WorldWideScience

Sample records for preschool physical activity

  1. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  2. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... bone mass and bone density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Background data and information regarding TV viewing and computer use was obtained from parent completed questionnaires. Physical activity during waking hours was filtered from body movements during nocturnal sleep...

  3. Physical Activity Lessons in Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia Sem

    2010-01-01

    A review of the current literature indicates that childhood obesity is on the rise. What is more disconcerting is that this epidemic has significantly affected the preschool-age population, with the percentage of overweight children increasing from 5.0% to 12.4%, as indicated by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) surveys…

  4. Physical Activity Lessons in Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia Sem

    2010-01-01

    A review of the current literature indicates that childhood obesity is on the rise. What is more disconcerting is that this epidemic has significantly affected the preschool-age population, with the percentage of overweight children increasing from 5.0% to 12.4%, as indicated by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) surveys…

  5. Impact of Structured Movement Time on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K.; Matsuyama, Abigail L.; Robinson, Leah E.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are not meeting national physical activity recommendations. This study compares preschoolers' physical activity engagement during two different physical activity opportunities: outdoor free play or a structured movement session. Eighty-seven children served as participants: 40 children participated in outdoor free play and…

  6. Impact of Structured Movement Time on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K.; Matsuyama, Abigail L.; Robinson, Leah E.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are not meeting national physical activity recommendations. This study compares preschoolers' physical activity engagement during two different physical activity opportunities: outdoor free play or a structured movement session. Eighty-seven children served as participants: 40 children participated in outdoor free play and…

  7. Physical activity in Ontario preschoolers: prevalence and measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Joyce; Nguyen, Thanh; Gabel, Leigh; Timmons, Brian W

    2011-04-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of active living behaviours; however, very little is known about the physical activity levels of preschoolers from Canada. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine physical activity in a sample of Ontario preschoolers by using high-frequency accelerometry to determine activity and step counts; (ii) assess the relationship between step counts and physical activity; (iii) examine the influence of epoch length or sampling interval on physical activity; and (iv) compare measured physical activity to existing recommendations. Thirty 3- to 5-year-old children wore accelerometers to monitor habitual physical activity in 3-s epochs over a 7-day period. Preschoolers engaged in an average of 220 min of daily physical activity, 75 min of which were spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and they accumulated 7529 ± 1539 steps·day(-1). Preschoolers who engaged in more MVPA also took more steps on a daily basis (r = 0.81, p physical activity per day for preschool-age children. Our data highlight important methodological considerations when measuring physical activity in preschoolers and the need for preschool-specific physical activity guidelines for Canadian children.

  8. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  9. Physical activity in preschoolers: understanding prevalence and measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S

    2007-01-01

    Accurate physical activity quantification in preschoolers is essential to establish physical activity prevalence, dose-response relationships between activity and health outcomes, and intervention effectiveness. To date, best practice approaches for physical activity measurement in preschool-aged children have been relatively understudied. This article provides a review of physical activity measurement tools for preschoolers, an overview of measurement of preschoolers' physical activity, and directions for further research. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 49 studies that measured young children's physical activity, and 32 studies that assessed the validity and/or reliability of physical activity measures with preschool-aged children. While no prevalence data exist, measurement studies indicate that preschool children exhibit low levels of vigorous activity and high levels of inactivity, boys are more active than girls, and activity patterns tend to be sporadic and omnidirectional. As such, measures capable of capturing differing activity intensities in very short timeframes and over multiple planes are likely to have the most utility with this population. Accelerometers are well suited for this purpose, and a number of models have been used to objectively quantify preschoolers' physical activity. Only one model of pedometer has been investigated for validity with preschool-aged children, showing equivocal results. Direct observation of physical activity can provide detailed contextual information on preschoolers' physical activity, but is subjective and impractical for understanding daily physical activity. Proxy-report questionnaires are unlikely to be useful for determining actual physical activity levels of young children, and instead may be useful for identifying potential correlates of activity. Establishing validity is challenging due to the absence of a precise physical activity measure, or 'criterion', for young children

  10. Correlates of School-Day Physical Activity in Preschool Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Peoples, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among sex, body mass index, motor skill competence (MSC), perceived physical competence (PPC), and school-day physical activity in preschool students (N = 34). Physical activity was assessed by steps accumulated during the school day, while MSC and PPC were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd…

  11. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  12. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  13. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  14. Preschool physical activity and functional constipation: The generation r study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, L.M.; Jong, J.C.K.D.; Wijtzes, A.; Vries, S.I. de; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Raat, H.; Moll, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Decreased physical activity levels in children may partly explain the rising prevalence of functional constipation in childhood. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the association between physical activity and functional constipation during the preschool period. MET

  15. Motor Skill Competence and Physical Activity in Preschoolers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Roger; An, Ruopeng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preschoolers 3-5 years of age are in a crucial stage of motor skill competence. While preschoolers develop their motor skill competence through engagement in physical activity, a majority of them fail to meet guideline-recommended physical activity level. This study reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers. Methods This systematic review followed the PRISMA framework. Keyword and reference search were conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria included-age: 3-5 years of age; setting: preschool environment (e.g., preschool, childcare, head start); main outcomes: motor skill competence and physical activity; study design: cross-sectional study, case-control study, retrospective cohort study, prospective cohort study, or randomized controlled trial; language: English; and article type: peer-reviewed publication. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 6 randomized controlled trials and 5 cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in 5 countries: United States (5), United Kingdom (2), Australia (2), Switzerland (1), and Finland (1). Eight out of the 11 studies included in the review reported a significant relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity. The specific pattern and strength of the relationship tend to differ by gender, physical activity intensity, motor skill type, and day of the week (weekdays versus weekends). Conclusions An association has been consistently documented between motor skill competence and physical activity. Future research is warranted to elucidate the underlining causal link, examine potential heterogeneity, and determine the role of environment in the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers.

  16. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type...... provide a valuable reference material for studies monitoring future trends in obesity, MS and PA behaviour in Denmark and other countries.Knowledge about sources of variation in PA among preschool children is scarce and our findings need to be replicated in future studies. A potentially important finding...... and time of day. Additionally, the between-preschool variation in mean PA was estimated using the intraclass correlation. METHODS: We invited 627 children 5-6 years of age attending 43 randomly selected preschools in Odense, Denmark. Aiming and catching MS was assessed using subtests of the Movement...

  17. Effects of Teacher-Encouraged Physical Activity on Preschool Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William H.; Googe, Heather Smith; McIver, Kerry L.; Rathel, Jeanna Marie

    2009-01-01

    Increased numbers of young children who are overweight have become a significant health problem in the United States. Public health investigators have hypothesized that increased caloric intake and low levels of physical activity may be associated with the troubling trend of weight problems among children. To enhance preschool children's moderate…

  18. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in pre-schoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, Greet; Labarque, Valery; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviours in 4- and 5-year-old pre-school attending children (N= 157) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. Methods: PA was quantified with accelerometers (MTI Actigraph model 7164 or GT1M), making use of 15 sec interval sampling. Additionally, a questionnaire was filled out by the parents and the preschool teachers. Results: Total PA was 701 mean accelerometer counts/minute. According to the cut points of Sirard et al., the c...

  19. Physical Activity, Obesity Status, and Blood Pressure in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Susana; Trost, Stewart G; Rêgo, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Mota, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    To examine the combined effects of physical activity and weight status on blood pressure (BP) in preschool-aged children. The sample included 733 preschool-aged children (49% female). Physical activity was objectively assessed on 7 consecutive days by accelerometry. Children were categorized as sufficiently active if they met the recommendation of at least 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Body mass index was used to categorize children as nonoverweight or overweight/obese, according to the International Obesity Task Force benchmarks. BP was measured using an automated BP monitor and categorized as elevated or normal using BP percentile-based cut-points for age, sex, and height. The prevalence of elevated systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP was 7.7% and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obese was 32%, and about 15% of children did not accomplish the recommended 60 minutes of daily MVPA. After controlling for age and sex, overweight/obese children who did not meet the daily MVPA recommendation were 3 times more likely (OR 3.8; CI 1.6-8.6) to have elevated SBP than nonoverweight children who met the daily MVPA recommendation. Overweight or obese preschool-aged children with insufficient levels of MVPA are at significantly greater risk for elevated SBP than their nonoverweight and sufficiently active counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Radulović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of excessive body weight and obesity among children is increasing in many countries, including our country. It is believed that one of the two most important reasons for this increase is insufficient physical activity of children.The aim of this study was to examine the state of the level of nourishment of preschool children in relation to their level of physical activity. The survey was conducted in preschools in Pancevo. The sample consisted of 193 children (88 boys and 105 girls, aged 4 and 5 years. The assessment of the level of nourishment of the children and their parents was done after the standard anthropometric measurements of height, body weight, determining the body mass index and waist circumference and comparing the obtained values with the growth plates given by World Health Organization. Physical activity of the children was evaluated by a questionnaire which parents filled up. Inappropriate level of nourishment had 60 (31.1% children, of which 26 (13.5% with excessive body mass, obese 29 (15.0%, while 5 (2.5% were malnourished. Children are most attracted to sports such as ballet or folk dances, ball games and swimming, but only 22 (15.83% children are members of some sports club. The lack of finances and the lack of sports facilities and terrains are given as reasons by most parents. During the implementation of physical activities, 65.2% of children are never or sometimes exposed to excessive physical effort. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity among preschool children in Pancevo was high, particularly among children with excessive body weight and obese children. Socio-demographic and behavioral factors as well as behavior of parents significantly contributed to physical inactivity.

  1. Parental education and physical activity in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, S; Ricardo, N; Soares-Miranda, L; Santos, R; Moreira, C; Mota, J

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively assess pre-school children's total physical activity (TPA) patterns and compliance with guidelines and to examine differences relative to parental education. The sample consisted on 509 healthy pre-school children, aged 3-6 years recruited from kindergartens located in the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal. The PA was assessed for 7 consecutive days by accelerometry. For TPA, we followed the guidelines of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (children who spent at least >120  min per day in active play). For TPA, we calculated the proportion of children who spent at least >120  min per day in active play and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), we calculated the proportion of children who spent at least >60  min per day in active play. Parental education was analysed according to the Portuguese education system. Children with parents in the highest education level were less active than children from low and middle education level (P ≤ 0.001) in all patterns of PA (week and weekend). Regarding TPA during the week we found that the majority of children from low and middle parental education meet the NASPE guidelines. On the other hand, more than half the children from high parental education did not meet these recommendations (P ≤ 0.001) and MVPA recommendations (P ≤ 0.05). In both recommendations, children from low parental education were twice more likely to meet the recommendations compared with children belonging to high parental education. Parent education was negatively associated with children's daily physical activity patterns and compliance with guidelines. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The impact of a teacher-led structured physical activity session on preschoolers' sedentary and physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; De Craemer, Marieke; De Decker, Ellen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to examine differences in preschoolers' sedentary time and physical activity (PA) participation between preschool-attending weekdays with and without a teacher-led structured PA session. A sample of 200 preschoolers (5.3±0.4y; 113 boys) from 26 preschools in Flanders, Belgium were included in data analysis. Participants wore a GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer on one preschool-attending weekday with and on one preschool-attending weekday without the provision of a teacher-led structured PA session. Preschoolers' sedentary time, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the time in preschool (08:00-16:00h) and after preschool (16:00-20:00h) were estimated. To assess differences in the outcome measures between both days, multi-level linear regression models were conducted. During the time at preschool, lower sedentary levels (β=13.0min; SE=1.6; p0.05), light PA (β=0.3; SE=0.5; p>0.05), and MVPA (β=0.3; SE=0.9; p>0.05). The results demonstrate that no compensatory changes were found after preschool for the structured PA session during the preschool hours. Therefore, a teacher-led structured PA session integrated in the preschool curriculum is a promising mean to decrease sedentary time and to increase PA in preschool-aged boys and girls. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychometrics of the preschooler physical activity parenting practices instrument among a Latino sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latino preschoolers (3-5 year old children) have among the highest rates of obesity. Low levels of physical activity (PA) are a risk factor for obesity. Characterizing what Latino parents do to encourage or discourage their preschooler to be physically active can help inform interventions to increas...

  4. Relationship between time use in physical activity and gross motor performance of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2017-02-01

    Participation in physical activity is an important health concern for children in most Western communities, but little is known about Asian children's participation. The purpose of this study was to extend the current knowledge on how much time preschool children in Taiwan spend on physical activity, to examine its relationship with gross motor performance and to provide information on the establishment of physical activity guidelines for preschool children in Taiwan. Two hundred and sixty-four children between 36 and 71 months old were recruited from a university medical centre and from preschools in Taiwan. The primary outcomes were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition and the modified Preschool-aged Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. 89.8% of our participants did not meet the recommendations from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education for time spent in physical activities. Participants spent an average of 155 minutes/week in low intensity physical activity. Children with motor difficulties tended to spend less time on physical activity than did typically developing children. The mother's level of education and whether the child was overweight or obese correlated with how much time the children spent on physical activity. We conclude that paediatric occupational therapists should explain to parents the relationship between physical activity and motor development and advocate for developmentally positive physical activities for preschool children. Physical activity guidelines for Taiwanese preschoolers should be established immediately. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs.

  6. Increasing Physical Activity in Preschool: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Animal Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine L.; Carter, Betty Jean; Kibbe, Debra L.; Dennison, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This report describes a pilot study to evaluate Animal Trackers (AT), a preschool program designed to (1) increase structured physical activity (PA) during the preschool day; (2) increase practice of gross motor skills; (3) provide teachers with an easy-to-use PA program regardless of teacher experience; and (4) implement a teacher…

  7. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2008-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity in preschool children has increased dramatically in recent years. The preschool years (age 3-6 years) have been regarded as critical for the programming of energy balance, via the concept of early 'adiposity rebound'. Children who undergo early adiposity rebound are at increased risk of later obesity. Recent evidence suggests that associations between timing of adiposity rebound and later obesity may not reflect programming, but might denote that 'obesogenic' growth trajectories are often established by the preschool period. Studies of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children show that levels of physical activity are typically low and sedentary behaviour high. The review of evidence presented here is supportive of the hypothesis that physical activity is protective against obesity in the preschool period, and that sedentary behaviour, particularly television viewing, is obesogenic. Definitive evidence on dose-response relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity remain unclear. Dose-response evidence could be obtained fairly readily by intervention and longitudinal observational studies that use accelerometry in preschool children. The generalisability of much of the evidence base is limited and there is a need for research on the influence of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the preschool years in the aetiology of obesity in the developing world.

  8. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA......The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...

  9. Physical Activity Promotion in the Preschool Years: A Critical Period to Intervene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Goldfield

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this paper is to provide a rationale for the necessity of intervening with a physical activity intervention in the preschool years and why the daycare environment is amenable to such intervention. We also review the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity in the preschool population and the impact that these lifestyle behaviours and conditions have on the health of preschool aged children, as secondary objectives. Moreover we discuss implications for intervention and research using a “lessons learned” model based on our research team’s experience of conducting a randomized controlled trial aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour and improving motor skill development and body composition in preschoolers. Lastly, we make conclusions based on the literature and highlight issues and directions that need to be addressed in future research in order to maximize health promotion and chronic disease prevention in the pediatric population.

  10. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...... preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area...

  11. Accelerometer Measured Level of Physical Activity Indoors and Outdoors During Preschool Time in Sweden and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raustorp, A.; Pagels, P.; Boldemann, C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity in order to influence policy and create environments that promote physical activity among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' physical activity in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences...

  12. Is directly measured physical activity related to adiposity in preschool children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the association between directly assessed physical activity and adiposity in preschool children (age 1.5-6 years). It includes 17 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that were published between January 1999 and February 2010. The association between physical activity and

  13. Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

  14. Is directly measured physical activity related to adiposity in preschool children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the association between directly assessed physical activity and adiposity in preschool children (age 1.5-6 years). It includes 17 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that were published between January 1999 and February 2010. The association between physical activity and

  15. Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

  16. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  17. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  18. Where they live, how they play: Neighborhood greenness and outdoor physical activity among preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigsby-Toussaint Diana S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging empirical evidence suggests exposure to "green" environments may encourage higher levels of physical activity among children. Few studies, however, have explored this association exclusively in pre-school aged children in the United States. We examined whether residing in neighborhoods with higher levels of greenness was associated with higher levels of outdoor physical activity among preschoolers. In addition, we also explored whether outdoor playing behaviors (e.g., active vs. quiet were influenced by levels of neighborhood greenness independent of demographic and parental support factors. Results Higher levels of neighborhood greenness as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was associated with higher levels of outdoor playing time among preschool-aged children in our sample. Specifically, a one unit increase in neighborhood greenness increased a child's outdoor playing time by approximately 3 minutes. A dose-response relationship was observed between increasing levels of parental support for physical activity (e.g., time spent playing with children and child outdoor physical activity (p Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, neighborhood greenness influences physical activity behavior. However, for preschoolers, parental involvement may be more critical for improving physical activity levels.

  19. Parental perception on the efficacy of a physical activity program for preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura; Silvernail, Sara; Caldwell, Lisa; Bryant, Angela; Kennedy, Cathy; Davies, Patricia; Anderson, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Childhood obesity is among the leading health concerns in the United States. The relationship between unmet physical activity needs in young children is of particular interest as the trend in childhood obesity continues to rise and unmet physical activity needs are identified. The preschool years are an influential time in promoting healthful lifestyle habits and early childhood interventions may help establish lifelong healthful behaviors which could help prevent obesity later in life. The Food Friends®: Get Movin' with Mighty Moves® is a preschool physical activity program which aims to improve children's gross motor skills and physical activity levels. The home environment and parental modeling are critical factors related to child physical activity in this population. The parent component, Mighty Moves®: Fun Ways to Keep Families Active and Healthy, was designed to address barriers in the home environment that lead to unmet physical activity needs in preschoolers and their families. The program and materials were designed based on Social Marketing tenets and Social Learning Theory principles. Four Colorado Head Start centers were assigned to an experimental group as part of the Mighty Moves® group randomized trial. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods were used to determine what messages and materials reached and motivated the target audience to increase physical activity levels. Results of the study indicated the program's materials helped families and children to be more physically active. Additionally, materials and material dissemination were revised to enhance program goals.

  20. Forms of Physical Activity of Biała Podlaska Preschool Children

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    Gradus Paulina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity is fundamental to children's all-round development in the first six years of their life. It is particularly significant in preschool age, when the need for movement is predominant. Psychomotor development, conditioned by children's innate abilities and their own activity, depends upon the influence of external surroundings as well as parental upbringing and preschool education. The aim of the study was to obtain data regarding physical activity (both structured and unstructured of children during their stay in a kindergarten. Material and methods. The study was conducted in five state kindergartens situated in four main housing estates of Bia³a Podlaska. It included 11 groups of older preschool children. It was a diagnostic study. A diagnostic poll method employed in the study included interviews with teachers, lesson observations (during one day and document analyses (programmes and class registers. Results. During their stay in a kindergarten children take part in physical activities for 1.5 hours a day. During this period they participate in obligatory forms of physical activity such as morning gymnastics, movement plays, outdoor activities and gymnastic exercises. Furthermore, optional movement activities are organised in kindergartens (different forms in different kindergartens. Such extra classes enable children to be physically active for over two more hours per week. Conclusions. In terms of caring about health and motor development of children, not all elements of preschool education programmes are fully realised. Training sessions, workshops and lectures showing diverse forms of physical activity for children ought to be organised for preschool teachers.

  1. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC20....... A high body mass index tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.99....

  2. Measuring Physical Activity in Preschoolers: Reliability and Validity of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers (SOFIT-P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Skala, Katherine; Atteberry, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is describe the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of an instrument to measure physical activity in preschoolers using direct observation. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers was developed and tested among 3- to 6-year-old children over fall 2008 for feasibility and reliability…

  3. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  4. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  5. Formative research and strategic development of a physical activity component to a social marketing campaign for obesity prevention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Gould, Susan Martin; Auld, Garry

    2008-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight in childhood, including preschoolers, continues to rise. While efforts focusing on school-aged children are encouraging, obesity prevention programs to address nutrition and physical activity in the child care center are lacking. Food Friends is a successfully evaluated nutrition program aimed at enhancing preschoolers' food choices, the addition of a physical activity program would improve the programs overall efforts to establish healthful habits early in life. This study describes the formative research conducted with secondary influencers of preschoolers-teachers and parents-for the development of a physical activity program. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with preschool teachers and parents, respectively, to examine current physical activity practices, as well as attitudes, opinions, and desired wants and needs for physical activity materials. Findings illustrate that teachers provided physical activity; however, most did not use a structured program. Teachers identified time, space and equipment as barriers to providing activity in their classroom. Focus group findings identified activities of preschoolers', parents' perceptions of the adequacy of activity levels, and items to help parents engage their children in more physical activity. Barriers were also identified by parents and included time, safety, inclement weather, and lack of knowledge and self-efficacy. Findings from this formative research were used to develop a marketing strategy to guide the development of a physical activity component, Food Friends Get Movin' with Mighty Moves , as part of a larger social marketing campaign aimed to decrease the risk for obesity in low-income preschoolers.

  6. Accelerometer measured level of physical activity indoors and outdoors during preschool time in Sweden and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raustorp, Anders; Pagels, Peter; Boldemann, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity (PA) to influence policy and create environments that promote PA among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' PA in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences boys' and girls' indoor and outdoor PA regar...

  7. The health outcomes and physical activity in preschoolers (HOPP study: rationale and design

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    Timmons Brian W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early years are the period of growth for which we know the least about the impact of physical activity. In contrast, we know that more than 90 % of school-aged Canadian children, for example, are not meeting physical activity recommendations. Such an activity crisis is a major contributor to recent trends in childhood obesity, to which preschoolers are not immune. The World Health Organization estimated that more than 42 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight world-wide in 2010. If an activity crisis exists during the preschool years, we should also be concerned about its broader impact on health. Unfortunately, the relationship between physical activity and health during the early years is poorly understood. The goal of the Health Outcomes and Physical activity in Preschoolers (HOPP study is to describe how the prevalence and patterns of physical activity in preschoolers are associated with indices of health. Methods The HOPP study is a prospective cohort study. We aim to recruit 400 3- to 5-year-old children (equal number of boys and girls and test them once per year for 3 years. Each annual assessment involves 2 laboratory visits and 7 consecutive days of physical activity monitoring with protocols developed in our pilot work. At visit 1, we assess body composition, aerobic fitness, short-term muscle power, motor skills, and have the parents complete a series of questionnaires related to their child’s physical activity, health-related quality of life and general behaviour. Over 7 consecutive days each child wears an accelerometer on his/her waist to objectively monitor physical activity. The accelerometer is programmed to record movement every 3 s, which is needed to accurately capture the intensity of physical activity. At visit 2, we assess vascular structure and function using ultrasound. To assess the associations between physical activity and health outcomes, our primary analysis will involve

  8. What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study

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    Baur Louise A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are

  9. Effects of an Obesity Prevention Intervention on Physical Activity Among Preschool Children: The CHILE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Theresa H; Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; O'Donald, Elena R; Sanders, Sarah G; Sheche, Judith N

    2016-09-01

    Background Limited research addresses interventions to increase physical activity among American Indian and Hispanic preschool-aged children living in rural areas. We examined the impact of a Head Start-based intervention (Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise [CHILE]) on physical activity at home. Method Sixteen Head Start centers in predominantly Hispanic or American Indian communities were group randomized to the six-component intervention or a comparison group for 2 years. Structured surveys were administered at four assessment times to a convenience sample of caregivers of 655 children in the study. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effects of the intervention on physical activity. Results The relative change in physical activity in the intervention group compared with the comparison group over the 2-year period was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [1.02, 2.38]; p = .04). Among specific promoted activities (ball playing, dancing, active games, jumping, and walking), dancing increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison group (2.9; 95% confidence interval [1.2, 7.1]; p = .02). Conclusions The CHILE intervention was effective at increasing physical activity at home in preschool children in priority populations. Future research should focus on increasing family involvement and strengthening messaging about physical activity in these populations.

  10. Critical narrative review to identify educational strategies promoting physical activity in preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Krombholz, H; Gibson, E L; Vögele, C; Nixon, C A; Douthwaite, W; Moore, H J; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this narrative review is critically to evaluate educational strategies promoting physical activity that are used in the preschool setting in the context of obesity prevention programmes. Literature search was conducted between April and August 2010 in English and German databases (PubMED, PsychINFO, PSYNDEX, ERIC, FIS Bildung). Outcomes considered were time and intensity of physical activity, motor skills or measures of body composition. A total of 19 studies were included. Ten studies added physical activity lessons into their curriculum, one study provided more time for free play, eight studies focused on the social and play environment. Studies reporting positive outcomes implemented physical activity sessions that lasted at least 30 min d(-1). Several studies showed that children are most active in the first 10-15 min. The existence or installation of playground markings or fixed play equipment had no effect, whereas the presence or addition of portable play equipment was positively correlated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Teacher training may be a key element for successful interventions. To overcome time constraints, a suggested solution is to integrate physical activity into daily routines and other areas of the preschool curriculum.

  11. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China

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    Xianglong Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2 Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas—namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang—of China; (3 Results: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years. Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children’s physical activity (PA behavior (p < 0.0001. However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children’s fruits and vegetables (FV behavior, screen time (ST behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4 Conclusions: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children’s PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children’s ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children’s ST behavior.

  12. Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study

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    Curnow Fiona

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess relationships between characteristics of the home environment and preschool children's physical activity and dietary patterns. Methods Homes of 280 preschool children were visited and information obtained by direct observation and parent interview regarding physical and nutritional characteristics of the home environment. Children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns were measured using standardised parent-report questionnaires. Associations were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation. Results Parental physical activity (p = 0.03–0.008, size of backyard (p = 0.001 and amount of outdoor play equipment (p = 0.003 were associated with more outdoor play. Fewer rules about television viewing (p Conclusion Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviours are associated with preschool children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity prevention and management.

