix with a consistent meaning, shared with the corresponding preposition, will receive part of its denotation from the syntactic head it attaches to, thus allowing the polysemy to arise from position, rather than from arbitrary homophony. Thus, conceptual structure will be unified with syntax.

  20. Ghent developmental balance test: a new tool to evaluate balance performance in toddlers and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kegel, Alexandra; Baetens, Tina; Peersman, Wim; Maes, Leen; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2012-06-01

    Balance is a fundamental component of movement. Early identification of balance problems is important to plan early intervention. The Ghent Developmental Balance Test (GDBT) is a new assessment tool designed to monitor balance from the initiation of independent walking to 5 years of age. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric characteristics of the GDBT. To evaluate test-retest reliability, 144 children were tested twice on the GDBT by the same examiner, and to evaluate interrater reliability, videotaped GDBT sessions of 22 children were rated by 3 different raters. To evaluate the known-group validity of GDBT scores, z scores on the GDBT were compared between a clinical group (n = 20) and a matched control group (n = 20). Concurrent validity of GDBT scores with the subscale standardized scores of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (M-ABC-2), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-Second Edition (PDMS-2), and the balance subscale of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test-Second Edition (BOT-2) was evaluated in a combined group of the 20 children from the clinical group and 74 children who were developing typically. Test-retest and interrater reliability were excellent for the GDBT total scores, with intraclass correlation coefficients of .99 and .98, standard error of measurement values of 0.21 and 0.78, and small minimal detectable differences of 0.58 and 2.08, respectively. The GDBT was able to distinguish between the clinical group and the control group (t(38) = 5.456, Pbalance subscales of the M-ABC-2, PDMS-2, and BOT-2 were moderate to high, whereas correlations with subscales measuring constructs other than balance were low. The GDBT is a reliable and valid clinical assessment tool for the evaluation of balance in toddlers and preschool-aged children.

  1. Validity and Reliability of Published Comprehensive Theory of Mind Tests for Normal Preschool Children: A Systematic Review

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    Seyyede Zohreh Ziatabar Ahmadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Theory of mind (ToM or mindreading is an aspect of social cognition that evaluates mental states and beliefs of oneself and others. Validity and reliability are very important criteria when evaluating standard tests; and without them, these tests are not usable. The aim of this study was to systematically review the validity and reliability of published English comprehensive ToM tests developed for normal preschool children.Method: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed interface, Web of Science, Science direct, PsycINFO, and also evidence base Medicine (The Cochrane Library databases from 1990 to June 2015. Search strategy was Latin transcription of ‘Theory of Mind’ AND test AND children. Also, we manually studied the reference lists of all final searched articles and carried out a search of their references. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Valid and reliable diagnostic ToM tests published from 1990 to June 2015 for normal preschool children; and exclusion criteria were as follows: the studies that only used ToM tests and single tasks (false belief tasks for ToM assessment and/or had no description about structure, validity or reliability of their tests. Methodological quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP.Result: In primary searching, we found 1237 articles in total databases. After removing duplicates and applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 11 tests for this systematic review. Conclusion: There were a few valid, reliable and comprehensive ToM tests for normal preschool children. However, we had limitations concerning the included articles. The defined ToM tests were different in populations, tasks, mode of presentations, scoring, mode of responses, times and other variables. Also, they had various validities and reliabilities. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers and clinicians select the ToM tests according to their psychometric

  2. Validity and Reliability of Published Comprehensive Theory of Mind Tests for Normal Preschool Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziatabar Ahmadi, Seyyede Zohreh; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Theory of mind (ToM) or mindreading is an aspect of social cognition that evaluates mental states and beliefs of oneself and others. Validity and reliability are very important criteria when evaluating standard tests; and without them, these tests are not usable. The aim of this study was to systematically review the validity and reliability of published English comprehensive ToM tests developed for normal preschool children. Method: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed interface), Web of Science, Science direct, PsycINFO, and also evidence base Medicine (The Cochrane Library) databases from 1990 to June 2015. Search strategy was Latin transcription of ‘Theory of Mind’ AND test AND children. Also, we manually studied the reference lists of all final searched articles and carried out a search of their references. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Valid and reliable diagnostic ToM tests published from 1990 to June 2015 for normal preschool children; and exclusion criteria were as follows: the studies that only used ToM tests and single tasks (false belief tasks) for ToM assessment and/or had no description about structure, validity or reliability of their tests. Methodological quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Result: In primary searching, we found 1237 articles in total databases. After removing duplicates and applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 11 tests for this systematic review. Conclusion: There were a few valid, reliable and comprehensive ToM tests for normal preschool children. However, we had limitations concerning the included articles. The defined ToM tests were different in populations, tasks, mode of presentations, scoring, mode of responses, times and other variables. Also, they had various validities and reliabilities. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers and clinicians select the ToM tests according to their psychometric characteristics

  3. The acquisition of prepositions in Serbian: Factors and mechanisms of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study proceeds from the results of the previous studies showing that the distributional characteristics (frequency of language input are crucial for the acquisition of prepositions (Savić & Anđelković, 2005, in preparation. The authors analyze deviations in the distribution of prepositions in children's spontaneous speech from the prediction made on the basis of the distributional characteristics of prepositions in adult language. The results show that, in comparison with adult language, only the prepositions "kod" (at, by, near, beside and "sa" (with, from, off deviate from the prediction. It was also found out that the unexpectedly early and frequent use of the preposition "kod" in child speech stemmed from the frequent use of this preposition in child-directed speech. On the other hand, the preposition "sa", which is very frequent in child-directed speech, is not present in children's production at the earliest age, because its homonymy makes it cognitively complex. The analysis of the reasons for such a deviation provided a basis for the discussion about the possible factors and mechanisms of development: the distributional characteristics of adult language are the major factor of acquisition, but the effects of conceptual and structural complexity were recorded as well.

  4. Testing models of psychopathology in preschool-aged children using a structured interview-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; Dougherty, Lea R; Bufferd, Sara J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents' (typically mothers') reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n = 541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology.

  5. Structure and Validity of Affect Knowledge Test (AKT) in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Stefania; Bassett, Hideko H; Baumgartner, Emma; Denham, Susanne A

    2015-01-01

    The authors' main goals were to examine whether the Affect Knowledge Test's (AKT) factor structure would be represented by a two-factor model (i.e., emotion recognition and situation knowledge) or by a one-factor model in Italian preschoolers (N = 164; M = 4.24 years, SD = 1.09 years). The concurrent validity of the AKT was further examined using measures of social competence. The findings replicated a model of emotion knowledge, with emotion recognition and situation knowledge as distinct but interrelated factors. Gender and age differences showed that older children and girls displayed higher scores in situation knowledge than younger children and boys. Additionally, our validity model of the AKT demonstrated that emotion recognition preceded situation knowledge, which in turn was positively related to children's sensitive or cooperative behaviors and negatively associated with anxious or withdrawn behaviors. Our results suggest that the use of the AKT may help the teachers to evaluate children's level on emotional knowledge that in turn might impact on children's positive social relationships within classroom in Italy.

  6. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  7. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-02-01

    To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.

  8. Screening of intellectual maturity: exploring South African preschoolers' scores on the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test and teachers' assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxton, Helene; Mostert, Jemona; Moffatt, Diane

    2006-10-01

    The present study explored the relationship between South African preschool children's intelligence scores achieved on the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (GHD), and the accuracy of teachers' ratings of the human-figure drawings and teachers' general perceptions of children's intellectual maturity. The GHD was administered individually to 30 boys and 30 girls between the ages of 4 and 6 years (M = 4.5. SD = 0.7) from a multicultural (Black, Colored, and White) preschool near the Cape, South Africa. The three class teachers of these preschoolers provided the ratings and perceptions of each child's intellectual maturity. Results indicated that the teachers' assessments of children's intellectual maturity were fairly similar to the formal measures of children's intellectual maturity using human figure drawings and their own perceptions. It appears that teacher ratings of drawings could be relied upon as a means of assessment. General perceptions of children's intellectual maturity should not be solely relied upon, but instead these perceptions should be used as an aid for enhancing the teachers' assessment of children's intellectual maturity in addition to the rating of human figure drawings.

  9. Prepositional Phrase Attachment through a Backed-Off Model

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, M; Collins, Michael; Brooks, James

    1995-01-01

    Recent work has considered corpus-based or statistical approaches to the problem of prepositional phrase attachment ambiguity. Typically, ambiguous verb phrases of the form {v np1 p np2} are resolved through a model which considers values of the four head words (v, n1, p and n2). This paper shows that the problem is analogous to n-gram language models in speech recognition, and that one of the most common methods for language modeling, the backed-off estimate, is applicable. Results on Wall Street Journal data of 84.5% accuracy are obtained using this method. A surprising result is the importance of low-count events - ignoring events which occur less than 5 times in training data reduces performance to 81.6%.

  10. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of Fourth Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in 7 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries--Australia, Japan, the…

  11. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition: Canadian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Melissa A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Canadian (WPPSI-IVCDN; Wechsler, 2012), published by NCS Pearson, is a newly updated, individually administered measure of cognitive intelligence for children aged 2:6 through 7:7. Suitable for educational, clinical, and research settings, the purposes of the WPPSI-IVCDN are…

  12. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of Fourth Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in 7 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries--Australia, Japan, the…

  13. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  14. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  15. Test Review: Michael H. Epstein and Lori Synhorst "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" Austin, TX--PRO-ED, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevon, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" (PreBERS), a 42-item family member--or school personnel--completed rating scale designed to measure the behavioral and emotional strengths of preschool children ages 3-0 to 5-11. According to the manual, results can be used to identify preschoolers with limited…

  16. Predicting School Problems from Preschool Developmental Screening: A Four-Year Follow-Up of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Role of Parent Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.

    1987-01-01

    The Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and parental reports of developmental concerns were compared for effectiveness in predicting school problems four years after a preschool screening program. Results suggested the test accurately identified only those children later found to have severe learning problems. (Author/DB)

  17. Utility of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Developmental Profile II in Identifying Preschool Children with Cognitive, Language, and Motor Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Michael L.

    1982-01-01

    Scores of 84 referred preschoolers on the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Developmental Profile II were compared with subsequent standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and language ability. Results suggested that both instruments are imperfect yet useful tools. (Author/CL)

  18. Zum Problem der Differenzierung von praepositionalem Objekt und praepositionaler Adverbailbestimmung in der deutschen Gegenwartssprache (On the Problem of Distinguishing Prepositional Object from Prepositional Adverbial in Contemporary German)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambarzumjan, Rusanna

    1974-01-01

    Making this distinction is difficult because German here deals in prepositional phrases. More precise criteria for distinguishing may be expected from dependence grammar, and from application of the concepts of governance ("Rektion") and valence. Reference is made to experiments by J. D. Apresjan. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  19. On Functional Peculiarities of Locative Prepositions As Means of Spatial Relationships Expression in the German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Mikhaylovna Generalova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents locative prepositions as tools of space conceptualization and verbalization in the German language. The author states that there is some close interlink between two concepts – Man and space, and it plays an initial role in the organization of human knowledge. On offering the statement presented above, the author considers specificity of situational perception of spatial relationships that are conceptualized in a particular language. The suggested correlations of spatial relationships: location in space, transporting in space as a result of the movement and the movement itself included, helps the author to prove that spatial relationships may be differentiated as dynamic or static. It is confirmed that the main factors that influence the choice of the locative prepositions, viewed as the markers of spatial relationships, may include the measurability of the object relations, its functional qualities, and principles of visual perception that guard the specificity of person's orientation in space. It is proved that the native German speakers prefer using the preposition in to verbalize the situations of internal space and choose the preposition an to verbalize the situations of external space. The author concludes that the choice of the locative preposition for denoting space depends on the speaker's intentions and the ontological focus in which the speaker wishes to describe spatial relations.

  20. Translation of Rhetoric in Arabic Preposition in The Text of Al-Qur’an

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    Azman Che Mat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Preposition was a word that completes the meaning of the verb and noun in the sentence structure of Arabic. The use of prepositions in Arabic was truly significant in understanding the Arabic text, especially holy texts. The question was why prepositions were used in sentences such, whereas the other joints could also give the same meaning? Article presented an analysis of syntax-semantics of prepositions في Fi and علىcAla in al-Quran al-Karim across science of Arabic rhetoric (Balagha. Data were restricted to partial phrase في الضلال and على الهدى ever discussed by Ibn Athir. There are 29 places in the Quran that mention في الضلال and 6 points for على الهدى. Critical analysis based on the discipline of linguistics is expected to expose the use of prepositions in Arabic from the precision and beauty of the Arabic language itself. Summary of the study suggest that research on elements of the rhetoric says that other reasonable tasks highlighted in subsequent studies. 

  1. Preposition Stranding and Orphaning: The Case of Bare Prepositions in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Georg A.

    2012-01-01

    In their keynote contribution, Poplack, Zentz & Dion (henceforth PZD; Poplack, Zentz & Dion, 2011, this issue) propose an interesting "scientific test of convergence" (under section heading: "Introduction") which contains criteria to check whether a particular feature in a given language in contact with another one is…

  2. The Role of Prepositioned Stocks: Sustaining and Responding to Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Disaster Assistance PREPO Prepositioned stocks SCM Supply Chain Management STRAT AIR Strategic Airlift STRAT SEA Strategic Sealift UN...prepositioning sources. Important outcomes of this examination identify advantages and disadvantages of logistical enablers i.e. supply chain management and...interest to the study. Furthermore, the case studies recognized above continues to identify the advantages and disadvantages associated with HADR

  3. Concurrent validity of the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2 1/2-7-Revised with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, C; O'Keefe, SL; Lawhon, D; Tellegen, P

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent validity of the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test-Revised compared to the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised Subjects were 25 4-yr.-olds of lower, lower-middle, and middle socioeconomic status from both urban and rural areas of Ap

  4. Language Expression Means of the Conceptual Category "Relation" with Derivative Prepositions in Modern English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Kameneva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the revealing of the essence of language and cognitive processes behind the secondary nomination of expression of the conceptual category of «attitude» by derivative prepositions in modern English. The study addresses the issue of formation of prepositions in the diachronic aspect, as well as their status in the general classification of parts of speech in modern linguistics, deals with the phenomenon of secondary nomination, described by semantic features data implying the method of cognitive modeling, namely propositional modeling method.

  5. Motivated by meaning: testing the effect of knowledge-infused rewards on preschoolers' persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Aubry L; Booth, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Research and theory suggest that young children are highly attuned to causality. This study explores whether this drive can motivate task engagement. Fifty-six 3- and 4-year-olds completed a motor task as many times as desired, viewing a picture of a novel item upon each completion. Forty-two randomly assigned children then received either: (a) causally rich information regarding the item, (b) causally weak information regarding the item, or (c) a tangible reward. The remaining 14 children participated in a baseline condition featuring no rewards. Preschoolers completed more trials when rewarded with causally rich than causally weak information, or when given no reward. Children also trended toward lengthier persistence in the causally rich than the tangible reward condition. Implications for theory and educational practice are discussed.

  6. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery-VMI): lessons from exploration of cultural variations in visual-motor integration performance of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C Y; Tan, P C; Koh, C; Koh, E; Guo, H; Yusoff, N D; See, C Q; Tan, T

    2015-03-01

    Visual-motor integration (VMI) is important in children's development because it is associated with the performance of many functional skills. Deficits in VMI have been linked to difficulties in academic performance and functional tasks. Clinical assessment experience of occupational therapists in Singapore suggested that there is a potential difference between the VMI performance of Singaporean and American children. Cross-cultural studies also implied that culture has an influence on a child's VMI performance, as it shapes the activities that a child participates in. The purpose of this study was to (1) explore if there was a difference between the VMI performance of Singaporean and American preschoolers, and (2) determine if there were ethnic differences in the VMI performance of Singaporean preschoolers. The Beery-VMI, which was standardized in America, is commonly used by occupational therapists in Singapore to assess the VMI ability of children. We administered the Beery-VMI (fifth edition) full form test (excluding the supplemental tests) to 385 preschoolers (mean age = 63.3 months) from randomly selected schools in Singapore. We compared the scores of Singaporean preschoolers with those of the American standardization norms using the one-sample t-test. Scores of different ethnic groups among the Singapore population were also compared using a one-way anova, followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Singaporean preschoolers and the standardization sample of American children performed significantly differently in all age groups (P VMI performance. Certain cultural beliefs and practices may affect VMI performance. Clinicians should exercise caution when using an assessment in communities and cultures outside the ones on which it was standardized. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Constructivist View of Teaching——Taking Preposition “at” as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓惠

    2015-01-01

    Language is a dynamically evolving system. A word in its long development will little increasingly extend from a simplex meaning to a number of meanings,resulting in what is generally referred to as lexical polysemy. How to learn these words effectively? In this paper,a constructivist view of teaching and corpus were used to present how to teaching preposition effectively.

  8. A Developmental Study of Prepositional Phrases in Hebrew Written Text Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Gilad; Ravid, Dorit

    2017-01-01

    Prepositional phrases (PPs) are considered an important feature of mature written expression. However, little is known about the development of PPs during the school years. The study examined the use of PPs in 160 narrative and expository texts, written by Hebrew-users in grades 4, 7, and 11, and adults. PPs were identified, counted, and…

  9. Determining Reliable Networks of Prepositioning Materiel Warehouses for Public-Sector Rapid Response Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Events such as natural disasters or combat operations require a rapid response capability from humanitarian service providers and military organizations. Such organizations can decrease their response times through the prepositioning of materiel in forward warehouses, reducing the time needed to transport items to the site of need. A particular challenge to the development of networks of prepositioning warehouses is that the warehouses themselves may be impacted by the very disruptions that drive demands for prepositioned materials. The objective of this research is to identify a reliable network posture, which is a set of utilized facility locations and an allocation of materiel to those locations, that can satisfy time-sensitive delivery requirements to potential locations around the globe, ensuring that demands can be satisfied even in the event of loss of access to a subset of storage sites (along with said sites’ materiel, all at minimum total cost. We develop new optimization formulations to account for differing levels of network reliability, all reflecting the time-sensitive environment faced by rapid response operations. We demonstrate an application of this methodology using rapid response material prepositioned by the US Air Force.

  10. More on the Acquisition of Locative Prepositions: An Analysis of Hebrew Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromi, Esther

    1979-01-01

    The acquisition and use of locative prepositions by 30 Hebrew-speaking children aged two to three years was investigated in a cross-sectional study. Both the order of acquisition and the role of linguistic complexity in determining that order were examined. (Author/AM)

  11. Adding and Subtracting Alternation: Resumption and Prepositional Phrase Chopping in Spanish Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerron-Palomino Lopez, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies considered RP explanations based on difficulty of processing (Hawkins, 1994), while Spanish-specific quantitative studies proposed a number of…

  12. No association between hearing loss due to bilateral otitis media with effusion and Denver-II test results in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbetcioglu, Bulent; Ugurtay, Ozgur; Kirkim, Gunay; Mutlu, Basak

    2008-02-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the most common cause of acquired hearing loss in childhood and has been associated with delayed language development and behavioral problems. In this study, children with an evidently recurrent otitis media were investigated. The present study examines the association between hearing loss versus developmental screening test parameters of preschool children. Sixteen children with bilateral otitis media were compared with age-matched same number of children with normal hearing (controls). Language and verbal cognitive abilities were not affected significantly as a result of the presence of hearing loss because of OME. Using internationally standardized Denver-II test to evaluate the language development and other developmental screening parameters, no significant difference was found between the patient and control groups. This study failed to find any association between the hearing loss due to otitis media with effusion and speech and language parameters in preschool children.

  13. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  14. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  15. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  16. Does children's moral compass waver under social pressure? Using the conformity paradigm to test preschoolers' moral and social-conventional judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elizabeth B; Chen, Chuansheng; Smetana, Judith G; Greenberger, Ellen

    2016-10-01

    The current study tested whether preschoolers' moral and social-conventional judgments change under social pressure using Asch's conformity paradigm. A sample of 132 preschoolers (Mage=3.83years, SD=0.85) rated the acceptability of moral and social-conventional events and also completed a visual judgment task (i.e., comparing line length) both independently and after having viewed two peers who consistently made immoral, unconventional, or visually inaccurate judgments. Results showed evidence of conformity on all three tasks, but conformity was stronger on the social-conventional task than on the moral and visual tasks. Older children were less susceptible to pressure for social conformity for the moral and visual tasks but not for the conventional task.

  17. Preschool psychopathology reported by parents in 23 societies: testing the seven-syndrome model of the child behavior checklist for ages 1.5-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas M; Rescorla, Leslie A; Harder, Valerie S; Ang, Rebecca P; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Gudmundsson, Halldor S; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W L; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G; Woo, Bernardine S C; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R; Verhulst, Frank C

    2010-12-01

    To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the seven-syndrome model separately for each society. The primary model fit index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), indicated acceptable to good fit for each society. Although a six-syndrome model combining the Emotionally Reactive and Anxious/Depressed syndromes also fit the data for nine societies, it fit less well than the seven-syndrome model for seven of the nine societies. Other fit indices yielded less consistent results than the RMSEA. The seven-syndrome model provides one way to capture patterns of children's problems that are manifested in ratings by parents from many societies. Clinicians working with preschoolers from these societies can thus assess and describe parents' ratings of behavioral, emotional, and social problems in terms of the seven syndromes. The results illustrate possibilities for culture-general taxonomic constructs of preschool psychopathology. Problems not captured by the CBCL/1.5-5 may form additional syndromes, and other syndrome models may also fit the data. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Preschooler Too Active? Sleep and Your Preschooler Games for Preschoolers Motivating Preschoolers to Be Active Should Your Preschooler Play Sports? Safe Exploring for Preschoolers Your Child's Weight Kids and Exercise Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: ...

  19. Prepositioned Materiel and Equipment: DOD Would Benefit from Developing Strategic Guidance and Improving Joint Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    analysis by having two analysts independently compare the prepositioned materiel and equipment information in DOD’s fiscal year 2011 report with the 12...Source: GAO analysis . We assessed five of the elements as being addressed because the information provided in the report was responsive to the...report did not include Air Force munitions, auxiliary fuel tanks, missile launchers, pylons, ejector racks, and adapters, medical stocks, fuel, and

  20. The semantics of the preposition ὑπέρ in Homeric Greek

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    Chiara Zanchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prepositions are highly polysemic words. In Homeric Greek, they either retain a number of meanings that are lost in post-Homeric Greek, or have not yet developed other meanings that later become conventionalized. In this paper, I analyze the semantics of the preposition ὑπέρ in Homeric Greek using the terminology of cognitive grammar. In addition, I use the model of structured polysemy in order to detect the original meaning of ὑπέρ, and to distinguish, among all its meanings, those triggered by the context from those independently stored in the mind of speakers. While making such a distinction, I also take into account both the semantic development of ὑπέρ in post-Homeric Greek, and the interaction between preposition and morphological case. I then arrange the distinct meanings in a semantic network, and link them directly or indirectly to the original spatial meaning. At the end, I show how further spatial or abstract meanings develop from the original meaning.

  1. Codification of Some Usage Cases of Lithuanian Language Cases and Prepositions

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    Vidas Valskys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is related to analysing several cases of the relationship between usage of cases and prepositions with the norms indicated in the syntax booklet “Language Advice”. The article is a discussion regarding some normative evaluation aspects regarding the usage of the preposition “greta” (next to having the meaning of exception (exclusion, usage of the adjectivised instrumental case in constructions with the verb “(pavirsti” (to turn, to become, to grow, to get and some cases of the postposition “dėka” (with the help of. Utmost attention is paid to discussion of (nonnormative evaluation of some constructions including usage of the said cases and prepositions that are doubtful in some aspects, their presentation in normative sources and further prospects related to further codification of the said cases. The article is based on vast empirical materials: examples from the “Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian”, the Internet and other texts related to contemporary usage.

  2. Preschool Connected Speech Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    This speech inventory developed for a study of aurally handicapped preschool children (see TM 001 129) provides information on intonation patterns in connected speech. The inventory consists of a list of phrases and simple sentences accompanied by pictorial clues. The test is individually administered by a teacher-examiner who presents the spoken…

  3. Preschool Connected Speech Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    This speech inventory developed for a study of aurally handicapped preschool children (see TM 001 129) provides information on intonation patterns in connected speech. The inventory consists of a list of phrases and simple sentences accompanied by pictorial clues. The test is individually administered by a teacher-examiner who presents the spoken…

  4. Putting Theory to the Test: Modeling a Multidimensional, Developmentally-Based Approach to Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Carter, Alice S.; Burns, James L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received…

  5. The organization of attention in typical development: a new preschool attention test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, Kate; Braddick, Oliver; Atkinson, Janette

    2013-09-01

    This article introduces a new battery of attention tests for typically developing and atypically developing children with a mental age of 3-6 years. In the light of adult and child studies supporting a model of distinct networks for specific attentional operations, tests in the current battery were selected with the aim of measuring functions of selective attention, sustained attention and attentional control (executive function). Normative data were collected from 154 typically developing children aged 3-6 years and examined using exploratory factor analysis to determine latent constructs underlying test performance. This analysis suggested increasing differentiation of attention functions over the age range, with support for the hypothesized three-factor model only after 4½ years of age. Additional analyses supported the validity of the new attention battery with respect to (1) parent/teacher report measures of everyday attention behaviour and (2) later performance on the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), a battery designed for children aged 6-16 years. The results show the developing differentiation of attention functions and support the ecological and predictive validity of the battery as providing early performance-based measures of attention and an attention 'profile' for each individual child, which may aid characterization and remediation of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  6. Putting Theory to the Test: Modeling a Multidimensional, Developmentally-Based Approach to Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Carter, Alice S.; Burns, James L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received…

  7. The Effectiveness of Low-Frequency Amplification and Filtered-Speech Testing for Preschool Deaf Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Carl W.

