WorldWideScience

Sample records for preschool life skills

  1. Preschool Life Skills: Recent Advancements and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Luczynski, Kevin C.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have replicated and extended research on the preschool life skills (PLS) program developed by Hanley, Heal, Tiger, and Ingvarsson (2007). This review summarizes recent research with respect to maximizing skill acquisition, improving generality, evaluating feasibility and acceptability, and testing predictions of…

  2. Preschool life skills: Recent advancements and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A; Luczynski, Kevin C

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have replicated and extended research on the preschool life skills (PLS) program developed by Hanley, Heal, Tiger, and Ingvarsson (2007). This review summarizes recent research with respect to maximizing skill acquisition, improving generality, evaluating feasibility and acceptability, and testing predictions of the initial PLS study. For each area, we suggest directions for future research. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. An Exploration of Life Skills Programme on Pre-School Children in Embu West, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatumu, Jane Ciumwari; Kathuri, Wilfred Njeru

    2018-01-01

    The Life Skills Programme, which is one of the newest programmes in the Kenya Preschool educational system was explored to establish the impact it had on the lives of preschool children in Embu West, Kenya. A primary school that is perceived as having well-disciplined children was purposively selected. The sample consisted of 39 students, 43…

  4. Evaluation of a class wide teaching program for developing preschool life skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Gregory P; Heal, Nicole A; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Ingvarsson, Einar T

    2007-01-01

    Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years. Classroom observations were conducted during evocative situations to determine the likelihood of problem behavior (noncompliance, vocal or motor disruptions, aggression) and preschool life skills. A classwide teaching program was then implemented in a staggered manner across instruction following, functional communication, delay tolerance, and friendship skills. These four categories of preschool life skills, which included two to four related skills, were selected for classwide teaching because they were either identified by educators as important for early school success, have often been taught following functional assessments of more severe problem behavior, or both. Skills were taught on a classwide basis during typically scheduled activities (circle, free play, transitions, meals) via instructions, modeling, role play, and feedback. A multiple probe design showed that the program resulted in an 74% reduction in problem behavior and a more than four-fold increase in preschool life skills. Similar beneficial effects of the program were evident in questionnaire data gathered prior to and at the close of the evaluation. Finally, the teachers who implemented the program reported overall high levels of satisfaction with the classwide teaching program, the target skills, and the results. Implications for the design of early childhood experiences for preempting the development of serious problem behavior are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of a Classwide Teaching Program for Developing Preschool Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Gregory P.; Heal, Nicole A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 years and 5 years. Classroom observations were…

  6. Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Farrell, Louise; Macniven, Rona; Howlett, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Children who do not master FMS are more likely to experience failure in the motor domain and less likely to participate in sport and games during childhood and adolescence. Studies among primary school aged children report low levels of FMS mastery indicating the need to implement FMS programs during the preschool years. Cross-sectional study of 425 children attending preschools in the Sydney, Australia in 2008. FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 including locomotor (run, gallop, hop, horizontal jump) and object control (strike, catch, kick overhand throw) skills. Data were analysed using linear regression and chi-squared analyses. Total locomotor score was higher among girls compared with boys (pskills and boys had higher mastery of object control skills. These findings highlight the need to provide structured opportunities which facilitate children's acquisition of FMS, which may include providing gender separated games, equipment and spaces. That mastery of FMS is low in primary school children indicates the importance of early intervention programs in preschools. Preschools and child care centers hold promise as a key setting for implementing FMS programs.

  7. Spite and Cognitive Skills in Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Bügelmayer; C. Katharina Spieß

    2011-01-01

    Although spiteful preferences play a crucial role in the development of human large-scale cooperation, there is little evidence on spiteful behavior and its determinants in children. We investigate the relationship between children's cognitive skills and spiteful behavior in a sample of 214 preschoolers aged 5-6 and their mothers. Other-regarding behavior of both mothers and children is elicited through four simple allocation decisions. A key advantage of our study is that it is carried out i...

  8. FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN NORTHWEST ENGLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls.

  9. PENDIDIKAN ANAK USIA DINI BERBASIS LIFE SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Nugrahani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To achieve the goal of teaching learning, a proper method, as an instrument, plays an important role in serving the teaching learning materials. The education of pre-school is aimed to develop the life skill, which covers attitude, knowledge, creativity, and skill. The teaching learning methode that forms the child?óÔé¼Ôäós character has to be turned back to the curriculum. It should remain concerning in the phase of the development and character of child who like playing, singing, dan moving. Finally, the teaching learning methode must be addressed in shaping academic, social, personal intellegence, and child?óÔé¼Ôäós creativity. Key words: a proper method, pre-school, life skills

  10. Impact of Thematic Approach on Communication Skill in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Varun; Venugopal, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of thematic approach on communication skills for preschool children. The study was a quasi experimental non-equivalent pretest-post-test control group design whereby 5-6 year old preschool children (n = 49) were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The experimental group students were exposed…

  11. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  12. A Study on Gross Motor Skills of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…

  13. A Comparison of Japanese and Turkish Mothers' Views about Self Care Skill Acquisition Age and Their Expectations from Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazan, M. Oya; Sakai, Aya

    2017-01-01

    Spanning the vital temporal interval between birth and the elementary school education, the preschool period is one of the most critical times of human life due to its importance in the formation and nourishment of personality. Specifically the preschool education enables children to acquire and develop basic knowledge, skills and habits, thus…

  14. Development of Motor-Life-Skills: Variations in Children at Risk for Motor Difficulties from the Toddler Age to Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Reikerås, Elin; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2018-01-01

    This article explores variations in development of everyday motor-life-skills in 661 children (329 girls and 332 boys) in Norwegian kindergartens of ages 2:9 (T1) and 4:9 (T2) years:months. The particular focus is on children at risk for problems in motor development (the 10% weakest children in the sample). The methodological approach chosen is…

  15. Good Talking Words: A Social Communications Skills Program for Preschool and Kindergarten Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Lucy Hart; van den Pol, Rick

    The "Good Talking Words" program aims to help children develop and demonstrate the social communication skills that are vital to school and life success. It uses an active, direct instructional approach for preschool and kindergarten students that uses language experiences to teach specific, prosocial behaviors that will help children…

  16. Investigation of Environmental Problem Solving Skills of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…

  17. Movement Skill Assessment of Typically Developing Preschool Children: A Review of Seven Movement Skill Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Wouter; Martelaer, Kristine De; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The importance of movement is often overlooked because it is such a natural part of human life. It is, however, crucial for a child’s physical, cognitive and social development. In addition, experiences support learning and development of fundamental movement skills. The foundations of those skills are laid in early childhood and essential to encourage a physically active lifestyle. Fundamental movement skill performance can be examined with several assessment tools. The choice of a test will depend on the context in which the assessment is planned. This article compares seven assessment tools which are often referred to in European or international context. It discusses the tools’ usefulness for the assessment of movement skill development in general population samples. After a brief description of each assessment tool the article focuses on contents, reliability, validity and normative data. A conclusion outline of strengths and weaknesses of all reviewed assessment tools focusing on their use in educational research settings is provided and stresses the importance of regular data collection of fundamental movement skill development among preschool children. Key pointsThis review discusses seven movement skill assessment tool’s test content, reliability, validity and normative samples.The seven assessment tools all showed to be of great value. Strengths and weaknesses indicate that test choice will depend on specific purpose of test use.Further data collection should also include larger data samples of able bodied preschool children.Admitting PE specialists in assessment of fundamental movement skill performance among preschool children is recommended.The assessment tool’s normative data samples would benefit from frequent movement skill performance follow-up of today’s children. Abbreviations MOT 4-6: Motoriktest fur vier- bis sechsjährige Kinder, M-ABC: Movement Assessment Battery for Children, PDMS: Peabody Development Scales, KTK: K

  18. Motor Skill Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills of Preschoolers with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Megan A.; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers with developmental delay (DD) are at risk for poor fundamental movement skills (FMS), but a paucity of early FMS interventions exist. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the existing interventions to establish direction for future trials targeting preschoolers with DD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion…

  19. Preschool Children's Interest, Social-Emotional Skills, and Emergent Mathematics Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctoroff, Greta L.; Fisher, Paige H.; Burrows, Bethany M.; Edman, Maria Tsepilovan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between interest, social-emotional skills, and early math skills in preschool children. Math-specific interest and global interest in learning were measured using teacher report and a play-based observation task. Math skills were assessed with a test of math achievement, and social-emotional…

  20. MOVEMENT SKILL ASSESSMENT OF TYPICALLY DEVELOPING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: A REVIEW OF SEVEN MOVEMENT SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Cools

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of movement is often overlooked because it is such a natural part of human life. It is, however, crucial for a child's physical, cognitive and social development. In addition, experiences support learning and development of fundamental movement skills. The foundations of those skills are laid in early childhood and essential to encourage a physically active lifestyle. Fundamental movement skill performance can be examined with several assessment tools. The choice of a test will depend on the context in which the assessment is planned. This article compares seven assessment tools which are often referred to in European or international context. It discusses the tools' usefulness for the assessment of movement skill development in general population samples. After a brief description of each assessment tool the article focuses on contents, reliability, validity and normative data. A conclusion outline of strengths and weaknesses of all reviewed assessment tools focusing on their use in educational research settings is provided and stresses the importance of regular data collection of fundamental movement skill development among preschool children.

  1. Preschoolers' Reading Skills Benefit from One Modest Change by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabmeier, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    A small change in how teachers and parents read aloud to preschoolers may provide a big boost to their reading skills later on, a new study found. That change involves making specific references to print in books while reading--such as pointing out letters and words on the pages, showing capital letters, and showing how they read from left to…

  2. The Parent Version of the Preschool Social Skills Rating System: Psychometric Analysis and Adaptation with a German Preschool Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Markus; Scheithauer, Herbert; Kleiber, Dieter; Wille, Nora; Erhart, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990) is a multirater, norm-referenced instrument measuring social skills and adaptive behavior in preschool children. The aims of the present study were (a) to test the factorial structure of the Parent Form of the SSRS for the first time with a German preschool sample (391…

  3. Life skills and children's characterstrengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie; Linder, Anne

    Psychologist Anne Linder and Psychologist and PhDstudent Mette Marie Ledertoug focus in ‘Life skills and Childrens’ Character Strengths’ on improving life skills for children and adolescents by adopting a strengths-based approach combining a theoretical foundation based on VIA strengths...

  4. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type......-referenced classification of MS, the Danish sample distribution was significantly well for aiming and catching but poorer for the motor coordination test.The total sample and the least active children were most active on weekdays, during preschool time and in the late afternoon at the weekend. However, a relatively larger...... provide a valuable reference material for studies monitoring future trends in obesity, MS and PA behaviour in Denmark and other countries.Knowledge about sources of variation in PA among preschool children is scarce and our findings need to be replicated in future studies. A potentially important finding...

  5. Influence of preschool-teacher-efficacy, social skills and work satisfaction on mental health

    OpenAIRE

    前田, 直樹; 金丸, 靖代; 畑田, 惣一郎; マエダ, ナオキ; カネマル, ヤスヨ; ハタダ, ソウイチロウ; Naoki, MAEDA; Yasuyo, KANEMARU; Soichiro, HATADA

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate preschool teacher's mental health and to examine the influence of preschool-teacher-efficacy, social skills and work satisfaction on their mental health. One hundred preschool teachers (8 males, 92 females) were administered a questionnaire including preschool teacher-efficacy scale, Kiss-18, work satisfaction scale and BDI-II. With regard to the situation of mental health, preschool teachers scored slightly lower than the general level. Pas...

  6. The relationship between gross motor skills and visual perception of preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    TEPELI, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    Answers were searched for these questions; “Is there a relationship between visual perceptions and gross motor skills of preschool children?”, “Are preschool children's visual perceptions predictors of their gross motor skills?”, “Is there any difference between visual perceptions of the children having low, average and high level of gross motor skills?” within this study where the relationship between preschool children's visual perceptions and their gross motor skills were compara...

  7. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  8. Learning craft skills. Exploring preschoolers' craft making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virpi Yliverronen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore a preschooler craft-making process in which 18 preschool novices cut pieces for fabric bags and designed and printed patterns to decorate the bags. Through the task, children were familiarised with a small-scale holistic craft process. The intention was to determine how preschoolers perceived, verbalised and interpreted the craft-making process and how children used bodily expressions when explaining a learned craft skill. The present study relies on the videographic method: two preschool groups’ stamp printing activities were recorded, and each child was interviewed individually. Children’s embodied expressions were particularly in focus in video analysis. The results reveal that all the children were able to sufficiently explain the making phase, however, some children compensated for missing words using bodily and facial expressions and gestures when talking about making. The results showed that children worked logically, and the skill learning phases of perceiving, making, and interpretation were revealed from their learning.

  9. Deep and shallow water effects on developing preschoolers' aquatic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Aldo M; Marinho, Daniel A; Rocha, Helena; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M; Ferreira, Sandra S; Martins, Marta

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess deep and shallow water teaching methods in swimming lessons for preschool children and identify variations in the basic aquatic skills acquired. The study sample included 32 swimming instructors (16 from deep water programs and 16 from shallow water programs) and 98 preschool children (50 from deep water swimming pool and 48 from shallow water swimming pool). The children were also studied regarding their previous experience in swimming (6, 12 and 18 months or practice). Chi-Square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the teaching methodology. A discriminant analysis was conducted with Λ wilk's method to predict under what conditions students are better or worse (aquatic competence). Results suggest that regardless of the non-significant variations found in teaching methods, the water depth can affect aquatic skill acquisition - shallow water lessons seem to impose greater water competence particularly after 6 months of practice. The discriminant function revealed a significant association between groups and all predictors for 6 months of swimming practice (pdeep and shallow water programs for preschoolers is not significantly different. However, shallow water lessons could be preferable for the development of basic aquatic skills.

  10. Social Skills, Problem Behaviors and Classroom Management in Inclusive Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Esra G.; Tufan, Mumin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine preschool teachers' classroom management skills and investigate the relationships between teachers' classroom management skills and inclusion students' social skills and problem behaviors. Relational screening model was used as the research method. Study group consisted of 42 pre-school teachers working in Kocaeli…

  11. Difference in children's gross motor skills between two types of preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bik C; Louie, Lobo H T

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of preschool type (public vs private) on motor skill performance in 239 (121 boys, 118 girls) preschool children ages 3 to 6.5 yr. Preschoolers were tested on 12 fundamental motor skills from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition and 11 anthropometrics (body height, weight, Body Mass Index, waist and hip girths, and body segment lengths). Analysis of variance controlled for anthropometrics and age indicated that children from private preschools performed better on locomotor skills than those from public preschools. However, no difference was found in object control skills. The results suggest that performance of locomotor skills by preschool children is affected by their schools' physical environment.

  12. Mathematics ability and related skills in preschoolers born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Holly M; Akshoomoff, Natacha

    2017-12-12

    Children born very preterm (VPT) are at risk for academic, behavioral, and/or emotional problems. Mathematics is a particular weakness and better understanding of the relationship between preterm birth and early mathematics ability is needed, particularly as early as possible to aid in early intervention. Preschoolers born VPT (n = 58) and those born full term (FT; n = 29) were administered a large battery of measures within 6 months of beginning kindergarten. A multiple-mediation model was utilized to characterize the difference in skills underlying mathematics ability between groups. Children born VPT performed significantly worse than FT-born children on a measure of mathematics ability as well as full-scale IQ, verbal skills, visual-motor integration, phonological awareness, phonological working memory, motor skills, and executive functioning. Mathematics was significantly correlated with verbal skills, visual-motor integration, phonological processing, and motor skills across both groups. When entered into the mediation model, verbal skills, visual-motor integration, and phonological awareness were significant mediators of the group differences. This analysis provides insights into the pre-academic skills that are weak in preschoolers born VPT and their relationship to mathematics. It is important to identify children who will have difficulties as early as possible, particularly for VPT children who are at higher risk for academic difficulties. Therefore, this model may be used in evaluating VPT children for emerging difficulties as well as an indicator that if other weaknesses are found, an assessment of mathematics should be conducted.

  13. Footwear and locomotor skill performance in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Rudisill, Mary E; Weimar, Wendi H; Breslin, Casey M; Shroyer, Justin F; Morera, Maria

    2011-10-01

    The effect of footwear on locomotor skill performance was examined. 12 children (4 boys, 8 girls; M age = 56.3 mo., SD = 3.3) served as participants. Participants were randomly assigned to perform the locomotor subscale of Ulrich's Test of Gross Motor Development in two shoe conditions (Condition 1: Stride Rite athletic shoes, and Condition 2: flip flop sandals). Children scored significantly higher when wearing athletic shoes than flip-flop sandals. This finding is relevant for motor performance and safety in physical education and movement programs.

  14. The effect of group play therapy on social-emotional skills in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinekesh, Ahdieh; Kamalian, Mehrnoush; Eltemasi, Masoumeh; Chinekesh, Shirin; Alavi, Manijeh

    2013-12-24

    Childhood is important and critical period in human life. The foundation of ego is shaped in childhood. Play therapy is one of the successful strategies to help children with inner conflicts problems. This method of psychotherapy is base on the normal learning processes of children, provides solutions to relieve feelings of stress, and expands self-expression. Group play therapy can enhance the self-awareness, self- regulation, social communication, empathy and adoptability in children. Present study investigated the effects of play therapy on relational and emotional skills of pre-school children. For this purpose, the total numbers of 372 pre-school children were randomly selected, and divided into two equal groups (case and control). In next step, the BUSSE-SR methodology was used for evaluation and comparison of self-awareness, self-regulation, social interaction, empathy, adoptability, and control groups. Pre-test were performed for both groups and case group was involved in-group play therapy. According to the results of post-test, correlation of variables between case-control groups was examined by multivariate analysis of covariance. Frequency of boys and girls in our sample were 51.3 and 48.7 percent, respectively. The mean age of children was 5.1±0.6 year. According to the results of present study, play therapy significantly enhanced the social-emotional skills (Pplay therapy can be used in pre-school centers to help children learn problem-solving skills and communicate with others.

  15. Finger-Based Numerical Skills Link Fine Motor Skills to Numerical Development in Preschoolers.

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    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Fischer, Ursula

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies investigating the association between fine-motor skills (FMS) and mathematical skills have lacked specificity. In this study, we test whether an FMS link to numerical skills is due to the involvement of finger representations in early mathematics. We gave 81 pre-schoolers (mean age of 4 years, 9 months) a set of FMS measures and numerical tasks with and without a specific finger focus. Additionally, we used receptive vocabulary and chronological age as control measures. FMS linked more closely to finger-based than to nonfinger-based numerical skills even after accounting for the control variables. Moreover, the relationship between FMS and numerical skill was entirely mediated by finger-based numerical skills. We concluded that FMS are closely related to early numerical skill development through finger-based numerical counting that aids the acquisition of mathematical mental representations.

  16. Art Appreciation for Developing Communication Skills among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Duh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary process of teaching fine arts, children’s own creative expression and art appreciation are used to encourage learners towards both perception and reception; consequently, the evaluation and internalization of works of art play an equally important role. In a qualitative empirical research study that takes the form of a case study, we studied the response of children to works of art and their demonstrated communication skills in this. The results have shown that children respond to works of art on multiple levels. With non-standardized narrative group interviews, we observed children’s associations. Children perceived and internalized the given artworks and also put their emotions into words. The study has shown that systematic development of art appreciation among pre-school children can have a positive impact on their communication skills.

  17. Building citizenship and life skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Sinclair

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As displaced people are sheltered (some would say ‘warehoused’ in huge camps, is enough being done to help them acquire the life and survival skills to enable a future based on reconciliation, human rights and democratic governance?

  18. Level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre-school children in their ordinary lives

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    and keywords The level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre- school children in their ordinary lives. The diploma thesis deals with the issue of movement activity of pre-school children. Movement activities are vital part of healthy life, especially for children. It should be an essential part of every activity, no matter if it is sport, game, relaxation or just a walk to school. It should be a common part of every pre-school child daily programme. The ac...

  19. A Motor-Skills Programme to Enhance Visual Motor Integration of Selected Pre-School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Africa, Eileen K.; van Deventer, Karel J.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-schoolers are in a window period for motor skill development. Visual-motor integration (VMI) is the foundation for academic and sport skills. Therefore, it must develop before formal schooling. This study attempted to improve VMI skills. VMI skills were measured with the "Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration 6th…

  20. Motor Skill Improvement in Preschoolers: How Effective Are Activity Cards?

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    Lars Donath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to early develop and implement motor skill promotion in preschoolers are lacking. Thus, we examined the effects of a card-based exercise promotion program in a kindergarten setting. 214 preschool children (5.5 ± 0.6 y, range 4.2–6.7 y were examined in the present intervention study. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were measured. Children were randomly assigned to the KIDZ-Box® physical activity intervention program (INT: n = 107 or the control group (CON: n = 107. Children were trained daily for 15 min over 7 month at the preschool for agility, balance, endurance and jump performance, employing the card-based KIDZ-Box® media package. At pre- and post-testing, dynamic balance, jump and agility performance were tested. Cross-sectionally, agility testing differed between sexes (p = 0.01 and BMI (p = 0.02. Trends towards a significant association were found between BMI and side-to-side jumping (p = 0.1 and beam balancing (p = 0.05. Relevant interventional effects favoring the intervention group were slightly found for agility (p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.02 and moderately for side-to-side jumping (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.08. Balance performance did not relevantly improve. As jumping cards have been used frequently by the teachers, jumping improvements are plausible. The activity cards are feasibly applicable but should be employed with more structure during longer training sessions.

  1. Life Skills – Key to Success

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    Beena Johnson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Life skills are the abilities for adaptive and positive behavior which enable the individuals to deal effectively with the challenges and stress of everyday life. Cognitive skills are used for analyzing information, personal skills help in self-management and inter-personal skills are needed for good communication and effective social interaction. These skills can be developed through scientific professional training. Life skills empower the adolescents to choose the best values and behaviors which are essential for positive health. Students who acquire life skills become better adjusted to the school environment and their academic performance will definitely improve. Their self esteem increases and they become capable of coping with the demands and challenges of daily life. Through repeated practicing, individuals can develop mastery over these skills. They learn to apply life skills in all problematic situations in real life and gain control over stressful situations easily.

  2. Counting on fine motor skills: links between preschool finger dexterity and numerical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ursula; Suggate, Sebastian P; Schmirl, Judith; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2017-10-26

    Finger counting is widely considered an important step in children's early mathematical development. Presumably, children's ability to move their fingers during early counting experiences to aid number representation depends in part on their early fine motor skills (FMS). Specifically, FMS should link to children's procedural counting skills through consistent repetition of finger-counting procedures. Accordingly, we hypothesized that (a) FMS are linked to early counting skills, and (b) greater FMS relate to conceptual counting knowledge (e.g., cardinality, abstraction, order irrelevance) via procedural counting skills (i.e., one-one correspondence and correctness of verbal counting). Preschool children (N = 177) were administered measures of procedural counting skills, conceptual counting knowledge, FMS, and general cognitive skills along with parent questionnaires on home mathematics and fine motor environment. FMS correlated with procedural counting skills and conceptual counting knowledge after controlling for cognitive skills, chronological age, home mathematics and FMS environments. Moreover, the relationship between FMS and conceptual counting knowledge was mediated by procedural counting skills. Findings suggest that FMS play a role in early counting and therewith conceptual counting knowledge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  4. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between language and gross motor skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, W J; Barnett, B E

    1995-12-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between language skills and gross-motor skills of 28 preschool children from two private preschools in New York City. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated for language (revised Preschool Language Scale) and gross motor (Test of Gross Motor Development) scores. Locomotor skills were significantly related to both auditory comprehension and verbal ability while object control scores did not correlate significantly with either language score. These results were discussed in terms of previous research and with reference to dynamical systems theory. Suggestions for research were made.

  5. An evaluation of the generalization and maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills with preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    The preschool life skills (PLS) program (Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007; Luczynski & Hanley, 2013) involves teaching social skills as a means of decreasing and preventing problem behavior. However, achieving durable outcomes as children transition across educational settings depend on the generalization and long-term maintenance of those skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate procedures for promoting generalization and long-term maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills for 6 preschool children. When the children's social skills decreased across repeated observations during a generalization assessment, we incorporated modifications to the teaching procedures. However, the effects of the modifications were variable across skills and children. Satisfactory generalization was observed only after the teacher was informed of the target skills and teaching strategies. Maintenance of most social skills was observed 3 months after teaching was discontinued. We discuss the importance of improving child and teacher behavior to promote generalization and maintenance of important social skills. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  7. Teaching Play Skills to Visually Impaired Preschool Children: Its Effect on Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaydin, Latife

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects that teaching visually impaired (VI) preschool children play skills has on their abilities to initialize and respond to social interactions with their typically developing (TD) peers in a reverse mainstreaming preschool class. The subjects of the study were three female VI students regularly attending…

  8. Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeroglu, Esra; Buyukozturk, Sener; Aydogan, Yasemin; Cakan, Mehtap; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Ozyurek, Arzu; Akduman, Gulumser Gultekin; Gunindi, Yunus; Kutlu, Omer; Coban, Aysel; Yurt, Ozlem; Kogar, Hakan; Karayol, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine and interpret norms of the Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale (PSSRS) teacher form. The sample included 224 independent preschools and 169 primary schools. The schools are distributed among 48 provinces and 3324 children were included. Data were obtained from the PSSRS teacher form. The validity and reliability…

  9. Promoting Oral Language Skills in Preschool Children through Sociodramatic Play in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, P. L. N. Randima

    2016-01-01

    Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention…

  10. Teacher-Child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how children's temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher-child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational…

  11. Chronic Absenteeism and Preschool Children's Executive Functioning Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Jackson, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Investments in preschool programs for children from disadvantaged backgrounds have historically been supported by research showing that these programs help children build school readiness skills and narrow the income-achievement gap. However, results from recent studies of the links between preschool participation and increases in school readiness…

  12. Effect of a 6-Week Active Play Intervention on Fundamental Movement Skill Competence of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an active play intervention on fundamental movement skills of 3- to 5-year-old children from deprived communities. In a cluster randomized controlled trial design, six preschools received a resource pack and a 6-week local authority program involving staff training with help implementing 60-minute weekly sessions and postprogram support. Six comparison preschools received a resource pack only. Twelve skills were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 6-month follow-up using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. One hundred and sixty-two children (Mean age = 4.64 ± 0.58 years; 53.1% boys) were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between groups for total fundamental movement skill, object-control skill or locomotor skill scores, indicating a need for program modification to facilitate greater skill improvements.

  13. Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Low-Income Preschooler's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Miriam; Poulakos, Anthoula; Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie

    2016-01-01

    Parent-teacher rating discrepancies in rating of children's social skills were examined in a low-income, ethnically diverse preschool sample, using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales [Gresham, F. J. & Elliott, S. N. (2008). "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales." Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments].…

  14. Profiles of Emergent Literacy Skills among Preschool Children Who Are at Risk for Academic Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.; Konold, Timothy R.; McGinty, Anita S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of within-group variability in the emergent literacy skills of preschoolers who are at risk for academic difficulties. We used the person-centered approach of cluster analysis to identify profiles of emergent literacy skills, taking into account both oral language and code-related skills.…

  15. Trained, Generalized, and Collateral Behavior Changes of Preschool Children Receiving Gross-Motor Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Holborn, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Results indicated that the program improved the 10 targeted gross-motor skills and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. The program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications are…

  16. When Seeing Is Better than Doing: Preschoolers' Transfer of STEM Skills Using Touchscreen Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Elizabeth L; Kirkorian, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which character familiarity and game interactivity moderate preschoolers' learning and transfer from digital games. The games were based on a popular television show and designed to test skills related to STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics): numerical cognition (quantity of different sets) and knowledge of a biological concept (growth). Preschoolers (3.0-5.5 years, N = 44) were assigned to play one game and watch a recording of an experimenter playing the other game. Learning was assessed during pre-test and post-test using screenshots from the game. Transfer was assessed using modified screenshots (near) and real-life objects (far). Familiarity was assessed by asking children to identify the television characters and program. Findings indicate that the effectiveness of the games varied by age and condition: younger children learned from the quantity game, but only when they watched (rather than played) the game. They did not transfer this information in either condition. Conversely, older children learned from the growth game regardless of whether they played or watched. However, older children only demonstrated far transfer if they watched (rather than played) the growth game. Thus, preschoolers may benefit more by watching a video than by playing a game if the game is cognitively demanding, perhaps because making decisions while playing the game increases cognitive load. Character familiarity did not predict learning, perhaps because there was little overlap between the lessons presented in the television program and game. Findings from the current study highlight the need for more research into educational games and applications designed for preschoolers in order to establish whether, how, and for whom screen media can be educationally valuable.

  17. A short-term longitudinal study of relational aggression and social skills of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Miyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study was designed to examine relational aggression associated with social skills and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of preschool children. Relational aggression, social skills (self-control skills, friendship making skills, and assertion skills), and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of one hundred and twenty 5-year old children were assessed two times across a 6-months period by using teacher rating measures. For the data analysis, the children were divided according to th...

  18. Investigation of the Relationship between Communication Skills, Social Competence and Emotion Regulation Skills of Preschool Children in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagal, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between communication skills, social competence and emotion regulation skills of preschool children. Children attending public primary schools who were 53 to 80 months old from the middle socio-economic class were chosen randomly from Istanbul City center districts for this study. They were…

  19. Combining child social skills training with a parent early intervention program for inhibited preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Preschool Early Literacy Skills: Linking Children's Educational Needs with Empirically Supported Instructional Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Nicholas P; Lerner, Matthew D

    2011-05-01

    The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.

  1. Promoting Oral Language Skills in Preschool Children through Sociodramatic Play in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L.N. Randima Rajapaksha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention collaboratively with the class teacher for a group of 10 children selected utilizing purposive sampling method in a preschool classroom. The intervention was conducted in a preschool located in Colombo, Sri Lanka for 3 weeks. The observation, interview and reflective journal were the instrument used to collect data. The observation carried under two criteria namely, ability to initiate a conversation and ability to respond in a conversation revealed that the sociodramatic play intervention created many opportunities to develop oral language skills in the children than the regular classroom activities. The sociodramatic play activities enhanced children's oral language skills while creating a language rich playful learning experiences. Keywords: Language development, Early childhood education, Sociodramatic play

  2. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537

  3. Screening preschool children for fine motor skills: environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0-24 months (57%), 25-40 months (21.1%), 41-56 months (10.4%), and 57-82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development.

  4. An Evaluation of Social Adaptation Skills of Children with and without Preschool Education Background Based on Their Mothers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunindi, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to discover if preschool teaching affects children's development of social skills and behaviours. Mothers of 50 children from middle socio-economic class families attending preschools and mothers of 50 children from the same socio-economic class families not attending preschools were included in the study. "Social…

  5. The effect of fine and grapho-motor skill demands on preschoolers' decoding skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Pufke, Eva; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2016-01-01

    Previous correlational research has found indications that fine motor skills (FMS) link to early reading development, but the work has not demonstrated causality. We manipulated 51 preschoolers' FMS while children learned to decode letters and nonsense words in a within-participants, randomized, and counterbalanced single-factor design with pre- and posttesting. In two conditions, children wrote with a pencil that had a conical shape fitted to the end filled with either steel (impaired writing condition) or polystyrene (normal writing condition). In a third control condition, children simply pointed at the letters with the light pencil as they learned to read the words (pointing condition). Results indicate that children learned the most decoding skills in the normal writing condition, followed by the pointing and impaired writing conditions. In addition, working memory, phonemic awareness, and grapho-motor skills were generally predictors of decoding skill development. The findings provide experimental evidence that having lower FMS is disadvantageous for reading development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parenting Styles and Children's Social Skills as Perceived by Jordanian Mothers of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles in a sample of Jordanian mothers and their perceptions of the social skills exhibited by their preschool children. The sample consisted of 802 ("N"=802) mothers who responded to a three-part questionnaire: demographic information, parenting styles, and social skills. The results of this…

  7. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  8. The Association between Preschool Children's Social Functioning and Their Emergent Academic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, David H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Marshall, Nastassja A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between social functioning and emergent academic development in a sample of 467 preschool children (M=55.9 months old, SD=3.8). Teachers reported on children's aggression, attention problems, and prosocial skills. Preliteracy, language, and early mathematics skills were assessed with standardized tests. Better…

  9. Cortical Responses to Chinese Phonemes in Preschoolers Predict Their Literacy Skills at School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tian; Shuai, Lan; Frost, Stephen J; Landi, Nicole; Pugh, Kenneth R; Shu, Hua

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether preschoolers with poor phonological awareness (PA) skills had impaired cortical basis for detecting speech feature, and whether speech perception influences future literacy outcomes in preschoolers. We recorded ERP responses to speech in 52 Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that the poor PA group processed speech changes differentially compared to control group in mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). Furthermore, speech perception in kindergarten could predict literacy outcomes after literacy acquisition. These suggest that impairment in detecting speech features occurs before formal reading instruction, and that speech perception plays an important role in reading development.

  10. The Dynamics of Life Skills Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan NewStart, Inc., Prince Albert.

    This book is used throughout the life skills coach training course. The content focuses on increasing the understanding the training material and to assist in coaching life skills students. The course, based on adult training and counseling methods, involves the development of problem-solving behaviors in the management of personal affairs. The…

  11. A protocol for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled superiority trial investigating the effects of two pedagogical methodologies in Swedish preschool settings on language and communication, executive functions, auditive selective attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerholm, Tove; Hörberg, Thomas; Tonér, Signe; Kallioinen, Petter; Frankenberg, Sofia; Kjällander, Susanne; Palmer, Anna; Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz

    2018-06-19

    During the preschool years, children develop abilities and skills in areas crucial for later success in life. These abilities include language, executive functions, attention, and socioemotional skills. The pedagogical methods used in preschools hold the potential to enhance these abilities, but our knowledge of which pedagogical practices aid which abilities, and for which children, is limited. The aim of this paper is to describe an intervention study designed to evaluate and compare two pedagogical methodologies in terms of their effect on the above-mentioned skills in Swedish preschool children. The study is a randomized control trial (RCT) where two pedagogical methodologies were tested to evaluate how they enhanced children's language, executive functions and attention, socioemotional skills, and early maths skills during an intensive 6-week intervention. Eighteen preschools including 28 units and 432 children were enrolled in a municipality close to Stockholm, Sweden. The children were between 4;0 and 6;0 years old and each preschool unit was randomly assigned to either of the interventions or to the control group. Background information on all children was collected via questionnaires completed by parents and preschools. Pre- and post-intervention testing consisted of a test battery including tests on language, executive functions, selective auditive attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills. The interventions consisted of 6 weeks of intensive practice of either a socioemotional and material learning paradigm (SEMLA), for which group-based activities and interactional structures were the main focus, or an individual, digitally implemented attention and math training paradigm, which also included a set of self-regulation practices (DIL). All preschools were evaluated with the ECERS-3. If this intervention study shows evidence of a difference between group-based learning paradigms and individual training of specific skills in terms of

  12. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  13. Examining construct validity of a new naturalistic observational assessment of hand skills for preschool- and school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Wen; Brown, Ted; McDonald, Rachael

    2012-04-01

    The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills is a new assessment that utilises a naturalistic observational method to capture children's real-life hand skill performance when engaged at various types of daily activities in everyday living contexts. The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills is designed for use with 2- to 12-year-old children with a range of disabilities or health conditions. The study aimed to investigate construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills in Australian children. Rasch analysis was used to examine internal construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills in a mixed sample of 53 children with disabilities (including autism spectrum disorder, developmental/genetic disorders and physical disabilities) and 85 typically developing children. External construct validity was examined by correlating with three questionnaires evaluating daily living skills and hand skills. Rasch goodness-of-fit analysis suggested that all 22 activity items and 19 of 20 hand skill items in the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills measured a single construct. The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills items were placed in a clinically meaningful hierarchy from easy to hard, and the difficulty range of the items also matched the majority of children with disabilities and typically developing preschool-aged children. Moderate to high correlations (0.59 ≤ Spearman's ρ coefficients ≤ 0.89, P assessments of daily living and fine motor skills. This study provided preliminary evidence supporting the construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills for its clinical application in assessing children's real-life hand skill performance in Australian contexts. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  14. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  15. Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Smith, Leif M; McKeen, Kim

    2009-11-01

    Gender differences in cross-sectional relationships between fundamental movement skill (FMS) subdomains (locomotor skills, object-control skills) and physical activity were examined in preschool children. Forty-six 3- to 5-year-olds (25 boys) had their FMS video assessed (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and their physical activity objectively monitored (Actigraph 7164 accelerometers). Among boys, object-control skills were associated with physical activity and explained 16.9% (p = .024) and 13.7% (p = .049) of the variance in percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity, respectively, after controlling for age, SES and z-BMI. Locomotor skills were inversely associated with physical activity among girls, and explained 19.2% (p = .023) of the variance in percent of time in MVPA after controlling for confounders. Gender and FMS subdomain may influence the relationship between FMS and physical activity in preschool children.