  13. Obesity determinants in Mexican preschool children: parental perceptions and practices related to feeding and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Oliveros, Guadalupe; Haines, Jess; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris; Power, Elaine; Taveras, Elsie M; González-Unzaga, Marco A; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2011-08-01

    Obesity represents a major public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, overweight and obesity have increased dramatically, affecting 26% of school-aged children. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and practices of key obesity determinants among parents of preschool children attending child care centers. We conducted five focus groups with 38 parents from six Mexico City child care centers. Inquiry topics were 1) childhood obesity causes and consequences; 2) child feeding practices at the child care center and home; 3) healthful and unhealthful foods for young children; 4) significance of physical activity in childhood; and 5) physical activity-promoting factors and barriers. We analyzed these data using content analysis. We identified a number of barriers to healthful eating, including parental time constraints, permissive feeding styles, unhealthful food preparation practices, lack of knowledge about nutrition, food advertisement, and high availability of unhealthful foods in public places. Facilitators to healthful eating included recognition of childhood overweight prevention and consequences, and healthy food choices. Main barriers to childhood physical activity included influence of young family members to play video games, parental time constraints, street safety, low access to sports facilities, and insufficient communication with child care centers. Understanding parental views and perceptions of the main factors influencing preschoolers' weight-related behavior can inform home-based or environmental interventions that support healthful eating and regular physical activity. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-09-13

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p cognition; (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children's PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.

  15. SUPPORT OF PSYCHO-PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD

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    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed needs, ability and the ways of supporting psychophysical activity of a pre-school child. Primary child’s need for movement, which should be invented by play, boosts impulses for growth and development of the organism and is considered as a main condition of it’s psycho-physical development. In the way of physical development child should be encouraged on many different ways of movement: walking, running, jumping, but also crawling, climbing, throwing, catching… For the development of skill of detection optimal senses stimulation is good way, in point of making communication with nature and social surroundings. Thru play and practical activity it is possible to contribute to acceptable way of showing emotional condition of the child. Thinking and imagination at start are very dependable of emotions, and they develop also thru playing and practical activity. It is also possible to contribute a start of development of the main character line which are made from imitation and identification of child with parents and teachers. Functional contribution of psycho-physical activity of pre-school child is possible to achieve if, with skill and a lot of pedagogy talent, awards and compliment are given to child, and giving to them honor and promises

  16. Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

  17. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  18. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PARENTS` ATTUTUTES FROM NEIGHBOUR COUNTRIES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THEIR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Dragan Krivokapić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A research has been done in pre-school institutions of Montenegro and Serb Republic whose aim was to get directions for improvement of physical education in pre-school institutions as well as for taking measures in order to educate parents of the children attending those institutions in the sense of improving knowledge on importance of physical activity for growth and development of pre-school children through monitoring and insight into attitudes of parents on physical activity of their children. Problem of this research is consisted of an attempt to use the parents` attitudes to estimate how active their children are within the time period when there are not on the pre-school institutions. Methods: The research was done by the poll method of anonymous questionnaire, with was filled by parents of the children attending pre-school institutions in Montenegro and Serb Republic. Sample of the examinees from Montenegro was made of 1356 of parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions from all three Montenegrin regions. Sample of the examinees from the Serb Republic was made of 386 parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions. Aim of the research was consisted of estimation of the parents` attitudes on volume and features of the physical activity of their children and of attempt to use the given data to take certain measures on the base of which their physical activities would be optimized. For this poll, a specially structured questionnaire for this purpose was used, in which the questions were set into groups with the aim of estimating features of physical activity of the pre-school children. Results: For the statistics processing methods of descriptive statistics were used, which were used for numerical and percent presentation of frequency of some answers of the examinees, and the answers were presented comparatively in tables for both samples. Results of this research indicate to trend

  20. Developing the intervention material to increase physical activity levels of European preschool children : the ToyBox-study

    OpenAIRE

    Duvinage, K.; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S.; Wildgruber, A.; De Craemer, M.; Decker, E; Androutsos, O.; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Socha, P.; Zych, K.; Mouratidou, T.; Mesana Graffe, M I; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B.

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is an important period for adopting positive health-related behaviours. More than 95% of European preschool children attend kindergartens, making these settings ideal for the implementation of health promotion interventions. The ToyBox-intervention addressed preschool children, their parents/caregivers and teachers. The aim of the intervention was to improve four energy balance-related behaviours (i.e. healthy snacking, water consumption, physical activity and sedentary behavi...

  1. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  2. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  3. The influence of parents and the home environment on preschoolers' physical activity behaviours: A qualitative investigation of childcare providers' perspectives

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    Irwin Jennifer D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity offers numerous physiological and psychological benefits for young children; however, many preschool-aged children are not engaging in sufficient activity. The home environment, inclusive of parent role modeling, has been identified as influencing preschoolers' physical activity. This study sought to examine childcare providers' perspectives of the importance of parents and the home environment for supporting the physical activity behaviours of preschool-aged children (aged 2.5-5 years attending childcare. Methods A heterogeneous sample of childcare providers (n = 84; response rate 39% working at childcare facilities in London, Ontario participated. Thirteen semi-structured focus groups were conducted in London centres between February 2009 and February 2010. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and inductive content analysis was used to code and classify themes. A number of strategies were used to verify the trustworthiness of the data. Results Childcare providers acknowledged their reliance on parents/guardians to create a home environment that complements the positive physical activity messaging children may receive in childcare. Moreover, childcare staff highlighted the need for positive parent role modeling and parent support to encourage active healthy lifestyles among young children. Conclusion This study's findings highlight the need for increased parent-caregiver partnering in terms of communication and cooperation in service of promoting appropriate amounts of physical activity among London preschoolers.

  4. [Relationship between nutritional status, level of physical activity and psychomotor development in preschoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Cappelacci, Marcelo; Oyarzún Alfaro, Tania; Leyton Artigas, Fernanda; Sepúlveda Muñoz, Cristóbal

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and overweight have been included as a pandemic by the WHO; children are the group where intervention is recommended, given that they can enter physical activity (PA) and psychomotor development (PD) programs at education centres. Chile accounts for high rates of overweight, obesity and sedentary life, together with an absence of preschool PA programs. To relate the nutritional status, the psychomotor development and the quantity and intensity of PA in school routine for 5 year-old preschoolers. Pilot, non-experimental, transversal correlational study, including 23 preschoolers aged 5. We assessed three values: nutritional status with score z-IMC, PA with Actigraphy and PD with Da Fonseca Battery. 26% of the children presented with overweight and 52% with obesity. All of them had at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during their school-day. 82.6% of the children were in the Normal category for PD and the rest were in the Dispraxia category. A significant inverse relationship was found (p=0,032) between z-IMC and PD. The percentage of obese children is notably above international average values and national surveys. 17.4% of children show dispraxia at the psychomotor assessment. Children with higher z-IMC have a lower score in Da Fonseca battery, which could be due to a higher weight in relation to size, and generating a lower PD in the long term. No relationships were detected within the other variables. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing physical activity and sedentary time among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers enrolled in early learning programs: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patricia; Maltby, Alana M; Burke, Shauna M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2016-09-01

    Establishing appropriate physical activity and sedentary behaviours during early childhood is important to ensure children accrue the many associated health benefits. While physical activity levels have been reported as low within early learning programs, little research has explored the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian preschoolers classified as overweight within these facilities. The purpose of this study was to compare objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time among preschoolers classified as overweight and nonoverweight in early learning programs. Direct assessment of physical activity and sedentary time of 216 preschool-aged children was collected via Actical accelerometers during early learning hours, while body mass index percentile was calculated based on preschoolers' objectively measured height and weight. Results of three 3-way ANOVAs suggest that rates of moderate to vigorous physical activity, total physical activity, and sedentary time (p > 0.05) did not significantly differ based on weight status, sex, and type of early learning facility. This study is one of few that has examined differences in overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers' sedentary time, and adds to the limited research exploring physical activity levels among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers during early learning hours. Given the high rates of sedentary time reported, programming within early learning facilities is necessary to support preschoolers, regardless of weight status, to achieve increased physical activity levels and decreased sedentary time.

  6. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  7. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  8. Pilot nutrition and physical activity intervention for preschool children attending daycare centres (JUNJI: primary and secondary outcomes

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    Gabriela Salazar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A pilot intervention was conducted to promote physical activity and nutrition in public preschool education (near half a million children in Chile, in order to prevent obesity. Objective: To assess the primary (body fat and secondary outcomes (physical activity and energy intake of a nutrition and physical activity pilot intervention for preschool children, attending day care centres. Methods: A pilot intervention in six day care centres selected at random (n = 530, in 4-5 years old preschool children, Santiago, Chile intending to: provide nutritional and physical activity education to educators and health promotion activities for the family, which in turn, will affect the primary (body fat, and secondary outcomes (physical activity pattern and energy food intake were measured in a representative subsample of 120 intervened and 145 controls children. Results: In relation to secondary outcomes monitoring, moderate-vigorous activity was duplicated in the intervention group (+5.4% and +4.7%, respectively, in both obese and eutrophic children. Energy intake decreased in 11.7% in obese and 7.5% in eutrophic children. Dietary fat intake was reduced (-11 g in obese and -8.4 g in eutrophic children. Intervened obese children reduced body fat in 1.5%, meanwhile in control obese children, body fat increased 1.3% (p < 0.01. Conclusions: The pilot intervention demonstrated the feasibility to influence dietary risk factors and physical activity at the day care centres and families. Therefore, the implementation of the validated intervention program will be tested in different weather conditions, to prevent unhealthy habits in preschool children and their families.

  9. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  10. A question of balance: Explaining differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on preschoolers' feeding and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Karin; Howell, Kyndal; Fisher, Philip A.; Nowicka, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Although one quarter of US and UK families rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare, grandparental perspectives on the feeding and physical activity of young children remain understudied. Objective The study's aim was to elucidate parents' and grandparents' perspectives on young children's feeding and physical activity, and identify how they negotiate potential differences between these perspectives. Methods We interviewed 22 parents and 27 grandparents from 16 families of children aged 3–5 years in the Pacific Northwest, US. Using familial homeostasis as a novel theoretical framework, the interviews were analyzed to assess differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on feeding and physical activity. Results The analysis yielded six thematic categories: (1) disagreements about feeding stem from parents' and grandparents' differing definitions of healthy feeding; (2) differences between parents' and grandparents' feeding practices reflect differences in perceived caretaking roles; (3) parents and grandparents negotiate differences in feeding practices through grandparental compliance and parental compromise; (4) differences in preschoolers' physical activity are influenced by parents' and grandparents' own access to and engagement in physical activity; (5) parents and grandparents express few disagreements about preschoolers' screen-time; (6) parents and grandparents rarely discuss preschoolers' physical activity. The findings suggest that parental and grandparental decision-making about feeding and exercise is informed by ideas of what constitutes familial balance and a balanced lifestyle for a preschool aged child, rather than by the child's weight status. Conclusions Parents and grandparents appear to engage in practices designed to preserve familial homeostasis, which may provide a compelling explanation for the persistent difficulties in implementing family-based childhood obesity interventions. PMID:26943011

  11. Developing the intervention material to increase physical activity levels of European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvinage, K; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Zych, K; Mouratidou, T; Mesana Graffe, M I; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B

    2014-08-01

    Early childhood is an important period for adopting positive health-related behaviours. More than 95% of European preschool children attend kindergartens, making these settings ideal for the implementation of health promotion interventions. The ToyBox-intervention addressed preschool children, their parents/caregivers and teachers. The aim of the intervention was to improve four energy balance-related behaviours (i.e. healthy snacking, water consumption, physical activity and sedentary behaviour) by implementing a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). The intervention material was developed following the intervention mapping protocol, taking into account local and cultural differences among the intervention countries. The present paper focuses on the development of the physical activity component of the intervention. Parental involvement was addressed by providing parents/caregivers with two newsletters, two tip cards and a poster. Teachers received a handbook with guidance on environmental changes in the classroom, 26 physical education sessions and suggestions for fun, interactive classroom activities aiming at total class participation to increase preschoolers' physical activity levels. The ToyBox-intervention material was distributed according to a standard time frame. Teachers received their material prior to the start of the intervention and parents/caregivers received their material during the intervention when each energy balance-related behaviour was implemented. © 2014 World Obesity.

  12. Validation of a maternal questionnaire on correlates of physical activity in preschool children

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    Inskip Hazel M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valid measures of physical activity correlates in preschool children are lacking. This study aimed to assess the validity, factor structure and internal consistency of a maternal questionnaire on potential correlates of four-year-old children's physical activity. Methods The questionnaire was designed to measure the following constructs: child personal factors; parental support and self-efficacy for providing support; parental rules and restrictions; maternal attitudes and perceptions; maternal behaviour; barriers to physical activity; and the home and local environments. Two separate studies were conducted. Study I included 24 mothers of four-year-old children who completed the questionnaire then participated in a telephone interview covering similar items to the questionnaire. To assess validity, the agreement between interview and questionnaire responses was assessed using Cohen's kappa and percentage agreement. Study II involved 398 mothers of four-year-old children participating in the Southampton Women's Survey. In this study, principal components analysis was used to explore the factor structure of the questionnaire to aid future analyses with these data. The internal consistency of the factors identified was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Results Kappa scores showed 30% of items to have moderate agreement or above, 23% to have fair agreement and 47% to have slight or poor agreement. However, 89% of items had fair agreement as assessed by percentage agreement (≥ 66%. Limited variation in responses to variables is likely to have contributed to some of the low kappa values. Six questions had a low kappa and low percentage agreement (defined as poor validity; these included questions from the child personal factors, maternal self-efficacy, rules and restrictions, and local environment domains. The principal components analysis identified eleven factors and found several variables to stand alone. Eight of the composite

  13. Comparing physical activity and sedentary time among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers enrolled in early learning programs: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tucker, Patricia; Maltby, Alana M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Irwin, Jennifer D; Burke, Shauna M

    2016-01-01

    ... as overweight within these facilities. The purpose of this study was to compare objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time among preschoolers classified as overweight and nonoverweight in early learning programs...

  14. A simple assessment of physical activity is associated with obesity and motor fitness in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Otmar; Bolte, Gabriele; Morlock, Gabriele; Rückinger, Simon; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2009-08-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated. Survey, cross-sectional. Weight and height were measured in 12,556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004-5 and 2005-6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity. The mean age of the children evaluated was 5.78 (sd 0.43) years, 6535 (52.1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.786, 95 % CI 0.687, 0.898) or obese (OR = 0.655, 95 % CI 0.506, 0.849) and achieved 6.7 (95 % CI 5.8, 7.7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables. Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.

  15. Why Preschoolers Need Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    NAEYC, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, and the US Department of Health and Human Services all recommend that preschool programs offer physical education. There are many reasons why. First, young children form healthy habits early in life. Before entering elementary school they learn to brush their teeth, bathe…

  16. Motor Skills and Free-Living Physical Activity Showed No Association Among Preschoolers in 2012 U.S. National Youth Fitness Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Albeit limited, some emerging work, using convenience-based samples, has demonstrated that greater motor skill development is associated with higher physical activity among preschool-aged children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this topic using data from the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey that included 329 preschool-aged children (3-5 years). Parents proxy-reported their child's physical activity, with motor skill level assessed from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD2). Motor skill levels (Gross Motor Quotient, locomotor or object control) were not associated with preschool free-living physical activity in any analytic model. Thus, in this large sample of preschoolers, contrary to research with older children, motor skill level was not associated with physical activity. Findings are discussed in terms of study limitations of (a) a reliance on parent report of children's physical activity levels and (b) the possibility that physical activity data within the national survey were too limited in range to show possible associations to motor skill development with higher levels of free-living physical activity in preschoolers.

  17. Preschoolers´ Physical Activity and Time on Task During a Mastery Motivational Climate and Free Play

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    Danielle D. Wadsworth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a structured, mastery motivation physical education climate and an unstructured physical activity climate on time spent on task in a small sample of preschool children. Children enrolled in a public, federal-subsidized childcare center (N= 12 participated in two 45 minute physical activity programs within the school day. The structured climate consisted of a biweekly program of motor skill instruction that was based upon the key principles of a mastery motivational climate. The unstructured program was a daily 45 minute free play environment. Actigraph accelerometers monitored children’s participation in physical activity and time-on task was observed by a momentary time sampling technique. Results showed that time on-task significantly improved following a mastery motivational climate, and children spent 36% of their time in moderate-to-vigorous activity in this climate. In contrast, time on-task did not significantly improve following participation in a free play environment and participants spent a majority of their time in sedentary behavior and accumulated no vigorous physical activity. Our results indicate that participation in physical activity impacts a preschooler’s ability to stay on task and the amount of physical activity accumulated during physical activity programming is dependent upon the climate delivered.

  18. Cognitive-behavioural physical activity treatment in African-American pre-schoolers: effects of age, sex, and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Tennant, Gisèle

    2013-02-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children of 5 years and younger has greatly increased in countries including Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA, with African-Americans most affected in the USA. Low amounts of physical activity may be a primary cause. Interventions intended to increase physical activity during pre-school have had minimal effects. A physical activity intervention derived from self-efficacy and social cognitive theory administered by pre-school teachers in the USA (Start For Life) was contrasted with typical care over 8 weeks. The 30-min-per-day treatment incorporated structured gross motor skill physical activities and training in self-management and self-regulation skills. The African-American children in the treatment (n = 154, 21 classrooms) and control (n = 121, 11 classrooms) groups ranged in age from 3.5 to 5.6 years. Mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variances indicated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in the treatment group when both the children and classrooms were the unit of analysis. Time in sedentary activities was not affected. Together, age, sex and body mass index (BMI) percentile significantly predicted treatment-related changes in MVPA (R(2) = 0.11) and VPA (R(2) = 0.11), with age (β = -0.22 and β = -0.23, respectively) and BMI percentile (β = -0.24 and β = -0.23, respectively) contributing uniquely to the explained variances indicating greater treatment effects for participants who were younger and had a lower BMI percentile. The Start For Life treatment was associated with increased MVPA by approximately 1 h per week, with most of that change being in VPA. After sufficient replication, adjustments may be made to maximise treatment effects. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

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    Hoffmann Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates

  20. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  1. Development of Physical Activity-Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R

    2017-09-01

    Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

  2. The validity and reliability of a home environment preschool-age physical activity questionnaire (Pre-PAQ

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    Peat Jennifer K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for valid population level measures of physical activity in young children. The aim of this paper is to report the development, and the reliability and validity, of the Preschool-age Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire (Pre-PAQ which was designed to measure activity of preschool-age children in the home environment in population studies. Methods Pre-PAQ was completed by 103 families, and validated against accelerometry for 67 children (mean age 3.8 years, SD 0.74; males 53%. Pre-PAQ categorizes activity into five progressive levels (stationary no movement, stationary with limb or trunk movement, slow, medium, or fast-paced activity. Pre-PAQ Levels 1-2 (stationary activities were combined for analyses. Accelerometer data were categorized for stationary, sedentary (SED, non-sedentary (non-SED, light (LPA, moderate (MPA and vigorous (VPA physical activity using manufacturer's advice (stationary or the cut-points described by Sirard et al and Reilly et al. Bland-Altman methods were used to assess agreement between the questionnaire and the accelerometer measures for corresponding activity levels. Reliability of the Pre-PAQ over one week was determined using intraclass correlations (ICC or kappa (κ values and percentage of agreement of responses between the two questionnaire administrations. Results Pre-PAQ had good agreement with LPA (mean difference 1.9 mins.day-1 and VPA (mean difference -4.8 mins.day-1, was adequate for stationary activity (mean difference 7.6 mins.day-1 and poor for sedentary activity, whether defined using the cut-points of Sirard et al (mean difference -235.4 mins.day-1 or Reilly et al (mean difference -208.6 mins.day-1 cut-points. Mean difference between the measures for total activity (i.e. Reilly's non-sedentary or Sirard's LMVPA was 20.9 mins.day-1 and 45.2 mins.day-1. The limits of agreement were wide for all categories. The reliability of Pre-PAQ question responses ranged from

  3. Role of Preschoolers in Motivation for Physical Activity in Their Families

    OpenAIRE

    Piech Krzysztof; Grad Rafał

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Family-oriented strategies of promoting physical activity are underused. In the last few years there has been a significant decrease in number of research on family as a promoter of physical activity. The research, when conducted, focuses on the influence parents' activity has on that of their children. There is a need for assessment of child's influence on parents' physical activity. Material and methods. The survey utilises an opinion poll in the form of a questionnaire. The s...

  4. Children′s physical activity and screen time: qualitative comparison of views of parents of infants and preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesketh Kylie D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While parents are central to the development of behaviours in their young children, little is known about how parents view their role in shaping physical activity and screen time behaviours. Methods Using an unstructured focus group design, parental views and practices around children′s physical activity and screen time (television and computer use were explored with eight groups of new parents (n=61; child age Results Parents generally believed children are naturally active, which may preclude their engagement in strategies designed to increase physical activity. While parents across both age groups shared many overarching views concerning parenting for children′s physical activity and screen time behaviours, some strategies and barriers differed depending on the age of the child. While most new parents were optimistic about their ability to positively influence their child′s behaviours, many parents of preschool-aged children seemed more resigned to strategies that worked for them, even when aware such strategies may not be ideal. Conclusions Interventions aiming to increase children′s physical activity and decrease screen time may need to tailor strategies to the age group of the child and address parents′ misconceptions and barriers to optimum parenting in these domains.

  5. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers. © 2014 World Obesity.

  6. Preschool children’s foreign language vocabulary learning by embodying words through physical activity and gesturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Toumpaniari (Konstantina); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); M.-F. Mavilidi (Myrto-Foteini); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractResearch has demonstrated that physical activity involving gross motor activities can lead to better cognitive functioning and higher academic achievement scores. In addition, research within the theoretical framework of embodied cognition has shown that embodying knowledge through the

  7. The role of cognitive stimulation at home in low-income preschoolers' nutrition, physical activity and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Bosch, Saskia Op; Duch, Helena

    2017-08-01

    Early childhood obesity disproportionately affects children of low socioeconomic status. Children attending Head Start are reported to have an obesity rate of 17.9%.This longitudinal study aimed to understand the relationship between cognitive stimulation at home and intake of junk food, physical activity and body size, for a nationally representative sample of 3- and 4-year old children entering Head Start. We used The Family and Child Experiences Survey 2006. Cognitive stimulation at home was measured for 1905 children at preschool entry using items from the Home Observation Measurement of the Environment Short Form. Junk food consumption and physical activity were obtained from parent interviews at kindergarten entry. BMI z scores were based on CDC national standards. We analyzed the association between early cognitive stimulation and junk food consumption, physical activity and BMI, using multinomial and binary logistic regression on a weighted sample. Children who received moderate levels of cognitive stimulation at home had a 1.5 increase in the likelihood of consuming low amounts of junk food compared to children from low cognitive stimulation environments. Children who received moderate and high levels of cognitive stimulation were two and three times, respectively, more likely to be physically active than those in low cognitive stimulation homes. No direct relationship was identified between cognitive stimulation and BMI. Prevention and treatment efforts to address early childhood obesity may consider strategies that support parents in providing cognitively stimulating home environments. Existing evidence-based programs can guide intervention in pediatric primary care.

  8. Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning by Embodying Words through Physical Activity and Gesturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpaniari, Konstantina; Loyens, Sofie; Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that physical activity involving gross motor activities can lead to better cognitive functioning and higher academic achievement scores. In addition, research within the theoretical framework of embodied cognition has shown that embodying knowledge through the use of more subtle motor activities, such as task-relevant…

  9. Socio-cultural determinants of adiposity and physical activity in preschool children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriemler Susi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both individual socio-cultural determinants such as selected parental characteristics (migrant background, low educational level and workload as well as the regional environment are related to childhood overweight and physical activity (PA. The purpose of the study was to compare the impact of distinct socio-cultural determinants such as the regional environment and selected parental characteristics on adiposity, PA and motor skills in preschool children. Methods Forty preschools (N = 542 children of two culturally different urban regions (German and French speaking part of Switzerland participated in the study (Ballabeina Study. Outcome measures included adiposity (BMI and skinfold thickness, objectively measured sedentary activities and PA (accelerometers and agility performance (obstacle course. Parental characteristics (migrant status, educational level and workload were assessed by questionnaire. Results Children from the French speaking areas had higher adiposity, lower levels of total and of more intense PA, were more sedentary and less agile than children from the German speaking regions (percent differences for all outcome parameters except for BMI ≥10%; all p ≤ 0.04. Differences in skinfold thickness, sedentary activities and agility, but not in PA, were also found between children of Swiss and migrant parents, though they were ≤8% (p ≤ 0.02. While paternal workload had no effect, maternal workload and parental education resulted in differences in some PA measures and/or agility performance (percent differences in both: ≤9%, p ≤ 0.008, but not in adiposity or sedentary activities (p = NS. Regional differences in skinfold thickness, PA, sedentary activities and agility performance persisted after adjustment for parental socio-cultural characteristics, parental BMI and, where applicable, children's skinfolds (all p ≤ 0.01. Conclusions The regional environment, especially the broader social environment

  10. The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schrempft

    Full Text Available The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the 'obesogenic' home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children.Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096 completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables, activity (sum of 6 variables, media (sum of 5 variables, and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5 home environments. These were categorized into 'obesogenic risk' tertiles.Children in 'higher-risk' food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27-0.57 and vegetables (0.47; 0.34-0.64, and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16-5.62 and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10-5.81 than children in 'lower-risk' food environments. Children in 'higher-risk' activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32-0.59 than children in 'lower-risk' activity environments. Children in 'higher-risk' media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48-4.96 than children in 'lower-risk' media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI.Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing. Associations with BMI were not apparent at this age.