    During a 3-year period, 20 preschool deaf children were matched and given auditory training by the Verbo-tonal method using two different amplification systems (one which amplified from 200 to 5000 hertz and the other from 20 to 5000 hertz). There were three main goals: (1) to compare two different amplification systems to determine if the…

  8. Effects of Natural Disaster Trends: A Case Study for Expanding the Pre-Positioning Network of CARE International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Duran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  9. Effects of natural disaster trends: a case study for expanding the pre-positioning network of CARE International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan

    2012-08-01

    The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  10. The Galker test of speech reception in noise; associations with background variables, middle ear status, hearing, and language in Danish preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritsen, Maj-Britt Glenn; Söderström, Margareta; Kreiner, Svend; Dørup, Jens; Lous, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    We tested "the Galker test", a speech reception in noise test developed for primary care for Danish preschool children, to explore if the children's ability to hear and understand speech was associated with gender, age, middle ear status, and the level of background noise. The Galker test is a 35-item audio-visual, computerized word discrimination test in background noise. Included were 370 normally developed children attending day care center. The children were examined with the Galker test, tympanometry, audiometry, and the Reynell test of verbal comprehension. Parents and daycare teachers completed questionnaires on the children's ability to hear and understand speech. As most of the variables were not assessed using interval scales, non-parametric statistics (Goodman-Kruskal's gamma) were used for analyzing associations with the Galker test score. For comparisons, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Interrelations were adjusted for using a non-parametric graphic model. In unadjusted analyses, the Galker test was associated with gender, age group, language development (Reynell revised scale), audiometry, and tympanometry. The Galker score was also associated with the parents' and day care teachers' reports on the children's vocabulary, sentence construction, and pronunciation. Type B tympanograms were associated with a mean hearing 5-6dB below that of than type A, C1, or C2. In the graphic analysis, Galker scores were closely and significantly related to Reynell test scores (Gamma (G)=0.35), the children's age group (G=0.33), and the day care teachers' assessment of the children's vocabulary (G=0.26). The Galker test of speech reception in noise appears promising as an easy and quick tool for evaluating preschool children's understanding of spoken words in noise, and it correlated well with the day care teachers' reports and less with the parents' reports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Corpus Based Study on the Use of Preposition of Time "On" and "At" in Argumentative Essays of Form 4 and Form 5 Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Darina Lokeman; Ali, Juliana; Anthony, Norin Norain Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a corpus-based investigation on English prepositions of time presented in the argumentative essays of Form 4 and Form 5 Malaysian secondary students in the MCSAW corpus. The aims were to find out the distribution patterns and the common errors in the use of preposition of time, "on" and "at". This corpus…

  12. The Use of Locative Prepositions by Hebrew Speaking Children 2:0 - 3:0 Years Old. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromi, Esther

    The use of locative prepositions in the spontaneous speech of 30 Hebrew speaking children two to three years old was studied. The rank order of locative prepositions is determined according to the correct use in obligatory contexts, and tentative conclusions are drawn concerning the order of acquisition of these terms in Hebrew. An attempt is made…

  13. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

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    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  14. Efficiency of two-way weirs and prepositioned electrofishing for sampling potamodromous fish migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Potamodromy (i.e., migration entirely in freshwater) is a common life history strategy of North American lotic fishes, and efficient sampling methods for potamodromous fishes are needed to formulate conservation and management decisions. Many potamodromous fishes inhabit medium-sized rivers and are mobile during spawning migrations, which complicates sampling with conventional gears (e.g., nets and electrofishing). We compared the efficiency of a passive migration technique (resistance board weirs) and an active technique (prepositioned areal electrofishers; [PAEs]) for sampling migrating potamodromous fishes in Valley River, a southern Appalachian Mountain river, from March through July 2006 and 2007. A total of 35 fish species from 10 families were collected, 32 species by PAE and 19 species by weir. Species richness and diversity were higher for PAE catch, and species dominance (i.e., proportion of assemblage composed of the three most abundant species) was higher for weir catch. Prepositioned areal electrofisher catch by number was considerably higher than weir catch, but biomass was lower for PAE catch. Weir catch decreased following the spawning migration, while PAEs continued to collect fish. Sampling bias associated with water velocity was detected for PAEs, but not weirs, and neither gear demonstrated depth bias in wadeable reaches. Mean fish mortality from PAEs was five times greater than that from weirs. Catch efficiency and composition comparisons indicated that weirs were effective at documenting migration chronology, sampling nocturnal migration, and yielding samples unbiased by water velocity or habitat, with low mortality. Prepositioned areal electrofishers are an appropriate sampling technique for seasonal fish occupancy objectives, while weirs are more suitable for quantitatively describing spawning migrations. Our comparative results may guide fisheries scientists in selecting an appropriate sampling gear and regime for research, monitoring

  15. Applying cognitive linguistics to pedagogical grammar: the english prepositions of verticality

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    Vyvyan Evans

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we illustrate the merit of applying insights from Cognitive Linguistics to pedagogical grammar. We do so by examining English prepositions, long assumed to be one of the most difficult areas of acquisition for second language learners. The approach to the semantics of English prepositions we present is that developed in Evans and Tyler (2004a, b, In prep. and Tyler and Evans (2001a, 2003. This account offers the following insights: 1 the concepts encoded by prepositions are image-schematic in nature and thus have an embodied basis. In other words, prepositions are not appropriately modelled as constituting linguistic propositions or semantic feature bundles (the received view in formal linguistics; 2 an English preposition encodes an abstract mental idealization of a spatial relation, derived from more specific spatial scenes. This forms the primary meaning component of a semantic network; 3 the idealized spatial relation also encodes a functional element, which derives from the way spatial relations are salient and relevant for human function and interaction with the physical environment; and 4 the additional senses in the semantic network have been extended in systematic, constrained ways. We discuss two key principles of extension: ways of viewing a spatial scene and experiential correlation. We demonstrate the usefulness of a Cognitive Linguistics approach by examining a few aspects of the lexicalization patterns exhibited by in and the four English prepositions of verticality, over, above, under and below. These prepositions provide good evidence that prepositional meanings are extended from the spatial to abstract domains in ways that are regular and constrained. We conclude that a Cognitive Linguistics approach to prepositions provides a more accurate, systematic account that, in turn, offers the basis for a more coherent, learnable presentation of this hitherto seemingly arbitrary aspect of English grammar.Neste artigo

  16. The structural possibilities of serbo-croatian related to the English structure adjective + prepositional sentential complement

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    Ljiljana Bibović

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentential complements occurring with prepositions in English are traditiona ly known as gerunds, verbal forms in -ing having the functions of both nouns and verbs.In transformational-generative grammar they are interpreted as ,embedded sentences in the underlying structure containing their own subject, which may be either deleted under coreference with the subject of the matrix sentence or overtly expressed, as in 1. (aJohn is happy about leaving (b John is happy about Mary leaving.

  17. Assessing handedness in pre-schoolers: Construction and initial validation of a hand preference test for 4-6-year-olds

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    URSULA KASTNER-KOLLER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a test for measuring the handedness of pre-school children. The newly developed test consists of 14 activities for checking various aspects of hand preference and was administered to a Viennese sample of 120 children of the ages 4 to 6.5 (18 left-handed, 17 ambidextrous and 85 right-handed. For the purpose of validation, the handedness of the children was assessed via a questionnaire given to parents, observation of the hand used to draw and testing of visual-motor skills as well as general level of development using the Viennese Development Test (WET, Kastner-Koller & Deimann, 2002. The hand preference test proved to be reliable (α=0.97. The inter-correlations of the handedness measures gathered (parent’s estimate as well as observation of drawing hand with the hand preference test substantiates the concurrent validity of the procedure. Right-handers exhibited the most pronounced hand preference; while the hand use of left-handers was significantly less lateralized. Irrespective of the direction of handedness, children with a consistent hand preference had higher total development scores than children with inconsistent use, i.e. frequent changes in hand used for a specific activity. Compared to ambidextrous and right-handed children, left-handers achieved significantly lower scores in the field of visual-motor skills. The results highlight the necessity of a reliable method for differentiated measurement of handedness as early as pre-school.

  18. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

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    Niamh Rice

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although imbalances in dietary intakes can have short and longer term influences on the health of preschool children, few tools exist to quickly and easily identify nutritional risk in otherwise healthy young children. Objectives: To develop and test the validity of a parent-administered questionnaire (NutricheQ as a means of evaluating dietary risk in young children (12–36 months. Design: Following a comprehensive development process and internal reliability assessment, the NutricheQ questionnaire was validated in a cohort of 371 Irish preschool children as part of the National Preschool Nutrition Survey. Dietary risk was rated on a scale ranging from 0 to 22 from 11 questions, with a higher score indicating higher risk. Results: Children with higher NutricheQ scores had significantly (p<0.05 lower mean daily intakes of key nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, folate, phosphorous, potassium, carotene, retinol, and dietary fibre. They also had lower (p<0.05 intakes of vegetables, fish and fish dishes, meat and infant/toddler milks and higher intakes of processed foods and non-milk beverages, confectionery, sugars and savoury snack foods indicative of poorer dietary quality. Areas under the curve values of 84.7 and 75.6% were achieved for ‘medium’ and ‘high’ dietary risk when compared with expert risk ratings indicating good consistency between the two methods. Conclusion: NutricheQ is a valid method of quickly assessing dietary quality in preschoolers and in identifying those at increased nutritional risk.In ContextAnalysis of data from national food and nutrition surveys typically identifies shortfalls in dietary intakes or quality of young children. This can relate to intakes of micronutrients such as iron or vitamin D as well as to the balance of macronutrients they consume (e.g. fat or sugar. Alongside this lie concerns regarding overweight and obesity and physical inactivity. This combination of

  19. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. METHODOLOGY: A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering 'trace' as negative (t-, and single CCA with 'trace' as positive (t+, was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t- as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t- or CCA(t+ was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t- and CCA(t+ was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are warranted

  20. Accuracy of Urine Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in Preschool-Aged Children before and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; N'Gbesso, Yves K.; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Guessan, Nicaise A.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; van Dam, Govert J.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. Methodology A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years) submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. Principal Findings Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering ‘trace’ as negative (t−), and single CCA with ‘trace’ as positive (t+), was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t−)) as diagnostic ‘gold’ standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t−) or CCA(t+) was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t−) and CCA(t+) was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04). Conclusions/Significance A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are

  1. Math and Calculation – A Test for Diagnosing Concepts at Pre-school Age – An Example of a Level-oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Ricken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Process-oriented diagnostics require a theoretical framework which allows to describe and interpret individual competence changes. For MARKO-test, a corresponding dimension/scale of mathematical achievement in preschool age was developed on the basis of theoretical assumptions and empirical data. Five essential concepts are: numbers as counting sequence, ordinal number line, cardinal understanding, part – part – whole and concept of congruent intervals. There is empirical evidence for the validity of the model, using a unidimensional Rasch model. Therefore, a concept of testing is available which on the one hand allows to compare individual data with a social norm and on the other hand is usable to make valid statements about individual changes and the current development status of a child.

  2. Factorial Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Test of Preschool Early Literacy-Phonological Awareness Test Among Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children and Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mi-Young Lee; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Bingham, Gary E; Puranik, Cynthia S; Lederberg, Amy R

    2017-08-23

    Emerging evidence suggests that early phonological awareness in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing is significantly related to their reading acquisition, and the assessment of phonological awareness can play a critical role in preventing reading difficulties. Validation of the scores obtained from standardized assessments when used with DHH students is crucial to support the assessments' intended interpretations and implications of test scores. Using archival data sets, the aim of this study was twofold: (a) to establish the factorial validity of the item scores on the Test of Preschool Early Literacy-Phonological Awareness (TOPEL-PA) for DHH children with functional hearing and hearing children and (b) to test measurement invariance across these groups. Our archival data sets included assessments of DHH children, hearing children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, and hearing children from a range of SES backgrounds. We hypothesized that a second-order unifying ability, Phonological Awareness, along with four first-order subtest factors would explain inter-item associations among the 27 items on the TOPEL-PA. We further hypothesized that patterns of associations among the item scores would be similar across groups and that the individual items would function similarly across groups. Seven hundred and thirty-three children from three samples participated in the study; 171 were DHH children (Mage = 58.7 months old, SDage = 12.5 months old), 195 were low-SES hearing children (Mage = 55.5 months old, SDage = 3.5 months old), and 367 were diverse-SES hearing children (Mage = 53.4 months old, SDage = 8.9 months old). All DHH children were able to identify the referent of monosyllabic spoken words on the Early Speech Perception Test. Test of confirmatory item factor analyses of the hypothesized second-order factor structure revealed that a second-order unifying ability along with four first-order subtest factors well explained

  3. A corpus-based study on the spatial metaphor--take the preposition under as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒晗

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the preposition under when it is used in a metaphorical expression. The data for the spatial metaphorical use of the word under were colected from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). This paper aims to analyze the actual cognitive metaphorical use of the word under with the corpus colected.

  4. Acquisition of Some Selected Prepositions of Time by English Major Undergraduates at Balqa Applied University in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, Ayat Khalid

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the acquisition of some selected prepositions of time by English major undergraduates at Balqa Applied University in Jordan and to reveal any significant differences among their acquisition attributed to the academic level (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year levels) and to studying "English Basic Grammar" course. A…

  5. Phrase-Final Prepositions in Quebec French: An Empirical Study of Contact, Code-Switching and Resistance to Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether preposition stranding, a stereotypical non-standard feature of North American French, results from convergence with English, and the role of bilingual code-switchers in its adoption and diffusion. Establishing strict criteria for the validation of contact-induced change, we make use of the comparative…

  6. Concurrent Models and Cross-Linguistic Analogies in the Study of Prepositional Stranding in French in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otheguy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Prepositions can be found with and without adjacent complements in many forms of popular spoken French. The alternation appears in main clauses ("il veut pas payer pour ca [approximately] il veut pas payer pour" "he doesn't want to pay for [it]") and, though with a more restricted social and geographic distribution, in relative…

  7. Prepositioned Stocks: DOD has Addressed Required Reporting Elements but Needs to Develop a Department-Wide Policy and Joint Service Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    possibility of higher repair costs in the long run. The Army and Air Force Prepositioned Stock Programs Reported Assumed Risks but Did Not...in the quality of information DOD provided on costs for completely reconstituting prepositioned stocks . Further, GAO found that risks which DOD...have reported on a number of ongoing and long - term challenges in DOD’s annual reports to Congress related to strategic planning, joint service

  8. Benefits of Structured Field Trip Activities on Performance on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) among a Group of Black Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Norris M.; And Others

    Preschoolers are taken on many field trips during the course of their preschool experience. Yet, little research investigates the effects of such curricular offerings on children's developing social and intellectual skills. Intuitively, educators tend to agree that field trips are beneficial to children. However, findings of relevant studies are…

  9. A Smartphone App for Families With Preschool-Aged Children in a Public Nutrition Program: Prototype Development and Beta-Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Janice S; Quirk, Meghan E; Canedo, Juan R; Jones, Jessica L; Vylegzhanina, Violetta; Schmidt, Douglas C; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Beech, Bettina M; Briley, Chiquita; Harris, Calvin; Husaini, Baqar A

    2017-01-01

    Background The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in the United States provides free supplemental food and nutrition education to low-income mothers and children under age 5 years. Childhood obesity prevalence is higher among preschool children in the WIC program compared to other children, and WIC improves dietary quality among low-income children. The Children Eating Well (CHEW) smartphone app was developed in English and Spanish for WIC-participating families with preschool-aged children as a home-based intervention to reinforce WIC nutrition education and help prevent childhood obesity. Objective This paper describes the development and beta-testing of the CHEW smartphone app. The objective of beta-testing was to test the CHEW app prototype with target users, focusing on usage, usability, and perceived barriers and benefits of the app. Methods The goals of the CHEW app were to make the WIC shopping experience easier, maximize WIC benefit redemption, and improve parent snack feeding practices. The CHEW app prototype consisted of WIC Shopping Tools, including a barcode scanner and calculator tools for the cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables, and nutrition education focused on healthy snacks and beverages, including a Yummy Snack Gallery and Healthy Snacking Tips. Mothers of 63 black and Hispanic WIC-participating children ages 2 to 4 years tested the CHEW app prototype for 3 months and completed follow-up interviews. Results Study participants testing the app for 3 months used the app on average once a week for approximately 4 and a half minutes per session, although substantial variation was observed. Usage of specific features averaged at 1 to 2 times per month for shopping-related activities and 2 to 4 times per month for the snack gallery. Mothers classified as users rated the app’s WIC Shopping Tools relatively high on usability and benefits, although variation in scores and qualitative

  10. A Smartphone App for Families With Preschool-Aged Children in a Public Nutrition Program: Prototype Development and Beta-Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela; Emerson, Janice S; Quirk, Meghan E; Canedo, Juan R; Jones, Jessica L; Vylegzhanina, Violetta; Schmidt, Douglas C; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Beech, Bettina M; Briley, Chiquita; Harris, Calvin; Husaini, Baqar A

    2017-08-02

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in the United States provides free supplemental food and nutrition education to low-income mothers and children under age 5 years. Childhood obesity prevalence is higher among preschool children in the WIC program compared to other children, and WIC improves dietary quality among low-income children. The Children Eating Well (CHEW) smartphone app was developed in English and Spanish for WIC-participating families with preschool-aged children as a home-based intervention to reinforce WIC nutrition education and help prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes the development and beta-testing of the CHEW smartphone app. The objective of beta-testing was to test the CHEW app prototype with target users, focusing on usage, usability, and perceived barriers and benefits of the app. The goals of the CHEW app were to make the WIC shopping experience easier, maximize WIC benefit redemption, and improve parent snack feeding practices. The CHEW app prototype consisted of WIC Shopping Tools, including a barcode scanner and calculator tools for the cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables, and nutrition education focused on healthy snacks and beverages, including a Yummy Snack Gallery and Healthy Snacking Tips. Mothers of 63 black and Hispanic WIC-participating children ages 2 to 4 years tested the CHEW app prototype for 3 months and completed follow-up interviews. Study participants testing the app for 3 months used the app on average once a week for approximately 4 and a half minutes per session, although substantial variation was observed. Usage of specific features averaged at 1 to 2 times per month for shopping-related activities and 2 to 4 times per month for the snack gallery. Mothers classified as users rated the app's WIC Shopping Tools relatively high on usability and benefits, although variation in scores and qualitative feedback highlighted several barriers that

  11. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eMiranda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EF using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF. The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed. The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of ADHD symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  12. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler Print A A A What's ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  13. Testing the impact of a social skill training versus waiting list control group for the reduction of disruptive behaviors and stress among preschool children in child care: the study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Larose, Marie-Pier; Geoffroy, Marie Claude; Laurin, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    Most preschoolers growing up in western industrialized countries receive child care services (CCS) during the day, while their parents are at work. Meta-analytic data suggest that CCS represent a stressful experience for preschoolers. This may be because preschoolers have not yet developed the social skills necessary to cope with the new and rapidly fluctuating social contexts of CCS. We tested the effectiveness of a child care-based social skill training program aiming to improve children's social behaviors and reduce the stress they experience. We used a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) to compare children's social behaviors and stress levels in pre- and post-intervention according to whether they received a social skill training intervention or not. Nineteen (n = 19) public CCS (n = 362, 3-years-old preschoolers) of underprivileged neighborhoods (Montreal, Canada) were randomized to one of two conditions: 1) social skills training (n = 10 CCS); or 2) waiting list control group (n = 9 CCS). Educators in the intervention group conducted bi-weekly social skills training sessions over a period of 8 months. The intervention covered four topics: making social contacts, problem solving, emotional self-regulation, as well as emotional expression and recognition. Main outcome measures included preschoolers' disruptive (e.g. aggression, opposition, conflicts) and prosocial behaviors (e.g. sharing toys, helping another child), and stress levels assessed by salivary cortisol sampling at pre and post intervention assessments. Educators' practices will be tested as potential mediators of the expected changes in behaviors and neuroendocrine stress. To our knowledge, this is the first cRCT to test the effectiveness of a child care based social skill training program on the reduction of disruptive behaviors and levels of stress. Significant challenges include the degree of adherence to the intervention protocol as well educators and preschoolers' turnover

  14. Preschool Science Environment: What Is Available in a Preschool Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tsunghui

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated preschool science environments in 20 preschool classrooms (N=20) in 13 midwestern child care centers. By operationalizing Neuman's concept of "sciencing," this study used The Preschool Classroom Science Materials/Equipment Checklist, the Preschool Classroom Science Activities Checklist, and the Preschool Teacher…

  15. Preschool Staff's View of Emergent Literacy Approaches in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norling, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate preschool staff's view of emergent literacy approaches in Swedish preschools with the following research question: How do preschool staff describe and explain the approaches they use in the emergent literacy environment of preschool? Focus-group interviews were conducted with 52 participating preschool units.…

  16. IQ testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales Differential Ability Scales Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Functioning abilities that are measured by these tests ...

  17. El significado de la preposición 'de': un enfoque cognitivo-prototípico THE MEANING OF THE PREPOSITION 'DE: A COGNITIVE-PROTOTYPE FOCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Funes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El carácter léxico de la preposición 'de' no siempre ha sido reconocido debidamente por cuanto las preposiciones no pueden funcionar independientemente y por la variedad de significados que se les atribuye. Considerando este vacío teórico, el presente trabajo, enmarcado en el Enfoque Cognitivo-Prototípico (Lakoff 1987; Langacker 1987, 1991; Hopper 1988; Geeraerts 2007; entre otros, plantea las siguientes hipótesis: a los distintos valores semánticos de la preposición 'de' (en construcciones adnominales están organizados sistemáticamente y configuran un ítem polisémico; b el ítem polisémico 'de' se caracteriza por organizarse (1 mediante una estructura de categoría radial (Lakoff 1987, (2 sobre la base del modelo cognitivo idealizado del punto de referencia (Langacker 1991 y (3 a partir de los atributos de Taylor (1995 para el uso posesivo, que es el uso prototípico; c finalmente, las construcciones con 'de' que se alejan del valor prototípico siguen guardando relación semántico-pragmática con este por 'semejanza de familia' (Wittgenstein 1988[1953]; Lakoff 1987. Esta relación de semejanza contempla tanto la pérdida como el agregado de atributos no presentes en la zona prototípica. Para demostrar estas hipótesis, se analizaron cualitativamente diversos ejemplos de las extensiones semánticas surgidas del sentido central de posesión. Los ejemplos fueron seleccionados de un corpus oral del español de Buenos Aires.The lexical nature of the preposition 'de' has not always been recognized duly. This is because prepositions cannot work independently and also because of the variety of meanings that they convey. In view of this theoretical gap, the present study -in line with the Prototypical-Cognitive Approach (Lakoff 1987, Langacker 1987, 1991, Hopper 1988, Geeraerts 2007, among others- formulates the following hypotheses: a the different semantic values of the preposition 'de' (in nominal constructions are systematically

  18. Comparison of Three Formal Methods of Preschool Language Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Caven S.; Gullo, Dominic F.

    1984-01-01

    Three standardized language assessment measures (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, Test of Early Language Development, and the Preschool Language Scale) were individually administered to 25 nonreferred, White, middle-class preschoolers. Correlations among the three measures were statistically significant suggesting an interrelationship of…

  19. 英语中的介词及隐喻意义探讨%Discussion on Prepositions in English and Their Metaphorical Meanings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐莉

    2015-01-01

    The preposition is an important part of English language , and the metaphor plays a critical role in learning English prepositions . To clear the metaphorical meanings of English preposi‐tions ,firstly ,this paper defines the original spatial meaning of English prepositions .Then it gives a de‐tailed analysis on the cognition of metaphorical meanings of English prepositions .Finally ,it analyzes the metaphorical rhetorical effect of prepositions .The author hopes that this paper can help English learners understand the importance of metaphorical competence and strength the development of metaphorical competence in English learning .%介词是英语语言的重要组成部分,而隐喻对学习者学习英语介词具有非常重要的作用。为明确英语介词的隐喻意义,文章首先对英语介词的空间愿意进行释义,其次,对英语介词的隐喻意义认知进行详细的分析,最后围绕隐喻介词的修辞效果进行了详细的分析,希望可以使英语学习者明确隐喻能力的重要性,并加强英语学习中隐喻能力的培养。

  20. Interscorer Reliability of the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Vance, Booney

    1995-01-01

    Extends the reliability research of the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. The test was administered to 48 children, and the 48 test protocols were scored independently by two psychologists using the Qualitative Scoring System. Results indicated that the scoring system is highly reliable. (JPS)

  1. Two ways of encoding location in Greek: Locative applicatives and prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Daskalaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linguistically, oblique theta roles such as location can be encoded by both adpositions and applicative morphemes. In this paper we argue that Standard Modern Greek (SMG, a language that encodes location primarily with prepositions, has a set of morphologically complex predicates that consist of an intransitive verbal root and a locative prefix, and behave like locative applicative constructions. We argue that this prefix is a low applicative head, licensing the addition of a locative DP argument to the intransitive verbal root. Specifically, this applicative head: (i case-and theta-licenses the added argument, but being void of phi-features, it blocks its cliticization; (ii is distinct from a homophonous free standing P semantically and syntactically; (iii is undergoing grammaticalization, as evidenced by the emergence of a novel configuration, in which the locative predicates combine with locative PPs that retrieve semantic and syntactic information of the locative prefix. Our findings show that applicatives may come in various flavors, that a language may use both analytic and synthetic devices to encode location which are not derivationally related, and that lexical/inherent case does not necessarily reduce to a PP structure.

  2. Note sull'analisi delle preposizioni italiane in un modello semantico generativo (Notes on the Analysis of Italian Prepositions Within a Generative Semantic Model). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Monica

    A generative semantic model for a componential analysis of prepositions in Italian sentences is described and critiqued. According to the model, a sentence is analyzed in terms of a "predicate" plus one or more "arguments." The model emphasizes the semantic role of prepositions and regards this role as the basis for a syntactic analysis of…

  3. Note sull'analisi delle preposizioni italiane in un modello semantico generativo (Notes on the Analysis of Italian Prepositions Within a Generative Semantic Model). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Monica

    A generative semantic model for a componential analysis of prepositions in Italian sentences is described and critiqued. According to the model, a sentence is analyzed in terms of a "predicate" plus one or more "arguments." The model emphasizes the semantic role of prepositions and regards this role as the basis for a syntactic…

  4. K-ABC/McCarthy Performance for Repeating and Nonrepeating Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas K.; Lyon, Mark A.

    This study compares the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) profiles of successful and unsuccessful preschoolers with learning disabilities. Subjects, 40 preschool students, were tested at the beginning and at the end of the preschool year and were placed into repeating or…

  5. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  6. Combining Preposition “Ki” and Relative Pronoun “Kim” and Their Using in Different Meanings in Tenses in Ancient Anatolian Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan TOKATLI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Combining sentences one by other by preposition comes to Turkish from endo-european languages. Preposition ki that combines the sub-clause to the main-clause as well used like adjective to a noun has entered Turkish from Perisain Language. Thus Turkish question pronoun kim had been used as ki until seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Specially takes place in Ancient Anatolian Turkish texts. In this article we try to spot light on the using of ki and kim from point of view of changing the meanings. Examples are taken from Ancient Anatolian Turkish texts.