  16. Mathematical Skills and Motor Life Skills in Toddlers: Do Differences in Mathematical Skills Reflect Differences in Motor Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikerås, Elin; Moser, Thomas; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2017-01-01

    This study examines possible relations between early mathematical skills and motor life skills in 450 toddlers aged two years and nine months. The study employs baseline data from the longitudinal Stavanger Project--The Learning Child. The children's mathematical skills and motor life skills were assessed by structured observation in the natural…

  17. Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity.

  18. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills With Executive Function and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age  = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.

  19. Matrix Training of Preliteracy Skills with Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axe, Judah B.; Sainato, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix training is a generative approach to instruction in which words are arranged in a matrix so that some multiword phrases are taught and others emerge without direct teaching. We taught 4 preschoolers with autism to follow instructions to perform action-picture combinations (e.g., circle the pepper, underline the deer). Each matrix contained…

  20. The Predictive Power of Preschool Children's Social Behaviors on Their Play Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Büsra; Ergin, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research study is to investigate children's play skills in terms of social behaviours (physical aggression, relational aggression, positive social behaviors, and depressive feelings). The participants in this study consisted of 300 children between 60 and 72 months studying at preschool education institutions. The research data…

  1. Developing Preschoolers' Social Skills: The Effectiveness of Two Educational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smogorzewska, Joanna; Szumski, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    This study tested whether and how methods called 'Play Time/Social Time' and 'I Can Problem Solve' contribute to the improvement of social skills and the development of theory of mind (ToM) in children. The participants in the experiment were nearly 200 (N = 196) preschool children with low social functioning, with and without disabilities. The…

  2. The Relationship between Maternal Acceptance-Rejection Levels and Preschoolers' Social Competence and Emotion Regulation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir, Dilan; Güven, Gülçin; Sezer, Türker; Aksin-Yavuz, Ezgi; Yilmaz, Elif

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between maternal acceptance-rejection levels and preschool children's social competence and emotion regulation skills. The study group of the research, which was designed in survey method, consisted of 303 voluntary mother-child dyad. The participant children were attending a preschool…

  3. The Correlates of Turkish Preschool Preservice Teachers' Social Competence, Empathy and Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Acar, Ibrahim H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations between Turkish preschool pre-service teacher's personal and educational characteristics, and their social competence, empathy, and communication skills. A total of 385 state university Turkish pre-service teachers (age range 18 to 32 years) from the early childhood education field…

  4. Gender Differences in Fundamental Motor Skill Development in Disadvantaged Preschoolers from Two Geographical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Crowe, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of gender and region on object control (OC) and locomotor skill development. Participants were 275 midwestern African American and 194 southwestern Hispanic preschool children who were disadvantaged. All were evaluated on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000). Two, 2 Gender (girls, boys) x 2 Region…

  5. Working Memory Capacity in Preschool Children Contributes to the Acquisition of School Relevant Precursor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Anna-Lena; Krajewski, Kristin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether preschool children with limitations in the visual or phonological working memory are disadvantaged in the acquisition of school relevant precursor skills at school entry. A sample of 92 children was divided into three subgroups depending on their performance in visual and phonological working…

  6. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  7. The Relation between Chinese Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Competence and Preacademic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Knoche, Lisa L.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examines the relations between Chinese preschoolers' social-emotional competence and their preacademic skills, as well as the role of child gender and parental education in such relations. A total of 154 children from the northeastern region of China were involved in the study. Both parents and head teachers of…

  8. Development of preschool and academic skills in children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse-Moens, C.S.H.; Oosterlaan, J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine performance in preschool and academic skills in very preterm (gestational age ≤30 weeks) and term-born comparison children aged 4 to 12 years. Study design: Very preterm children (n = 200; mean age, 8.2 ± 2.5 years) born between 1996 and 2004 were compared with 230 term-born

  9. Supporting Sociodramatic Play in Preschools to Promote Language and Literacy Skills of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Alsalman, Amani; Alqafari, Shehana

    2016-01-01

    English language learners are often at risk for communication and language delays--crucial elements in the foundation of early literacy skills. Studies have shown that preschool children involved in sociodramatic play demonstrate greater proficiency and interest in language development and reading. The manuscript shares evidence-based strategies…

  10. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cognitive skills of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidis, L; Choleva, A; Janikian, M; Bertou, G; Tsitsika, A; Giannakopoulos, G; Anagnostopoulos, D C

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) constitutes a neurobehavioral disorder which may potentially adversely affect children's wellbeing and academic achievement. The onset of symptoms is present prior to 12 years of age, and often the symptoms are evident in the preschool years. In fact, it has been suggested that screening for ADHD symptoms may be initiated as early as four years of age. Preschool children with ADHD have been shown to present with poor pre-academic skills and might be at increased risk for numerous school-related problems, including functional impairment during elementary school years and persistent poor academic performance thereafter. Although preschool years are characterized by rapid cognitive growth, preschoolers with ADHD may present with poorer cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. Due to the early onset of ADHD symptoms, exploring the cognitive correlates of this condition among preschool children is thought to be of notable importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate any association between ADHD symptoms and cognitive skills among preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a nationwide random sample of 4,480 preschool children. ADHD symptoms were assessed though interviews with parents and teachers based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Cognitive skills were assessed through a standardized school readiness test (A' TEST). Among participants, the occurrence of ADHD symptoms was 4.6% (boys/girls: 3.4/1). The presence of ADHD symptoms among children was inversely associated with non-verbal and verbal cognitive skills; specifically, with abstract thinking (aOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.30-3.00), language (2.36, 1.55-3.59), critical reasoning (2.58, 1.84-3.62), visual perception (2.42, 1.38- 4.24), and visual motor skills (2.61, 1.91-3.55). Children with ADHD symptoms were five times as likely to have compromised organizational skills (4.92, 3.04-7.97). Abstract thinking was the least affected domain

  11. Are sex differences in fundamental motor skills uniform throughout the entire preschool period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokštejn, Jakub; Musálek, Martin; Tufano, James J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in fundamental motor skills (FMS) proficiency between boys and girls of each age group, independently, across the entire preschool period. Using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition, FMS proficiency was tested in 325 preschoolers (4.9 ± 1.1 y, range 3-6) using a cross-sectional design. Compared to boys of the same age, 3- and 4-year-old girls had greater total (p skill (p < .01), and balance scores (p < .05). There were no sex differences for total test or balance scores in 5- and 6-year-olds, but 6-year-old boys outperformed girls in aiming and catching (p < .001). These data not only agree with previous research in that sex differences in FMS proficiency exist in preschool children, but the data also show that differences may not be uniform throughout the whole preschool period when analyzing by age. To avoid under- or overestimating FMS proficiency and subsequently prescribing inaccurate motor intervention programs, FMS proficiency normative values should be age- and sex-specific throughout the entire preschool period.

  12. Are sex differences in fundamental motor skills uniform throughout the entire preschool period?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess differences in fundamental motor skills (FMS proficiency between boys and girls of each age group, independently, across the entire preschool period. Using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition, FMS proficiency was tested in 325 preschoolers (4.9 ± 1.1 y, range 3-6 using a cross-sectional design. Compared to boys of the same age, 3- and 4-year-old girls had greater total (p < .01, fine motor skill (p < .01, and balance scores (p < .05. There were no sex differences for total test or balance scores in 5- and 6-year-olds, but 6-year-old boys outperformed girls in aiming and catching (p < .001. These data not only agree with previous research in that sex differences in FMS proficiency exist in preschool children, but the data also show that differences may not be uniform throughout the whole preschool period when analyzing by age. To avoid under- or overestimating FMS proficiency and subsequently prescribing inaccurate motor intervention programs, FMS proficiency normative values should be age- and sex-specific throughout the entire preschool period.

  13. Life skills, wealth, health, and wellbeing in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane

    2017-04-25

    Life skills play a key role in promoting educational and occupational success in early life, but their relevance at older ages is uncertain. Here we measured five life skills-conscientiousness, emotional stability, determination, control, and optimism-in 8,119 men and women aged 52 and older (mean 66.7 y). We show that the number of skills is associated with wealth, income, subjective wellbeing, less depression, low social isolation and loneliness, more close relationships, better self-rated health, fewer chronic diseases and impaired activities of daily living, faster walking speed, and favorable objective biomarkers (concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin D and C-reactive protein, and less central obesity). Life skills also predicted sustained psychological wellbeing, less loneliness, and a lower incidence of new chronic disease and physical impairment over a 4-y period. These analyses took account of age, sex, parental socioeconomic background, education, and cognitive function. No single life skill was responsible for the associations we observed, nor were they driven by factors such as socioeconomic status or health. Despite the vicissitudes of later life, life skills impact a range of outcomes, and the maintenance of these attributes may benefit the older population.

  14. Observational assessment of fundamental movement skill proficiency in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 玲子; 石沢, 順子

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill competency in children has been declining in recent years. Early childhood is a sensitive period for the development of fundamental movement skills ; the mastery of certain of these skills is a prerequisite for daily functioning and participation in later physical or sport-specific activities. Although quantitative methods have been developed for assessing movement development in children, it is also important to qualitatively evaluate such skills in developing chil...

  15. Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Early Literacy, Language, and Fine Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindman, Samantha W.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low–level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads (n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool. PMID:25284957

  16. Expressive and receptive language skills in preschool children from a socially disadvantaged area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ashling; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'shea, Aoife

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that children present with receptive language skills that are equivalent to or more advanced than expressive language skills. This profile holds true for typical and delayed language development. This study aimed to determine if such a profile existed for preschool children from an area of social deprivation and to investigate if particular language skills influence any differences found between expressive and receptive skills. Data from 187 CELF P2 UK assessments conducted on preschool children from two socially disadvantaged areas in a city in southern Ireland. A significant difference was found between Receptive Language Index (RLI) and Expressive Language Index (ELI) scores with Receptive scores found to be lower than Expressive scores. The majority (78.6%) of participants had a lower Receptive Language than Expressive score (RLI ELI), with very few (3.2%) having the same Receptive and Expressive scores (RLI = ELI). Scores for the Concepts and Following Directions (receptive) sub-test were significantly lower than for the other receptive sub tests, while scores for the Expressive Vocabulary sub-test were significantly higher than for the other expressive sub tests. The finding of more advanced expressive than receptive language skills in socially deprived preschool children is previously unreported and clinically relevant for speech-language pathologists in identifying the needs of this population.

  17. Predictors of Social Skills for Preschool Children at Risk for ADHD: The Relationship between Direct and Indirect Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa B.; Shapiro, Edward S.; DuPaul, George J.; Lutz, J. Gary; Kern, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between direct and indirect measurements of social skills and social problem behaviors for preschool children at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was examined. Participants included 137 preschool children, aged 3 to 5 years, at risk for ADHD, who were participating in a larger study examining the effects of…

  18. The Co-Occurring Development of Executive Function Skills and Receptive Vocabulary in Preschool-Aged Children: A Look at the Direction of the Developmental Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Barata, M. Clara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between EF skills, including all EF components, and vocabulary skills among preschool-aged children. In this paper, we…

  19. Life Skills Coach Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan NewStart, Inc., Prince Albert.

    Ways of helping coaches to counsel unemployed adults in the solving of their personal problems are explored in this manual. Originally printed as two separate volumes, this reprinting of the study has bound the two together. Volume I involves a general discussion of life's problems and of the need to solve them. This volume contains four parts.…

  20. Population-level associations between preschool vulnerability and grade-four basic skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo D'Angiulli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a predictive validity study examining the extent to which developmental vulnerability at kindergarten entry (as measured by the Early Development Instrument, EDI is associated with children's basic skills in 4th grade (as measured by the Foundation Skills Assessment, FSA.Relative risk analysis was performed on a large database linking individual-level EDI ratings to the scores the same children obtained on a provincial assessment of academic skills (FSA--Foundation Skills Assessment four years later. We found that early vulnerability in kindergarten is associated with the basic skills that underlie populations of children's academic achievement in reading, writing and math, indicating that the Early Development Instrument permits to predict achievement-related skills four years in advance.The EDI can be used to predict children's educational trends at the population level and can help select early prevention and intervention programs targeting pre-school populations at minimum cost.

  1. Training, executive, attention and motor skills (TEAMS) training versus standard treatment for preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibholm, Helle Annette; Pedersen, Jesper; Faltinsen, Erlend

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effectiveness of manualised training, executive, attention, and motor skills (TEAMS) training versus standard treatment in preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomised parallel group, single...

  2. Examining the Effectiveness of Naturalistic Social Skills Training in Developing Social Skills and Theory of Mind in Preschoolers with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Grzegorz; Smogorzewska, Joanna; Grygiel, Paweł; Orlando, Ann-Marie

    2017-11-20

    We compared the effectiveness of two programs for developing social skills, 'Play Time/Social Time' (PT/ST) and 'I Can Problem Solve' (ICPS), in improving the social skills and theory of mind (ToM) of preschoolers with ASD. The experiment took place in a classroom setting. Fifty-two children attended and data were analyzed with latent growth curve models. Comparison with a control group indicated that both programs were effective in developing social skills. The PT/ST program was more effective than ICPS in developing interaction skills; both programs improved children's ability to cope with difficult social situations. The ICPS program was marginally effective in developing ToM when compared with PT/ST and control condition. These results are relevant to children with ASD and their teachers.

  3. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children With Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers with normal hearing (NH). All were tested on normed measures of working memory, inhibition-concentration, and organization-integration. Parents completed a normed rating scale of problem behaviors related to EF. Comparisons of EF skills of children with CIs were made to peers with NH and to published nationally representative norms. Results Preschoolers with CIs showed significantly poorer performance on inhibition-concentration and working memory compared with peers with NH and with national norms. No group differences were found in visual memory or organization-integration. When data were controlled for language, differences in performance measures of EF remained, whereas differences in parent-reported problems with EF were no longer significant. Hearing history was generally unrelated to EF. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that EF deficits found in older children with CIs begin to emerge as early as preschool years. The ability to detect these deficits early has important implications for early intervention and habilitation after cochlear implantation. PMID:24686747

  4. Social Competence and Language Skills in Mandarin-English Bilingual Preschoolers: The Moderation Effect of Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Wyver, Shirley; Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to examine whether language skills and emotion regulation are associated with social competence and whether the relationship between English skills and social competence is moderated by emotion regulation in Mandarin-English bilingual preschoolers. The language skills of 96 children ages…

  5. Associations between Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Competence and Preliteracy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W.; Brown, Chavaughn A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Denham, Susanne A.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and understanding the predictors of preliteracy skills can set the stage for success in a child's academic career. Recent literature has implicated social-emotional competence as a potential component in helping children learn preliteracy skills. To further understand the role of social-emotional competence in preliteracy, the…

  6. Helping Preschoolers Prepare for Writing: Developing Fine Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. Michelle; Fortenberry, Callie

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is the most intensive period for the development of physical skills. Writing progress depends largely on the development of fine motor skills involving small muscle movements of the hand. Young children need to participate in a variety of developmentally appropriate activities intentionally designed to promote fine motor control.…

  7. Fundamental movement skills in relation to weekday and weekend physical activity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foweather, Lawrence; Knowles, Zoe; Ridgers, Nicola D; O'Dwyer, Mareesa V; Foulkes, Jonathan D; Stratton, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    To examine associations between fundamental movement skills and weekday and weekend physical activity among preschool children living in deprived communities. Cross-sectional observation study. Six locomotor skills and 6 object-control skills were video-assessed using The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. Physical activity was measured via hip-mounted accelerometry. A total of 99 children (53% boys) aged 3-5 years (M 4.6, SD 0.5) completed all assessments. Multilevel mixed regression models were used to examine associations between fundamental movement skills and physical activity. Models were adjusted for clustering, age, sex, standardised body mass index and accelerometer wear time. Boys were more active than girls and had higher object-control skill competency. Total skill score was positively associated with weekend moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p = 0.034) but not weekday physical activity categories (p > 0.05). When subdomains of skills were examined, object-control skills was positively associated with light physical activity on weekdays (p = 0.008) and with light (p = 0.033), moderate-to-vigorous (p = 0.028) and light- and moderate-to-vigorous (p = 0.008) physical activity at weekends. Locomotor skill competency was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on weekdays (p = 0.016) and light physical activity during the weekend (p = 0.035). The findings suggest that developing competence in both locomotor and object-control skills may be an important element in promoting an active lifestyle in young children during weekdays and at weekends. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contributions of executive function and spatial skills to preschool mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdine, Brian N; Irwin, Casey M; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

    2014-10-01

    Early mathematics achievement is highly predictive of later mathematics performance. Here we investigated the influence of executive function (EF) and spatial skills, two generalizable skills often overlooked in mathematics curricula, on mathematics performance in preschoolers. Children (N=44) of varying socioeconomic status (SES) levels were assessed at 3 years of age on a new assessment of spatial skill (Test of Spatial Assembly, TOSA) and a vocabulary measure (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, PPVT). The same children were tested at 4 years of age on the Beery Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) as well as on measures of EF and mathematics. The TOSA was created specifically as an assessment for 3-year-olds, allowing the investigation of links among spatial, EF, and mathematical skills earlier than previously possible. Results of a hierarchical regression indicate that EF and spatial skills predict 70% of the variance in mathematics performance without an explicit math test, EF is an important predictor of math performance as prior research suggested, and spatial skills uniquely predict 27% of the variance in mathematics skills. Additional research is needed to understand whether EF is truly malleable and whether EF and spatial skills may be leveraged to support early mathematics skills, especially for lower SES children who are already falling behind in these skill areas by 3 and 4 years of age. These findings indicate that both skills are part of an important foundation for mathematics performance and may represent pathways for improving school readiness for mathematics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of fine motor skills on handwriting legibility in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Min

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that fine motor skills have on handwriting legibility in children of preschool age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 52 children of normal growth and development. In order to ascertain handwriting legibility, a Korean alphabet writing assessment was used; to measure fine motor skills, fine motor precision and manual dexterity, sub-items of BOT-2 were measured. Furthermore, in order to measure in-hand manipulation skills, a Functional Dexterity Test was conducted. [Results] The results of the study showed a high level of correlation between fine motor skills and handwriting legibility. The study revealed that the accuracy of hand and in-hand manipulation skills is factors that have an effect on handwriting legibility. [Conclusion] Through the current research, occupational therapists can provide activities that aid the development of fine motor precision and in-hand manipulation skills for children during the instruction and treatment of handwriting to preschool age children, which helps to conduct better legibility in their handwriting.

  10. The relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation had two folds. First, it aimed to discover the relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschoolers. Secondly, it examined the effect of sex on perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills within the sample. A total of 119 children (mean age 4.00, SD 0.55 years) participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd Edition was used to assess fundamental motor skills and the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance was used to assess perceived physical competence. The results show a moderate and significant correlation between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills. Sex differences were also found with boys demonstrating more proficient motor skills and reporting higher perceived physical competence compared with girls. The findings provide relevant information to the child development literature and suggest that a positive relationship exist between preschoolers' self-perceptions of the physical ability and fundamental motor skills. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Music in the Life Skills Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Eurika Jansen; van Niekerka, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Generalist educators in South Africa shy away from music in the subjects Life Skills (Dance, Drama, Music, Visual Art, Physical Education and Personal and Social Well-being) and Creative Arts (Dance, Drama, Music, Visual Art) and universities are not delivering generalist students for the subject demands. In-service educators, as well as subject…

  12. The Impact of Art Education Program on the Social Skills of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Elçin

    2017-01-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the effect of art education program on the social skills of preschool children at the age of 61-72 months attending to a kindergarten. The working group of the research was made up of 51 children in total, as experiment group (n: 26) and control group (n: 25). An experiment design with a pre/post-test…

  13. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  14. Emotion Regulation Strategies in Preschoolers with Autism: Associations with Parent Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, Heather Joy; Hedley, Darren; Tseng, Chen Hsiang; Begeer, Sander; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Children with autism experience challenges with emotion regulation. It is unclear how children's management of their emotions is associated with their family's quality of life. Forty-three preschoolers with autism and 28 typically developing preschoolers were coded on emotion regulation strategies used during low-level stress tasks. Parents…

  15. LIFE SKILLS ORIENTATION IN MADRASAH CURRICULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Ahmadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to elaborate a charge include life skills opportunities in both madrasah curriculum of ibtidaiyah, tsanawiyah and aliyah. The approach used is the science of Islamic education. Some important concepts in Islam that allows it to be analyzed and used as the basis of life skills-based curriculum contained in QS. Al-Ghâsyiyah [88]: 17-20, QS. Fâthir [35]: 39, QS. Al-Jâtsiyah [45]: 12-13, QS. Al-A‟râf [7]: 56-85 and QS. Al-Hujurât [49]: 1, 13, 18. Ethical values (Rasul Muhammad Islam that allows elaborating life skills is shiddiq, amanah, fathanah and tabligh. The fourth value is assumed to equip graduates of madrassas that he later had a number of personal, social, academic, vocational and soft. The fourth value is assumed to equip graduates of madrassas that he later had the skills. A number of core Islamic values should be in synergy with the age issues such as democracy, globalization, the mastery of science, technology and information (the environment.

  16. Fundamental motor skills of Czech children at the end of the preschool period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achievement of a sufficient fundamental motor skills (FMS level by the end of the preschool period is an important premise for the later participation of children in many sports activities. However, only a few studies have focused on the assessment of motor proficiency before entrance to elementary school in the population of preschool children in the Czech Republic. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the FMS of Czech boys and girls at the end of the preschool period. Methods: The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second version (MABC-2 was used to assess the motor performance of the children in different domains, i.e., manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance. The research sample consisted of 121 children (age 6.5 ± 0.3 years, 61 boys and 60 girls. Results: According to the total test score performance on MABC-2, we found 2.5% of children with severe motor difficulties indicating the possible presence of Developmental Coordination Disorder and 10.7% of children with a risk of motor difficulties. In total, 64% of boys and 81.6% of girls had an MABC-2 score in the 50th percentile or lower. With respect to gender differences, boys outperformed girls in aiming and catching skills (p < .001; d = 1.10. Moreover, the girls' score in the 25th percentile indicated a low level of aiming and catching skills. Despite significantly better results for boys in one manual dexterity test item, and for girls in one manual dexterity and balance test item, there were no significant gender differences in overall manual dexterity and balance subtests. Conclusion: With the preschool years being a key developmental stage for the acquisition and development of FMS, the findings of low level of FMS in most of children and gender differences in aiming and catching skills highlight the need for improvements in motor competency. An effort should be made, especially for preschool girls, to stimulate the improvement of

  17. Teaching Directional Skills to Preschool and Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, Graham M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Studied a new device and training procedure for teaching the directional orientation and sentence tracking skills used in reading and writing western languages. Left-right and up-down directional confusion were shown to be rapidly corrected in normal children by the use of a simple electronic device providing clear feedback. (Author)

  18. Munch and Move: evaluation of a preschool healthy eating and movement skill program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Louise

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood services have been identified as a key setting for promoting healthy eating and physical activity as a means of preventing overweight and obesity. However, there is limited evidence on effective nutrition and physical activity programs in this setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Munch and Move, a low-intensity, state-wide, professional development program designed to support early childhood professionals to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children in their care. Methods The evaluation involved 15 intervention and 14 control preschools (n = 430; mean age 4.4 years in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia and was based on a randomised-control design with pre and post evaluation of children's lunchbox contents, fundamental movement skills (FMS, preschool policies and practices and staff attitudes, knowledge and confidence related to physical activity, healthy eating and recreational screen time. Results At follow up, FMS scores for locomotor, object control and total FMS score significantly improved by 3.4, 2.1 and 5.5 points more (respectively in the intervention group compared with the control group (P Conclusion The findings suggest that a low intensity preschool healthy weight intervention program can improve certain weight related behaviours. The findings also suggest that change to food policies are difficult to initiate mid-year and potentially a longer implementation period may be required to determine the efficacy of food policies to influence the contents of preschoolers lunchboxes.

  19. Development of the Parent Form of the Preschool Children's Communication Skills Scale and Comparison of the Communication Skills of Children with Normal Development and with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…

  20. Skill-Based and Planned Active Play Versus Free-Play Effects on Fundamental Movement Skills in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Lindsay; Keats, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill interventions are important for promoting physical activity, but the optimal intervention model for preschool children remains unclear. We compared two 8-week interventions, a structured skill-station and a planned active play approach, to a free-play control condition on pre- and postintervention fundamental movement skills. We also collected data regarding program attendance and perceived enjoyment. We found a significant interaction effect between intervention type and time. A Tukey honest significant difference analysis supported a positive intervention effect showing a significant difference between both interventions and the free-play control condition. There was a significant between-group difference in group attendance such that mean attendance was higher for both the free-play and planned active play groups relative to the structured skill-based approach. There were no differences in attendance between free-play and planned active play groups, and there were no differences in enjoyment ratings between the two intervention groups. In sum, while both interventions led to improved fundamental movement skills, the active play approach offered several logistical advantages. Although these findings should be replicated, they can guide feasible and sustainable fundamental movement skill programs within day care settings.

  1. Preschool and Primary School Influences on the Development of Children's Early Numeracy Skills between the Ages of 3 and 7 Years in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Grosse, Christiane; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Ebert, Susanne; Weinert, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how preschool and primary school interact to influence children's cognitive development. The present investigation explores German children's numeracy skills between age 3 (1st year of preschool) and age 7 (1st year of primary school). We first identified the influence of preschool experience on development while…

  2. Early puzzle play: a predictor of preschoolers' spatial transformation skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Susan C; Ratliff, Kristin R; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Cannon, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    Individual differences in spatial skill emerge prior to kindergarten entry. However, little is known about the early experiences that may contribute to these differences. The current study examined the relation between children's early puzzle play and their spatial skill. Children and parents (n = 53) were observed at home for 90 min every 4 months (6 times) between 2 and 4 years of age (26 to 46 months). When children were 4 years 6 months old, they completed a spatial task involving mental transformations of 2-dimensional shapes. Children who were observed playing with puzzles performed better on this task than those who did not, controlling for parent education, income, and overall parent word types. Moreover, among those children who played with puzzles, frequency of puzzle play predicted performance on the spatial transformation task. Although the frequency of puzzle play did not differ for boys and girls, the quality of puzzle play (a composite of puzzle difficulty, parent engagement, and parent spatial language) was higher for boys than for girls. In addition, variation in puzzle play quality predicted performance on the spatial transformation task for girls but not for boys. Implications of these findings as well as future directions for research on the role of puzzle play in the development of spatial skill are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic assessment of word learning skills of pre-school children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Bernard; Law, James

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic assessment has been shown to have considerable theoretical and clinical significance in the assessment of socially disadvantaged and culturally and linguistically diverse children. In this study it is used to enhance assessment of pre-school children with primary language impairment. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a dynamic assessment (DA) has the potential to enhance the predictive capacity of a static measure of receptive vocabulary in pre-school children. Forty pre-school children were assessed using the static British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), a DA of word learning potential and an assessment of non-verbal cognitive ability. Thirty-seven children were followed up 6 months later and re-assessed using the BPVS. Although the predictive capacity of the static measure was found to be substantial, the DA increased this significantly especially for children with static scores below the 25th centile. The DA of children's word learning has the potential to add value to the static assessment of the child with low language skills, to predict subsequent receptive vocabulary skills and to increase the chance of correctly identifying children in need of ongoing support.

  4. The effect of a physical activity intervention on preschoolers' fundamental motor skills - A cluster RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasenius, Niko S; Grattan, Kimberly P; Harvey, Alysha L J; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Goldfield, Gary S; Adamo, Kristi B

    2018-07-01

    To assess the effect of a physical activity intervention delivered in the childcare centres (CC), with or without a parent-driven home physical activity component, on children's fundamental motor skills (FMS). Six-month 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Preschoolers were recruited from 18 licensed CC. CC were randomly assigned to a typical curriculum comparison group (COM), childcare intervention alone (CC), or childcare intervention with parental component (CC+HOME). FMS was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Linear mixed models were performed at the level of the individual while accounting for clustering. Raw locomotor skills score increased significantly in the CC group (mean difference=2.5 units, 95% Confidence Intervals, CI, 1.0-4.1, p0.05) between group differences were observed in the raw object control skills, sum of raw scores, or gross motor quotient. No significant sex differences were found in any of the measured outcomes. A physical activity intervention delivered in childcare with or without parents' involvement was effective in increasing locomotor skills in preschoolers. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  6. Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic…

  7. Quantifying the visual perception skills of pre-school testees using a novel tangible electronic test instrument

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available . These children were found to be less proficient in visualisation skills than their suburban counterparts. A new study was undertaken to ascertain whether there is any difference in cognitive skills, particularly visual perception, between pre-school children from...

  8. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Attention Problems and Expressive Language and Emerging Academic Skills in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Ryan, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attention problems and expressive language and academic readiness skills in preschool-aged children from middle-class families. Forty-three children (44% female) were assessed individually for expressive language skills and knowledge of basic academic concepts (e.g. colours, letters and numbers). The…

  9. Systematic Observation: Relevance of This Approach in Preschool Executive Function Assessment and Association with Later Academic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano-Pérez, Elena; Herrero-Nivela, Maria Luisa; Blanco-Villaseñor, Angel; Anguera, M Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are high-level cognitive processes that allow us to coordinate our actions, thoughts, and emotions, enabling us to perform complex tasks. An increasing number of studies have highlighted the role of EFs in building a solid foundation for subsequent development and learning and shown that EFs are associated with good adjustment and academic skills. The main objective of this study was to analyze whether EF levels in 44 Spanish children in the last year of preschool were associated with levels of literacy and math skills the following year, that is, in the first year of compulsory education. We used a multi-method design, which consisted of systematic observation to observe preschool children during play and selective methodology to assess their reading, writing, and math skills in the first year of compulsory primary education. General linear modeling was used to estimate the percentage of variability in academic skills in the first year of primary school that was explained by preschool EF abilities. The results showed that preschool EF level, together with participants and the instrument used to assess academic skills, explained 99% of the variance of subsequent academic performance. Another objective was to determine whether our findings were generalizable to the reference population. To make this determination, we estimated the optimal sample size for assessing preschool EFs. To do this, we performed a generalizability analysis. The resulting generalizability coefficient showed that our sample of 44 students was sufficient for assessing preschool EFs. Therefore, our results are generalizable to the reference population. Our results are consistent with previous reports that preschool EF abilities may be associated with subsequent literacy and math skills. Early assessment of EFs may therefore contribute to identifying children who are likely to experience later learning difficulties and guide the design of suitable interventions for the

  10. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade. PMID:26379592

  11. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade.

  12. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka eWolter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading one year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N=135 and one boy (n=65 or one girl (n=70 we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade.

  13. Inhibitory Control of Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Preschool Children: Measurement and Association With Language, Literacy, and Math Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Darcey M; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Phillips, Beth M

    Children's self-regulation, including components of executive function such as inhibitory control, is related concurrently and longitudinally with elementary school children's reading and math abilities. Although several recent studies have examined links between preschool children's self-regulation or executive function and their academic skill development, few included large numbers of Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Among the fastest growing segments of the U.S. school-age population, many of these children are at significant risk of academic difficulties. We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores on this last measure were lower for children for whom it was administered in Spanish. For both English and Spanish outcomes, those scores were significantly and uniquely associated with higher scores on measures of phonological awareness and math skills but not vocabulary or print knowledge skills.

  14. Relations of mother's sense of coherence and childrearing style with child's social skills in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki; Shizawa, Miho

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationships between mothers' sense of coherence (SOC) and their child's social skills development among preschool children, and how this relationship is mediated by mother's childrearing style. Mothers of 1341 Japanese children, aged 4-5 years, completed a self-report questionnaire on their SOC and childrearing style. The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the social skills scale (SSS), which comprises three factors: cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Path analyses revealed that the mother's childrearing mediated the positive relationship between mother's SOC and the cooperation, self-control, and assertiveness aspects of children's social skills. Additionally, there was a significant direct path from mother's SOC to the self-control component of social skills. These findings suggest that mother's SOC may directly as well as indirectly influence children's social skills development through the mediating effect of childrearing. The results offer preliminary evidence that focusing on support to improve mothers' SOC may be an efficient and effective strategy for improving children's social skills development.

  15. Development of life skills through physics content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarči, Tomáš; Raganová, Janka

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with students' life skills which the physics teacher should intentionally develop through physics content. An attention is given not only to the physics content and activities connected with it, but also to the development of responsibility, freedom, ability to make decisions, group cooperation, self-evaluation and experience of success. Three activities implemented in the seventh class of the elementary school are described in the paper. Authors describe reasons for class selection, the physics content and the used methods as well as the skills which they decided to purposely develop. They emphasize the importance of activities requiring students' inquiry-based learning and the need to change organization and philosophy of physics teaching at secondary schools. At the end of the paper authors analyze the achievement of objectives, positives as well as negatives of the implemented approaches and propose changes for a future realization.

  16. EXAMINATION OF SOCIAL SKILLS OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Dilek Öğretir Özçelik

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether there is a relationship between the 5-6 years old children’s social skills and their age, gender as well as their parent’s age and educational background and similar variables. The sampling of the study consists of the 5-6 years old children who continue kindergarten, nursery and pre-school in the city of Ankara. The sampling was composed of 300 children and their parents (143 girls and 157 boys). The data was collected with questionnaire and scales. The...

  17. Auditory working memory and early reading skills in Hebrew-speaking preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that different subcomponents of auditory working memory are differentially related to early reading skills was tested in 63 Hebrew speaking 4-year-old children, using a battery of early reading (phonological processing and familiarity with written language) and memory (simple and complex spans) tasks. Complex spans accounted for significant amounts of variance on both facets of early reading even after the contribution of simple spans was accounted for. These findings suggest that the unique contribution of complex working memory to early reading can be identified as early as preschool and that the structure of correlations between reading and memory is similar across ages.

  18. Assessment of Fine and Gross Motor Skills and Its Relationship with Some Anthropometric Indices and Environmental Factors among Preschool Children Aged in 3-6 in North of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Kordi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: One of the most important issues in the development of fundamental motor skills in the early years of life is development of fine and gross motor skills. The aim of this study was fine and gross motor skills assessment and the relationship between some anthropometric indices and environmental factors with the development of fine and gross motor skills in preschool children that aged 3-6 in north of Tehran,2014. Materials & Methods: The research society was Tehran’s first and se...

  19. How Does the Relationship Between Motor Skill Performance and Body Mass Index Impact Physical Activity in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haixia; Schenkelberg, Michaela A; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R

    2018-05-01

    To determine if weight status modifies the relationship between motor skill (MS) performance and physical activity (PA) in preschoolers. Preschoolers (N = 227, age 3-5 y) were recruited from 22 preschools. Preschoolers' MS (locomotor, object control, and total MS) were assessed with the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study MS protocol. PA was measured by accelerometry. Mixed linear models were used to examine the relationship of MS performance and body mass index (BMI) z score to PA. Models were adjusted for age, race, sex, and parent education, with preschool as a random effect. There was a significant correlation between MS performance and PA (r = .14-.17, P < .05). A significant interaction was observed between BMI z score and object control, and between BMI z score and total MS score on PA (P = .03). Preschoolers with higher BMI z scores and high object control scores engaged in significantly (P = .03) more PA than preschoolers with lower BMI z scores and high object control scores (PA = 15.04 min/h and 13.54 min/h, respectively). Similarly, preschoolers with higher BMI z scores and high total MS scores spent significantly (P = .01) more time in PA compared with those with lower BMI z scores and high total MS scores (PA = 15.65 min/h and 13.91 min/h, respectively). Preschool children's MS performance is positively correlated with PA, and BMI z score modified the relationship between MS performance and PA.