  11. Preschool children’s foreign language vocabulary learning by embodying words through physical activity and gesturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Toumpaniari (Konstantina); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); M.-F. Mavilidi (Myrto-Foteini); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractResearch has demonstrated that physical activity involving gross motor activities can lead to better cognitive functioning and higher academic achievement scores. In addition, research within the theoretical framework of embodied cognition has shown that embodying knowledge through the u

  12. Role of Preschoolers in Motivation for Physical Activity in Their Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piech Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family-oriented strategies of promoting physical activity are underused. In the last few years there has been a significant decrease in number of research on family as a promoter of physical activity. The research, when conducted, focuses on the influence parents' activity has on that of their children. There is a need for assessment of child's influence on parents' physical activity. Material and methods. The survey utilises an opinion poll in the form of a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 100 parents who were invited together with their children to a recreational fair. Results. The survey shows that child may be the person encouraging their parents to active recreation. Symptoms of this are: encouraging the parents to take part, satisfaction with the decision to take part in the event and the amount of positive sensations during play. The parents were of opinion that their both, children's as well as teacher's encouragement, was the most important factor in their decision to participate. Conclusions. The research indicated that after the fair children encouraged their parents to play together, whereas parents used games from the fair in their family free time. Because of the fact that the offered model of recreational event for families engaged and interested the participants, it is worth promoting in pedagogical sphere.

  13. Does Preschool Physical Activity and Electronic Media Use Predict Later Social and Emotional Skills at 6 to 8 Years? A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the associations of preschoolers' health behaviors with their later psychosocial wellbeing. This study investigates the association of 3- to 5-year-old children's physical activity and electronic media use with their later social-emotional skills (6-8 years). Data were collected in 2008-2009 and 2011-2012 for the Healthy Active Preschool and Primary Years (HAPPY) Study in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants were a random subsample (n = 108) of the 567 children at follow-up. Physical activity was objectively measured using ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers; electronic media use (television viewing, sedentary electronic games and active electronic games) was parent proxy-reported. Social and emotional skills were child-reported using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory-Youth Version. Regression analyses controlled for sex, clustering by center of recruitment, and accelerometer wear time (for physical activity analyses). Sedentary electronic games were positively associated with intrapersonal and stress management skills and total emotional quotient. Computer/internet use was inversely associated with interpersonal, and positively associated with stress management, skills. Findings suggest that physical activity is not associated with children's psychosocial health while some types of electronic media use are. Future research should investigate the contexts in which preschoolers participate in these behaviors and potential causal mechanisms of associations.

  14. The Effect of the Home Environment on Physical Activity and Dietary Intake in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Østbye, Truls; Malhotra, Rahul; Stroo, Marissa; Lovelady, Cheryl; Brouwer, Rebecca; Zucker, Nancy; Fuemmeler, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of the home environment on child health behaviors related to obesity are unclear. Purpose To examine the role of the home physical activity (PA) and food environment on corresponding outcomes in young children, and assess maternal education/work status as a moderator. Methods Overweight or obese mothers reported on the home PA and food environment (accessibility, role modeling and parental policies). Outcomes included child moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time...

  15. The Effect of the Home Environment on Physical Activity and Dietary Intake in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Østbye, Truls; Malhotra, Rahul; Stroo, Marissa; Lovelady, Cheryl; Brouwer, Rebecca; Zucker, Nancy; Fuemmeler, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of the home environment on child health behaviors related to obesity are unclear. Purpose To examine the role of the home physical activity (PA) and food environment on corresponding outcomes in young children, and assess maternal education/work status as a moderator. Methods Overweight or obese mothers reported on the home PA and food environment (accessibility, role modeling and parental policies). Outcomes included child moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time...

  16. Is overweight in stunted preschool children in Cameroon related to reductions in fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure and physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Ndzana, Anne-Christine; Pasquet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that early modifications in metabolic pathways and behaviour, leading to energy conservation and reduced linear growth, could represent adaptations to nutritional constraints during foetal life and infancy. Impaired fat oxidation, low resting energy expenditure and reduced physical activity, resulting from these adaptations, could facilitate fat storage and development of overweight in growth-retarded children that consume more energy-dense food. This study aims at assessing whether: (1) dual-burden preschool children (simultaneously stunted and overweight) of Yaounde (Cameroon) have low birth-weight (indicator of foetal undernutrition) and reductions in fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity, (2) fat oxidation, REE and physical activity are associated with foetal growth. 162 children (24-72 months) were considered: 22 stunted-overweight (SO), 40 stunted (S), 41 overweight (O), and 59 non stunted-non overweight (NSNO). Nutritional status and body composition were assessed using anthropometry and multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. Fasting respiratory quotient (RQ) and REE were measured by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity was determined using accelerometers, food questionnaires were used for diet assessment and birth-weight was noted. Mean RQs and REE (weight adjusted) did not differ between stunted children (SO and S) and non-stunted children (O and NSNO). SO and S children spent more time in sedentary activities than O children (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively) and less time in moderate-to-vigorous activities than NSNO children (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04, respectively). SO children's diet was less diverse (p = 0.01) with less animal products (p = 0.006). Multiple linear regressions model revealed that birth-weight is predictive of RQ (β = 0.237, poverweight children could be associated with postnatal nutritional deficiencies. Overweight in stunted children could be

  17. Physical Education at Preschools: The Meaning of "Physical Education" to Practitioners at Three Preschool Settings in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preschool physical education has been largely unexplored by researchers. This article examines the meaning of the term "physical education", in relation to preschool contexts, to 14 practitioners working at three preschool settings in Scotland. Our focus on preschool physical education reflects a change in the language…

  18. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Maria Coelho Guimarães Vale

    2010-01-01

    Methods. The study comprised 281 children (55.9% boys aged from 4 to 6 years. PA was measured by accelerometer. Children were categorized as non-overweight (NOW and overweight/obese (OW according to the sex-adjusted BMI z-score (.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that children with low-vigorous PA had higher odds ratio (OR to be classified as OW compared to those with high-vigorous PA (OR=4.4; 95% CI: 1.4–13.4; P=.008 after adjusting for BMI at first and second years of life and other potential confounders. Conclusion. The data suggests that vigorous PA may play a key role in the obesity development already at pre-school age.

  19. PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS IN PRESCHOOL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu ÖZYÜREK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood is known as a critical period for development and fundamental movement skills. Growing and development of children have an effect on gaining fundamental movement skills. Besides, the opportu nities and movement education provided for the students play an essential role on developing fundamental movement skills poisedly. In preschool education, physical training is the leading activity given the least importance. From the early years of child hood on, promoting basic skills of children such as walking, running, jumping besides bending over, twisting, flinging something away have great importance because it is closely connected to the other zones of development. Physical training strengthens co gnitive skills such as inquiring mind, problem solving skills and concept acquisition. Besides, fine and gross motor development is consistent with emotional and social life skills. In virtue of physical training, awareness level of children is heightened and a basis for lifelong sport habits is provided. Consequently, children acquire much more than movement skills thanks to physical training. In this study, the importance of physical training and sports activities, the points to be paid attention to while practicing, basic activities in physical training, and education models and methods used have been issued relevantly.

  20. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  1. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eJaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it.

  2. Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Early Academic Achievement in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…

  3. Self-perceptions and social–emotional classroom engagement following structured physical activity among preschoolers: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridoula Vazou

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of providing structured PA program to preschoolers. Moreover, these initial findings suggest that purposely designed, structured PA may help advance the social–emotional engagement and perceived competence of preschool children.

  4. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; Scholten, Anne-Marie; Vries, S.I. (Sanne) de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in

  5. OBJECTIVELY MEASURED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS IN CHILEAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Farias, Nicolas; Martino-Fuentealba, Pía; Espinoza-Silva, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: los perjuicios de la inactividad física y de la conducta sedentaria (CS) en la salud de los niños han sido ampliamente respaldados por la evidencia. Sin embargo, existe limitada evidencia de cómo estos comportamientos se manifiestan en los preescolares. Por este motivo, este estudio tuvo como propósito evaluar los patrones de actividad física (AF) y CS de forma objetiva en preescolares chilenos. Método: 25 niños (4,8 } 0,50 años, 48% hombres) completaron la monitorización ambulatoria con el acelerómetro e inclinómetro ActivPALTM micro. Se midieron tiempos caminando, de pie y sentado/acostado, además de pasos acumulados por día, para ser comparados según día de la semana y período del día. Resultados: el tiempo promedio caminando fue de 147,2 } 52,23 minutos/día. El tiempo en CS fue de 468,3 } 92,22 minutos/día, con diferencias estadísticas entre días entre semana y fin de semana (484,8 vs. 426,8 min/día, p = 0,03). El 50% de los pasos fueron sumados en acumulaciones menores a 100 pasos/minuto, mientras un 50% del tiempo en CS fue acumulado en intervalos de duración de 35 segundos o menos. Discusión: los preescolares presentan patrones intermitentes de AF y CS. En los días entre semana se sientan más que durante el fin de semana, por lo cual se presenta una posibilidad de modificar este comportamiento durante el período de clases. Este reporte de patrones de AF y CS en preescolares presenta información valiosa para el diseño e implementación de estrategias para mejorar los niveles de AF y disminuir el tiempo en CS en preescolares.

  6. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  7. An investigation into the minimum accelerometry wear time for reliable estimates of habitual physical activity and definition of a standard measurement day in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Jane; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Grainger, Andrew; Bulley, Cathy; Reilly, John J; Mercer, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number of hours and days of accelerometry data necessary to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity in pre-school children. The impact of a weekend day on reliability estimates was also determined and standard measurement days were defined for weekend and weekdays.Accelerometry data were collected from 112 children (60 males, 52 females, mean (SD) 3.7 (0.7)yr) over 7 d. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula (S-B prophecy formula) was used to predict the number of days and hours of data required to achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.7. The impact of including a weekend day was evaluated by comparing the reliability coefficient (r) for any 4 d of data with data for 4 d including one weekend day.Our observations indicate that 3 d of accelerometry monitoring, regardless of whether it includes a weekend day, for at least 7 h  d(-1) offers sufficient reliability to characterise total physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school children. These findings offer an approach that addresses the underlying tension in epidemiologic surveillance studies between the need to maintain acceptable measurement rigour and retention of a representatively meaningful sample size.

  8. Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Knowledge of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices for Preschoolers: Instrument Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derscheid, Linda E.; Kim, So-Yeun; Zittel, Lauriece L.; Umoren, Josephine; Henry, Beverly W.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity remains a problem in the United States. Preschool teachers can help to attenuate it but need to have the confidence or self-efficacy to provide healthy practices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (a) develop and validate a preschool teacher self-efficacy tool to examine teachers' confidence in addressing the nutrition…

  9. Development and results of a new methodology to perform focus group with preschool children on their beliefs and attitudes on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammisa, Maria; Montrone, Rosa; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test a method to perform focus groups (FGs) and to elicit the subjective views of preschool-age children on physical activity and perceived kindergarten barriers to practice it. FGs have been held in three different kindergarten classes with 49 children who were 4-5 years old. Children were asked to draw themselves in their preferred way of playing and were asked few questions about their drawings to understand their behaviours and ideas. In class A and B, 67% and 75% of the children, respectively, drew sedentary plays (table and impersonation games). Children referred that the main obstacle to perform active games outside home/kindergarten was the parents' and teachers' perceived risk that they could be hurt or catch a cold. The children would like to have more table games in the kindergarten. 81% of children in class C drew active group games. All these children were well satisfied with their kindergarten environment and did not refer to any adults' fear regarding active play. This class teacher spent a lot of time to develop children's motor abilities through active games and often used the garden to let the children to play freely. The use of drawings to understand children's habits on physical activity has turned out to be a reliable and easy tool in preschool children. The different results obtained in the two children groups show the need to change the beliefs and the behaviours of teachers and parents who seem to be non-architectural "invisible" barriers to be knocked down. This protocol has been developed by ASL Brindisi within the framework of PERISCOPE's objective to develop new methodologies.

  10. The impact of a 20-month physical activity intervention in child care centers on motor performance and weight in overweight and healthy-weight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-12-01

    A child-centered physical activity intervention was administered in child care centers over 20 months to promote motor performance and reduce weight in preschool children. The intervention group (N = 211) received at least one weekly 45-min. session of physical education and sessions of physical activities of at least 20 minutes on the other days. Control children (N = 217) experienced the regular curriculum, which consisted of one session of physical activities of 45 min. per week. At the end of the study, children in the intervention group surpassed children in the control group in motor performance (body coordination, physical fitness, and dexterity, measured by a motor test battery MoTB 3-7). Children in the top 20% by BMI at the beginning of the study ("high weight") had inferior motor performance. Children with higher BMIs in the intervention group had better motor scores than children with higher BMIs in the control group, but the intervention had no effect on body weight, BMI, or skinfold thickness.

  11. Diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jill L; Loveman, Emma; O'Malley, Claire; Azevedo, Liane B; Mead, Emma; Al-Khudairy, Lena; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen

    2016-03-10

    Child overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with short- and long-term health consequences. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years. We performed a systematic literature search in the databases Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and LILACS, as well as in the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP Search Portal. We also checked references of identified trials and systematic reviews. We applied no language restrictions. The date of the last search was March 2015 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for treating overweight or obesity in preschool children aged 0 to 6 years. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias, evaluated the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument, and extracted data following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We included 7 RCTs with a total of 923 participants: 529 randomised to an intervention and 394 to a comparator. The number of participants per trial ranged from 18 to 475. Six trials were parallel RCTs, and one was a cluster RCT. Two trials were three-arm trials, each comparing two interventions with a control group. The interventions and comparators in the trials varied. We categorised the comparisons into two groups: multicomponent interventions and dietary interventions. The overall quality of the evidence was low or very low, and six trials had a high risk of bias on individual 'Risk of bias' criteria. The children in the included trials were followed up for between six months and three years.In trials comparing a multicomponent intervention with usual care, enhanced usual care, or information control, we found a greater reduction in body mass index (BMI

  12. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  13. Preschool outdoor play environment may combine promotion of children´s physical activity and sun protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldemann, Cecilia; Dal, Henrik; Mårtensson, Fredrika

    2011-01-01

    in Raleigh. Trees and shrubbery integrated in children’s playscape trigger both physical activity and sun-protective behaviour in Sweden, and previous measurements in Stockholm were confirmed. Such outdoor environment should be recommended, but the role of season and climate needs to be further explored....

  14. Physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001941.htm Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  15. Energy cost of activities in preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute energy cost of activities in children increase with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cos...

  16. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  17. Professional portrait of future instructors for physical education of preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanychyn T.M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify the degree of readiness of students to conduct valeological activity in preschool educational institutions. The objective of the study was to identify the relationship between educational level and health education and readiness of students to valeological activities. Material : in the experiment took part 550 students. Results : the survey allowed to establish pedagogical assumptions that characterize the training of students. This will include valeological activity for the formation of their own culture valeological children. It is shown that students’ valeological culture is a prerequisite for the effective functioning of the system in pre-secondary institutions. It is noted that the training of students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports to valeological activity is low. Conclusions : studies have shown that only 11.7% of the students have been trained and have the necessary knowledge and practical skills.

  18. Sustained Attention during Learning Activities: An Observational Study with Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Florente; Menez, Marina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse possible developmental trends in sustained attention through the pre-school period, as well as the influence of social and physical distractions. Three samples of children, one per each pre-school grade, were observed during learning activities required by the teacher. Children's behaviour was coded…

  19. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  20. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  1. [Physical fitness for sports in the preschool age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, F

    1991-11-01

    The preschool years are characterized by the learning of combinations of movements that make it possible for children to attain an astonishingly high level of physical performance. With regard to their metabolism and cardiovascular/cardiopulmonary system, they have at their disposal good prerequisites for aerobic endurance training. However, it is a matter of the natural movements involved in playing rather than striving to reach a high level of performance. Sports during the preschool age advances physical development and serves as a form of early prevention of the diseases of civilization.

  2. Investigating the Place and Meaning of "Physical Education" to Preschool Children: Methodological Lessons from a Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2015-01-01

    Preschool physical education has not been extensively researched. Furthermore, research in physical activity and physical education rarely seeks young children's perspectives. The current paper focuses on one aspect of a post-structural study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and…

  3. Physical Education Policies and Practices in Qatari Preschools: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Tamader; Semmar, Yassir

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence and empirical research point out to the low physical activity levels at preschools as well as the global rise in childhood obesity rates. Placing a high premium on sports and healthy well-being of its citizens by the Qatari government, taking into account the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among Qatari children,…

  4. Intellectual maturity and physical fitness in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Mora-López, David; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    There is an important connection between body growth, physical fitness and cognition. The association between physical fitness and cognitive function has been investigated in some studies, but little is known about the relationship between physical and motor performance and intellectual maturity in preschool children. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the association between intellectual maturity and physical and motor fitness in preschool children. A total of 1012 children aged 3-6 years participated voluntarily. A fitness test battery and the Goodenough-Harris drawing test (GHDT) were used. Boys did better in the standing broad jump and 20 m sprint (P test variables and GHDT. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between crude GHDT score and the fitness test variables. From an early age, physical-motor performance and intellectual maturity are linked. Fitness condition is able to predict intellectual maturity. Increasing the amount of time devoted to physical education can promote cognitive benefits in preschool children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Development and reliability of a scale of physical-activity related informal social control for parents of Chinese pre-schoolers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Mellecker, Robin R

    2014-01-01

    Parents' perceived informal social control, defined as the informal ways residents intervene to create a safe and orderly neighbourhood environment, may influence young children's physical activity (PA...

  6. Current status of physical activities among preschool children and relationship of activity type with bone mass%学龄前儿童体力活动状况调查及其与骨量的回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琚; 吴方银; 曾果; 张丽; 曾乔颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate physical activities of preschool children by gender and to explore the effects of activity type on bone indexes.Methods During 2009 and 2010,397 preschool children of 3-5 years old were randomly selected from 4 kindergartens in Chengdu Province of China.Ultrasound bone analyzer was used to assess children's bone mass.A physical activity questionnaire was completed by parents to evaluate physical activities at leisure time.Student's t test and least square regression were used for data analysis.Results Concerning activity types,boys spent more leisure time on running and Wushu than girls did (t values were 1.94 and 2.84,respectively ; both P < 0.05).However,girls spent more time on dancing (0.78 h),jumping rope (0.08 h) and manual labour (0.22 h) each day (t values were-9.50,-3.43 and-1.92,respectively; all P < 0.05).The weekly total exercise time and energy consumption per unit of body weight of girls vs.boys were 7.29 vs.6.51 h and 127.57 vs.113.85 kJ (t values were 2.63 and 2.04,respectively ; both P < 0.05).About per day time on sleeping and per week time on watching television,there were no significant difference between boys and girls (t =0.180,0.520;P >0.05).But boys spent more time on electronic game and computer than girls (t =0.760,2.510;P < 0.05).The normalized correlation coefficient for bone mass and moderate physical activities or jumping was 0.184 and 0.275,respectively (both P < 0.05).Conclusions Our data suggest that preschool children's bone volume may be positively correlated with moderate physical activities and jumping activities.Introducing some moderate physical activities or activity appliance,toys and playing fields as well as increasing professional training might be helpful.%目的 调查学龄前儿童体力活动状况及其性别差异,探索各种不同运动类型对骨骼健康指标的影响.方法 于2009至2010年期间在成都市不同城区采用典型抽样方法抽取4所

  7. Features of physical development of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavgorodnyaya R.V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphofunctional features of organism of children of primary school age are considered in intercommunication with their somatotype. The inspected contingent was made by 90 practically healthy children in age from 6 to 9 years. The anthropometric signs of children were characterized an increase gravimetric type-high indexes with predominance of asthenic somatotype and increase of normosthenic and hypersthenic to the end of the studied period. Complex anthropometric research of indexes of children allowed to estimate their physical development.

  8. Feasibility study to objectively assess activity and location of Hispanic preschoolers: a short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresia M. O’Connor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both physical and social environmental factors influence young children’s physical activity, yet little is known about where Hispanic children are more likely to be active. We assessed the feasibility of simultaneously measuring, then processing objective measures of location and physical activity among Hispanic preschool children. Preschool-aged Hispanic children (n = 15 simultaneously wore QStarz BT100X global positioning system (GPS data loggers and Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for a 24- to 36-hour period, during which time their parents completed a location and travel diary. Data were aggregated to the minute and processed using the personal activity location measurement system (PALMS. Children successfully wore the GPS data loggers and accelerometers simultaneously, 12 of which yielded data that met quality standards. The average percent correspondence between GPS- and diary-based estimates of types of location was high and Kappa statistics were moderate to excellent, ranging from 0.49-0.99. The between-method (GPS monitor, parent-reported diary correlations of estimated participant-aggregated minutes spent on vehicle-based trips were strong. The simultaneous use of GPS and accelerometers to assess Hispanic preschool children’s location and physical activity is feasible. This methodology has the potential to provide more precise findings to inform environmental interventions and policy changes to promote physical activity among Hispanic preschool children.

  9. Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: An Analysis of Developmental Discourses in Scottish Curricular Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence "health and…

  10. Motor Skill Improvement in Preschoolers: How Effective Are Activity Cards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to early develop and implement motor skill promotion in preschoolers are lacking. Thus, we examined the effects of a card-based exercise promotion program in a kindergarten setting. 214 preschool children (5.5 ± 0.6 y, range 4.2–6.7 y were examined in the present intervention study. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were measured. Children were randomly assigned to the KIDZ-Box® physical activity intervention program (INT: n = 107 or the control group (CON: n = 107. Children were trained daily for 15 min over 7 month at the preschool for agility, balance, endurance and jump performance, employing the card-based KIDZ-Box® media package. At pre- and post-testing, dynamic balance, jump and agility performance were tested. Cross-sectionally, agility testing differed between sexes (p = 0.01 and BMI (p = 0.02. Trends towards a significant association were found between BMI and side-to-side jumping (p = 0.1 and beam balancing (p = 0.05. Relevant interventional effects favoring the intervention group were slightly found for agility (p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.02 and moderately for side-to-side jumping (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.08. Balance performance did not relevantly improve. As jumping cards have been used frequently by the teachers, jumping improvements are plausible. The activity cards are feasibly applicable but should be employed with more structure during longer training sessions.

  11. Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits ... of physical activity for your heart and lungs. Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function When ...

  12. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Xpert Opinion Activity Calendar Activity Cards Ballet Baseball ... Disaster - Are You at Risk? Disaster - Helping Hands Physical Activity - Questions Physical Activity - Active or Not, Here it ...

  13. Descriptive analysis of preschool physical activity and sedentary behaviors - a cross sectional study of 3-year-olds nested in the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Christian; Christensen, Line Brinch; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    in daycare was provided by parents. Mean total PA (i.e., counts per minute (CPM)), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), SB time, and non-SB time was generated and compared across settings. Post hoc, PA and SB were examined in subgroups of low-active (1st quartile) and high-active (4th quartile...... accumulated less SB time in daycare than before and after daycare (β = -12.2%, p CPM: β =29, p = 0.046, %MVPA: β = 0.83, p = 0.007, %SB: β = -2.3, p

  14. The association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and body mass index z-scores in different settings among toddlers and preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzik, Nicholas; Carson, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep are all movement behaviors that range on a continuum from no or low movement, to high movement. Consistent associations between movement behaviors and adiposity indicators have been observed in school-age children. However, limited information exists in younger children. Since approximately 50 % of Canadian children ≤5 years of age attend non-parental care, movement behaviors within and outside of the child care setting are important...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  16. Can Kinesiological Activities Change "Pure" Motor Development in Preschool Children during One School Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.

  17. The effect of a movement-to-music video program on the objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity of preschool-aged children and their mothers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Kujala, Urho M; Luoto, Riitta M

    2017-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) and the avoidance of prolonged sitting are essential for children's healthy growth, and for the physical and mental wellbeing of both children and adults. In the context of exercise, music may promote behavioral change through increased exercise adherence and participation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a movement-to-music video program could reduce sedentary behavior (SB) and increase PA in mother-child pairs in the home environment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Pirkanmaa region, Finland, in 2014-2016. The participants consisted of 228 mother-child pairs (child age 5-7 years). The primary outcomes of interest were tri-axial accelerometer-derived SB and PA, which were measured in weeks one (baseline), two, and eight in both the intervention and control groups. Further, the mothers and children in the intervention group used a movement-to-music video program from the beginning of week two to the end of week eight. Secondary outcomes included self-reported screen time. The statistical methods employed comprised an intention-to-treat and linear mixed effects model design. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in primary or secondary outcomes. Among the children in the control group, light PA decreased significantly over time and screen time increased from 89 (standard deviation, SD 37) to 99 (SD 41) min/d. Among mothers and children in the intervention group, no statistical differences were found. In supplementary analysis, the children who stayed at home instead of attending daycare/preschool had on average 25 (95% confidence interval, CI 19-30) min/d more sedentary time and 11 (95% CI 8-14) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA than those who were at daycare/preschool. The higher body mass index of mothers was related with 5 (95% CI 2-7) min/d more sedentary time and 1 (95% CI 0-2) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA. The movement-to-music video program did not change

  18. Tour as a form of cognitive activity of children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniya Shanc

    2016-01-01

    In article the author considers theoretical approaches to the concept of "activity", "cognitive activity", especially the development of cognitive activity in preschool age; reveals the role of excursions in the development of cognitive activity of preschool children, justifies the need for the organization of excursion activity in the conditions of preschool educational organization.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ...

  20. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  1. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  3. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  5. Integration of educational methods and physical settings: design guidelines for High/Scope methodology in pre-schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Izadpanah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality design and appropriate space organization in preschool settings can support preschool children's educational activities. Although the relationship between the well-being and development of children and physical settings has been emphasized by many early childhood researchers, there is still a need for theoretical design guidelines that are geared towards the improvement of this issue. This research focuses on High/Scope education and aims to shape a theoretical guideline that raises teachers' awareness about the potential of learning spaces and guides them to improve the quality of the physical spaces. To create a theoretical framework, reliable sources are investigated in the light of High/Scope education and the requirements of pre-school children educational spaces. Physical space characteristics, the preschool child's requirements and High/Scope methodology identified design inputs, design considerations and recommendations that shape the final guideline for spatial arrangement in a High/Scope setting are integrated. Discussions and suggestions in this research benefit both designers and High/ Scope teaching staff. Results help High/Scope teaching staff increase the quality of a space in an educational setting without having an architectural background. The theoretical framework of the research allows designers to consider key features and users' possible activities in High/ Scope settings and shape their designs accordingly.