  7. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  8. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  9. The Development of Preschoolers' Appreciation of Communicative Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, preschoolers' appreciation of a listener's knowledge of the location of a hidden sticker after the listener was provided with an ambiguous or unambiguous description was assessed. Preschoolers (N = 34) were tested at 3 time points, each 6 months apart (4, 4 1/2, and 5 years). Eye gaze measures demonstrated that…

  10. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  11. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  12. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  13. Assessment of intelligence in the preschool period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Leonberger, Katherine Ann

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence testing has a long and revered history in psychological measurement in childhood. Yet, the years between infancy and early childhood have been understudied with respect to emergent intellectual and cognitive functioning. Factor analytic models of intelligence that have demonstrated applicability when testing older children and adults often appear inadequate in the preschool period. As more is learned about brain development in typically developing children during these crucial years the distinctive relationships between neural system development and intellectual functioning are being revealed more completely. The aim of this paper was to provide a brief historical background as a foundation for discussion of intelligence testing, review what is known about the dynamic course of brain development during the preschool years, acknowledge limitations specific to intelligence testing in young children, and provide support for maintaining a comprehensive neuropsychological perspective that considers the wider range of variables that influence intellectual functioning in the preschool period.

  14. Swimming Orientation for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Lou

    1990-01-01

    Techniques which are designed to dispel fears and promote confident learning are offered to preschool swimming instructors. Safety, class organization, water games, and class activities are discussed. (IAH)

  15. Test-retest and inter- and intrareliability of the quality of the upper-extremity skills test in preschool-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haga, Nienke; van der Heijden-Maessen, Helene C.; van Hoorn, Jessika F.; Boonstra, Antje; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the test-retest, inter-, and intraobserver reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: For test-retest reliability, a test-retest design was used; for the intra- and interobserver reliability, the

  16. Test Review for Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET) Manual: Assessing Universal Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo

    2013-01-01

    The Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET; Steed & Pomerleau, 2012) is published by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company in Baltimore, MD. The PreSET purports to measure universal and program-wide features of early childhood programs' implementation fidelity of program-wide positive behavior intervention and support (PW-PBIS) and is,…

  17. American Preschoolers on Ritalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the controversial use of Ritalin among preschool children, examining research from two studies: "Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" and "Preschool ADHD Treatment Study." Examines issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and concludes by examining the influence of the human…

  18. Identifying performing and under performing graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions in animated and static formats: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions that were performing and underperforming in static and animated formats in a recent experiment on the effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols. Variable-specific criteria were developed in order to define when a symbol is considered to be performing in terms of its transparency, name agreement, and identification accuracy. Additionally, across-variable heuristic criteria were developed that allowed classification of symbols into four categories: (a) performing exceptionally, (b) performing effectively, (c) performing adequately, and (d) performing inadequately. These criteria were applied to 24 symbols for verbs and 8 symbols for prepositions in both animated and static formats. Results indicated that the vast majority of the symbols performed adequately or better while a few did not. Potential reasons as to why some of the symbols may have underperformed are discussed. Where appropriate, implications for modifying existing symbols and future research are drawn. Although the fact that the heuristic criteria were developed post-hoc is discussed as a limitation, the benefits of the proposed categories bode well for future applications.

  19. Online evaluation in Mathematics courses with iTest: assessment of students learning from pre-school through college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Joglar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available iTest es una herramienta de evaluación online diseñada y desarrollada por el grupo de investigación HEOL (Herramientas de Evaluación On Line compuesto por profesores de la Escuela en Ingeniería Técnica en Informática de Sistemas del CES Felipe II de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid y por profesores de la Facultad de Informática de la citada universidad. En este artículo, se describen y analizan los resultados de las pruebas más relevantes preparadas y llevadas a cabo por miembros de este grupo en diversas aulas de matemáticas.  Las pruebas no solamente se han realizado con estudiantes universitarios, también han participado alumnos y profesores de distintas escuelas de educación infantil y primaria, así como de institutos de educación secundaria de la localidad de Aranjuez (Madrid.  Para poder realizar este proyecto con éxito, se han impartido seminarios de formación de profesores a través del Centro de Formación de Profesores de Aranjuez.

  20. A Research on the Bead Test of Preschool Children%学龄前儿童穿珠活动特点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈谦; 吕熠豪

    2012-01-01

    目的:测试不同年龄和性别学龄前儿童的穿珠能力,评价儿童手部小肌肉群活动的发展。方法:以浙江省25所幼儿园3~6岁的5 123名学前儿童为研究对象,进行"一分钟穿珠"测试,半年后进行第二次测试。以年龄、性别等作为影响因素进行比较分析。结果:①3~6岁学龄前儿童随着年龄的增加穿珠能力不断增加,4.5~5.5岁年龄段女童穿珠能力好于男童(P〈0.05)。②半年前后穿珠变化值提示,手部精细活动能力的发展敏感期男童为3~4岁之间,女童则更长一点为3.5~5岁之间。结论:学前阶段手部精细活动能力发展迅速,女童优于男童,其发展敏感期女童长于男童。%Purpose:To evaluate of their fine motor,the experiment tested the ability to wear bead in both gender,different age preschool child.Method:5123 children aged from 3 to 6 years of 25 nurseries in Zhejiang province participated in "one minute bead test".The number of bead which were chained were compared based on genders and ages.All of them were retested after half a year.Results:①The results indicated that,children's wearing bead ability is increased as they became older.There were significant differences between male and female in 4.5 to 5.5 years old(P0.05).②The changes of bead number in half a year suggested the sensitive period of hands' fine motor activity,boys are between the ages of 3~4,girls are a little longer between the ages of 3.5~5.Conclusion: The development of sensitive period of hands' fine motor activity is rapid.That of girls is better and longer than of boys.

  1. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sharon Henry

    In the United States, a current initiative, Advancing Active STEM Education for Our Youngest Learners, aims to advance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to understand preschool teachers' proficiency with science and address the problem of whether or not science learning opportunities are provided to young children based on teachers' attitudes and beliefs. A theoretical framework for establishing teachers' attitudes toward science developed by van Aalderen-Smeets, van der Molen, and Asma, along with Bandura's theory of self-efficacy were the foundations for this research. Research questions explored preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science in general and how they differed based on education level and years of preschool teaching experience. Descriptive comparative data were collected from 48 preschool teacher participants using an online format with a self-reported measure and were analyzed using nonparametric tests to describe differences between groups based on identified factors of teacher comfort, child benefit, and challenges. Results indicated that the participants believed that early childhood science is developmentally appropriate and that young children benefit from science instruction through improved school-readiness skills. Preschool teachers with a state credential or an associate's degree and more teaching experience had more teacher comfort toward science based on attitudes and beliefs surveyed. The data indicated participating preschool teachers experienced few challenges in teaching science. The study may support positive social change through increased awareness of strengths and weaknesses of preschool teachers for the development of effective science professional development. Science is a crucial component of school-readiness skills, laying a foundation for success in later grades.

  2. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that lowering anxiety can decrease the sensation ... days or weeks in advance. Here are some general guidelines for ... Explain the procedure in language your child understands, ...

  3. Curriculum Development Program in a Privately-Managed Public Preschool in Taiwan: Overcoming Difficulties and Establishing a Process Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Preschool curriculum reform is currently underway in Taiwan. Privately-managed public preschools (PMPPs) currently play the role of bellwethers because they stand halfway between public and private preschools, and serve as testing grounds for curriculum reforms promoted by the government. This study originated from Curriculum Development Program…

  4. Curriculum Development Program in a Privately-Managed Public Preschool in Taiwan: Overcoming Difficulties and Establishing a Process Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Preschool curriculum reform is currently underway in Taiwan. Privately-managed public preschools (PMPPs) currently play the role of bellwethers because they stand halfway between public and private preschools, and serve as testing grounds for curriculum reforms promoted by the government. This study originated from Curriculum Development Program…

  5. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention.

  6. Pre-school contributions to future achievements

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides recent evidence about the beneÖts of attending preschool on future performance. A non-parametric matching procedure is used over two outcomes: math and verbal scores at a national mandatory test (Saber11) in Colombia. It is found that students who had the chance of attending preschool obtain higher scores in math (6.7%) and verbal (5.4%) than those who did not. A considerable fraction of these gaps comes from the upper quintiles of studentís performance, suggesting that pr...

  7. Word Order in Adjective-Noun Pairs Inside and Outside the Prepositional Phrase: A Contribution to the 15th International Congress of Slavists (Minsk, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R. Minlos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a statistical correlation between possessive prenominal placement and the presence of a preposition. The data from mediaeval Russian, Czech, and Croatian are validated against standard statistical measures (chisquare (X2 test and phi (φ coefficient. Different explanations for the correlation are proposed; the most natural and simple one links the syntactic feature with the phonetic chunking of preposition and adjacent possessive, strengthened by their frequent co-occurence. ____________________ В статье обсуждается статистическая корреляция между препозицией притяжательных местоимений и наличием предлога. Данные средневековых русских, чешских и хорватских памятников оцениваются по стандартным статистическим процедурам (критерий X2 и φ-коэффициент. В статье предложено несколько различных объяснений для этой корреляции; самое естественное и простое объяснение связывает эту синтаксическую особенность с фонетической: предлог со смежным притяжательным местоимением образуют единое фонетическое слово, причем это единство усиливается частым повторением этой пары в текстах.

  8. An Art Appreciation Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Kim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week art appreciation curriculum on 17 preschool children's levels of self-esteem, art involvement, and art appreciation. Pre- and postintervention tests demonstrated that, as a result of the curriculum, the children's self-esteem increased and that they displayed greater interest and knowledge of art. (MDM)

  9. Development of Spanish Consonants in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Mary Ann

    1993-01-01

    This study tested the production of 18 Spanish consonants by 120 Mexican-American preschool children (ages 3-5), to determine the age of acquisition of Spanish consonants. Data are provided on percent of correct production of each sound at six different age levels and are graphically illustrated to compare age of acquisition with another study's…

  10. An Art Appreciation Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Kim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week art appreciation curriculum on 17 preschool children's levels of self-esteem, art involvement, and art appreciation. Pre- and postintervention tests demonstrated that, as a result of the curriculum, the children's self-esteem increased and that they displayed greater interest and knowledge of art. (MDM)

  11. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  12. The two forms of Visuo-Spatial Perspective Taking are differently embodied and subserve different spatial prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eKessler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We set out to distinguish level 1 (VPT-1 and level 2 (VPT-2 perspective taking with respect to the embodied nature of the underlying processes as well as to investigate their dependence or independence of response modality (motor vs. verbal. While VPT-1 reflects understanding of what lies within someone else’s line of sight, VPT-2 involves mentally adopting someone else’s spatial point of view. Perspective taking is a high-level conscious and deliberate mental transformation that is crucially placed at the convergence of perception, mental imagery, communication, and even theory of mind in the case of VPT-2. The differences between VPT-1 and VPT-2 mark a qualitative boundary between humans and apes, with the latter being capable of VPT-1 but not of VPT-2. However, our recent data showed that VPT-2 is best conceptualised as the deliberate simulation or emulation of a movement, thus underpinning its embodied origins. In the work presented here we compared VPT-2 to VPT-1 and found that VPT-1 is not at all, or very differently embodied. In a second experiment we replicated the qualitatively different patterns for VPT-1 and VPT-2 with verbal responses that employed spatial prepositions. We conclude that VPT-1 is the cognitive process that subserves verbal localisations using in front and behind, while VPT-2 subserves left and right from a perspective other than the egocentric. We further conclude that both processes are grounded and situated, but only VPT-2 is embodied in the form of a deliberate movement simulation that increases in mental effort with distance and incongruent proprioception. The differences in cognitive effort predict differences in the use of the associated prepositions. Our findings, therefore, shed light on the situated, grounded and embodied basis of spatial localisations and on the psychology of their use.

  13. A Study on the Historical Development of the English Phrasal Verb and the syntactic test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hui

    2014-01-01

    English phrasal verb originated from Old English , and originally produced in Anglo -Saxon.It evoluted and developed through different historical stages from Old English , Middle English to Early Modern English , and it has now become a very active and rapidly developing part of Contemporary English .A study on the historical development and the syntactic test methods of phrasal verbs can make us fully distinguish the re -lations and differences between English phrasal verbs , prepositional verbs and Prepositional phrase verbs .It is easy to grasp the usage of English phrasal verb after understanding the word formation characteristics .

  14. Theoretical Construction and Empirical Research on A Preschooler-friendly Implicit Association Test%幼儿友好型内隐联想测验的建构及有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱淼; 周立霞; 鲁甜甜; 翁梦星; 傅根跃

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is widely used in the research examining adults’ biases. The IAT measures differential association of two target concepts with an attribute, typically as a means to examine the extent to which social categories have positive or negative associations. One limitation of this method is that it has high executive function demands and is consequently not appropriate for use with young children. In the present research we address this limitation by developing a version of the task that can be used during the preschool years, which we refer to as the Preschooler-friendly IAT (PSF-IAT). In Study 1, we validated the effectiveness of the PSF-IAT in a non-social domain, by using it to detect presumed near-universal evaluative association involving the contrasts of flowers versus insects. In Study 2, we validated the effectiveness of the PSF-IAT in a social domain, by using it to document yound Chinese children’s racial bias against Africans, and show that the assessment of this bias was correlated with another implicit assessment.%本研究依据经典IAT (Implicit Association Test)的核心原理构建了幼儿友好型内隐联想测验(Preschooler-friendly Implicit Association Test, PSF-IAT)。它由两部分联结任务组成,以反应时为指标,通过对概念刺激和属性刺激之间自动化联系的评估进而对幼儿的内隐态度进行间接测量。本研究采用两种方式对PSF-IAT范式的适用性进行验证:首先,将PSF-IAT用于测试幼儿对花和虫的态度,检验该范式在非社会范畴概念态度研究中的可行性;其次,将PSF-IAT用于测试幼儿内隐种族态度,并验证其与另一种幼儿内隐态度测试方法间结果的相关性,检验该范式在社会范畴概念态度研究中的可行性。研究结果表明, PSF-IAT符合学前儿童认知发展与行为反应的特点,能有效测量幼儿的内隐态度。

  15. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  16. Reference values for spirometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool Onset (PO) Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of preschool onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or 1st grade was tested in a sample of N = 146 preschool-age children (3 to 5.11). Method Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children’s roles in relational aggression as aggressor, victim, aggressive-victim, or non-aggressor/non-victim were determined at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school entry. Results Preschoolers diagnosed with PO-psychiatric disorders were 3 times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims. Children diagnosed with PO-disruptive, depressive, and/or anxiety disorders were at least 6 times as likely as children without PO-psychiatric disorders to become aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying for other key risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggested that PO-psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and school-age children’s roles in relational aggression based on teacher-report. Recommendations for future research and preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the development of relational aggression in early childhood by identifying and targeting PO-psychiatric disorders are made. PMID:22917202

  18. Autism, Processing Speed, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Åsa Hedvall; Elisabeth Fernell; Anette Holm; Jakob Åsberg Johnels; Christopher Gillberg; Eva Billstedt

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Methods. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6–6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls) with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n = 77) or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III) (n = 113). Cognitive data wer...

  19. 轮机英语中介词的语义动化%Semantic Verbalization of Prepositions in Marine Engineering English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾玉莲

    2011-01-01

    语义范畴的转换,尤其是由静态到动态的转换,是英语介词与汉语介词的重要区别之一。工科专业英语对简洁度和准确度的特别要求使得轮机英语中大量存在语义动化的介词。这些介词在语义指涉、句法功能、翻译方法、所接宾语等方面存在一定的特点,了解这些特点有助于学生更加准确理解并灵活运用轮机英语。%The shift of semantic domain,especially the shift from static to dynamic,makes a distinction between English prepositions and Chinese ones.Special requirement for concision and accuracy by ESP results in the massive presence of verbalized prepositions in marine engineering English.These prepositions have some characteristics regarding semantic reference,syntactic function,translation methods and following objects.Learning about these characteristics may help marine engineering majors to gain a more comprehensive knowledge and a better command of marine engineering English.

  20. Vestibular Dysfunction in Preschool Children with a History of Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Jennifer; Mayberry, Wanda

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-five preschoolers, assigned to otitis media (OM) or no OM groups, were administered the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test and the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP). Children with a history of OM had significantly decreased scores on the Stepping and Vertical Writing MAP tests, indicating vestibulospinal dysfunction. (SK)

  1. Why Screening Canadian Preschoolers for Language Delays Is More Difficult than It Should Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Virginia; Montgomery, Lorna; Boychyn, Ellen; Young, Roxanne; vanRyn, Elizabeth; McLachlan, Dorothy; Neufeld, Judi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the ability of four American screening tests to identify preschool-age Canadian children with language delays. At 54 months, 110 children from five Ontario infant and child development programs completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, Brigance Preschool Screen, and Early Screening…

  2. Measuring Physical Activity in Preschoolers: Reliability and Validity of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers (SOFIT-P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Skala, Katherine; Atteberry, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is describe the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of an instrument to measure physical activity in preschoolers using direct observation. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers was developed and tested among 3- to 6-year-old children over fall 2008 for feasibility and reliability…

  3. Long-Run Benefits from Universal High-Quality Preschooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of preschool quality for children's school performance at the end of primary school. We construct five structural quality indicators based on unique Danish administrative register data. 30,444 children finishing primary school's 9th grade in 2008 and who attended...... a formal preschool institution in 1998 are used in the analyses. OLS analyses show that three out of five quality indicators, a higher staff-per-child ratio, a higher share of male staff, and a higher share of staff with formal preschool teacher training are associated with significant improvements...... in children's test results in Danish. Boys benefit more from preschool quality than girls. Ethnic minority children benefit from higher staff stability....

  4. Preschool Math Skills and Training Research in Turkey: Synthesis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu BAĞCI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available – In this study, an attempt to create a synthesis of publications on preschool period mathematic abilities and education in peer-reviewed journals throughout the years 2000 and 2015. Constituting a literature review, the sample of this study is 45 articles that were published in peer-reviewed journals, either in print or electronically, between the years 2000 and 2015 on preschool mathematic abilities and education. Using the document analysis technique, there has been determined to be an increase in the number of preschool mathematic education studies from the year 2004 onward. This study (1 employs an emphasis on qualitative methods, (2 is more of a literature review, (3 contains a single set of data obtained from testing and surve y, (4 has a sample group consisting of 5-6-year-old children attending preschool. Research subjects, methodology, data analysis methods of studies from the near past will shed light on further studies.

  5. 以介词为标记的句式信息组织原则及理据分析%An Analysis of the Information Organization Principle and Motivation for the Sentence Marked with Prepositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振来

    2012-01-01

    Word order is one of the most important Chinese grammar means. The basic order of Chinese is SVO. The marked preposition has no real word meaning and only have grammatical meaning, which can function as preposition introduction, transition and sentence forming in semantic functions. Some typical preposition marks can change the frame of Chinese order and preposition mark. "Ba" and "bei" can bring the object before the verb. The marked preposition for the principle of sentence information organization has two prominent characteristics: first, the agent and the patient can be placed before the verb; second, sentence often tends to highlight the result of action. This article, by application of marked theory, analy- zes the sentence marked with preposition for the information organization principle. We believe that there is a motive for engendering the preposition marked that preposition is a mark to differentiate between se- mantic roles, when the agent and the patient are placed before the verb. The composition of the sentence marked with preposition has motivation. It has prominent semantic features and forms a unique sentence characteristics.%语序是汉语最重要的语法手段之一,汉语的基本语序是SVO。介词标记没有实在的词汇意义,只有语法意义,在句法功能上起介引功能、衔接功能、构句功能等。而有些典型介词标记的使用可以改变汉语语序的格局,介词标记"把"、"被"等可以把宾语提到动词前,使句式格局发生变化,这种句式的突出特点是:一是使施事和受事置于动词前;二是句式往往突出动作的结果。说话者选用介词标记是有动因的,要求介词标记不仅要与句式语义相匹配,还要与语境相匹配。从句式结构上可以看出介词标记与句子其他成分之间的组合关系,这些成分的组合是有规律的,从认知角度探讨这些成分的组合规律,对外国人学习以介词为标记的句式大有裨益。

  6. Forging Partnerships with Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Patti Ensel

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Head Start program for preschool children directed by the Nature Center at Shaker Lakes in Cleveland, Ohio. Presents information on the content of this program, which is also aligned with the regular Head Start curriculum. Lists contact phone numbers for more information. (YDS)

  7. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  8. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  9. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  10. The Effects of Preschool Experiences on Academic Achievement of First Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohart, Rebecca; Nickell, Kathryn

    Although current research has not shown prevailing effects of the preschool experience on overall achievement scores, it does indicate a positive effect on language related skills, particularly for males. This study examined the relationship between language related achievement test scores between those first graders with preschool experience and…

  11. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  12. Improving Preschoolers' Mathematics Achievement with Tablets: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, John; Jo, Booil

    2017-01-01

    With a randomized field experiment of 433 preschoolers, we tested a tablet mathematics program designed to increase young children's mathematics learning. Intervention students played Math Shelf, a comprehensive iPad preschool and year 1 mathematics app, while comparison children received research-based hands-on mathematics instruction delivered…

  13. Do Young and Old Preschoolers Exhibit Response Bias Due to Different Mechanisms? Investigating Children's Response Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that younger preschoolers exhibit a yes bias due to underdeveloped cognitive abilities, whereas older preschoolers exhibit a response bias due to other factors. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the response latency to yes-no questions pertaining to familiar and unfamiliar objects in 3- to 6-year-olds. The…

  14. Dynamic and Static Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Preschool: A Behavior-Genetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current…

  15. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in 3-Year-Old Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Penelo, Eva; Domenech, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To test the factor structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and to study the relationships between the proposed dimensions and external variables in a community sample of preschool children. Method: A sample of 1,341 3-year-old preschoolers was randomly selected and screened for a double-phase design. In total, 622…

  16. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  17. Examining the Classification Accuracy of a Vocabulary Screening Measure with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Amanda M.; Clemens, Nathan H.; Parker, Christopher; Whitcomb, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the classification accuracy of the "Dynamic Indicators of Vocabulary Skills" (DIVS) as a preschool vocabulary screening measure. With a sample of 240 preschoolers, fall and winter DIVS scores were used to predict year-end vocabulary risk using the 25th percentile on the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Third…

  18. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.

  19. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Федорова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used:  the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps:  diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31

  20. Noise exposure and auditory effects on preschool personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sjödin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impairments and tinnitus are being reported in an increasing extent from employees in the preschool. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå county, Sweden. Individual noise recordings and stationary recordings in dining rooms and play halls were conducted at two departments per preschool. The effects of noise exposures were carried out through audiometric screenings and by use of questionnaires. The average individual noise exposure was close to 71 dB(A, with individual differences but small differences between the preschools. The noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were about 64 dB(A, with small differences between the investigated types of rooms and preschools. The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested when compared with an unexposed control group in Sweden. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among about 31% of the employees. Annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying. The voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A level and fluctuation of the noise exposure were significantly correlated to the number of children per department. The preschool sound environment is complex and our findings indicate that the sound environment is hazardous regarding auditory disorders. The fluctuation of the noise is of special interest for further research.

  1. Noise exposure and auditory effects on preschool personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Fredrik; Kjellberg, Anders; Knutsson, Anders; Landström, Ulf; Lindberg, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Hearing impairments and tinnitus are being reported in an increasing extent from employees in the preschool. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå county, Sweden. Individual noise recordings and stationary recordings in dining rooms and play halls were conducted at two departments per preschool. The effects of noise exposures were carried out through audiometric screenings and by use of questionnaires. The average individual noise exposure was close to 71 dB(A), with individual differences but small differences between the preschools. The noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were about 64 dB(A), with small differences between the investigated types of rooms and preschools. The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested when compared with an unexposed control group in Sweden. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among about 31% of the employees. Annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying. The voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A) level and fluctuation of the noise exposure were significantly correlated to the number of children per department. The preschool sound environment is complex and our findings indicate that the sound environment is hazardous regarding auditory disorders. The fluctuation of the noise is of special interest for further research.

  2. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  4. A Study on the Diachronic Evolution of the Instrumental Prepositions%工具义介词的历时演变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2014-01-01

    介词在句法系统中占有重要地位,但是在不同的语言中介词的数量和虚化程度是不同的。介词主要由动词语法化而来,尤其是赋元动词。“以”、“用”、“持”、“取”、“捉”、“著”、“将”、“把”、“拿”、“使”这十个介词都是在连谓结构中由动词虚化而来,它们的宾语经常是工具成分,所以称之为工具义介词。这十个介词在相同的句法结构中标记相同的成分,但是它们的出现时间、发展过程以及发展结果都不尽相同。“以”和“用”产生最早,持续时间最长,“以”直到清代后期才消失,而“用”至今还在广泛使用。“持”在西汉萌芽,“取、捉、著、将”出现在中古汉语阶段;“把、使、拿”在唐宋时期才出现,相对较晚。除了“用”之外,其他介词存在的时间长短不一,但是最终都没有在普通话中保存下来,“捉、使、拿”在方言中仍有使用。%The prepositions occupy an important position in the syntactic system,but in different lan-guages the number of the prepositions and the degree of grammaticalization are different. Chinese has not rich morphological changes,so word order and function words occupy an important position. The prepositions mainly come from the grammaticalized verbs,especially role-assigning verbs. For exam-ple,“Yi”,“Yong”,“Chi”,“Qu”,“Zhuo”,“Zhe”,“Jiang”,“Ba”,“Na”and“Shi”are all from the verb blur in the continuous predicate structure,their objects are often the tool of components,so we call them tool meaning prepositions. Although these ten prepositions in the same syntax structure marK the same composition,their time of occurrence,the development process and the development results are different.“Yi”and“Yong”produce the earliest,the longest,“Yi”didn’t disappear until the late Qing Dynasty,and“Yong”are still widely used

  5. Preschool Teachers' Perspectives on Planning and Documentation in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvestad, Torgeir; Sheridan, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a research project focusing on Norwegian teachers' planning and documentation of children's learning in preschool. Norwegian preschools follow a national curriculum and teachers are obliged to document both professional practice and learning outcomes. The aim of the article is to investigate teachers' experiences of…

  6. Quality in preschool in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh-Müller, Grethe; Ringsmose, Charlotte

    What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?......What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?...