  20. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.

  1. The Relationship between Parents' Literacy Skills and Their Preschool Children's Emergent Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicole A.; Greenberg, Daphne; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlational and predictive relationships between parents with low literacy skills (n = 96) and their 3-5 year old children's emergent literacy skills (n = 96). In the study parents were assessed on measures of reading comprehension, decoding, fluency, oral vocabulary, and word identification,…

  2. Marital relationship, parenting practices, and social skills development in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the pathways by which destructive and constructive marital conflict leading to social skills development in preschool children, are mediated through negative and positive parenting practices. Mothers of 2931 Japanese children, aged 5-6 years, completed self-report questionnaires regarding their marital relationship (the Quality of co-parental communication scale) and parental practices (the Alabama parenting questionnaire). The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the Social skills scale. Path analyses revealed significant direct paths from destructive marital conflict to negative parenting practices and lower scores on the self-control component of social skills. In addition, negative parenting practices mediated the relationship between destructive marital conflict and lower scores on cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Our analyses also revealed significant direct paths from constructive marital conflict to positive parenting practices, and higher scores on cooperation and assertion. Positive parenting practices mediated the relationship between constructive marital conflict and higher scores on self-control and assertion. These findings suggest that destructive and constructive marital conflict may directly and indirectly influence children's social skills development through the mediation of parenting practices.

  3. Developing the Many-Sided Background of the Preschool Children Learning Activities by means of Algorismic Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Voronina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the current problem of modern education – developing the many-sided background for preschool children’s learning activities. At the given stage it is necessary to develop the algorithmic skills – the capability of and readiness for solving different kinds of problems in the strict sequence of operations according to the given patterns. Such algorithmic skills have a meta-disciplinary character and can be developed in class and at home. The paper highlights the algorithmic skills components (personal, regulatory, cognitive and communicative and the key indicators of their formation. The method for developing the algorithmic skills of preschool children is given including the three age related stages: ability to perform the linear algorithms (middle group, working with the branched cyclic algorithms (senior group, mastering the acquired skills and ability to perform some self- dependent tasks (preparatory group. The paper is addressed to the specialists working in the preschool educational sphere: preschool teachers, methodists, psychologists, directors of kindergartens. 

  4. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  5. Assessment of Fine and Gross Motor Skills and Its Relationship with Some Anthropometric Indices and Environmental Factors among Preschool Children Aged in 3-6 in North of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Kordi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most important issues in the development of fundamental motor skills in the early years of life is development of fine and gross motor skills. The aim of this study was fine and gross motor skills assessment and the relationship between some anthropometric indices and environmental factors with the development of fine and gross motor skills in preschool children that aged 3-6 in north of Tehran,2014. Materials & Methods: The research society was Tehran’s first and second areas preschools. Four preschools were selected based on availability and 206 children (girls and boys participated voluntary. Data were collected from the family information questionnaires and Denver development test type 2. Results: On average, only 56/06 percent of children in gross motor skills and 77/56 percent of children in fine motor skills were in normal and developed conditions. But 23/86 percent of children in gross motor skills and 14/9 percent of children in fine motor skills were at caution and 12/83 percent of children in gross motor skills and 7/56 percent of children in fine motor skills were exposed to delayed development delays in performance. There was a significant correlation among some of the anthropometric indices such as shoulder, hip and arm length, waist, chest circumference and the performance of some gross motor skills such as jumping, hoping, throwing. Among environmental factors, factors like watching television time and sleeping time affected children's kicking. Conclusion: A noticeable number of children who participated in this study had poor gross motor skills, thus strengthening and improving these skills required to specific attention and planning.

  6. Do preschool special education services make a difference in kindergarten reading and mathematics skills?: A propensity score weighting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L; Field, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the average treatment effect of preschool special education services on children's kindergarten academic skills. Using data from a nationally representative sample of United States children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we examined the effectiveness of preschool special education services by comparing reading and math outcomes for children who received special education services at preschool-age to a propensity-score-weighted sample of children who did not receive these services. Results indicated that the receipt of these special education services had a statistically significant moderate negative effect on children's kindergarten skills in both reading (d=-0.21) and mathematics (d=-0.29). These findings have implications for the implementation and evaluation of services for young children experiencing developmental delays or disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lasting effect of intimate partner violence exposure during preschool on aggressive behavior and prosocial skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Voith, Laura A; Gromoske, Andrea N

    2015-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure can negatively affect children's social behavior. However, it is unknown if the negative effects of IPV exposure during the preschool years are sustained through the early school years, if maladaptive behavior in one domain (e.g., aggressive behavior) is linked to subsequent maladaptive behavior in a different developmental domain (e.g., prosocial skill deficits), and if these relations differ by gender. This study addresses these gaps by using data from a sample of 1,125 children aged 3 to 4 at Time 1 and aged 5 to 7 at Time 2 from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. A series of nested longitudinal structural equation models were tested. Aggressive behavior and prosocial skills were stable across time. Time 1 IPV was associated with increased aggressive behavior at Time 1, which in turn was related to increased Time 2 aggressive behavior. Gender differences emerged; Time 2 IPV was associated with prosocial skills deficits for girls but not boys. A cross-domain relation existed between Time 1 aggressive behavior and Time 2 prosocial skills deficits for boys but not girls. These findings support that behavioral problems demonstrated later in childhood may emerge from earlier adverse developmental experiences and that difficulties in one domain may spill over into other developmental domains. Gender-specific interventions to promote competence in children may contribute to diverting children from maladaptive developmental outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Handwriting Skills in Pre-Schoolers: The Acquisition of Syllable Oriented Programming Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler Vilageliu, Olga; Kandel, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the relevance of the syllable as a programming unit in handwriting production, both in adults and elementary school children. This longitudinal study focuses on the acquisition of writing skills in a group of preschoolers. It examines how and when the syllable structure of the word starts regulating motor programming in…

  10. The Role of In-Class Physical Arrangements in Supporting Preschool Children's Behavior Regulation Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk Kara, H. Gozde

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand the role of physical arrangements within the classroom in the development of behavior regulation skill of preschool children. From among the types of action research, the technical/scientific/cooperative action research was employed in the current study. In the selection of the participants, one of the…

  11. Do Preschool Special Education Services Make a Difference in Kindergarten Reading and Mathematics Skills?: A Propensity Score Weighting Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Field, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the average treatment effect of preschool special education services on children's kindergarten academic skills. Using data from a nationally representative sample of United States children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort, we examined the effectiveness of preschool…

  12. Exploring Preschoolers' Engagement and Perceived Physical Competence in an Autonomy-Based Object Control Skill Intervention: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel; Robinson, Leah; Webster, E. Kipling; Barber, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe children's engagement during two (high and low) autonomy-based climates. Twenty-five preschool children participated in a nine-week object control skill intervention. Children completed the object control subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd Edition and the perceived physical competence…

  13. The Examination Of Preschool Period Children’s Problem Solving Skills According To Their Chess Training Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe ÇUBUKCU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether chess education makes a difference in social problem solving skills of the preschool children or not. Totally 160 samples were reached; including 80 preschool students who had chess education and 80 preschool students who did not have chess education. In order to examine the problem solving skills of the children who had chess education and the ones who did not, “Problem Solving Skills Scale”, which was developed by Oğuz and Koksal-Akyol (2015, was used. In order to examine the problem solving skills of the children who took chess education and the ones who did not, Independent Samples t-Test was used and the findings obtained were interpreted. According to the findings obtained from the research, a significance difference was encountered between the problem solving skills of the children on behalf of the ones who took chess education. This research indicate that chess education affect the problem solving skills of the children in a positive way

  14. Ten-year-olds' reflections on their life in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    What do children think of their time in preschool? In the present study, twelve ten-year-old children collected data from their classmates. The children tend to remember their friends, and reflect on what games they played and with whom. Only about one in three respondents even mentioned the day...

  15. The validity of parental reports on motor skills performance level in preschool children: a comparison with a standardized motor test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysset, Annina E; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H; Stülb, Kerstin; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Schmutz, Einat A; Arhab, Amar; Ferrazzini, Valentina; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J; Jenni, Oskar G

    2018-05-01

    Motor skills are interrelated with essential domains of childhood such as cognitive and social development. Thus, the evaluation of motor skills and the identification of atypical or delayed motor development is crucial in pediatric practice (e.g., during well-child visits). Parental reports on motor skills may serve as possible indicators to decide whether further assessment of a child is necessary or not. We compared parental reports on fundamental motor skills performance level (e.g., hopping, throwing), based on questions frequently asked in pediatric practice, with a standardized motor test in 389 children (46.5% girls/53.5% boys, M age = 3.8 years, SD = 0.5, range 3.0-5.0 years) from the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Motor skills were examined using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment 3-5 (ZNA3-5), and parents filled in an online questionnaire on fundamental motor skills performance level. The results showed that the answers from the parental report correlated only weakly with the objectively assessed motor skills (r = .225, p skills would be desirable, the parent's report used in this study was not a valid indicator for children's fundamental motor skills. Thus, we may recommend to objectively examine motor skills in clinical practice and not to exclusively rely on parental report. What is Known: • Early assessment of motor skills in preschool children is important because motor skills are essential for the engagement in social activities and the development of cognitive abilities. Atypical or delayed motor development can be an indicator for different developmental needs or disorders. • Pediatricians frequently ask parents about the motor competences of their child during well-child visits. What is New: • The parental report on fundamental motor skills performance level used in this study was not a reliable indicator for describing motor development in the preschool age. • Standardized examinations of motor skills are

  16. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-08-29

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, informal musical activities can also influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-aged children.

  17. Cross sectional associations of screen time and outdoor play with social skills in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie

    2018-01-01

    Screen time and physical activity behaviours develop during the crucial early childhood period (0–5 years) and impact multiple health and developmental outcomes, including psychosocial wellbeing. Social skills, one component of psychosocial wellbeing, are vital for children’s school readiness and future mental health. This study investigates potential associations of screen time and outdoor play (as a proxy for physical activity) with social skills. Cross sectional data were available for 575 mothers with a child (54% boys) aged 2–5 years. Mothers reported their child’s screen time, outdoor play time and social skills (Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory; ASBI). Multiple linear regression analyses assessed associations of screen and outdoor play time (Model 1) and compliance with screen time and physical activity recommendations (Model 2) with three ASBI subscales. Boys and girls spent a mean of 2.0 and 2.2 hours per day in screen time, and 3.3 and 2.9 hours per day in outdoor play, respectively. Girls scores for express and comply skills were significantly higher than boys (poutdoor play time was positively associated with both expressive (B = 0.20 95% CI 0.07, 0.34; p = 0.004) and compliant (B = 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.36; p = 0.002) scores. Findings indicate that television/DVD/video viewing may be adversely, and outdoor play favourably, associated with preschool children’s social skills. Future research is required to identify the direction of causation and explore potential mechanisms of association. PMID:29617366

  18. Differences of Fundamental Motor Skills Stunting and Non Stunting Preschool Children in Kindergarten in North Padang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaini, A.; Mardela, R.

    2018-04-01

    The problem that emerged is based on the result of research done by the writer in kindergarten in North Padang Sub-district which concluded that: there were kindergarten students in this sub-district who were still lack of motor ability, research data shows that 59 people (37,34%) and then 34 people (21, 52%) were in very good category, 35 people (22.15%), were in moderate category, 22 people (13.92%) were in the poor category, and 5 (5,06%) were in the very poor category. Based on this data, the authors thought that the dominant factors that affect the above situation was a nutritional factor. It could be seen from the physical appearance of kindergarten children who tend to slow growth. The purpose of this study is to explain the description and differences in stunting and non stunting Fundamental motor skills capabilities in early childhood (preschool) children. This research is comparative study with cross sectional approach. The population in this study was the students of Kindergarten of Perwari II which consisted of 60 people consisting of 37 children of stunting and 23 non stunting children in Kindergarten of North Padang Sub district, the sample was taken as a whole. The data were collected with Fundamental motor skills tests including jumping, walking, running, balance exercises, throwing and catching the ball. Technique of data analysis in this research was descriptive statistic. The result of data analysis shows that there is difference of Fundamental motor skills between stunting and non stunting children. Fundamental motor skills of non stunting or normal children are better than those who were stunting or short. While the results of Fundamental motor skills of kindergarten children in North Padang District as a whole is at a good level.

  19. Cross sectional associations of screen time and outdoor play with social skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Brown, Helen; Carson, Valerie; Teychenne, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Screen time and physical activity behaviours develop during the crucial early childhood period (0-5 years) and impact multiple health and developmental outcomes, including psychosocial wellbeing. Social skills, one component of psychosocial wellbeing, are vital for children's school readiness and future mental health. This study investigates potential associations of screen time and outdoor play (as a proxy for physical activity) with social skills. Cross sectional data were available for 575 mothers with a child (54% boys) aged 2-5 years. Mothers reported their child's screen time, outdoor play time and social skills (Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory; ASBI). Multiple linear regression analyses assessed associations of screen and outdoor play time (Model 1) and compliance with screen time and physical activity recommendations (Model 2) with three ASBI subscales. Boys and girls spent a mean of 2.0 and 2.2 hours per day in screen time, and 3.3 and 2.9 hours per day in outdoor play, respectively. Girls scores for express and comply skills were significantly higher than boys (p<0.005). After applying the Benjamini-Hochberg Procedure to adjust for multiple associations, children's television/DVD/video viewing was inversely associated with their compliant scores (B = -0.35 95% CI -0.26, -0.14; p = 0.001) and outdoor play time was positively associated with both expressive (B = 0.20 95% CI 0.07, 0.34; p = 0.004) and compliant (B = 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.36; p = 0.002) scores. Findings indicate that television/DVD/video viewing may be adversely, and outdoor play favourably, associated with preschool children's social skills. Future research is required to identify the direction of causation and explore potential mechanisms of association.

  20. Enhancing College Students' Life Skills through Project Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdinger, Scott; Qureshi, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether life skills could be developed in a Project Based Learning (PBL) course. The participants were students enrolled in a graduate level PBL course. The same 35-question survey was given to students at the beginning and end of the course, and students were asked to rank their life skills using a Likert scale. Additionally,…

  1. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  2. Psychosocial Quality-of-Life, Lifestyle and Adiposity: A Longitudinal Study in Pre-schoolers (Ballabeina Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Susi, Kriemler; Marques-Vidal, Pedro M; Nydegger, Andreas; Puder, Jardena J

    2016-06-01

    In obesity prevention, understanding psychosocial influences in early life is pivotal. Reviews reported contradictory results and a lack of longitudinal studies focusing on underlying lifestyle factors. This study tested whether psychosocial Quality-Of-Life (QOL) was associated with pre-schoolers' lifestyle and adiposity changes over one school year and whether lifestyle moderated the latter. It was hypothesised that QOL might not impact adiposity in everybody but that this might depend on preceding lifestyle. Longitudinal data from 291 Swiss pre-schoolers (initially 3.9-6.3 years) was available. The following measures were used in longitudinal regressions: psychosocial QOL by PedsQL, adiposity (BMI z-score, waist, fat%), diet (food frequency), sedentary time and accelerometer-based activity. Concerning lifestyle, low psychosocial QOL was only related to unfavourable changes in diet (less fruit β = 0.21 and more fat intake β = -0.28) and lower physical activity (β = 0.21). Longitudinal QOL-adiposity relations appeared only after moderation by lifestyle factors (beta-range 0.13-0.67). Low psychosocial QOL was associated with increased adiposity in children with an unhealthy diet intake or high sedentary time. By contrast, low psychosocial QOL was associated with decreasing adiposity in high fruit consumers or more physically active pre-schoolers. Results emphasise the need for testing moderation in the QOL-adiposity relation. An unhealthy diet can be a vulnerability factor and high physical activity a protective factor in QOL-related adiposity. Consequently, QOL and lifestyle should be targeted concurrently in multi-factorial obesity prevention. The environment should be an 'activity encouraging, healthy food zone' that minimises opportunities for stress-induced eating. In addition, appropriate stress coping skills should be acquired.

  3. Spontaneous focusing on numerosity in preschool as a predictor of mathematical skills and knowledge in the fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanu, Cristina E; McMullen, Jake; Munck, Petriina; Hannula-Sormunen, Minna M

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies in a variety of countries have shown that there are substantial individual differences in children's spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON), and these differences are positively related to the development of early numerical skills in preschool and primary school. A total of 74 5-year-olds participated in a 7-year follow-up study, in which we explored whether SFON measured with very small numerosities at 5 years of age predicts mathematical skills and knowledge, math motivation, and reading in fifth grade at 11 years of age. Results show that preschool SFON is a unique predictor of arithmetic fluency and number line estimation but not of rational number knowledge, mathematical achievement, math motivation, or reading. These results hold even after taking into account age, IQ, working memory, digit naming, and cardinality skills. The results of the current study further the understanding of how preschool SFON tendency plays a role in the development of different formal mathematical skills over an extended period of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Are There Any Differences in Personality Traits and Life Satisfaction between Future Preschool and Primary School Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkapic, Sanja Tatalovic; Cepic, Renata; Šekulja, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine personality traits and life satisfaction of future preschool and primary school teachers and to examine if there are differences between these two groups of students. The study was conducted on a sample of 290 students of the University of Rijeka attending Early and Preschool Education and Teacher…

  5. Mothers' questionnaire of preschoolers' language and motor skills: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, E; Gretarsson, S J

    2013-03-01

    Parent questionnaires of child motor and language skills are useful in many contexts. This study validates one such measure, the Preschool Child Development Inventory (PCDI), a mother-answered standardized measure of motor (fine and gross) and language (expression and comprehension) skills of 3-6-year-old children. Eighty-one mothers answered the inventory and their children were concurrently tested on six verbal subtests of WPPSI-R(IS). The six language and motor subtests of the PCDI revealed the predicted convergent and divergent correlations with the verbal subtests of the WPPSI-R(IS). As predicted, the motor subtests diverged and the language subtests converged with the expected WPPSI-R(IS) subtests. Principal components analysis of all the measures (the PCDI and the WPPSI-R(IS) subtests) revealed two components, verbal and motor in content. The findings support the validity of a mother-answered inventory to assess language and motor development. It is pointed out that such inventories are a viable brief and cost effective alternative to individual testing, both to supplement such measures in clinical practice and as main information in research, for example on determinants of development. Some suggestions are made for future research and applications. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Examining of the social problem solving skills in preschool children in terms of different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şuheda Bozkurt Yükçü

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine preschool children's social problem solving skills in terms of various variables. The population of the study consisted of parents and their children between the ages four-six years who attend independent kindergartens located in Çankaya county of Ankara during the 2015-2016 academic year. The sample of the study selected by simple random sampling method, consisted of 240 parents and their children between the ages four-six years who attend independent kindergartens located in Çankaya counties of Ankara during the 2015-2016 academic year. In this study conducted by descriptive screenning model, General Information Form and Wally Child Social Problem Solving Detective Game Test were used. Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Independent Groups T Test, One Way Anova were used to analyze of data. According to the results of this study, social problem solving skills of children differ based on child’s age but do not differ based on gender, number of siblings, montly income, parents’s age, educational status and working status. The findings were discussed and interpreted within the scope of the literature.

  7. THE EVALUATION OF LEARNING BASED ON SKILLS AT THE PRESCHOOL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oralia Ortiz Varela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is about learning evaluation based on competencies in a mixed group of Preschool level: Melchor Ocampo in Delicias Chihuahua city. The most important theoretical foundations were provided by Casanova (1998, in relation to the assessment, and Diaz Barriga (2003 and 2006, with teaching in competencies and didactic strategies. The research objective is to track systematically the evaluation of competencies as well as design and experiment alternatives for evaluation in preschool level. The research methodology was conducted from the qualitative approach, dialectical critical paradigm and an action research method; integral assessment projects were designed, implemented and analyzed. Inquiry processes were performed using the techniques of observation and interview, instruments like the field diary and questionnaire (Hernández et. Al., 2006 and the method of systematization of practice proposed by Gagneten (1987. In the results it was observed that the instruments and techniques used to assess competencies were: observation, field notes, checklists, interviews with children, identification cards, children’s work, immediate group records and other evidence of work. The theoretical knowledge of the assessment of a variety of techniques and instruments to particularize the process, made clear that every teacher requires not only theoretical knowledge, the use of the range of possibilities to get information of the process that children have in their learning, not limited to one of them. It is also needed to develop both the skill and creativity of use, and the vision of what can potentially contribute. It concludes that it is possible to evaluate the 50 competencies that raises the curriculum, by using a evolution folder for each child, making a general school cycle plan, considering the assessment from teaching situations and apply the techniques and instruments at different points in the process, as well as create an awareness of self

  8. A spotlight on preschool: the influence of family factors on children's early literacy skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Heath

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents' level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents' phonological awareness and parents' perceived self-efficacy, and then combining the within-child and family factors.Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children's literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6-7 years.Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents' phonological awareness, and family history typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88.Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised.

  9. A spotlight on preschool: the influence of family factors on children's early literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Steve M; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Bloor, Kimberley E; Boyle, Gemma L; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John H; Wigley, Charles A; Yeong, Stephanie H M

    2014-01-01

    Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall) and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents' level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents' phonological awareness and parents' perceived self-efficacy), and then combining the within-child and family factors. Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys) at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children's literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6-7 years). Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents' phonological awareness, and family history) typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88). Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised.

  10. The acquisition of aquatic skills in preschool children: deep versus shallow water swimming lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Rocha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the key factors in the swimming teaching-learning process seems to be the variation of water’s depth.However, there are almost no studies about this topic and the existing ones usually follow a basic approach and with no control of the educational program used. It was our purpose to determine the effect of deep versus shallow water differences on developing pre-schoolers’ aquatic skills after 6 months of practice. Twenty-one Portuguese school-aged children of both genders (4.70 ± 0.51 yrs., inexperienced in aquatic programs, participated in this study. The children were divided into two groups performing a similar aquatic program but in a different water depth: shallow water (n=10 and deep water (n=11. Each participant was evaluated twice for their aquatic readiness using an observation check list of 17 aquatic motor skills: during the first session (T0 and after six months of practice (two sessions per week with a total of 48 sessions (T1. The aquatic proficiency on each skill was compared between the groups and a stepwise discriminant analysis was conducted to predict the conditions with higher or lower aquatic competence. Results suggested that swimming practice contributed positively to improvements on several basic aquatic skills, in both groups. The results showed that shallow water group managed to acquire a higher degree of aquatic competence particularly in five basic aquatic skills (p< .05: breath control combined with face immersion and eye opening; horizontal buoyancy; body position at ventral gliding; body position at dorsal gliding; leg kick with breath control at ventral body position, without any flutter device. The discriminant function revealed a significant association between both groups and four included factors (aquatic skills (p< .001, accounting for 88% between group variability. The body position at ventral gliding was the main relevant predictor (r=0.535. Shallow water swimming lessons generated greater

  11. ASSESSMENT OF MOVEMENT SKILL PERFORMANCE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: CONVERGENT VALIDITY BETWEEN MOT 4-6 AND M-ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Cools

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine the level of agreement between the Motoriktest für Vier- bis Sechsjährige Kinder [MOT 4-6] and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children [M-ABC]. 48 preschool children participated in the study (Mean age = 5 years, 6 months, SD = 3 months. There was high classification agreement (90% between both tests. A Kappa correlation coefficient (0.67 provided moderately strong support for convergent validity. Less agreement was shown in identification of motor difficulties (58%. This was reflected by lower correlation coefficients on the fine movement cluster and test item level. The MOT 4-6 showed values within the range of similar movement skill performance assessment protocols. Because of its specific focus it may be of meaningful value to assess movement skill competence in typically developing preschool children (ages 4 to 6.

  12. Early identification: Language skills and social functioning in deaf and hard of hearing preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Korver, Anna M H; Konings, Saskia; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Dekker, Friedo W; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-12-01

    Permanent childhood hearing impairment often results in speech and language problems that are already apparent in early childhood. Past studies show a clear link between language skills and the child's social-emotional functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the level of language and communication skills after the introduction of early identification services and their relation with social functioning and behavioral problems in deaf and hard of hearing children. Nationwide cross-sectional observation of a cohort of 85 early identified deaf and hard of hearing preschool children (aged 30-66 months). Parents reported on their child's communicative abilities (MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III), social functioning and appearance of behavioral problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Receptive and expressive language skills were measured using the Reynell Developmental Language Scale and the Schlichting Expressive Language Test, derived from the child's medical records. Language and communicative abilities of early identified deaf and hard of hearing children are not on a par with hearing peers. Compared to normative scores from hearing children, parents of deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower social functioning and more behavioral problems. Higher communicative abilities were related to better social functioning and less behavioral problems. No relation was found between the degree of hearing loss, age at amplification, uni- or bilateral amplification, mode of communication and social functioning and behavioral problems. These results suggest that improving the communicative abilities of deaf and hard of hearing children could improve their social-emotional functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. STRATEGI PEMBERDAYAAN EKONOMI KOMUNITAS WARIA MELALUI LIFE SKILL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr. Indah Mustikawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Strategi Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Komunitas Waria Melalui Life Skill Education. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penurunan jumlah waria yang “turun ke jalan” yang berprofesi sebagai Pekerja Seks Komersial melalui life skill education dan pengaruhnya terhadap jumlah pendapatan yang diterima waria dari sumber yang “halal”, serta penurunan kemiskinan komunitas waria di Kotamadya Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Research and Development dengan empat tahapan, yaitu studi pendahuluan pengembangan, penyusunan desain, uji coba model, dan evaluasi hasil pengembangan model life skill education. Keempat tahapan tersebut dilakukan untuk menemukan model yang sesuai untuk strategi pemberdayaan ekonomi bagi komunitas waria. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua waria menginginkan untuk memiliki kompetensi tambahan yang dapat digunakan untuk merintis usaha sesuai dengan peminatan mereka, dan menambah penghasilan mereka, dan sebagai bekal di hari tua.   Kata Kunci: Strategi Pemberdayaan Ekonomi, Pengentasan kemiskinan, Waria   Abstract: Economy Empowerment Strategy Trough Life skill Education as Poverty Reduction of Transgender Community. Aims of this research are to determine reduction number of transgender working as prostitute through life skill education and the impact of that reduction on their halal income, to examine poverty reduction among transgender communities in Yogyakarta. This study uses four-steps of research and development approach, namely preliminary study development, design preparation, model test, life skill education model evaluations. The results show that all of the transgender involved in this study yearn for having additional skill to set new business up to increase their income.   Keywords: economic empowerment strategy, poverty eradication, transgender

  14. A STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE VALUE BEHAVIOUR AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS OF THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saide Özbey

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the value behaviour and interpersonal problem solving skills of the preschool children according to variables like their age, sex and the type of the schools they attend and to determine the relation between their value behaviour and their problem solving skills. The sample of the study consists of 321 children who were selected by random sampling method among the children of 48-72 months who attend to public and private kindergartens in the districts of Keçi...

  15. Implementation of science process skills using ICT-based approach to facilitate student life skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Y. S.; Yuliani; Wijaya, B. R.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the results of the implementation of a teaching-learning package in Plant Physiology courses to improve the student’s life skills using the science process skills-based approach ICT. This research used 15 students of Biology Education of Undergraduate International Class who are in the Plant Physiology course. This study consists of two phases items, namely the development phase and implementation phase by using a one-shot case study design. Research parameters were the feasibility of lesson plans, student achievement, Including academic skills, thinking skills, and social skills. Data were descriptively Analyzed According to the characteristics of the existing data. The result shows that the feasibility of a lesson plan is very satisfied and can be improvements in student’s life skills, especially with regards to student’s thinking skills and scientific thinking skills. The results indicate that the science process skills using ICT-based approach can be effective methods to improve student’s life skills.

  16. Democratic Life Skill 1: Guiding Children to Find a Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Dan

    2012-01-01

    "Democratic life skills" are social-emotional capacities that children need to be productive citizens and healthy individuals in a modern, diverse society. The construct for these skills comes from many sources. One helpful source is Maslow's concept of two coexisting sets of motivational needs in each individual: one set for security, belonging,…

  17. Measuring Life Skills: Standardizing the Assessment of Youth Development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat D. Duerden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available While the development of life skills (e.g., communication, problem solving, etc. is a commonly targeted youth program outcome, the lack of standardized conceptualizations and instrumentation make it difficult to compare impacts across programs and develop validated best practices. In order to promote a more unified approach to life skill development, literature reviews were conducted for 10 life skill domains to identify common definitions and, if available, appropriate outcome measures. Data were then collected from an ethnically diverse sample (N = 758 of elementary, middle, and high school aged youth for the 10 identified instruments. Analyses were conducted to ascertain the psychometric qualities of each measure, the interrelationships among measures, and the measures’ relationships with gender, ethnicity, and school level. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to life skill theory and measurement.

  18. Inculcating home economics based life skills in rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inculcating home economics based life skills in rural women in Anambra state ... Poverty among rural women in Nigeria hinders the economic and social ... could be inculcated among the rural women using a range of networking approaches.

  19. The Efficacy of Group Play Therapy on the Social Skills of Pre-School Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Movallali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate of the efficacy of group play therapy on the social skills of pre-school hearing-impaired children. Materials & Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test design and control group. The participants were 30 male hearing-impaired children from pre-schools centers in Varamin and Gharchak provinces using an available method. Subjects were randomly divided into experimental and control groups, each group consisting of 15 children. The experimental group received 12 sessions of group play therapy and the control group did not. The instruments were done using the Raven coloure progressive matrices test and social skills rating scale. The data were recorded and statistically analyzed using MANCOVA. Results: The results of MANCOVA showed that group play therapy had a significant effect on the social skills of hearing-impaired children (P<0.001. The results also revealed that group play therapy had a positive and significant effect on all subscales of social skills in these children: cooperation, self-assertiveness and self-control (P<0.001. Conclusion: Group play therapy can improve the social skills of hearing-impaired children. It is recommended that planning play therapy for hearing-impaired children receives serious attention .

  20. Factor validation of the portuguese version of the social skills scale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Seabra-Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of preschoolers’ social skills represents a topic of growing importance in research recently developed in the field. The purpose of this article is to present confirmatory factor analyses studies for the Social Skills scale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales – Second Edition (PKBS-2, a behavior rating scale that evaluates social skills and problem behaviors, adapted and validated for Portuguese preschool children. The 34 items of the Social Skills scale, distributed on three subscales (Social Cooperation/Adjustment, Social Interaction/Empathy and Social Independence/Assertiveness, were grouped into item-parcels. Model adjustment was analyzed for the total sample (N = 2000 and the analyses were replicated for the subsamples collected in the home (n = 1000 and school settings (n = 1000. The factor structure was very stable for the three samples, with high internal consistency levels and correlations between parcels/scales. The results highlight the utility/validity of the Social Skills scale of the PKBS-2 (Portuguese version.

  1. Fundamental movement skills in preschoolers: a randomized controlled trial targeting object control proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Faude, O; Hagmann, S; Roth, R; Zahner, L

    2015-11-01

    Adequately developed fundamental movement skills, particularly object control dimensions, are considered essential to learn more complex movement patterns and to increase the likelihood to successfully participate in organized and non-organized sports during later years. Thus, the present randomized controlled trial aimed at improving object control dimensions at an early state in a kindergarten setting. Catching, throwing, kicking, rolling and stationary dribbling were assessed via gross motor development 2 (TGMD-2) testing in 41 normally developed preschoolers. On a cluster-randomized basis [strata: age, sex and body mass index (BMI)], three kindergartens were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 22, INT, age: 4.6 ± 1.0 years; BMI: 16.2 ± 1.1 kg/m(2) ) and three to a control group (n = 19, CON: age: 4.5 ± 1.2 years; BMI: 16.8 ± 1.2 kg/m(2) ). Twelve structured training sessions were given within 6 weeks (12 sessions). The total training volume was 330 min. Moderate time × group interaction were observed for the total sum score (Δ+22%, P = 0.05) and dribbling (Δ+41%, P = 0.002). Adjusting for baseline differences analyses of covariance did not affect these results. Interestingly, likely to most likely practically worthwhile effects were detected for the total sum score, catching and dribbling. Object control dimensions such as dribbling and catching that apparently rely on rhythmical movement patterns and anticipatory eye-hand coordination seem to benefit from short-term object control training. These skills are considered important for successful team-sport participation and appropriate sportive motor development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Relationship between communication skills and gross motor function in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-11-01

    To explore the communication skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at 24 months' corrected age with reference to typically developing children, and to determine the relationship between communication ability, gross motor function, and other comorbidities associated with CP. Prospective, cross-sectional, population-based cohort study. General community. Children with CP (N=124; mean age, 24mo; functional severity on Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]: I=47, II=14, III=22, IV=19, V=22). Not applicable. Parents reported communication skills on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Two independent physiotherapists classified motor type, distribution, and GMFCS. Data on comorbidities were obtained from parent interviews and medical records. Children with mild CP (GMFCS I/II) had mean CSBS-DP scores that were 0.5 to 0.6 SD below the mean for typically developing peers, while those with moderate-severe impairment (GMFCS III-V) were 1.4 to 2.6 SD below the mean. GMFCS was significantly associated with performance on the CSBS-DP (F=18.55, Pgross motor ability accounting for 38% of the variation in communication. Poorer communication was strongly associated with gross motor function and full-term birth. Preschool-aged children with CP, with more severe gross motor impairment, showed delayed communication, while children with mild motor impairment were less vulnerable. Term-born children had significantly poorer communication than those born prematurely. Because a portion of each gross motor functional severity level is at risk, this study reinforces the need for early monitoring of communication development for all children with CP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Academic & Technical Skills + Life/Work Skills + Career Information & Guidance = Success in Career Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Phillip S.

    There has been a renaissance in the thinking about career development. It is becoming accepted that information is not enough; in addition to academic and technical skills, youth and adults need to learn life/work designing and building skills to become healthy, productive, and self-reliant citizens. Despite the fact that Canadian students have…

  4. Preschool Teachers' Skills in Teaching Music: Two Steps Forward One Step Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlin, Anna; Wallerstedt, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates through observations and interviews what importance further education has for preschool teachers' practice in two music-profiled preschool and their way of conceptualising it. A distinction between music as a method for teaching, on the one hand, and as a content of knowledge, on the other, is used in the analysis. The…

  5. Teaching Generalized Imitation Skills to a Preschooler with Autism Using Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeberger, Vickie; Mirenda, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of video modeling to teach a preschooler with autism to imitate previously mastered and not mastered actions during song and toy play activities. A general case approach was used to examine the instructional universe of preschool songs and select exemplars that were most likely to facilitate generalization.…

  6. Quality of pre-school children's pretend play and subsequent development of semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Karen; Lewis, Fiona M

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated if the quality of pre-school children's pretend play predicted their semantic organization and narrative re-telling ability when they were in early primary school. It was hypothesized that the elaborateness of a child's play and the child's use of symbols in play were predictors of their semantic organization and narrative re-tell scores of the School Age Oral Language Assessment. Forty-eight children were assessed using the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment when they were aged 4-5 years. Three-to-five years after this assessment their semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills were assessed. Results indicate that the elaborateness of a child's play and their ability to use symbols was predictive of semantic organization skills. Use of symbols in play was the strongest play predictor of narrative re-telling skills. The quality of a pre-school child's ability to elaborate complex sequences in pretend play and use symbols predicted up to 20% of a child's semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills up to 5 years later. The study provides evidence that the quality of pretend play in 4-5 year olds is important for semantic organization and narrative re-telling abilities in the school-aged child.

  7. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  8. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  9. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  10. Motor Skills and Free-Living Physical Activity Showed No Association Among Preschoolers in 2012 U.S. National Youth Fitness Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Albeit limited, some emerging work, using convenience-based samples, has demonstrated that greater motor skill development is associated with higher physical activity among preschool-aged children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this topic using data from the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey that included 329 preschool-aged children (3-5 years). Parents proxy-reported their child's physical activity, with motor skill level assessed from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD2). Motor skill levels (Gross Motor Quotient, locomotor or object control) were not associated with preschool free-living physical activity in any analytic model. Thus, in this large sample of preschoolers, contrary to research with older children, motor skill level was not associated with physical activity. Findings are discussed in terms of study limitations of (a) a reliance on parent report of children's physical activity levels and (b) the possibility that physical activity data within the national survey were too limited in range to show possible associations to motor skill development with higher levels of free-living physical activity in preschoolers.