  6. Correlations between the components of physical readiness and physical development of the older preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulyk N. A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The indices of interdependence of physical fitness and physical development of children by means of correlation and factor analysis. The study involved 276 children aged 5-6 years. Found that in early childhood education important place occupied by the study of the physical condition of children. Reflected the degree of the relationship between the results of measurements of body length, body weight, volume of the chest, heart rate, blood pressure, lung capacity, breath-holding time (Stange's Genchi test and measures of the level of development of basic physical properties ( strength, speed, flexibility, endurance and coordination abilities . Research indicates the presence of interaction between the indices motor fitness and physical development of preschool children. The most significant effect on the physical health of the ability to provide coordination, speed and power capacity, speed and endurance.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  8. Learning environments’ activity potential for preschoolers (LEAPP: study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tucker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the study protocol for the Learning Environments’ Activity Potential for Preschoolers (LEAPP study, the goal of which is to describe the activity levels of preschoolers attending various early learning venues and explore which attributes of these facilities (e.g. curriculum, policies, equipment, etc. support activity participation.Design and Methods. This cross-sectional study aimed to recruit approximately 30 early learning environments requesting participation from preschoolers aged 2.5-5 years. Data collection included: Actical accelerometers (MiniMitter, Oregon, USA to measure the activity levels of children for five consecutive days (15-second epoch length while in care; the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation tool to explore the early learning environment’s impact on activity; anthropometric data; the Child Temperament Questionnaire to assess the influence of preschoolers’ temperament on physical activity; and demographic information from parents/guardians and early learning staff. ANOVA and linear regression analyses will be conducted to assess variances in activity levels among preschoolers attending different early learning types and to explore the impact of early learning environments on their activity levels. Independent sample t-tests will be used to examine differences in activity levels based on sex and weight status.Expected impact of the study for public health. This research will provide the first Canadian data to address environmental influences on preschoolers’ activity levels in differing early learning environments. Additionally, this work will highlight the extent to which activity levels vary among preschoolers enrolled in full-day kindergarten, centre-, and home-based childcare.

  9. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: ...

  10. Preschool Teaching Staff's Opinions on the Importance of Preschool Curricular Fields of Activities, Art Genres and Visual Arts Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Tomaž; Cagran, Branka; Mulej, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    This article presents preschool teachers' and assistant teachers' opinions on the importance of selected fields of educational work in kindergartens. The article first highlights the importance of activities expressing artistic creativity within modern curriculums. Then, it presents an empirical study that examines the preschool teachers' and…

  11. Double dose: the cumulative effect of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children's activity patterns and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon; Dowda, Marsha; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about how screen-based sedentary behavior at home and in preschool influences children's health and activity patterns. The current study examined the individual and cumulative influence of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children's physical activity (PA) and weight status. Children (n = 339) attending 16 preschools in South Carolina were grouped into high and low TV groups based on parent report of children's TV viewing at home and director report of TV use/rules in preschool. T-tests and mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in weight status and PA (min/hr) by high and low TV groups. Results revealed that children who were classified as High TV both at home and in pre- school had significantly lower levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA compared with their Low TV counterparts (8.3 (0.3) min/hr vs. 7.6 (0.2) min/hr, p TV groups at home or in preschool when examined individually. These findings demonstrate the importance of total environmental TV exposure on preschooler's PA. Longitudinal and observational research to assess preschoolers' cumulative screen-based sedentary behavior and its relationship with PA and weight status is needed.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  13. Studying of preconditions of introduction of integrating-utilizing balls in the process of physical education of children of the senior preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnyk V. M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The condition of introduction of integrating-utilizing balls in process of physical education of children of the senior preschool age is considered. In research is used the data of questionnaire of 95 teachers of preschool educational establishments of Lvov. It is established that all interrogated are interested in innovations in physical education process. It is noticed that the majority of respondents 54, 6 % prefer sports employment with elements of games, entertainments and relay races. Determined that 72, 9 % interrogated combined sports employment with other subjects. It is shown that impellent activity promotes mental development of children. By the overwhelming majority of respondents of 98, 8 % are noticed that in the course of physical education it is expedient to combine impellent and informative activity. It is established that all respondents would like to introduce is integrating-utilizing balls in process of physical education of the pre-school educational establishments and see expedient working out of methodical recommendations.

  14. Understanding Preschool Emergent Science in a Cultural Historical Context through Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Bodil; Areljung, Sofie; Due, Karin; Ekström, Kenneth; Ottander, Christina; Tellgren, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers' shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from three preschools in the form of guided group…

  15. The Development of Preschool Children's Musical Abilities through Specific Types of Musical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolic, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the conducted research was to explore how much preschool teachers value certain types of musical activities, which positively influence the development of preschool children's musical abilities. The assumption in the research was that preschool teachers would choose musical games as the most prominent activity type in their educational…

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  19. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Subscribe to ePublications email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance ... Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite ...

  1. Obesity and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, John M; Davis, Kelliann K

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity seems to be an important component of lifestyle interventions for weight loss and maintenance. Although the effects of physical activity on weight loss may seem to be modest, there seems to be a dose-response relationship between physical activity and weight loss. Physical activity also seems to be a critically important behavior to promote long-term weight loss and the prevention of weight regain. The benefits of physical activity on weight loss are also observed in patients with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m²) and in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. Moreover, independent of the effect of physical activity on body weight, engagement in physical activity that results in improved cardiorespiratory fitness can contribute to reductions in health risk in overweight and obese adults. Thus, progression of overweight and obese patients to an adequate dose of physical activity needs to be incorporated into clinical interventions for weight control.

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & ... Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps ... file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word ...

  5. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Iranian preschoolers: Interrelationship with physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Agha-Alinejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The preschool years are a crucial time to study the determinants of childhood obesity, as it is when eating and physical activity habits are becoming established. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers living in the capital of Iran and to determine relationships between overweight and obesity and selected motor- and health-related fitness parameters. Materials and Methods: This exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted with 190 boys and 191 girls aged 5−6 years. Study children were selected from the kindergartens in Tehran, the capital of Iran. All children underwent anthropometric, motor- and health-related fitness tests. Height, body mass, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and percentage of body fat (PBF were measured for anthropometric assessments. Sit-and-reach, modified sit-ups, modified pull-ups, the 4 m × 9 m shuttle run, the 20 m sprint test and the 20 m multistage shuttle run test were measured for motor- and health-related fitness tests. Overweight and obesity prevalence was determined by the International Obesity Task Force, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization standard criteria. Results: International Obesity Task Force criteria indicate almost 12% (23/190 of boys and 22.5% (43/191 of girls were overweight or obese with 4.73% (9/190 of boys and 10.99% (21/191 of girls in the obese category. Significant correlations were found between modified pull-ups test and body mass, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, PBF in boys and modified pull-ups and modified sit-ups tests were significantly correlated with body mass, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and PBF in girls. Compared to their counterparts, overweight and obese boys demonstrated inferior performance in modified pull-ups and predicted VO 2max and overweight and obese girls demonstrated inferior performance in modified pull

  6. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  7. Features of Complex Program of Physical Rehabilitation of Scoliosis in Preschool Children in a Polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Uska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the efficiency of complex methods of physical rehabilitation in children with scoliosis in a polyclinic. The study involved 174 preschool children with I degree scoliosis. The plan of treatment and remediation activities included: all-day compliance with orthopedic regimen, daily therapeutic exercises (special symmetrical, asymmetrical and detorsion exercises, therapeutic massage with elements of acupressure, therapeutic swimming, muscle electrostimulation, medical choreography, corrective exercises after day sleep (gaming exercises in the initial prone position in order to prepare the muscles for active and effective work in the upright stance. The complex of rehabilitation measures made it possible to normalize the functionality of the spine in 24.1 % of children, to improve posture in 42.6 % of patients and to stabilize the scoliotic process in 28.7 % of patients.

  8. Under 5 Energize: Tracking Progress of a Preschool Nutrition and Physical Activity Programme with Regional Measures of Body Size and Dental Health at Age of Four Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Rush

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce weight gain and encourage healthy eating including reduced sugar intake, Under 5 Energize (U5E was introduced to 121 early-childhood-centres in the Waikato region of New Zealand in July 2013. Using anonymized data collected from January 2013 to September 2016 through free physical assessments of all 4-year-olds provided by the NZ Ministry of Health, the prevalence of obesity and dental decay children measured in the Waikato region was examined. Data were divided into four periods representing pre-implementation and 3 years of gradual implementation. Obesity was defined according to International Obesity Task Force criteria. Of 18,774 Waikato children included in the analysis, 32% were indigenous Māori, and 32% attended an U5E centre. Pre-implementation prevalences of obesity (4% and visible dental decay (11% of children attending and not-attending U5E centres were not different. While obesity prevalence did not change significantly over time, prevalence of dental decay decreased among children at U5E (trend p = 0.003 but not non-U5E (trend p = 0.14 centres, such that prevalences were significantly different between children at U5E vs. non-U5E centres at Year 3 (p = 0.02. The U5E intervention is a small but arguably effective part of the wider system approach that is required to improve children’s future health.

  9. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  10. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Preschooler Too Active? Sleep and Your Preschooler Games for Preschoolers Motivating Preschoolers to Be Active Should Your Preschooler Play Sports? Safe Exploring for Preschoolers Your Child's Weight Kids and Exercise Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: ...

  11. Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostencka Alicja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the weekly energy expenditure measuring MET/min/week based on data collected through the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS, according to the classification used in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and to verify the adopted method to assess the level of physical activity in students of physical education.

  12. Relationship between children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, and childcare environments: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele E. Peden

    2017-06-01

    This study extends previous research by identifying differences between toddlers and preschooler's physical activity and sedentary behaviors in relation to childcare environments. A greater understanding of how the childcare environment relates to sitting time for both toddlers and preschool aged children is needed.

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects ...

  15. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical activ

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) ...

  17. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying Active: Physical ... 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits of physical ...

  18. What Are the Characteristics of Nature Preschools in Norway, and How Do They Organize Their Daily Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysklett, Olav B.; Berger, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    This study provides basic information about how Norwegian nature preschools differ from other Norwegian preschools and how they organize their daily activities. Fifty-six nature preschools and 52 other preschools were included in the study. A total of 106 headmasters and 98 pedagogical leaders filled out questionnaires about the characteristics of…

  19. Evaluating and Refining the Conceptual Model Used in the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ruth P; Pfeiffer, Karin; Brown, William H; Howie, Erin K; Dowda, Marsha; O'Neill, Jennifer R; McIver, Kerry; Pate, Russell R

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) conceptual model, which targeted physical activity (PA) behavior in preschool children, by examining the relationship between implementation monitoring data and child PA during the school day. We monitored implementation completeness and fidelity based on multiple elements identified in the conceptual model. Comparing high-implementing, low-implementing, and control groups revealed no association between implementation and outcomes. We performed post hoc analyses, using process data, to refine our conceptual model's depiction of an effective preschool PA-promoting environment. Results suggest that a single component of the original four-component conceptual model, providing opportunities for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through recess for 4-year-old children in preschool settings, may be a good starting place for increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Interventions that are implemented with optimal levels of completeness and fidelity are more likely to achieve behavior change if they are based on accurate conceptual models. Examining the mechanisms through which an intervention produces its effects, as articulated in the conceptual model that guides it, is particularly important for environmentally focused interventions because they are guided by emerging frameworks. The results of this study underscore the utility of using implementation monitoring data to examine the conceptual model on which the intervention is based.

  20. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  1. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  2. Early Parenting and Children's Relational and Physical Aggression in the Preschool and Home Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Juan F.; Weigel, Stephanie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Yeh, Elizabeth A. Jansen; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated early parent-child relationships and how children's use of relational and physical aggression varies with aspects of those relationships during the preschool years. Specifically, parenting styles, parents' use of psychological control, and parents' report of their children's reunion behaviors were assessed. Analyses…

  3. Parent Physical Punishment and Child Aggression in a Singapore Chinese Preschool Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngee Sim, Tick; Ping Ong, Lue

    2005-01-01

    We examine how parental physical punishment (caning and slapping) and child aggression are related, and possible moderation by authoritative control and rejection. A sample of 286 Singapore Chinese preschoolers ages 4-6 reported on rejection; their parents reported on control, caning, and slapping; and their teachers rated child aggression.…

  4. Integrated use of sports games in physical education of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konoh O.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : considered the use of an integrated program of sports in physical education of children in pre-school educational institution. Material and methods : the experiment was attended with parental permission children 5-6 years. In the control group sessions were conducted with additional recreational gymnastic oriented. In the four experimental groups – mini-basketball, mini-handball and futsal. Results : the substantiation of the integrated use of sports games during physical education classes with children. The main starting points for the development of the methodology are: analysis of questionnaires on physical education specialists in preschool educational institutions, educators and parents considering the opinion and the results of previous studies of the level of physical development and physical readiness of preschool children, and analysis of test results to the success of children's possession of the ball. The results of the pedagogical experiment and given their analysis in terms of the influence of physical education classes through the use of sports games on physical development, physical fitness and functional status of children. The data that characterize the rate of growth results in the pedagogical experiment. Conclusions : it was established that the systematic use of sports complex will help to eliminate the deficit movements, balance maturation, children form healthy lifestyle habits.

  5. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  6. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector......Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  7. The Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Preschool Activity Card Sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaya H. Malkawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS is an interview-based assessment tool to measure participation of preschool children with age range from 3 to 6 years. Objective of Study. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the recently translated Arabic PACS (A-PACS. Methods. One hundred fifty-one Jordanian parents participated in the study representing different geographical areas. Children were almost equally distributed between males and females and into three age groups. Construct and concurrent validity were examined as well as the internal consistency of the scale and the test-retest reliability. Findings. The A-PACS was able to differentiate between the participation level of young and old children in the domains of education, community mobility, and low demand leisure of the A-PACS giving evidence to its construct validity and it significantly correlated with some aspects of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS giving evidence to its concurrent validity. The A-PACS showed excellent overall internal consistency (α=.859 for all domains and good test-retest reliability (r=.976, p<.001. Conclusion. The A-PACS can be considered as a valid and reliable tool to measure participation of preschool children with normal development from Arabic cultures. Future studies should focus on the validity of the A-PACS for use with children with disabilities.

  8. The Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Preschool Activity Card Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Dahab, Sana M. N.; Amro, Ahmad F.; Almasri, Nihad A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS) is an interview-based assessment tool to measure participation of preschool children with age range from 3 to 6 years. Objective of Study The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the recently translated Arabic PACS (A-PACS). Methods One hundred fifty-one Jordanian parents participated in the study representing different geographical areas. Children were almost equally distributed between males and females and into three age groups. Construct and concurrent validity were examined as well as the internal consistency of the scale and the test-retest reliability. Findings The A-PACS was able to differentiate between the participation level of young and old children in the domains of education, community mobility, and low demand leisure of the A-PACS giving evidence to its construct validity and it significantly correlated with some aspects of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) giving evidence to its concurrent validity. The A-PACS showed excellent overall internal consistency (α = .859) for all domains and good test-retest reliability (r = .976, p < .001). Conclusion The A-PACS can be considered as a valid and reliable tool to measure participation of preschool children with normal development from Arabic cultures. Future studies should focus on the validity of the A-PACS for use with children with disabilities.

  9. Influence of a physical education plan on psychomotor development profiles of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Costa, Hélder José; Abelairas-Gomez, Cristian; Arufe-Giráldez, Vìctor; Pazos-Couto, José María; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of structured physical education on the psychomotor development of 3 to 5 year-old preschool children. The sample consisted of 324 students of both sexes (3 to 5 year-old) from 9 public kindergarten classes in Porto, Portugal. A battery of psychomotor tests (pre-test) was used to assess the students’ psychomotor development profiles. The sample was divided in 2 groups: an experimental group (162 students) and a control group (162 students). Physic...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  11. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a ...

  17. MORE MINUTES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES SUPPORT MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of physical education classes in 12 fundamental motor skills (FMS. Preschool students (M = 6.09±0.5 years old were randomly assigned to a control group (6 boys and 7 girls who performed the regular preschool class (which includes one 30- minutes session per week; experimental group 1 (6 boys and 6 girls who received the regular preschool class plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or experimental group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool class plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks (n=38. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 before and after the study. A one-way MANOVA reflected a similar behavior in al FMS in the pre-test. A two-way MANOVA (group x time reflected no interaction in the 12 FMS; also in the 6 object control FMS; but there was an interaction in the 6 locomotor FMS. In conclusion, 90-minutes of physical education classes per week only benefit the FMS of galloping and hopping.

  18. CONSTRUCTION ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY FOR CHILDREN PRE-SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  19. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  20. Physical activity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Blinc

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to technological development, the average level of physical activity is decreasing among residents of developed countries, which is an important factor in the epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome.Results (findings. Although excessive physical exertion disrupts hormonal balance, harms the immune system and somewhat increases the risk of sudden cardiac death, the overwhelming majority of adaptations to regular exercise comprise health benefits. Sensitivity to insulin is increased, metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol is improved, and the basal tone of the sympathetic nervous system is decreased, which all reduces coronary atherothrombotic events and cardio-vascular mortality. Physical exercise is linked to reduced risk of colon carcinoma, breast cancer and endometrial carcinoma. Regular physical activity prolongs life on average by about two years in comparison with sedentary population, but even more importantly, it preserves endurance and power necessary for independent living well into in advanced age. Physical exercise reduces symptoms of depression and improves the perceived level of satisfaction.Conclusions. In order to achieve the metabolic and psychological benefits of exercise, it is necessary to engage in at least a half hour of moderately intense activity on most days of the week, but daily physical activity is even better.

  1. An Ecological Approach to Exploring Rural Food Access and Active Living for Families With Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buro, Brandy; Gold, Abby; Contreras, Dawn; Keim, Ann L; Mobley, Amy R; Oscarson, Renee; Peters, Paula; Procter, Sandy; Smathers, Carol

    2015-01-01

    To identify factors using the Ecological Model of Childhood Overweight related to accessing nutritious foods and physical activity opportunities from the perspectives of rural parents of preschoolers. A mixed-methods study using a quantitative survey (Active Where?) and qualitative interviews. Analyzed interview themes provided context to the survey results. The setting was Head Start centers, county human service offices, and Women, Infants, and Children Program sites in rural counties in the Midwest. Rural parents (n = 377) of preschoolers took part in the survey in 7 Midwestern states; 15 similar participants were interviewed from 1 of the states. Transcribed interviews were coded. Frequencies and chi-square tests were computed; significance was set at P proximity to recreation spaces and traffic safety issues influenced physical activity. For food access, close proximity to full service grocery stores did not influence access to healthy foods because respondents traveled to urban communities to purchase healthy foods. Public transportation solutions and enhanced neighborhood safety are potential community-wide obesity prevention strategies in rural communities. However, interventions should be tailored to the community's stage of readiness. Strong social networks should be considered an asset for community change in these regions. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 22, 2016 Physical Activity and Your Heart in the News April 6, ...

  3. Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultti, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on learning conditions in preschool that support multilingual children's linguistic development. The aim of this paper was to study singing activities through the experiences of ten multilingual children in toddler groups (one to three years of age) in eight Swedish preschools. A sociocultural theoretical approach is used to…

  4. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…

  5. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... on the thigh (n=903) and one on the lower back (n= 856), for up to ten consecutive days. Participants were instructed not to reattach an accelerometer should it fall off. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to determine associations between accelerometer wear time and age, sex, BMI percentiles...

  6. The Development of Fundamental Motor Skills of Four- to Five-Year-Old Preschool Children and the Effects of a Preschool Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivonen, S.; Saakslahti, A.; Nissinen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Altogether 38 girls and 46 boys aged four to five years were studied to analyse the linear and non-linear development of fundamental motor skills. The children were grouped into one experimental and one control group to study the effects of an eight-month preschool physical education curriculum. In the course of one year, the balance skills of the…

  7. Atherosclerosis and Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mamari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease have been considered as major health problem worldwide. Abnormalities in lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and impairment of endothelial function have been implicated as the main contributing factors in atherosclerosis and its progression. Physical activity has been recognized as a preventive measure for atherosclerosis.

  8. Physical activity and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...

  9. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  10. Physical Activity in Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  11. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  12. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  13. Gender Differences in the Daily Physical Activities of Danish School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Glen; Pfister, Gertrud; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the daily physical activities of Danish children with a focus on describing and explaining gender differences. Accelerometer measurements of physical activity in different contexts, as well as questionnaire data, were collected from more than 500 children at pre-school and later at third grade. The study…

  14. Children´s sun protection need not conflict with health promoting physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, Margareta; Boldemann, Cecilia; Wester, Ulf

    ABSTRACT: Preschool children´s sun exposure was measured 2009 with UV-dosimeters at nine preschools in Malmö 55°N, in southern Sweden and at two in Raleigh 36°N, North Carolina, USA at comparable seasons. Outdoor playground environment was explored how play facilities, available space and vegetat......ABSTRACT: Preschool children´s sun exposure was measured 2009 with UV-dosimeters at nine preschools in Malmö 55°N, in southern Sweden and at two in Raleigh 36°N, North Carolina, USA at comparable seasons. Outdoor playground environment was explored how play facilities, available space...... Raleigh in April also indicate that vegetation is sunprotective when children play. Favourable outdoor environment may promote both sun protection and physical activity in a Nordic spring or summer climate, while for physical activity, this might not be so pronounced at a southern mid-latitude due...

  15. IMPROVING PSYCHOMOTRICITY COMPONENTS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN USING TEACHING METHODOLOGIES BASED ON MIRROR NEURONS ACTIVATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gáll Zs. Sz; Balint L

    2015-01-01

    .... Using this as a starting point, the study aims to work out and apply a methodology in keeping with the content of the psychomotor expression activities curriculum for preschool education, resorting...

  16. Estimation of physical and mental development of children of the senior pre-school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnyk V.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work is conducted physical and mental development of children of the senior preschool age. In the experiment, 90 children took part in the fifth year of life, among which 55 boys and 35 girls. It is noted that the children surveyed rate the physical development of the index corresponds to level - above the average. It was determined that the parameters of the functional state of preschool age children meet the age norm. It is revealed that in determining physical performance among boys set a good level, and satisfactory in girls. It is established that the results of physical fitness of boys is slightly higher than in girls. It was found that the diagnosis of the level of mental development in children fifth year of life, the average productivity and stability of attention, visual and auditory memory, visual-imagery and visual-thinking, and perception of speech correspond to the average level, and cognitive processes such as switching and distribution attention, imagination - a low level.

  17. Effect of second language exposure on brain activity for language processing among preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Souta; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Michiyo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Konno, Akitsugu; Maruyama, Suguru; Gyoba, Jiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Koizumi, Masatoshi

    2012-05-01

    We investigated brain activity in 3-5-year-old preschoolers as they listened to connected speech stimuli in Japanese (first language), English (second language), and Chinese (a rarely exposed, foreign language) using near-infrared spectroscopy. Unlike the younger preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 1 year, brain activity in the bilateral frontal regions of the older preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 2 years was higher for Japanese and English speech stimuli than for Chinese. This tendency seemed to be similar to that observed in adults who had learned English for some years. These results indicate that exposure to a second language affects brain activity to language stimuli among preschoolers.

  18. Reflective activity in Preschool Children: Psychological and Educational Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena González Moreno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available How to develop reflective thinking and what tools are most appropriateeducational psychology to contribute to that outcome are matters of concern on an ongoing basis both in the field of psychology and in the field of education. Numerous investigations have addressed the issue of the formation of reflective thought, but is concerned about the gap between scientific production and its application to the school to improve learning processes. This article presents a reflective analysis regarding the investigation carried out historical-cultural Psychology (Vygotsky and activity theory (Leontiev,Talizina where it was aimed at implementing the method of play role in the formation of reflective thinking in preschool Colombian population. The study is of mixed design, which incorporates elements of quasi-experimental pre/post and descriptive, guided by principles of microgenetic methodology. To do this we worked with 48 children aged between five and six years, divided into two groups: control and experimental. The analysis pretest/post-test allowed observing changes in the activity of school children in the experimental group, group to which he applied the method of role play, after the intervention. The study presents an innovative form of assistance to the gradual formation of intellectual activity stages within the classroom, also constitutes a possibility of transforming current teaching practices.

  19. Environmental Barriers to Participation of Preschool Children with and without Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Ju Kang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment plays a vital role in affecting participation of young children in home, school, and community. Knowledge of environmental barriers helps to develop solutions or strategies that enable participation. The study compared the environmental barriers perceived by parents of preschool children with physical disabilities (PD, n = 142 and with typical development (TD, n = 192 in Taiwan. Parents identified environmental barriers by structured interview using the Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Scale of Environment (CASE-C. The CASE-C is an 18-item measure of the impact of problems with physical, social, and attitudinal environmental features. Differences between the PD and TD groups in the summary scores for the CASE-C and the percentages of parents who perceived a problem for each item were examined by the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and Chi-square test. Parents of children with PD more often identified barriers related to family resources and community programs or services, social attitudes, assistance and supports outside of home, physical design of home and community, transportation, and assistive devices or equipment. Greater impacts of barriers were also reported by parents of preschool children with PD. Our findings provide evidence of environmental barriers that inform practice and policies to modify the barriers and provide an accessible and inclusive environment for families with young children.