  7. Conceptualizing the Play Policies in Preschool Curriculums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Tulin

    2013-01-01

    This research attempted to describe the play policies in preschool institutions in Ankara, Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine the approaches of the preschools to the children's play. "Play Policy Questionnaire" administered to all directors and teachers of 20 public preschools and 20 private preschools. Play policy of…

  8. Preschoolers' Performance on the Brazilian Adaptation of the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument - Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Tâmara Andrade; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Giacheti, Celia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to test whether the Brazilian version of the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument - Second Edition (PLAI-2) has the potential to assess and identify differences in typical language development of Portuguese-speaking preschoolers. The study included 354 children of both genders with typical language development who were between the ages of 3 years and 5 years 11 months. The version of the PLAI-2 previously translated into Brazilian Portuguese was used to assess the communication skills of these preschool-age children. Statistically significant differences were found between the age groups, and the raw score tended to increase as a function of age. With nonstandardized assessments, the performances of the younger groups revealed behavioral profiles (e.g., nonresponsive, impulsive behavior) that directly influenced the evaluation. The findings of this study show that the PLAI-2 is effective in identifying differences in language development among Brazilian children of preschool age. Future research should include studies validating and standardizing these findings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The importance of lexical verbs in the acquisition of spatial prepositions: The case of in and on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Kristen; Wilson, Colin; Landau, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The prepositions in and on appear early in children's descriptions of simple containment and support relations, such as "apple in the bowl" and "cup on the table". However, mature use of these basic terms extends across a very broad range of object configurations, raising the question of whether children and adults share the same underlying semantic space, and if so, how children's use of in and on comes to match that of adults. With a new battery containing diverse object configurations, we asked how 4 and 6 year-olds and adults distribute basic spatial expressions (isin, is on) and lexical verbs (hang, attach, etc.) across subtypes of containment and support. Our results reveal probabilistic distributions of in and on in both adult and child language, with similar distributions among adults and children for in but different patterns for on. Moreover, we find substantial differences in the use of lexical verbs across the two spatial domains and across ages. We propose that children and adults share a structured semantic space for both containment and support relations, but larger portions of this space are described by in and on early in development because alternative descriptions employing lexical verbs are inhibited. Using computational modeling along with experimental data, we link developmental changes in the scope of basic spatial expressions to increasing use of lexical verbs in parts of the space that reflect less central relations of containment or support. This result supports a nuanced view of spatial language acquisition that shifts the focus from how children learn basic expressions to how they learn to distribute expressions of varying content and complexity across the semantic space.

  10. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  11. Preschool Screening: An Examination of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Preschool Teacher Form (BESS Preschool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Chin, Jenna K.; Quirk, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical time to identify and treat early emotional or behavioral problems. Universal screening can be used to identify emotional and behavioral risk in preschoolers and fits well within current service delivery frameworks. This criterion-related validity study examined the use of a brief teacher-rated screener, the…

  12. 游戏教学法在学龄前儿童用力肺活量检查中的应用%The application of game teaching method in forced vital capacity test for preschool children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘影芬; 陈晨; 吴佩琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application effect of game teaching method in forced vital capacity test for preschool children.Methods 317 preschool children undergoing lung function test in lung function room of our department from January 2012 to December 2013 were randomly divided into two groups,1 18 cases in control group (82 males,36 females),199 cases in observation group (133 males,66 females).Before the test,specialist taught children from control group standard details of the test,including how to exert themselves to do,how to cooperate and demonstrate,taught children to breathe in deeply to lung volume through their mouth,next blowing hard fast,until time volume curve showed expiratory phase after the platform with the fastest speed force total suction to lung,then a little note with an area of 8 cm×21 cm was used to let children practice until blown fly.While observation group received game teaching method:firstly the operator called out a picture of candle in the screen,then told children how to blow candle in the TV show,at the same time demonstrated how to blow hard,emphasized that they must use the biggest strength to blow for a long time as far as possible like blowing real candles,then children were able to blow out all candles.The more candles they blew out,the higher score they got.Nurses encouraged children to do the text by playing game,while inhale hard like sucking milk through a straw.Each child demonstrated for 6 times,2 minutes for time interval,if not successful,repeated the test after 20 minutes.Children completed the test and achieved quality standards in 2 hours meant success,otherwise meant failure.Compared the success rate of lung function test of two groups.Results In control group,78 children (66.1%) successfully completed the test,40 children (33.9%) failed; in observation group,160 children (80.4%) successfully completed the test,39 children failed; there was statistically significant difference between two groups (x 2

  13. Development and preliminary validation of Chinese preschoolers' eating behavior questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for caregivers to assess the eating behavior of Chinese preschoolers. METHODS: To assess children's eating behaviors, 152 items were derived from a broad review of the literature related to epidemiology surveys and the assessment of children's eating behaviors. All of these items were reviewed by 50 caregivers of preschoolers and 10 experienced pediatricians. Seventy-seven items were selected for use in a primary questionnaire. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a variability analysis on the data from 313 preschoolers used to evaluate this primary questionnaire, we deleted 39 of these 77 items. A Chinese Preschoolers' Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CPEBQ was finally established from the remaining 38 items. The structure of this questionnaire was explored by factor analysis, and its reliability, validity and discriminative ability were evaluated with data collected from caregivers of 603 preschoolers. RESULTS: The CPEBQ consisted of 7 dimensions and 38 items. The 7 dimensions were food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habit, satiety responsiveness, exogenous eating, emotional eating and initiative eating. The Cronbach's α coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. There were significant differences between the scores of normal-weight, overweight and obese preschoolers when it was referred to food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habits, satiety responsiveness and emotional eating (p<0.05. Differences in caregiver's education levels also had significant effects on scores for food fussiness, eating habits and exogenous eating (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The CPEBQ satisfies the conditions of reliability and validity, in accordance with psychometric demands. The questionnaire can be employed to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese preschoolers' eating behaviors; therefore, it can be used in child health care

  14. A Cognitive Analysis of the Polysemy of the Preposition "to"%介词“to”多义性的认知分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春燕

    2012-01-01

    Prepositions are the most basic words people employ to express spatial concepts,and they are also an important part of English language.Based on the prototype theory,this paper is to analyze the semantic structure of to in a systematic and comprehensive way and to prove the fact that every sense of a preposition is from the prototypical features of the word.Thus,it is aimed to give some implications for English teaching.%介词是人们用来表达空间概念的一种基本词汇,在英语语言中起着举足轻重的作用。本文从认知语言学中的原型理论出发,对英语介词"to"的语义结构进行系统、全面的分析,阐述了介词的多义性均来自于其原型特征这一事实。

  15. Priming prepositional phrase attachment: Evidence from eye-tracking and event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewyn, M.A.; Zirnstein, M.; Swaab, T.Y.; Traxler, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Three syntactic-priming experiments investigated the effect of structurally similar or dissimilar prime sentences on the processing of target sentences, using eye tracking (Experiment 1) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (Experiments 2 and 3) All three experiments tested readers' response to sente

  16. Desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor: o teste de Denver na triagem dos atrasos cognitivos e neuromotores de pré-escolares Neuropsychomotor development: the Denver scale for screening cognitive and neuromotor delays in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cileide Mascarenhas Lopes Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência e fatores associados no que se refere ao desempenho anormal do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de crianças matriculadas na educação infantil pública em Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brasil, em 2009 (n = 438. Esta é uma pesquisa epidemiológica de corte transversal, com amostragem por conglomerado e sorteio das escolas e crianças. Foram verificados os fatores associados por meio de aplicação de questionário às mães e de teste Denver II ao filho. A análise estatística realizou o teste χ2 com intervalo de 95% de confiança e α = 5%. A prevalência de desempenho anormal do desenvolvimento foi 46,3%. Na análise de regressão logística, as variáveis estatisticamente significantes associadas foram: sexo masculino (RP = 1,43; p = 0,00, cinco anos de idade (RP = 1,42; p = 0,00, não realização de pré-natal (RP = 1,41; p = 0,00, início do pré-natal > 3 meses (RP = 1,25; p = 0,00 e consumo alcoólico na gestação (RP = 1,55; p = 0,00. A prevalência foi elevada, apontando a necessidade de pré-natal precoce, alertando sobre o consumo alcoólico, e de vigilância nos primeiros anos de vida, visando a prevenir ou tratar precocemente as alterações.This study investigated the prevalence of abnormal neuropsychomotor developmental performance and associated factors in children enrolled in the public preschool system in Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil, 2009 (N = 438. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with random sampling of schools and children. The study analyzed associated factors with a questionnaire applied to mothers and the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST II in the preschool children. Statistical analysis used the χ2 test with 95% confidence interval and α = 5%. Prevalence of abnormal developmental performance was 46.3%. According to logistic regression analysis, variables showing statistically significant association were: male gender (PR = 1.43; p

  17. Predictive accuracy of the Miller assessment for preschoolers in children with prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L; Harris, Susan R

    2005-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP) is a standardized test purported to identify preschool-aged children at risk for later learning difficulties. We evaluated the predictive validity of the MAP Total Score, relative to later cognitive performance and across a range of possible cut-points, in 37 preschool-aged children with prenatal drug exposure. Criterion measures were the Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), Test of Early Reading Ability-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, and Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration. The highest predictive accuracy was demonstrated when the WPPSI-R was the criterion measure. The 14th percentile cutoff point demonstrated the highest predictive accuracy across all measures.

  18. The Development of Preschoolers' Living Kinds Concept: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margett-Jordan, Tessa; Falcon, Rachael G; Witherington, David C

    2016-12-19

    Given limitations in the integrative scope of past research, basic questions about the organization and development of preschoolers' living kinds concept remain open to debate. This study was designed to address past limitations through use of a longitudinal design, extensive stimulus set, and alternate indices of understanding. Thirty-five English-speaking 3-year-olds from middle-class families in Albuquerque, NM participated in four testing sessions over 1 year. Indices of understanding included statements that preschoolers generated about various living and nonliving objects, biological properties they attributed to the objects, and their characterization of objects as "alive" or not. Results reveal a multifaceted picture of developmental change in preschoolers' living kinds concept involving both the construction and elaboration of a core biological understanding.

  19. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  20. Preschool Teachers use of ICTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masoumi, Davoud

    2015-01-01

    ; and as a communication and documentation tool. In addition, by addressing the teachers’ values and attitudes to the role of ICT in early childhood, the paper also unpacks the stances of teachers who consider ICT to be unsuitable for early childhood education. The findings of this study may bring some clarity......This study aimed to identify the ways in which information and communication technologies (ICT) are integrated in three preschools in south-western Sweden. The case study involved observations of and interviews with preschool teachers. The findings support claims that ICT can enhance preschool...... practices by providing a variety of complementary opportunities to enrich and transform existing curricula. The study shows that in the studied preschools ICTs have been appropriated in distinctive ways: as an object to enrich existing practices; as a cultural mediator; as a way to entertain young children...

  1. Development of Geographical Concept Test (GCT for preschool and primary school childrenOkul öncesi ve ilkokul çocuklarına uygun Coğrafi Kavramlar Testi (CKT geliştirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Baysan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool of ‘geographical concept test’ for pre and primary school. In order to achieve the objectives, program goals of preschool and primary education 1st to 4th grade have been identified. Then, 51 articles consisting the concepts of the Solar System, Earth's movements, Turkey and other countries, landforms, climate and vegetation, fluvial issues, soil, natural disasters, population and settlement, energy sources were prepared. Following the preparation of the questions, an expert opinion was taken from a total number of 8 teaching staff. After the necessary arrangements ‘Geographical Concept Test’ (GCT, was applied to a number of 743 children of pre and primary schools. The reliability coefficient of the test results (KR 20 was found to be .71 for preschool, .85 for the 1st, .73 for the 2nd, .72 for the 3rd and .70 for the 4th of primary school.   Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı, test geliştirme basamaklarını dikkate alarak okul öncesi çocuklar ve ilkokul 1, 2, 3 ve 4. sınıf öğrencilerinin coğrafi kavramlara ilişkin kazanımlarını ortaya koyan geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı geliştirmektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmacılar tarafından öncelikle okul öncesi, ilkokul 1, 2, 3 ve 4. sınıf eğitim programındaki kazanımlar tespit edilmiştir. Daha sonra, bu kazanımları ölçmeye yönelik olarak Güneş Sistemi ve Dünya, Dünya’nın hareketleri, Türkiye ve diğer ülkeler, yerşekilleri, iklim ve bitki örtüsü, su-toprak, doğal afetler, nüfus ve yerleşme ile enerji kaynaklarına ilişkin 51 madde hazırlanmıştır. Soruların hazırlanmasının ardından 8 öğretim elemanından uzman görüşü alınmıştır. Pilot çalışmalar sonrası gerekli düzenlemeler yapılarak 26 soruluk Coğrafi Kavramlar Testi (CKT okul öncesi çocukları ve ilkokul 1, 2, 3 ve 4. sınıf seviyelerini bitirmek üzere olan toplam 743

  2. Correlates of School-Day Physical Activity in Preschool Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Peoples, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among sex, body mass index, motor skill competence (MSC), perceived physical competence (PPC), and school-day physical activity in preschool students (N = 34). Physical activity was assessed by steps accumulated during the school day, while MSC and PPC were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd…

  3. Categorical Perception of Emotional Facial Expressions in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheal, Jenna L.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Adults perceive emotional facial expressions categorically. In this study, we explored categorical perception in 3.5-year-olds by creating a morphed continuum of emotional faces and tested preschoolers' discrimination and identification of them. In the discrimination task, participants indicated whether two examples from the continuum "felt the…

  4. The Revised Gesell Preschool Examination and Later Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard N.

    A sample of 640 children between 2.5 and 6 years old provided norms for scales of the Revised Gesell Preschool Examination. Scales focused on motor, adaptive, verbal, number, and personal and social development. A total of 272 children were reevaluated at 8.5 years on 22 variables derived from teacher ratings, parent questionnaires, and tests. The…

  5. Parents and Schools as Partners in Preschool Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Describes a successful, cost-effective program for at-risk preschoolers designed to improve youngsters' test scores and social habits and develop parents' skills. The Mascoutah, Illinois, program involves guided child observation by parents, individually designed home activities for kindergarten readiness, parent-child cooperation, and a high…

  6. The Nature of Preschoolers' Concept of Living and Artificial Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margett, Tessa E.; Witherington, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated preschoolers' living kinds conceptualization by employing an extensive stimulus set and alternate indices of understanding. Thirty-four 3- to 5-year-olds and 36 adult undergraduates completed 3 testing phases involving 4 object classes: plants, animals, mobile, and immobile artifacts. The phases involved inquiries…

  7. [Staphylococcus aureus prevalence among preschool- and school-aged pupils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonyte, Zaneta; Kacerauskiene, Justina; Budryte, Brigita; Keizeris, Tadas; Junevicius, Jonas; Pavilonis, Alvydas

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool- and school-aged pupils and susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial materials. A study of 243 preschool- and 300 school-aged pupils was conducted during 2003-2004. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus was made with plasmacoagulase and DNase tests. The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics, beta-lactamase activity, phagotypes, and phage groups were determined. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for resistance to methicillin by performing disc diffusion method using commercial discs (Oxoid) (methicillin 5 microg per disk and oxacillin 1 microg per disk). A total of 292 (53.8%) Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and identified (113 (46.5%) from preschool- and 179 (59.7%) from school-aged pupils). The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool-aged pupils varied from 46.5% to 47%. It increased to 59.0% (P>0.05) among schoolchildren aged from 11 to 15 years and to 73.0% (Ppreschool-aged and four (2.2%) from school-aged pupils. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains with beta-lactamase activity increased from 70.7 to 76.6% in preschool-aged pupils, and it varied from 72.0 to 79.0% in school-aged pupils (P>0.05). Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage group II (32.2-43.4%) were prevailing; nontypable Staphylococcus aureus strains made up 19.2-33.6%. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus among preschool-aged children is 41.7 to 48.8%, and it increases among 9th-12th-grade pupils (73.0%, Ppreschool- and school-aged pupils. Pupils were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains belonging to phage group III phagotype 83A and 77.

  8. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  9. Sensory processing in preterm preschoolers and its association with executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jenna N; Feldman, Heidi M; Huffman, Lynne C; Loe, Irene M

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of abnormal sensory processing have been related to preterm birth, but have not yet been studied specifically in preterm preschoolers. The degree of association between sensory processing and other domains is important for understanding the role of sensory processing symptoms in the development of preterm children. To test two related hypotheses: (1) preterm preschoolers have more sensory processing symptoms than full term preschoolers and (2) sensory processing is associated with both executive function and adaptive function in preterm preschoolers. Cross-sectional study. Preterm children (≤34weeks of gestation; n=54) and full term controls (≥37weeks of gestation; n=73) ages 3-5years. Sensory processing was assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. Executive function was assessed with (1) parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool version and (2) a performance-based battery of tasks. Adaptive function was assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Preterm preschoolers showed significantly more sensory symptoms than full term controls. A higher percentage of preterm than full term preschoolers had elevated numbers of sensory symptoms (37% vs. 12%). Sensory symptoms in preterm preschoolers were associated with scores on executive function measures, but were not significantly associated with adaptive function. Preterm preschoolers exhibited more sensory symptoms than full term controls. Preterm preschoolers with elevated numbers of sensory symptoms also showed executive function impairment. Future research should further examine whether sensory processing and executive function should be considered independent or overlapping constructs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pedagogical documentation: Preschool teachers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović-Breneselović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational policy shapes the positions of all stakeholders and their mutual relations in the system of preschool education through its attitude towards documentation. The attitude towards the function of pedagogical documentation in preschool education programmes reflects certain views on children, learning and nature of the programmes. Although contemporary approaches to preschool education emphasise the issue of documentation, this problem is dealt with partially and technically in our country. The aim of our research was to explore preschool teachers’ perspective on documentation by investigating the current situation and teachers’ preferences related to documentation type, as well as to study the purpose, meaning and process of documentation. The research was conducted on the sample of 300 preschool teachers. The descriptive method, interviewing and scaling techniques were used. Research data suggest that the field of documentation is marked by contradictions in perceiving the meaning and function of documentation, as well as by discrepancy and lack of integration at the level of conceptions, practice and educational policy. Changing the current situation in the field of documentation is not a technical matter of elaboration of certain types and forms of documentation; it demands explication of the purpose and function of documentation in keeping with the conception of preschool education programmes and a systemic approach to changes originating from the given conception. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179060: Modeli procenjivanja i strategije unapređivanja kvaliteta obrazovanja u Srbiji

  11. Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children with Histories of Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…

  12. Assessing Early Literacy with Hispanic Preschoolers: The Factor Structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening--Español

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.; Marx, Ronald W.; Cimetta, Adriana D.; Alkhadim, Ghadah S.; Cutshaw, Christina

    2017-01-01

    For two decades, it has been recommended that assessment of literacy for preschool children be conducted in a child's primary language. However, only a few literacy assessments have been validated with a preschool, Spanish-speaking population. The purpose of the present study was to test the latent structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy…

  13. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  14. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder."…

  15. Bedtime Stories in English: Field-Testing Comprehensible Input Materials for Natural Second-Language Acquisition in Japanese Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the prototype of a new type of bilingual picture book was field-tested with two sets of mother-son subject pairs. This picture book was designed as a possible tool for providing children with comprehensible input during their critical period for second language acquisition. Context is provided by visual cues and both Japanese and…

  16. Preschool-Age Problem Behavior and Teacher-Child Conflict in School: Direct and Moderation Effects by Preschool Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were…

  17. Computerized sociometric assessment for preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for prescho

  18. Evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, K L

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences. Forty-six nutrition educators provided a series of 12 lessons to 6102 preschool-age children. The program was evaluated using a pretest/post-test design to assess differences in fruit and vegetable identification, healthy snack choices, willingness to taste foods, and eating behaviors. Subjects showed significant improvement in food identification and recognition, healthy snack identification, willingness to taste foods, and frequency of fruit, vegetable, meat, and dairy consumption. The evaluation indicates that the program was an effective approach for educating preschool children about nutrition.

  19. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA......The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...

  20. The Arts in Turkish Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors determining a nation's level of development in the modern world is preschool education. When preschool education is perceived as an entity that affects every aspect of childhood development, this fact is undeniable. Several aspects of preschool education, including art education, play a significant role in a…

  1. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  2. Preschool Facilities: Are States Providing Adequate Guidance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis R.; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2010-01-01

    The preschool facility is a critical element of an effective preschool program. The recent economic downturn in the United States makes it difficult for states and individual school districts to consider developing new preschool programs or enhancing current programs or facilities. Yet many Americans still agree that public investment in preschool…

  3. Emergent Literacy: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Jenny Miglis; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Adèr, Herman J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports on the construction of a research instrument developed to examine preschool teachers' beliefs and practices in relation to emergent literacy. A 130-item survey (Preschool Literacy Survey, PLS) was completed by a total of 90 preschool teachers in Norway. Items were grouped into homogenous scales, and the relationship…

  4. Preschool Evaluation Report: Year 1 Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Judith A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen.

    The report documents activities and findings of the Preschool Evaluation Project which is developing a model for evaluating program provision to handicapped preschoolers and creating a longitudinal data base to track the short- and long-term progress of preschool children receiving special services in Montgomery County, Maryland. During the first…

  5. О первом актанте русского предлога(On the First Actant of the Russian Preposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lönngren

    2007-01-01

    In the article, the inventory of possible forms of the first actant is established. Moreover, special attention is paid to ambiguous constructions. For example, the preposition together with its second actant can function as an attribute of the first actant. Under certain circumstances, however, the preposition phrase may become detached, so that it is no longer syntac- tically, only semantically, connected with the first actant.

  6. LA TRADUCTION DES PREPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira MOUTAKIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available L’idée de cet article nous est venue d’un cours qu’on assure pour les futurs guides touristiques en Jordanie. En traduisant des textes - français-arabe ou arabe-français, les étudiants se heurtent à certains problèmes pour rendre le texte vers la langue cible et qui soit convenable syntaxiquement et sémantiquement. On a remarqué donc que la traduction des prépositions vers l’une ou l’autre langue présente un dilemme pour les apprenants. On a décidé de composer un corpus de phrases contenant les propositions en français, « à » avec toutes ses formes, « dans et sur » et de l'arabe "على", "في" . Dans un premier temps, on a constitué le corpus avec 25 phrases dans les deux langues et on les a soumises aux étudiants, la liste en français aux étudiants du niveau A2 et la liste ne arabe aux étudiants du niveau A1. Par la suite, on a dégagé ce qui ressort de leurs traductions ce qui nous a permis de faire une analyse sémantico-syntaxique assez détaillée. En conclusion de cet article, on présente les résultats de cette expérience très intéressante.

  7. Validation of the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) in a population of Hispanic preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E.; Nino, Gustavo; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a critical need for validation studies of questionnaires designed to assess the level of control of asthma in children under 5 years old. Objective To validate the Spanish version of the TRACK questionnaire in children under age 5 with symptoms consistent with asthma. Methods In a prospective cohort validation study, parents/caregivers of children under age 5 with symptoms consistent with asthma, during a baseline and a follow-up visit 2 to 6 weeks later, completed the information required to assess the content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change, internal consistency reliability, and usability of the TRACK questionnaire. Results TRACK scores were significantly different between patients with well-controlled asthma, patients with not well-controlled asthma, and patients with very poorly controlled asthma [90.0 (75.0–95.0), 75.0 (55.0–85.0), and 35.0 (25.0–55.0) respectively, p<0.001]. TRACK scores were significantly different between patients classified as currently symptomatic and symptomatic in the recent past [42.5 (25.0–55.0) vs. 85.0 (75.0–90.0), p<0.001]. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the measurements was 0.755 (95% CI: 0.503–1.00). All patients whose clinical status changed showed an increase of 10 or more points in TRACK score between baseline and follow-up visits. Cronbach’s α was 0.77 for the questionnaire as a whole. Conclusion The Spanish version of the TRACK questionnaire has excellent sensitivity to change, and usability, adequate criterion validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability, and an acceptable internal consistency, when used in children under age 5 with symptoms consistent with asthma. PMID:24811025

  8. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  9. Association between maternal lifestyle and preschool nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Bezerra Nobre

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Many of the health behaviors involved in the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD are originated in childhood under parental influence. Mothers are the ones most involved in the education and health care of children. Lifestyle (LS is a social determinant of health. Very few studies tried to understand the influence of maternal LS on child nutrition. Objective: To verify the association between maternal behavioral and non-behavioral LS and nutritional aspects in preschool children. Method: From January 2010 to December 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study with 255 mothers of preschool children who were residents of five different sub-districts in southwestern São Paulo. A proportional stratified random sample was selected using two layers (“schools” and “children”. From the mother, sociodemographic and LS information were collected. From the child, data on anthropometry, sedentary behavior and food intake were collected. The association was calculated using chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: Children who ate minimally processed food were born from mothers with more socially aware non-behavioral LS, while children that ate more processed food were born from mothers with more consumerist non-behavioral LS. No association was found between nutritional characteristics of preschoolers and types of maternal behavioral LS. Children presenting “sedentary behavior” and the habit of eating “ultra-processed foods” had 113% and 84% higher chances, respectively, of being born to mothers that belonged to the “consumerist” cluster. Conclusion: Mothers living a consumerist lifestyle can promote negative influences on child nutrition.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Haris MEMISEVIC; Selmir HADZIC

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...

  11. Gendering in one Icelandic preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Alda Hardardottir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed light on gendering in preschool. It analyzes the opinions and beliefs of preschool teachers with regard to boys and girls in one Icelandic preschool, and how gender performative acts are manifested in the preschool’s children. The preschool, which was observed for one school year, comprised 60 children, aged 18 months to five years, and 20 employees, of which eight were qualified teachers. The research material is analyzed in terms of Judith Butler’s gender constructivism. Butler contends that gender is constituted by, and is a product of, society, and that the individual’s empowerment is therefore limited in relation to society, with individuals typically seeking to identify themselves with the dominant norms concerning gender. The main conclusions suggest that “gendering” is prominent within the preschool. There is a strong tendency among the preschool teachers to classify the children into categories of boys/masculine and girls/feminine, and specific norms direct the children into the dominant feminine and masculine categories, thus maintaining and reinforcing their gender stereotypes. The children used symbols such as colors, locations and types of play as means to instantiate the “girling” and the “boying”. These findings are consistent with previous Nordic research and indicate a prevailing essentialist perspective towards both girls and boys. The originality of the research, however, lies in focusing on children’s gender from the individual’s perspective and how the individual child generally enacts gender performatively within the confines of society’s norms.