  11. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills and motor performance in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, D L; Lausen, B; Maia, J A; Gouveia, É R; Antunes, A M; Thomis, M; Lefevre, J; Malina, R M

    2018-06-01

    Relationships among skeletal age (SA), body size and fundamental motor skills (FMS) and motor performance were considered in 155 boys and 159 girls 3-6 years of age. Stature and body mass were measured. SA of the hand-wrist was assessed with the Tanner-Whitehouse II 20 bone method. The Test of Gross Motor Development, 2 nd edition (TGMD-2) and the Preschool Test Battery were used, respectively, to assess FMS and motor performance. Based on hierarchical regression analyses, the standardized residuals of SA on chronological age (SAsr) explained a maximum of 6.1% of the variance in FMS and motor performance in boys (ΔR 2 3 , range 0.0% to 6.1%) and a maximum of 20.4% of the variance in girls (ΔR 2 3 , range 0.0% to 20.4%) over that explained by body size and interactions of SAsr with body size (step 3). The interactions of the SAsr and stature and body mass (step 2) explained a maximum of 28.3% of the variance in boys (ΔR 2 2 , range 0.5% to 28.3%) and 16.7% of the variance in girls (ΔR 2 2 , range 0.7% to 16.7%) over that explained by body size alone. With the exception of balance, relationships among SAsr and FMS or motor performance differed between boys and girls. Overall, SA per se or interacting with body size had a relatively small influence in FMS and motor performance in children 3-6 years of age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Rhymes in the development of rhythmic and speaking skills of preschool and early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelobrk-Babić Ozrenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the concept, definition and classification of nursery rhymes, and how they are processed. Rhymes are 'short children's songs that serve to counting children at play, which at the same time can be very suitable for developing a sense of rhythm' (Pedagogical Lexicon, 1996, pp. 56. There are several types of nursery rhymes and their classification according to different criteria. They can be classified according to form and content, as well as whether their authors are children or adults. The criterion of understanding classifies them into rhymes rational sense, irrational - meaningless, and rhymes with a partial sense (see examples of rhymes at Milenkovic & Dragojevic, 2009. According to an embodiment - the musical component rhymes are classified in the speaking which develops a sense of rhythm and sung, whose melodic movement of the highest in the fourth volume. Treatment begins with teaching nursery rhymes by ear, then the symbols represents the rhythm of nursery rhymes (phases with the adoption rhymes see at: Milenkovic & Dragojevic, 2009. In addition to this term in the literature can be found other names for the same name forms: counting, beads, classifying. There are many advantages that rhymes processing brings: the development of speech and speech creativity, encourage foreign language learning, developing communication skills, emotional and social maturation, encouraging cultural‚ awareness, developing ethical and moral values, exploring the contents of nature and society. In selecting the nursery rhymes, it is necessary to pay attention to mental and physical development of children and to adjust the selected rhymes to their age. The paper presents the characteristics of rhythmic development and speaking skills of preschool and early school age. To this end are designed examples rhythmic rhymes and pointed to the need for interdisciplinary nature of the teaching subjects, and the correlation of teaching Serbian

  13. Relation Between Percent Body Fat and Fundamental Motor Skills in Pre-School Children age 3-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Musalek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite well known that excessive body fat in children is interpreted as a marker of inhibited physical activity and motor performance. This study aimed to establish whether severe impairment of fundamental motor skills (defined as performance under 5th centile of norms will be significantly more frequently identified in pre-schoolers age 3-6 years with amount of body fat higher than 85th centile of norms. Research sample consisted of 496 (females=241, males=255 pre-schoolers selected from specific district of Prague, Czech Republic. The MABC-2 was used for the assesment fundamental motor skills. Equations for body fat estimation in children identified 35.8% children with body fat˃85th centile of norms, 61.7% within 15th–85th centile, and 2.5% of children˂15th centile of norms. Results revealed that children whose body fat was higher than 85th centile of norms or lower than 15th centile had double the frequency of severe motor problems. Interestingely on the other hand we found no signficant differences in the frequency of high above average performances˃90th centile in MABC-2 between fat 8.4% and non fat children 10.7%. We suggest that amount of body fat is not a clear predictor for the degree of fundamental motor skills.

  14. Examining social-cognitive predictors of parenting skills among mothers with preschool and early elementary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Saiideh; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Norouzi, Ali; Jafari, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Identification of parenting skills determinants among mothers is an ongoing field of research. The aim of this study was to identify the social cognitive predictors of parenting skills among mothers. Previous studies have demonstrated the health action process approach (HAPA) as a credible frame for predicting behavior, but the number of studies considering the predictive value of parenting skills determinants among mothers is rare. An 8 months prospective design was applied. Participants were mothers with preschool and early elementary school-aged children. At the 1(st) time, 120 participants completed self-report questionnaires regarding their risk perception, outcome expectancies, task self-efficacy, and intentions toward parenting skills. At the 2(nd) time, they returned a follow-up questionnaire, which measured planning, coping self-efficacy, and recovery self-efficacy and finally, 8 months later as the 3(rd) time, parenting skills were measured. Path analysis was used for analysis. Path analysis indicated that, in the motivational phase, there was no relationship between parenting skills intention and risk perception, outcome expectancies, and task self-efficacy. Furthermore, no relationship was found between parenting skills intention and planning. In the volitional phase, coping self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, and planning were statistically significant predictors of parenting skills. The results of this study confirm that volitional phase of the HAPA model is useful in determining parenting skills. However, the role motivational variables seem to be unimportant in performing these behaviors. It was concluded that everybody intended to apply parenting skills, in nature, and intervention strategies should be focused on turning intentions into behavior.

  15. Quality of life in preschool children born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Veen, S.; Fekkes, M.; Koopman, H.M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Brugman, E.; Wit, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship of preterm birth to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was examined for children aged 1 to 4 years. Three gestational age groups with a NICU history were selected, <32 weeks (n=65), 32 to 36 weeks (n=41),≥37 weeks (n=54), and a reference group from the open population (n=50).

  16. Identifying the Dimensionality of Oral Language Skills of Children With Typical Development in Preschool Through Fifth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Milburn, Trelani F

    2017-08-16

    Language is a multidimensional construct from prior to the beginning of formal schooling to near the end of elementary school. The primary goals of this study were to identify the dimensionality of language and to determine whether this dimensionality was consistent in children with typical language development from preschool through 5th grade. In a large sample of 1,895 children, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with 19-20 measures of language intended to represent 6 factors, including domains of vocabulary and syntax/grammar across modalities of expressive and receptive language, listening comprehension, and vocabulary depth. A 2-factor model with separate, highly correlated vocabulary and syntax factors provided the best fit to the data, and this model of language dimensionality was consistent from preschool through 5th grade. This study found that there are fewer dimensions than are often suggested or represented by the myriad subtests in commonly used standardized tests of language. The identified 2-dimensional (vocabulary and syntax) model of language has significant implications for the conceptualization and measurement of the language skills of children in the age range from preschool to 5th grade, including the study of typical and atypical language development, the study of the developmental and educational influences of language, and classification and intervention in clinical practice. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5154220.

  17. Effects of Nutrient-Fortified Milk-Based Formula on the Nutritional Status and Psychomotor Skills of Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavil May C. Cervo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomized, single-masked, controlled trial examined the effects of nutrient-fortified milk-based formula supplementation on nutritional status, nutrient intake, and psychomotor skills of selected preschool children with mean age of 4.10 ± 0.14 years. The study participants were divided equally into three major groups, normal, underweight, and severely underweight based on WHO-Child Growth Standards, and were further divided into two groups: fortified milk group who was given two glasses of fortified milk (50 g of powdered milk/serving a day for twelve weeks in addition to their usual diet and the nonintervention group who was not given fortified milk and thus maintained their usual intake. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, and psychomotor developmental score were analyzed. Results showed that consumption of two servings of fortified milk a day for twelve weeks significantly increased the height of preschool children by 1.40 cm, weight by 1.35 kg, body mass index by 0.96 kg/m2, mid-upper arm circumference by 0.66 cm, and psychomotor scores by 13.74% more than those children who did not consume fortified milk (p<0.0001. Hence, fortified milk-based supplement in the diet of preschool children improved overall nutritional status, nutrient intake, and performance in psychomotor scale. This study is registered in Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140923-000234.

  18. Effects of Nutrient-Fortified Milk-Based Formula on the Nutritional Status and Psychomotor Skills of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervo, Mavil May C; Mendoza, Diane S; Barrios, Erniel B; Panlasigui, Leonora N

    2017-01-01

    This randomized, single-masked, controlled trial examined the effects of nutrient-fortified milk-based formula supplementation on nutritional status, nutrient intake, and psychomotor skills of selected preschool children with mean age of 4.10 ± 0.14 years. The study participants were divided equally into three major groups, normal, underweight, and severely underweight based on WHO-Child Growth Standards, and were further divided into two groups: fortified milk group who was given two glasses of fortified milk (50 g of powdered milk/serving) a day for twelve weeks in addition to their usual diet and the nonintervention group who was not given fortified milk and thus maintained their usual intake. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, and psychomotor developmental score were analyzed. Results showed that consumption of two servings of fortified milk a day for twelve weeks significantly increased the height of preschool children by 1.40 cm, weight by 1.35 kg, body mass index by 0.96 kg/m 2 , mid-upper arm circumference by 0.66 cm, and psychomotor scores by 13.74% more than those children who did not consume fortified milk ( p < 0.0001). Hence, fortified milk-based supplement in the diet of preschool children improved overall nutritional status, nutrient intake, and performance in psychomotor scale. This study is registered in Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140923-000234.

  19. IMPACT OF DENTAL TRAUMA AND ESTHETIC IMPAIRMENT ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruna Miroski; Dias, Loraine Fernandes; Pereira, Carla da Silva; Ponte, Marcos Ximenes; Konrath, Andréa Cristina; Bolan, Michele da Silva; Cardoso, Mariane

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of dental trauma and impaired esthetics on the quality of life (QoL) of preschool children and their relatives. Methods: Study conducted with 192 children aged 2 to 5 years in 11 preschools in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, South of Brazil. Parents/caregivers completed a questionnaire on quality of life (Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scales - B-ECOHIS), a socioeconomic survey, and then answered specific questions related to dental trauma. The subjects were examined by three accordant examiners (Kappa>0.7). Dental trauma was evaluated on the basis of indexes adopted by the World Health Organization, and esthetic impairment was then classified. Data were descriptively analyzed and put to bivariate analysis by chi-square and Fisher tests, with significance level at 5%. Results: The prevalence of dental trauma was 62.5% with 15.6% of esthetic impairment. Almost 12% of parents reported impact on the quality of life of their children. Dental trauma was not significantly associated with gender, age or QoL. Crown color change by trauma was associated with esthetic impairment. Also esthetic impairment had a negative impact on QoL (pEsthetic impairment had a negative impact on children’s quality of life, while dental trauma was not associated to it. PMID:28977132

  20. Influence of motor skills training on children’s development evaluated in the Motor skills in PreSchool (MiPS) study-DK: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, nested in a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sara Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good motor skills are considered important for children's physical, social, and psychological development, but the relationship is still poorly understood. Preschool age seems to be decisive for the development of motor skills and probably the most promising time-window in relation...... to preventive strategies based on improved motor skills. This research program has four overall aims: (1) investigation of the effect of a structured program aimed at improving motor skills in 3-6-year-old children on current and future motor skills, health, cognition, and wellbeing; (2) establish reference...... data on motor skills in 3-6-year-olds; (3) description of early development of musculoskeletal problems; and (4) establishment of a population-based cohort of 3-6-year-olds. METHODS: Over a four-year period, all preschools in a Danish municipality, Svendborg, will implement a new program aimed...

  1. Effects of Practical Life Materials on Kindergartners' Fine Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Stewart, Roger A.

    2002-01-01

    A pretest-posttest control group design was used to measure the effect of practical life materials (e.g., tweezers, tongs, spoons) on kindergarten children's fine motor skill development. Experimental and control group teachers reported equal amounts of fine motor activity in their classrooms; however, significant interaction effects were found…

  2. Life Skills to Address Sexual and Reproductive Health in Young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Planning and Professional Development. All this put together in turn ... Results: A model called the ''Life skills intricate in sexual ... family, school and community environments that affect their capacity to .... complexity of human relations, the need to tune into the environment, the effect of culture, gender imbalances, role of the ...

  3. Life threatening arrhythmias: Knowledge and skills among nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Although the majority of the participants scored highly in their level of knowledge regarding life threatening arrhythmias, they scored poorly in most of the observed skills when identifying and treating this patient group. It is important that hospital administration take into consideration the identified areas of ...

  4. Life Skills from the Perspectives of Classroom and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtdede-Fidan, Nuray; Aydogdu, Bülent

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine classroom and science teachers' views about life skills. The study employed phenomenological method. The participants of the study were 24 teachers; twelve of them were classroom teachers and the remaining were science teachers. They were working at public schools in Turkey. The participants were selected…

  5. Life threatening arrhythmias: Knowledge and skills among nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    this study was to assess knowledge and skills of nurses in identifying life ... Much of the literature considers ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, ... In critical care settings, bedside nurses play a critical role in arrhythmia identification and ..... Lambert, V.A. & Lambert, C.E. (2008) Nurses' workplace stressors and ...

  6. CASAS: An Effective Measurement System for Life Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Richard L.; And Others

    The California Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) is a comprehensive educational system designed to enable adult educators to develop and evaluate a life skills curriculum for competency based educational programs. The system comprises the CASAS Competency List, the CASAS Item Bank, the User's Manual, the Curriculum Index and Matrix, and…

  7. Social skills and behavior problems of urban, African American preschoolers: role of parenting practices, family conflict, and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally A; Kuvalanka, Katherine A; Randolph, Suzanne M

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the role of parenting, family routines, family conflict, and maternal depression in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. A sample of 184 African American mothers of Head Start children completed participant and child measures in a structured interview. Results of regression analyses revealed that mothers who utilized more positive parenting practices and engaged in more family routines had children who displayed higher levels of total prosocial skills. Positive parenting and lower levels of maternal depressive symptoms were predictive of fewer externalizing and internalizing child behavior problems. Lower family conflict was linked with fewer externalizing problems. Implications of the study for future research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children's cognitive self-regulation skills development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; M = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and spring of the preschool year, and classroom observations were conducted three times throughout the year. Multilevel models tested associations between classroom behaviors of teachers and students using the Classroom Observation in Preschool and the Teacher Observation in Preschool and gains children made in a CSR composite score (Dimensional Change Card Sort, Peg Tapping, Head Toes Knees Shoulders, Copy Design, and Corsi Blocks) across the preschool year. After controlling for demographic covariates and children's pretest scores, both affective and cognitive classroom processes were associated with gains. More teacher behavior approving, less disapproving, and more positive emotional tone were associated with gains. The proportion of observed time teachers spent delivering instruction as well as the proportion of time children were involved with mathematics and literacy were also related to CSR gains, as was the quality of teacher instruction. Although exploratory, these results highlight the potential for modifications in classroom practices to aid in children's CSR development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the Children's Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age children and significantly improved motor skills while participating in outdoor recess was not effective. CHAMP could help contribute to children's learning-related skills and physical development and subsequently to their academic success.

  10. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.; Palmer, Kara K.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age children and significantly improved motor skills while participating in outdoor recess was not effective. CHAMP could help contribute to children’s learning-related skills and physical development and subsequently to their academic success. PMID:27660751

  11. Low skilled work, Work Life experiences and Learner identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    on an educational optimism not necessarily shared by the target groups . I therefore wanted to examine how an unskilled work life conditions the experience of a need for and possibility to participate in different kind of formal, informal and non-formal learning activities related to the job, and how...... this constitutes a certain learner identity. By conducting narrative interviews with 23 employees in 6 different small and medium sized private manufacturing companies in Denmark, I have focused on peoples work life stories, how they entered the labour marked, what kind of jobs and tasks they have undertaken, how...... their jobs have developed and how they have obtained the skills required in their jobs. I have thus examined the specific work life experiences of people working in unskilled jobs, most likely to be marginalised in a labour marked characterised by skill bias, and how these experiences constitutes a certain...

  12. [The formation of the self-maintenance skills in the pre-school children presenting with locomotor and coordination disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletaeva-Dubrovina, N A; Burkova, A M

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation acknowledges the sharp rise in the prevalence of congenital malformation in this country during the past 30 years. In 2010-2011, this pathology was estimated to occur in 3% of the children. It includes a variety of locomotor and coordination disorders of which the most widespread are infantile cerebral paralysis, ataxia, consequences of perinatal lesions of the central nervous system, etc. This article contains a detailed description of these locomotor and coordination disorders. The objective of the present work was to elaborate and evaluate the program for the formation of the self-maintenance skills in the pre-school children presenting with locomotor and coordination disorders under conditions of family guidance and education. The study was carried out from September 2013 till May 2014 based at MUP DOD "Semeiny klub Nadezhda" ("The Hope Family Club", Municipal unitary facility for children's additional education) and supported by B.N. El'tsin Ural Federal University. It included 10 children suffering from locomotor and coordination disorders of different severity and members of their families. The following methods were used: the self-service skills scorecard , monitoring formation of the motor skills, and Wilcoxon's T-test. The use of the program based on the cooperation with the children's families allowed to achieve positive dynamics in the patients' conditions. Moreover, 30% of them acquired the full scope of the self-maintenance skills. The most pronounced changes in the motor abilities were apparent in the movements of the upper and lower extremitis, walking, and motion in space. The proposed program for the formation of the self-maintenance skills in the pre-school children presenting with locomotor and coordination disorders proved to be highly efficacious. The study has demonstrated the importance of the parents' involvement in the process of formation of the self-maintenance skills and motor abilities

  13. Of huge mice and tiny elephants: Exploring the relationship between inhibitory processes and preschool math skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eMerkley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive mechanisms underpinning the well-established relationship between inhibitory control and early maths skills remain unclear. We hypothesised that a specific aspect of inhibitory control drives its association with distinct math skills in very young children: the ability to ignore stimulus dimensions that are in conflict with task-relevant representations. We used an Animal Size Stroop task in which three- to six-year-olds were required to ignore the physical size of animal pictures to compare their real-life dimensions. In Experiment 1 (N=58, performance on this task correlated with standardised early mathematics achievement. In Experiment 2 (N=48, performance on the Animal Size Stroop task related to the accuracy of magnitude comparison, specifically for trials on which the physical size of dot arrays was incongruent with their numerosity. This highlights a process-oriented relationship between interference control and resolving conflict between discrete and continuous quantity, and in turn calls for further detailed empirical investigations of whether, how and why inhibitory processes matter to emerging numerical cognition.

  14. Of Huge Mice and Tiny Elephants: Exploring the Relationship Between Inhibitory Processes and Preschool Math Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkley, Rebecca; Thompson, Jodie; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underpinning the well-established relationship between inhibitory control and early maths skills remain unclear. We hypothesized that a specific aspect of inhibitory control drives its association with distinct math skills in very young children: the ability to ignore stimulus dimensions that are in conflict with task-relevant representations. We used an Animal Size Stroop task in which 3- to 6-year-olds were required to ignore the physical size of animal pictures to compare their real-life dimensions. In Experiment 1 (N = 58), performance on this task correlated with standardized early mathematics achievement. In Experiment 2 (N = 48), performance on the Animal Size Stroop task related to the accuracy of magnitude comparison, specifically for trials on which the physical size of dot arrays was incongruent with their numerosity. This highlights a process-oriented relationship between interference control and resolving conflict between discrete and continuous quantity, and in turn calls for further detailed empirical investigations of whether, how and why inhibitory processes matter to emerging numerical cognition.

  15. Impacts of a Literacy-Focused Preschool Curriculum on the Early Literacy Skills of Language-Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Farver, Jo Ann M

    Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) children are at an elevated risk of struggling academically and display signs of that risk during early childhood. Therefore, high-quality research is needed to identify instructional techniques that promote the school readiness of Spanish-speaking LM children. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that utilized an experimental curriculum and two professional development models for the development of English and Spanish early literacy skills among LM children. We also evaluated whether LM children's proficiency in one language moderated the effect of the intervention on early literacy skills in the other language, as well as whether the intervention was differentially effective for LM and monolingual English-speaking children. Five hundred twenty-six Spanish-speaking LM children and 447 monolingual English-speaking children enrolled in 26 preschool centers in Los Angeles, CA participated in this study. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving LM children's code-related but not language-related English early literacy skills. There were no effects of the intervention on children's Spanish early literacy skills. Proficiency in Spanish did not moderate the effect of the intervention for any English early literacy outcomes; however, proficiency in English significantly moderated the effect of the intervention for Spanish oral language skills, such that the effect of the intervention was stronger for children with higher proficiency in English than it was for children with lower proficiency in English. In general, there were not differential effects of the intervention for LM and monolingual children. Taken together, these findings indicate that high-quality, evidence-based instruction can improve the early literacy skills of LM children and that the same instructional techniques are effective for enhancing the early literacy skills of LM and monolingual

  16. Rapid Deterioration of Basic Life Support Skills in Dentists With Basic Life Support Healthcare Provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Shogo; Ichiyama, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic life support skills in dentists who had completed the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support (BLS) Healthcare Provider qualification and time since course completion. Thirty-six dentists who had completed the 2005 BLS Healthcare Provider course participated in the study. We asked participants to perform 2 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a mannequin and evaluated basic life support skills. Dentists who had previously completed the BLS Healthcare Provider course displayed both prolonged reaction times, and the quality of their basic life support skills deteriorated rapidly. There were no correlations between basic life support skills and time since course completion. Our results suggest that basic life support skills deteriorate rapidly for dentists who have completed the BLS Healthcare Provider. Newer guidelines stressing chest compressions over ventilation may help improve performance over time, allowing better cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dental office emergencies. Moreover, it may be effective to provide a more specialized version of the life support course to train the dentists, stressing issues that may be more likely to occur in the dental office.

  17. Perceived Leadership Life Skills Developed through Participation at the Arkansas FFA Leadership Conference: A Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Chelsey Ann; Cox, Casandra Kay; Burris, Scott; Dykes, Mollie

    2015-01-01

    Youth leadership life skills are the "development of life skills necessary to perform leadership functions in real life" (Miller, 1976, p.2). A model developed by Kapostasy indicates life skills should be taught through FFA [formerly Future Farmers of America] (Staller, 2001). Thus, it is important to evaluate youth leadership life…

  18. Shared-Reading versus Oral Storytelling: Associations with Preschoolers' Prosocial Skills and Problem Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Craig, Michelle Jones

    2011-01-01

    Dyadic shared-reading and oral storytelling practices and their association to American preschoolers' (N = 33) prosocial and problem behaviour was examined. The frequency (how often dyads read) and history (the child's age at first reading) were examined within shared-reading; emotion state talk and evaluative judgments were examined in both…

  19. Social Information Processing Patterns, Social Skills, and School Readiness in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair

    2013-01-01

    The links among social information processing, social competence, and school readiness were examined in this short-term longitudinal study with a sample of 198 preschool children. Data on social information processing were obtained via child interview, data on child social competence were obtained via teacher report, and data on school readiness…

  20. The Effects of Secure Attachments on Preschool Children's Conflict Management Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, John

    This study examined the relationship between the security of children's attachment relationships to parents and teachers and how children negotiate and manage conflicts. Sixty-six preschool-aged children participated in story completion tasks regarding their attachment relationship with parents and teachers, and in hypothetical situations…

  1. Enhancing the Early Reading Skills: Examining the Print Features of Preschool Children's Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ozlem Simsek; Bay, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the uses of print features in preschool children's books in the US and Turkey, in order to helping adults to understand print features and supporting children's print awareness. In this context, two hundred children's books was randomly selected from the US and Turkey. Document analysis was used for…

  2. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  3. Sustained Selective Attention Skills of Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Separate Attentional Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the performance of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers on sustained selective attention tasks. Method: This study included 23 children diagnosed with SLI and 23 TD children matched for age, gender, and maternal education level.…

  4. Gross-Motor Skill Acquisition by Preschool Dance Students under Self-Instruction Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintere, Parsla; Hemmes, Nancy S.; Brown, Bruce L.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two training procedures -- (a) modeling and praise and (b) self-instruction, modeling, and praise -- on complex gross-motor chain acquisition for preschool dance class students were evaluated. Six girls participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across six gross-motor chains with a secondary group comparison for treatment…

  5. The Development of Experimentation and Evidence Evaluation Skills at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Grube, Dietmar; Maehler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers taking a domain-general approach to the development of scientific reasoning long thought that the ability to engage in scientific reasoning did not develop until adolescence. However, more recent studies have shown that preschool children already have a basic ability to evaluate evidence and a basic understanding of experimentation. Data providing insights into when exactly in the preschool years significant gains in these abilities occur are scarce. Drawing on a sample of 138 preschool children, this longitudinal study therefore examined how children's ability to evaluate evidence and their understanding of experimentation develop between the ages of four and six. Findings showed that the ability to evaluate evidence was already well developed at age four and increased steadily and significantly over time as long as the pattern of covariation was perfect. In the case of imperfect covariation, the proportion of correct answers was low over the period of observation, but showed a significant increase between the ages of four and five. If the data did not allow relationship between variables to be inferred, the proportion of correct answers was low, with a significant increase between the ages of five and six. The children's understanding of experimentation increased significantly between the ages of five and six. The implications of these findings for age-appropriate science programs in preschool are discussed.

  6. Developmental changes in the role of different metalinguistic awareness skills in Chinese reading acquisition from preschool to third grade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Qi Wei

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed.

  7. Promoting the Development of Preschool Children's Emergent Literacy Skills: A Randomized Evaluation of a Literacy-Focused Curriculum and Two Professional Development Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine

    2011-01-01

    To date, there have been few causally interpretable evaluations of the impacts of preschool curricula on the skills of children at-risk for academic difficulties, and even fewer studies have demonstrated statistically significant or educationally meaningful effects. In this cluster-randomized study, we evaluated the impacts of a literacy-focused…

  8. Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language: Initial Findings from the Early Language and Literacy Acquisition (ELLA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Method: Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed…

  9. Observation of the Effectiveness of Drama Method in Helping to Acquire the Addition-Subtraction Skills by Children at Preschool Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Sema; Quadir, Seher Ersoy

    2013-01-01

    Principal aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of the program prepared by researchers in order to enable 6 year-old children attending pre-school educational institutions to effectively gain addition subtraction skills through a drama-related method. The work group in the research comprised of 80 kids who continued their education in…

  10. The Reliability and Validity of a Progress-Monitoring Tool: A Psychometric Examination of the Phonological Awareness Skills of Preschoolers with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Jay R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a psychometric evaluation the "Sound Beginning" phonological awareness progress monitoring tool. This assessment was used to track emergent literacy skills of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder who were participating in a randomized trial studying early literacy interventions. Research…

  11. Social Skills Intervention Planning for Preschoolers: Using the SSiS-Rating Scales to Identify Target Behaviors Valued by Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jennifer R.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' and parents' importance ratings of social behaviors for 95 preschoolers were examined using the "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales" (Gresham & Elliott, 2008). Multivariate analyses were used to examine parents' and teachers' importance ratings at the item and subscale levels. Overall,…

  12. The Relationship between the Duration of Preschool Education and Primary School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Özgül; Yavuz, Ezgi Aksin

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood experiences have a great effect on the course of a child's life. Preschool education can offer benefits for children, particularly those who do not have advantages at home, including benefits related to academic skills, social-emotional development, and communication. Thus, preschool experiences are a potential key to improving…

  13. Examining the Predictive Relations between Two Aspects of Self-Regulation and Growth in Preschool Children’s Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Darcey M.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that self-regulatory processes are linked to early academic skills both concurrently and longitudinally. The majority of extant longitudinal studies, however, have been conducted using autoregressive techniques that may not accurately model change across time. The purpose of this study was to examine the unique associations between two components of self-regulation, attention and executive functioning (EF), and growth in early literacy skills over the preschool year using latent-growth-curve analysis. The sample included 1,082 preschool children (M-age = 55.0 months, SD = 3.73). Children completed measures of vocabulary, syntax, phonological awareness, print knowledge, cognitive ability, and self-regulation, and children’s classroom teachers completed a behavior rating measure. To examine the independent relations of the self-regulatory skills and cognitive ability with children’s initial early literacy skills and growth across the preschool year, growth models in which the intercept and slope were simultaneously regressed on each of the predictor variables were examined. Because of the significant relation between intercept and slope for most outcomes, slope was regressed on intercept in the models to allow a determination of direct and indirect effects of the predictors on growth in children’s language and literacy skills across the preschool year. In general, both teacher-rated inattention and directly measured EF were uniquely associated with initial skills level; however, only teacher-rated inattention uniquely predicted growth in early literacy skills. These findings suggest that teacher-ratings of inattention may measure an aspect of self-regulation that is particularly associated with the acquisition of academic skills in early childhood. PMID:27854463

  14. Developing preschool children social aptitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Brás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.

  15. Adolescents developing life skills for managing type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Gitte R; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Hommel, Eva

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore and illustrate how the Guided Self-Determination-Youth method influences the development of life skills in adolescents with type 1 diabetes supported by their parents and healthcare providers. BACKGROUND: Evidence-based methods that accomplish constructive cooperation between...... adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, their parents and healthcare providers are needed. We adjusted an adult life skills intervention comprising reflection sheets and advanced communication for use by adolescent-parent-professional triads in outpatient visits. DESIGN: A qualitative realistic...... with type 1 diabetes for ≥1 year and having poor glycaemic control participated together with 17 parents and eight healthcare providers. Data were collected from December 2009-March 2012 and consisted of digitally recorded outpatient Guide Self-Determination-Youth visits collected during the intervention...

  16. Health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral problems in mild to moderate prematures at (pre-)school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketharanathan, N.; Lee, W.; Mol, A.C. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a gap in the knowledge of longterm outcome of mild to moderate prematures compared to the extreme prematures or very low birth weight infants. AIM: Determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in (pre-)school age children

  17. Functional abdominal complaints in pre-school children: Parental reports of health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.P. Jongman (Henri); J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); H. Raat (Hein); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The aim of this study is to assess the influence of functional abdominal complaints (FAC) on health-related quality of life in a group of Dutch pre-school children. Methods Parents of children aged up to 6.0 visiting the outpatient pediatric department, Erasmus MC-Sophia,

  18. THE EVALUATION OF LEARNING BASED ON SKILLS AT THE PRESCHOOL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Oralia Ortiz Varela; Efrén Viramontes Anaya; Alma Delia Campos Arroyo

    2013-01-01

    The research is about learning evaluation based on competencies in a mixed group of Preschool level: Melchor Ocampo in Delicias Chihuahua city. The most important theoretical foundations were provided by Casanova (1998), in relation to the assessment, and Diaz Barriga (2003 and 2006), with teaching in competencies and didactic strategies. The research objective is to track systematically the evaluation of competencies as well as design and experiment alternatives for evaluation in pres...

  19. Development of fundamental movement skills through games and PA in preschool chldren

    OpenAIRE

    Kašparová, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Characterization work: Fundamental locomotor skills are: walking, running, jumping, crawling and throwing. Their development is influenced primarily by games and movement activities. Control over those skills guarantees proper physical development of children and also make important prerequisites for an adoption of heavier and more complex skills. The levels of fundamental locomotor skills are evaluated by the diagnostic resources. Goal and purpose:I created inspiromat of games and movement a...

  20. Expressive Morphological Skills of Dual Language Learning and Monolingual German Children: Exploring Links to Duration of Preschool Attendance, Classroom Quality, and Classroom Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly-Marlen Bihler

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research has been documenting environmental factors that support preschoolers’ vocabulary skills. However, less is known about how environmental factors are related to morphological skills of dual language learners (DLLs and single language learners (SLLs. We examined connections with preschool experiences by investigating the effects of duration of preschool attendance, classroom quality, and classroom composition variables (percentage of DLLs and percentage of children from families with a low socio-economic status on preschoolers’ expressive morphological skills. Several multilevel regression models were estimated using cross-sectional data from 835 children (n = 255 DLLs aged 30–47 months. These children were nested in 169 preschool classrooms in Germany. As a control task, we also investigated children’s phonological processing abilities, for which we found, as expected, no differences between DLLs and SLLs. Our main finding was that DLL children scored lower in expressive morphological skills than their German monolingual peers, but this difference was considerably smaller in classrooms that scored high in instructive teacher–child interactions (measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System for pre-kindergarten children; CLASS Pre-K. Taken together, these results support the notion that supportive teacher–child instructive interactions have a positive impact on the development of DLLs’ morphological skills.

  1. Assessment of HIV/AIDS and Life Skills Delivery in Primary Schools in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushahu, Bernadetha Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and the Life Skills Education delivery in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically the study investigated pupils' views about the effect of HIV/AIDS and Life Skills teaching in primary schools in Tanzania; assessed pupils' knowledge related to HIV/AIDS and Life Skills education, and…

  2. A Systematic Review of Life Skill Development Through Sports Programs Serving Socially Vulnerable Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, Niels; Super, Sabina; Verkooijen, Kirsten T.; Koelen, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the strong belief in sports programs as a setting in which socially vulnerable youth can develop life skills, no overview exists of life skill development in sports programs serving this youth group. Therefore, the present systematic review provides an overview of the evidence on life skill

  3. Impact of normal weight obesity on fundamental motor skills in pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Martin; Kokstejn, Jakub; Papez, Pavel; Scheffler, Christiane; Mumm, Rebekka; Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-09-01

    Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts. The research sample consisted of 152 pre-schoolers selected from a specific district of Prague, the Czech Republic. According to values from four skinfolds: triceps, subscapula, suprailiaca, calf, and BMI three categories of children aged 3-6 years were determined: A) normal weight obese n = 51; B) normal weight non-obese n = 52; C) overweight and obese n = 49. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used for the assessment of fundamental motor skills. Normal weight obese children had significantly higher amount of adipose tissue p < 0.001 than normal weight non-obese children but the same average BMI. Moreover, normal weight obese children did not have significantly less amount of subcutaneous fat on triceps and calf compared to their overweight and obese peers. In majority of MABC-2 tests, normal weight obese pre-schoolers showed the poorest performance. Moreover, normal weight obese children had significantly worse total standard score = 38.82 compared to normal weight non-obese peers = 52.27; p < 0.05. In addition, normal weight obese children had a more than three times higher frequency OR = 3.69 CI95% (1.10; 12.35) of severe motor deficit performance ≤ 5 th centile of the MABC-2 norm. These findings are strongly alarming since indices like BMI are not able to identify normal weight obese individual. We recommend verifying real portion of normal weight obese children as they are probably in higher risk of health and motor

  4. Does pre-school improve cognitive abilities among children with early-life stunting? A longitudinal study for Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; León, Juan; Miranda, Alejandra; Dearden, Kirk; Crookston, Benjamin T; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in developing countries have found that children who experience growth faltering in the first years of life show lower cognitive abilities than their peers. In this study, we use the Young Lives longitudinal dataset in Peru to analyze if attending pre-school affects cognitive abilities at age five years, and if there is an interaction with HAZ at age one year. Using instrumental variables we found, for receptive vocabulary, a positive effect of attending Jardines (formal) pre-schools; the effect of attending PRONOEI (community-based) pre-schools was not significant. More years attending Jardines was more beneficial for children who were better nourished. We suggest working to improve the quality of PRONOEI s, and with teachers on targeting children of lower nutritional status.

  5. Certified Basic Life Support Instructors Assess Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills Poorly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Rasmussen, Stinne E; Kristensen, Mette Amalie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival from cardiac arrest. During basic life support (BLS) training, instructors assess CPR skills to enhance learning outcome. Emergency department staff and senior residents have been shown to assess chest compression...... quality poorly. Currently no studies have evaluated CPR assessment among certified BLS instructors. The aim of this study was to investigate certified BLS instructors’ assessment of chest compressions and rescue breathing.Methods: Data were collected at BLS courses for medical students at Aarhus...... of CPR skills may be beneficial to ensure high-quality learning outcome.Author Disclosures: C. Hansen: None. S.E. Rasmussen: None. M.A. Nebsbjerg: None. M. Stærk: None. B. Løfgren: None....