  20. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  1. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... compliance. The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of Axivity AX3 accelerometers taped directly to the skin of 9-13-year-old children. METHODS: Children in 46 school classes (53.4% girls, age 11.0±1.0 years, BMI 17.7±2.8 kg*m) across Denmark wore two Axivity AX3 accelerometers, one taped...... on the thigh (n=903) and one on the lower back (n= 856), for up to ten consecutive days. Participants were instructed not to reattach an accelerometer should it fall off. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to determine associations between accelerometer wear time and age, sex, BMI percentiles...

  2. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  3. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi

    2011-01-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy...... and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14...

  4. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  5. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  6. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... during leisure time. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations for girls and boys separately, adjusted by age group, parents' occupational social class, family structure, and migration status. There were significant and graded associations between adolescents' PA and all four...... dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order...

  7. Stages and methodology of experimental work on professional development of specialists of preschool educational establishments in the field of educationally-health activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makovetskaya N.V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The stages of experimental work are certain on professional development of educators and instructors of physical culture of preschool educational establishments in the field of to educationally-health-improvement to activity. The method of this work is resulted. 266 specialists of preschool educational establishments were plugged in research. From them 139 belonged to the experimental group, 127 - to control. The level of their professional development was determined on such components: motivational, activity, cognitive, personality. A forming experiment foresaw application of model of organization of methodical work with specialists in preschool educational establishment. Organizational and methodical terms are selected for professional development of specialists: development of maintenance, determination of forms (methods and features of professional development. It was instrumental in the considerable increase of level of professional development of respondents of experimental group.

  8. Effects of sport activities on increasing preschool children's creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shahbazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Torrance tests of creative thinking have been widely used to measure the impact of different items such as creativity on different groups of children. In this study, we perform an empirical study to measure the effects of endurance, power-based and flexibility on a group of children's creativity, originality and flexibility. The study chooses a sample of 341 from 2978 preschool children and distributes a questionnaire among them where 153 were female and 188 of them were male. Cronbach alpha for creativity, originality and fluency were calculated as 0.814, 0.822 and 0.788, respectively. The results of our study indicate that there are some positive and meaningful relationship among three components of creativity, originality and fluency before and after accomplishing test. The impact of test was measured for three types of sport activities including endurance, power-based and flexibility tests. After applying 32 sessions of sporting games, flexibility games represent a mean value of 32.40, which is higher than the other two tests and it maintains meaningful value compared with two other sporting tests of endurance and power base tests.

  9. National plan for physical activity: education sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedentop, Daryl L

    2009-11-01

    Schools must play a central role in combating the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and youths. This cannot be achieved without more robust policy and funding programs at both federal and state levels. Reviews of meta-analyses were used to assess the efficacy of improving PA/MVPA through interventions in school physical education programs. Individual research studies were reviewed to assess the efficacy of improving PA/MVPA in preschool settings, recess, and classroom activity breaks. Legislation at the federal and state levels was reviewed along with surveillance and accountability mechanisms at the state level. Physical education interventions produce improvements in PA/MVPA if protocols relating to use of time are followed. PA/MVPA in recess can be increased through careful planning for attractive activity opportunities on carefully designed playgrounds. Classroom activity breaks provide important PA/MVPA daily and improve student on-task behavior. Federal legislation is needed to provide guidelines and financial support for states to improve the quantity and quality of PA in school programs. States need to develop clear expectations for quantity and quality of PA programs in schools, surveillance systems to monitor district compliance in meeting those expectations, and an accountability system aimed at ensuring that state expectations are being met with assistance for districts that do not meet expectations.

  10. Preschool Science Environment: What Is Available in a Preschool Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tsunghui

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated preschool science environments in 20 preschool classrooms (N=20) in 13 midwestern child care centers. By operationalizing Neuman's concept of "sciencing," this study used The Preschool Classroom Science Materials/Equipment Checklist, the Preschool Classroom Science Activities Checklist, and the Preschool Teacher…

  11. Exploring Preschoolers' Engagement and Perceived Physical Competence in an Autonomy-Based Object Control Skill Intervention: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel; Robinson, Leah; Webster, E. Kipling; Barber, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe children's engagement during two (high and low) autonomy-based climates. Twenty-five preschool children participated in a nine-week object control skill intervention. Children completed the object control subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd Edition and the perceived physical competence…

  12. Hur arbetar forskollarare med bild? En studie av fem forskollarare som leder barn i bildaktiviteter (How Do Preschool Teachers Work with Art Activities? A Study of Five Preschool Teachers Leading Children in Art Activities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Eva

    Art education has traditionally played an important role in the Swedish preschool. The subject includes a variety of activities, and different aims have been stressed from both aesthetic and pedagogical points of view. This study sought to describe and analyze how preschool teachers work with children in art activities. The investigation used a…

  13. Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Special Education: Selected Activities for Preschool Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Betty Clark

    The manual is designed to provide special education preschool teachers with a guide for parent involvement activities. The guide presents 32 activities divided into three topical areas: (1) communicating with parents (orientation packet, newsletter, school-home notebook, bulletin board for parents); (2) resource activities (field trips, home…

  14. Physical activity in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinie Geenen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the

  15. Physical activity in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinie Geenen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti

  16. Physical activity in obesity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Geenen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti

  17. Physical activity in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Geenen, Rinie

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti

  18. Physical activity in obesity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Geenen,

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti

  19. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  20. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  1. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  2. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  3. Is the environment near school associated with active commuting to school among preschoolers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Cazuza Farias Junior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Available studies show that environmental factors may influence how parentes choose to commute their children from home to school. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between the characteristics of the physical and social environment near school and active commuting to school among preschool children. A school-based cross-sectional study with a sample of children aged 3to 5 years (n=914 was undertaken. Participants were selected by a single-stage cluster sampling process. To obtain data on commuting to school and demographicand socioeconomic variables, a previously validated questionnaire was used while an audit tool was used to assess the environment near school. Binarylogistic regression was used to analyze the association and results were presented as Odds Ratio values. Results showed that 28.3% (95%CI 25.5-31.3 ofthe children were active commuters from home to school. A positive association was found between public transportation (p=0.002 and social environment(p=0.004 domains and active commuting. However, this association was foundonly among children from families that did not have a car. The likelihood of achild being an active commuter was higher among those who are enrolled in schools with better environmental surroundings (OR=1.88; 95%CI 1.31-2.70. It was concluded that there was a positive association between some of the environmental factors near school and active commuting to school among children from families that did not have a car.

  4. REALIZATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF INTEGRATION OF EDUCATIONAL FIELDS IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AS PART OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARD, BY THE EXAMPLE PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Ilkhamovna Gamirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the principle of integration of physical culture in educational programs of preschool educational institutions, as part of the federal state educational standards, with the aim to improve the quality of preschool education, to ensure equal opportunities for all children, to preserve the unity of educational space. Integration of physical culture in the educational areas, which include socio-communicative, cognitive, lingual, artistic-aesthetic and physical development is implemented at different levels: value, substantial and procedural.

  5. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  6. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  7. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  8. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  9. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  12. Structure of physical, psycho-physiological development and physical preparedness of children of preschool age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of determination of structure of physical development are resulted, psycho-physiological possibilities and physical preparedness of children of age-dependent groups, 1-2, 3-4 and 4-5 years. It is set that development of children from 1 to 5 years takes place getertimely. There is a considerable role of indexes in the initial probed age-dependent period (1-2 years there is a considerable role of indexes of physical development in development of physical qualities and psycho-physiological possibilities. In age 3-4 the role of level of development of physical qualities and psycho-physiological possibilities increases in the structure of complex preparedness, and in an age-dependent period 4-5 years again there is an increase of role of physical development with the maintain of role of physical preparedness and psycho-physiological possibilities.

  13. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.

  14. A life course examination of the physical environmental determinants of physical activity behaviour: A "Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity" (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Angela; Perchoux, Camille; Puggina, Anna; Aleksovska, Katina; Buck, Christoph; Burns, Con; Cardon, Greet; Chantal, Simon; Ciarapica, Donatella; Condello, Giancarlo; Coppinger, Tara; Cortis, Cristina; D'Haese, Sara; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Hansen, Sylvia; Iacoviello, Licia; Issartel, Johann; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Kanning, Martina; Kennedy, Aileen; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Chun Man Ling, Fiona; Luzak, Agnes; Napolitano, Giorgio; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Sannella, Alessandra; Schulz, Holger; Sohun, Rhoda; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Walter; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a multitude of health benefits across the life course. However, many people fail to meet PA recommendations. Despite a plethora of studies, the evidence regarding the environmental (physical) determinants of physical activity remains inconclusive. To identify the physical environmental determinants that influence PA across the life course. An online systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. The search was limited to studies published in English (January 2004 to April 2016). Only systematic literature reviews (SLRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies, that investigated the association between physical determinants and physical activity outcomes, were eligible for inclusion. The extracted data were assessed on the importance of determinants, strength of evidence and methodological quality. The literature search identified 28 SLRs and 3 MAs on 67 physical environmental characteristics potentially related to physical activity that were eligible for inclusion. Among preschool children, a positive association was reported between availability of backyard space and outdoor toys/equipment in the home and overall physical activity. The availability of physical activity programs and equipment within schools, and neighbourhood features such as pedestrian and cyclist safety structure were positively associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. Negative street characteristics, for example, lack of sidewalks and streetlights, were negatively associated with physical activity in adults. Inconsistent associations were reported for the majority of reviewed determinants in adults. This umbrella SLR provided a comprehensive overview of the physical environment determinants of physical activity across the life course and has highlighted, particularly amongst youth, a number of key determinants that may be associated with overall

  15. Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices in Childcare Centers versus Family Childcare Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Page, Monica; Sanders, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Obesity rates among preschool-aged children have doubled in the past 10 years, and 60% of these children spend the majority of their day in childcare facilities. Few studies have examined the quality of nutrition and physical activity practices in childcare centers as compared to family childcare homes. The purpose of this study is to determine if…

  16. Family Ecological Predictors of Physical Activity Parenting in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Lawson, Hal A.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA…

  17. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT: A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Dorothea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. Methods/Design The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT, 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20.000 inhabitants or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body

  18. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT): a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kristina; Mauer, Sonja; Obinger, Matthias; Ruf, Katharina C; Graf, Christine; Kriemler, Susi; Lenz, Dorothea; Lehmacher, Walter; Hebestreit, Helge

    2010-07-12

    Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT), 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20,000 inhabitants) or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry) and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro) between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body adiposity (BMI, skin folds), media use (questionnaire

  19. Systematic review and proposal of a field-based physical fitness-test battery in preschool children: the PREFIT battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Artero, Enrique G; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Labayen, Idoia; Chillón, Palma; Löf, Marie; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-04-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful health marker in childhood and adolescence, and it is reasonable to think that it might be just as important in younger children, i.e. preschoolers. At the moment, researchers, clinicians and sport practitioners do not have enough information about which fitness tests are more reliable, valid and informative from the health point of view to be implemented in preschool children. Our aim was to systematically review the studies conducted in preschool children using field-based fitness tests, and examine their (1) reliability, (2) validity, and (3) relationship with health outcomes. Our ultimate goal was to propose a field-based physical fitness-test battery to be used in preschool children. PubMed and Web of Science. Studies conducted in healthy preschool children that included field-based fitness tests. When using PubMed, we included Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms to enhance the power of the search. A set of fitness-related terms were combined with 'child, preschool' [MeSH]. The same strategy and terms were used for Web of Science (except for the MeSH option). Since no previous reviews with a similar aim were identified, we searched for all articles published up to 1 April 2014 (no starting date). A total of 2,109 articles were identified, of which 22 articles were finally selected for this review. Most studies focused on reliability of the fitness tests (n = 21, 96%), while very few focused on validity (0 criterion-related validity and 4 (18%) convergent validity) or relationship with health outcomes (0 longitudinal and 1 (5%) cross-sectional study). Motor fitness, particularly balance, was the most studied fitness component, while cardiorespiratory fitness was the least studied. After analyzing the information retrieved in the current systematic review about fitness testing in preschool children, we propose the PREFIT battery, field-based FITness testing in PREschool children. The PREFIT battery is composed of the following

  20. Physical Activity and Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bellizzi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is burdened by high cardiovascular risk because of increased prevalence of traditional and disease-specific cardiovascular risk factors and, consequently, patients are affected by greater morbidity and mortality. In renal transplanted patients, healthy lifestyle and physical activity are recommended to improve overall morbidity and cardiovascular outcomes. According to METs (Metabolic Equivalent Task; i.e. the amount of energy consumed while sitting at rest, physical activities are classified as sedentary (<3.0 METs, of moderate-(3.0 to 5.9 METs or vigorous-intensity (≥6.0 METs. Guidelines suggest for patients with chronic kidney disease an amount of physical activity of at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity five times per week (min 450 MET-minutes/week. Data on physical activity in renal transplanted patients, however, are limited and have been mainly obtained by mean of non-objective methods. Available data suggest that physical activity is low either at the start or during renal transplantation and this may be associated with poor patient and graft outcomes. Therefore, in renal transplanted patients more data on physical activity obtained with objective, accelerometer-based methods are needed. In the meanwhile, physical activity have to be considered as an essential part of the medical care for renal transplanted recipients.

  1. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as a direct/objective measure of ambulatory physical activity.[8-10]. Furthermore, such ..... that 100 steps/minute is a reasonable heuristic value indicative of ... funding this project: Durban University of Technology (DUT) and the. National ...

  2. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  4. Modern knowledge about prevention and correction of functional disorders of the supporting-motor apparatus of the senior preschool age children in the process of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashuba V.A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of correction of violations of carriage is developed for the children of senior preschool age taking into account spatial organization of their body. Possibilities of application of technology are rotined in the system of physical education of child preschool age and in a medical physical culture. The flowsheet of organization of employments is offered correction-prophylactic macrocycle. Pulling in is selected in a chart, correcting and supporting sanitary the stages.

  5. Quality and Knowledge Content in Music Activities in Preschool: The Impact of Human Materiality Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene; Holmberg, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, pedagogical research has been child centered, where materialities often have been considered as objects and tools. However, in recent posthuman research, attempts have been made to consider human materiality combinations to have impact on pedagogical activities in preschool, but to a large extent music as an issue has been…

  6. Parental Support Exceeds Parenting Style for Promoting Active Play in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…

  7. Parental Support Exceeds Parenting Style for Promoting Active Play in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…

  8. Quality and Knowledge Content in Music Activities in Preschool: The Impact of Human Materiality Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene; Holmberg, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, pedagogical research has been child centered, where materialities often have been considered as objects and tools. However, in recent posthuman research, attempts have been made to consider human materiality combinations to have impact on pedagogical activities in preschool, but to a large extent music as an issue has been…

  9. Formation of social and personal experience of preschoolers in gaming activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydiya Tseeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors deals with retrospective modern psychological and pedagogical research on the game, sets out the principles and conditions of socio-personal experience of preschool children in the game; revealed relations game and experience that eventually allows to understand the phenomenon of "social experience" more deeply and further outline the path of formation of personality development in gaming activities.

  10. Effects of Cooperative Group Work Activities on Pre-School Children's Pattern Recognition Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Kamuran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold; to investigate the effects of cooperative group-based work activities on children's pattern recognition skills in pre-school and to examine the teachers' opinions about the implementation process. In line with this objective, for the study, 57 children (25 girls and 32 boys) were chosen from two private schools…

  11. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  12. Didactical aspects of using webinars for methodical scaffolding of preschool teachers’ professional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sokolova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors highlight the aspects of using webinars as a tool for organizing methodical scaffolding and support of preschool education teachers’ activity. The authors analyze the possibilities of existing Internet technologies for organizing methodical scaffolding process. They describe the didactical features of webi-nars, and their didactical functions.

  13. Preschool Children's Use of Thematic Vocabulary during Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  15. Towards physical activity support community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elloumi, Lamia; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Nowadays it is recognized that physical activity, besides other lifestyles, has indisputable beneficial affects on cardiovascular diseases prevention and treatment. Additionally the social support is important and has a valuable impact on the outcomes in cardiovascular disease patients. To provide

  16. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipasha Meysamie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression Methods:In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results:According to parents’rating, the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4% , 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6% and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%, respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%, 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% - 6.0% and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%, respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p<0.05.Conclusion:This study revealed that children’s family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child’s potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies.

  17. ACTIVITIES AT THE HEAD OF INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES IN EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF PRESCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Grebennikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  is  devoted  to  the  actual  topic  of  pr eschool education the organization of inclusive education of children with disabilities in preschool educational  organizations.  The  aim  of  the article is to describe the activity of the head preschool organiz ation when the children with HIA in the educational space of preschool organization. Solve problems is the fact that in pre-school organizations come a variety of children not only in age, but also with ind ividual special needs, including those with disabil ities. In this connection there is need to create ind ividual educational routes and the development of models  of inclusion  of  children  with  HIA.  This  approach is associated with modern social concept allows to consider inclusion as a dynamically evol ving approach of a positive attitude to diversity of children and in the perception of the individual characteristics, not as a problem but as an opportunity to enrich the learning process. The authors substantiate the thesis that the current situation of education in the most appropriate conditions for carrying out the  process  of  integrating  preschool  children  with HIA  can  be  created  in  the  kindergarten  combined type, which provides for the operation of groups of compensating orientation, recruitment, software and methodical and logistical support. The article ident ified  and  justified by the tasks that need to be a ddressed to the head of preschool educational organizations in the organization of inclusive education.

  18. Educational policies and activities for preschool children: Reflections from the cultural-historical approach and activity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena González-Moreno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational activities employed with preschool children have significance in their development and preparation for school learning. For this reason, it is necessary to analyze the relationship established between educational policies and educational activities for the preschool population in the Colombian context. In this paper, these two aspects interact to contribute to its conclusion. The teacher’s task is to promote the integral development of children and ensure an optimal level of preparation for schooling. Considering current pedagogical practice, this task is not successfully carried out as required by the objectives of educational policy. However, monitoring this psychological and pedagogical approach based on cultural-historical theory highlights both theoretical foundations and methodological pathways for innovating with regard to the educational status of preschool.

  19. Physical Activity for Young Children: A Quantitative Study of Child Care Providers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Health Promotion Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Many preschool children fail to achieve the National Association for Sport and Physical Education physical activity recommendations placing themselves at increased risk of overweight and its associated health consequences. The early learning and care system is well positioned to intervene. Yet few child obesity prevention efforts have focused on…

  20. Solar Activity and Classical Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This review of solar physics emphasizes several of the more conspicuous scientific puzzles posed by contemporary observational knowledge of the magnetic activity of the Sun. The puzzles emphasize how much classical physics we have yet to learn from the Sun. The physics of solar activity is based on the principles of Newton, Maxwell, Lorentz, Boltzmann, et. al., along with the principles of radiative transfer. In the large, these principles are expressed by magnetohydrodynamics. A brief derivation of the magnetohydrodynamic induction and momentum equations is provided, with a discussion of popular misconceptions.

  1. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

  2. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teede Helena J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, little is known about physical activity patterns in pregnancy with prior estimates predominantly based on subjective assessment measures that are prone to error. Given the increasing obesity rates and the importance of physical activity in pregnancy, we evaluated the relationship and agreement between subjective and objective physical activity assessment tools to inform researchers and clinicians on optimal assessment of physical activity in pregnancy. Methods 48 pregnant women between 26-28 weeks gestation were recruited. The Yamax pedometer and Actigraph accelerometer were worn for 5-7 days under free living conditions and thereafter the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was completed. IPAQ and pedometer estimates of activity were compared to the more robust and accurate accelerometer data. Results Of 48 women recruited, 30 women completed the study (mean age: 33.6 ± 4.7 years; mean BMI: 31.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2 and 18 were excluded (failure to wear [n = 8] and incomplete data [n = 10]. The accelerometer and pedometer correlated significantly on estimation of daily steps (ρ = 0.69, p -1 day-1 were not significantly correlated and there was poor absolute agreement. Relative to the accelerometer, the IPAQ under predicted daily total METs (105.76 ± 259.13 min-1 day-1 and light METs (255.55 ± 128.41 min-1 day-1 and over predicted moderate METs (-112.25 ± 166.41 min-1 day-1. Conclusion Compared with the accelerometer, the pedometer appears to provide a reliable estimate of physical activity in pregnancy, whereas the subjective IPAQ measure performed less accurately in this setting. Future research measuring activity in pregnancy should optimally encompass objective measures of physical activity. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: ACTRN12608000233325. Registered 7/5/2008.

  3. Preschool motor skills following physical and occupational therapy services among non-disabled very low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Stephanie; Jonsson-Funk, Michele; Brookhart, M Alan; Rosenberg, Steven A; O'Shea, T Michael; Daniels, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at an increased risk of delayed development of motor skills. Physical and occupational therapy services may reduce this risk. Among VLBW children, we evaluated whether receipt of physical or occupational therapy services between 9 months and 2 years of age is associated with improved preschool age motor ability. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort we estimated the association between receipt of therapy and the following preschool motor milestones: skipping eight consecutive steps, hopping five times, standing on one leg for 10 seconds, walking backwards six steps on a line, and jumping distance. We used propensity score methods to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between children who did and did not receive physical or occupational therapy, since children receiving therapy may be at higher risk of impairment. We applied propensity score weights and modeled the estimated effect of therapy on the distance that the child jumped using linear regression. We modeled all other end points using logistic regression. Treated VLBW children were 1.70 times as likely to skip eight steps (RR 1.70, 95 % CI 0.84, 3.44) compared to the untreated group and 30 % more likely to walk six steps backwards (RR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63, 2.71), although these differences were not statistically significant. We found little effect of therapy on other endpoints. Providing therapy to VLBW children during early childhood may improve select preschool motor skills involving complex motor planning.

  4. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KALLAYAKIJBOONCHOO

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of the world and becoming one of the major global public health problems.Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time,available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity.Increases in physical activity have been showen to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition,with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate.The Surgeon General's Report on physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular,moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life.However,the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for 3 times a day for aerobic training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits.Indeed,nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health,and should be encouraged in all age groups,particularly early in life,The question is no longer centerd around the health benefit of increasing physical activity,but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals,Hence,effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity.Among various interventions,the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children,The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challege in this field today.

  5. How Parents Perceive and Feel about Participation in Community Activities: The Comparison between Parents of Preschoolers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-Fong; Wong, Bernard P.H.; Leung, Doris; Ho, Daphne; Au-Yeung, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared how parents of preschoolers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) perceived and felt about participation in community activities. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 380 Hong Kong parents of preschoolers with ASD and 214 Hong Kong parents of preschoolers without ASD. The two groups were not different in…

  6. Improving Mathematics Learning by Integrating Curricular Activities with Innovative and Developmentally Appropriate Digital Apps: Findings from the Next Generation Preschool Math Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Vahey, Philip; Dominguez, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes findings from a blocked randomized design (BRD) field study conducted to examine the "Next Generation Preschool Math" (NGPM) program's implementation in preschool classrooms and promise in improving young children's mathematic learning. NGPM integrates traditional preschool activities with developmentally appropriate…

  7. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  8. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  9. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  10. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  11. Investigation of habitual pitch during free play activities for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Kimelman, Mikael D Z; Micco, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to compare the habitual pitch measured in two different speech activities (free play activity and traditionally used structured speech activity) for normally developing preschool-aged children to explore to what extent preschoolers vary their vocal pitch among different speech environments. Habitual pitch measurements were conducted for 10 normally developing children (2 boys, 8 girls) between the ages of 31 months and 71 months during two different activities: (1) free play; and (2) structured speech. Speech samples were recorded using a throat microphone connected with a wireless transmitter in both activities. The habitual pitch (in Hz) was measured for all collected speech samples by using voice analysis software (Real-Time Pitch). Significantly higher habitual pitch is found during free play in contrast to structured speech activities. In addition, there is no showing of significant difference of habitual pitch elicited across a variety of structured speech activities. Findings suggest that the vocal usage of preschoolers appears to be more effortful during free play than during structured activities. It is recommended that a comprehensive evaluation for young children's voice needs to be based on the speech/voice samples collected from both free play and structured activities.

  12. The development of motivation of professional activity of managers of preschool as a factor in job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Сергіївна Кравчинська

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article satisfaction of leaders of preschool educational establishments is analysed by the profession and various aspects of professional activity.The results of empiric research are presented in relation to the degree of satisfaction of leaders of preschool educational establishments by the profession and various aspects of professional activity: work with teachers, parents and the material component. It is proven the influence of job satisfaction at the development of motivation of professional activity

  13. Effectiveness of sensory processing strategies on activity level in inclusive preschool classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Lin Lin,1,2 Yu-Fan Min,3 Li-Wei Chou,1,2,* Chin-Kai Lin,4,* 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Faith, Hope and Love, Center for Children and Adults With Disabilities, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sensory processing strategies in improving the activity level of children with sensory integration dysfunction.Methods: The study used a matching-only pretest–posttest control group design, which requires random matching of sensory integration dysfunction to the corresponding intervention group (n = 18 and control group (n = 18. The intervention group comprised 3–6-year-old children who received an 8-week school-day intervention during implementation of the theme curriculum.Results: The 8-week treatment significantly reduced the activity level and foot-swinging episodes in children with sensory integration dysfunction, and obtained a medium-effect size. However, the level of improvement in the control group did not show any statistically significant change.Conclusion: Sensory processing strategies could improve activity levels in children with sensory integration dysfunction. However, this study was unable to exclude a developmental effect. The social validity results show that sensory processing strategies can be integrated into the theme curriculum and improve activity levels in children.Keywords: activity level, preschool inclusive classroom, sensory integration dysfunction, sensory processing strategy

  14. The technique of project activity: A new approach in Russian preschool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veraksa N.E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Project activity has a long history of implementation in education (Kilpatrick, 1918. This article describes the approach to project activity that became widespread in preschool education in Russia in the late 1990s. This approach is based on the cultural-historical theory of Vygotsky (1978, Venger’s (1988 understanding of intellectual giftedness, as well as an understanding of project activity proposed by Leontiev (2000. At the heart of project activity lies children’s exploration of the space of possibilities — that is, their search for action options that correspond to their personal motives and express their individuality. The main features of project activity are the problem situation to be presented to the child; the subjectivity of all its participants, including teachers; and its nature, which includes its social context. Three main types of project activity are presented: research, creative, and normative; each has its own structure and value for children’s development. Examples of their implementation in preschool settings are provided. The impact of project activity on all its participants in preschool — children, teachers, parents — is addressed. The article shows the effectiveness of project activity for educational work with both intellectually gifted and normally developing children.