  12. Wishful thinking in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults.

  13. First Article Testing of the USMC Container Consolidation Pallet Manufactured by Grate Pallet Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-28

    The pallet shall then be released and allowed to freely impact the edge or corner onto the 1-inch thick steel plate . Each corner and each end edge...released and allowed to impact once onto a steel plate . Report: The pallet was inspected for damage or weakening of the overall structure after...footprint board or box. Container Consolidation Pallet (CCP) None 09-P-104 90 X 46 X 80 4000 Prepositioning supplies Grate Pallet COMPONENT TESTING

  14. Relation between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children's kindergarten and fourth-grade language and reading abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David K; Porche, Michelle V

    2011-01-01

    Indirect effects of preschool classroom indexes of teacher talk were tested on fourth-grade outcomes for 57 students from low-income families in a longitudinal study of classroom and home influences on reading. Detailed observations and audiotaped teacher and child language data were coded to measure content and quantity of verbal interactions in preschool classrooms. Preschool teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary during free play predicted fourth-grade reading comprehension and word recognition (mean age=9; 7), with effects mediated by kindergarten child language measures (mean age=5; 6). In large group preschool settings, teachers' attention-getting utterances were directly related to later comprehension. Preschool teachers' correcting utterances and analytic talk about books, and early support in the home for literacy predicted fourth-grade vocabulary, as mediated by kindergarten receptive vocabulary.

  15. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  16. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...... preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area...

  18. Comparison of psychomotor development in urban and rural preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amouzadeh Khalili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Baekgrouund & purpose: The purpose of this study was comparing the motor and cognitive development of urban and rural preschool children in Semnan, Iran.Materials and Methods: 97 healthy preschool children participated in the study, including 57 urban (n1=57 and 40 rural (n2=40 children.6 assessment methods including equilibrium on one leg, drawing a man, Juorchin, fekr-e-bekr, equilibrium board and the test of easy fine motor, were employed to evaluate the motor and cognitive development in the participants.For analysis of the obtained results t tests was used to determine significant differences between the two groups.Results:equilibrium on one leg and the test of easy fine motor, considering there was significant differences between, urban and rural groups.In the other four tests there was no significant differences between the two groups.Conclusion: the findings indicated that the rural children have more success in motor skills when compared to urban children, while in cognitive tests the two groups showed the same results, indicating. That revision is required for the preschool programme

  19. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bourbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematic education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices. Normal 0 21 false false false SV JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  20. Mother and preschool teacher as assessors of the child's language competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja Peklaj

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers include child's parents as assessors of his/her language development as the results of many studies suggest their assessments to be valid and reliable measures of child's language competence. In the longitudinal study, presented in this paper, we examined whether child's mother and his/her preschool teacher can provide a valid estimation of child's language development. The sample included 80 Slovenian children from different preschool institutions, aged 3;1 years at first and 4;1 years at second assessment. Children's language competence was assessed individually, directly by the testators using Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test and indirectly by mothers and preschool teachers using the Child's Language Competence Questionnaire for Parents and Preschool Teachers. The achieved results showed that the estimates given by mothers and preschool teachers represent valid measures of child's language competence but not stable in time. The estimations given by mothers and preschool teachers explain a small share in variability of children's achievements on the Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test.

  1. Physical Activity Lessons in Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia Sem

    2010-01-01

    A review of the current literature indicates that childhood obesity is on the rise. What is more disconcerting is that this epidemic has significantly affected the preschool-age population, with the percentage of overweight children increasing from 5.0% to 12.4%, as indicated by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) surveys…

  2. Physical Activity Lessons in Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia Sem

    2010-01-01

    A review of the current literature indicates that childhood obesity is on the rise. What is more disconcerting is that this epidemic has significantly affected the preschool-age population, with the percentage of overweight children increasing from 5.0% to 12.4%, as indicated by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) surveys…

  3. Preschool Integration: An Experimental Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Linda; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The study compared four methods of increasing quantity and quality of play interactions between nonhandicapped and 11 moderately/severely handicapped children in an integrated preschool. Results of contingent reinforcement, reinforcement plus modeling, reinforcement plus behavior management, and reinforcement plus modeling plus behavior management…

  4. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  5. Developing preschool children social aptitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Brás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.

  6. Preschoolers' Quarantining of Fantasy Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Rebekah A.; Smith, Erin I.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are exposed to fantasy stories with the expectation that they will learn messages in those stories that are applied to real-world situations. We examined children's transfer from fantastical and real stories. Over the course of 2 studies, 3 1/2- to 5 1/2-year-old children were less likely to transfer problem solutions from…

  7. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  8. Why Preschoolers Need Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    NAEYC, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, and the US Department of Health and Human Services all recommend that preschool programs offer physical education. There are many reasons why. First, young children form healthy habits early in life. Before entering elementary school they learn to brush their teeth, bathe…

  9. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  10. Evaluation of Praxis in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, L. Diane

    1987-01-01

    A rationale and procedures are presented for occupational therapy evaluation of the preschooler whose problems suggest dyspraxia. Two evaluative domains are examined: sensory processing (assessment of tactile, proprioceptive, vestibular, auditory and visual functions) and praxis (ideation, motor planning and execution). Procedures include…

  11. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  12. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  13. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  14. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Halina

    2010-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically derived taxonomy of preschool psychopathology. However, the utility of the measures and their taxonomy of preschool psychopathology to the Chinese is largely unknown and has not been studied. The present study aimed at testing the cross-cultural factorial validity of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF, as well as the applicability of the taxonomy of preschool psychopathology they embody, to Mainland Chinese preschoolers. Country effects between our Chinese sample and the original U.S. sample, gender differences, and cross-informant agreement between teachers and parents were also to be examined. A Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF was completed by parents and teachers respectively on 876 preschoolers in Mainland China. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the original, U.S.-derived second order, multi-factor model best fit the Chinese preschool data of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. Rates of total behavior problems in Chinese preschoolers were largely similar to those in American preschoolers. Specifically, Chinese preschoolers scored higher on internalizing problems while American preschoolers scored higher on externalizing problems. Chinese preschool boys had significantly higher rates of externalizing problems than Chinese preschool girls. Cross-informant agreement between Chinese teachers and parents was relatively low compared to agreement in the original U.S. sample. Results support the generalizability of the taxonomic structure of preschool psychopathology derived in the U.S. to the Chinese, as well as the applicability of the Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. PMID:20821258

  15. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1996-10-01

    The role of demographic, developmental, and familial mediating factors on treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children was evaluated. Sixty-seven sexually abused preschool children and their parents were evaluated shortly after disclosure of sexual abuse and then were provided with one of two treatment interventions. At the completion of treatment, the parents and their children were reevaluated. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory, and the Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of emotional and behavioral symptoms in children. Parents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III, the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire, the Parental Support Questionnaire, and the Maternal Social Support Index. Children completed the Preschool Symptom Self-Report to assess self-reported affective symptoms and the Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to assess developmental level. Correlational analyses were conducted to analyze the relationships between the hypothesized mediating variables and the outcome measures at posttreatment across the two treatment groups. Multiple regression analyses were also performed. Both parental depression and parental emotional distress correlated significantly with several of the child outcome measures. Battelle scores were significantly negatively correlated with several outcome measures. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire remained a highly significant predictor of treatment outcome. The findings indicate a strong correlation between parental emotional distress related to the abuse and treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children, independent of the type of treatment provided. The findings indicate the importance of addressing parental distress related to the abuse in providing effective treatment to sexually abused

  16. Intellectual maturity and physical fitness in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Mora-López, David; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    There is an important connection between body growth, physical fitness and cognition. The association between physical fitness and cognitive function has been investigated in some studies, but little is known about the relationship between physical and motor performance and intellectual maturity in preschool children. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the association between intellectual maturity and physical and motor fitness in preschool children. A total of 1012 children aged 3-6 years participated voluntarily. A fitness test battery and the Goodenough-Harris drawing test (GHDT) were used. Boys did better in the standing broad jump and 20 m sprint (P test variables and GHDT. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between crude GHDT score and the fitness test variables. From an early age, physical-motor performance and intellectual maturity are linked. Fitness condition is able to predict intellectual maturity. Increasing the amount of time devoted to physical education can promote cognitive benefits in preschool children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. An Examination of Parents' and Preschool Workers' Perspectives on Bullying in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David Lansing; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2016-01-01

    Parents (n = 141) and preschool workers (n = 81) completed a survey regarding their perspectives towards: (a) the existence of bullying in preschool, (b) interpretations of bullying, (c) the roles of bullies and victims, and (d) gender differences. Findings suggest that both groups largely believe that bullying occurs in preschool. Excluding…

  18. The Effects of Los Angeles Universal Preschool on Quality Preschool Teacher Retention in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Stevens, Holly Anne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP) programs has a positive effect on the retention of quality preschool teachers in Los Angeles County. In prior work, preschool teacher retention is associated with wages, program structure, program process, professional development, and…

  19. Emotional Competence and Emotion Socialization in Preschoolers: The Viewpoint of Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Sükran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to thoroughly investigate preschool teachers' opinions about emotional competence and emotion socialization. The study group was comprised of 20 preschool teachers working in preschools in the city-center of Aksaray. A semi-structured interview form prepared by the researcher was used as the data collection tool. Data…

  20. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  1. Preschool Teachers' Views on Competence in the Context of Home and Preschool Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Tuula; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss preschool teachers' views regarding competence within their profession in the context of home and preschool collaboration. The question addressed is as follows: In what situations do preschool teachers perceive that their competence becomes visible for parents? The results, based on interviews…

  2. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2016-10-25

    OBJECTIVE : Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. METHOD : Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children (N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS : Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. CONCLUSIONS : The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  3. Coordination in orientation games of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Erika

    2013-01-01

    In the thesis we studied how orientation games have effect on preschool children whilst growing up. Even though the games in available litterature are meant for school children some authors stress that the games are appropriate for preschool children though you do have to have be careful when implementing them for preschoolers. Orientation games in their original form improve orientation, endurance and encourage competition. With participation we can improve all motor functions but for presch...

  4. Nutritional status of preschool children attending kindergartens in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysha, Agim; Gjergji, Tahire M; Ploeger, Angelika

    2017-06-02

    There is very limited data on malnutrition of preschool children in Kosovo. The main objective of the study is to provide a nutritional status profile of preschool children attending kindergartens in Kosovo. Cross-sectional study of children aged 12-59 months (n = 352 children) and children aged 60-83 months (n = 134) enrolled in public and private kindergartens of Kosovo. Anthropometric measurements used for this study are weight and height of the preschoolers (12-83 months). A measuring board was used for measuring the length/height of children younger than 2 years, while digital weight and height scale Seca 763 was used for measuring of preschool children taller than 110 and Seca 213 was used for measuring the height for children who were shorter than 110 cm. Statistical analyses of underweight and overweight trends across sex and age groups as well as between children from public and private kindergartens were carried out. Qualitative variables were tested with a chi-square test. The differences between groups were assessed with a Student t test for normally distributed variables and a Mann-Whitney test for abnormally distributed numerical variables. The mean z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and BMI-for-age largely fell within 0.0 and 1.0. The percentage of stunted children is 3%, whereas child wasting is 1.9%. The overall percentage of obese children is 2.3%; furthermore, 8.9% are overweight and 27.3% have a possible risk of being overweight. The incidence of children underweight is slightly decreasing. The prevalence of overweight and obese children in sample chosen is evident.

  5. Authoritative Parenting Among Immigrant Chinese Mothers of Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Leung, Christy Y.Y.; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children’s outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting ...

  6. Authoritative Parenting Among Immigrant Chinese Mothers of Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Charissa S.L.; Leung, Christy Y. Y.; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children’s outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting ...

  7. No Evidence of Emotional Dysregulation or Aversion to Mutual Gaze in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Pupillometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, Heather J.; Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    The "gaze aversion hypothesis", suggests that people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) avoid mutual gaze because they experience it as hyper-arousing. To test this hypothesis we showed mutual and averted gaze stimuli to 23 mixed-ability preschoolers with ASD ("M" Mullen DQ = 68) and 21 typically-developing preschoolers, aged…

  8. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...

  9. Behavioral/Emotional Problems of Preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.A.; Achenbach, T.M.; Ivanova, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age...... and gender effects were quite similar across societies. The rank orders of mean item ratings were similar across diverse societies. For 7,380 children from 13 societies, ratings were also obtained from a parent. In all 13 societies, mean Total Problems scores derived from parent ratings were significantly...... higher than mean Total Problems scores derived from caregiver/teacher ratings, although the size of the difference varied somewhat across societies. Mean cross-informant agreement for problem scale scores varied across societies. Societies were very similar with respect to which problem items, on average...

  10. Security of attachment and preschool friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K A; Waters, E

    1989-10-01

    Attachment theory proposes that the quality of the mother-child tie predicts the quality of a child's other close relationships. The purpose of this study was to test whether security of attachment to mother is related to the quality of a preschooler's best friendships. 33 4-year-old and their best friends participated (mean age = 46 months). Attachment Q-set data were collected to score security of mother-child attachment. Security data were used to classify the friend pairs as secure-secure or secure-insecure. Best friend dyads were observed for a 1-hour free-play session. Each pair's behavior was described with the Dyadic Relationships Q-set, a measure designed to describe the behavior of a pair of children. Secure-secure pairs were more harmonious, less controlling, more responsive, and happier than secure-insecure pairs. The results are related to previous work on attachment and social competence.

  11. Affective forecasting bias in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Shalini; Bulley, Adam; von Hippel, William; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Adults are capable of predicting their emotional reactions to possible future events. Nevertheless, they systematically overestimate the intensity of their future emotional reactions relative to how they feel when these events actually occur. The developmental origin of this "intensity bias" has not yet been examined. Two studies were conducted to test the intensity bias in preschool children. In the first study, 5-year-olds (N=30) predicted how they would feel if they won or lost various games. Comparisons with subsequent self-reported feelings indicated that participants overestimated how sad they would feel to lose the games but did not overestimate their happiness from winning. The second study replicated this effect in another sample of 5-year-olds (n=34) and also found evidence of an intensity bias in 4-year-olds (n=30). These findings provide the first evidence of a negative intensity bias in affective forecasting among young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of a child's fable on the cognition of preschools when used to address childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Kathleen Bradshaw; Abbot Eng, CaSandra Rene'

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of a child's fable on the cognition of preschoolers when used to address childhood obesity. A single group, pretest/posttest design was used with 57 preschool children. Analysis of variance compared pre-existing differences between the four classes with respect to pre-test scores. A repeated measures t-test analyzed changes in scores as a result of the intervention. Following the fable intervention, students showed a significant difference (0.5) between their pre- and post-test scores, indicating this method to an effective learning strategy in this setting and age population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Preference of Keeping the Intermediary /y/(ی in Prepositional Construction and Its Attachment to the Silent» h«.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Irani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   One of the problems of Persian writing is the question of writing and including the noun or adjective "Prepositional" construction sign in words the written form of which end in a silent » h « which is in fact a short vowel equivalent to /e/ (kasra ـِـ .The difference between the two ways of writing the intermediary consonant /y/( ی at the end of the word with a last silent » h « , completely as « ی » or with the sign « ء» on the silent » h « is rooted in the controversy between the traditional and modern approaches of writing.   The present study is about to study into the following subjects: an analysis and criticism of both the above approaches, a survey of the history of the intermediary /y/( ی , recognizing its phonetic significance and its role in making and adding new syllables, and finally a conclusion about the more convenient way to write it. It is possible that the outcome of the present study will provide us with a unique form of writing of the case in different texts like books, articles, newspapers, journals and electronic texts.

  14. Relationship between Vision and Visual Perception in Hong Kong Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wing-Cheung; Tang, Minny Mei-Miu; Fu, Ching-Wah; Leung, Ka-Yan; Pang, Peter Chi-Kong; Cheong, Allen Ming-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Although superior performance in visual motor and visual perceptual skills of preschool children has been documented in the Chinese population, a normative database is only available for the US population. This study aimed to determine the normative values for these visuomotor and visual perceptual tests for preschool children in the Hong Kong Chinese population and to investigate the effect of fundamental visual functions on visuomotor and visual perceptual skills. One hundred seventy-four children from six different kindergartens in Hong Kong were recruited. Distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, and stereopsis were tested, along with two measures of visual perception (VP): Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (TVPS). Raw VMI and TVPS scores were converted into standard/scaled scores. The impact of basic visual functions on VP (VMI and TVPS) was examined using multiple regression. Visual functions were generally good: only 9.2 and 4.6% of subjects had unilateral and bilateral reduced habitual vision, respectively (distance visual acuity in the better eye >0.3 logMAR [logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution]). Performance in the VMI and in the visual memory and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS exceeded that reported for age-matched children from the United States. Multiple regression analysis provided evidence that age had the strongest predictive value for the VMI and VP skills. In addition, near visual acuity was weakly associated with performance in the VMI and the visual discrimination and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS, accounting for a limited proportion of the intersubject variability (R VMI and visual memory/spatial relationships of TVPS subtests, perhaps attributed to greater exposure to such material during their preschool home education. This study provided normality data for VMI and four subtests of the TVPS for Hong Kong Chinese preschool children as a reference for future studies.

  15. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    OpenAIRE

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received...

  16. Improving preschoolers' mathematics achievement with tablets: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, John; Jo, Booil

    2017-09-01

    With a randomized field experiment of 433 preschoolers, we tested a tablet mathematics program designed to increase young children's mathematics learning. Intervention students played Math Shelf, a comprehensive iPad preschool and year 1 mathematics app, while comparison children received research-based hands-on mathematics instruction delivered by their classroom teachers. After 22 weeks, there was a large and statistically significant effect on mathematics achievement for Math Shelf students (Cohen's d = .94). Moderator analyses demonstrated an even larger effect for low achieving children (Cohen's d = 1.27). These results suggest that early education teachers can improve their students' mathematics outcomes by integrating experimentally proven tablet software into their daily routines.

  17. Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Maria; Grindefjord, Margaret; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group......BACKGROUND: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. METHODS: Five......) while 237 had received standard preventive care (reference group). Oral samples were collected with a sterile swab and analysed with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization using 12 pre-determined bacterial probes. Caries and background data were collected from clinical examinations and questionnaires...

  18. Prevalence and determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Berg, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    , the parents of the children were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 945 out of the 1201 eligible preschool children participated in the study (response rate = 79%). The children were aged 5-8 years. The majority were of German nationality (72.6%). Overall, 127 children (13......BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is among the most common infections in humans and has been recognized as major cause of various gastroduodenal diseases. There is limited knowledge, however, on the prevalence and determinants of this infection in children. We addressed these issues in a population......-based cross-sectional study in Southern Germany. METHODS: Study subjects were all preschool children in Ulm, a city in the South of Germany, who were screened for school fitness by physicians of the public health service in 1996. Infection status was determined by 13C-urea breath test. In addition...

  19. Improving preschoolers' mathematics achievement with tablets: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, John; Jo, Booil

    2017-04-01

    With a randomized field experiment of 433 preschoolers, we tested a tablet mathematics program designed to increase young children's mathematics learning. Intervention students played Math Shelf, a comprehensive iPad preschool and year 1 mathematics app, while comparison children received research-based hands-on mathematics instruction delivered by their classroom teachers. After 22 weeks, there was a large and statistically significant effect on mathematics achievement for Math Shelf students (Cohen's d = .94). Moderator analyses demonstrated an even larger effect for low achieving children (Cohen's d = 1.27). These results suggest that early education teachers can improve their students' mathematics outcomes by integrating experimentally proven tablet software into their daily routines.

  20. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  1. Humor and preschoolers' trust: Sensitivity to changing intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoicka, Elena; Butcher, Jessica; Malla, Felicity; Harris, Paul L

    2017-02-01

    This research demonstrates that preschoolers (a) avoid trusting informants with humorous intentions when learning novel information and (b) flexibly consider current intentions rather than initial intentions when determining who to trust. In Study 1 (N=61), 3- and 4-year-olds based their trust on intentions or intentional cues alone, trusting a sincere informant over a joker, even when no prior accuracy or inaccuracy was displayed. In Study 2 (N=32), 3- and 4-year-olds flexibly based their trust on the informants' current intentions or intentional cues rather than their initial ones. Children trusted a sincere informant, who originally joked, over a joker, who was originally sincere. In Study 3 (N=89), 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds tracked changing intentions, and not just intentional cues, in determining who to trust. Children trusted an informant who joked during training trials but was sincere during test trials over an informant who was ignorant during training trials and was sincere during test trials. However, if the ignorant informant became knowledgeable and the joker continued to joke, the pattern reversed. This is the first study to show that preschoolers consider intentions to joke when learning information. This is also the first study to show that preschoolers do not see trust as stable but rather see it as a function of changing intentions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Preschool Activity Card Sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaya H. Malkawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS is an interview-based assessment tool to measure participation of preschool children with age range from 3 to 6 years. Objective of Study. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the recently translated Arabic PACS (A-PACS. Methods. One hundred fifty-one Jordanian parents participated in the study representing different geographical areas. Children were almost equally distributed between males and females and into three age groups. Construct and concurrent validity were examined as well as the internal consistency of the scale and the test-retest reliability. Findings. The A-PACS was able to differentiate between the participation level of young and old children in the domains of education, community mobility, and low demand leisure of the A-PACS giving evidence to its construct validity and it significantly correlated with some aspects of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS giving evidence to its concurrent validity. The A-PACS showed excellent overall internal consistency (α=.859 for all domains and good test-retest reliability (r=.976, p<.001. Conclusion. The A-PACS can be considered as a valid and reliable tool to measure participation of preschool children with normal development from Arabic cultures. Future studies should focus on the validity of the A-PACS for use with children with disabilities.

  3. The Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Preschool Activity Card Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Dahab, Sana M. N.; Amro, Ahmad F.; Almasri, Nihad A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS) is an interview-based assessment tool to measure participation of preschool children with age range from 3 to 6 years. Objective of Study The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the recently translated Arabic PACS (A-PACS). Methods One hundred fifty-one Jordanian parents participated in the study representing different geographical areas. Children were almost equally distributed between males and females and into three age groups. Construct and concurrent validity were examined as well as the internal consistency of the scale and the test-retest reliability. Findings The A-PACS was able to differentiate between the participation level of young and old children in the domains of education, community mobility, and low demand leisure of the A-PACS giving evidence to its construct validity and it significantly correlated with some aspects of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) giving evidence to its concurrent validity. The A-PACS showed excellent overall internal consistency (α = .859) for all domains and good test-retest reliability (r = .976, p < .001). Conclusion The A-PACS can be considered as a valid and reliable tool to measure participation of preschool children with normal development from Arabic cultures. Future studies should focus on the validity of the A-PACS for use with children with disabilities.

  4. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases

  5. 45 CFR 605.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 605.38 Section 605... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on the...

  6. Screening Preschool Children for Visual Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Adhikari, BOptom

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular and/or vision defects are one of the most common reasons for the referral of young children to the hospital. Vision disorders are the fourth most common disability of children and the leading cause of handicapping conditions in childhood. In preschool-age children, amblyopia and amblyogenic risk factors, such as strabismus and significant refractive errors, are the most prevalent and important visual disorders. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of visual disorders in preschool children in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.Methods: Four hundred and eighty-four children attending eight preschools in Kathmandu Valley underwent detailed optometric examination. Visual acuity was assessed with either Sheridan Gardiner or Kay Picture chart monocularly. Binocularity was assessed with cover test and prism bar neutralisation. Refraction was carried out in all children. In most instances this was done without the use of a cycloplegic agent. Stereopsis was assessed with the Lang stereo test. Anterior and posterior segment abnormalities were assessed by using a pen light, hand-held slit lamp, and direct ophthalmoscope.Results: Refractive error was the most common visual disorder. Considering our criteria of refractive error for myopia ≥ 0.50 D, hyperopia ≥ 1.50 D, astigmatism ≥ 1.00 D, and anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D, the overall prevalence of refractive error in our study was 31.82%. The overall prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was 24.17%, 2.48%, and 5.17%, respectively. Anisometropia was present in 1.65% of the participants, and 2%, 1.4%, and 0.2% had strabismus, amblyopia, and nystagmus, respectively.Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of refractive error in our studied population needs more attention. The results suggest that there is a need for a large-scale community-based preschool screening program in Nepal so that affected children can be identified early and appropriate treatment can be

  7. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2 Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas—namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang—of China; (3 Results: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years. Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children’s physical activity (PA behavior (p < 0.0001. However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children’s fruits and vegetables (FV behavior, screen time (ST behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4 Conclusions: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children’s PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children’s ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children’s ST behavior.

  8. Double dose: the cumulative effect of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children's activity patterns and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon; Dowda, Marsha; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about how screen-based sedentary behavior at home and in preschool influences children's health and activity patterns. The current study examined the individual and cumulative influence of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children's physical activity (PA) and weight status. Children (n = 339) attending 16 preschools in South Carolina were grouped into high and low TV groups based on parent report of children's TV viewing at home and director report of TV use/rules in preschool. T-tests and mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in weight status and PA (min/hr) by high and low TV groups. Results revealed that children who were classified as High TV both at home and in pre- school had significantly lower levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA compared with their Low TV counterparts (8.3 (0.3) min/hr vs. 7.6 (0.2) min/hr, p TV groups at home or in preschool when examined individually. These findings demonstrate the importance of total environmental TV exposure on preschooler's PA. Longitudinal and observational research to assess preschoolers' cumulative screen-based sedentary behavior and its relationship with PA and weight status is needed.

  9. Assessing the Development of Preschoolers' Mathematical Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelmore, Michael C.; Papic, Marina M.; Mulligan, Joanne T.

    2011-01-01

    The development of patterning strategies during the year prior to formal schooling was studied in 53 children from 2 similar preschools. One preschool implemented a 6-month intervention focusing on repeating and spatial patterns. Children from the intervention group demonstrated greater understanding of unit of repeat and spatial structuring, and…

  10. PPT: The Preschool Preparation and Transition Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Mary Jo; Ratokalau, Nancy B.

    1992-01-01

    The University of Hawaii Department of Special Education conducted the Preschool Preparation and Transition Project, a federally funded demonstration program, to support families and their children with special needs in the transition from infant programs to least restrictive preschool placements. The program addressed this goal through three…

  11. Documentation and Communication in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilson, Anette; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate communication between preschool teachers and children in documentation situations. The focus is also on what preschool teachers actually document. The research questions are: What characterizes the communication between teachers and children when these teachers are documenting at the same time? What is the…

  12. Grapheme-Phoneme Acquisition of Deaf Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign…

  13. Preschool Teachers' Constructions of Early Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Research concerning preschool teachers' constructions of early reading has potential to influence teachers' curricular decisions and classroom practice. Six preschool teachers in North Texas were interviewed in regard to what they think about early reading and how they develop these understandings or constructions. The systematic, inductive…

  14. Phonological Production in Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    Approximately 10 percent of Latino preschoolers are at risk for developing communication problems unrelated to second language acquisition. Many of these children are Spanish-speaking and have difficulties in producing speech sounds in their native language. One of the services afforded Latino preschoolers by speech-language pathologists is the…

  15. Documentation and Communication in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilson, Anette; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate communication between preschool teachers and children in documentation situations. The focus is also on what preschool teachers actually document. The research questions are: What characterizes the communication between teachers and children when these teachers are documenting at the same time? What is the…

  16. Managing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bridgitt Lenore

    2014-01-01

    Despite state mandated early childhood education (ECE) teacher competencies, many children are removed from preschool settings for behaviors related to socioemotional problems. This study's rationale was the propensity of expulsions among children exhibiting challenging behaviors in preschool programs. Guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological model…

  17. Creative Inspiration for Preschoolers from Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönkkö, Marja-Leena; Aerila, Juli-Anna; Grönman, Satu

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the learning outcomes of preschool children produced through visits to an historic house museum environment. The new Finnish preschool curriculum identifies the importance of arts-based approaches for children and that these approaches should be closely aligned to experiential and holistic education. The aim of the research…

  18. Physical Education at Preschools: The Meaning of "Physical Education" to Practitioners at Three Preschool Settings in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preschool physical education has been largely unexplored by researchers. This article examines the meaning of the term "physical education", in relation to preschool contexts, to 14 practitioners working at three preschool settings in Scotland. Our focus on preschool physical education reflects a change in the language…

  19. The Effects of Inflated Seating Cushions on Engagement in Preschool Circle Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Anna M.; Metz, Alexia E.