  6. The relationship between fundamental movement skills and the extent of daily physical activity in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 玲子; 石沢, 順子; 楠原, 慶子; 奥山, 靜代

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills are significantly associated with habitual physical activity. Recently, it has become clear that children have become less physically active than in the past, and some studies have shown that children's fundamental movement skills have been declining in recent decades. Human movements have various characteristics, and not all movement skills are associated with physical activity level. In this study, we investigated the relationship between 5 fundamental movements ...

  7. Developmental trajectories of preschool early literacy skills: a comparison of language-minority and monolingual-English children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Farver, Joann M; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Eppe, Stefanie

    2013-10-01

    This study utilized latent growth-curve analyses to determine if the early literacy skills of children who were Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) followed a similar quantitative growth profile over a preschool year as that of a group of children from a comparable socioeconomic (SES) background but who were not LM. Participants, who ranged in age from 37 to 60 months (M = 50.73; SD = 5.04), included 540 Spanish-speaking LM and 408 non-LM children (47% girls) who were enrolled in 30 Head Start classrooms. Scores on a measure of oral language and measures of code-related skills (i.e., phonological awareness, print knowledge) were lower for LM children than for non-LM children. LM children experienced significantly faster growth in oral language skills than did non-LM children. Growth for print knowledge and blending was similar for LM and non-LM children, whereas LM children experienced slightly less growth than non-LM children on elision. The inclusion of child (i.e., initial language scores, age, nonverbal cognitive ability) and family (i.e., maternal/paternal education, 2-parent household, father employment) variables eliminated initial differences between LM and non-LM children on the code-related variables, and the effect was due primarily to children's initial oral language skills. These results indicate that the early risk for reading-related problems experienced by Spanish-speaking LM children is due both to low SES and to their LM status, and they highlight the critical need for the development, evaluation, and deployment of early instructional programs for LM children with limited English oral language proficiency.

  8. Does Preschool Physical Activity and Electronic Media Use Predict Later Social and Emotional Skills at 6 to 8 Years? A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the associations of preschoolers' health behaviors with their later psychosocial wellbeing. This study investigates the association of 3- to 5-year-old children's physical activity and electronic media use with their later social-emotional skills (6-8 years). Data were collected in 2008-2009 and 2011-2012 for the Healthy Active Preschool and Primary Years (HAPPY) Study in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants were a random subsample (n = 108) of the 567 children at follow-up. Physical activity was objectively measured using ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers; electronic media use (television viewing, sedentary electronic games and active electronic games) was parent proxy-reported. Social and emotional skills were child-reported using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory-Youth Version. Regression analyses controlled for sex, clustering by center of recruitment, and accelerometer wear time (for physical activity analyses). Sedentary electronic games were positively associated with intrapersonal and stress management skills and total emotional quotient. Computer/internet use was inversely associated with interpersonal, and positively associated with stress management, skills. Findings suggest that physical activity is not associated with children's psychosocial health while some types of electronic media use are. Future research should investigate the contexts in which preschoolers participate in these behaviors and potential causal mechanisms of associations.

  9. Developing Preschoolers' Social Skills through Cross-Cultural Physical Education Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaridou, Niki; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Gråstén, Arto; Kokkonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in children's social skills after their participation in a physical education programme named ESPEC ("Early Steps" Physical Education Curriculum). The evaluators of the children's social skills were the trained educators who implemented the curriculum as well as parents of the…

  10. Social Skills in Preschool Children with Unilateral and Mild Bilateral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss may represent a risk for developing social skills difficulties; however, little is known about the potential risk resulting from unilateral or mild bilateral hearing loss (UMHL). We compared the social skills of 14 children with UMHL and 21 children with moderate to severe hearing loss (MSHL) with those of 123 children with typical…

  11. The Relationship between Fundamental Movement Skills and Body Mass Index in Korean Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Il; Lee, Kang-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood obesity is a serious worldwide problem, and fundamental movement skills (FMS) are very important factors in human movement. Thus, several advanced studies have examined the associations between FMS and body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this study was to investigate BMI and FMS (locomotion and object control skills) in Korean…

  12. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  13. Life Skills in Educational Contexts: Testing the Effects of an Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A. Rui; Marques, Brazelina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a training programme on students' acquisition of life skills, life satisfaction, life orientation and expectations about academic achievement. Participants were allocated to either an intervention group ("n"?=?41) that took part in a life skills programme, or a control group ("n"?=?43).…

  14. Impact of oral hygiene on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghian, S; Bahmani, M; Amin, M

    2015-08-01

    To assess the impact of oral hygiene of preschool children and parental attitude on children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In this cross-sectional study, 396 children of Shiraz kindergartens were selected by a randomized cluster sampling. Children's oral hygiene was assessed using the Simplified Debris Index (DI-S) and a self-made questionnaire about oral hygiene habits. Children's OHRQoL was evaluated by the Farsi version of Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (F-ECOHIS). The effect of oral hygiene determinants on OHRQoL was measured using Pearson and Spearman correlation, independent-sample t-test and anova. Children's mean DI-S and F-ECOHIS scores were 1.19 (± 0.77) and 19.36 (±8.42), respectively. Only 75% of the children had their teeth brushed once a day or more, and in 28%, toothbrushing had started before 2 years of age. DI-S values (P children. Children's OHRQoL was also significantly associated with parents' attitude towards the importance of brushing deciduous teeth (P = 0.002). Oral health status of preschool children in Shiraz was less than optimal and had a significant impact on their OHRQoL. Therefore, improvement of children's OHRQoL could be achieved by improving their home dental care. Strategies promoting parental attitude about the importance of children's toothbrushing may significantly influence children's oral hygiene and are highly recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Promoting Children's Social-Emotional Skills in Preschool Can Enhance Academic and Behavioral Functioning in Kindergarten: Findings from Head Start REDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Robert L; Bierman, Karen L; Domitrovich, Celene E; Gill, Sukhdeep

    2013-01-01

    This study examined processes of change associated with the positive preschool and kindergarten outcomes of children who received the Head Start REDI intervention, compared to "usual practice" Head Start. In a large-scale randomized-controlled trial (N = 356 children, 42% African American or Latino, all from low-income families), this study tests the logic model that improving preschool social-emotional skills (e.g., emotion understanding, social problem solving, and positive social behavior) as well as language/emergent literacy skills will promote cross-domain academic and behavioral adjustment after children transition into kindergarten. Validating this logic model, the present study finds that intervention effects on three important kindergarten outcomes (e.g., reading achievement, learning engagement, and positive social behavior) were mediated by preschool gains in the proximal social-emotional and language/emergent literacy skills targeted by the REDI intervention. Importantly, preschool gains in social-emotional skills made unique contributions to kindergarten outcomes in reading achievement and learning engagement, even after accounting for the concurrent preschool gains in vocabulary and emergent literacy skills. These findings highlight the importance of fostering at-risk children's social-emotional skills during preschool as a means of promoting school readiness. The REDI (Research-Based, Developmentally-Informed) enrichment intervention was designed to complement and strengthen the impact of existing Head Start programs in the dual domains of language/emergent literacy skills and social-emotional competencies. REDI was one of several projects funded by the Interagency School Readiness Consortium, a partnership of four federal agencies (the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Administration for Children and Families, the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the Department of Health and Human Services, and the

  16. Review of dissertation «A Comparison of Cognitive Play Skills Within a Natural and Manufactured Preschool Playground» by Kelly Groeber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the structure of the game space as a factor, providing formation of creativity which in its turn is regarded as personal competence in preschool children. The data obtained by the author contribute to the general knowledge about age dynamics and typology of skills that are gained by children in the process of shaping of their playing competences. They also demonstrate the deficit of child development in conditions of artificial gaming environment, lacking natural components. The article also contains a big number of pictures, showing the functional capacities of different playgrounds, tabular figures, and volumetric methodical applicationы. The present comparative qualitative analysis is aimed at mapping cognitive skills, formed in preschool children in case they spend more time on the playgrounds, equipped with the elements of natural origin (natural or artificial ( metal elements.

  17. Investigating the Relationship between Pre-School Teachers’ Problem Solving Skills andTheir Epistemological Beliefs, Creativity Levels and Thinking Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdenur Uzunoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether the epistemological beliefs, creativity levels and thinking styles of pre-school teachers are significant predictors of their problem solving skills and in accordance with this purpose, a correlational survey design was used. The sample of this study consists of 155 pre school teachers working in Isparta in the school year 2011-2012. As data collection tools, “Problem Solving Inventory”, “Epistemological Beliefs Scale, “How Creative Are You?” and lastly, “Thinking Styles Inventory” were used. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. In this study, it has been found that problem solving skills of the teachers are a significant predictor of preschool teachers’ perceptions of their creativity levels positively and perceptions of their conventional thinking styles negatively in the belief that learning depends on ability.

  18. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Elizabeth Robinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 + 6.5 months; 49.5% males were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68 or control (n = 45 program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-minute sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time*treatment interaction (p < .001. In regards to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < .05, but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < .001. Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < .05. CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that may be an approach to enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation. This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age

  19. Health Promotion Using Life Skills Education Approach for Adolescents in Schools--Development of a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, Srikala; Kumar, K. V. Kishore

    2008-01-01

    Life Skills Education (LSE) is a novel promotional program that teaches generic life skills through participatory learning methods of games, debates, role-plays, and group discussion. Conceptual understanding and practicing of the skills occurs through experiential learning in a non-threatening setting. Such initiatives provide the adolescent with…

  20. Enhanced parenting knowledge and skills in mothers of preschool children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, W B; Armstrong, F D; Pegelow, C H; Routh, D K

    1993-10-01

    Compared 25 preschool children with sickle cell disease (SCD) to demographically matched healthy comparison children on maternal reports of child-rearing beliefs and practices and maternal and child behaviors related to social adjustment. Mothers of children with SCD possessed significantly more knowledge of appropriate discipline techniques. The groups did not differ on maternal reports of socially relevant child behavior. However, when mother-child interactions were observed in free play and structured play settings, mothers of children with SCD treated their children as competent significantly more, and treated their children as incompetent significantly less, than comparison mothers. Mothers of children with SCD also used significantly more reinforcement during the final toy pick-up condition. There were no observed differences between groups in the children's behavior.

  1. Using a Touch-Based, Computer-Assisted Learning System to Promote Literacy and Math Skills for Low-Income Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Mark H McManis; Lilla D McManis

    2016-01-01

    The use of touch-based technologies by young children to improve academic skills has seen growth outpacing empirical evidence of its effectiveness. Due to the educational challenges low-income children face, the stakes for providing instructional technology with demonstrated efficacy are high. The current work presents an empirical study of the use of a touch-based, computer-assisted learning system by low-income preschoolers. A description of the system’s design is provided with attention to...

  2. Analyzing the Effects of Iranian EFL Textbooks on Developing Learners' Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Mahboobeh; Khosravani, Mahmood; Khorashadyzadeh, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Education is not an end, but a means to an end. The ultimate goal of education is to prepare students for their future life. Regarding this fact, English language classes and textbooks can be used as tools for improving learners' life skills. Meanwhile, informative textbooks with rich socio-cultural constructs that foster learners' life skills are…

  3. A Program Implementation for the Development of Life Skills of Primary School 4th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akfirat, Osman Nejat; Kezer, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Life skills are the competencies that an individual must have in order to be able to carry on his/her existence effectively in the process of change. By means of life skills, the individual is aimed to facilitate his/her life by using all his/her achievements in the education process. In this study, a program covering the dimensions of…

  4. Influence of motor skills training on children's development evaluated in the Motor skills in PreSchool (MiPS) study-DK: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, nested in a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sarah Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas; Olesen, Line Groenholt; Elmose, Mette; Bleses, Dorthe; Andersen, Simon Calmar; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2017-08-29

    Good motor skills are considered important for children's physical, social, and psychological development, but the relationship is still poorly understood. Preschool age seems to be decisive for the development of motor skills and probably the most promising time-window in relation to preventive strategies based on improved motor skills. This research program has four overall aims: (1) investigation of the effect of a structured program aimed at improving motor skills in 3-6-year-old children on current and future motor skills, health, cognition, and wellbeing; (2) establish reference data on motor skills in 3-6-year-olds; (3) description of early development of musculoskeletal problems; and (4) establishment of a population-based cohort of 3-6-year-olds. Over a four-year period, all preschools in a Danish municipality, Svendborg, will implement a new program aimed at optimizing children's motor skills. By introducing the program into a subset of the preschools at onset and comparing these children to another subset (control) that will not receive the intervention the first three years, it is possible to document a potential effect of the intervention. At the same time, a cohort will be established including all children attending preschools in the municipality with extensive baseline data collection: gross and fine motor skills; movement patterns; musculoskeletal complaints; physical activity; anthropometry; general wellbeing; cognitive abilities; language status; medical history; demographic background; and more. The children are aged 3-6 years at baseline. A total of 1461 children have been invited into the cohort, 368 to the intervention arm and 359 to the control arm. Follow-up time for the trial is 2.5 years. The cohort is planned to run at least until the children leave school at age 15-16 years. Longer follow-up will depend on future funding. If the results of the trial are positive, the intervention can be implemented in other similar settings with

  5. Can We Fix This? Parent-Child Repair Processes and Preschoolers' Regulatory Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Christine J; Lunkenheimer, Erika; Albrecht, Erin C; Chen, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The repair of difficult parent-child interactions is a marker of healthy functioning in infancy, but less is known about repair processes during early childhood. We used dynamic systems methods to investigate dyadic repair in mothers and their 3-year-old children ( N = 96) and its prediction of children's emotion regulation and behavior problems at a four-month follow-up. Mothers and children completed free play and challenging puzzle tasks. Repair was operationalized as the conditional probability of moving into a dyadic adaptive behavior region after individual or dyadic maladaptive behavior (e.g., child noncompliance, parental criticism). Overall, dyads repaired approximately half their maladaptive behaviors. A greater likelihood of repair during the puzzle task predicted better child emotion regulation and fewer behavior problems in preschool. Results suggest dyadic repair is an important process in early childhood and provide further evidence for the connection between parent-child coregulation and children's developing regulatory capacities. Implications for family-based interventions are discussed.

  6. Little Steps at Improving Preschool Teachers Practices through Counseling Skills in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Aisha; Nasser, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    The study focused on the effects of basic counseling skills program, such as listening, understanding, respecting, and empathizing, to elementary school teachers in Qatar. Through a three-hour intervention program, the authors used a self-reported questionnaire, interview questions and classroom observations to examine changes in how preschool…

  7. Links between Preschool Children's Social Skills and Observed Pretend Play in Outdoor Childcare Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayao; Hestenes, Linda L.; Wang, Yudan C.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most advanced play forms in childhood, pretend play often demonstrates positive associations with children's development. However, results from research that examines the association between social skills and pretend play are mixed, especially when the complexity of pretend play is taken into account. Moreover, few studies on pretend…

  8. Shyness-Anxiousness and Receptive Language Skills Development in Spanish- and English-Speaking Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Paul S.; Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D.; Cerna, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to model the relationship between shyness-anxiousness and receptive language skills. Hypotheses regarding the direction of the causal relationship, mediation, and moderation were evaluated. Subjects included 340 Head Start attendees from primarily English- and Spanish-speaking…

  9. An Evaluation of Videomodeling on Fundamental Motor Skill Performance of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Cavalier, Albert

    2018-01-01

    Proficiency in fundamental motor skills (FMS) is important for both the health and the overall growth and development of young children. To identify factors that facilitate the development of FMS, the study provided preliminary data on the effect of videomodeling (VM) on the acquisition of FMS by typically developing young children. Participants…

  10. School-Based Social Skills Training for Preschool-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; Hanglein, Jeanine; Arak, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder display impairments in social interactions and communication that appear at early ages and result in short- and long-term negative outcomes. As such, there is a need for effective social skills training programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder--particularly interventions capable of being…

  11. Enhancing Emergent Literacy Skills in Inclusive Preschools for Young Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Janice Neibaur; McDonnell, Andrea P.; Heathfield, Lora Tuesday

    2005-01-01

    Emergent literacy can be viewed as skills that are precursors to later reading and writing (Sulzby & Teale, 1991) or can be more broadly conceptualized as literacy acquisition that occurs along a developmental continuum. Because children with disabilities, such as visual impairments, can be at risk for later reading difficulties, it is critical…

  12. Habilidades Sociais Educativas Parentais e comportamentos de pré-escolares Parental Social Educational Skills and behavior of preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Barbosa Romera Leme

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivos, a partir dos relatos de 20 mães de crianças com problemas de comportamento (Grupo clínico e de 20 mães de crianças sem problemas de comportamento (Grupo não clínico: a comparar as freqüências das habilidades sociais e dos problemas de comportamento das crianças; b descrever as situações em que as crianças apresentavam os comportamentos problema e socialmente habilidosos; c descrever os comportamentos das mães diante dos comportamentos dos filhos; d descrever os comportamentos dos filhos diante dos comportamentos maternos. Pré-escolares foram selecionados por professoras que responderam a uma escala e os dados foram coletados através de entrevista e de escala com as mães. Os resultados indicaram que as crianças do Grupo não clínico apresentaram mais habilidades sociais e menos problemas de comportamento externalizantes que as crianças do Grupo clínico. As mães do Grupo não clínico relataram mais Habilidades Sociais Educativas Parentais de expressão de sentimentos e enfrentamento, e Comunicação e menos práticas negativas, que as mães do Grupo clínico.The study had for objectives, from the reports of 20 mothers of children with behavior problems (Clinical group and 20 mothers of children without behavior problems (Non-clinical group: a compare the frequencies of social skills and behavior problems of children; b describe the situations where the children had behavior problems and social skills; c describe the behaviors of mothers face behaviors of the children; d describe the behaviors of children ahead of maternal behaviors. Pre-school they were selected age by teachers who responded to a scale and who were collected through interview and scale with the mothers. The results indicated that children of Non-clinical group had more social skills and fewer externalizing behavior problems than children of the Clinical group. The mothers in the Non-clinical group reported more Parental Social

  13. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    OpenAIRE

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are...

  14. Positive Youth Development Life Skills Gained at the Iowa 4-H Youth Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Allen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests 4-H programs build Life Skills such as leadership, communication, citizenship and learning. However, 4-H programs vary from long-term on-going experiences to shorter, more intense opportunities. This paper discusses a program evaluation articulating the life skill development of participants in a 3-day residential State 4-H Conference on a Midwestern college campus. The Life Skills assessed were in the areas of leadership, citizenship, communication, and learning as part of overall Life Skill development. Participants were youth ages 14-18 years. A retrospective pretest-posttest was used to evaluate skill development and understanding. Analysis, including paired sample t-tests, indicated growth in each of the 12 common outcome measures evaluated. This study supports the importance of purposeful planning and youth engagement in the learning process to achieve desired life skill outcomes.

  15. The Effect of TMPT Program on Pre-School Children's Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Cagla; Kocak, Nurcan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Starting Thinking Training at an early age is important. However, few studies were found regarding Thinking Training programs for pre-school children and the contributions of these programs to children's social problem-solving. In this context, the TMPT Program was developed for pre-school children and the effect of the program on 5-6…

  16. An Investigation of the Life Skills Knowledge among Female Students of Tehran City Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khushabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The present research designed to examine the life skills knowledge of female college students in Tehran city.Materials & Methods: The work was a descriptive study. The statistical population consist all female college students in Tehran, and the sampling was cluster mode. The primary data recruited by a researcher made inventory to the knowledge of the individuals about the life skills. The collected data analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Results suggested that 9.3% of the subject group had a modest awareness of life skills; 47.5% had an average awareness and 43.2% were at high level in such skills. Also the results showed that there was a significant difference between educational course of the students and level of life skill knowledge (p<0.05, but not in demographical and knowledge of life skills. Conclusion: The results points to importance of life skills education in college contexts. With regarding that nearly 9% of the students had little knowledge and as results indicated that there is a negative correlation between low awareness of life skills and mental health; and also direct correlation between low awareness of life skills and expressing high risk behaviors, it is recommended to make and prepare effective programs in this field.

  17. Reconceptualised life skills in secondary education in the African context: Lessons learnt from reforms in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2014-04-01

    Early notions of life skills in Africa did not take into account the importance of a flexible and portable set of skills that would enable youth to adapt to changes in the world of work and lay the foundations for productive well-being and behaviour. Rather, life skills education in many secondary education curricula in Africa started with an emphasis on developing specific technical vocational skills considered essential for employability or self-employment. Using Ghana as an example, this paper shows how secondary education curriculum reformers recommended shifts that embraced a new interpretation of life skills focused on 21st-century skills. This gradual move also reflected the difficulty that secondary education in general has had in networking with the world of work to provide work experience that would lead to the development of work-related skills and enhance employability. The author's main argument is that although the reconceptualisation of life skills in secondary education to reflect 21st-century skills is a welcome shift in the African context, this needs to be accompanied by reforms in teacher education. Classroom teaching and learning need to be adapted in a fundamental way in order to ensure that youth fully benefit from the inclusion of 21st-century life skills in secondary education curricula. Such reforms must include pedagogical practices which nurture communication, collaboration, creativity and critical thinking skills.

  18. [Effect of parents' occupational and life environment exposure during six months before pregnancy on executive function of preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lingling; Shao, Ting; Tao, Huihui; Sun, Yanli; Yan, Shuangqin; Gu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effect of parents' occupational and life exposure during six months before pregnancy on executive function of preschool children. Pregnant women involved in the study came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study,a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study. Between October 2008 and October 2010, pregnant women who accepted pregnancy care in four municipal medical and health institutions in Ma'anshan city were recruited as study objects. A total of 5,084 pregnant women and 4,669 singleton live births entered in this cohort. Between April 2014 and April 2015, a total of 3,803 pre-school children were followed up. Finally, except 32 preschool children did not have EF evaluation result, there were 3,771 children included in this study. By using self-designed " Maternal health handbook", we researched parents' general demographic characteristics, and life and occupational exposure during six months before pregnancy. To research preschool children's executive function, we used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Univariate and multivariate statistical method was used to analyze the association of parents' life and occupational exposure during six months before pregnancy and preschool children's EF. 3,771 preschool children's detected rate of inhibitory self-control index (ISCI), flexibility index (FI), emergent metacognition index (EMI) and global executive composite (GEC) dysplasia were 4.8% (182), 2.3% (88), 16.5% (623) and 8.6% (324) respectively. During six months before pregnancy, children whose parents were lived in a noise environment (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.36-2.54), whose maternal were exposed to pesticides were the risk of ISCI dysplasia(OR=3.60, 95% CI: 1.45-8.95). During six months before pregnancy, children whose maternal were exposed to pesticides (OR=6.72, 95% CI: 2.50-18.07) and whose father were exposed to occupational lead (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.25-3.54) were the risk of FI dysplasia. During six months

  19. [Determining the efficacy of a high-school life-skills' programme in Huancavelica, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque-Larrauri, Raúl; Chirinos-Cáceres, Jesús Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Determining the efficacy of a life-skills' programme within the context of a school health promotion programme using teenagers from a high-school in the district of Huancavelica, Peru during school year 2006. This was non-equivalent experimental research with pre-test and post-test. The subjects consisted of 284 high school students. The variables analyzed were communication, self esteem, assertiveness, decision making, sex and age. There was a significant increase in the experimental group's communication and assertiveness skills' development. There were no significant differences in decision-making and self-esteem skills. The life-skills' programme was effective during one school year, especially in terms of learning and developing communication and assertiveness skills. However, self-esteem and decision-making skills did not present a statistically significance difference. Programme implementation must thus be redirected and the life-skills' programme should be implemented throughout all high-school years.

  20. Quality in preschool in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh-Müller, Grethe; Ringsmose, Charlotte

    What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?......What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?...

  1. Promoting prosocial behavior and self-regulatory skills in preschool children through a mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function, self-regulation, and prosocial behavior in a sample of 68 preschool children. The KC intervention group showed greater improvements in social competence and earned higher report card grades in domains of learning, health, and social-emotional development, whereas the control group exhibited more selfish behavior over time. Interpretation of effect sizes overall indicate small to medium effects favoring the KC group on measures of cognitive flexibility and delay of gratification. Baseline functioning was found to moderate treatment effects with KC children initially lower in social competence and executive functioning demonstrating larger gains in social competence relative to the control group. These findings, observed over a relatively short intervention period, support the promise of this program for promoting self-regulation and prosocial behavior in young children. They also support the need for future investigation of program implementation across diverse settings.

  2. Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck

    2016-11-08

    This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.

  3. Effect of complex acrobatic elements in the development of physical skills of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Lyulina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The directions of the complex acrobatic exercises to enhance physical fitness and functional status of children. The experiment involved boys and girls aged 5 - 7 years of the preparatory group. It is noted that the use of acrobatic elements for the development of motor qualities in children brings a positive result. Found that the use of special acrobatic exercises on physical training promotes full development, allows us to develop a high level of motor skills and physical fitness. Found that the impact on athletic performance, exercise, positive motivation for physical education classes, emotional, diverse playing exercises, exercises to music. There is a significant interest and desire of children to exercise, a high performance in the classroom.

  4. Life Skills Training for Middle and High School Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Ni, Xinyu; Lee, Young-Sun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which life skills training was offered to middle and high school students with autism and life skills training needs after high school. A secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Training Study-2 (NLTS-2) data was conducted in this study. This study found that the majority of the middle and high school…

  5. Life skills training as HIV/AIDS preventive strategy in secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A life skills and HIV/AIDS education programme was implemented in secondary schools as a strategy to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among school-going young people in South Africa. As part of a joint effort of the Departments of Health and Education, two teachers per school were trained to implement life skills training ...

  6. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse…

  7. PENGGUNAAN PENDEKATAN CHEMO-ENTREPRENEURSHIP BERORIENTASI GREEN CHEMISTRY UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN LIFE SKILL SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersanghono Kusuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan life skill siswa dengan hasilbelajar termasuk di dalamnya, dengan menerapkan pendekatan chemo-entrepreneurship(CEP berorientasi green chemistry. Fokus yang diteliti adalah untuk meningkatkankemampuan life skill dan hasil belajar siswa dengan menggunakan pendekatan CEPberorientasi green chemistry. Berdasarkan analisis data hasil penelitian pada siklus Idiperoleh rata-rata nilai dan ketuntasan life skill siswa masing-masing adalah 53,55 dan65% dengan kriteria sedang, pada siklus II meningkat dibandingkan siklus I dengan kriteriabaik, serta rata-rata nilai dan ketuntasan life skill siswa menjadi 60,025 dan 92,5%. Padasiklus III meningkat dibandingkan siklus II, yaitu kemampuan life skill siswa tergolong baikyaitu diperoleh nilai rata-rata dan ketuntasan life skill masing-masing sebesar 63,64 dan100%. Rata-rata nilai kognitif siswa pada siklus I adalah 65,49 dengan ketuntasan 70%, padasiklus II ketuntasan klasikal hasil belajar kognitif meningkat sebesar 12,5% yaitu dari 70%menjadi 82,5% sedangkan nilai rata-rata kelas menjadi 70,99. Pada siklus III ketuntasanklasikal hasil belajar kognitif meningkat 17,5% dari siklus II yaitu dari 82,5% menjadi100% serta nilai rata-rata kelas menjadi 75. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwadengan menggunakan pendekatan CEP berorientasi green chemistry dapat meningkatkankemampuan life skill siswa dan hasil belajar siswa. Kata Kunci : chemo-entrepreneurship, life skill, green chemistry

  8. Students' Perceptions of Life Skill Development in Project-Based Learning Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kimberly; Wurdinger, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to examine students' perceptions of their life skills while attending project-based learning (PBL) schools. The study focused on three questions including: (1) What are students' perceptions of their development of life skills in project-based learning schools?; (2) In what ways, if any, do students perceive an increase in…

  9. A Systematic Review of Life Skill Development Through Sports Programs Serving Socially Vulnerable Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, N.J.; Super, Sabina; verkooijen, kirsten; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the strong belief in sports programs as a setting in which socially vulnerable youth can develop life skills, no overview exists of life skill development in sports programs serving this youth group. Therefore, the present systematic review provides an overview of the evidence on

  10. The role of life skills promotion in substance abuse prevention: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Anneke; Schröder, Elke; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2008-08-01

    Research has shown that life skills programs are the most effective single activity in school-based substance abuse prevention. However, little is known about the processes through which they are effective. This study examines whether an evidence-based prevention program targeting general competence is effective through the promotion of knowledge about life skills and enhanced related behaviors. Based on a sample of 442 fifth graders participating in a quasi-experimental prevention study, as expected, mediation analyses revealed that increased knowledge about life skills paralleled an increase in students' distant attitudes toward alcohol and nicotine use. Unexpectedly, behaviors manifesting enhanced life skills were found not only among program participants who remained experimental/non-smokers or stopped smoking but also among smokers. In general, findings suggest that favorable prevention outcomes may be influenced through building knowledge about general life skills. The notion of uniform mechanisms of effectiveness in prevention programs is discussed.

  11. Health-related quality of life of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Maureen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on children's responses to wartime trauma has mostly addressed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. However, PTSD is only one aspect of a complex set of responses. This study proposes to expand knowledge of well-being in children exposed to political violence through widening the conceptualization of well-being beyond PTSD, morbidity, and mortality by measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL and its facets, physical health, and psychosocial health. Methods In 2007, we used a cross-sectional random sample of kindergartens to examine factors associated with HRQOL, as measured by the PedsQL 4.0, in 350 preschoolers in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. Results About 65% of the mothers reported severely impaired psychosocial and emotional functioning in their children. Preschoolers had lower HRQOL than the US reference sample and samples of children in other low income countries with large effect size. HRQOL was comparable to those of US children with several chronic diseases. Factors associated with lower HRQOL were older child age, male gender, and more exposures to traumatic events. Factors associated with HRQOL subscales were for lower psychosocial health: older child age, history of food, water, and electricity deprivation during incursion, and witnessing assassination of people by rockets. For lower physical health: older child age, history of food, water, and electricity deprivation during incursion, and having heard of a killing of a friend by soldiers. Conclusions HRQOL, including psychosocial health and emotional functioning is often severely impaired among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip. Exposure to both violent and non-violent negative events was associated with HRQOL in preschoolers.

  12. Using a Touch-Based, Computer-Assisted Learning System to Promote Literacy and Math Skills for Low-Income Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H McManis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of touch-based technologies by young children to improve academic skills has seen growth outpacing empirical evidence of its effectiveness. Due to the educational challenges low-income children face, the stakes for providing instructional technology with demonstrated efficacy are high. The current work presents an empirical study of the use of a touch-based, computer-assisted learning system by low-income preschoolers. A description of the system’s design is provided with attention to young children’s interaction with touch devices, learner engagement, and pedagogically-based delivery of academic content. Children in 18 low-income child-care preschool classrooms were assessed on literacy and math skills in the fall and again in the spring. Target children used the iStartSmart learning system throughout the academic year, while control children did not have access to the system. Compared to controls, children using the learning system made significant gains on external standardized measures of literacy and math. Children who spent more time using the system and those who reached the upper levels of skill understanding showed the strongest improvement in test scores. The findings contribute to the currently sparse literature by illuminating that for at-risk early learners, touch-based, computer-assisted instructional technology shows promise as an educational tool.

  13. Attention-getting skills of deaf children using American Sign Language in a preschool classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Amy M

    2015-07-01

    Visual attention is a necessary prerequisite to successful communication in sign language. The current study investigated the development of attention-getting skills in deaf native-signing children during interactions with peers and teachers. Seven deaf children (aged 21-39 months) and five adults were videotaped during classroom activities for approximately 30 hr. Interactions were analyzed in depth to determine how children obtained and maintained attention. Contrary to previous reports, children were found to possess a high level of communicative competence from an early age. Analysis of peer interactions revealed that children used a range of behaviors to obtain attention with peers, including taps, waves, objects, and signs. Initiations were successful approximately 65% of the time. Children followed up failed initiation attempts by repeating the initiation, using a new initiation, or terminating the interaction. Older children engaged in longer and more complex interactions than younger children. Children's early exposure to and proficiency in American Sign Language is proposed as a likely mechanism that facilitated their communicative competence.

  14. Pilot Evaluation Study of the Life Skills Program REBOUND

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    Henrik Jungaberle

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is pilot evaluation of the life skills program REBOUND in a school context focusing on substance use, risk perception, and knowledge about psychoactive substances ( n IG + CG = 723 students in five schools and 46 classes, Mage = 14.8, range 14-18 for the total sample and in the subgroups gender, age, and school type. Main goal of the study is collecting evidence for program optimization. A controlled study was carried out with repeated measurement before and after the intervention (4-6 months. Multilevel analyses, ANCOVA, and logistic regression analyses were applied to measure the effects. Overall, significantly lower incidence rates of drunkenness (odds ratio [OR] = .55; p = .033, improved knowledge about psychoactive substances (p = .006, lower personal (p = .013 and general tobacco risk perception among users (p = .002, and lower general tobacco (p = .018 and cannabis (p = .000 risk perception in non-users were found in the total intervention group. In subgroups, significantly lower rates for the incidence of drunkenness can be shown for males (p = .008 and for younger participants (p = .004. Students at academic high school (German Gymnasium showed a decrease in 30-day prevalence for alcohol (p = .017 and cannabis (p = .014, and they improved in their knowledge about psychoactive substances (p = .000. In vocational high school classes (German Realschule, there was an increase in the relative alcohol risk perception of the students (p = .019. REBOUND contributes to a controlled use of alcohol and increases knowledge about psychoactive substances. REBOUND has various effects on the examined subgroups age, gender, and school type: Males, younger students, and students in academic high school benefitted more from the course regarding consumption-related criteria. We suggest a program optimization specific to school form and age, inclusion of a tobacco intervention, and the use of more gender-segregated interventions.

  15. A pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills in community pre-schools in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S; Powell, C; Gardner, J Meeks

    2009-09-01

    School-based interventions involving teacher and/or child training have been shown to benefit teacher practices and to prevent conduct problems and improve children's social and emotional competence in developed countries; however, we are aware of no reports from a developing country. We conducted a pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills based on concepts and activities drawn from the Incredible Years Dina Dinosaur Classroom Curriculum to determine if this approach is appropriate for use with Jamaican pre-school teachers and children. Five pre-schools in Kingston, Jamaica were randomly assigned to an intervention (3 pre-schools with 15 classrooms) or control (2 pre-schools with 12 classrooms) condition. Intervention involved seven whole-day teacher workshops using the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme supplemented by 14 child lessons in each class. The project was evaluated through structured observations of four categories of teacher behaviour and four observer ratings: two rating scales of child behaviour and two rating scales of classroom atmosphere. Significant intervention benefits were found to teachers' behaviour with increased positive behaviour [b = 7.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5, 12.3], reduced negative behaviour (b =-3.5; 95% CI: -6.6, -0.2) and increases in the extent to which teachers promoted children's social and emotional skills (b = 46.4; 95% CI: 11.0, 81.7). The number of teacher commands was not significantly reduced (b =-2.71; 95% CI: -6.01, 0.59). Significant intervention benefits were found to ratings of child behaviour with an increase in children's appropriate behaviour (b = 5.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 10.8) and in children's interest and enthusiasm (b = 7.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.5). Intervention also benefited classroom atmosphere with increases in opportunities provided for children to share and help each other (b = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.5, 2.1) and in teacher warmth

  16. Correspondence between Children's Indoor and Outdoor Play in Japanese Preschool Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Toshiya; Koda, Naoko; Minami, Tetsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between children's indoor and outdoor play in a preschool environment to investigate whether the children maintained a tendency to engage in a particular type of play irrespective of the environment, or whether they changed the type of play according to the environment. Play behaviours of 18 three-year-old…

  17. Influence of breastfeeding in the first months of life on blood pressure levels of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Neri Nobre

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that preschoolers breastfed for a period of less than six months were more likely to have high blood pressure when compared to those breastfed for a longer period, suggesting a protective effect of breastfeeding against high blood pressure in this population.

  18. “A Ba Ta Tsa” MUSIC ALBUM BY NENNO WARISMAN FOR CREATING A MUSICAL DRAMA SCRIPT AND PLAY IN TEACHING SPEAKING SKILL OF ISLAMIC PRESCHOOL EDUCATION STUDENTS OF STAIN KUDUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranindya Zulhi Amalia

    2017-04-01

    This musical drama was used ―A Ba Ta Tsa‖ Music Album composed by Nenno Warism an. Moreover, the bilingual album consists of ten songs that are sung by Nenno and Aulad e Gemintang Choir. The song lyrics helped the Preschool Education students creating a m usical drama script and practice how to play it. The students got ideas by listening to the songs and developed English dialogues in the drama script. Then, this process could incre ase the speaking skill of the preschool teacher candidates. According to Preschool Curriculum, there are some aspects related to this educational lev el. They are religious and moral development aspect, Physical development aspect, Langu age development aspect, Cognitive development aspect, socio-emotional development as pect, and art Development aspect. In addition, this research focuses on all aspects, especially religious and language aspects. Hopefully, it will facilitate preschool teacher candidates in teaching English for Young Learner while enclosing religious values.