  15. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    2016-01-01

    activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  16. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls' requests for more "hanging-out" facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. CONCLUSION: Based on the results from......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender....... This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. RESULTS: The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys...

  17. Food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool – an exploratory study from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Hanna; Höijer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a need for research both in relation to food education at preschools and in relation to how the individual teacher can handle and relate to the many different scientific facts and paradigms that are prevalent in relation to food, health, and a sustainable lifestyle. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and meanings that preschool teachers associate with involving food as a tool for learning in planned educational activities. Design An exploratory study was conducted in 14 preschools with 131 teachers. Twenty semi-structured individual or group interviews with 45 preschool staff were conducted, and 10 interviews were selected for analysis. Results According to participants, both children and teachers developed a sensory language; children became more positive towards tasting and teachers discovered new possibilities for interdisciplinary work. However, the results also show that an allowing system, with both an interested and confident teacher who recognises the competent child and a supportive organisation, is needed in order to make food a meaningful tool for learning in preschool. Discussion According to previous studies, food has the potential to play an important part in everyday activities at preschool, both in planned educational activities as well as at meal situations. Our results imply that a holistic understanding of food in preschool is required for long-term work with food as a natural part of the everyday activities. Conclusion The results imply that it is fun and meaningful for both children and teachers, and quite possible, to work with food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool. In order to include food as a way to work with the preschool curriculum for a sustainable lifestyle, an allowing system is needed. PMID:27717411

  18. Food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool – an exploratory study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sepp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need for research both in relation to food education at preschools and in relation to how the individual teacher can handle and relate to the many different scientific facts and paradigms that are prevalent in relation to food, health, and a sustainable lifestyle. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and meanings that preschool teachers associate with involving food as a tool for learning in planned educational activities. Design: An exploratory study was conducted in 14 preschools with 131 teachers. Twenty semi-structured individual or group interviews with 45 preschool staff were conducted, and 10 interviews were selected for analysis. Results: According to participants, both children and teachers developed a sensory language; children became more positive towards tasting and teachers discovered new possibilities for interdisciplinary work. However, the results also show that an allowing system, with both an interested and confident teacher who recognises the competent child and a supportive organisation, is needed in order to make food a meaningful tool for learning in preschool. Discussion: According to previous studies, food has the potential to play an important part in everyday activities at preschool, both in planned educational activities as well as at meal situations. Our results imply that a holistic understanding of food in preschool is required for long-term work with food as a natural part of the everyday activities. Conclusion: The results imply that it is fun and meaningful for both children and teachers, and quite possible, to work with food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool. In order to include food as a way to work with the preschool curriculum for a sustainable lifestyle, an allowing system is needed.

  19. Relationship between child care centers' compliance with physical activity regulations and children's physical activity, New York City, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert L; Xu, Ye; Lesesne, Catherine A; Dunn, Lillian; Kakietek, Jakub; Jernigan, Jan; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2014-10-16

    Physical activity may protect against overweight and obesity among preschoolers, and the policies and characteristics of group child care centers influence the physical activity levels of children who attend them. We examined whether children in New York City group child care centers that are compliant with the city's regulations on child physical activity engage in more activity than children in centers who do not comply. A sample of 1,352 children (mean age, 3.39 years) served by 110 group child care centers in low-income neighborhoods participated. Children's anthropometric data were collected and accelerometers were used to measure duration and intensity of physical activity. Multilevel generalized linear regression modeling techniques were used to assess the effect of center- and child-level factors on child-level physical activity. Centers' compliance with the regulation of obtaining at least 60 minutes of total physical activity per day was positively associated with children's levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); compliance with the regulation of obtaining at least 30 minutes of structured activity was not associated with increased levels of MVPA. Children in centers with a dedicated outdoor play space available also spent more time in MVPA. Boys spent more time in MVPA than girls, and non-Hispanic black children spent more time in MVPA than Hispanic children. To increase children's level of MVPA in child care, both time and type of activity should be considered. Further examination of the role of play space availability and its effect on opportunities for engaging in physical activity is needed.

  20. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi

    2011-01-01

    and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14......PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy.......6 %) of overweight, followed by Poland (17.1%), while Italy shows the highest (21.2 %) (p children, but only the 50...

  1. Preschool Teaching Staff’s Opinions on the Importance of Preschool Curricular Fields of Activities, Art Genres and Visual Arts Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Zupančič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents preschool teachers’ and assistant teachers’ opinions on the importance of selected fields of educational work in kindergartens. The article first highlights the importance of activities expressing artistic creativity within modern curriculums. Then, it presents an empirical study that examines the preschool teachers’ and assistant teachers’ opinions on the importance of the educational fields, art genres, and visual arts fields. In research hypotheses, we presumed that preschool teachers find individual educational fields, individual art genres, and individual visual arts activities to be of different importance; consequently, education in kindergarten does not achieve the requisite holism. The study is based on the descriptive and causal-non-experimental method. We have determined that the greatest importance is attributed to movement and language, followed by nature, society, art and mathematics. Within art genres, the greatest importance is attributed to visual arts and music and the least to audio-visual activities. Within visual arts, drawing and painting are considered to be the most important and sculpting the least. These findings can support future studies and deliberation on the possible effects on practice in terms of requisitely holistically planned preschool education.

  2. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  3. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... years of age and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 49.0% Percent ...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS OF HEARING IMPAIRED CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE BY MEANS OF THEATRICAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Isaakyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the development of comm unicative  skills of  hearing impaired  children  of  preschool age. The changes that are taking place in the education system  now, relate to pre-school  education. There is a change in the direction of education from the orientation on the formation of knowledge, knacks and skills to the all-round development. This highlights the challenge to identify the ways of such development at all  age levels.  The development of speech is a unique, sophisticated process flowing differently in  different  children,  especially hearing impaired children. It is important for the successful development of hearing-impaired children that they have   acquired   from   childhood   vital   information about the surrounding objects and phenomena. Modern pedagogical science, which considers education as the playback of human spiritual potential , suggests the using a variety spheres of education influence on the child. The sphere of art is proposed by  the  authors  as  a  space  conducive  to  the  fo rmation   of   social   and   aesthetic   activity  hearing impaired  children of preschool age.  Given  that the game at the preschool age is the leading type of a ctivity, and it was one of the most simple and effective way to develop communication skills in hearing impaired children of preschool age. The main motive for using a theatrical play’s activities to development of hearing impaired children of preschool age is identified; it is the role communication during the concerted activities with each other.   The results of experimental activities on the development of co mmunicative skills of hearing impaired children of preschool age by means of theatrical activities are depicted in article.

  5. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  6. Body mass index, fitness and physical activity from childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahkala, Katja; Hernelahti, Miika; Heinonen, Olli J; Raittinen, Päivi; Hakanen, Maarit; Lagström, Hanna; Viikari, Jorma S A; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Raitakari, Olli T; Simell, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, sedentary lifestyle and poor cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood may increase the risk of health problems later in life. The authors studied the association of early childhood weight status with cardiorespiratory fitness and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in adolescence. The stability and associations of LTPA and fitness from childhood through adolescence were also studied. Body mass index (BMI) was assessed annually since birth in a prospective, longitudinal study. The mean BMI between ages 2 and 7 years indicated weight status at preschool age. Fitness was studied with a shuttle run test at age 9 and with a maximal cycle ergometer test at age 17. The same questionnaire was used to assess LTPA at age 9, 13 and 17. Complete data on preschool BMI, LTPA at ages 13 and 17 and fitness at age 17 years was provided by 351 children, while fitness and LTPA data were available for 74 children at ages 9 and 17. Preschool BMI was inversely associated with fitness in adolescence independently of adolescent LTPA (p=0.0001). Children who had a high preschool BMI but whose weight status was reduced in adolescence had similar fitness in adolescence as the children with a persistently low BMI. Regardless of the fitness level in childhood, the children whose LTPA increased between age 9 and 17 had a similar adolescent fitness level as persistently active subjects. It is important to maintain a healthy body weight and a physically active lifestyle from very childhood through adolescence to improve fitness during adolescence.

  7. Metabolic benefits of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Volčanšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the most beneficial intervention in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Life style, which has become mostly sedentary, leads to growing incidence in obesity, what could cause the first so far reduction in life expectancy in developed countries.Physical activity reduces the chronic low-grade inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Regular physical activity exerts two anti-inflammatory effects: reduction of visceral fat, which produces the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of myokines. It has been proposed that cytokines and other peptides that are produced by muscle fibers should be classified as myokines that exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Myokines induce muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, stimulate fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity and have an anti-inflammatory effect.  Therefore, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ and this provides the basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, gut, bones and brain. Physical inactivity leads to an altered myokine profile, associating sedentary life style with some chronic diseases.Physical activity is recommended as a tool for weight management and prevention of weight gain, for weight loss and for prevention of weight regain. High quality studies have confirmed the important impact of exercise on improving blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and on preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in predisposed populations. Prescribing specific exercise tailored to individual's needs is an intervention strategy for health improvement. Physical fitness counteracts the detrimental effects of obesity reducing morbidity and mortality.

  8. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an exercise class playing basketball, tennis, or other sports Talk with your health care team about how to warm up and cool down before and after you exercise. Do strength training to build muscle Strength training is a light or moderate physical activity that builds muscle and helps keep your ...

  9. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  10. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  11. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  12. Pohybová aktivita u předškolních dětí z hlediska zdravotních kritérií Physical activity in pre-school children from the aspect of health criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Frömel

    2009-03-01

    ích mimo školu. Na druhou stranu je mateřská škola vhodná pro děti s hypokinetickou poruchou, jež může aktivovat adekvátní působení školního pohybového režimu. The main aim of this study was to assess potential differences between groups of pre-school children meeting and not meeting health recommendations for physical activity (PA from the aspect of so called indicators of physical activity (active energy expenditure, number of steps. The number of steps was measured by Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 pedometers (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan and the active energy expenditure was measured by Caltrac (Muscle Dynamics Fitness Network, Torrance, California accelerometers. Evaluation of PA from the aspect of so called health criteria was realized following the criteria of Frömel, Novosad and Svozil (1999, who recommend values of so called health criteria of PA. Meeting these criteria, it is possible to suppose that PA positively affects the healthy development of an individual. The sample consisted of 200 pre-school children. Forty nine of these children (30 boys and 19 girls were labeled as group A (children who did not meet the recommended values at least in one of the health criteria of PA. Group B (children who met the recommended values at least in one of the mentioned criteria of PA consisted of 151 children (74 boys and 77 girls. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the statistical significance of possible differences between groups A and B and also between boys and girls within these groups as well. In all monitored parts of a week, as well as in both monitored parts of a day, a significant difference (p < .001 was found between groups A and B in both indicators of PA. Regarding these variables, the smallest differences (p < .02 were observed within the time spent at school. Our results confirm that a stay at kindergarten belongs among the relevant parts of a day from the aspect of children's physical activity in the sense of a very "problematic" part

  13. Physical activity, hydration and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Marcos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory diseases and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  14. [Zinc intake from daily meals in preschool children and its influence on their physical growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Reiko; Tanabe, Naohito; Wakai, Shizuko; Kabasawa, Reiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2004-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of dietary zinc intake on physical growth and to clarify effects of dietary factors in preschool children. Food consumption of 30 children aged 5-6 years (15 boys and 15 girls) was surveyed using a weighing dietary method for three consecutive days each in spring and autumn. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated using the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan Fifth Revised Edition, 2000. The heights and weights were also measured in each season. They were classified into low, middle and high zinc intake groups, and their physical growth and dietary factors were compared. The average zinc intake was 6.4 +/- 1.1 mg/day in all children, which met the demands of the Japanese RDA (6.0 mg/day). Classification was a low zinc intake group (5.4 +/- 0.5 mg/day), a middle group (6.2 +/- 0.3 mg/day), and a high group (7.7 +/- 0.6 mg/day). The lower zinc intake group showed lower heights and weights, but all children who participated demonstrated increase during the 5 months from spring to autumn. In particular, increase in height in the low zinc intake group was the highest among the three groups. Regarding each food item contribution for the zinc intake, rice (20.53%), meat (16.28%), milk (15.57%), eggs (7.45%), and soybeans (6.87%) were the highest 5 of 19 items, accounting for 66.7% of the total. Zinc intake from vegetable foods (55%) was more than that from animal foods (45%). Intake of total energy, nutrients, and some food groups positively associated with average zinc intake. However, energy intake from confectionery in the lowest zinc intake group was highest among the three groups. Estimation of zinc intake of Japanese children using a weighing dietary method has suggested that even a relatively low dietary value might not significantly affect the physical growth of children. Rice is the main source and reduction of zinc intake from regular meals might be related to high consumption of confectionery.

  15. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  16. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  17. The physical therapist's role in physical activity promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.; Engbers, L.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are increasingly confronted with the diseases of physical inactivity. Paradoxically, a promising strategy to motivate sedentary individuals to become more active is the opportunity to encourage physical activity related behavioural change when individuals encounter health professionals.

  18. The physical therapist's role in physical activity promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.; Engbers, L.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are increasingly confronted with the diseases of physical inactivity. Paradoxically, a promising strategy to motivate sedentary individuals to become more active is the opportunity to encourage physical activity related behavioural change when individuals encounter health professionals. A

  19. Shared activities of parents with their preschool children during family pastime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkin V.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the structure of the pastime of contemporary preschool children and the importance and prevalence of various kinds of activities that parents and their children share. The emphasis is on those features of parental behavior that are determined by gender role (mother/father, family status (two-parent/separated family, style of parentchild relationship, and also child’s gender. The work is based on data from 1,936 questionnaires received from parents of preschool children (from 1.5 to 7 years old who were attending Moscow kindergartens. The research was carried out in 41 kindergartens in 9 districts of Moscow. The survey uncovered several social-psychological features of the position parents take while organizing their shared pastime with preschool children: the influence of traditional gender-role models of parental behavior; the “complementary” principle of mother’s and father’s social-role positions in the upbringing of a daughter; the distortion of traditional maternal behavior in the upbringing of a son in a separated family; the reduced organization of shared play with a child in a separated family; the influence of the style of the parent-child relationship on the participation of parents in their children’s activities. The dynamics show how the parents’ position changes as their children grow older (from 1.5 years to 7 years: namely, the decrease of parents’ organization of and participation in a preschool child’s activities has a negative impact on their emotional state while interacting with the child.

  20. FAMILY INVOLVEMENT ACTIVITIES AT PRESCHOOL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: CASE OF DENIZLI PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya GÜLAY OGELMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate family involvement activities at preschool educational institutions in province of Denizli. 25 female teachers working at preschool educational institutions under Ministry of National Education in city centre of Denizli were included in the study. The results revealed that while a great majority of 32 family involvement activities included in the questionnaire (parents' corner, posters, education board, communication board, brochures, booklets, periodicals-newspapers, newsletters, correspondences, photographs, phone/ internet calls, video/tape records, conferences, home visits, article box, request box, parents' libraries, family involvement to non-classroom activities, diaries, family involvement into management and decision-making process, group meeting weren’t performed, 11 activities were implemented. While 4 of 11 activities were performed by all teachers, there were teachers who didn't perform 7 family involvement activities (parents' meetings, individual interview, development reports, collective files, involvement to classroom activities, invitation of parents to the school in special occasions, activities held at home. Considering the reasons why twenty two family involvement activities were not performed; lack of space, time and possibilities was the most frequent reason. Home visits took place on the top among family involvement activities the teachers had difficulties at most. The individual interviews were among activities conducted by the teachers in the easiest/ comfortable way.

  1. Public health aspects of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis different public health aspects of physical activity in the Netherlands were addressed, taking into account its broad scope. Research was carried out on physical activity methodology, determinants of physical activity and the relationship between physical activity and different health

  2. Public health aspects of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis different public health aspects of physical activity in the Netherlands were addressed, taking into account its broad scope. Research was carried out on physical activity methodology, determinants of physical activity and the relationship between physical activity and different health

  3. The development of Self-control of Cognitive Activity in Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernokova T.E.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of self-control formation in the context of metacognitive development of children. The hypothesis of the study was that in the preschool age, the structure of self-cognition begins to form, which includes anticipating, process and final self-control. The aim of the study was to identify the dynamics of self-control of cognitive activity in the preschool years. We used an experimental technique in which children were asked to identify the problem and plan of the learning activities, implement it and evaluate the results. The study involved 60 children aged 4 to 7 years. In all age groups higher rates of current and total self-control were found, but the most intensive dynamics were identified in terms of predictive self-control. In the preschool age children occasionally show a formal self-control. At the age of 5-6 years old, the children start to develop the self-control structure, and significant correlations were found between the indicators of current and final self. The most advanced children demonstrate meaningful self-control. This is due not only to the development of self-awareness, arbitrariness and traditionally described cognitive processes, but also to the development of dialectical thinking and metacognitions.

  4. Hydrokinezotherapy as the cause of physical rehabilitation of children of preschool age with cerebral paralysis of spastic form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baybuza I.V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work is considered effective influences of physical exercises in water. The dynamics of development of functional indexes is shown by the kardio-respirator and kinesthesia systems. In an experiment took part 15 children of preschool age with the cerebral paralysis of spastic form. It is well-proven that the most substantial changes happened at the estimation of indexes of dynamic force of muscles and goniometry of lower limbs. Leaning against the got results, it is possible to recommend a hydrokinezotherapy in treatment of patients with this pathology.

  5. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  6. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  7. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  8. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  9. Preschool Children's Participation in Representational and Non-Representational Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined representational and non-representational activities in which children in a Head Start classroom participated. This was an investigation from the perspective of cultural-historical activity theory of how components (e.g. artifacts and division of labour) of classroom activities vary across and within types of activities.…

  10. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  11. Teaching Physics at Preschool Level for Mexican Students in Order to Achieve the National Scientific Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Díaz, Mario H.; Nieto Betance, Gabriela; García Trujillo, Luís Antonio; Chávez-Campos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In its program of studies for preschool level, the Secretary of Public Education of Mexico promoted development of four standards of science: Scientific knowledge, applications of scientific knowledge and technology, skills associated to science, and attitudes associated to science. However, to develop this skills and reach out the standards there…

  12. Swimming Orientation for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Lou

    1990-01-01

    Techniques which are designed to dispel fears and promote confident learning are offered to preschool swimming instructors. Safety, class organization, water games, and class activities are discussed. (IAH)

  13. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF THE ORGANIZED ACTIVITIES ON CHILDREN WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTURBANCES AT PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina KARADZOVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In this presented material it’s stressed that upon the psychological aspect, the problem of activities of mentally retarded children should be treated in the context of possibilities for orientation, their attitude towards the difficulties and their relation towards the gained results. Practically this can be presented in three ways: forming of habits and gaining knowledge of practical life, creating possibilities for nonverbal communication and speech development. In that way special suggestions are given for creating activities with mentally retarded children at pre-school period.

  14. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  15. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  16. Prediction of activity type in preschool children using machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenbuchner, Markus; Cliff, Dylan P; Trost, Stewart G; Van Tuc, Nguyen; Peoples, Gregory E

    2015-07-01

    Recent research has shown that machine learning techniques can accurately predict activity classes from accelerometer data in adolescents and adults. The purpose of this study is to develop and test machine learning models for predicting activity type in preschool-aged children. Participants completed 12 standardised activity trials (TV, reading, tablet game, quiet play, art, treasure hunt, cleaning up, active game, obstacle course, bicycle riding) over two laboratory visits. Eleven children aged 3-6 years (mean age=4.8±0.87; 55% girls) completed the activity trials while wearing an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer on the right hip. Activities were categorised into five activity classes: sedentary activities, light activities, moderate to vigorous activities, walking, and running. A standard feed-forward Artificial Neural Network and a Deep Learning Ensemble Network were trained on features in the accelerometer data used in previous investigations (10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles and the lag-one autocorrelation). Overall recognition accuracy for the standard feed forward Artificial Neural Network was 69.7%. Recognition accuracy for sedentary activities, light activities and games, moderate-to-vigorous activities, walking, and running was 82%, 79%, 64%, 36% and 46%, respectively. In comparison, overall recognition accuracy for the Deep Learning Ensemble Network was 82.6%. For sedentary activities, light activities and games, moderate-to-vigorous activities, walking, and running recognition accuracy was 84%, 91%, 79%, 73% and 73%, respectively. Ensemble machine learning approaches such as Deep Learning Ensemble Network can accurately predict activity type from accelerometer data in preschool children. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of metalinguistic function in the construction of physical knowledge: Α theatre semiotics approach for preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANAGIOTIS PANTIDOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rendering of physical knowledge in typical or non typical forms of teaching, is a process in which the spoken word and the language in general that is used centre on the (pre- scientific code. In the case of science teaching, the special pedagogic framework places the discussion on concepts – regardless of school grade – at a metalinguistic level of elaboration. At this level, the extent of learning, internalisation and use of the special code is intensely brought out through the utterances of the teachers and the students. In this paper an attempt is made, through semiotic theatrical analysis, to study the sign-vehicles that are related to the metalinguistic function of the speech in preschool education. Thus, the “commentary on the (pre-scientific code” as well as the “means which project the metalinguistic function of the speech” are analysed within a context set up by the physical knowledge for preschool education based on the world of drama.

  18. Do Guyanese mothers' levels of warmth moderate the association between harshness and justness of physical punishment and preschoolers' prosocial behaviours and anger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Jin, Bora; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the moderating role of Indo-Guyanese mothers' warmth and affection on the associations between harshness and justness of physical punishment and prosocial behaviours and anger in preschoolers. One hundred and thirty-nine rural Indo-Guyanese mothers filled out Rohner's Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PARQ) and Physical Punishment Questionnaires (PPQ). Teachers provided assessments of children's prosocial behaviours and anger in preschool settings. Maternal warmth did not moderate the relationship between harshness of physical punishment and children's prosocial behaviours and anger, but it did moderate the relationship between justness of physical punishment and prosocial behaviours for sons as well as the association between justness of physical punishment and anger for daughters. In Caribbean societies where harsh punishment is normative, maternal warmth may work more effectively with justness, and not with harshness of physical punishment, to lower negative childhood behavioural outcomes.

  19. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  20. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Cristina de Almeida Pinto-Sarmento

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS. Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%. The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23, in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43 and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23. Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00. The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  1. Activities report in applied physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  2. Influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on young children's physical activity and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christian, Hayley; Maitland, Clover; Enkel, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    will be collected by geographic information systems measures, parent and day care educator surveys. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by The University of Western Australia Human Ethics Research Committee, approval number RA/4/1/7417. Findings will be published in international peer......-sectional observational study (April 2015 to April 2018) of 2400 children aged 2-5 years attending long day care in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Accelerometers will measure physical activity with indoor physical activity measured using radio frequency identification. Global positioning systems will be used...... to determine outdoor location of physical activity around the home and neighbourhood for a subsample (n=310). The day care environment will be objectively measured using a validated audit tool. Other potential individual, social and physical environmental influences on preschoolers' physical activity...

  3. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...... and extracted data from original articles that met the inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the results of the meta-analysis (forest plot). We explored heterogeneity using funnel plots and the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE). RESULTS......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  4. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  5. Experiencias en Lenguaje Para su Nino ed Edad Pre-escolar. Parte I: Actividades Para la Casa. (Language Experiences for Your Preschooler. Part I: Activities at Home.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    The purpose of this manuscript (written in Spanish) is to encourage the development of communication skills of preschool children by introducing their parents to a number of learning activities suitable for home use. It is written to be used by an instructor who is working with preschool parents. The activities, which are designed to be…

  6. Experiencias en Lenguaje Para su Nino ed Edad Pre-escolar. Parte I: Actividades Para la Casa. (Language Experiences for Your Preschooler. Part I: Activities at Home.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    The purpose of this manuscript (written in Spanish) is to encourage the development of communication skills of preschool children by introducing their parents to a number of learning activities suitable for home use. It is written to be used by an instructor who is working with preschool parents. The activities, which are designed to be…

  7. Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity Updated:Apr 19,2016 Exercise Is for Everyone ... almost all patients do some form of regular physical activity. There are a few exceptions, so it's good ...

  8. PHYSICAL DISABILITY AND DRAMA ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana KRAJNC JOLDIKJ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Drama activity presents a great challenge for ado­lescents with physical disabilities, and at the same time it provides them with much experience for life.Adolescents are educated through theatrical activ­ity; they test numerous new roles, develop their attitude towards the art culture, and most of all they get the insight into different life situations, which have not been known to many of them so far. By experiencing different roles, an adolescent gets personal recognition, undergoes a process of personal changing and thus tests his or her per­sonal perceptions of life.As regards drama activity we follow the presump­tion saying that being different is also an advan­tage.The main purpose of the drama activity is gradu­ally realized through the programme: getting to know yourself and the theatre medium in general. Adolescents meet the multilayered communication and public appearance, which helps them in their personal life.

  9. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  10. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  11. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are s

  12. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  13. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are

  14. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  15. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  16. Digital Storytelling: Capturing Children's Participation in Preschool Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervin, Lisa; Mantei, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Children should be active participants in the environments in which they engage. However in the prior to school setting, it is not necessarily clear to educators how children understand their role and place within that community. Lave and Wenger's (2005) situated learning theory provides a useful frame to consider this developing sense of…

  17. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents....... The objectives of our study were to (1) summarize the evidence available on associations between PA and asthma prevalence in children and adolescents and (2) assess the role of PA in new-onset or incident asthma among children and adolescents. METHODS: We searched Medline, the Cochrane Library, and Embase......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  18. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  19. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  20. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard Roy J; Trudeau François

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE ...