    2017-01-01

    Inflatable balls and cushions made of non-latex rubber can provide alternatives to sitting on the floor/ground or classroom chairs. This study tested the effect of inflatable cushions (wiggle cushions) placed on the floor for seating during circle time in typical preschool classrooms. The effect on attention was tested using alternating periods of…

  20. Social Competence in Preschool Children: Replication of Results and Clarification of a Hierarchical Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Antonio J.; Peceguina, Ines; Daniel, Joao R.; Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested assumptions and conclusions reached in an earlier confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) study of the social competence (SC) construct for preschool children. Two samples (total N = 408; a new Portuguese sample and one from US samples that had participated in the original study) contributed data. Seven SC indicators were tested for…

  1. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  2. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  3. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  4. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Sedlak; Jana Pařízková; Robert Daniš; Hana Dvořáková; Jana Vignerová

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n = 3678) height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the ach...

  5. Relationship between Bruxism and Malocclusion among Preschool Children in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafournia, Maryam; Hajenourozali Tehrani, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Bruxism is defined as a habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. In younger children bruxism may be a consequence of the masticatory neuromuscular system immaturity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bruxism and investigate the relationship between occlusal factors and bruxism among preschool children. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional survey, 400 3-6-year-old children were selected randomly from different preschools in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into two groups of bruxers and non-bruxers as determined by the clinical examination and their parents’ reports. The examiner recorded the primary canines (Class I, Class II, and Class III) and molars (mesial step, distal step, flash terminal plane) relationship, existence of anterior and posterior crossbite, open and deep bite. Also, rotated teeth, food impaction, sharp tooth edges, high restorations, extensive tooth caries, and painful teeth (categorized as irritating tooth conditions) were evaluated. The relationship between bruxism and occlusal factors and irritating tooth conditions was evaluated with chi-square test. Results Bruxism was seen in 12.75% of the subjects. Statistically significant relationships existed between bruxism and some occlusal factors, such as flash terminal plane (P = 0.023) and mesial step (P = 0.001) and also, between food impaction, extensive tooth caries, tooth pain, sharp tooth edge and bruxism. Conclusion The results showed significant relationship of bruxism with primary molar relationships and irritating tooth conditions among preschool children. PMID:23277860

  6. Association between obesity and asthma in preschool Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vàzquez-Nava, Francisco; Morales Romero, Jaime; Crodova Fernandez, José A; Saldívar-González, Atenogenes H; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Barrientos Gomez, Maria del C; Lin-Ochoa, Dolorez; Vázquez Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2010-07-07

    The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI) in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile), overweight (> or =85th and obesity (> or =95th percentile). Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66-1.58), obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68-1.30), and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.

  7. Association between Obesity and Asthma in Preschool Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile, overweight (ࣙ85th and <95th percentile, and obesity (ࣙ95th percentile. Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66–1.58, obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68–1.30, and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN ANXIETY AND STYLE OF FAMILY UPBRINGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mazurova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Children personality is actively formed at the preschool period, as they enter wider circle of social relationships and everyday tasks become more complicated. The most common emotional problem among preschool children is anxiety as a possible precursor of neurosis. Aim: to study the character of anxiety and the main causes of its development in preschool children in order to determine the structure of psychological care. Patients and methods: 68 children, 68 mothers and 22 fathers were included into the study. We used the following methods: observation, interview, projective and test methods. Results: each third child was diagnosed increased level of anxiety. Anxiety-inducing situations were mainly associated with disturbances of safety feeling in family. Correlation between ineffective types of parental relationship and high level of children anxiety was established. Conclusions: decrease in children anxiety is impossible without harmonization of parental aims in accordance to age and special features of children development. Structure and duration of rehabilitation should be based on analysis of somatic and neuro-psychic state of children, as well as social situation of development.

  9. Autism, Processing Speed, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Hedvall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Methods. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6–6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n=77 or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III (n=113. Cognitive data were related to adaptive functioning as measured by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS. Results. Cognitive profiles were characterized by low verbal skills. Low processing speed quotients (PSQs were found in 66 (78% of the 85 children who were able to participate in the processing speed subtests. Except for Socialization, all VABS domains (Communication, Motor Skills, Daily Living Skills, and Adaptive Behavior Composite scores correlated significantly with PSQ. Multiple regression analysis showed that PSQ predicted 38%, 35%, 34%, and 37% of the variance for Communication, Daily Living Skills, Motor Skills, and total Adaptive Composite scores, respectively. Conclusion. Preschool children with ASD had uneven cognitive profiles with low verbal skills, and, relatively, even lower PSQs. Except for Socialization, adaptive functioning was predicted to a considerable degree by PSQ.

  10. Autism, processing speed, and adaptive functioning in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Holm, Anette; Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6-6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls) with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n = 77) or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III) (n = 113). Cognitive data were related to adaptive functioning as measured by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Cognitive profiles were characterized by low verbal skills. Low processing speed quotients (PSQs) were found in 66 (78%) of the 85 children who were able to participate in the processing speed subtests. Except for Socialization, all VABS domains (Communication, Motor Skills, Daily Living Skills, and Adaptive Behavior Composite scores) correlated significantly with PSQ. Multiple regression analysis showed that PSQ predicted 38%, 35%, 34%, and 37% of the variance for Communication, Daily Living Skills, Motor Skills, and total Adaptive Composite scores, respectively. Preschool children with ASD had uneven cognitive profiles with low verbal skills, and, relatively, even lower PSQs. Except for Socialization, adaptive functioning was predicted to a considerable degree by PSQ.

  11. Perceptual anchoring in preschool children: not adultlike, but there.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference, a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference, no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a

  12. Assessing volume of accelerometry data for reliability in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; O'Connell, Eoin; Okely, Anthony D; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2012-12-01

    This study examines what volume of accelerometry data (h·d) is required to reliably estimate preschool children's physical activity and whether it is necessary to include weekday and weekend data. Accelerometry data from 493 to 799 (depending on wear time) preschool children from the Melbourne-based Healthy Active Preschool Years study were used. The percentage of wear time each child spent in total (light-vigorous) physical activity was the main outcome. Hourly increments of daily data were analyzed. t-tests, controlling for age and clustering by center of recruitment, assessed the differences between weekday and weekend physical activity. Intraclass correlation coefficients estimated reliability for an individual day. Spearman-Brown prophecy formula estimated the number of days required to reach reliability estimates of 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9. The children spent a significantly greater percentage of time being physically active on weekend compared with weekdays regardless of the minimum number of hours included (t = 12.49-16.76, P 8 d of data were required to reach a reliability estimate of 0.7 with 10 or more hours of data per day; 3.3-3.4 d were required to meet the same reliability estimate for days with 7 h of data. Future studies should ensure they include the minimum amount of data (hours per day and number of days) as identified in this study to meet at least a 0.7 reliability level and should report the level of reliability for their study. In addition to weekdays, at least one weekend day should be included in analyses to reliably estimate physical activity levels for preschool children.

  13. Preschool weight and body mass index in relation to central obesity and metabolic syndrome in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte; Sovio, Ulla; Kaakinen, Marika; Sandbaek, Annelli; Laitinen, Jaana; Taanila, Anja; Pouta, Anneli; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Obel, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test the associations between preschool weight and body mass index (BMI) and adult BMI, central obesity and metabolic alterations. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 4111) is a population-based cohort. Preschool weight (age 5 months and 1 year) and BMI (age 2-5 years) were studied in relation to metabolic syndrome as well as BMI, waist circumference, lipoproteins, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at the age of 31 years. Linear regression models and generalized linear regression models with log link were used. Throughout preschool ages, weight and BMI were significantly linearly associated with adult BMI and waist circumference. Preschool BMI was inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein levels from the age of 3 years. Compared with children in the lower half of the BMI range, the group of children with the 5% highest BMI at the age of 5 years had a relative risk of adult obesity of 6.2(95% CI:4.2-9.3), of adult central obesity of 2.4(95% CI:2.0-2.9), and of early onset adult metabolic syndrome of 2.5(95% CI:1.7-3.8). High preschool BMI is consistently associated with adult obesity, central obesity and early onset metabolic syndrome. Routinely collected measures of body size in preschool ages can help to identify children in need of focused prevention due to their increased risk of adverse metabolic alterations in adulthood.

  14. Quality of preschool education in preschool institution and children's social competence

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Lešnik; Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2006-01-01

    The present study addressed the relation between the quality of preschool education and children's social competence. The main purpose of the study was to examine how professional workers (preschool teachers and preschool teachers' assistants) evaluate their work with children in the context of stimulating children's social development, and to determine the relationship between the professional workers' self-evaluations and children's social competence. Professional worker...

  15. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres M. Della Lucia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR® fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool and the other received only polished rice (control preschool. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  16. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  17. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C; Santos, Laura Luiza M; Cardoso, Leandro M; Martino, Hércia S D; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-05-14

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice(®) (UR(®))) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2-6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR(®) added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR(®) on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  18. Can Kinesiological Activities Change "Pure" Motor Development in Preschool Children during One School Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.

  19. The Multidimensional Card Selection Task: A new way to measure concurrent cognitive flexibility in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podjarny, Gal; Kamawar, Deepthi; Andrews, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Most executive function research examining preschoolers' cognitive flexibility, the ability to think about something in more than one way, has focused on preschoolers' facility for sequentially switching their attention from one dimension to another (e.g., sorting bivalent cards first by color and then by shape). We know very little about preschoolers' ability to coordinate more than one dimension simultaneously (concurrent cognitive flexibility). Here we report on a new task, the Multidimensional Card Selection Task, which was designed to measure children's ability to consider two dimensions, and then three dimensions, concurrently (e.g., shape and size, and then shape, size, and color). More than half of the preschoolers in our sample of 107 (50 3-year-olds and 57 4-year-olds) could coordinate three dimensions simultaneously and consistently across three test trials. Furthermore, performance on the Multidimensional Card Selection Task was related, but not identical, to performance on other cognitive tasks, including a widely used measure of switching cognitive flexibility (the Dimensional Change Card Sort). The Multidimensional Card Selection Task provides a new way to measure concurrent cognitive flexibility in preschoolers, and opens another avenue for exploring the emergence of early cognitive flexibility development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acoustical evaluation of preschool classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wonyoung; Hodgson, Murray

    2003-10-01

    An investigation was made of the acoustical environments in the Berwick Preschool, Vancouver, in response to complaints by the teachers. Reverberation times (RT), background noise levels (BNL), and in-class sound levels (Leq) were measured for acoustical evaluation in the classrooms. With respect to the measured RT and BNL, none of the classrooms in the preschool were acceptable according to the criteria relevant to this study. A questionnaire was administered to the teachers to assess their subjective responses to the acoustical and nonacoustical environments of the classrooms. Teachers agreed that the nonacoustical environments in the classrooms were fair, but that the acoustical environments had problems. Eight different classroom configurations were simulated to improve the acoustical environments, using the CATT room acoustical simulation program. When the surface absorption was increased, both the RT and speech levels decreased. RASTI was dependent on the volumes of the classrooms when the background noise levels were high; however, it depended on the total absorption of the classrooms when the background noise levels were low. Ceiling heights are critical as well. It is recommended that decreasing the volume of the classrooms is effective. Sound absorptive materials should be added to the walls or ceiling.

  1. Application of NVC to English Teaching for Preschool Education Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-rong

    2014-01-01

    In view of the present situation of college English teaching for Preschool Education Major is rather unsatisfactory, this paper briefly introduced Nonverbal Communication (NVC) and laid the emphasis on guiding college English teachers to apply useful nonverbal stimuli to inspiring Preschool Education major’s English-learning interest, improving their learning results, and helping them master various preschool English teaching skills. It further proved the nonverbal means and relative training meth-ods are helpful and practical to improve Preschool Education majors’nonverbal communicative competence and develop their preschool English teaching ability. Therefore, it will contribute to the study of English teaching for Preschool Education Major.

  2. The investigation of the level of preschool children with eyesight problems functional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedova O.O.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Separate characteristics of the functional state of preschool children with eyesight problems are shown in the article. The study included children of all age groups: younger, middle and older – 35 girls and 42 boys. During testing were determined: the functional state of cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the vestibular analyses, the length of sound audibility during the air conduction are determined in the article. The results suggest that the functional state of preschool children with vision problems somewhat below normal. Baseline data of the age dynamics of the functional state of preschool children with vision problems revealed that performance improved with age. In the sexual aspect, it was found that the performance of boys, mostly higher than that of girls.

  3. Biological impact of preschool music classes on processing speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; O'Connell, Samantha; Kraus, Nina

    2013-10-01

    Musicians have increased resilience to the effects of noise on speech perception and its neural underpinnings. We do not know, however, how early in life these enhancements arise. We compared auditory brainstem responses to speech in noise in 32 preschool children, half of whom were engaged in music training. Thirteen children returned for testing one year later, permitting the first longitudinal assessment of subcortical auditory function with music training. Results indicate emerging neural enhancements in musically trained preschoolers for processing speech in noise. Longitudinal outcomes reveal that children enrolled in music classes experience further increased neural resilience to background noise following one year of continued training compared to nonmusician peers. Together, these data reveal enhanced development of neural mechanisms undergirding speech-in-noise perception in preschoolers undergoing music training and may indicate a biological impact of music training on auditory function during early childhood.

  4. The Relation of Work Environment and Stress in Classroom Management among Preschool Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Said Ambotang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to observe how far preschool teachers endure stress in carrying out their job which is influenced by the work climate including the management of classroom. This research is carried out by choosing a group of 55 preschool teachers as respondents in the district of Keningau Sabah. Data is analyzed using descriptive method (mean, inferential (T-test Statistic, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Result showed that there were high positive relationships between the work climate with stress level among the teachers. (r = 0.807, p<0.01 and classroom management with level of stress (r = 0.770, p< 0.01. It is hoped that with the information obtained by this research will assist the Malaysian Ministry of Education in planning and designing a suitable programme to overcome the stress problem faced by teachers especially preschool teachers towards improving the teaching profession quality in the near future.

  5. 基于意向图式的多义介词on的空间隐喻认知%Research on Spacial and Metaphorical Cognition of Polysemous Preposition On Based on Image Schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林殷

    2014-01-01

    空间概念是人类较早产生的、可以直接理解的概念,也是人们认识社会表达各种认知成果的基础。据Brown和LOB语料库统计,空间介词on在英语语言学习中占据着至关重要的地位。意象图式是认知语言中的重要概念,基于认知语言学中的意象图式来剖析介词on的空间原型义,及其在进行跨概念域转用时的隐喻映射过程,是符合人们跨概念域认知世界的过程。%The spacial concept grown early and been understandable directly .It is the basis peo-ple cognize the world and expresses kinds of cognitive achievements.According to the statistics from the corpus Brown and LOB,the spatial preposition On plays a crucial role in English language learn-ing.Image schema is an important concept in cognitive linguistics.To analyze the prototypical meaning of the spacial preposition On and the role of On in the metaphorical process of cross conceptual domain based on image schema is in line with the process that people cognize the world through cross conceptu-al domains.

  6. On the Normative Evaluation and Presentation of Some Phenomena in Lithuanian Syntax: Cases of the Prepositional Construction tikėti į ką (Believe in sb. and Attributive Locative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Valskys

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is an analysis of issues concerning the relationship of the prepositional construction tikėti į ką (“believe in sb.” and the attributive locative with the codified language norm. On the basis of the polemic and insights by some linguists and theologists as well as the data of contemporary usage, it is argued in the article whether the phrase tikėti į Dievą (“believe in God” should reasonably be treated as a translation loanword, whether it does not possess distinctive semantics typical of the Christian discourse, due to which such a prepositional construction should rather be acknowledged as variant of the norm in Standard Lithuanian. The article also contains a discussion on some cases of expressing an attribute using the locative case, as they also have a nuance of location. Therefore, a question is raised whether they are reasonably attributed to syntactic phenomena that should be avoided in standard language.

  7. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  8. Naps May Sharpen a Preschooler's Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163510.html Naps May Sharpen a Preschooler's Language Skills Kids who slept after learning new verbs understood ... have an advantage when it comes to developing language skills, a new study suggests. Researchers assessed 39 youngsters ...

  9. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  10. Academic Language in Preschool: Research and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Developing and scaffolding academic language is an important job of preschool teachers. This Teaching Tip provides five strategies that extend the topic of academic language by integrating previous research and field-based data into classroom practice.

  11. Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sjödin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  12. Green Settings for Children in Preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth

    This Danish study investigates the relationship between children in preschool (age range 3-6.5 years) and the outdoor environments they use. The main aim is to describe and analyse the outdoor features of significance for children’s activities and of importance for design and management of green...... settings for preschools. The intent is to facilitate transfer of knowledge from preschools to planners and managers of green settings such as woodland, parks, green lots and playgrounds. The central concept applied is that of affordances, here defined as the meaningful action possibilities...... between forest features and manufactured features, a detailed account of the affordances of ditches, and a description of the forest sites used by a Danish forest preschool. Children were attracted to features with changing and not fully explored action possibilities; forest features added variation...

  13. Low hepatitis B prevalence among pre-school children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Niels; Georgsen, Jørgen; Stolborg, Torsten

    2002-01-01

    Although Denmark has a low hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, HBV transmission has been reported in Danish day-care centres. The aim of this study was to validate saliva anti-HBc testing as a method for HBV screening, the applicability of saliva sampling to pre-school children, and to determine...

  14. Developing Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge for Low-Income Preschoolers: A Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected…

  15. Are Augmented Reality Picture Books Magic or Real for Preschool Children Aged Five to Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Rabia M.; Kucuk, Sevda; Goktas, Yuksel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine preschool children's attitudes towards augmented reality picture books (ARPB), their story comprehension performance (SCP) and the relationships between these variables. The sample consisted of 92 five- and six-year-olds (49 boys, 43 girls). An attitude form, story comprehension test and interview form were…

  16. Preschool Teachers' Knowledge, Opinions, and Educational Experiences with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Melissa; Stebbins, Molly S.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate preschool teachers? past educational experiences, knowledge, and opinions related to ADHD. A second purpose was to determine if specific teacher variables (e.g., years of experience) were associated with higher knowledge of ADHD as measured by a criterion-referenced test. One hundred…

  17. Preschool Based JASPER Intervention in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism: Pilot RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, Kelly Stickles; Ishijima, Eric; Chang, Ya-Chih; Kasari, Connie

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study, we tested the effects of a novel intervention (JASPER, Joint Attention Symbolic Play Engagement and Regulation) on 3 to 5 year old, minimally verbal children with autism who were attending a non-public preschool. Participants were randomized to a control group (treatment as usual, 30 h of ABA-based therapy per week) or a…

  18. Gender Differences in Preschool Aggression during Free Play and Structured Interactions: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Keating, Caroline F.

    2004-01-01

    We observed 48 children from rural preschools (M = 64 months old) in two different social contexts to test hypotheses about the type (relational, physical, verbal, nonverbal), contextual independence, and sociometry of girls' and boys' aggressive tactics. We predicted and generally found that (1) girls displayed more relational aggression than…

  19. The Relationship between Creative Thinking Ability and Creative Personality of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hwa

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between creative thinking ability and creative personality of preschoolers. Prior research showed that the correlation coefficient between creative thinking ability and creative personality of teenagers was very low (Hah, 1999), so this research was undertaken to validate the test and to examine how…

  20. The Structure of Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge: Model Equivalence and Validity Using a Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Denham, Susanne; Mincic, Melissa; Graling, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: A theory-based 2-factor structure of preschoolers' emotion knowledge (i.e., recognition of emotional expression and understanding of emotion-eliciting situations) was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Compared to 1- and 3-factor models, the 2-factor model showed a better fit to the data. The model was found to be…

  1. Speaker Reliability in Preschoolers' Inferences about the Meanings of Novel Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M.; Sedivy, Julie; Buchanan, David W.; Hennessy, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Preschoolers participated in a modified version of the disambiguation task, designed to test whether the pragmatic environment generated by a reliable or unreliable speaker affected how children interpreted novel labels. Two objects were visible to children, while a third was only visible to the speaker (a fact known by the child). Manipulating…

  2. The Evolution of the Snellen E to the Blackbird. (Blackbird Preschool Vision Screening Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Viacrucis, Kiyo

    Comparison of a variety of vision screening methods used with preschool children led to modification of the standard Snellen E test called the Blackbird Vision Screening System. An instructional story using an "E-bird" was developed to teach children the various possible positions of the E. The visual confusion caused by the chart was…

  3. Using Songs to Enhance L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Yvette; Gómez Gracia, Remei

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the effects of a teaching sequence of song-based activities on the L2 vocabulary acquisition of a group of five-year-old Spanish child EFL learners. Twenty-five preschool children received three 30-minute lessons organized around the presentation and practice of a well-known children's song. Vocabulary picture tests were…

  4. Validation of a Self-Control Rating Scale in a Chinese Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimin

    2002-01-01

    This study sought to validate the translated Self-Control Rating Scale on a population of 204 randomly selected Chinese preschool children from over 600 attending a Beijing child care center. Results indicated satisfactory content validity, internal reliability, construct validity, and test-retest reliability. Validation of measure will allow…

  5. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  6. Improving Social Understanding of Preschool Children: Evaluation of a Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Moises; Sidera, Francesc; Serrano, Jessica; Amado, Anna; Rostan, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This study tested the effects of a training program intending to foster social understanding or the capacity which enables them to understand themselves and others in terms of intentions, beliefs, desires, and emotions in children at preschool age. A number of studies have shown that in the context of shared narratives, children are…

  7. Preschool Children's Development in Classic Montessori, Supplemented Montessori, and Conventional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the outcomes of Montessori education is scarce and results are inconsistent. One possible reason for the inconsistency is variations in Montessori implementation fidelity. To test whether outcomes vary according to implementation fidelity, we examined preschool children enrolled in high fidelity classic Montessori programs, lower…

  8. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Obesity, And Adiposity In US Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested whether three sedentary activities were associated with obesity and adiposity in U.S. preschool children: 1) watching >2 hours/day of TV/videos, 2) computer use, and 3) >2 hours/day of media use (TV/videos and computer use). We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representat...

  9. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  10. Children Exposed to Drugs in Utero: Their Scores on the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L.; Harris, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers was administered to 54 children who had been prenatally exposed to drugs. Results indicated a tendency toward the lower end of the spectrum with poorer performance identified on test items measuring tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular processing and language. (JOW)

  11. Preschool Children's Interest, Social-Emotional Skills, and Emergent Mathematics Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctoroff, Greta L.; Fisher, Paige H.; Burrows, Bethany M.; Edman, Maria Tsepilovan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between interest, social-emotional skills, and early math skills in preschool children. Math-specific interest and global interest in learning were measured using teacher report and a play-based observation task. Math skills were assessed with a test of math achievement, and social-emotional…

  12. Preschool Predictors of Dyslexia Status in Chinese First Graders with High or Low Familial Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-han

    2014-01-01

    The present 4-year longitudinal study examined preschool predictors of Grade 1 dyslexia status in a Chinese population in Hong Kong where children started learning to read at the age of three. Seventy-five and 39 Chinese children with high and low familial risk respectively were tested on Chinese word reading, oral language skills, morphological…

  13. Preschool Children's Development in Classic Montessori, Supplemented Montessori, and Conventional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the outcomes of Montessori education is scarce and results are inconsistent. One possible reason for the inconsistency is variations in Montessori implementation fidelity. To test whether outcomes vary according to implementation fidelity, we examined preschool children enrolled in high fidelity classic Montessori programs, lower…

  14. Children Exposed to Drugs in Utero: Their Scores on the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L.; Harris, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers was administered to 54 children who had been prenatally exposed to drugs. Results indicated a tendency toward the lower end of the spectrum with poorer performance identified on test items measuring tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular processing and language. (JOW)

  15. Preschool Predictors of Dyslexia Status in Chinese First Graders with High or Low Familial Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-han

    2014-01-01

    The present 4-year longitudinal study examined preschool predictors of Grade 1 dyslexia status in a Chinese population in Hong Kong where children started learning to read at the age of three. Seventy-five and 39 Chinese children with high and low familial risk respectively were tested on Chinese word reading, oral language skills, morphological…

  16. AN EVALUATION OF A PRESCHOOL TRAINING PROGRAM FOR CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAMMINEN, ARMAS W.; AND OTHERS

    TO FIND OUT IF CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN SHOW CHANGE IN ACADEMIC READINESS AS A RESULT OF SPECIAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS, 3 GROUPS OF CHILDREN (14 TO 17 IN EACH) IN 3 DULUTH SCHOOL AREAS WERE PRE- AND POSTTESTED WITH THE STANFORD-BINET AND SRA PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES TESTS. A CONTROL GROUP OF 30 CHILDREN FROM THE SAME 3 SCHOOL AREAS WERE GIVEN THE…

  17. Age, Sex, Intelligence and Parents' Occupation and the Moral Development of the Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    1984-01-01

    Results indicate that preschool children are capable of making moral judgments in both apology-restitution and guilt-innocence test contexts. Age and sex are significantly related to both moral judgment measures, while intelligence and parent occupation are unrelated to both measures. (Author/RH)

  18. Evaluating an Integrated Nutrition and Parenting Education Program for Preschoolers and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YaeBin

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the study described in this article was to test the effectiveness of Little Books and Little Cooks, a 7-week integrated nutrition and parenting education intervention designed to improve eating habits of families, strengthen relationships between parents and their children, and improve preschoolers' cooking skills. Participant…

  19. The Selection of Children from Low-Income Families into Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Purtell, Kelly M.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Ansari, Arya; Benner, Aprile D.