  19. Life lessons after classes: investigating the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents' life skills development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Park, Mirim; Jang, Kyunghwan; Park, Yongnam

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents' life skills development and to identify which characteristics of the program would have an influence on their life skills acquisition. The participants were six children (4 boys, 2 girls) who participated in a 12-week afterschool program implemented in two elementary schools, as well as the two program instructors who implemented the afterschool sport program. Data were collected from individual interviews with program participants and instructors. The inductive analysis of data revealed four categories of life skills developed through program participation: (1) playing well and being more active, (2) connecting well and having better social skills, (3) coping well and becoming a better problem solver, and (4) dreaming well and having a better sense of purpose. Regarding the characteristics of the program that influenced life skills development, three themes emerged: (1) having a clear goal and building consensus with stakeholders, (2) establishing a firm yet flexible structure, and (3) instructors' use of effective strategies for teaching life skills.

  20. Life lessons after classes: investigating the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents’ life skills development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Park, Mirim; Jang, Kyunghwan; Park, Yongnam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents’ life skills development and to identify which characteristics of the program would have an influence on their life skills acquisition. The participants were six children (4 boys, 2 girls) who participated in a 12-week afterschool program implemented in two elementary schools, as well as the two program instructors who implemented the afterschool sport program. Data were collected from individual interviews with program participants and instructors. The inductive analysis of data revealed four categories of life skills developed through program participation: (1) playing well and being more active, (2) connecting well and having better social skills, (3) coping well and becoming a better problem solver, and (4) dreaming well and having a better sense of purpose. Regarding the characteristics of the program that influenced life skills development, three themes emerged: (1) having a clear goal and building consensus with stakeholders, (2) establishing a firm yet flexible structure, and (3) instructors’ use of effective strategies for teaching life skills. PMID:28367697

  1. A Life Course Approach to High-skilled Migration : Lived Experiences of Indians in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kou, Anu; van Wissen, Leo; van Dijk, Jouke; Bailey, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a framework which applies life course approach to high-skilled migration. By using the lens of the life course, migration behaviour is viewed not only in response to labour market triggers, but also in relation to other life domains such as education, employment and household.

  2. Relationship of aerobic fitness and motor skills with memory and attention in preschoolers (Ballabeina: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barral Jérôme

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate about a possible relationship between aerobic fitness and motor skills with cognitive development in children has recently re-emerged, because of the decrease in children's aerobic fitness and the concomitant pressure of schools to enhance cognitive performance. As the literature in young children is scarce, we examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship of aerobic fitness and motor skills with spatial working memory and attention in preschool children. Methods Data from 245 ethnically diverse preschool children (mean age: 5.2 (0.6 years, girls: 49.4% analyzed at baseline and 9 months later. Assessments included aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run and motor skills with agility (obstacle course and dynamic balance (balance beam. Cognitive parameters included spatial working memory (IDS and attention (KHV-VK. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, migration status, parental education, native language and linguistic region. Longitudinal analyses were additionally adjusted for the respective baseline value. Results In the cross-sectional analysis, aerobic fitness was associated with better attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.03. A shorter time in the agility test was independently associated with a better performance both in working memory (r = -0.17, p = 0.01 and in attention (r = -0.20, p = 0.01. In the longitudinal analyses, baseline aerobic fitness was independently related to improvements in attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.03, while baseline dynamic balance was associated with improvements in working memory (r = 0.15, p = 0.04. Conclusions In young children, higher baseline aerobic fitness and motor skills were related to a better spatial working memory and/or attention at baseline, and to some extent also to their future improvements over the following 9 months. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00674544

  3. COOPERATIVE LEARNING AS A MEANS OF STIMULATING LIFE SKILLS IN PROFESSIONALLY-BIASED FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING

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    Alexander Komarov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the contribution of foreign language learning to stimulating students’ life skills at non-linguistic higher institutions. In the article, the author considers the possibilities of motivating students to exercise life skills in the process of foreign language instruction. The author analyses the cooperative learning technology as a means that enables students to be involved into interaction with one another as well as it develops their team-building skills to successfully cooperate and communicate with each other. The author describes different forms of cooperative leaning, which give students an opportunity to mutually enrich and complement each other’s skills in foreign language learning. The author argues that cooperative learning technology stimulates the students’ existent life skills and makes them work in the process of professionally-biased instruction of a foreign language.

  4. Impact of dental caries on quality of life among preschool children: emphasis on the type of tooth and stages of progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Alencar, Bruna Mota; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Soares, Maria Eliza da Consolação; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries on the quality of life of preschool children and their parents/caretakers, with an emphasis on the type of tooth and stage of progression. A randomly selected sample of preschool children, 3-5 yrs of age, underwent an oral examination for the assessment of dental caries using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) criteria. Parents/caretakers answered two questionnaires, one on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the child [the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS)], and the other on the socio-economic characteristics of the family. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Poisson regression. A total of 451 preschool children participated in the study. The majority of carious lesions exhibited severe decay (60.6%) and were found in both anterior (incisors/canines) and posterior (molars) teeth. The final Poisson model revealed negative impacts on quality of life from more advanced stages of dental caries, both in incisors/canines and molars. Child's age and household income were also associated with impact on quality of life. Carious lesions in more advanced stages of progression in anterior and posterior teeth were associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of preschool children. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  5. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Livia; Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta

    2017-01-01

    CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

  6. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Taverna

    Full Text Available CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76, including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT. VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA. A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7% as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40 than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87 and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81. Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

  7. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta

    2017-01-01

    CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07–5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children’s motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS’s total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children’s motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis’ tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia. PMID

  8. Do iPad Applications Help Students with Developmental Disabilities Improve Life-Readiness Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael; Barrio, Brenda; Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Students with developmental disabilities often struggle with life-readiness skills (e.g., literacy skills such as reading and writing, task completion, and communication), which also help prepare students for the workplace. Assistive technology tools offer these students a means to do better in these areas. In this action-research study, we…

  9. Metacognition in Real Life Situations and Study Skills and Habits: Two Types of Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between metacognition in real life situations and study skills and habits was examined using a sample of college students. Results showed no significant relationship between these two variables nor was there a significant relationship between study skills and reaction time as measured on the metacognitive test. However, there was…

  10. Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Working Life Skills in Science-Related Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anssi; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Hense, Jonathan; Scheersoi, Annette; Keinonen, Tuula

    2017-01-01

    School students demonstrate a lack of interest in choosing science studies and science-related careers. To better understand the underlying reasons, this study aims to examine secondary school students' perceptions of working life skills and how these perceptions relate to the skills of the twenty-first century. The participants in this study were…

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Concept of "Life Skills" in Denmark, USA and UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT OF "LIFE SKILLS" IN DENMARK, USA AND UK Larsen, C. H. & Christensen, M. K., Department of Sports Sciences and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark   Introduction It is unclear which life skills are needed by adolescent athletes. Research...... (Jones & Lavallee, 2009). The purpose of this study is to examine and compare the concept of life skills needs of adolescent athletes in Danish, American and British literature. Furthermore, the aim of the study is to discuss the psychological concept of life skills in relation to a systems theory...... approach to studying adolescent athletes' way of balancing elite sport and school. Methods The study is a comparative literature study, which prepare the theoretical basis for a Ph.D. project (2010-2013). The Ph.D. project consists of two studies with different purposes and groups of target. The first...

  12. Communication Skills of Nursing Students : Focusing on the Relationship between Life Experience and Communication Skills

    OpenAIRE

    長家, 智子

    2003-01-01

    Guidelines of teaching communications to nursing students have been shown. However they are not fully mature to help to recognize each student's communication ability. Communication skills of nursing students in basic nursing education are very important.

  13. Midwifery and nursing students' communication skills and life orientation: correlation with stress coping approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Gülsün; Kaya, Hatice

    2013-06-01

    Methods learnt by nursing and midwifery students' such as communication skills, optimisim and coping with stress would be used in their profeesional life. It is very important to promote their positive thinking and communication skills to raise coping with stress. This cross sectional study was performed to examine the nursing and midwifery students' communication skills and optimistic life orientation and its correlation with coping strategies with stress. The study population included 2572 students who were studying in departments of nursing and midwifery in Istanbul. The sample was included 1419 students. Three questionnaires including Communication Skills Test, Life Orientation Test and Ways of Coping Inventory were used for data collection. The data were evaluated by calculating frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation and Pearson correlation coefficient. Students' total mean score from the Communication Skills Scale was 165.27 ± 15.39 and for the Life Orientation Test was 18.51 ± 4.54. There was a positive correlation between their Life Orientation scores and the scores for self confidence (r = 0.34, P students in optimistic life orientation and communication skills increased self confidence approach, optimistic, and social support seeking scores increased, whereas helpless, and submissive scores decreased.

  14. Language and Preliteracy Skills in Bilinguals and Monolinguals at Preschool Age: Effects of Exposure to Richly Inflected Speech from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silven, Maarit; Rubinov, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Language proficiency before school entry has proven to be a powerful predictor of literacy development. This longitudinal study examined how simultaneous exposure to two richly inflected languages from birth contributes to the development of language-related literacy precursors at preschool age compared to peers exposed to one language. The…

  15. Teachers' Emotional and Behavioral Support and Preschoolers' Self-Regulation: Relations with Social and Emotional Skills during Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dubas, Judith S.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children's observed social integration and positive mood in a play…

  16. Formation of Communication Skills in Preschool Children with Visual Impairments as an Important Factor of Their Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalova, Lera A.; Vasilyeva, Nadezda N.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation due to the provisions of the new federal state educational standards of preschool education in the Russian Federation, according to which at the present stage of priority education is to implement a high level of social and communicative potential of the child's personality as a prerequisite for its…

  17. Identifying the Dimensionality of Oral Language Skills of Children with Typical Development in Preschool through Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Milburn, Trelani F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Language is a multidimensional construct from prior to the beginning of formal schooling to near the end of elementary school. The primary goals of this study were to identify the dimensionality of language and to determine whether this dimensionality was consistent in children with typical language development from preschool through 5th…

  18. Language and communication skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders: contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis of caregiver completion of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). The children were classified into three cognitive groups: (a) Normal intelligence; (b) Developmental delay; and (c) Intellectual disability. Autism symptom severity was measured by the Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC), and adaptive functioning by the Daily Living Skills (DLS) and Socialization (Soc) subscales from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. For each of five CDI variables (Phrases understood, Words understood, Words produced, Gestures and actions, and Language use), the contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability was examined. Cognition and age explained about half or more of the variance in the four verbal language CDI variables, but only about one fourth of the variance in the non-verbal communication variable Gestures and actions. Severity of autism symptoms and the two adaptive measures (DLS and Soc) each only accounted for a few percent more of the variance in the four CDI language variables; however, for Gestures and actions, an additional 11-21% of the variance was accounted for. In conclusion, for children with ASD, receptive and expressive language is mainly related to cognitive level, whereas non-verbal communication skills seem to also be related to severity of autism symptoms and adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustaining Preschoolers' Engagement during Interactive Writing Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    Interactive writing is a developmentally appropriate activity used to enhance children's literacy development in the preschool setting. This article describes the unique needs of preschoolers as emerging writers, including their developing fine motor skills, early literacy skills, and social skills related to group writing. Strategies are provided…

  20. PERAN PEKERJA SOSIAL DALAM PEMBINAAN ANAK ASUH MELALUI LIFE SKILL DI PANTI ASUHAN DARUL HADLANAH PATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswanto Siswanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process of social services, it must be bear in mind about the importance of relationships and social interaction, communication to help children develop themselves, through motivation, encouragement and support, as well as other techniques. The results of this study indicate that a social worker should be sensitive and savvy in mapping out a social issues that exist in an institution. As caretakers should work collectively in conducting the activities empowerment and providing mentoring activities of life skills. Life skill aims to provide future capabilities after leaving Darul Hadlanah orphanages. Therefore, the orphanages can apply those skills in the future.

  1. Secondary school students' perceptions of working life skills in science-related careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anssi; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Hense, Jonathan; Scheersoi, Annette; Keinonen, Tuula

    2017-07-01

    School students demonstrate a lack of interest in choosing science studies and science-related careers. To better understand the underlying reasons, this study aims to examine secondary school students' perceptions of working life skills and how these perceptions relate to the skills of the twenty-first century. The participants in this study were 144 Finnish 7th graders (aged 13-14 years). Using a questionnaire and qualitative content analysis, we examined their perceptions of working life skills in 'careers in science' and 'careers with science'. Results reveal that although students have a great deal of knowledge about working life skills, it is often just stereotyped. Sector-specific knowledge and skills were highlighted in particular but skills related to society, organisation, time and higher order thinking, were often omitted. Results also indicate that students do not associate 'careers in science' with creativity, innovation, collaboration or technology and ICT skills. Conversely, according to the students, these careers demand more sector-specific knowledge and responsibility than 'careers with science'. We conclude that students need more wide-ranging information about scientific careers and the competencies demanded; such information can be acquired by e.g. interacting with professionals and their real working life problems.

  2. Empowering Non-Formal Education Policy on Life Skills and Its Implications on People Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Alifuddin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The non-formal education policy in responding to the life skills needs of learners has been anticipated by the issuance of some products of legal regulations concerning the non-formal education. Life skills education was explicitly mentioned in legislation, but its implementation has not been in line with the expectations. In practice, many training institutions were only responsible for the output without even trying to channel or hire the students after graduation. The curriculum developed referred to the national standard curriculum by adding local content. Welfare could be easily obtained because the alumni got jobs after completing their skill training. Thus, the life skills education developed was able to give positive implications, especially for the welfare of its alumni and their families

  3. PENINGKATAN LIFE SKILL MAHASISWA KIMIA BERORIENTASI CHEMOENTREPRENEURSHIP (CEP MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF STAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersanghono K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the questionnaire to students UNNES Natural Sciences Department of Chemistry, professor of learning methods are still in the form of lectures and such very boring for students. Moreover, the material is an organic chemistry lecture course, especially the less favored and considered difficult by students because it is abstract, so it needs to be assisted visualization. It is therefore interesting to study as well as creativity and innovation fostering student learning and not so monotonous. The purpose of this study to determine the increase in life skill-oriented students Chemoentrepreneurship (CEP through the STAD cooperative learning. This research is a class act consisting of three cycles. Each stage consists of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The subjects of this study is a student of Chemistry Department of Education UNNES third semester. Focus examined in this study is the increase in life skill students (academic skills. The data obtained and analyzed using descriptive methods to determine the increase in student life skill. From the research, learning classical exhaustiveness increased from stage I (43%, stage II (50%, and stage III (86%. The average score life skill (cognitive aspects college students increased from cycle I, II, and III, respectively, 71.28; 78.21 and 89.15 .. Based on the results of this study can be concluded that the life skill students can be increased through the STAD cooperative learning-oriented CEP.

  4. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  5. Support for AAC Use in Preschool, and Growth in Language Skills, for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, R. MICHAEL; AKABA, SANAE; BRADY, NANCY C.; THIEMANN-BOURQUE, KATHY

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how AAC use in preschool may impact language development for children with complex communication needs (e.g., children with autism, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, and other developmental disabilities). We developed two surveys (a) to describe children’s use of AAC in preschool classrooms, as well as the use of prompts and question asking, and augmented input by their communication partners; and (b) to describe teachers’ experience, training, and perceived support in providing AAC. We then examined the relationship between children’s experience of AAC, including the use of prompts, question asking, and augmented input by their partners, and the growth of receptive and expressive language for 71 children with developmental disabilities over a two-year period. The use of AAC by peers to provide augmented input was associated with stronger language growth; the use of prompting and question asking by teachers was associated with weaker language growth. Teachers reported that they received little training regarding ways to support a child’s use of AAC. Results suggest the need for further research on promoting AAC use at the preschool level, including research to promote peer interactions for AAC users. PMID:24229337

  6. The effectiveness of a phonics-based early intervention for deaf and hard of hearing preschool children and its possible impact on reading skills in elementary school: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Spychala, Heather; Harris, Regina S; Oetting, Tara L

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the effects of a phonics-based early intervention package on the early reading skills of three preschool students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing who differed in regard to degree of hearing loss, use of amplification, and communication mode. The 40-week intervention (50-week in one case) was delivered through individual and group phonics-based instruction supplemented by Visual Phonics in a language-enriched preschool classroom. Standardized assessments were conducted before, during, and after the intervention. Along with some additional assessments, the same assessments were conducted in early elementary school. The results showed that all participants demonstrated at least some use of phonemic awareness and phonics skills when they were explicitly trained, and that these skills were sustained in early elementary school. Furthermore, all participants exhibited overall reading levels at or above age level when measured in early elementary school.

  7. Pembelajaran Fisika Berbasis Kompetensi Life Skill Kelas XII IPA.1 MAN 1 Lampung Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poniman Poniman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the physics competency-based learning life skills class XII IPA1, It conducted in two cycles, each cycle consisting of four phases: planning, execution, analysis and reflection. The action used is "Competency-Based Physics Education Life Skills". The first cycle has not succeeded cognitive aspects obtained a mean value of 5.62, the affective with good criterion 32.35%, sufficient criteria 67.65% as well as psychomotor with good criterion 38.34%, sufficient criteria 61.66%, the life skill with all criteria 41.18%, both criteria 58.82 %.The second trying to provide intensive training with the same material, the result of learning on the cognitive of a mean value of 5.81, affective with both criteria of 76.47%, sufficient criteria 23.53%, psychomotor with good criterion 55.88%, sufficient criteria of 44.12% as well as on the life skill with very good criteria 1.76%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak pembelajaran fisika berbasis kompetensi life skill pada kelas XII IPA1. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua siklus, setiap siklus terdiri dari empat tahap: perencanaan, pelaksanaan, analisis dan refleksi. Tindakan yang digunakan adalah "Pembelajaran isika Berbasis Kompetensi Life Skills ". Siklus pertama belum berhasil, nilai rata-rata aspek kognitif diperoleh 5,62; afektif dengan kriteria baik 32,35%, dan kriteria cukup 67,65%; serta psikomotorik dengan kriteria baik 38,34%, dan kriteria cukup 61.66%; life skills dengan semua kriteria 41,18%, kriteria baik 58,82%. siklus kedua mencoba untuk memberikan pelatihan intensif dengan tindakan yang sama, rata-rata hasil belajar aspek kognitif 5,81; afektif dengan kriteria baik 76,47%, kriteria cukup 23,53% , psikomotor dengan kriteria baik 55,88%, kriteria cukup 44,12% serta pada life skill dengan kriteria baik sekali 1,76%. Kata kunci: pembelajaran fisika, physics competency-based learning life skills

  8. Predictors of change in life skills in schizophrenia after cognitive remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Seltzer, James C; Fujimoto, Marco; Shagan, Dana S; Wexler, Bruce E

    2009-02-01

    Few studies have investigated predictors of response to cognitive remediation interventions in patients with schizophrenia. Predictor studies to date have selected treatment outcome measures that were either part of the remediation intervention itself or closely linked to the intervention with few studies investigating factors that predict generalization to measures of everyday life-skills as an index of treatment-related improvement. In the current study we investigated the relationship between four measures of neurocognitive function, crystallized verbal ability, auditory sustained attention and working memory, verbal learning and memory, and problem-solving, two measures of symptoms, total positive and negative symptoms, and the process variables of treatment intensity and duration, to change on a performance-based measure of everyday life-skills after a year of computer-assisted cognitive remediation offered as part of intensive outpatient rehabilitation treatment. Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were studied. Results of a linear regression model revealed that auditory attention and working memory predicted a significant amount of the variance in change in performance-based measures of everyday life skills after cognitive remediation, even when variance for all other neurocognitive variables in the model was controlled. Stepwise regression revealed that auditory attention and working memory predicted change in everyday life-skills across the trial even when baseline life-skill scores, symptoms and treatment process variables were controlled. These findings emphasize the importance of sustained auditory attention and working memory for benefiting from extended programs of cognitive remediation.

  9. Proven Effectiveness of Missouri 4-H Camps in Developing Life Skills in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D. Klem

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Camping is generally believed to be a context for positive youth development. The 4-H Camp environments presumably focus on the development of life skills including managing and thinking; relating and caring; giving and working and; living and being. However, the effectiveness of the Missouri 4-H Camp environments in developing life skills among campers had never been evaluated in a consistent manner across the multiple camping programs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of these camp programs, resident campers within the 10-13 year age range were surveyed about their camping experience during the summer of 2005 and a similar group was surveyed in 2006. Parents of campers were also surveyed both years to gather their perceptions of 4-H Camp’s impact on their children in developing the life skill areas identified above. Parents and youth agreed strongly that the 4-H Camp experience was substantially valuable in developing the life skills identified in the Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1998.

  10. Appreciation and Life Satisfaction: Does Appreciation Uniquely Predict Life Satisfaction above Gender, Coping Skills, Self-Esteem, and Positive Affectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Joshua Solomon

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine whether appreciation explains variance in life satisfaction after controlling for gender, positive affectivity, self-esteem, and coping skills. Two hundred ninety-eight undergraduates went to the informed consent page of the online survey composed of the Appreciation Scale, the Satisfaction With…

  11. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2013-02-01

    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transformative Learning Model for Youth Life Skills Entrepreneurs in Poor Weavers Songket Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayi Olim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-formal education serves to develop the potential of students with an emphasis on the mastery of knowledge and functional skills and professional attitude and personality development, is now understood as an alternative approach to the future education with an emphasis on the mastery of skills. transformative learning, life skills and entrepreneurship as a modality of model development. learner/ prospective participants learn from the lower-middle group (in the shadow of the transmission of learning should be the owner of the learning process and should be able to identify the capabilities and environmental problems, reflect and take action in developing entrepreneurial abilities. The model requires changing patterns of transformative learning and utilization participants life skills learning, facilitation and management support from stakeholders

  13. Investigating the Relationship between the Washback Effect of IELTS Test and Iranian IELTS Candidates’ Life Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Ghamarian, Daniel; Motallebzadeh, Khalil; Fatemi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between the washback effect of IELTS test and Iranian IELTS candidates’ life skills pattern as well as investigating the relationship between constructs underlying IELTS test and Iranian IELTS candidates’ communicative skill viewpoints on language proficiency. The correlational research method was employed as the design of the study. The study included 322 Iranian IELTS candidates who completed IELTS preparation courses. To collect data, the res...

  14. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of laypersons' Paediatric Basic Life Support (PBLS) skills is important to ensure acquisition of effective PBLS competencies. However limited evidence exists on which PBLS skills are essential for laypersons. The same challenges exist with respect to the assessment of foreign...... body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. METHODS: A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts...... suggested items to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. In the second round, the suggested items received comments from and were rated by 26 experts (93%) on a 5-point scale (1 = not relevant to 5 = essential). Revised items were anonymously presented in a third round for comments and 23 (82%) experts...

  15. Integrating Problem-Based Learning and Simulation: Effects on Student Motivation and Life Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Sang Suk

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that a teaching strategy integrating problem-based learning and simulation may be superior to traditional lecture. The purpose of this study was to assess learner motivation and life skills before and after taking a course involving problem-based learning and simulation. The design used repeated measures with a convenience sample of 83 second-year nursing students who completed the integrated course. Data from a self-administered questionnaire measuring learner motivation and life skills were collected at pretest, post-problem-based learning, and post-simulation time points. Repeated-measures analysis of variance determined that the mean scores for total learner motivation (F=6.62, P=.003), communication (F=8.27, Plearning (F=4.45, P=.016) differed significantly between time points. Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that total learner motivation and total life skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation and from post-problem-based learning test to postsimulation test. Subscales of learner motivation and life skills, intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem-solving skills, and self-directed learning skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation test and from post-problem-based learning test to post-simulation test. The results demonstrate that an integrating problem-based learning and simulation course elicits significant improvement in learner motivation and life skills. Simulation plus problem-based learning is more effective than problem-based learning alone at increasing intrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem solving, and self-directed learning.

  16. Evaluation of Retention of Knowledge and Skills Imparted to First-Year Medical Students through Basic Life Support Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which…

  17. Evaluation of life skills in students of Nursing: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kavga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life skills are a set of human skills acquired via teaching or direct experience that areused to handle problems and questions commonly encountered in daily human life. The basic elementof a skill is the ability to create and materialise an effective sequence of choices, so as to achieve thedesirable effect. It is important that somebody allocates life skills in six broad sectors: sensitivity,experiencing emotions, realism thought, language and the internal logos, harmony in self-attributionand communication and finally, remuneration activity in finding a meaning in professionAim: The determination of nursing students’ opinions with regard to the existence of life skills and towhat degree they impact.Methodology: The answers of 144 students of two Nursing Departments in Greece (one from Athensand one from providences were evaluated using a questionnaire in order to determine their opinionsabout the non-existence or existence of life skills and if so what level of impact they had on. Thequestionnaire included 69 questions describing the following seven dimensions of life skills: emotion,thought, relations, study, professional settlement, leisure time, mental – bodily health. The answerswere given based on the 4 point Likert scale (no need for improvement, minimal need, small need,large need. For data process we used SPSS 14 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windowsand more concretely, the Mann –Whitney U control and Pearson’ s cross-correlation parametriccoefficient.Results: The descriptive analysis of this questionnaire showed that the sample of students had aneffectual or a large need of improvement at a percentage of 42.9% in the emotional sector, 32.2% in thesector of thought, 31% in the sector of relations, 41.3% in the sector of study, 32.7% in the sector ofprofessional settlement, 30.7% in the sector of leisure time and 35.1% in the sector of health. Mann –Whitney U control showed statistically important

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIFE BUILDING SKILLS AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. ADENIYI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing impairment contributes greatly to social and psychological deficits of the affected individuals, which can affect their interpersonal relation. The inability to hear and communicate effectively results in adjustment problem that leads to social isolation. Objectives: The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between life building skills and social adjustment of students with hearing impairment. Methods: The study employed descriptive survey research design. The samples consisted of 150 students with hearing impairment purposively selected from two inclusive schools in Lagos state, Nigeria. The samples comprised of 65 boys and 85 girls with age range between 15 and 18 years in the Senior Secondary School. The instruments used for data collection were Life building skills inventory (adapted with reliability of 0.80 and Social adjustment scale (Self developed. The instruments consisted of two sections namely: A&B. Section A of Life building skills contained bio- data of the respondents, while B contained 3 subscales: Self-efficacy inventory adapted from Schwarzer and Jerusalem 1995 with reliability of 0.85, Decision-making inventory adapted from Rowe 1997 with reliability of 0.75, Assertiveness inventory adapted from Aberti and Emmons 1995 with reliability of 0.80. The self-constructed Social Adjustment scale contained 10 items probing questions with reliability of 0.69. Data collected was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression. Results: The results revealed relative contributions of some life building skills to social adjustment of students with hearing impairment. There were joint contributions of the independent variables to dependent variable, while decision-making contributed mostly. Conclusion: This study examined relationship between life building skills and social adjustment of students with hearing impairment with a bid to provide adequate counseling services. It was

  19. The effect of acquiring life skills through humor on social adjustment rate of the female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Sabour, Nazanin Hashemi; Yazdani, Mohsen; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2010-01-01

    Life skills have different effects on various aspects of the mental health. Social adjustment prepares adolescents for entering to the adulthood. On the other hand, humor and joking in the education is considered as a stress reducer and learning increaser. Therefore, the present study conducted aimed to determine the effect of acquiring life skills through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girls. This was a two-group semi-experimental study including three phases. The study population included 69 first year high school female students of Isfahan Department of Education district 3 who were selected in simple random sampling. First of all, the social adjustment rate was measured using California Personality Inventory. Thereafter, life skills education was conducted using humor during five sessions. Finally, a test was taken in order to assess the acquisition of the life skills in which passing score was required for re-completing the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using software SPSS(10) and independent and paired t-tests. The findings of the study indicated that the mean score of the social adjustment statistically had a significant difference in the intervention group before and after the intervention. Furthermore, statistically, there was a significant difference between mean score of the social adjustment in the control group and test group after conducting the intervention. The findings of the study indicated that life skills education has been increased through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girl students. Considering the efficacy of learning life skills on the social adjustment and results of the other studies which were in accordance with the present study, implementing such trainings with a new method comprehensively is recommended in the schools.

  20. Testing the impact of a social skill training versus waiting list control group for the reduction of disruptive behaviors and stress among preschool children in child care: the study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Larose, Marie-Pier; Geoffroy, Marie Claude; Laurin, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    Most preschoolers growing up in western industrialized countries receive child care services (CCS) during the day, while their parents are at work. Meta-analytic data suggest that CCS represent a stressful experience for preschoolers. This may be because preschoolers have not yet developed the social skills necessary to cope with the new and rapidly fluctuating social contexts of CCS. We tested the effectiveness of a child care-based social skill training program aiming to improve children's social behaviors and reduce the stress they experience. We used a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) to compare children's social behaviors and stress levels in pre- and post-intervention according to whether they received a social skill training intervention or not. Nineteen (n = 19) public CCS (n = 362, 3-years-old preschoolers) of underprivileged neighborhoods (Montreal, Canada) were randomized to one of two conditions: 1) social skills training (n = 10 CCS); or 2) waiting list control group (n = 9 CCS). Educators in the intervention group conducted bi-weekly social skills training sessions over a period of 8 months. The intervention covered four topics: making social contacts, problem solving, emotional self-regulation, as well as emotional expression and recognition. Main outcome measures included preschoolers' disruptive (e.g. aggression, opposition, conflicts) and prosocial behaviors (e.g. sharing toys, helping another child), and stress levels assessed by salivary cortisol sampling at pre and post intervention assessments. Educators' practices will be tested as potential mediators of the expected changes in behaviors and neuroendocrine stress. To our knowledge, this is the first cRCT to test the effectiveness of a child care based social skill training program on the reduction of disruptive behaviors and levels of stress. Significant challenges include the degree of adherence to the intervention protocol as well educators and preschoolers' turnover

  1. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (...

  2. Language development and assessment in the preschool period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Most young children make significant progress in learning language during the first 4 years of life. Delays or differences in patterns of language acquisition are sensitive indicators of developmental problems. The dynamic, complex nature of language and the variability in the timing of its acquisition poses a number of challenges for the assessment of young children. This paper summarises the key developmental milestones of language development in the preschool years, providing a backdrop for understanding difficulties with language learning. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are characterised illustrating the types of language difficulties they exhibit. Genetic evidence for language impairment suggests complex interactions among multiple genes of small effect. There are few consistent neurobiological abnormalities and currently there is no identified neurobiological signature for language difficulties. The assessment of young children's language skills thus focuses on the evaluation of their performances in comparison to typically developing peers. Assessment of language abilities in preschool children should involve an evaluation of both expressive and receptive skills and should include an evaluation of more than one dimension of language. The use of a single measure of a language component, such as vocabulary, is considered inadequate for determining whether preschool children have typical language or language impairment. Available evidence supports the inclusion of measures of phonological short-term memory in the assessment of the language abilities of preschool children. Further study of genetic, neurobiological and early behavioural correlates of language impairments in preschool children is needed.

  3. Una guia para los padres a la educacion preescolar (A Parent's Guide to Preschool).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet, in Spanish- and Japanese-language versions, offers parents guidance on how to partner with teachers to help their children acquire the skills, attitudes, and habits to do well in school and throughout life. The booklet begins with a description of how preschool children learn, and continues with a discussion of the goals of the…

  4. Teaching Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Preschool Teacher Survey to Determine Best Practice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-Kliss, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    Teaching children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be the most challenging to preschool teachers because of the complexity of this brain disorder. A child s life is affected, whether its communication and language, social and play skills, activities of daily living, self-regulation behaviors, and sensory impairments. Therefore, a teacher…

  5. Neither Basic Life Support knowledge nor self-efficacy are predictive of skills among dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giolla Phadraig, C; Ho, J D; Guerin, S; Yeoh, Y L; Mohamed Medhat, M; Doody, K; Hwang, S; Hania, M; Boggs, S; Nolan, A; Nunn, J

    2017-08-01

    Basic life support (BLS) is considered a core competence for the graduating dentist. This study aimed to measure BLS knowledge, self-efficacy and skills of undergraduate dental students in Dublin. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey measuring BLS knowledge and self-efficacy, accompanied by a directly observed BLS skills assessment in a subsample of respondents. Data were collected in January 2014. Bivariate correlations between descriptive and outcome variables (knowledge, self-efficacy and skills) were tested using Pearson's chi-square. We included knowledge and self-efficacy as predictor variables, along with other variables showing association, into a binary logistic regression model with BLS skills as the outcome measure. One hundred and thirty-five students participated. Almost all (n = 133, 98.5%) participants had BLS training within the last 2 years. One hundred and four (77%) felt that they were capable of providing effective BLS (self-efficacy), whilst only 46 (34.1%) scored >80% of knowledge items correct. Amongst the skills (n = 85) subsample, 38.8% (n = 33) were found to pass the BLS skills assessment. Controlling for gender, age and skills assessor, the regression model did not identify a predictive relationship between knowledge or self-efficacy and BLS skills. Neither knowledge nor self-efficacy was predictive of BLS skills. Dental students had low levels of knowledge and skills in BLS. Despite this, their confidence in their ability to perform BLS was high and did not predict actual competence. There is a need for additional hands-on training, focusing on self-efficacy and BLS skills, particularly the use of AED. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Building Social Competence in Preschool: The Effects of a Social Skills Intervention Targeting Children Enrolled in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Walker, Virginia; Jamison, Kristen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the peer-to-peer interactions of at-risk children enrolled in Head Start who participated in a social pragmatic intervention targeting skills such as initiations, responses, name use, proximity, and turn-taking skills. Eight Head Start classroom teams received two workshops and two coaching sessions and were taught to…

  7. Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language: Initial Findings From the Early Language and Literacy Acquisition (ELLA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed measures of oral language, phonological processing, and print knowledge twice at a 6-month interval. A series of repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare change across groups. Main effects of time were observed for all variables except phonological recoding. Main effects of group were observed for vocabulary, morphosyntax, phonological memory, and concepts of print. Interaction effects were observed for phonological awareness and concepts of print. Children with hearing loss performed more poorly than children with normal hearing on measures of oral language, phonological memory, and conceptual print knowledge. Two interaction effects were present. For phonological awareness and concepts of print, children with hearing loss demonstrated less positive change than children with normal hearing. Although children with hearing loss generally demonstrated a positive growth in emergent literacy skills, their initial performance was lower than that of children with normal hearing, and rates of change were not sufficient to catch up to the peers over time.

  8. Retention of knowledge and skills in pediatric basic life support amongst pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkhorst, Mathijs; Coopmans, Michelle; Draaisma, Jos M T; Bot, Petra; Hogeveen, Marije

    2018-05-07

    Retention of resuscitation skills is usually assessed at a predefined moment, which enables participants to prepare themselves, possibly introducing bias. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the retention of knowledge and skills in pediatric basic life support (PBLS) amongst 58 pediatricians and pediatric residents with an unannounced examination. Practical PBLS skills were assessed with a validated scoring instrument, theoretical knowledge with a 10-item multiple-choice test (MCQ). Participants self-assessed their PBLS capabilities using five-point Likert scales. Background data were collected with a questionnaire. Of our participants, 21% passed the practical PBLS exam: 29% failed on compressions/ventilations, 31% on other parts of the algorithm, 19% on both. Sixty-nine percent passed the theoretical test. Participants who more recently completed a PBLS course performed significantly better on the MCQ (p = 0.03). This association was less clear-cut for performance on the practical exam (p = 0.11). Older, attending pediatricians with more years of experience in pediatrics performed less well than their younger colleagues (p basic life support (PBLS) in daily practice. Poor retention of skills supposedly accounts for this incompetence. Without regular exposure, resuscitation skills usually deteriorate within 3 to 6 months after training. • Examination of resuscitation skills usually takes place after training. Also, in most studies evaluating retention of skills, participants are tested at a predefined moment. Inasmuch as participants are able to prepare themselves, these assessments do not reflect the ad hoc resuscitation capabilities of pediatricians and residents. What is New: • In this study, pediatricians and pediatric residents had to complete an unannounced PBLS exam at variable time intervals from last certification. Retention of PBLS skills was rather poor (pass rate 21%). • The PBLS skills of older, attending pediatricians with many

  9. The Relationship between Life Skills and Family Performance in Addicted Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Komasi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Among ingredients of success of family and decreasing mental and social damages are be some skills in the family. This study was aimed The Relationship between life skills (self awareness, interpersonal relationships, and decision making and, family performance in addicted women of Kermanshah city. Methods: The research design of current study was correlation method. Research population was all addicted women who were referred to Methadone therapy centers of Kermanshah city in summer of 1390. First 15 centers selected randomly and among 82 referred women 22 women discarded because of illiteracy, old age, or lack of cooperating. Thus, Sample of this study was 60 women. Bloom family performance and Ghiasi’s life skills questionnaires were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed there is significant correlation between family performance and decision making skill in addicted women, but there is not significant correlation between family performance and self awareness and interpersonal relationships. Conclusion: Existing some of special skills in family such as decision making skill can be impressing on the level of family performance and incidence of social damages such as addiction.