  1. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  2. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  3. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  4. The effects of inhibitory control training for preschoolers on reasoning ability and neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhu, Xinyi; Ziegler, Albert; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-09-23

    Inhibitory control (including response inhibition and interference control) develops rapidly during the preschool period and is important for early cognitive development. This study aimed to determine the training and transfer effects on response inhibition in young children. Children in the training group (N = 20; 12 boys, mean age 4.87 ± 0.26 years) played "Fruit Ninja" on a tablet computer for 15 min/day, 4 days/week, for 3 weeks. Children in the active control group (N = 20; 10 boys, mean age 4.88 ± 0.20 years) played a coloring game on a tablet computer for 10 min/day, 1-2 days/week, for 3 weeks. Several cognitive tasks (involving inhibitory control, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were used to evaluate the transfer effects, and electroencephalography (EEG) was performed during a go/no-go task. Progress on the trained game was significant, while performance on a reasoning task (Raven's Progressive Matrices) revealed a trend-level improvement from pre- to post-test. EEG indicated that the N2 effect of the go/no-go task was enhanced after training for girls. This study is the first to show that pure response inhibition training can potentially improve reasoning ability. Furthermore, gender differences in the training-induced changes in neural activity were found in preschoolers.

  5. PLAY ACTIVITY WITH MILITARY TOYS AT PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nikolaevna Aleshina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes various attitudes to military toys, both positive and negative, existing in Russia and abroad. Toy weapons are viewed as a separate type of military toy. The study looks at the impact of military toys on children’s emotions and personality. The study looks at how children play games on their own and the way they organize them. We have conducted an experiment where three types of toys were used – military toys, soft toys and objects that act as toy substitutes. The study of games and the roles children took showed their poor playing skills. The research has detected existing connection between imagination and thinking ability and the children’s play activity. None of the children took the role of ‘the defender of the weak’ or ‘Patria’s defender’, which contradicts the results of an opinion survey of children’s parents who think that military toys help to develop ‘patriotism’, ‘courage’, and ‘teach to protect the weak’.Repeated observation of the way the same children play with military toys has shown that they take the role of defenders of the motherland or the weak only after watching TV-programmes or fiction films which show male characters defending their motherland or the weak using weapons, which shows that children’s games have social character.The experiment’s results detected what activity adults, who are concerned with the young generation’s attitude to weapons and violence, should perform. It is vital to strengthen children’s moral, ethical and cognitive spheres first, and only in second place fight against sales of military toys both in Russia and abroad.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-53

  6. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are discus

  7. Physical activity in physiotherapy and physical education high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A term of health-related physical fitness became topical with four its components: aerobic and/or cardiovascular fitness, body composition, abdominal muscle strength and endurance, and lower back and hamstring flexibility. Complex evaluation of health-related physical fitness and physical activity (PA may show a wider insight in health promotion and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical activity relation to health-related physical fitness in Physiotherapy (PT and Physical Education (PE students. Final study sample consisted of 67 students (46 women and 21 men (aged 21.61 ± 0.71. All participants filled in International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Health-related physical testing included: 1 body composition evaluation, 2 abdominal muscles strength tests, 3 dynamometry, 4 hamstring muscles and m. quadratus lumborum elasticity evaluation tests, 5 bicycle ergometer test (anaerobic threshold, maximal oxygen consumption. Results showed that most students had normal body composition parameters (BMI, body fat, muscle mass, body water in both genders and study programs. Women were less physically active that men, and PA duration was higher in PE students. PT students had higher body composition values, lower cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and lower handgrip strength in both hands than PE students. Greater PA generally implies a higher level of health-related physical fitness. PA significantly positively affects body composition, upper m. rectus abdominisstrength, grip strength and aerobic capacity.

  8. Teacher-and child-managed academic activities in preschool and kindergarten and their influence on children's gains in emergent academic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Annika K E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313715726; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool (n = 8) and kindergarten (n = 8) classrooms revealed that

  9. Teacher-and Child-Managed Academic Activities in Preschool and Kindergarten and Their Influence on Children's Gains in Emergent Academic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed in…

  10. Being Healthy and Safe with McGruff and Scruff: Activity Book for Preschool, Head Start, and Other Child Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    This activity booklet is designed to help preschool teachers and caregivers prepare preschoolers to deal with issues of self-esteem, problem solving, health and safety awareness, and crime, drug, and violence prevention on developmentally appropriate levels. It provides background information on drug and violence prevention for 4- and 5-year-olds,…

  11. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  12. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-08-29

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, informal musical activities can also influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-aged children.

  13. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Juhani Putkinen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere, which have begun to map how the developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, also informal musical activities can influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-age.

  14. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  15. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  16. Prevention of obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Julie; Barber, Sally; Singhal, Atul

    2010-05-01

    Obesity is a serious problem that affects children from diverse ethnic backgrounds in both industrialised and developing countries. Worldwide, an estimated twenty-two million children obese by 2050. Recent evidence suggests that most obesity is established during the preschool years, and because one in five obese 4 year olds will become obese adults this situation has major implications for public health. The causes of obesity in preschool children are complex and multifactorial. Although 30-50% of the predisposition towards obesity in preschool children can be explained by genetic factors, environmental influences also play a crucial role. The preschool period in particular is a pivotal time during which long-term dietary and physical activity habits are established, with potential lifelong effects on health. However, research in this age-group is limited. Previous studies have aimed to improve diet, increase physical activity and achieve behavioural change. However, few of these studies have been successful and there is an urgent need, therefore, for the development of evidence-based interventions aimed at the prevention of preschool obesity.

  17. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kann, Dave H H; de Vries, Sanne I; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical...

  18. [Physical activity and management of obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, J M; Balarac, N

    2001-09-01

    Physical activity is recognized as an integral part of obesity treatment, in association with other therapeutic means. A major benefit of physical activity is the association with better long-term maintenance of weight loss. Physical activity has also positive psychological effects and increases quality of life. An evaluation of the usual level of physical activity and inactivity is needed for each patient. Physical activity counselling should be individualized and graded, in a perspective of individual progression. In subjects with massive obesity, remobilization based on physiotherapy techniques is the first step. All patients should be given simple advice to decrease sedentary behavior: use the stairs instead of the escalators, limit the time spent seated, etc. In general, current physical activity recommendations for the general population fit well with a majority of obese patients, i.e. a minimum of 30 minutes/day of moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking or equivalent) on most, and preferably all, days of the week. Physical activities of higher intensities (endurance training programme) can be proposed on an individual basis. The type of physical activity required for long-term weight maintenance, and the question of adherence to physical activity recommendations in obese patients should be further investigated.

  19. Physical activity in Brazil: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith,Samuel C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study, based on a systematic literature review, was to describe the prevalence of physical activity (or inactivity) in the Brazilian population. The databases consulted were: LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar portal. The terms "physical activity", "physical exercise", "physical inactivity", "sedentary" "Brazil", and "Brazilian" were used in the search. Overall, 47 studies (all cross-sectional) with random samples were found, and in 26 studies ...

  20. Prescribing physical activity in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuscaldo, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    Physical activity is a powerful weapon for individuals interested in health maintenance. Many benefits of regular physical activity are well known to the medical community including improved weight control, healthier cardiovascular system, and tighter diabetic control. Less recognized benefits of physical activity may include stronger bones, better sleep, lower blood pressure, improved mood, opportunities for personal enjoyment, cancer prevention, and even a longer lifespan. Despite these numerous incentives, less than a quarter of the U.S. population is active enough to gain the rewards (13). West Virginians are among the least physically active; more than 40% of state residents engage in no leisure time physical activity at all (15), so it is critical that physicians in the state take a much more active role in prescribing physical activity for their patients. Although more research is needed, data exists to suggest counseling by physicians does result in increased physical activity (20-23). Attention to risk factors and specific red flags can help decide when formal pre-exercise stress testing is necessary. An organized approach includes development of the mode, frequency, duration, intensity and progression of exercise by a physician who knows the patient's interests and limitations (28). The most current consensus guidelines suggest 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily (12). Physicians need to encourage this goal during office visits and there appears to be benefit in putting specific physical activity advice in the form of a written prescription (21).

  1. Physical activity, physical disability, and osteoarthritic pain in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between the frequency (chronic, episodic, and sporadic) of arthritic pain in the hip and/or knee, other illness-related variables, physical disability, and a physically active lifestyle was analyzed in community-living subjects aged 55 to 74 years (N = 306). We tested the hypothesis

  2. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  3. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  4. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals.

  5. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2012-01-01

    -wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...... policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities....

  6. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Ekblond, Annette; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that a large part of the beneficial effect of physical activity on mortality is confined to a threshold effect of participation. METHODS: Self-reported physical activity was investigated in relation to all-cause mortality in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health...... cohort, including 29,129 women and 26,576 men aged 50-64 years at baseline 1993-1997. Using Cox proportional hazards models we investigated the associations between mortality rate and leisure time physical activity by exploring 1) participation (yes/no) in each type of activity; 2) a simple dose...... in specific leisure time physical activities, but not with more time spent on those activities. This could suggest that avoiding a sedative lifestyle is more important than a high volume of activity. Nonparticipation in these types of physical activity may be considered as risk factors....

  7. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  8. Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrazi, Robert P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A series of questions and answers helps teachers and leaders understand how much physical activity is enough for children and adolescents, discussing the guidelines used to make recommendations; childrens' and adolescents' unique physical activity needs; lifetime activity needs; and aerobic versus strength, endurance, and flexibility training. (SM)

  9. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  10. Successfully improving physical activity behavior after rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Streppel, Kitty R M; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R; van Harten, Wim H; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Woude, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of the physical activity promotion programs Rehabilitation & Sports (R&S) and Active after Rehabilitation (AaR) on sport and daily physical activity 1 year after in- or outpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Subjects in intervention rehabilitation centers were randomize

  11. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1 physical activity, (2 cardiorespiratory fitness, (3 musculoskeletal fitness, (4 sedentary behaviour; or (5 motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness.

  12. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-06-08

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3-12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness.

  13. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness. PMID:26062039

  14. The determinants of physical activity and exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Dishman, R. K.; Sallis, J F; Orenstein, D R

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation and delivery of physical activity and exercise programs appear impeded by the substantial numbers of Americans who are unwilling or unable to participate regularly in physical activity. As a step toward identifying effective interventions, we reviewed available research on determinants relating to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. We categorized determinants as personal, environmental, or characteristic of the exercise. We have considered supervised participation s...

  15. Parental influences on child physical activity and screen viewing time: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfenden Luke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents can influence their children's physical activity participation and screen time.This study examined the relative significance of perceived parental barriers and self-efficacy in relation to children's physical activity participation and screen time viewing. The associations between these factors and the behaviours were analysed. Methods Cross-sectional population survey in New South Wales, Australia of parents of pre-school (N = 764, younger (Kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4; N = 1557 and older children (Grades 6, 8 and 10; N = 1665. Parents reported barriers and self-efficacy to influence their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours in a range of circumstances. Differences were examined by child's sex and age group, household income, maternal education and location of residence. The duration of physical activity and screen viewing was measured by parental report for pre-school and younger children and self-report for older children. Associations between parental factors and children's organised, non-organised and total activity and screen time were analysed. Results Cost, lack of opportunities for participation and transport problems were the barriers most often reported, particularly by low income parents and those in rural areas. The number of barriers was inversely related to children's time spent in organised activity, but not their non-organised activity. Higher parental self-efficacy was positively associated with organised physical activity in the younger and older children's groups and the non-organised activity of older children. School-age children (younger and older groups were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines when parents reported ≥4 barriers (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.25-11.34 and OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11 respectively. Low parental self-efficacy was also associated with the likelihood of children exceeding screen time guidelines for each age group (pre-school OR 0.62, 95% CI 0

  16. Transforming the representations of preschool-age children regarding geophysical entities and physical geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA KAMPEZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A semi-structured interview was individually administered to 76 preschoolers. The interview raised questions about the conceptual understanding of certain geophysical entities. A teaching intervention designed to attempt an understanding of the relationship between them and earth’s surface was implemented with groups of 5-9 children in order to help children construct a more “realistic” model of earth. The intervention’s effectiveness was consequently evaluated (after two weeks using an interview similar to that conducted prior to the intervention. The results of the study indicated that prior to the intervention many children faced difficulties in descriptive understanding of even familiar geographic features, such as rivers, lakes and islands. After the intervention the majority of children readily conceptualized certain aspects of most of the geophysical entities and correlated them with earth’s surface. Educational and research implications are discussed.

  17. ‘Swim for Health:’ Barriers to participation for pre-school aged children and their families in an aquatic activity intervention in the North of England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam B.; Sleap, Mike

    2008-01-01

    health inequalities across the region. Aquatic activity offers great potential for reducing obesity levels in at risk communities (e.g. Hardy 1990). A key group within this intervention was children of pre-school age and their parents in lower socio-economic groups. The study aimed to identify perceived...... indicate only 50% of participants engaged in physical activity without their families. Participants’ male partners engaged more in physical activity alone, suggesting strong gender roles in physical activity choices. Where solitary physical activity was in evidence, perfecting the body through ‘bodywork......’ was central. However, swimming was still popular as a family activity. Participants felt less self-conscious about the perceived deficiencies of their bodies when swimming with their families as they focussed instead on their children’s wellbeing, pool hygiene and risk. Hence, participants emphasised children...

  18. Investigation of physical activity and physical fitness of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Saygın

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to investigate of physical activity levels of children and how their physical fitness. Moreover, it was aimed that to analyze physical fitness and physical activity levels of them with regard to their age and gender.Total 665 children (362 boys and 303 girls ages between 11, 12, 13 and 14 were participated to this study. As physical fitness parameters, height, weight, body composition, body fat percentage,max-VO2, muscle strength, flexibility and anaerobic power were measured. Furthermore, Bouchard Three-day Physical Activity Record test was used for determining physical activity level. SPSS program was used for statistical analyses.Independent t test was used for testing differences between variables of boys’ and girls’. Correlation test was performed for identifying the relationship between these variables. If p< 0.005 was, there were significant differences between groups and variables.As a result, it was found that boys’ Max-VO2, hand grip strength and anaerobic power were higher performance than girls while girls’ flexibility and body fat density parameters were higher than boys. Moreover, there were increase in height, weight, max-VO2, hand grip strength, and anaerobic power with age on both of girls and boys.

  19. Social change and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Lars-Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Today’s Western society is undergoing rapid change, and the speed of this process of change seems to be increasing. One of the major social changes is the gradual changeover from daily lives that contained high levels of physical effort to lives that are increasingly sedentary. A sedentary lifestyle is not without its problems. Several common illnesses are related to physical inactivity. Athletics, exercise, outdoor life and trend sports must be regarded as expressions of lifestyle and not as...

  20. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better qu...

  1. Physical activity in Greenland - a methodological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger

    Title: Physical activity in Greenland - a methodical perspective Inger Dahl-Petersen, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose:   The present study is the first population-based study in Greenland with information on physical activity using The International Physical...... Participants in a cross-sectional population survey representative of towns and villages in West Greenland completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire about their physical activity. The long version of The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure time spent on physical.......001). Less energy was used in leisure time among women living in a village (Pphysical activity in leisure time, home, work and transportation and provide information on both time and energy...

  2. Doing physical activity – not learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    to Annerstedt’s (2008) analysis of PE, it seems crucial that if physical activities in schools should contribute to at least well-being and learning, the teaching content (the doing) and strategies must prioritize and engaging pupils in the inherent qualities of physical education (Kretchmar, 2000). References......Introduction In recent years there have been a raising critique concerning PE as a subject which is more concerned with keeping pupils physically active than insuring that they learn something (Annerstedt, 2008). In Denmark, this issue has been actualized in a new sense. In 2014, a new school...... reform with 45 minutes of daily physical activity was introduced to enhance the pupils’ health, well-being and learning capabilities. Instead of focusing on learning bodily skills, physical activities has become an instrument to improve learning in the academic subjects. Physical activities...

  3. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  4. Physical activity motivation and cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation has been shown to be helpful in improving physical and mental well-being among cancer survivors. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on the determinants of physical activity motivation and behavior among cancer survivors. Using theories of behavior change, researchers have sought to identify the correlates of motivation that predict the participation in regular physical activity in observational studies, while intervention studies have focused on manipulating those factors to support the initiation of physical activity. The majority of this work has been conducted with breast cancer survivors, and there is an interest in expanding this work to survivors of others cancers (e.g., prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer). Results suggest that constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) are associated with greater motivation for physical activity, and some of these constructs have been used in interventions to promote physical activity adoption. There is scope for understanding the determinants of physical activity adoption in various cancer survivor populations. Much more needs to done to identify the determinants of maintenance of physical activity.

  5. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William

    1999-01-01

    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  6. Being and becoming as socialisation in a mathematical activity in preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Lembrér

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates a map-drawing activity in a Swedish preschool from the perspective of how children are positioned as being or becoming mathematicians by the children themselves, the teacher and the researcher. The children positioned themselves as being mathematicians, who were capable of expressing and using their own experiences and skills. The researcher also focused on the children’s expertise and so positioned them as being mathematicians. Nevertheless, there were times when the children acknowledged their need for more skills and knowledge to solve a problem and thus positioned themselves as becoming mathematicians. Similarly, some of the teacher’s questions also focussed on developing children’s mathematics skills, which thus emphasized children’s incompleteness or state as becoming mathematicians. By contrasting the teacher’s role with those of the children and the researcher, it is possible to identify how the teacher affects children’s socialisation and learning through her questioning.

  7. Physical activity in youth dance classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Conway, Terry L; Peck, Emma; Bracy, Nicole L; Bonilla, Edith; Rincon, Patricia; Sallis, James F

    2015-06-01

    The majority of youth are not meeting the US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines. Dance is a popular activity, particularly for girls, and has the potential to increase physical activity for many youth. This study investigated physical activity of children and adolescents in 7 dance types: ballet, hip-hop, jazz, Latin-flamenco, Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico, partnered, and tap. Data were collected in 17 private studios and 4 community centers in San Diego, California. A total of 264 girls from 66 classes participated (n =154 children; n = 110 adolescents). Physical activity was measured with accelerometers, and activity levels during class were calculated. Participants recorded an average of 17.2 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (36% of class), but this varied by age and dance type. For children, dance type differences were observed with percent of class in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ranging from 13.6% (Latin-flamenco) to 57% (hip-hop). For adolescents, there were no differences across dance types. Children were more active than adolescents in all types except ballet. Children and adolescents were more active in private compared with community center classes. Overall, physical activity in youth dance classes was low; 8% of children and 6% of adolescents met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 30-minute guideline for after-school physical activity during dance. To increase physical activity in dance classes, teaching methods could be employed to increase activity in all types, or emphasis could be placed on greater participation in more active dance types. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Habitual physical activity, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Function Scale, and a self-designed foot deformity audit form. .... categorised under: Work activity – assesses physical activity level .... married and more than half (59%) were in paid employment. ..... walking patterns of the diabetic groups.

  9. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  10. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  11. BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal, Jose Fernando

    2007-01-01

      It was considered that physical inactivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent (1), for this reason today is given much importance to the activityPhysics for this concept becomes protective factor against coronary heart disease. In relation to physical activity and cardiovascular disease, applying the concept ofprimary cardiovascular prevention, authors like Paffenbarger, Morris, have stated that this is beneficial in terms of reducing risk of coronary heart disease (2-3...

  12. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  13. Promote Physical Activity--It's Proactive Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…

  14. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  15. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl eKelly

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors.Purpose. Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods. Street segments were selected using a stratifıed geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results. Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks, sidewalks and public transit. Conclusions. Several micro-level built environment characteristics are associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity.

  16. Physical Activity and Public Health: Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety, discussing the scientific strength of studies on physical activity, depression, and anxiety against the standards of science accepted in epidemiology with a focus on the independence, consistency, dose-response gradient, and biological plausibility of the evidence. (Author/SM)

  17. Effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was foun

  18. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  19. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  20. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  1. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  2. Physical activity after total hip arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenmakers, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Regular physical activity plays an important role in the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic conditions, and is linked to a reduction in all-cause mortality. It also enhances musculoskeletal fitness. Through these effects, regular physical activity can make an important contribution

  3. Quantifying physical activity heat in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Labussière, E.; Klinken, van J.B.

    2015-01-01

    The time dependent character of data generated by modern calorimetry equipment provides the unique opportunity to monitor short term changes in energy expenditure related to physical activity, feeding pattern and other experimental interventions. When timed recordings of physical activity are availa

  4. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  5. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  6. Intensity versus duration of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Adam Høgsbro; Kristiansen, Ole P; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS).......To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS)....

  7. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  8. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  9. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  10. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  11. Entrepreneurial Learning in Swedish Preschools: Possibilities for and Constraints on Children's Active Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulander, Eva; Ehrlin, Anna; Sandberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The website of the Swedish National Agency for Education states that preschools are to promote entrepreneurial learning. Many Swedish preschools, therefore, have started to work consciously with entrepreneurial learning as a way of fostering pupils' creativity and ability to make their own decisions. This article investigates whether and how…

  12. Contributing Factors on Malaysia Preschool Teachers' Belief, Attitude and Competence in Using Play Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…

  13. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  14. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Murdoch, Linda; Reeder, Anthony I; Amun, Qa-t-a

    2011-05-29

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  15. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Rukh, Gull; Varga, Tibor V

    2013-01-01

    -administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2), sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were......Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished...... in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self...

  16. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Tortella; Monika Haga; Håvard Loras; Hermundur Sigmundsson; Guido Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before a...

  17. Physical Activity and Exercise in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Lok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a dynamic process that affects many systems in the body. Cognitive function with aging, including memory, intelligence, personality and behavior are affected at different levels. As time passes, durability of individuals and the amount of physical activity and exercise decrease. Apart from normal aging process, accompanying chronic brain syndrome of dementia will further reduce activities. Physical activity can provide opportunities for individuals with dementia in the path to socialize. Therefore, the role of physical activity and exercise in adapting an active lifestyle to protect the health of individuals with dementia is becoming increasingly important. Physical activity and exercise which would help in improvement of cognitive activity in dementia are briefly reviewed in this article. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 289-294

  18. Developing the Many-Sided Background of the Preschool Children Learning Activities by means of Algorismic Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Voronina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the current problem of modern education – developing the many-sided background for preschool children’s learning activities. At the given stage it is necessary to develop the algorithmic skills – the capability of and readiness for solving different kinds of problems in the strict sequence of operations according to the given patterns. Such algorithmic skills have a meta-disciplinary character and can be developed in class and at home. The paper highlights the algorithmic skills components (personal, regulatory, cognitive and communicative and the key indicators of their formation. The method for developing the algorithmic skills of preschool children is given including the three age related stages: ability to perform the linear algorithms (middle group, working with the branched cyclic algorithms (senior group, mastering the acquired skills and ability to perform some self- dependent tasks (preparatory group. The paper is addressed to the specialists working in the preschool educational sphere: preschool teachers, methodists, psychologists, directors of kindergartens. 

  19. Physical Activity in Hospitalised Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya West

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the amount and type of physical activity engaged in by people hospitalised after stroke. Method. We systematically reviewed the literature for observational studies describing the physical activity of stroke patients. Results. Behavioural mapping, video recording and therapist report are used to monitor activity levels in hospitalised stroke patients in the 24 included studies. Most of the patient day is spent inactive (median 48.1%, IQR 39.6%–69.3%, alone (median 53.7%, IQR 44.2%–60.6% and in their bedroom (median 56.5%, IQR 45.2%–72.5%. Approximately one hour per day is spent in physiotherapy (median 63.2 minutes, IQR 36.0–79.5 and occupational therapy (median 57.0 minutes, IQR 25.1–58.5. Even in formal therapy sessions limited time is spent in moderate to high level physical activity. Low levels of physical activity appear more common in patients within 14 days post-stroke and those admitted to conventional care. Conclusions. Physical activity levels are low in hospitalised stroke patients. Improving the description and classification of post stroke physical activity would enhance our ability to pool data across observational studies. The importance of increasing activity levels and the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity after stroke need to be tested further.

  20. Physical activity of pregnant Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kristine E; Landsbaugh, Jill R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Pekow, Penny; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity during pregnancy can reduce risk of pregnancy complications. However, factors influencing activity in pregnant Hispanic women, who have high rates of sedentary activity as compared to non-Hispanic whites, are not well characterized. To assess patterns and correlates of physical activity among 1355 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort of pregnant Hispanic women in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2011. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Pre-, early-, mid-, and late-pregnancy physical activity were assessed using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Women reported the frequency and duration of household/caregiving, occupational, sports/exercise, and transportation activities and were classified according to compliance with American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for physical activity. Household/caregiving activity was the primary mode of pregnancy activity ranging from 56% to 60% of total activity while sports/exercise contributed the least (<10%). Compared to nulliparous women, women with two or more children were 85% less likely to become inactive at any time during pregnancy (OR=0.15, 95% CI=0.04, 0.56, p-trend <0.01). Women with one or more children increased their total physical activity on average 9.73±2.04 MET-hours/week and 12.04±2.39 MET-hours/week, respectively, with the onset of pregnancy (p<0.01). Those with the highest levels of total physical activity prior to pregnancy were 87% less likely to become inactive with the onset of pregnancy than those who were inactive prior to pregnancy (OR=0.13, 95% CI= 0.05, 0.29). Findings can inform culturally appropriate interventions designed to reduce pregnancy complications through the promotion of physical activity during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vigorous intensity physical activity is related to the metabolic syndrome independent of the physical activity dose

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Ian; Ross, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background Current physical activity guidelines imply that, by comparison with moderate physical activity (MPA), the benefits of engaging in vigorous physical activity (VPA) are attributed to the greater energy expenditure dose per unit of time and do not relate to intensity per se. The purpose of this study was to determine whether VPA influences the metabolic syndrome (MetS) independent of its influence on the energy expenditure dose of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods...