    2016-01-01

    Because children from low-income families benefit from preschool but are less likely than other children to enroll, identifying factors that promote their enrollment can support research and policy aiming to reduce socioeconomic disparities in education. In this study, we tested an accommodations model with data on 6,250 children in the Early…

  20. Social and Ideological Entanglements of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Dzikiewicz-Gazda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I address a phenomenon that I call “neo-liberal entanglements” of preschool education, clearly observable in the project “Enterprising Preschooler” currently underway in Wroclaw's preschools. I provide a critical analysis of the project, exposing the ideological mechanisms that contribute to the commercialization of children’s life worlds and their early socialization into the mechanisms of market consumerism.

  1. Motor Skill Improvement in Preschoolers: How Effective Are Activity Cards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to early develop and implement motor skill promotion in preschoolers are lacking. Thus, we examined the effects of a card-based exercise promotion program in a kindergarten setting. 214 preschool children (5.5 ± 0.6 y, range 4.2–6.7 y were examined in the present intervention study. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were measured. Children were randomly assigned to the KIDZ-Box® physical activity intervention program (INT: n = 107 or the control group (CON: n = 107. Children were trained daily for 15 min over 7 month at the preschool for agility, balance, endurance and jump performance, employing the card-based KIDZ-Box® media package. At pre- and post-testing, dynamic balance, jump and agility performance were tested. Cross-sectionally, agility testing differed between sexes (p = 0.01 and BMI (p = 0.02. Trends towards a significant association were found between BMI and side-to-side jumping (p = 0.1 and beam balancing (p = 0.05. Relevant interventional effects favoring the intervention group were slightly found for agility (p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.02 and moderately for side-to-side jumping (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.08. Balance performance did not relevantly improve. As jumping cards have been used frequently by the teachers, jumping improvements are plausible. The activity cards are feasibly applicable but should be employed with more structure during longer training sessions.

  2. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  3. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  4. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-09-13

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p cognition; (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children's PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.

  5. Comparing Self-Regulation-Associated Event Related Potentials in Preschool Children with and without High Levels of Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L; Tardif, Twila; Thompson, Meaghan C; Gehring, William J

    2016-11-28

    Deficient self-regulation plays a key role in the etiology of early onset disruptive behavior disorders and signals risk for chronic psychopathology. However, to date, there has been no research comparing preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with specific self-regulation sub-processes. We examined 15 preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior (35 % female) and 20 peers with low disruptive behavior (50 % female) who completed a Go/No-go task that provided emotionally valenced feedback. We tested whether 4 ERP components: the Error Related Negativity, the Error Positivity, the Feedback Related Negativity, and the No-go N2, differed in preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior. Preschoolers with high levels of disruptive behavior showed less differentiation between the Error Positivity and corresponding waveforms following correct responses at posterior sites. Preschoolers with high and low disruptive behavior also showed differences in Go/No-go N2 waveform amplitudes across electrodes. These findings suggest that preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior may show abnormal brain activity during certain self-regulation sub-processes, informing potential advances in conceptualizing and treating early disruptive behavior.

  6. "No Hablo Ingles": Bilingualism and Multiculturalism in Preschool Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roy Ceferino

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role and components of both bilingualism and multiculturalism in preschool settings. Notes implications for the preparation of teachers and suggests strategies that preschool administrators could utilize in meeting needs of bilingual communities. (Author/DLH)

  7. "No Hablo Ingles": Bilingualism and Multiculturalism in Preschool Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roy Ceferino

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role and components of both bilingualism and multiculturalism in preschool settings. Notes implications for the preparation of teachers and suggests strategies that preschool administrators could utilize in meeting needs of bilingual communities. (Author/DLH)

  8. Poor Sleep in Preschool Years Could Mean Behavior Troubles Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164075.html Poor Sleep in Preschool Years Could Mean Behavior Troubles Later ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Preschoolers who get too little sleep may be more likely to have trouble paying ...

  9. Influence of agricultural biodiversity on dietary diversity of preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of agricultural biodiversity on dietary diversity of preschool children in Matungu ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... preschool children was drawn from Matungu division using multistage, proportional

  10. Pearls of Meaning: Preschool Children Respond to Multicultural Picturebooks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiufang Chen; Susan Browne

    2015-01-01

      Employing a qualitative practitioner research method, this study examined pre-school children's responses to multicultural picture books and gained insight into how pre-school children make meaning...

  11. Distribution of ametropia in 1 170 preschool children with low vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe and study the distribution of ametropia in 1 170 preschool children with low vision.METHODS:Ten kindergartens in the urban area of Jinzhou were randomly selected. For the preschool children aged from 3 to 6, the vision conditions including sight test, ocular inspection, refraction status, conventional ophthalmic testing and stereo tests were conducted. The children with visionRESULTS:(1rates of abnormal vision were 6.37% in children aged 3,7.79% in those aged 4,15.24% in those aged 5 and 8.93% in those aged 6; abnormal rate in children aged 5 was significantly higher than those in the other age groups(PCONCLUSION:For preschool children with low vision, the abnormal rate is reduced with the increasing ages since the vision is gradually mature. Based on the results, hyperopia is the main causes for low vision in preschool children(aged from 3 to 6. Based on the factors of myopia, strabismus and amblyopia, it is important to conduct the general survey in curing eye diseases as early as possible.

  12. A story about a word: does narrative presentation promote learning of a spatial preposition in German two-year-olds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigäller, Kerstin; Rohlfing, Katharina J; McGregor, Karla K

    2013-09-01

    We trained forty German-speaking children aged 1;8-2;0 in their comprehension of UNTER [UNDER]. The target word was presented within semantically organized input in the form of a 'narrative' to the experimental group and within 'unconnected speech' to the control group. We tested children's learning by asking them to perform an UNDER-relation before, immediately after, and again one day after the training using familiarized and unfamiliarized materials. Compared to controls, the experimental group learned better and retained more. Children with advanced expressive lexicons in particular were aided in generalizing to unfamiliarized materials by the narrative presentation. This study extends our understanding of how narrations scaffold young children's enrichment of nascent word knowledge.

  13. ENGLISH IN PRESCHOOL CURRICULUM: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AS AN INTRA-SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN A PRESCHOOL IN BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Rachmawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this era, the importance of English leads people to introduce English education even in preschools. English education for preschoolers isbelieved to help fosterchildren’s language and cognitive developments. However, to achieve this benefit, a sound curriculum is required.Since creating a sound English curriculum is not an easy thing to do, a careful examination on English in the preschool curriculum needs to be performed. This study therefore aims to find out the goals of integrating English as an intra-school curriculum in a preschool in Bandung and the teacher’s attempts to achieve these goals in terms of four basic components of curriculum taken fromCayadong (2011 and Tyler (Posner,1992; the objectives, the materials, the methods and the assessments. A descriptive study using a document analysis, an interview and an observation as the data collection techniques was employed. The finding showed that English was integrated to help children to be able to communicate using English in school and family context in a simple language. Theme-based teaching and learning using drilling and total physical response (TPR as methods were conducted to achieve the goals. Meanwhile, to make sure of the goals attainment, students wereassessed by using observations and tests.

  14. Neurodevelopment in preschool idiopathic toe-walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Casas, P; Ballestero-Pérez, R; Meneses-Monroy, A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V; Atín-Arratibel, M A; Portellano-Pérez, J A

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic toe walking, a differential diagnosis for neurological and orthopaedic disorders, has been associated with neurodevelopmental alterations. Neurodevelopmental assessment at early ages using specific tests may improve management and follow-up of these patients. The aim of our study is to analyse the neurodevelopmental characteristics of preschool idiopathic toe-walkers (ITW) by comparing them to a control group. Our descriptive cross-sectional study compared possible risk factors, neurodevelopmental characteristics, and scores on the Child Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANIN) between a group of 56 ITWs aged 3 to 6 and a control group including 40 children. The proportion of males was significantly higher in the ITW group (P=.008). The percentage of patients with a family history (P=.000) and biological risk factors during the perinatal period (P=.032) was also higher in this group. According to the parents' reports, motor coordination in ITWs was significantly poorer (59%; P=.009). ITWs scored significantly lower on CUMANIN subscales of psychomotricity (=0,001) and memory (P=.001), as well as in verbal development (P=.000), non-verbal development (P=.026), and overall development (P=.004). Foot preference was less marked in the ITW group (P=.047). The neurodevelopmental characteristics of our sample suggest that idiopathic toe walking is a marker of neurodevelopmental impairment. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. EMOTIONAL STATE OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FROM SOCIAL SHELTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Yu. Bruk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of a study of the emotional state of preschool children who are in difficult circumstances and in social shelter. The study involved 10 children participated (6 boys and 4 girls aged 4-6 years of social shelter (Independent institution of social service of the population of the Tyumen Region Center for Social Assistance to Families and Children "Maria" Tyumen. The control group consisted of children who are brought up in a family and attending kindergarten number 123 Tyumen, in the amount of 16 people: 9 girls and 7 boys. The study of emotional states of preschoolers was conducted using projective techniques drawing tests "House Tree Person" in modification of R.F. Belyauskayte. To determine the anxiety of children in relation to a number of typical life situations of communication with other people was used the projective technique "Test of anxiety" of R. Temml, M. Dorki, V. Amena, obtained diagnostic data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Mathematical analysis of the significance of differences was determined by calculating the U Mann Whitney. Preschoolers from social shelter in contrast to the control group of children have higher levels of anxiety are the most intense  and  stressful  relations in  the  system  "childchild." They are closed, can not be influenced, so they can be naughty, which leads to difficulties interaction and understanding of others, so they need an individual approach on the part of the teacher in the educational process. These children have difficulty communicating, which are shown in the restriction or denial of contact with others, which causes problems with the development of communication skills and experience of negative emotions.

  16. Preschool teachers´ views on childrens learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Thorleif; Brostrøm, Stig; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning......? What activities are important for learning? What are the best conditions for children's learning? How do preschool teachers understand participation in relation to children's learning in preschool? Results suggest that play, interactions with other children and adults, the provision of different...

  17. Preschool teachers’ views on children's learning: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning......? What activities are important for learning? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? How do preschool teachers understand participation in relation to children’s learning in preschool? Results suggest that play, interactions with other children and adults, the provision of different...

  18. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  19. Professionalism of Preschool Teachers in Estonia, Finland, Sweden and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tiina; Veisson, Marika; Hujala, Eeva; Härkönen, Ulla; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge; Bakosi, Eva Kovacsne

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the ratings of Estonian, Finnish, Swedish and Hungarian preschool teachers and principals regarding the professionalism of preschool teachers within a cross-cultural context. According to reports commissioned by the European Commission and OECD, the professionalism of preschool teachers is a key factor in ensuring…

  20. Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Lund, Emily; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Measures of print knowledge were compared across preschoolers with hearing loss and normal hearing. Alphabet knowledge did not differ between groups, but preschoolers with hearing loss performed lower on measures of print concepts and concepts of written words than preschoolers with normal hearing. Further study is needed in this area.

  1. Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Lund, Emily; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Measures of print knowledge were compared across preschoolers with hearing loss and normal hearing. Alphabet knowledge did not differ between groups, but preschoolers with hearing loss performed lower on measures of print concepts and concepts of written words than preschoolers with normal hearing. Further study is needed in this area.

  2. Peer Responses to Stuttering in the Preschool Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Marilyn; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated peer responses to preschoolers' stuttering in preschool and sought to determine whether specific characteristics of participants' stuttering patterns elicited negative peer responses. Method: Four outdoor free-play sessions of 4 preschoolers age 3-4 years who stutter were videotaped. Stutters were identified on…

  3. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  4. CONSTRUCTION ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY FOR CHILDREN PRE-SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  5. Swedish Preschool Leadership--Supportive of Music or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study uses observations and interviews to investigate how the leadership at three Swedish preschools in Sweden has impacted the didactic choices made. Two of these preschools use music as a tool for stimulating language and social development, while the third preschool serves as a comparison. The inspiration that the leadership has brought to…

  6. Planning and Evaluating Educational Work in Slovene Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistic Zorec, Marcela; Hocevar, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    The present article examines the changes in Slovene preschools subsequent to Slovenia's independence in 1991. In the socialist period, the national education programme for preschools was highly structured, goal and content-oriented and subject to schoolization. The Curriculum for Preschools (1999) brought conceptual changes towards education…

  7. Effectiveness of a Danish early year preschool program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Holm, Anders; Bremberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of studies indicate that early year preschool programs lead to positive long-term effects. Systematic quality improvement of early year preschool may enhance these outcomes. The ASP Program was built on this principle. In this program preschool staff are supported in their ef...

  8. Early versus Late Entry to Preschool: Some Developmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between cognitive, motor, social and personality development of 3-year-old children and the age of their entry into preschool, which ranged from 10 to 45 months. 247 children from 17 preschools in different regions of Slovenia, all implementing the same National Curriculum, participated. Preschool teachers…

  9. Integration of Interactive Whiteboard in Swedish Preschool Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbour, Maryam; Vigmo, Sylvi; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the roles preschool teachers give technologies in mathematics education and the ways they structure their mathematics learning activities using interactive whiteboard (IWB) as a technological artefact. Data collected from observations of three preschool teachers embedding IWB in a preschool practice in Sweden provided…

  10. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many uncertainties remain in the diagnosis and treatment of preschool children with asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the subgroups of preschool children (aged 12-47 months) with recurrent asthma symptoms most likely to respond to inhaled fluticasone propionate (200...... the management of preschool children with recurrent asthma symptoms....

  11. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  12. 45 CFR 84.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 84.38 Section 84.38..., and Secondary Education § 84.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on the basis of...

  13. Integration of Interactive Whiteboard in Swedish Preschool Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbour, Maryam; Vigmo, Sylvi; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the roles preschool teachers give technologies in mathematics education and the ways they structure their mathematics learning activities using interactive whiteboard (IWB) as a technological artefact. Data collected from observations of three preschool teachers embedding IWB in a preschool practice in Sweden provided…

  14. 43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Handicap § 17.220 Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. This section applies to preschool, elementary, secondary, and adult education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool, elementary, and...

  15. Analysis of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, James N.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to validate the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST), the scores were compared with selected demographic, health history, and physical examination variables of migrant and seasonal farmworkers' preschool children in Colorado. (NQ)

  16. The effect of music training program on phonological awareness in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eDegé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment investigated the effect of a music training program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music training program and a phonological skills training program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys were randomly assigned to a phonological skills training program, a music training program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected. Preschoolers were trained for 10 minutes on a daily basis over a period of 20 weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports training group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills training program as well as a music training program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age.

  17. Validation of a questionnaire to measure mastery motivation among Chinese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents. Further, 44 children (39 boys and 5 girls) with developmental disabilities were recruited. The children were assessed on the cognitive sub-test of the Preschool Development Assessment Scale (PDAS). Their parents completed the task and effort motivation scales, as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Their teachers also completed the task and effort motivation scales. Rasch analysis results provided support for the unidimensionality of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales. The parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales correlated positively with the PDAS cognitive sub-test and the SDQ prosocial scale scores, and negatively with the SDQ total problem behavior scores. Children with developmental disabilities were assigned lower scores by their teachers and parents on the two motivation scales, compared with children with typical development. Reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales were above .70. The results suggested that the task and effort motivation scales were promising instruments for the assessment of motivation among Chinese preschool children.

  18. MORE MINUTES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES SUPPORT MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of physical education classes in 12 fundamental motor skills (FMS. Preschool students (M = 6.09±0.5 years old were randomly assigned to a control group (6 boys and 7 girls who performed the regular preschool class (which includes one 30- minutes session per week; experimental group 1 (6 boys and 6 girls who received the regular preschool class plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or experimental group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool class plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks (n=38. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 before and after the study. A one-way MANOVA reflected a similar behavior in al FMS in the pre-test. A two-way MANOVA (group x time reflected no interaction in the 12 FMS; also in the 6 object control FMS; but there was an interaction in the 6 locomotor FMS. In conclusion, 90-minutes of physical education classes per week only benefit the FMS of galloping and hopping.

  19. The effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music program and a phonological skills program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills program, a music program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected). Preschoolers were trained for 10 min on a daily basis over a period of 20 weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills program as well as a music program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (rehabilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

  1. Early childhood caries in preschool children of Kosovo - a serious public health problem

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    Meqa Kastriot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though it has been widely studied, early childhood caries (ECC remains a serious public health problem, especially in countries where there is no national program of oral health assessment and no genuine primary oral health care, such as in Kosovo. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of ECC and analyze caries risk factors. Methods The subjects were 1,008 preschool children, selected by stratified random cluster sampling, in the municipality of Prishtina, capital of Kosovo. Data were collected through clinical examination and interviews. Dmft data were recorded according to WHO criteria. Bacterial examination (CRT bacteria test and plaque test of Greene-Vermillion were used. Results The mean dmft of preschool children was found to be 5.8. The prevalence of ECC was 17.36%, with a mean dmft of 11 ± 3.6. Streptococcus mutans prevalence in ECC children was 98%. A significant correlation between dmft and S mutans counts (≥105 CFU/mL saliva was demonstrated. A correlation was also found between daily sweets consumption and dmft in children with ECC (P P Conclusion The prevalence of ECC was high among preschool children in the municipality of Kosovo. We recommend increasing parents' knowledge of proper feeding habits and oral health practices, and increasing preschool children's accessibility to dental services.

  2. Prevention of obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Julie; Barber, Sally; Singhal, Atul

    2010-05-01

    Obesity is a serious problem that affects children from diverse ethnic backgrounds in both industrialised and developing countries. Worldwide, an estimated twenty-two million children obese by 2050. Recent evidence suggests that most obesity is established during the preschool years, and because one in five obese 4 year olds will become obese adults this situation has major implications for public health. The causes of obesity in preschool children are complex and multifactorial. Although 30-50% of the predisposition towards obesity in preschool children can be explained by genetic factors, environmental influences also play a crucial role. The preschool period in particular is a pivotal time during which long-term dietary and physical activity habits are established, with potential lifelong effects on health. However, research in this age-group is limited. Previous studies have aimed to improve diet, increase physical activity and achieve behavioural change. However, few of these studies have been successful and there is an urgent need, therefore, for the development of evidence-based interventions aimed at the prevention of preschool obesity.

  3. The Discourse of a Preschool Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Miškeljin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a critical analysis of the discourse of a preschool education curriculum. Its starting point is Foucault’s concept of discourse as language in use, which not only reflects the social order, but also shapes it through a network of conventions, knowledge and practices determining man’s – or, in this case, the reader’s – perception of reality. The analysis is based on identifying the discourse strategies and/or systems of rules laid out in the text The basic principles of the preschool education curriculum for three- to seven-year-old children – model A which make possible certain statements and insights regarding children and thus position the child and the preschool teacher by means of discourse repertoires. This approach helps contextualize the text and leads to an understanding of the basic discourse mechanism involved in the creation of specific versions of preschool education. As discourse analysis itself is related to interpretation and narratology, with the story as a constant, so is this paper a story about a preschool curriculum, for, like any other text, it tells an unfinished story that can yet evolve in different directions.

  4. Longitudinal Analyses of a Hierarchical Model of Peer Social Competence for Preschool Children: Structural Fidelity and External Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.; Kim, Mina; Krzysik, Lisa; Bost, Kelly K.; McBride, Brent; Santos, Antonio J.; Peceguina, Ines; Coppola, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    Achieving consensus on the definition and measurement of social competence (SC) for preschool children has proven difficult in the developmental sciences. We tested a hierarchical model in which SC is assumed to be a second-order latent variable by using longitudinal data (N = 345). We also tested the degree to which peer SC at Time 1 predicted…

  5. Shadow Formation at Preschool from a Socio-materiality Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedovo, Maria Antonietta; Delserieys-Pedregosa, Alice; Jégou, Corinne; Ravanis, Konstantinos

    2017-06-01

    The paper is set in socio-material farming to offer a way of conceptualising actions and interactions of children in preschool involved in the understanding of scientific concepts. A model of early science education about the physical phenomena of shadow formation is implemented in group work in a French context. The research involved 44 children (13 females and 31 males) of 5-6 years old. The research design was organised in three video recording steps: pre-test, teaching session and post-test. We focus on the analysis of nine teaching sessions to investigate children's `understanding' of shadow formation. A descriptive and qualitative approach was used. In particular, we have identified three main categories (the interaction of the children with the tools, the embodiment and verbal dimension)—with respective indicators—to perform the analysis. From the results, all the categories explored seem to influence each other: all material, human and social dimensions contribute to the children's understanding of shadow formation. Also we have identified some elements that can serve as a potential source of improvement of the teaching session on shadow formation. Finally, the research provides insights on how to improve science activities in preschool with the aim of supporting early understanding of physical phenomena.

  6. Shadow Formation at Preschool from a Socio-materiality Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedovo, Maria Antonietta; Delserieys-Pedregosa, Alice; Jégou, Corinne; Ravanis, Konstantinos

    2016-05-01

    The paper is set in socio-material farming to offer a way of conceptualising actions and interactions of children in preschool involved in the understanding of scientific concepts. A model of early science education about the physical phenomena of shadow formation is implemented in group work in a French context. The research involved 44 children (13 females and 31 males) of 5-6 years old. The research design was organised in three video recording steps: pre-test, teaching session and post-test. We focus on the analysis of nine teaching sessions to investigate children's `understanding' of shadow formation. A descriptive and qualitative approach was used. In particular, we have identified three main categories (the interaction of the children with the tools, the embodiment and verbal dimension)—with respective indicators—to perform the analysis. From the results, all the categories explored seem to influence each other: all material, human and social dimensions contribute to the children's understanding of shadow formation. Also we have identified some elements that can serve as a potential source of improvement of the teaching session on shadow formation. Finally, the research provides insights on how to improve science activities in preschool with the aim of supporting early understanding of physical phenomena.

  7. Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases Among Preschool Children in Western Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh B Tondare , Vaishali V Raje, Satish V Kakade , Madhavi V Rayate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Malnutrition and infectious diseases both occur in the same unfortunate children and together they play a major role in causing the high morbidity and mortality in them. Out of all the childhood illnesses, acute respiratory tract infections, diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition are the principle causes of illness and death in the developing countries. Acute Diarrhoeal diseases (ADD’s are reported to be the 2nd leading cause of child morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To study the attack rate of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease among pre-school children and to study the socio-demographic variables of pre-school children suffering from Acute Diarrhoeal Disease. Methods: A Longitudinal study was conducted among preschool children (3-5years who were selected from Private pre-primary school of urban area and followed for the period of one year. Mother/guardian/teacher was interviewed by using pre-tested proforma during this period. Results: About 56% of children found suffering from ADD with 0.6 episodes per children per year among private pre-primary school. Higher proportions of ADD affected children were residing in nuclear type of family, belonging to middle socio-economic class, mothers were literate & housewives, born with order >2 compared to non ADD affected children. Conclusion: Maximum number of children from private pre-primary schools suffered with nearly one attack of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease with maternal illiteracy and working mothers found favorable factors. Immunization coverage, EBF and proper weaning play a very important role in prevention of infections."

  8. [Neuropsychic development in preschool children in conditions of the informatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, E A; Tarmaeva, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    The new millennium was marked by the transition of humanity to a new stage of the development--the Information Society, which is an objective reality and affects on all aspects of living environment, including the health of children. The last decade was characterized by the increase of the use of means of informatization, the level of aggression and aggressiveness of children, the decrease of intellectual indices, deterioration of mental health, an increase of children with behavioral problems, hyperactivity, inattention, decrease of mental capacity. In a study on the example of preschool educational institution in the city of Irkutsk in the conditions of the changing of the informatization level of the society in the time period from 1998 to 2012, there were revealed the changes in indices of intellectual development, mental capacity and anxiety of children. Under observation there were 211 children aged from 5.5 to 6.5 years in the preschool institution of the central district of the city of Irkutsk. There were formed two groups of children: I group--children who attended kindergarten in 1998 and group II--children attending kindergarten in 2012. Age groups of preschool children were consistent with their calendar age: from 5 years 5 months 30 days to 6 years 5 months 30 days. In the study of intellectual development there has been shown the decrease of the number of children with average intelligence level and an increase in children with the below-average intelligence level, the increase of the speed (p < 0.05.) and the decrease of the quality (p < 0.05.) of the information processing in the Anfilov test for the mental performance and the increase the general level of anxiety, aggressive background and unmotivated fears "out" at the present time stage (2012).

  9. Advancing a multidimensional, developmental spectrum approach to preschool disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Choi, Seung W; Nichols, Sara R; Kestler, Jacqueline; Burns, James L; Carter, Alice S; Henry, David

    2014-01-01

    Dimensional approaches are gaining scientific traction. However, their potential for elucidating developmental aspects of psychopathology has not been fully realized. The goal of this article is to apply a multidimensional, developmental framework to model the normal-abnormal spectrum of preschool disruptive behavior. The Multidimensional Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), a novel measure, was used to model dimensional severity across developmental parameters theorized to distinguish the normative misbehavior of early childhood from clinically salient disruptive behavior. The 4 MAP-DB dimensions are Temper Loss, Noncompliance, Aggression, and Low Concern for Others. Parents of a diverse sample of 1,488 preschoolers completed the MAP-DB. Multidimensional item response theory (IRT) was used for dimensional modeling. The 4-dimensional, developmentally informed model demonstrated excellent fit. Its factor loadings did not differ across demographic subgroups. All dimensions provided good coverage of the abnormal end of the severity continuum, but only Temper Loss and Noncompliance provided good coverage of milder, normatively occurring behaviors. The developmental expectability and quality of behaviors distinguished normative from atypical behaviors. The point at which frequency of behaviors was atypical varied based on dimensional location for Temper Loss, Noncompliance, and Aggression. The MAP-DB provides an innovative method for operationalizing developmentally specified, dimensional phenotypes in early childhood. Establishing the validity of these dimensional phenotypes in relation to clinical outcomes, neurocognitive substrates, and etiologic pathways will be a crucial test of their clinical utility. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Postural status of preschool children in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Romana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in Novi Sad in the preschool institutions of 'Radosno detinjstvo' on a sample of 423 preschool children of both sexes, ages 6 and 7. The subject of this paper are postural disorders on the spinal column in the sagittal and frontal planes, as well as foot deformities. The aim of the research is to determine the frequency of disorder of postural status of the spine (kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis and deviation from the normal status of the foot, and the analysis of the differences between boys and girls. Assessment of the postural status of the feet was performed by means of using the Pedikom computer system for digital computerised pedography. Assessment of spine postural status was done by means of SpineScan portable device. Data were analysed according to the frequency for the assessment of spinal status, the status of the foot, all according gender. Significance of the gender-conditioned differences was determined by the Chi-square test. The results indicate that in the examined population, the most common posture is lordotic bad posture, 41.31% with male examinees and 36.66% with female examinees. A statistically significant difference in relation to sexual dimorphism was found for the parameter of scoliotic bad posture (Sig. = 0.008. In terms of deviation from the normal status of the feet, in the examined population, pronating foot level I accounts for 43.23%, pronating foot level II accounts for 16.66% and high-arched foot accounts for 10.16%. Quantitative results indicate the need for corrective gymnastic to correct but also prevent postural deformities by introducing of the same as an everyday directed activity of preschool population.