  10. Perceived stress and coping skills of university student–athletes and the relationship with life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    J. Surujlal; Y. Van Zyl; V.T. Nolan

    2013-01-01

    Student-athletes are expected to cope with their studies and participation in sport simultaneously as well as to satisfy the expectations of coaches, teammates, friends, and family. Once student-athletes perceive a situation as stressful and struggle to cope with the anticipation thereof, their satisfaction with life will be negatively influenced. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between perceived stress and coping skills with satisfaction with life of university student...

  11. The effect of life skills training on emotional intelligence of the medical sciences students in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolaty, Hamideh A; Ghahari, Sharbanoo; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2012-10-01

    Emotional intelligence has a major role in mental health and life skills training, and could be viewed as a bridge relating to emotional intelligence and mental health. The present study is aimed at determining the effect of life skills training on the emotional intelligence among the first year students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IN THIS EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, THE SUBJECTS WERE SELECTED BY RANDOM SAMPLING AND ALLOCATED INTO TWO GROUPS: Case group (n=20) and control group (n=19); they matched for gender, experience of stressful life events in the past six months, level of interest in the field of study, and level of emotional intelligence. The two groups responded to Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory before starting the experiment. Subsequently, the case group underwent life skills training. After the training, Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory was responded by the case and control groups again. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including Chi-square test, paired and independent t-tests, using SPSS software version 15. In the case group, the scores of emotional intelligence after life skills training were significantly improved (t=11.703 df=19 P=0.001), while no significant difference was observed in the control group (t=0.683 df =18 P=0.503). By performing programs such as life skills training, the levels of emotional intelligence of the students could be increased, which itself could lead to academic success, reduced substance abuse, and increased stress tolerance in the students.

  12. An Insight into the Challenges Faced by Academic Women with Pre-School Age Children in Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günçavdi, Gizem; Göktürk, Söheyda; Bozoglu, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the challenges academic women, especially those who were mothers of pre-school age children, went through. The main guiding question of this study was "How do academic mothers with pre-school age children survive in the academia from pregnancy through all the various stages of parenting and motherhood?". This…

  13. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  14. Reading use in preschool

    OpenAIRE

    Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...

  15. Choose and Tell Cards: A 4-H Cloverbud Resource for Promoting Public Speaking and Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechschulte, Jill; Scheer, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Choose and Tell is a curriculum for 4-H Cloverbud members that introduces them to public speaking and life skill enhancement (communication and social interaction). Choose and Tell consists of activity cards analogous to a deck of cards. Activity card titles include Wash and Comb Your Hair, Plant a Seed, and Floss Your Teeth. The activities are…

  16. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  17. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, P.A. de; Biersteker, H.A.; Biert, J.; Goor, H. van; Tan, E.C.T.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in

  18. Life Skills Training: Preventing Substance Misuse by Enhancing Individual and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been…

  19. CASAS Competencies: Essential Life and Work Skills for Youth and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The CASAS Competencies identify more than 360 essential life skills that youth and adults need to be functionally competent members of their community, their family, and the workforce. Competencies are relevant across the full range of instructional levels, from beginning literacy through high school completion including transition to…

  20. The Effects of the Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Program on Targeted Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kevin; Elmore, R. Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Does participation in the Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Program (WHEP) help develop life skills? 4-H members and coaches who participated in the National WHEP Contest between the years 2003-2005 and 2007-2009 were asked to complete an evaluation at the end of each contest. A portion of the evaluation asked participants and coaches to determine if…

  1. Life skills as a behaviour change strategy in the prevention of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-21

    Sep 21, 2017 ... To cite this article: B.J. Mohapi & E.M. Pitsoane (2017) Life skills as a ... aSenior Lecturer, Department of Social Work, University of South Africa, ... The above is also emphasized by Michielsen et al. .... HIV and AIDS prevention programmes that have balanced ... These regions are Western Cape, Eastern.

  2. Life Skills Training Effectiveness on Non- Metastatic Breast Cancer Mental Health: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shabani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with breast cancer are predisposed to some psychiatric symptoms and mental disorders as a result of their diagnosis or lifestyle. These problems cause patients to have daily stress, feelings of guilt, anxiety, a dysphoric mood, and impaired social relations. Such problems will lead to serious mental disorders.Therefore, life skills training may enable patients to cope better with these problems and improve their mental health.Methods: In an experimental study 50 breast cancer patients were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, experimental and control. The experimental group attended life skills training classes continuously for ten weeks. The duration of each class was two hours. Participants in both groups completed a General Health Questionnaire-28 form before the commencement of classes, after two weeks of training, and again at two months after course completion. The statistical method used in this study was the t-test.Results: In the life skills training group, patients' depressive and anxiety symptoms, somatization disorders, sleep disorders, and disorders of social functioning significantly decreased (P<0.0001. There was no change in the control group.Conclusion: The results show that life skills training can be considered a supportive method for symptoms of depression, anxiety, sleep, and somatic disorders in patients with breast cancer.

  3. Evaluation of a Life Skills Program for Women Inmates in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Pamela J.; Morash, Merry

    2002-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a life skills program that focuses on addressing the special needs of female inmates. Analyses of pre- and post-test scores of program participants compared emotional empathy, self-esteem, coping resources, problem solving, parenting stress, employability, and well-being. Results suggest tat the program does address some of…

  4. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuker, K.T.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Donders, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental

  5. Empowering adolescents with life skills education in schools - School mental health program: Does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikala, Bharath; Kishore, Kumar K V

    2010-10-01

    Mental Health Promotion among adolescents in schools using life skills education (LSE) and teachers as life skill educators is a novel idea. Implementation and impact of the NIMHANS model of life skills education program studied. The impact of the program is evaluated at the end of 1 year in 605 adolescents from two secondary schools in comparison to 423 age, sex, socioeconomic status-matched adolescents from nearby schools not in the program. The adolescents in the program had significantly better self-esteem (P=0.002), perceived adequate coping (P=0.000), better adjustment generally (P=0.000), specifically with teachers (P=0.000), in school (P=0.001), and prosocial behavior (P=0.001). There was no difference between the two groups in psychopathology (P - and adjustment at home and with peers (P=0.088 and 0.921). Randomly selected 100 life skill educator-teachers also perceived positive changes in the students in the program in class room behavior and interaction. LSE integrated into the school mental health program using available resources of schools and teachers is seen as an effective way of empowering adolescents.

  6. Linking Life Skills and Norms with Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mary H.; Graham, John W.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Bradley, Stephanie A.; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Cathy; Wegner, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome…

  7. Integrating Physical Activity, Coach Collaboration, and Life Skill Development in Youth: School Counselors' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Laura; Cook, Amy; Scherer, Alexandra; Greenspan, Scott; Silva, Meghan Ray; Cadet, Melanie; Maki, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Given the social, emotional, and academic benefits of physical activity related to youth development (Hellison, 2011), coupled with the minimal research regarding how school counselors can use physical activity for life skill development, this article focuses on school counselors' beliefs about collaborating with coaches and using physical…

  8. Teaching social-communication skills to preschoolers with autism: efficacy of video versus in vivo modeling in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlyn P

    2013-08-01

    Video modeling is a time- and cost-efficient intervention that has been proven effective for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the comparative efficacy of this intervention has not been examined in the classroom setting. The present study examines the relative efficacy of video modeling as compared to the more widely-used strategy of in vivo modeling using an alternating treatments design with baseline and replication across four preschool-aged students with ASD. Results offer insight into the heterogeneous treatment response of students with ASD. Additional data reflecting visual attention and social validity were captured to further describe participants' learning preferences and processes, as well as educators' perceptions of the acceptability of each intervention's procedures in the classroom setting.

  9. Association between Subjective School Adaptation and Life Skills in Elementary School Children with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoji, Yurina; Miyai, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between subjective school adaptation and life skills in elementary school children with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional sample of children with chronic diseases (n=76), who were being treated as pediatric outpatients and who were in the 4th to 6th grade of public elementary schools, was selected. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised an Adaptation Scale for School Environments on Six Spheres (ASSESS) and life skills scales for self-management and stress coping strategies. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the inter-relationship between subjective school adaptation and life skills. Compared with the gender- and schoolyear-matched healthy controls (n=380), a large number of children with chronic diseases had low scores on the measure of interpersonal relationship in school. From the structural equation modeling, the subscales "friend's support" and "victimized relationship" in interpersonal relationship were two of the factors closely related to subjective adaptation of learning as well as school satisfaction in the children with chronic diseases. Furthermore, the "decision-making" and "goal-setting" components of self-management skills demonstrated positive contributions to the adaptation of learning and interpersonal relationship either directly affected by the skills themselves or through the affirmative effects of stress coping strategies. These results suggest that life skills education, focusing on self-management and stress coping strategies along with support to improve interpersonal relationships, is effective in promoting subjective school adaptation and leads to increased school satisfaction in children with chronic diseases.

  10. Preschool literacy and second language learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    in the literacy events they meet in their day-care centers and kindergartens? Examining these social practices in pre-schools might illuminate the interplay between language and literacy and the learning processes of second language learners and contribute to the discussion about the need for re...... intending to enhance children´s language and literacy learning. The poor results of the PISA-measurement have in Denmark, Norway and Sweden drawn much attention to literacy and language in day-care centers and kindergartens and resulted in the development of a considerable number of social technologies...... (programs and concepts) intended to improve pre-school children’s literacy and language skills. Seen in a knowledge-society perspective the development might be characterized as an expansion of a life-long-learning evidence-based strategy into early childhood. The importance of development of early...

  11. The Divergent Thinking of Basic Skills of Sciences Process Skills of Life Aspects on Natural Sciences Subject in Indonesian Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subali, Bambang; Paidi; Mariyam, Siti

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at measuring the divergent thinking of basic skills of science process skills (SPS) of life aspects in Natural Sciences subjects on Elementary School. The test instruments used in this research have been standardized through the development of instruments. In this case, the tests were tried out to 3070 students. The results of…

  12. Motor-Life-Skills of Toddlers--A Comparative Study of Norwegian and British Boys and Girls Applying the Early Years Movement Skills Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Reikerås, Elin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses motor-life-skills in a sample (n?=?1083) of 33 months (2.9-year-old) children in Norwegian early childhood education and care institutions (ECEC-institutions) and to compare the findings with the results from a similar British sample. The Early Years Movement Skills Checklist (EYMSC) (Chambers and Sugden 2006) was applied.…

  13. Games To Enhance Social and Emotional Skills: Sixty-Six Games That Teach Children, Adolescents, and Adults Skills Crucial to Success in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John; Schutte, Nicola S.

    By using a game-centered approach, mental health professionals can help teach social and emotional skills to their clients. The 66 games described in this book are presented using a standard format that includes suggestions for how to help players use their skills in daily life. The games were field tested using an evaluation strategy that focused…

  14. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improved skills retention of basic life support in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhou, Rong-hua; Liu, Jin; Lin, Jing; Ma, Er-Li; Liang, Peng; Shi, Ting-wei; Fang, Li-qun; Xiao, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Pre-training evaluation and feedback have been shown to improve medical students' skills acquisition of basic life support (BLS) immediately following training. The impact of such training on BLS skills retention is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate effects of pre-training evaluation and feedback on BLS skills retention in medical students. Three hundred and thirty 3rd year medical students were randomized to two groups, the control group (C group) and pre-training evaluation and feedback group (EF group). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the time of retention-test (at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-month following the initial training). After a 45-min BLS lecture, BLS skills were assessed (pre-training evaluation) in both groups before training. Following this, the C group received 45 min training. 15 min of group feedback corresponding to students' performance in pre-training evaluation was given only in the EF group that was followed by 30 min of BLS training. BLS skills were assessed immediately after training (post-test) and at follow up (retention-test). No skills difference was observed between the two groups in pre-training evaluation. Better skills acquisition was observed in the EF group (85.3 ± 7.3 vs. 68.1 ± 12.2 in C group) at post-test (p<0.001). In all retention-test, better skills retention was observed in each EF subgroup, compared with its paired C subgroup. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improved skills retention in the EF group for 12 months after the initial training, compared with the control group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Play or hard work: unpacking well-being at preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Behr, A; Rodger, S; Mickan, S

    2015-03-01

    Well-being or quality of life is thought to give a more accurate picture of the impact a condition has on day-to-day functioning than traditional outcome measures. This study sought to examine the relationship between engagement in play and well-being for preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A quasi-experimental design was used with two independent groups of preschool children aged 4-6 years with (n=32) and without (n=31) probable DCD. Play skills were assessed using the Play Observation Scale based on 30min of videotape of free-play at preschool. Well-being was assessed using a parent-proxy version of the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL(R)). Spearman rho correlations were performed to examine the relationship between play and well-being. Well-being at preschool was significantly lower for the children in the DCD group however overall well-being was not significantly different. Engagement in type of social play (solitary, parallel or group) was found to predict well-being for the typically developing children. For the children with DCD, engagement in group play was not associated with well-being. An explanation for this difference may be that children with DCD may not experience free-play at preschool as "play" but rather as hard work. Further research is needed to determine why children with DCD experience lower well-being at preschool than their peers and to investigate children's perceptions of free-play. This may enable teachers and therapists to better support children with DCD in the preschool environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the day-to-day life of mothers dealing with preschool children who have behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Sallie; Spratling, Regena; Minick, Ptlene

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the day-to-day life of mothers dealing with preschool children who have behavioral disorders and to explore the mothers' experiences with their children's health care. A qualitative design was used to explore mothers' experiences in their day-to-day lives. A purposive sample of eight mothers was interviewed in their homes. A recorded face-to-face format was used that included open-ended, semi-structured questions. Two major themes emerged from the day-to-day experiences of these mothers: "abandoning my other child" and "parenting in unsupportive environments". The theme of "parenting in unsupportive environments" reflects the frustrations the mothers felt in their day-to-day lives while trying to find help for their children. The theme of "abandoning my other child" refers to the siblings of the children with behavioral disorders being overlooked by the mothers because so much of the mothers' attention and time was given to the child with the behavioral disorder. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Life Skills Training on Behavior Problems in Left-Behind Children in Rural China: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Lee, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda

    2016-01-01

    A randomized controlled experimental pilot study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of life skills training on behavior problems in left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Sixty-eight LBC were recruited from a middle school in rural China. The intervention group took a ten-week-long life skills training course. The Child Behavior…

  18. Preparation for Adulthood: A Teacher Inquiry Study for Facilitating Life Skills in Secondary Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kelly; Franco, Yvonne; Meo, Emilia

    2018-01-01

    Life skills preparation for adulthood is a crucial, yet often overlooked concept in education. In schools across the United States, young adults graduate from high school with limited knowledge regarding how to navigate through the expectations of the real world. Although many educators feel teaching life skills in the classroom is necessary, the…

  19. Transfer of Life Skills in Sport-Based Youth Development Programs: A Conceptual Framework Bridging Learning to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jennifer M.; Wright, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that many quality sport-based youth development programs promote life skill acquisition (e.g., leadership, self-control) with the ultimate goal of facilitating positive outcomes in youth participants' social and academic environments. Researchers call this "transfer of life skills" (i.e., the idea that physical,…

  20. Effects of the Dutch Skills for Life Program on the Health Behavior, Bullying, and Suicidal Ideation of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkes, M.; van de Sande, M. C. E.; Gravesteijn, J. C.; Pannebakker, F. D.; Buijs, G. J.; Diekstra, R. F. W.; Kocken, P. L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the Dutch "Skills for Life" programme on students' health behaviours, bullying behaviour and suicidal ideation. Design/methodology/approach: The effectiveness of the "Skills for Life" programme on health behaviour outcomes was evaluated at three points in time in…

  1. Residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities: service providers' perceptions of change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; McPherson, Amy; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Stewart, Debra; Glencross-Eimantas, Tanya; Jones-Galley, Kimberlea; Morrison, Andrea; Isihi, Ana Maria; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2015-05-01

    Residential immersive life skills (RILS) programs are designed to equip youth with physical disabilities with the foundational life skills required to assume adult roles. The objective was to determine RILS service providers' perceptions of the active ingredients of the intervention change process. Thirty-seven service providers from various disciplines completed measures to assess expertise status and participated in qualitative interviews. Qualitative themes were derived, and similarities and differences in themes were identified for blinded groups of novices, intermediates, and experts. The three main themes, reflecting change processes, were: (a) creating a supportive program atmosphere with multiple opportunities for learning, (b) using strategies to support, encourage, and engage youth, and (c) intentionally fostering youth experiences of skill development, social interaction, and pride in accomplishment. In contrast to the novices, experts displayed a more holistic perspective and paid attention to higher-order issues such as providing opportunities and enabling youth. The findings indicate how RILS service providers work to create a program atmosphere and employ strategies to intentionally foster particular youth experiences. The findings explicate service providers' theories of practice, the intentional design of RILS program environments to bring about client change, and the value of service provider expertise. Implications for Rehabilitation Service providers of youth independence-oriented life skills programs can intentionally create a learning-oriented and supportive program atmosphere by using non-directive, coaching/guiding, and engagement strategies Youth experiences of skill development, shared experience with others, and pride in accomplishment can be cultivated by providing a range of learning opportunities, including choice making, problem-solving, and skill mastery Compared to more novice service providers, experts discussed managing the

  2. LIFE SKILLS OF YOUNG PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AND YOUTH WITHOUT DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izeta Husić-Đuzić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the differences in life skills of young people with and without disability in chronological age from 18-35 year-old in Tuzla Canton. The respondents sample consists of two sub-samples. First sub-sample contains 50 young people with disability, chronological age from 18-35 of both genders. Second sub-sample contained 50 young people without disability, chronological age from 18- 35 of both genders. Research data were analysed using method of parametric and non-parametric statistics. Frequencies, percentages and measures of central tendency have been calculated (arithmetic mean and standard deviation. P-values have been used for examining the difference between variables and variance analysis has been used for examining the importance of differences. The results show that there is a significant statistical difference between young people with and without disabilities in the of life skills assessed: job retention skills, skills to cope in danger. Based on the results obtained, it is recommended to start the program and training in early age which will make life easier to disabled persons and their families.

  3. The Relation of Maternal Emotional and Cognitive Support During Problem Solving to Pre-Academic Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 263 mother-child dyads, we examined the extent to which maternal emotional and cognitive support during a joint problem solving task when children were 3-years-old predicted children’s academic skills one year later independent of each other, the quality of the home learning environment, and maternal emotional responsiveness. When all parenting measures were examined simultaneously, only maternal emotional support during problem solving and the quality of the home learning environment predicted unique variation in gains in pre-academic skills from age 3 to age 4. The positive effect of emotional support during problem solving was especially apparent for children whose pre-academic skills were low at age 3. These findings are discussed in light of the changing demands placed on young children and their parents as they prepare for entry to the formal school system. PMID:22121336

  4. Assessment of life skills of medical students in Mashhad, Iran, in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayat, Arash Akhavan; Niroumand, Shabnam; Shiehzadeh, Elham; Saghebi, Ali; Oskooie, Reza Rahimzadeh; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh

    2017-10-01

    Developing social skills and mental health is a crucial part of the psychosocial health status of medical students. The aim of this study was to assess the life skills of medical students in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS). This cross-sectional study was performed in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2015. By census method, 146 interns were entered into the study. The life skill questionnaire, consisting of 144 questions, was used as the measurement tool. Over 3 months, all the medical students in internship period were asked to complete the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by independent-samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Mann-Whitney with SPSS version 11.5 software. Women were shown to have higher decision-making ability than men (p=0.046). It was also shown in the study that social behavior (p=0.018), participation in activities that improve benefits (p=0.006), critical thinking (p=0.007), observing and using safety points (p=0.005), and mental health status (p=0.034) were significantly lower in men than in women. The data also suggests that men (13.97±4.7249) are more likely to become global citizens than women (12.15±3.6298) (p=0.010). Furthermore, there was a significant difference when comparing smoking and non-smoking in freedom and justice (p=0.003) and becoming a global citizen (p=0.012). Our study provides helpful information about medical students' life skills for policy makers and university authorities. We suggest that gender differences should be considered during life skill training.

  5. PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS IN PRESCHOOL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu ÖZYÜREK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood is known as a critical period for development and fundamental movement skills. Growing and development of children have an effect on gaining fundamental movement skills. Besides, the opportu nities and movement education provided for the students play an essential role on developing fundamental movement skills poisedly. In preschool education, physical training is the leading activity given the least importance. From the early years of child hood on, promoting basic skills of children such as walking, running, jumping besides bending over, twisting, flinging something away have great importance because it is closely connected to the other zones of development. Physical training strengthens co gnitive skills such as inquiring mind, problem solving skills and concept acquisition. Besides, fine and gross motor development is consistent with emotional and social life skills. In virtue of physical training, awareness level of children is heightened and a basis for lifelong sport habits is provided. Consequently, children acquire much more than movement skills thanks to physical training. In this study, the importance of physical training and sports activities, the points to be paid attention to while practicing, basic activities in physical training, and education models and methods used have been issued relevantly.

  6. Preschooler's social skills and behavior problems: comparison between mother and teacher assessments / Habilidades sociais e problemas de comportamento de pré-escolares: comparando avaliações de mães e de professoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work compared assessments carried out by mothers and teachers about the social skills and behavior problems of children identified by their teachers as having behavior problems. Participants were mothers and teachers of 24 preschool children presenting behavior problems, and 24 preschool children with high levels of social skills. The instruments used were the Socially Desired Behavior Questionnaire and the Rutter Child Behavior Scale: versions for parents and teachers. The main results were: (a mothers and teachers of children without behavior problems scored similar social skills, but different behavior problems, in which mothers perceived more behavior problems than teachers; (b mothers and teachers of children presenting behavior problems scored both social skills and behavior problems differently, in which mothers perceived higher levels of social skills and less behavior problems; (c gender differences were found only for behavior problems of the children presenting behavior problems. Results point to the need to have different informants, in different settings, in the assessment of child behavior.

  7. The Associations among Preschool Children's Growth in Early Reading, Executive Function, and Invented Spelling Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyi; Bingham, Gary E.; Quinn, Margaret F.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among children's emergent literacy (early reading), language, executive function (EF), and invented spelling skills across prekindergarten. Participants included 123, primarily African American, 4-year-old children enrolled in a variety of prekindergarten settings. In addition to…

  8. Coaching Teaching Assistants to Implement Naturalistic Behavioral Teaching Strategies to Enhance Social Communication Skills during Play in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Rebecca Jane

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic behavioral interventions increase the acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of child social communication skills among children with developmental delays (DD). Teaching Assistants (TAs) are ideal interventionists for delivering social communication interventions because of the significant amount of time they spend working…

  9. Affective and Motivational Factors Mediate the Relation between Math Skills and Use of Math in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Schmitz, Eva A.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life. PMID:27148122

  10. Affective and motivational factors mediate the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda RJ Jansen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations. Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521 were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life.

  11. Risk Factors for Preschool Depression: The Mediating Role of Early Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Spitznagel, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family history of mood disorders and stressful life events are both established risk factors for childhood depression. However, the role of mediators in risk trajectories, which are potential targets for intervention, remains understudied. To date, there have been no investigations of mediating relationships between risk factors and…

  12. Language Characteristics of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Younes Lotfi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing impairment affects all aspect of individual life, specially language and communication skills. When hearing impairment is congenital or occurs early in life, the child’s ability to learn optimally through audition, will be affected. The aim of this study was to evaluate linguistic skills of preschool hearing impaired children and compare these skills with normal peers.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 38 preschool hearing impaired children that the main handicap was severe to profound hearing loss with ability to communicate orally and 28 normal children with the same cultural and social context. Twenty four non linguistic variables including age, gender, the age of entrance of preschool center, number of hearing aids, etc. were obtained by filling a questionnaire and fifteen linguistics variables including number of utterance, morphemes, correct utterance, noun phrase, ambiguous utterance, correct sentences, compound sentences, etc. were collected by some part of TOLD-P-3 test and three complementary questions. Then we compared the data from two groups.Results: There were significant differences between number of utterance, number of correct mean length utterance, number of well-formed sentences in normal and hearing impaired group (p0.05.Conclusion: This study showed a severe deficit in linguistic skills in preschool hearing impaired children.

  13. Teaching communication skills to hospice teams: comparing the effectiveness of a communication skills laboratory with in-person, second life, and phone role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gillian; Ortega, Rosio; Hochstetler, Vicki; Pierson, Kristen; Lin, Peiyi; Lowes, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Communication skills are critical in hospice care but challenging to teach. Therefore, a hospice agency developed a communication skills laboratory for nurses and social workers. Learners role-played 3 common hospice scenarios. The role-play modalities were in-person, Second Life, and telephone. Learners were scored on 4 communication aspects. Learners in all modalities rated the laboratory as very effective. However, learners in the Second Life and phone modality showed greater improvements from scene 1 to 3 than those in the in-person modality. There were no significant differences in improvement between the Second Life and phone modalities. Results support the effectiveness of this communication skills laboratory while using different teaching modalities and show phone and Second Life role-plays were more effective than an in-person role-play. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Communication skills training for dialysis decision-making and end-of-life care in nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Jane O; Green, Jamie A; Tulsky, James A; Arnold, Robert M

    2013-04-01

    Nephrology fellows often face difficult conversations about dialysis initiation or withdrawal but are frequently unprepared for these discussions. Despite evidence that communication skills are teachable, few fellowship programs include such training. A communication skills workshop for nephrology fellows (NephroTalk) focused on delivering bad news and helping patients define care goals, including end-of-life preferences. This 4-hour workshop, held in October and November 2011, included didactics and practice sessions with standardized patients. Participants were nephrology fellows at Duke University and the University of Pittsburgh (n=22). Pre- and post-workshop surveys evaluated efficacy of the curriculum and measured changes in perceived preparedness on the basis on workshop training. Overall, 14% of fellows were white and 50% were male. Less than one-third (6 of 22) reported prior palliative care training. Survey response rate varied between 86% and 100%. Only 36% (8 of 22) and 38% (8 of 21) of respondents had received structured training in discussions for dialysis initiation or withdrawal. Respondents (19 of 19) felt that communication skills were important to being a "great nephrologist." Mean level of preparedness as measured with a five-point Likert scale significantly increased for all skills (range, 0.5-1.14; Pdecision-making and end-of-life care.

  15. Design, validation and administration of an observation tool for assessing water psychomotor skills in pre-school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Mármol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to create a new observation tool that lets the assessment of water psychomotor skills as well as the knowledge of its current state of development through its administration. In order to that, 8 experts (Physical Education teachers and swimming monitors all of them, have analyzed the Observation Tool for Assessing Water Psychomotor skills, composed by 5 factors (familiarization with the context, balance, displacement, handling and social relationships reporting satisfactory results. Furthermore, the water psychomotor development of 58 children aged between 3 and 6 years old was studied. Displacement and handling factors got the highest values meanwhile social relationships got the lowest value. Likewise, 5-6 years old group showed significant higher levels of water psychomotor development than 3-4 years old group.

  16. Perceived Effectiveness of Youth-Adult Partnerships on Enhancing Life Skill Development through 4-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sallee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if youth and adult participants in the 4-H Environmental Impact program perceive youth?adult partnerships as an effective means to enhance the youths’ development of life skills. The study further sought to discover the perceived obstacles that may keep youth and adults from participating in equal partnerships. The life skills of: Leadership, Cooperation, Service Learning, and Planning and organizing were enhanced through the youths’ participation in the youth-adult partnership. Through this research there was evidence that many of the youth participants did perceive themselves as equal team members when participating in this youth-adult partnership. The research indicated the greatest perceived obstacle that kept youth from engaging was not much time after homework and other activities. It is recommended that all participants in newly formed youth-adult partnerships receive training on how to implement this type of program, and how to participate equally.

  17. Effects of Classroom Management Profiles of Pre-School Teachers on Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Children

    OpenAIRE

    METİN, Şermin; AYDOĞAN, Yasemin; KAVAK, Şule; MERCAN, Zerrin

    2018-01-01

    Thisresearch was conducted to determine the classroom management profile ofpreschool teachers and to examine the influence of teachers' classroommanagement profiles on children's social skills and problem behaviors. Theresearch was carried out in 2015-2016 educational year with teachers workinginkindergartens affiliated to Provincial Directorate of National Education inGaziantep province center and children in their classes. The study groupconsists of 485 children and 45 teachers wh...

  18. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Pim A. de Ruijter; Heleen A. Biersteker; Jan Biert; Harry van Goor; Edward C. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students.Methods: One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349) medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From thes...

  19. Effectiveness of Life Skill Instruction on the Mental Health of Hearing Loss Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A'shouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present research was to investigation of the effectiveness of life skill instruction on the mental health of students with hearing loss in Tehran province. Materials & Methods: The present research was an experimental study by pre-test, post-test design with control group. The study population included of male students with hearing loss from second and third level of high schools in Tehran province. Subjects were selected by in available method. Forty students participated in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups by randomly (experimental and control group, each of group was consisted of 20 students. Experimental group received life skill training in 9 sessions while control group did not. The instruments of present research were Wechsler Intelligence Scale for adult and General Health Questionnaire. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by Mancova. Results: The findings of this research showed that there was significant increase in mental health scores of experimental group in the post intervention in comparison with control group (P<0.05. Also mental health scores of experimental group was significantly in somatic symptoms, anxiety, deficiency in social performance and depression (P<0.05. Conclusion: The life skill instructional program led to improvement of the mental health of hearing loss students and decreased somatic symptoms, anxiety, deficiency in social performance and depression. Therefore, planning for providing of social competence instruction is of a particular importance.

  20. Teacher-and child-managed academic activities in preschool and kindergarten and their influence on children's gains in emergent academic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Annika K E; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool (n = 8) and kindergarten (n = 8) classrooms revealed that

  1. Teacher-and Child-Managed Academic Activities in Preschool and Kindergarten and Their Influence on Children's Gains in Emergent Academic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed in…

  2. The Differential Effects of the Use of Handwriting without Tears® Modified Gray Block Paper to Teach Two Preschool Students with Developmental Delays Capital Letter Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jessica; McLaughlin, T. F.; Neyman, Jen; Donica, Denise K.; Robison, Milena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and measure the effectiveness of Handwriting Without Tears (HWT) modified gray block paper with letter writing on two preschool students diagnosed with developmental delays in pre-academics. Two students were selected from a self-contained special education preschool classroom in the Pacific Northwest. All…

  3. Maternal stress and family quality of life in response to raising a child with autism: from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Rebecca L; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-11-01

    While the impact of raising a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is well documented, with mothers reporting higher levels of stress than mothers of children with other disabilities, positive maternal outcomes have also been identified. What remains unclear, however, is the role of child age on maternal outcomes. We sought to clarify the role of child age in maternal stress and family quality of life (FQoL) in mothers raising a child with ASD. Participants included 140 mothers of children aged 3-16 years grouped to represent four key stages of childhood (preschool, early school years, middle school, early high school). Using a cross-sectional design, mothers completed questionnaires assessing potential risk (e.g., child problem behaviour, symptom severity) and protective (e.g., family characteristics) factors attributed to maternal outcomes. The results revealed significant age related group differences in child internalising behaviour and ASD symptomatology between the early and middle school years. Lower levels of adaptive social behaviour in older age groups were also found. Although mothers of older children reported significantly less support from professionals than mothers of younger children, no significant age effects were found to contribute to maternal reports of stress or FQoL. The current findings support the view that mothers appear to demonstrate stable levels of stress and FQoL despite fluctuations in key child variables and a reduction in supports, across age, highlighting the ongoing nature of maternal needs and heightened levels of child symptomatology during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A retrospective study of past graduates of a residential life skills program for youth with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsnorth, S; King, G; McPherson, A; Jones-Galley, K

    2015-05-01

    Young people with physical disabilities experience issues regarding employment, schooling, independent living and establishing meaningful personal relationships. A lack of life skills has been recognized as an important factor contributing to this lag. The Independence Program (TIP) is a short-term residential life skills program that aims to equip youth with the foundational life skills required to assume adult roles. This study retrospectively examined the achievements, skills acquired and program attributions of youth and young adults who took part in this three-week immersive teen independence program over a 20-year period. A total of 162 past graduates were invited to take part, with 78 doing so (a 48% response rate). These past graduates completed an online survey assessing objective outcomes such as employment and independent living; subjective outcomes such as feeling in control and living meaningful lives; and reflections on skills acquired, opportunities experienced and attributions to TIP. The majority of respondents were female (71%), had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (55%) and ranged from 20 to 35 years of age (92%). Despite a range of outcomes related to the achievement of adult roles, high levels of life satisfaction and overall quality of life were reported. Nearly every respondent reported using the skills they learned at the program in their lives afterwards and a high percentage attributed the acquisition and consolidation of core life skills to participating in this intensive immersive program. Although causality cannot be assumed, respondents reflected very positively on the opportunities provided by TIP to develop their independent living and life skills, extend their social networks and understand their strengths and weaknesses. Such findings validate the importance of targeted skill development to assist young people with physical disabilities in attaining their life goals and encourage focused investigations of key features in program

  5. Formulation and shelf-life of fish burgers served to preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Smaldone

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumer is very careful about healthiness; in this context nutritionists often highlight the importance of fish for human nutrition because of their protein and fatty acid composition. In order to stimulate utilisation and consumption of fish species by unusual target groups such as children, the aim of this research was to formulate and to evaluate shelf-life and nutritional values of fish preparations stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP. Fish species used for trail were Trachurus trachurus and Oncorhynchus mykiss fished and farmed in Basilicata region respectively. Fish burgers were made with different ingredients of plant and animal origin and packed in air (control and in MAP and stored at refrigeration atemperature. Sensory, physicalchemical analysis as pH, aw, total volatile nitrogen (TVN, trimetilammine (TMA, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, free fatty acids (FFA and microbiological analysis like aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., sulphite-reducing clostridia, Staphylococci, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were performed at intervals of 0°, 1°, 2°, 5°, 8°, 15°, 22°, day from production. Results showed that fish burgers stored in MAP had a longer shelf-life; protein degradation indexes and spoilage bacterial species showed lower values in the samples packaged in MAP compared with the control. The formulation of the fish burger meets the approval of the target consumers. The mixing of natural ingredients has made possible both the enhancement of the organoleptic characteristics with an excellent balance of nutritional values. The diversification of fish preparations, besides enhancing the fish production of marginal areas would add value to a product with potential and remarkable profit margins.