  2. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of muscle-strengthening activities include lifting weights, yoga, push-ups, and sit-ups. A “repetition” is one complete movement of an activity. To get health benefits, do muscle-strengthening activities until it is hard ...

  3. Active Learning in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naron, Carol

    Many students enter physics classes filled with misconceptions about physics concepts. Students tend to retain these misconceptions into their adult lives, even after physics instruction. Constructivist researchers have found that students gain understanding through their experiences. Researchers have also found that active learning practices increase conceptual understanding of introductory physics students. This project study sought to examine whether incorporating active learning practices in an advanced placement physics classroom increased conceptual understanding as measured by the force concept inventory (FCI). Physics students at the study site were given the FCI as both a pre- and posttest. Test data were analyzed using two different methods---a repeated-measures t test and the Hake gain method. The results of this research project showed that test score gains were statistically significant, as measured by the t test. The Hake gain results indicated a low (22.5%) gain for the class. The resulting project was a curriculum plan for teaching the mechanics portion of Advanced Placement (AP) physics B as well as several active learning classroom practices supported by the research. This project will allow AP physics teachers an opportunity to improve their curricular practices. Locally, the results of this project study showed that research participants gained understanding of physics concepts. Social change may occur as teachers implement active learning strategies, thus creating improved student understanding of physics concepts.

  4. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  5. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi; Rollo, Rodolfo; Sansolios, Sanne; Matusik, Pawel; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2011-10-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specific aim is to assess preschool children's physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy and Poland. The parents' and children's physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire filled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole's BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ(2) test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14.6 %) of overweight, followed by Poland (17.1%), while Italy shows the highest (21.2 %) (p < 0.0001). The Polish families show the highest rate of walking from home to kindergarten and back, followed by the Italians and, lastly, the Danish ones (p < 0.001). Almost all the Danish and Polish children, but only the 50.1 % of the Italians play outside (p < 0.001). During the weekdays, 34.9 % of Polish children, 22.2 % of Italians and 19.8 % of the Danish play outside more than one hour a day (p < 0.0001). During the weekend, 91.1 % of Polish children, 86.7 % of Danish children, but only 54.4 % of Italians play outside more than one hour (p < 0.0001). 53.5 % of Danish children, 31.9 % of Polish children, and 18.2 % of Italian ones practice sport (p < 0.0001). Danish children are the most active, the Polish are in the middle and the Italians are the least active. The difference in infrastructures (safety of walking streets, access to playgrounds/parks, etc.) can play an important role, in addition to cultural and social family characteristics, to the development of overweight.

  6. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.

  7. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Федорова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used:  the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps:  diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31

  8. Physical Activity and Exercise in Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Sefa Lok; Neslihan Lok

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a dynamic process that affects many systems in the body. Cognitive function with aging, including memory, intelligence, personality and behavior are affected at different levels. As time passes, durability of individuals and the amount of physical activity and exercise decrease. Apart from normal aging process, accompanying chronic brain syndrome of dementia will further reduce activities. Physical activity can provide opportunities for individuals with dementia in the path to social...

  9. [Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in 362 preschool children in Yantai City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhu-Mei; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Wang, Ai-Hua; Wang, Ai-Li

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in preschool children in Yantai City, China, and to provide scientific evidence for health care in children. A total of 362 children aged 3 to 4 years, whose data were recorded in the National Physical Fitness Survey in Yantai in 2010, were included in the study. Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated. The relationship between Z scores and physical fitness was determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. The mean Z scores were all positive numbers. The prevalence rates of underweight and growth retardation were very low, but that of obesity was relatively high (up to 16.5% in 4-year-old boys). There were differences in physical fitness between children of different ages and between boys and girls (Pdevelopment remain at relatively high levels in preschool children in Yantai. The physical fitness is associated with age and gender in these children. There are weak correlations between Z scores and some physical fitness indices. Effective measures should be taken to adjust dietary habits and promote exercise for children, thus preventing obesity and improving physical fitness.

  10. [Protein nutrition and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M P

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and diet in order to optimize performance is getting growing interest. This review examines protein needs and protein intakes as well as the role of protein in the body and the metabolic changes occurring at the synthesis and catabolic levels during exercise. Protein synthesis in muscle or liver, amino acids oxidation, glucose production via gluconeogenesis from amino acids, etc., are modified, and consequently plasma and urinary nitrogen metabolites are affected. A brief comment on the advantages, disadvantages and forms of different protein supplements for sportsmen is given.

  11. [Relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chong-hua; Zuo, Hui-juan; Kong, Ling-zhi; Yang, Xiao-guang; Zhai, Feng-ying

    2006-08-15

    To investigate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome (MS). A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was conducted in 132 sampling 218,920 residents, aged 44.3 +/- 15.3 (15 - 96), in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland China according to the program of the National Nutrition and Health Survey. Questionnaire survey, interview, physical examination, measurement of biochemical indices, and dietary investigation were done. Information of physical activity and measurement of fasting glucose and/or glucose 2 hours after meal, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were obtained in 50,494 participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Chinese Medical Association's definition. The intensity of physical activity was divided into 3 categories according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of US/American College of Sports Medicine criteria. 50,495 subjects, 23,932 males (47.4%) and 26,562 females (52.6%), were diagnosed as with MS. The MS incidence of those with high intensity of physical activity was lower by 60% in comparison with those with low intensity of physical activity (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI: 0.362 - 0.443) adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol intake. The risk of MS in those with moderate intensity of physical activity of 151 - 300 minutes/week was slightly decreased compared to those with moderate intensity of physical activity of 90 - 150 minutes/week, (odds ratio 0.935, 95% CI: 0.685 - 1.277), however, the risk of MS in those with the moderate intensity of physical activity over 300 minutes/week increased slightly (OR = 1.269, 95% CI: 0.923 - 1.745). The risk of MS in those with low-level physical activity of 301 - 420 minutes/week was lower by 35% in comparison with those with the low-level physical activity of 90 - 150 minutes/week (95% CI: 0.451 - 0.933), however, the risk of MS in those with the low-level physical activity over 420

  12. Childhood Physical Activity and Adulthood Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Tammelin, Tuija H; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Pehkonen, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the associations between childhood physical activity level and adulthood earnings. The data were drawn from the ongoing longitudinal Young Finns Study, which was combined with register-based Finnish Longitudinal Employer-Employee Data and register-based parents' background information from the Longitudinal Population Census of Statistics Finland. The study consisted of children who were 9 yr (n = 1257, 52% boys), 12 yr (n = 1662, 51% boys), and 15 yr (n = 1969, 49% boys) of age at the time when physical activity was measured. The children were followed until 2010, when they were between 33 and 45 yr old. Leisure-time physical activity in childhood was self-reported, whereas earnings in adulthood were register based and covered over a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Ordinary least squares models were used to analyze the relationship between physical activity and earnings. Childhood physical activity level was positively associated with long-term earnings among men (P childhood physical activity can have far-reaching positive effects on adulthood earnings. Possibilities for improving physical activity during childhood may not only promote health but also affect long-term labor market outcomes.

  13. Obesity, Physical Activity and Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Jonathan L; Liss, Michael A; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2015-10-01

    While smoking and exposure to certain chemicals are well-defined risk factors for bladder cancer, there is no consensus as to the roles of modifiable lifestyle factors, notably physical activity, and obesity. We evaluated associations of obesity and physical activity with bladder cancer risk by performing a system-wide search of PubMed for cohort and case-control studies focused on obesity, exercise, and bladder cancer. A total of 31 studies were identified that evaluated the associations of obesity and physical activity with bladder cancer risk: 20 focused on obesity, eight on physical activity, and three on both. There was marked heterogeneity in population composition and outcomes assessment. Fifteen (65%) of the obesity studies used prevalence or incidence as the primary outcome and seven (30%) used bladder cancer mortality. Ten (44%) observed positive and 13 (56%) null associations of obesity with bladder cancer. Three (100%) of three studies also noted strong positive associations of obesity with bladder cancer progression or recurrence. Ten (91%) of the physical activity studies analyzed prevalence or incidence and one (9%) mortality. One (9%) study observed positive, seven (64%) null, and three (27%) negative associations of physical activity with bladder cancer. Study heterogeneity precluded quantitative assessment of outcomes. Obesity is potentially associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, particularly for progression, recurrence, or death. Further studies of physical activity and bladder cancer are needed to validate these observations and elucidate the associations of exercise with bladder cancer progression and mortality.

  14. Large-scale physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Sosič, Rok; Hicks, Jennifer L; King, Abby C; Delp, Scott L; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-07-20

    To be able to curb the global pandemic of physical inactivity and the associated 5.3 million deaths per year, we need to understand the basic principles that govern physical activity. However, there is a lack of large-scale measurements of physical activity patterns across free-living populations worldwide. Here we leverage the wide usage of smartphones with built-in accelerometry to measure physical activity at the global scale. We study a dataset consisting of 68 million days of physical activity for 717,527 people, giving us a window into activity in 111 countries across the globe. We find inequality in how activity is distributed within countries and that this inequality is a better predictor of obesity prevalence in the population than average activity volume. Reduced activity in females contributes to a large portion of the observed activity inequality. Aspects of the built environment, such as the walkability of a city, are associated with a smaller gender gap in activity and lower activity inequality. In more walkable cities, activity is greater throughout the day and throughout the week, across age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) groups, with the greatest increases in activity found for females. Our findings have implications for global public health policy and urban planning and highlight the role of activity inequality and the built environment in improving physical activity and health.

  15. A multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and improve healthy eating and physical literacy among young children (ages 3-5) attending early childcare centres: the Healthy Start-Départ Santé cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Humbert, Louise; Vatanparast, Hassan; Ward, Stéphanie; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie; Leis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a growing concern for public health. Given a majority of children in many countries spend approximately 30 h per week in early childcare centers, this environment represents a promising setting for implementing strategies to foster healthy behaviours for preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Healthy Start-Départ Santé was designed to promote physical activity, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers. The objectives of this study are to ...

  16. Preschool children living in joint physical custody arrangements show less psychological symptoms than those living mostly or only with one parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Malin; Fransson, Emma; Fabian, Helena; Hjern, Anders; Sarkadi, Anna; Salari, Raziye

    2017-09-07

    Joint physical custody (JPC), where children spend about equal time in both parent's homes after parental separation, is increasing. The suitability of this practice for preschool children, with a need for predictability and continuity, has been questioned. In this cross-sectional study, we used data on 3656 Swedish children aged three to five years living in intact families, JPC, mostly with one parent or single care. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, completed by parents and preschool teachers, as the outcome measure. Children in JPC showed less psychological problems than those living mostly (adjusted B 1.81; 95% CI [0.66 to 2.95]) or only with one parent (adjusted B 1.94; 95% CI [0.75 to 3.13]), in parental reports. In preschool teacher reports, the adjusted Betas were 1.27, 95% CI [0.14 to 2.40] and 1.41, 95% CI [0.24 to 2.58], respectively. In parental reports, children in JPC and those in intact families had similar outcomes, while teachers reported lower unadjusted symptom scores for children in intact families. Joint physical custody arrangements were not associated with more psychological symptoms in children aged 3-5, but longitudinal studies are needed to account for potential preseparation differences. ©2017 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  17. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  18. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  19. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  20. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  1. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  2. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  3. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  4. Effect of complex acrobatic elements in the development of physical skills of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyulina N.V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The directions of the complex acrobatic exercises to enhance physical fitness and functional status of children. The experiment involved boys and girls aged 5 - 7 years of the preparatory group. It is noted that the use of acrobatic elements for the development of motor qualities in children brings a positive result. Found that the use of special acrobatic exercises on physical training promotes full development, allows us to develop a high level of motor skills and physical fitness. Found that the impact on athletic performance, exercise, positive motivation for physical education classes, emotional, diverse playing exercises, exercises to music. There is a significant interest and desire of children to exercise, a high performance in the classroom.

  5. Physical Activity and Compensation of Body Posture Disorders in Children Aged Seven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hricková Katarína

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity is an indelible part of human life, but the impact of industrial changes on society has led to a hypokinetic lifestyle not only in adults but also in children and youth. This paper aims to present the results of a study of the body posture of 7-year-olds, which is an essential part of their physical development evaluation. The aim of our study was to expand our knowledge of the occurrence of body posture disorders in 7-year-olds, as well as to develop an appropriate movement programme which would help improve the current situation. Material and methods. The research sample consisted of 393 first-graders from 4 grammar schools in Kosice. We used muscle testing according to Janda and Tichy to obtain data on individual muscle weaknesses and postural deviations. Results. Our research confirmed the findings of several other researchers who had pointed out that muscle weaknesses and postural deviations can be observed already in preschoolers. Due to a lack of physical activity and movement, muscle weakness in preschool children results in more serious health issues at school age and later in adulthood. Conclusions. We managed to stabilise and even to correct the weaknesses we observed by implementing a movement programme focusing on the diagnosed muscle weakness.

  6. AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Peer Support Breaking Down Barriers to Fitness Overcoming a Fitness Plateau Celebrating Your Fitness Success Step ... for Physical Activity 5 Ways that Play can Change your Day Life's Simple 7 for Kids Keep ...

  7. Physical activity and obesity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hills, Andrew P; Andersen, Lars Bo; Byrne, Nuala M

    2011-01-01

    Globally, obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of becoming overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence, and reducing the risk of obesity in adulthood. Puberty and the following adolescent period are acknowledged...... that children will live less healthy lives than their parents. Owing to the high risk of overweight adolescents becoming obese adults, the engagement of children and adolescents in physical activity and sport is a fundamental goal of obesity prevention....... as particularly vulnerable times for the development of obesity due to sexual maturation and, in many individuals, a concomitant reduction in physical activity. In many Western settings, a large proportion of children and adolescents do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and, typically, those who...

  8. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in ..... determinants of high blood pressure in a group of urban Nigerians. J. Hum. ... Endurance exercise effects on quality of life and menopausal ...

  9. [Physical education, health and physical activities: difficult relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogérino, Geneviève

    2016-06-08

    Physical education (PE) is an appropriate subject to investigate the links between physical activity (PA) and health. The current training of PE teachers tends to emphasize the link between PA and physical fitness, to the detriment of other health components. The occupational, environmental, cultural dimensions of PA are frequently overlooked. This article lists four topics related to PA-health links, which could be more extensively included in initial PE teacher training, on the basis of abundant scientific literature: 1. the diversity of exercise motives, according to the subject’s age, gender, ability, competence, living conditions, etc.; 2. the role of body image on the desire or reluctance of teenagers to perform PA or certain physical activities; 3. the evolution of motivations towards PA throughout life; 4. the impact of the PE teachers’ masculinist conceptions, consubstantial of PE, due to its link with sport. These topics could contribute to a better analysis of what individuals seek through PA and the PA-health links they value. They could help teachers to adjust their teaching to contribute to the pupils’ health and not solely their physical fitness..

  10. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  11. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaycev V.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of active personality of students. It is rotined that in education of active personality of students an important role is played by their research activity.

  12. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri Brittin

    Full Text Available Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  13. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K.; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children’s physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students’ physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment’s impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  14. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (pworkplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  15. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  16. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  17. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Elizabeth Robinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 + 6.5 months; 49.5% males were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68 or control (n = 45 program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-minute sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time*treatment interaction (p < .001. In regards to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < .05, but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < .001. Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < .05. CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that may be an approach to enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation. This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age

  18. Effect of the Children's Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p < 0.001). In regard to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < 0.05), but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001). Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < 0.05). CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool

  19. Habitual physical activity in mitochondrial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehnaz Apabhai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype. METHODS: Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in 100 patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI. RESULTS: Patients with mitochondrial disease had significantly lower levels of physical activity in comparison to matched people without mitochondrial disease (steps/day; 6883±3944 vs. 9924±4088, p = 0.001. 78% of the mitochondrial disease cohort did not achieve 10,000 steps per day and 48% were classified as overweight or obese. Mitochondrial disease was associated with less breaks in sedentary activity (Sedentary to Active Transitions, % per day; 13±0.03 vs. 14±0.03, p = 0.001 and an increase in sedentary bout duration (bout lengths/fraction of total sedentary time; 0.206±0.044 vs. 0.187±0.026, p = 0.001. After adjusting for covariates, higher physical activity was moderately associated with lower clinical disease burden (steps/day; r(s = -0.49; 95% CI -0.33, -0.63, P<0.01. There were no systematic differences in physical activity between different genotypes mitochondrial disease. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease.

  20. Evaluation of physical activity of disabled people by modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was an adaptation the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for disabled people moving on wheelchairs, and check and objectification of the proposed tool. Material and methods. The research covered 69 disabled people (8 women and 61 men. All group was divided into two subgroups: regularly practicing sportsmen - Group 1 and people who were not practicing any sport - Group 2. Research tool was International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short version adapted for disabled people. Results. Averaged results of physical activity, expressed in MET, showed the differences between groups (Groups 1 average 7418 MET, Group 2 average 2158 MET, p=0.000. The biggest differences (p=0.000 were spotted in intensive physical activity. People regularly practicing sport training also devoting more time on activities related to locomotion. 31 of sportsmen characterized high level of physical activity and 6 - medium. In the second group 9 people were in high level, 11 in medium and 14 in low level of physical activity. Conclusions. 1. Almost half of people who were not practicing any sport was characterized by an insufficient level of physical activity. It means that the persons who not taking sports activities are also less active while performing daily chores and leisure. 2. The modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ can be an effective tool for the evaluation of physical activity of disabled people moving on wheelchairs.

  1. Dynamics of physical preparedness of preschool age children in the process of experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychuk I.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Influence of method of prophylaxis of flatfoot is considered on physical preparedness of under-fives. In an experiment 40 children took part 5-6 years. The indexes of speed (at run 30 m are certain, to flexibility (forward inclination from sitting position, adroitness (at shuttle run 4 х 9 m, speed-power qualities (broad jump from a place, jump upwards. The substantive provisions of the program of prophylaxis of flatfoot are rotined for children. Certain and analysed changes of indexes physical preparedness of children.

  2. Design and baseline characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Sofiya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most preschool centers provide two 30-min sessions of gross-motor/outdoor playtime per preschool day. Within this time frame, children accumulate most of their activity within the first 10 min. This paper describes the design and baseline participant characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP study. The STEP study is a cluster randomized controlled study designed to examine the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on during-school physical activity (PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Ten preschool centers serving low-income families were randomized into SBS-PA versus unstructured PA (UPA. SBS-PA schools were asked to implement age-appropriate 10 min structured PA routines within the classroom setting, twice daily, followed by 20 min of usual unstructured playtime. UPA intervention consisted of 30 min of supervised unstructured free playtime twice daily. Interventions were implemented during the morning and afternoon designated gross-motor playtime for 30 min/session, five days/week for six months. Outcome measures were between group difference in during-preschool PA (accelerometers and direct observation over six-months. Ten preschool centers, representing 34 classrooms and 315 children, enrolled in the study. The average age and BMI percentile for the participants was 4.1 ± 0.8 years and 69th percentile, respectively. Participants spent 74% and 6% of their preschool day engaged in sedentary and MVPA, respectively. Discussion Results from the STEP intervention could provide evidence that a PA policy that exposes preschoolers to shorter bouts of structured PA throughout the preschool day could potentially increase preschoolers’ PA levels. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01588392

  3. Effects of integrated physical exercises and gestures on preschool children’s foreign language vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.-F. Mavilidi (Myrto-Foteini); A.D. Okely (Anthony D.); P. Chandler (Paul); D.P. Cliff (Dylan P.); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractResearch suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body

  4. Effects of integrated physical exercises and gestures on preschool children’s foreign language vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.-F. Mavilidi (Myrto-Foteini); A.D. Okely (Anthony D.); P. Chandler (Paul); D.P. Cliff (Dylan P.); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractResearch suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body moveme

  5. Effects of Integrated Physical Exercises and Gestures on Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Okely, Anthony D.; Chandler, Paul; Cliff, Dylan P.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body movements (i.e., gestures) were investigated in a foreign language…

  6. Physical Attractiveness in Preschoolers: Relationships with Power, Status, Aggression and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Patricia H.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Mize, Jennifer A.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of theory and research suggest that power (e.g., social dominance) and status (e.g., social prominence and positive peer regard) are enjoyed by those blessed with good looks. The present work addresses the relations among physical attractiveness, power, status, and aggression from a resource control theoretic perspective that…

  7. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ. METHODS: The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. RESULTS: In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland

  8. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  9. Lifestyle and physical activity of the physical education professor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima M. Maia

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was: 1 to identify the physical activity habits in daily life of the professors at the Physical Education Department of UNIMONTES; 2 to verify the lifestyles of these individuals in terms of five well-being-related items (nutrition, physical activity, preventative behavior, social relationships, and stress control. Twenty Physical Education professors (5 women and 15 men, 27 to 53 years of age were evaluated. Three instruments were employed to obtain the required information: 1 PAR-Q, 2 Physical Activity Survey, and 3 Life Style Profi le using the Well Being Pentagram. It was verifi ed that 74% of the males were apparently fi t enough to initiate a physical exercise program. On the other hand, this number decreased to 40% in the female group. Concerning the physical activity questionnaire, 75% of the male group were active or very active, and only 40% of the female group were active. Regarding the lifestyle profi les (Well Being Pentagram, females did not report desirable healthy behavior, since their mean score was 1.4 points. In the male group, the mean score was 2.0 points, which indicates a healthy lifestyle, as well as an attitude more favorable to preventative health. We concluded that women require more attention than men, relating to the aspects mentioned above, and that men should not forget to keep on having healthy habits. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivos: a identifi car os hábitos de atividades físicas no cotidiano dos professores de Educação Física da UNIMONTES; b verifi car o perfi l do estilo de vida considerando cinco fatores (nutrição, atividade física, comportamento preventivo, relacionamento social e controle do stress individuais relacionados ao bem-estar. Foram avaliados 20 (vinte professores de Educação Física, sendo cinco mulheres (25% e quinze homens (75%, na faixa etária de 27 a 53 anos de idade. Para coleta das informações, utilizou-se três instrumentos: a PAR-Q; Physical

  10. Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodrich David E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.

  11. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  12. Observations of Children’s Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children’s observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children’s interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured settings, such as large group. On average, children’s interactions with peers and tasks were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were observed within small group and meals. The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom settings; instead, by providing an evidenced-based picture of the conditions under which children display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within these settings and have a powerful way to assist in professional development and interventions. PMID:25717282

  13. IMPROVING PSYCHOMOTRICITY COMPONENTS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN USING TEACHING METHODOLOGIES BASED ON MIRROR NEURONS ACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gáll Zs. Sz.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The scientific substrate of the study relies upon the concept of mirror neurons. Unlike other neurons, these are characterized by an imitation feature. They play an important role in learning processes – especially during childhood, enabling the imitation of motions and determining the primary acquirement thereof. Using this as a starting point, the study aims to work out and apply a methodology in keeping with the content of the psychomotor expression activities curriculum for preschool education, resorting to the demonstration procedures as a main teaching-learning method. Thus, we deem that mirror neurons reactivity will be determined more thoroughly, with a view to enhance the subject's psychomotor development according to body scheme, self-image and performance of basic postures and motions. For the research progress, an experimental group and a control group has been set up and the children’s psychomotor development level has been assessed both before the application of the independent variable and after the effects of the same upon the experimental group. As soon as the planned procedure was completed, the experimental group members showed a significant evolution in terms of the investigated psychomotor fields as compared to the control group.

  14. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  15. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-08-01

    Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60-82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012-2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered "healthy" if they had physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m²) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.80). Higher total physical activity in healthy than in unhealthy obese adults is evident only when measured objectively, which suggests that physical activity has a greater role in promoting health

  16. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. Objective: We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Design: Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60–82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012–2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered “healthy” if they had physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Results: Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.80). Conclusions: Higher total physical activity in healthy than in unhealthy obese adults is evident only when measured objectively, which suggests

  17. Physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often associated with physical hyperactivity. Recent studies have established links between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of commonalities in neural pathways. How physical activity should be managed during the clinical care of patients with anorexia remains controversial. This review first focuses on the implication of hyperactivity in the pathophysiology of AN. Hyperactivity during refeeding of patients with AN has been associated with increased energy needs to achieve weight gain, poorer clinical outcome, longer hospitalization, and increased psychiatric comorbidity. This typically leads to the prescription of bed rest. However, current knowledge suggests that preserving some kind of physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be safe and beneficial for the restoration of body composition, the preservation of bone mineral density, and the management of mood and anxiety. In the absence of standardized guidelines, it is suggested here that physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be personalized according to the physical and mental status of each patient. More research is needed to assess whether programmed physical activity may be a beneficial part of the treatment of AN.

  18. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Z Fan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising

  19. Perceived risk of osteoporosis: Restricted physical activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reventlow, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    the body), and the actual situations (the risk outside the body), including places and activities. Knowledge of a reduced bone mass reinforced the women's uncertainty about what their bones could endure. Experiences managing physical activity without injury resulted in reinterpretations of their risk......Objective. To explore elderly women's physical activity in relation to their perception of the risk of osteoporosis. Design. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting. Informants were purposely selected from a Danish population-based, age-specific cohort study conducted in the county...... of Copenhagen with people born in 1936. Subjects. Women in their sixties. Results. Women who perceived a current risk of osteoporosis tended to reduce their physical activity in an attempt to reduce the risk of bone damage. This behaviour was related to the imagined fragility of the bones (the risk inside...

  20. Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet therapy, physical activity, medical and surgical approaches. The specialists and obese patients prefer the first and second approaches. Physical activity helps to control and treat this disorder by influencing on obesity-related hormones. The main obesity-related hormones are ghrelin, agouti, obestatin, leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and resistin. In this review, the effect of physical activity on 10 major obesity-related hormones has been discussed.