  11. Effectiveness of Client-centered Play Therapy on Fear and Anxiety in Preschool Children

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    Hoda Sadat Mosavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Preschool period is playing main role in development and adjustment of children. Fear and anxiety are of externalizing disorders, providing untreated it leads to negative effects on individual and social relationship specially in adulthood therefore, this research investigates the influence of client-centered play therapy on fear and anxiety among preschool children (5-6 aged.Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study with pre and post- tests. 14 male and female preschool children (5-6 aged who were obtaining scores higher than cut-off in Spence anxiety scale (SAS and fear survey schedule for children-revised (FSSC-R parents’ form questionnaires were selected, and then they were assigned randomly to the control and experimental groups. The experimental group received techniques of client-centered play therapy for six treatment sessions (45minutes for each session. The fear and anxiety were measured at the beginning and at end of therapeutic session, utilizing the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and fear survey schedule for children-revised (FSSC-R parents’ form. Statistical analysis conducted by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA.Results: There is significantly difference in Mean (SD scores of pretest 130.4 (3.3 and posttest 127.1 (4.6 fear (P<0.001, F= 24.6 and in scores of pretest 58.6 (2.6 and post-test 48.28 (3.6 anxiety (P<0.001, F=19.5 between preschool children in pre and post-test.Conclusion: Findings indicated that client-centered play therapy has effective in reducing behavioral problem such as fear and anxiety disorders in preschool children. Therefore, it can be useful and applicable as the psychological therapeutic interventions for decreasing behavioral distress in children.

  12. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part I: reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Hill, Carri; Carter, Alice S; Danis, Barbara; Egger, Helen L; Keenan, Kate; Leventhal, Bennett L; Cicchetti, Domenic; Maskowitz, Katie; Burns, James; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2008-06-01

    To examine the reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS), a new observational method for assessing preschool disruptive behavior. The DB-DOS is a structured clinic-based assessment designed to elicit clinically salient behaviors relevant to the diagnosis of disruptive behavior in preschoolers. Child behavior is assessed in three interactional contexts that vary by partner (parent versus examiner) and level of support provided. Twenty-one disruptive behaviors are coded within two domains: problems in Behavioral Regulation and problems in Anger Modulation. A total of 364 referred and nonreferred preschoolers participated: interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on a primary sample (n = 335) and test-retest reliability was assessed in a separate sample (n = 29). The DB-DOS demonstrated good interrater and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the DB-DOS multidomain model of disruptive behavior. The DB-DOS is a reliable observational tool for clinic-based assessment of preschool disruptive behavior. This standardized assessment method holds promise for advancing developmentally sensitive characterization of preschool psychopathology.

  13. Inattention, hyperactivity, and emergent literacy: different facets of inattention relate uniquely to preschoolers' reading-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Although extant studies indicate that there is a strong association between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and reading ability in elementary school children, knowledge regarding the relation between inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors and emergent literacy in preschool children is less established. This study examined the unique and overlapping relations between measures that assess inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity and emergent literacy skills in preschool children. Participants included 204 preschool children (M age = 56 months, 50.9% female, 79.8% European American). Behavioral rating scales were completed by teachers, and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy were completed by the preschoolers. Across measures, inattention was a unique correlate of emergent literacy skills, whereas hyperactivity/impulsivity was not. Both rating scales and the CPT indices of inattention were uniquely associated with emergent literacy skills. These results suggest that these measures are assessing different manifestations of inattention that are both unique correlates of early reading skills.

  14. Influence of a physical education plan on psychomotor development profiles of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Costa, Hélder José; Abelairas-Gomez, Cristian; Arufe-Giráldez, Vìctor; Pazos-Couto, José María; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of structured physical education on the psychomotor development of 3 to 5 year-old preschool children. The sample consisted of 324 students of both sexes (3 to 5 year-old) from 9 public kindergarten classes in Porto, Portugal. A battery of psychomotor tests (pre-test) was used to assess the students’ psychomotor development profiles. The sample was divided in 2 groups: an experimental group (162 students) and a control group (162 students). Physic...

  15. Views of Future Preschool Teachers on Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štemberger Tina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper focuses on creativity, the factors that influence creativity, and on creativity in education, with a special emphasis on preschool education. In the second part, we present the results of an empirical research study in which we wanted to identify the views and positions of future preschool teachers on creativity, factors of creativity, and children’s creativeness. The study showed that future preschool teachers mainly believe that not all people are creative, and neither are all children. But they believe that creative children have many opportunities to develop their creative potential in kindergarten. They consider family to be the most important factor in fostering and developing a child’s creativeness.

  16. Playing with geometry in preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Balinha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the exploration of geometry tasks with a group of children attending pre-school education in Braga. Four tasks were presented in the context of geometry to a group of 20 children aged 3 to 4 years. The tasks included the approach to geometric figures, the topological relations, maps reading and spatial orientation. As it is described in this article, it became clear that with practice, at this age, you can work geometry and mathematics as long the tasks are presented in the form of games or challenges. It is important that the tasks are designed for pre-school education attending the curriculum documents. In this way, we can connect the several areas of knowledgeand build interesting and challenging tasks to help children grow and learn while playing.Keywords: Mathematics; Kindergarten; Geometry; Preschool

  17. THE VIEWS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN ABOUT SPORTS

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    Yasemin AYDOĞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available People’s early experiences related with sports are the good determinants of their attitudes and behaviors about sports in their future life. Early childhood period is very critical in people’s life span getting children adopt different habits besides enhancing their development. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the views and expectations of preschoolers about sports. The sample is 24 preschoolers who are between 3 - and - 6 - year - olds. In this study q ualitative research design is used and semi - structured interviews are conducted with participants. Data are analyzed and interpreted under categories by using content analysis. The results of this study are determined as; children could not quite understan d the terms; sports and sportsman, children have limited knowledge about who do sports, and how and where do sport, children know football and swimming as sports. The results were discussed by adhering the literature and the supportive preschool sports ac tivites were suggested.

  18. Preschool literacy and second language learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    it important to examine what happens when transnational and generalised assumptions about language and literacy learning meets linguistic diversity and second language learners. One central issue in relation to a linguistic diverse context is to investigate the distinctions and categorisations established...... in the literacy events they meet in their day-care centers and kindergartens? Examining these social practices in pre-schools might illuminate the interplay between language and literacy and the learning processes of second language learners and contribute to the discussion about the need for re......Preschool literacy and second language learners Lars Holm In order to understand literacy and language in education it is no longer enough to direct research attention to schools and universities. In the Nordic countries, preschools have become important arenas for numerous political initiatives...

  19. An Analysis of the Errors in Sentences with the Chinese Prepositional Marker "you"%以介词“由”为标记句式的偏误分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振来; 侯盼盼

    2012-01-01

    “由”是介词,常做句式标记。留学生在使用介词标记“由”构句时,经常出现偏误现象。本文从第二语言习得的角度出发,以中介语理论为指导,对北京语言大学HSK动态作文语料库中的“由”字句进行了统计,把有问题的句式进行了分类,对“由”字句的偏误现象进行研究,主要偏误类型是与介词标记“由于、从、在”等混淆而造成的,在分析偏误原因的基础上提出解决的办法。%"you" is a Chinese preposition, which is often regarded as a marker of a sentence pattern. International students often commit errors when they use it. With the help of the second language ac- quisition theories and interlanguage theories, the paper gives a statistical analysis of the sentences with the Chinese prepos Culture University and caused by its confusion itional marker "you" from HSK composition databank in Beijing Language and classifies the sentences with such errors. It concludes that the main errors are with several other Chinese prepositions and some possible solutions are pro- posed.

  20. Computational Interpretation English Spatial Prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    cognitive concepts, among which are some which facilitate language-learning. In so doing, they have approached the theories of Jean Piaget who for half...the "map" analogy already mentioned, and the "oicture" analogy. As Piaget [ Piaget and Inhelder, 1967] and Clark [1973] noint out. the horizontal...drawing objects in regions with any part of the drawn object obscuring the drawn boundary of the region; evidence presented by Piaget and Inhelder [1967

  1. Preschool teacher's view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig; Frøkjær, Thorleif; Johansson, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children’s learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is ‘learning’? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? What is the role...... of participation in children’s learning? The results show that from the teacher’s perspectives, children’s learning is connected to children’s social interaction and development in which the children’s initiatives are crucial. Learning, to a great extent, results from children’s active involvement. There are many...... similarities between how Danish and Swedish preschool teachers think of learning and participation. This supports earlier assumption about the coherence of Nordic preschool beliefs which unites education and care....

  2. Danish Rural Eye Study: the association of preschool vision screening with the prevalence of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina; Klemp, Kristian; Erngaard, Ditte; la Cour, Morten; Buch, Helena

    2015-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.01-1.81, n = 55), being higher among non-preschool vision screened persons compared to those who were offered (estimated 95% attendance) preschool vision screening (1.78%, n = 41, 95% CI 1.24-2.33 versus 0.44%, n = 2, 95% CI, 0.12-1.60, p = 0.024). The leading cause of amblyopia was anisometropia (45.5%, 25/55). Amblyopia was the most common cause of MVI. Following the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme, which has an approximate attendance rate of 95%, the prevalence of amblyopia decreased by fourfold. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azwani Mohd Nor Rawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools and Bangi (2 comparative preschools, Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, air velocity (AV, and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P<0.001 except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents.

  4. Screening Bilingual Preschoolers for Language Difficulties: Utility of Teacher and Parent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Emmanuel Peng Kiat; Lee, Mary Lay Choo; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2017-04-14

    The utility of parent and teacher reports for screening 3 types of bilingual preschoolers (English-first language [L1]/Mandarin-second language[L2], Mandarin-L1/English-L2, or Malay-L1/English-L2) for language difficulty was investigated in Singapore with reference to measures of reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity in an English-medium kindergarten setting. The index tests were teachers' ratings of the English language ability of 5-year-olds (N = 85) on the Bilingual Language Assessment Battery (BLAB): Preschool Teacher Report (Pua, Lee, & Rickard Liow, 2013) and parents' ratings of their child's home language ability (N = 78 English-L1, Mandarin-L1, or Malay-L1) on the BLAB: Preschool Parent Report (Pua, Lee, & Rickard Liow, 2013). The reference standards were objective measures of single-word receptive vocabulary (80 items) and expressive vocabulary (140 items) in the child's L1 and L2, as proxies for language ability. BLAB Teacher Reports for the English receptive and expressive subscales showed concurrent validity for all 3 bilingual groups, as well as generally high sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, BLAB Parent Reports for L1 receptive ability failed to show significant correlations with the objective measures of receptive vocabulary. Subjective teacher ratings may be an effective method of screening bilingual preschoolers for language difficulty, thereby prompting referral to clinicians.

  5. Perceptual context and individual differences in the language proficiency of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Although the contribution of perceptual processes to language skills during infancy is well recognized, the role of perception in linguistic processing beyond infancy is not well understood. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether manipulating the perceptual context in which stimuli are presented across trials influences how preschool children perform visual (shape-size identification; Experiment 1) and auditory (syllable identification; Experiment 2) tasks. Another goal was to determine whether the sensitivity to perceptual context can explain part of the variance in oral language skills in typically developing preschool children. Perceptual context was manipulated by changing the relative frequency with which target visual (Experiment 1) and auditory (Experiment 2) stimuli were presented in arrays of fixed size, and identification of the target stimuli was tested. Oral language skills were assessed using vocabulary, word definition, and phonological awareness tasks. Changes in perceptual context influenced the performance of the majority of children on both identification tasks. Sensitivity to perceptual context accounted for 7% to 15% of the variance in language scores. We suggest that context effects are an outcome of a statistical learning process. Therefore, the current findings demonstrate that statistical learning can facilitate both visual and auditory identification processes in preschool children. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in infants and in older children and adults, individual differences in statistical learning were found to be associated with individual differences in language skills of preschool children.

  6. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma symptoms: study rationale and design

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    Hafkamp-de Groen Esther

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In well-child care it is difficult to determine whether preschool children with asthma symptoms actually have or will develop asthma at school age. The PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Risk Score has been proposed as an instrument that predicts asthma at school age, using eight easy obtainable parameters, assessed at the time of first asthma symptoms at preschool age. The aim of this study is to present the rationale and design of a study 1 to externally validate and update the PIAMA Risk Score, 2 to develop an Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool to predict asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of preschool children with asthma symptoms and 3 to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Methods and design The study will be performed within the framework of Generation R, a prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. In total, consent for postnatal follow-up was obtained from 7893 children, born between 2002 and 2006. At preschool age the PIAMA Risk Score will be assessed and used to predict asthma at school age. Discrimination (C-index and calibration will be assessed for the external validation. We will study whether the predictive ability of the PIAMA Risk Score can be improved by removing or adding predictors (e.g. preterm birth. The (updated PIAMA Risk Score will be converted to the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool- to predict asthma at school age in preschool children with asthma symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct a pilot study to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Discussion Application of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care will help to distinguish preschool children at high- and low-risk of developing asthma at school age when asthma symptoms appear. This study will increase knowledge about the validity of the PIAMA risk score and might improve risk assessment of developing asthma at school age in (specific subgroups

  7. Aberrant behavior and cognitive ability in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Gustav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.

  8. Prosocial/hostile roles and emotion comprehension in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belacchi, Carmen; Farina, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    Bullying occurs at approximately the same rate in kindergarten as in elementary school, but few studies inquired into preschool years [Alsaker and Nägele, 2008; Stassen Berger, 2007]. This study aimed at: (1) verifying the presence in preschoolers of two additional participant roles (Consoler and Mediator), besides the six traditional roles detected by Salmivalli et al. [1996], grouped in four latent macroroles, by means of teacher report version of the Eight Participant Roles Questionnaire (PRQ) [Belacchi, 2008]; (2) linking prosocial and hostile behaviors to age and gender; and (3) investigating the relationship between roles and emotion understanding. Two hundred and nineteen children (54% boys; aged 3-6 years: mean age 4;10) were administered the Italian version of the Test of Emotion Comprehension [Albanese and Molina, 2008]; 20 teachers (2 for each class) filled in the questionnaire, attributing frequency scores on 24 items (3 for each role) to each pupil. A confirmatory analysis supported the fit of the hetero-report version of the Eight PRQ, revealing four macroroles: Hostile Roles (Bully, Reinforcer and Assistant), Prosocial Roles (Defender, Consoler, and Mediator), Victim, and Outsider. Satisfactory interteachers agreement not only confirms the macroroles hypothized, but also their expected distribution for gender and age. Moreover, the Prosocial roles presented a significant positive correlation with all subdimensions of emotion comprehension (External, Mental, and Reflective). The Victim and Outsider roles negatively correlated only with the External subdimension. The implications of these results for prevention and intervention purposes are discussed.

  9. Authoritative parenting among immigrant Chinese mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S L; Leung, Christy Y Y; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David

    2009-06-01

    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children's outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting style, psychological well-being, perceived parenting support and stress, and children's hyperactivity/attention. Teacher ratings of child adjustment were also obtained. Results revealed that Chinese immigrant mothers of preschoolers strongly endorsed the authoritative parenting style. Moreover, authoritative parenting predicted increased children's behavioral/attention regulation abilities (lower hyperactivity/inattention), which then predicted decreased teacher rated child difficulties. Finally, mothers with greater psychological well-being or parenting support engaged in more authoritative parenting, but only under conditions of low parenting stress. Neither well-being nor parenting support predicted authoritative parenting when parenting hassles were high. Findings were discussed in light of cultural- and immigration-related issues facing immigrant Chinese mothers of young children.

  10. Determining Views of Pre-School Teachers, Working at Pre-School Education Institutions on Pre-School Music Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin MENTİŞ KÖKSOY

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the opinions in about music education during the preschool period of kindergarten teachers working in state and private pre-schools of Ministry of Education in Çamardı, Bor, Altunhisar (Niğde and in Niğde.58 pre-scholl teachers were included in the study group. A questionnaire designed by researchers was given to the teachers. The questionnaire had two parts. In the first one there were personal questions about the teachers and in the second part their opinions about music education and some questions about the opportunitiesprovided by their instititutions about music education were asked. There were 10 questions in total. One of them was open-ended. In the study of data frequency, percent and one Way Anova analysis was used. According to the results, there were spinificant differences between the opinions of the teachers about music education depending on the institutions from which they graduated. In the study it was observed that musical instruments and music rooms at pre-school were insufficient. It was also seen by statement that some of the pre-schools teachers were not efficient in music.

  11. Vocabulary of preschool children with typical language development and socioeducational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Thaís Cristina da Freiria; Kuroishi, Rita Cristina Sadako; Mandrá, Patrícia Pupin

    2017-03-09

    To investigate the correlation between age, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in children with typical language development. The study sample was composed of 60 preschool children of both genders, aged 3 years to 5 years 11 months, with typical language development divided into three groups: G I (mean age=3 years 6 months), G II (mean age=4 years 4 months) and G III (mean age=5 years 9 months). The ABFW Child Language Test - Vocabulary and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) for emissive and receptive language were applied to the preschoolers. The socioeconomic classification questionnaire of the Brazilian Association of Survey Companies (ABEP) was applied to the preschoolers' parents/legal guardians. Data were analyzed according to the criteria of the aforementioned instruments and were arranged in Excel spreadsheet for Windows XP®. A multiple linear regression model was used, adopting a statistical significance level of 5%, to analyze the correlation between age, SES, and performance on the receptive and emissive vocabulary tests. In the ABEP questionnaire, participants were classified mostly into social level C (63.3%), followed by levels B (26.6%) and D (10%). The preschoolers investigated presented emissive and receptive vocabulary adequate for the age groups. No statistically significant difference was found for the variables age and SES regarding emissive and receptive vocabulary. Higher test scores were observed with increased age and SES, for social levels "B" compared with "D" and for "C" with "D". The variables age and socioeconomic status influenced the performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in the study group.

  12. Mothers' sense of coherence and oral health related quality of life of preschool children in Udupi Taluk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, S G; Acharya, S; Srinivasan, S R

    2014-03-01

    To assess the relationship between mothers' Sense of Coherence (SOC) and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of 3-5 year old preschool children in Udupi Taluk. 388 mothers aged 24-48 years old and their preschool children. A cross sectional study of mother-child pairs, randomly selected from 8 preschools. Information was obtained about mothers' sociodemographic factors along with the short version (SOC 13) of Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale and children's OHRQoL using the early childhood oral health impact scale (ECOHIS). Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used for analysis. Mothers' SOC and children's OHRQoL. Mothers' SOC and fathers' education were significantly associated with children's OHRQoL in multivariate analysis. Children of mothers with high SOC were 12.9 times as likely to have high OHRQoL as mothers with low SOC (p < 0.01). Children of fathers with college/university education were twice as likely to have high OHRQoL as those with primary education (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that mother's SOC could be a psychosocial determinant of the OHRQoL of their preschool children. Family environment should be considered when designing interventions to promote or improve the oral health as well as OHRQoL of preschool children.

  13. Preschool speech error patterns predict articulation and phonological awareness outcomes in children with histories of speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2013-05-01

    To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up at age 8;3. The frequency of occurrence of preschool distortion errors, typical substitution and syllable structure errors, and atypical substitution and syllable structure errors was used to predict later speech sound production, PA, and literacy outcomes. Group averages revealed below-average school-age articulation scores and low-average PA but age-appropriate reading and spelling. Preschool speech error patterns were related to school-age outcomes. Children for whom >10% of their speech sound errors were atypical had lower PA and literacy scores at school age than children who produced phonological representations, leading to long-term PA weaknesses. Preschoolers' distortions may be resistant to change over time, leading to persisting speech sound production problems.

  14. Impact of rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on laboratory measurements of nutritional status of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Mattos Della Lucia

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortification of food constitutes an important strategy for the control of micronutrient deficiency and has advantages such as high population coverage and maintenance of eating habits. This study aimed to assess the impact of using fortified rice (Ultra Rice® - UR® on the nutritional status of preschoolers. Ninety-nine children enrolled in two philanthropic preschools participated of the study. Children of one of the preschools were offered UR® mixed with polished rice, as part of school meals (test group and the children of another preschool were offered pure polished rice (control group. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after 4 months of intervention. Dietary assessment and sensory evaluation of UR® mixed with polished rice were performed during the study. The fortified rice improved the concentrations of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The fortified rice showed good acceptability among preschoolers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on the nutritional status of children.

  15. Tell Me Lies: Confronting the Preschool Closet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Travis

    2011-01-01

    This case explores the impact of being closeted on a gay, male preschool educator and the ways in which homophobic culture is fostered in one early learning center. Although sometimes protective, being challenged to hide one's sexual orientation most always has negative consequences for the individual and society. Internalized homophobia silences…

  16. Aiding Cognitive Growth in Disadvantaged Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis; Sunley, Robert M.

    Progress during the first two years (1967-1968 and 1968-1969) of a three-year home-based, mother-child intervention program called the Verbal Interaction Project is described. The project was planned for the cognitive enrichment of preschoolers 2 to 4 years old, from lower income families. The program utilized specially trained home visitors,…

  17. Prosocial Behaviors in a Mainstreamed Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Alyce Akers; Dembo, Myron H.

    A study was conducted to determine the frequency of three types of prosocial interactions--empathy, helping, and altruism--which nonhandicapped preschool children could exhibit toward their handicapped peers. Subjects were 32 nonhandicapped 4- to 5-year-olds and 13 developmentally disabled 3- to 5-year-olds attending a mainstreamed preschool…

  18. Parenting a Precocious Preschooler: Breaking the Silence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Leigh Ann

    2016-01-01

    Precocity in the very young should be a valid topic of discussion in parental and educational circles, yet too frequently those conversations are slow to occur or are absent altogether. Many parents and educators remain silent about raising and nurturing precocious preschoolers, and author Leigh Ann Fish believe that the silence is due to a lack…

  19. Parental perception of preschool child body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Wright, Dawn

    2011-10-01

    Obesity in preschoolers has risen dramatically in the last decade. Although studies have demonstrated that parents of preschoolers have incorrect perceptions of their child's body weight, little is known about the factors that may be associated with these perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental perceptions of preschool child body weight and parental psychosocial factors. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analyses. More than one third of the children in the sample were at risk for being overweight or were already overweight. However, less than 6% of parents felt that their child had an elevated body weight. Results from univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the parent's health literacy level was a significant predictor of the accuracy of their perceptions regarding their child's body weight (p perceptions. Results from this study indicate that assessing parental perceptions of preschool child body weight can help providers accurately understand how parents view their children and lead to tailored educational interventions. In addition, the results support previous research suggesting that parental health literacy is a key to providing high-quality family-centered care.

  20. Preschool Classroom Environments That Promote Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    1991-01-01

    Seven environmental strategies are proposed to promote language use and communication skills in preschool classrooms. The strategies include having interesting materials available; placing some desirable materials within view but out of reach; providing small or inadequate portions of preferred materials; and presenting children with options among…

  1. Humane Education Teachers' Packet (Preschool & Kindergarten).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy

    Designed to sensitize preschoolers and kindergartners to the responsibilities involved in caring for living things, this teacher's packet provides a variety of student worksheets and activity suggestions. Teaching plans are provided for a total of nine lessons, which can be easily integrated into other learning areas such as numbers, colors,…

  2. Preschool Children's Control of Action Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good…

  3. Indoor and Outdoor Play in Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain children's indoor and outdoor play in preschool programs in terms of teacher interaction, peer interaction and task orientation. Children's indoor and outdoor play behaviors were compared using the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS). Findings included significant differences on…

  4. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  5. Exploring Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Causal Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Aubry; Booth, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Preschoolers, as a group, are highly attuned to causality, and this attunement is known to facilitate memory, learning, and problem solving. However, recent work reveals substantial individual variability in the strength of children's "causal stance," as demonstrated by their curiosity about and preference for new causal information. In…

  6. Correlates of Attraction Among Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael B.

    The generalizability of several variables which have been related to attraction among adults to preschool children was investigated. It was found that perceived physical attractiveness, perceived proximity, and familiarity are all significantly positively correlated with how popular a child is in his nursery school class. (Author)

  7. Choosing a Great Preschool: A Parent's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Marilee

    2012-01-01

    Many parents--whether employed outside the home or not--either want or need preschool for their young children. Research indicates that quality early educational experiences bestow numerous benefits on children, including developing a love of school, healthy socialization, meaningful learning, and preparation for kindergarten. Equipped with this…

  8. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  9. Increasing Integration Success for Preschoolers with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainato, Diane M.; Strain, Phillip S.

    1993-01-01

    This article introduces three papers about research projects of the Early Childhood Research Institute of the University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania). The papers address peer-mediated strategies to promote communicative interaction, social behavior in preschoolers with special needs, and the importance of parents as intervention agents. (JDD)

  10. Green Settings for Children in Preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth

    between forest features and manufactured features, a detailed account of the affordances of ditches, and a description of the forest sites used by a Danish forest preschool. Children were attracted to features with changing and not fully explored action possibilities; forest features added variation...

  11. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  12. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  13. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeulenaere, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Michelle DeMeulenaere discusses social/emotional learning (SEL), with a focus on helping preschool children gain knowledge about feelings and getting along with others. SEL is the process in which children are able to acknowledge and recognize the emotions of others, develop empathy, make good decisions, establish friendships, and…

  14. Selective Listening Asymmetry in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1977-01-01

    Forty-two right-handed preschool children listened to dichotic presentations of digit names and were told to report only the digit arriving at the designated ear. A significant right-ear superiority was found, demonstrating a left lateralization of verbal processing in children as young as three years of age. (Author/JMB)

  15. Information Environment of Preschool Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakova, Anna Pavlovna

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the elements of the information environment of preschool educational institutions by the example of the Ulyanovsk region. The article describes the interconnected system of factors that includes qualified personnel, logistics support, methodological basis, and management structures that affect the development of the information…

  16. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  17. The Moral Judgments of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Gerald E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Preschoolers' responses to Piagetian moral judgment stories indicate that they respond differentially to good and bad intent (punishing the bad intentions but not responding to good or neutral intentions), but that only older children respond reliably and differentially to consequences. (RL)

  18. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  19. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    ’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives...

  20. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…