  6. Oral mucosal lesions' impact on oral health-related quality of life in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luísa Jardim Corrêa; Torriani, Dione Dias; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Peres, Karen Glazer; Matijasevich, Alicia; Dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Barros, Aluisio J D; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and their impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children aged 5 years. A sample of 1118 children from Pelotas' birth cohort, born in 2004 (response rate of 85.8%), were selected to participate in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied to mothers and from the oral examinations of the children. OML were identified by type, site, and size. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) was used to assess caregivers' perception on children's OHRQoL. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate Poisson regression analyses were carried out, considering the impact on OHRQoL (total ECOHIS score) as the outcome. The prevalence of the OML was 30.1% (95% CI 27.5-32.9). Ulcers were the more prevalent type of lesion (29.4%), and the most affected site was the gums (31.0%). In bivariate analysis, there was a positive association between the presence of OML and OHRQoL impact measured by the following: mean overall score of ECOHIS (P children with OML presented higher impact on OHRQoL [rate ratio (RR) 1.38 95% CI 1.11; 1.72] comparing with their counterparts. Analyzing specific domains, children with OML also presented higher impact on children symptoms (RR 1.46 95% CI 1.20; 1.66) and family functional (RR 3.14 95% CI 1.59; 6.22) domains. Almost one-third of children presented with oral mucosal lesions, and these lesions impaired children's oral health-related quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Promoting Prosocial Behavior and Self-Regulatory Skills in Preschool Children through a Mindfulness-Based Kindness Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B.; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function,…

  8. The Development and Evaluation of a Life Skills Programme for Young Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Jacques; Beukes, Roelf; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this research project was to develop, implement, and evaluate a Life Skills programme for young adult male long-term offenders with the aim of improving their life skills that, in turn, could enable them to adjust more effectively in the correctional environment. Experimental research was used to investigate the effectiveness of the programme. In this study, 96 literate young adult male offenders between the ages of 21 and 25 years, with long sentences, were selected randomly. The participants were assigned randomly into an experimental and a control group. The Solomon four-group design was utilized to control for the effect of pretest sensitization. The measurements of the effectiveness of the programme were conducted before the programme commenced, directly (short term) after, 3 months (medium term) after, and 6 months (long term) after. The findings indicated that the programme had limited success in equipping the offenders with the necessary skills crucial to their survival in a correctional centre. The programme did, however, have significant effects, especially on problem solving and anger management in the short and medium term. These improvements were not long lived.

  9. Improving advanced cardiovascular life support skills in medical students: simulation-based education approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Reihani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this trial, we intend to assess the effect of simulation-based education approach on advanced cardiovascular life support skills among medical students. Methods: Through convenient sampling method, 40 interns of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in their emergency medicine rotation (from September to December 2012 participated in this study. Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS workshops with pretest and post-test exams were performed. Workshops and checklists for pretest and post-test exams were designed according to the latest American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Results: The total score of the students increased significantly after workshops (24.6 out of 100 to 78.6 out of 100. This demonstrates 53.9% improvement in the skills after the simulation-based education (P< 0.001. Also the mean score of each station had a significant improvement (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Pretests showed that interns had poor performance in practical clinical matters while their scientific knowledge, such as ECG interpretation was acceptable. The overall results of the study highlights that Simulation based-education approach is highly effective in Improving ACLS skills among medical students.

  10. Impact of simulation training on Jordanian nurses' performance of basic life support skills: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubasi, Samar; Alosta, Mohammed R; Darawad, Muhammad W; Demeh, Waddah

    2015-09-01

    Providing efficient basic life support (BLS) training is crucial for practicing nurses who provide direct patient care. Nevertheless, data addressing the impact of BLS courses on the skills and performance of Jordanian nurses are scarce. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a BLS simulation training on Jordanian nurses' skill improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A prospective quasi-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design was used to study the effect of BLS simulation; using a 9-item checklist; on the spot training; American Heart Association, on a group of Jordanian nurses. A pre-test was conducted following a CPR scenario to test the skills using 9-item checklist extrapolated from the American Heart Association guidelines. After debriefing, an interactive on spot training was provided. Later, participants undertook an unscheduled post-test after four weeks that included the same nine items. Thirty registered nurses with a mean clinical experience of 6.1years participated in the study. Comparing pre-test (M=4.6, SD=2.9, range=0 to 9) with post-test results (M=7.5, SD=1.7, range=4 to 9) showed an overall improvement in skills and BLS scores after the simulation training program (t=7.4, df=29, pskills and performance among Jordanian nurses. A refreshment BLS training session for nurses is highly recommended to guarantee nurses' preparedness in actual CPR scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toys as Tools for Skill-building and Creativity in Adult Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heljakka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous understandings of adult use of toys are connected with ideas of collecting and hobbying, not playing. This study aims to address toys as play objects employed in imaginative scenarios and as learning devices. This article situates toys (particularly, character toys such as Blythe dolls as socially shared tools for skill-building and learning in adult life. The interviews with Finnish doll players and analyses of examples of their productive, toy-related play patterns showcased in both offline and digital playscapes reveal how toy play leads to skill-building and creativity at a mature age.The meanings attached to and developed around playthings expand purposely by means of digital and social media. (Audiovisual content-sharing platforms, such as Flickr, Pinterest, Instagram and YouTube, invite mature audiences to join playful dialogues involving mass-produced toys enhanced through do-it-yourself practices. Activities circulated in digital play spaces, such as blogs and photo management applications, demonstrate how adults, as non-professional ‘everyday players’, approach, manipulate and creatively cultivate contemporary playthings. Mature players educate potential players by introducing how to use and develop skills by sharing play patterns associated with their playthings. Producing and broadcasting tutorials on how to play creatively with toys encourage others to build their skills through play.

  12. [Predictors of Health-related Quality of Life in Bavarian Preschool Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Korbinian; Herr, Caroline Eva Wella; Meyer, Nicole; Otto, Christiane; Stilianakis, Nikolaos; Bolte, Gabriele; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; Kolb, Stefanie

    2018-02-01

    Little data are available on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children in Germany at the age of school enrollment. Aim of this study was to investigate the HRQOL of children during school enrollment and to determine its predictors with special focus on environmental factors. Data from the fifth survey of the Health-Monitoring-Units (GME) conducted in Bavaria (2010/2011) were analyzed. Parent-reported data on HRQOL using the KINDL-R(evised), the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), socio-demographic characteristics and characteristics of the living environment were assessed. The sample included a total of 3,744 children (45.9% female; mean age: 6.0; SD=0.4). Girls had significantly higher values than boys in total HRQOL (83.7 vs. 82.4, p ≤0.0001) and in all KINDL-R subscales except "psychological well-being" and "physical well-being". For the latter, boys had significantly higher values than girls (84.1 vs. 82.9, p=0.0103). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that parental annoyance with air or noise pollution, possibility for children to safely play outside and the time a child is outside on weekdays in the summertime were significant predictors of total HRQOL measured by the KINDL-R. Obesity was not linked to HRQOL. Children with migration background had significantly higher values in the subscales "family" and "friends". Environmental factors are associated with HRQOL in children at the age of school enrollment but only partially of relevant use. Although they show significant associations, their explanatory power of the variability observed is rather limited. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Effects of Enrichment Preschooling at Bourke: A Further Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lacey, P. R.; Nurcombe, B.

    1977-01-01

    As a test of the persistence of the effects of enrichment preschooling, and as a further stage of the evaluation of the Bourke preschool in New South Wales, 96 Aboriginal and white children, preschooled and non-preschooled, were given a battery of tests in 1974 measuring verbal intelligence, language development and classificatory skills.…

  14. USING MOBILE PHONES TO PROMOTE LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION AMONG OPEN SCHOOLING STUDENTS: Promises, Possibilities, and Potential Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar MISRA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Across the globe, life skills education has been usually developed as part of a school initiative designed to support the healthy psychosocial development of children and adolescents. In other side, formal education system not always provides young people with good opportunities to become confident and realize their potentials. In this back drop, the biggest challenge is to identify the best strategies for providing effective life skills education to those many children who never attend secondary school or reach an age of high vulnerability and risk taking behaviour in the years immediately before reaching secondary school. Considering the situation that in different parts of the world, majority of the youths is having a mobile or will have a mobile soon, the researcher is of the view that mobile phones can be a viable option to offer life skills education to open schooling students coming from different cultural and social settings and backgrounds. Following this approach, present paper mainly discusses about: promises offered by mobile phones for life skills education; possibilities for using mobile phones as an effective, efficient and economical option for offering life skills education; and potential strategies to offer mobile phones supported life skills education to open schooling students.

  15. Symptoms versus neurocognition as predictors of change in life skills in schizophrenia after outpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Wexler, Bruce E; Fujimoto, Marco; Shagan, Dana S; Seltzer, James C

    2008-07-01

    A growing body of literature has shown that neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia account for 20-60% of the variance in measures of outcome, and in many studies are more closely related to outcome than symptoms [Green, M.F., Kern, R.S., Braff, D.L., Mintz, J., 2000. Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: are we measuring the "right stuff"? Schizophr. Bull. 26(1), 119-136; Green, M.F., Kern, R.S., Heaton, R.K., 2004. Longitudinal studies of cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: implications for MATRICS. Schizophr. Res. 72(1), 41-51]. Most of these studies have been cross-sectional, few longitudinal studies have investigated the degree to which neurocognition and symptoms predict ability to benefit from outpatient rehabilitation, and no longitudinal studies use measures of everyday life skills that are performance-based. In the current study we investigated the relationship between five measures of neurocognitive function, crystallized verbal ability, visual sustained vigilance, verbal learning, problem-solving, and processing speed, and two measures of symptoms, total positive and negative symptoms, and change on a performance-based measure of everyday life skills after a year of outpatient rehabilitation. Rehabilitation consisted of both psychosocial and cognitive interventions. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were studied. Results of a linear regression model revealed that verbal learning predicted a significant amount of the variance in change in performance-based measures of everyday life skills after outpatient rehabilitation, even when variance for all other variables in the model was accounted for. Measures of crystallized verbal ability, sustained visual vigilance, problem-solving, processing speed and symptoms were not linked to functional status change. These findings emphasize the importance of verbal learning for benefiting from psychosocial and cognitive rehabilitation

  16. Transition: Preschool to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Transition is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the transition plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare him or her for life after high school, transition can start when a child enters preschool. The second of six distinct stages of…

  17. The Effectiveness of Life Skills Training on Enhancement of Self-Esteem and Marital Satisfaction among Addicts in Treatment Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nooripour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study has been done to determine the impact of life skills training on enhancement of self-esteem and marital satisfaction among addicts in treatment period. Method: The research design was semi experimental pretest-posttest with witness group. For each group 12men addicts in treatment period in Qazvin city were selected by available sampling. Rosenberg self-esteem and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaires were administered among selected samples. Training workshop was conducted on role playing, questioning and answering which was taught by psychology professors in experimental group. Results: Results showed life skills training improved self-esteem and marital satisfaction of addicts in treatment period. Conclusion: Life skills training have a positive impact on self-esteem and marital satisfaction of individuals especially on addicts in treatment period, also life skills training in the field of smoking prevention enhances individuals’ skills (such as self-esteem, marital satisfaction, etc…. Life skills training empower person to actualize his knowledge, attitudes and values, and enable him to have motivation for healthy behavior which this will have significant impact on his relationship with his wife.

  18. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

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    Pim A. de Ruijter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA and basic life support (BLS course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students. Methods: One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349 medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From these 120 students, 94 (78% and 69 (58% participated in retention tests of FA and BLS skills after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The assessment consisted of two FA stations and one BLS station. Results: After 1 year, only 2% passed both FA and BLS stations and 68% failed both FA and BLS stations. After 2 years, 5% passed and 50% failed both FA and BLS stations. Despite the high failure rate at the stations, 90% adequately checked vital signs and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation appropriately. Conclusions: The long-term retention of FA and BLS skills after a compulsory course in the first year is poor. Adequate check of vital signs and commencing cardiopulmonary resuscitation retained longer.

  19. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, Pim A; Biersteker, Heleen A; Biert, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Tan, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students. One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349) medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From these 120 students, 94 (78%) and 69 (58%) participated in retention tests of FA and BLS skills after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The assessment consisted of two FA stations and one BLS station. After 1 year, only 2% passed both FA and BLS stations and 68% failed both FA and BLS stations. After 2 years, 5% passed and 50% failed both FA and BLS stations. Despite the high failure rate at the stations, 90% adequately checked vital signs and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation appropriately. The long-term retention of FA and BLS skills after a compulsory course in the first year is poor. Adequate check of vital signs and commencing cardiopulmonary resuscitation retained longer.

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Takakura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood, an instrument designed to measure a concept similar to “zest for living” in late childhood. A total of 1,888 elementary school students in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades residing in urban and suburban areas as well as in remote islands of 3 prefectures (Okinawa, Kagoshima, and Nagasaki were surveyed. On the basis of our analysis, 24 items and seven factors were extracted. These factors are problem-solving/synthesis, relationship with friends, personal manners, decision-making and future planning, self-learning, collecting and using information, and leadership. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients were computed for each subscale and ranged from 0.71 to 0.87. Test-retest reliability coefficient values ranged from 0.68 to 0.79. To examine the construct validity of the scales, a goodness-of-fit model was determined by confirmatory factor analysis, and satisfactory values were found (GFI = 0.952, AGFI = 0.937, CFI = 0.966, RMSEA = 0.016. The validity of the goodness-of-fit model and the reliability of the scales indicate that the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood is an effective assessment tool.

  1. Improving health consciousness and life skills in young people through peer-leadership in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerachote, C; Kessomboon, P; Rattanasiri, A; Koju, R

    2013-01-01

    Peer leadership is widely recognized as an effective approach to health promotion and empowerment among people of similar ages, especially the youth. Such programs build peer leaders who in turn help empower the youths in their groups to improve their health and life skills related to health. Most previous studies have focused on the effectiveness of such activities in target groups but have neglected to effectively address and explore the transformations in peer leaders themselves. This descriptive study aimed to investigate the level of social change and health consciousness among student peer leaders in three Youth health promotion programs in Thailand: Friend's Corner, Smart Consumer and Volunteer Minded Young Dentists, and to compare them with the general students. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on Tyree's Social Change Model of leadership, Gould's concept and Dutta-Bergman's concept. The study population comprised of 11th grade students (N=660) from Kalasin Province in Thailand, 320 of whom were peer leaders. The findings revealed that the peer leaders scored higher than non peer leaders in all domains. Among the peer leaders, it was found that Volunteer Minded Young Dentists group had the highest scores in "controversy with civility", "social change agent" characteristics, "holistic health perceptions" and "responsibility for one's own health" regarding health consciousness. The results of this study confirmed that the peer leadership approach can help young people to develop life skills through social transformation and increase health consciousness for better status of health in the community.

  2. Evaluation of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life to Assess Dental Treatment in Preschool Children with Early Childhood Caries: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollú, Ana Lúcia; da Costa, Maria da Encarnação Perez Requejo; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa

    The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children with Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was used to assess the outcome of dental treatment. Children (3.56±1.31years) affected by ECC were selected. Anamnesis, clinical and radiographic exams were performed. Data about sociodemographic aspects, OHRQoL and dmf-t index were collected. The Brazilian version of Early Childhood Oral health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS) was applied in two time intervals: before and after 30 days of treatment. B-ECOHIS scores and effect size (ES) were used to evaluate the OHRQoL of preschool children. The Student's-t test was used for comparison between the B-ECOHIS averages, considering the following aspects: gender, age, socioeconomic status, severity of caries and type of treatment. The mean dmf-t was 6.25±4.20 and no differences between boys (6.00±4.32) and girls (6.83±4.35) (p=0,942) were found. Pain and psychological problems among children and parents feeling upset and guilty were the most frequently reported impacts at baseline. There was a greater impact on girls (17.67±8.68) than on boys (13.30±10.53) (pchildren younger than 4 years (16.71±9.96) (pchildren showed a large effect size for these subjects (ES=1.19) and their families (ES=1.00). Dental treatment resulted in significant improvement of the preschool children's OHRQoL.

  3. Impact of traumatic dental injuries on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Silvana Borges

    Full Text Available Observational studies have suggested that traumatic dental injuries (TDI can lead to pain, loss of function and esthetic problems, with physical, emotional and social consequences for children and their families. However, population-based studies that investigate the impact of TDI on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL among preschool children are scarce and offer conflicting results. The aim of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of TDI on OHRQoL among preschool children (PROSPERO-CRD42015032513.An electronic search of six databases was performed in PubMed (MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar, with no language or publication date restrictions. The eligibility criteria were TDI as the exposure variable, OHRQoL as the outcome and a population of children up to six years of age. RevMan software was used for data analysis. Results are expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the total score of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS as well as the scores of the Child Impact Section (CIS and Family Impact Section (FIS. The random effect model was chosen and heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 test.2,013 articles were initially retrieved; 1,993 articles were excluded based on title and abstracts; 10 articles excluded after full-text analysis. Ten studies comprising a population of 7,461 preschool children were included in the systematic review and nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. TDI caused a negative impact on OHRQoL based on the overall ECOHIS (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.08-1.43 and CIS (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41, but not the FIS (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.90-1.32.TDI negatively impacted on OHRQoL of preschool children. The present findings indicate the need for TDI prevention and treatment programs in early childhood.

  4. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  5. Social games with pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažin, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...

  6. Teaching school children basic life support improves teaching and basic life support skills of medical students: A randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stefanie; Meier-Klages, Vivian; Michaelis, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Harendza, Sigrid; Zöllner, Christian; Kubitz, Jens Christian

    2016-11-01

    The "kids save lives" joint-statement highlights the effectiveness of training all school children worldwide in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to improve survival after cardiac arrest. The personnel requirement to implement this statement is high. Until now, no randomised controlled trial investigated if medical students benefit from their engagement in the BLS-education of school children regarding their later roles as physicians. The objective of the present study is to evaluate if medical students improve their teaching behaviour and CPR-skills by teaching school children in basic life support. The study is a randomised, single blind, controlled trial carried out with medical students during their final year. In total, 80 participants were allocated alternately to either the intervention or the control group. The intervention group participated in a CPR-instructor-course consisting of a 4h-preparatory seminar and a teaching-session in BLS for school children. The primary endpoints were effectiveness of teaching in an objective teaching examination and pass-rates in a simulated BLS-scenario. The 28 students who completed the CPR-instructor-course had significantly higher scores for effective teaching in five of eight dimensions and passed the BLS-assessment significantly more often than the 25 students of the control group (Odds Ratio (OR): 10.0; 95%-CI: 1.9-54.0; p=0.007). Active teaching of BLS improves teaching behaviour and resuscitation skills of students. Teaching school children in BLS may prepare medical students for their future role as a clinical teacher and support the implementation of the "kids save lives" statement on training all school children worldwide in BLS at the same time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Skill set development of doctoral and post-doctoral graduates in life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, R S

    2010-01-01

    Doctoral and post-doctoral training programs at leading research universities in the USA are highly important in generating the much needed knowledge in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics for keeping rural and urban economies strong and societies healthy and prosperous. In addition, innovative graduate and post doctoral research programs are the driving engines of the success of U.S. economy and have made the U.S. the most successful model of generating new knowledge in the broader areas of life sciences (and agricultural education, research, and extension). We need to do everything in our power to make these training programs innovative, collaborative, independent, and resourceful so that students are trained in different disciplines making them more flexible within a range of challenges and opportunities. The training programs must empower students to solve complex and interdisciplinary problems of the society in 21st century and make our students competitive within a global economic system, to improve the health of the nation's economy. If our land grant schools and institutions of higher learning are not preparing doctoral students to be globally competitive scientists to create new knowledge and technologies to solve complex and interdisciplinary problems of the 21st century, then either we need to redefine the mission of our land grant system or we risk losing our role to serve the public and industry effectively. Doctoral and post doctoral students should be given the needed skills and experiences to prepare them for tenure track faculty jobs at leading US Universities in the 21st century as well as prepare them for the world outside of academia. I would say minimum competency skills are needed as "bare survival skills" for all doctoral students to become successful after obtaining PhD degrees. Today's PhD students will be working in a global but highly competitive, rapidly changing, and complex world. It is no longer enough to be a good

  8. The revised critical thinking skills scale for a life-and-death course: preliminary scale refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Huei-Lih; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2010-12-01

    Death education involves acquiring knowledge, changing behavior, and developing proper views of life in both the affective and the value domains. Critical thinking that is honed through reflecting on life-and-death issues represents a way to reach these goals. Designing assessments able to measure college student content and critical thinking skills related to life-and-death issues is thus important. The Test of Critical Thinking Skills for Life-And-Death content (TCTS-LD) instrument requires the administration of additional tests to assess reliability and validity for future use in the assessment of perceptions on life and death. The purpose of this study was to refine the TCTS-LD. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to recruit 715 college students in southern Taiwan. Three structured scales were administered in class to the participants. Data were collected in 2004 and 2006. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to validate the structure of scales. Examination of the reliability of the three-factor and 15-item scale revealed a Kuder-Richardson coefficient of internal consistency of .54. The split-half reliability coefficients were .47 in the Spearman-Brown correlation and .40 in the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The test-retest reliability coefficients (n = 22) were .58 in Pearson correlation and .56 in ICC. In addition to content validity verification by experts and face validity by students, the validity of this test was assessed using three methods, including (a) a comparable validity rating between this test and the TCTS-A (r = .34, p < .001; (b) a contrast-group technique with different responses to the instrument between those in education and nursing majors (t = 2.71, p < .01), with scores of 10.98 (SD = 2.42) and 9.82 (SD = 2.25), respectively; and (c) a confirmatory factor analysis confirming that TCTS-LD is related to the three dimensions of assumption, evaluation, and induction (χ = 81.800, p = .158, normed chi-square

  9. Preschool Children (Ages 2 to 4 Years) - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preschool years are characterized as a time of increasing autonomy, expanding language skills, increasing ability to control behavior, and broadening social circumstances, such as attending preschool or staying with friends or relatives.

  10. Using the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition to Characterize Language in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Joanne; Smith, Isabel M.; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) was used to examine syntactic and semantic language skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to determine its suitability for use with this population. We expected that PLS-4 performance would be better in more…

  11. Developing twenty-first century skills: insights from an intensive interdisciplinary workshop Mosaic of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Milosevic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea, one of the world’s largest semi-enclosed seas, which, with its very low salinity and quasi-isolation from the big oceans cannot decide whether it is a sea or a large lake. This geologically-unique environment supports an even more surprising and delicate marine ecosystem, where a complex community of fishes, marine mammals and important microscopic organisms creates a magical mosaic of life. Humans have enjoyed the abundance of life in the Baltic Sea for thousands of years, and major Scandinavian and Baltic cities have oriented themselves towards this geo-ecosystem in order to develop and seek ecological, economical and cultural inspiration and wealth. The ‘Mosaic of Life’ workshop aimed at going beyond the obvious in examining the meaning of the Baltic Sea by gathering together a selection of young, creative minds from different backgrounds ranging from the arts and economics to geology and life sciences. This intensive workshop was designed as a unique training opportunity to develop essential twenty-first century skills – to introduce and develop creative, critical and interdisciplinary thinking and collaborative teamwork, as well as to foster a visual and scientific literacy, using project-based learning and hands-on activities. Our final goal has been to be inspired by the resulting connections, differences and unifying concepts, creating innovative, interdisciplinary projects which would look further than the sea – further than the eye can see and further into the future.

  12. PENINGKATAN KEMAMPUAN CHEMO-ENTREPRENEURSHIP SISWA MELALUI PENERAPAN KONSEP KOLOID YANG BERORIENTASI LIFE SKILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibi Tegar Lelono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan kemampuan Chemoentrepreneurship siswa setelah mendapatkan penerapan konsep koloid yang berorientasi Life Skill. Penelitian ini menggunakan Pretest and Posttest Design dengan pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik Cluster Random Sampling, yakni kelas XI IPA 5 sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas XI IPA 6 sebagai kelas kontrol. Penelitian ini dibagi menjadi 3 tahap yaitu persiapan, pelaksanaan, dan tahap akhir atau produk. Untuk kelas eksperimen, produk yang dibuat diserahkan sepenuhnya kepada siswa, sedangkan kelas kontrol telah ditentukan oleh guru. Untuk nilai akhir siswa adalah rerata dari nilai posttest, afektif, psikomotor, dan produk. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian didapatkan rerata pretest kelas eksperimen adalah 37,24 dan kelas kontrol 35,03 sedangkan nilai akhir kelas ekperimen adalah 83,25 dan kelas kontrol 80,75. Pengaruh variabel bebas terhadap variabel kontrol sebesar 0,517 dikategorikan sedang. Peningkatan kemampuan chemo-entrepreneurship kelas eksperimen sebesar 57% sedangkan kelas kontrol sebesar 54%. Uji t nilai akhir mendapatkan hasil kemampuan chemoentrepreneurship kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada kelas kontrol. Simpulan dari penelitian ini adalah penerapan konsep koloid yang berorientasi Life skill dapat meningkatkan kemampuan Cheom-entrepreneurship siswa, dan kemampuan Chemo-entrepreneurship kelas eksperimen meningkat sebesar 57% sedangkan kelas kontrol sebesar 54%. This study aims to determine the increase in the ability of Chemo-entrepreneurship students after getting the application of the concept of colloid, which is oriented Life Skill. This study used pretest and posttest design with a sampling technique using cluster random sampling, the grade XI science as an experimental class 5 and class 6 as a class XI science of control. This study is divided into three stages: preparation, execution, and the final stage or products. For the experimental class, products made

  13. An outcome evaluation of a prison-based life-skills program: the power of people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Valerie A; Duwe, Grant

    2015-04-01

    The Power of People (PoP) is a personal leadership development course that was originally developed in a non-correctional setting and now serves as a prison-based life skills course. This study examined PoP's effect on four different types of recidivism: rearrest, reconviction, reincarceration, and technical violation revocation. The results of the analyses revealed that PoP does not have a significant effect on any of the four measures of recidivism. Following established principles of effective correctional treatment, we make several recommendations that could improve PoP's effectiveness on recidivism outcomes. Overall, this study provides guidance on how to make programs not originally designed for correctional systems into effective recidivism-reducing tools. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. DEVELOPING LIFE SKILLS IN HAEMODIALYSIS USING THE GUIDED SELF-DETERMINATION METHOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finderup, Jeanette; Bjerre, Tina; Soendergaard, Aase

    2016-01-01

    to develop and test a full-scale GSD for this patient group (GSD-HD). Objectives: To study how a full-scale GSD-HD influenced the quality of relatedness between the patient and the GSD-HD nurse and the patients' ability to live well with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: GSD-HD was developed through...... participatory research and evaluated qualitatively at five dialysis units in Denmark involving 31 patients and 16 nurses. The intervention lasted four months and comprised six sessions. Data consisting of semi-structured interviews with 13 patients were analysed using a mix of inductive and deductive thematic...... and their self-management of ESRD: Deeper and more meaningful relationships, self-exploration of self-selected challenges, self-understanding as a condition for meaningful knowledge, ability to act in a self-determined way, feedback from action that accords with daily life skills and decision-making from...

  15. The effects of teaching stress management skills on the quality of life in ICU nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARIBA GHODSBIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress is one of the main factors in decreasing productivity in organizations and the leading cause of psychosomatic disorders in personnel. Since job stress of nurses working in Intensive Care Units (ICUs is considered as an important segment in health and medical systems, it significantly affects the quality of care and the nurse’s quality of life. To this end, the purpose of this research is to examine the effects of teaching stress management skills on the quality of life of the nurses working at ICU of the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The subjects of the study consisted of 60 ICU nurses with the average stress score in Osipow job stress exam working at the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups (30 in the case and 30 in the control group. The intervention was performed as a teaching stress management workshop for eight hours throughout two-days (four hours per day, and the nurses were followed up for two months. The data were collected through a two part questionnaire including demographic characteristics and WHO Quality of life BREF and were analyzed in SPSS software using paired t test, and t-test. Results: The findings showed that the nurses of both the case and control groups were homogeneous considering the demographic data such as age, sex, marital status, number of children, shift position, job satisfaction, number of working hours per week, work experience and the amount of income. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the mean score of the life quality before the intervention in both groups. But after the intervention, a significant increase was revealed in the mean score of the life quality of the case group as compared to that of the control group (P<0.0001. Conclusion: The findings revealed the efficacy of the stress management workshop in improving the life quality of ICU

  16. An Analysis of the Attraction and Holding Power of Motor Skill Stations Used in a Mastery Motivational Physical Education Climate for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Peter A.; Johnson, Jerraco L.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The template for the current study was the project conducted by Rosenthal [1973. "An Ecological Study of Free Play in the Nursery School." Doctoral diss., Wayne State University] where she investigated the attraction and holding power of various learning centres during free play in a naturalistic preschool setting.…

  17. Parenting Behaviors and Preschool Children's Social and Emotional Skills: A Question of the Consequential Validity of Traditional Parenting Constructs for Low-Income African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWayne, C. M.; Owsianik, M.; Green, L. E.; Fantuzzo, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Few researchers have questioned the validity of traditional parenting dimensions (based largely on Baumrind's [Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88; Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4, 1-103] work)…

  18. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  19. The Effect Inclusive Education Practice during Preschool Has on the Peer Relations and Social Skills of 5-6-Year Olds with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Secer, Zarife

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to set forth the effect preschool inclusive education practices have on the peer relations of 5-6 year olds with typical development. The study comprised of two sample groups. The children in both groups were attendees of kindergartens at primary schools governed by the Ministry of National Education located in the…

  20. Assessing basic life support skills without an instructor: is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpotos Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methods to assess Basic Life Support skills (BLS; chest compressions and ventilations require the presence of an instructor. This is time-consuming and comports instructor bias. Since BLS skills testing is a routine activity, it is potentially suitable for automation. We developed a fully automated BLS testing station without instructor by using innovative software linked to a training manikin. The goal of our study was to investigate the feasibility of adequate testing (effectiveness within the shortest period of time (efficiency. Methods As part of a randomised controlled trial investigating different compression depth training strategies, 184 medicine students received an individual appointment for a retention test six months after training. An interactive FlashTM (Adobe Systems Inc., USA user interface was developed, to guide the students through the testing procedure after login, while Skills StationTM software (Laerdal Medical, Norway automatically recorded compressions and ventilations and their duration (“time on task”. In a subgroup of 29 students the room entrance and exit time was registered to assess efficiency. To obtain a qualitative insight of the effectiveness, student’s perceptions about the instructional organisation and about the usability of the fully automated testing station were surveyed. Results During testing there was incomplete data registration in two students and one student performed compressions only. The average time on task for the remaining 181 students was three minutes (SD 0.5. In the subgroup, the average overall time spent in the testing station was 7.5 minutes (SD 1.4. Mean scores were 5.3/6 (SD 0.5, range 4.0-6.0 for instructional organisation and 5.0/6 (SD 0.61, range 3.1-6.0 for usability. Students highly appreciated the automated testing procedure. Conclusions Our automated testing station was an effective and efficient method to assess BLS skills in medicine students

  1. Discussing Death, Dying, and End-of-Life Goals of Care: A Communication Skills Training Module for Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Nessa; Manna, Ruth; Shen, Megan; Banerjee, Smita C; Penn, Stacey; Pehrson, Cassandra; Krueger, Carol A; Maloney, Erin K; Zaider, Talia; Bylund, Carma L

    2015-12-01

    Effective communication, particularly at the end of life, is an essential skill for oncology nurses, but few receive formal training in this area. The aim of this article is to adapt an end-of-life care communication skills training (CST) module, originally developed for oncologists, for oncology nurses and to evaluate participants' confidence in using the communication skills learned and their satisfaction with the module. The adapted end-of-life care module consisted of a 45-minute didactic, exemplary video and 90 minutes of small group interaction and experiential role play with a simulated patient. Using a five-point Likert-type scale, 247 inpatient oncology nurses completed pre-/post-workshop surveys rating their confidence in discussing death, dying, and end-of-life goals of care with patients, as well as overall satisfaction with the module. Nurses' confidence in discussing death, dying, and end-of-life goals of care increased significantly after attending the workshop. Nurse participants indicated satisfaction with the module by agreeing or strongly agreeing to all six items assessing satisfaction 90%-98% of the time. Nurses' CST in discussing death, dying, and end-of-life care showed feasibility, acceptability, and potential benefit at improving confidence in having end-of-life care discussions.

  2. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills? Results from a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim; Bohnstedt, Cathrine; Sønderskov, Claus; Østergaard, Doris; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2018-01-18

    Assessment of laypersons' Paediatric Basic Life Support (PBLS) skills is important to ensure acquisition of effective PBLS competencies. However limited evidence exists on which PBLS skills are essential for laypersons. The same challenges exist with respect to the assessment of foreign body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts suggested items to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. In the second round, the suggested items received comments from and were rated by 26 experts (93%) on a 5-point scale (1 = not relevant to 5 = essential). Revised items were anonymously presented in a third round for comments and 23 (82%) experts completed a re-rating. Items with a score above 3 by more than 80% of the experts in the third round were included in an assessment instrument. In the first round, 19 and 15 items were identified to assess PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The ratings and comments from the last two rounds resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify different stages of foreign body airway obstruction", "Identify consciousness", "Call for help", "Back blows", "Chest thrusts/abdominal thrusts according to age", "Identify loss of consciousness and change to CPR", "Assessment of breathing" and "Ventilation". For assessment of laypersons some PBLS and FBAOM skills described in guidelines are more important than others. Four out of nine of PBLS skills focus on airway and breathing skills, supporting the major importance of these skills for

  3. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  4. Facebook and its effects on users' empathic social skills and life satisfaction: a double-edged sword effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Terri H

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how Facebook usage affects individual's empathic social skills and life satisfaction. Following the self-presentational theory, the study explores a key component of the Internet paradox-whether Facebook suppresses or enhances users' interpersonal competence (specifically empathic social skills), given their respective personality makeup. Going further, the study assesses these events' subsequent impacts on users' psychological well-being. Analogous to a double-edged sword, Facebook activities are hypothesized to suppress the positive effect of a user's extraversion orientation on empathic social skills but lessen the negative effect of neuroticism on these skills. The study examines a sample of college-aged Facebook users (n=515), who responded to a large-scale online survey. The findings from a structural equation modeling analysis indicate that while empathic social skills are positively associated with life satisfaction, Facebook activities mainly exert suppression effects. Only upon low usage can Facebook activities lessen the negative effect of neuroticism on empathic social skills, suggesting that Facebook may appear as a less threatening platform for social interactions among neurotics. Yet, results in general suggest that undesirable effects may occur at high levels of Facebook usage whereby both extroverted and neurotic users displace real world social ties to online ones. The findings point to the complex ways in which social media usage may impact the livelihood of users.

  5. Comparison of Quality of Life and Social Skills between Students with Visual Problems (Blind and Partially Blind) and Normal Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Kordestani; Azam Daneshfar; Davood Roustaee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the quality of life and social skills between students who are visually impaired (blind and partially blind) and normal students. The population consisted of all students with visual problems (blind and partially blind) and normal students in secondary schools in Tehran in the academic year 2013-2014. Using a multi-stage random sampling method, 40 students were selected from each group. The SF-36s quality of life questionnaire and Foster and Inderbitzen social skil...

  6. The Challenge of Establishing Sustainable Workplace "Skills for Life" Provision in the UK: Organisational "Strategies" and Individual "Tactics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Edmund; Evans, Karen; Kersh, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on longitudinal data from the ESRC-funded "Adult Basic Skills and Workplace learning" project (2003-2008), together with recent findings from research undertaken under the auspices of the LLAKES research centre (Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies), this paper seeks to explore the key factors…

  7. Effects of a non-instructional prosocial intervention program on children’s metacognition skills and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umino, Ayumi; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    (planning), helped each other (acting) and evaluated their own performance (self-evaluation). Overall results showed that children’s overall quality of life and self-esteem were significantly higher after intervention compared to before. No changes on metacognitive skills were found; however, evaluating...

  8. Analyzing Entrepreneurship Skill Levels of the 3rd Grade Primary School Students in Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Life Sciences course entrepreneurship skills of the 3rd grade primary school students as evaluated by their parents. The study was conducted with the screening model. The participants of the study were the parents (47 mothers and 23 fathers) of the students (32 girls, 38 boys) who study in the center of…

  9. The role of community sports coaches in creating optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability - a salutogenic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Super, S.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Koelen, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Sport is widely recognised as having the potential to enhance the personal development of socially vulnerable youth, yet there is very limited knowledge on how community sports coaches can create optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability. We adopt a salutogenic

  10. Improving Students' Argumentation Skills through a Product Life-Cycle Analysis Project in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, M. K.; Aksela, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study discussed in this paper was to link existing research about the argumentation skills of students to the teaching of life-cycle analysis (LCA) in order to promote an evidence-based approach to the teaching of and learning about materials used in consumer products. This case-study is part of a larger design research project that…

  11. Most Essential Wheeled Mobility Skills for Daily Life : An International Survey Among Paralympic Wheelchair Athletes With Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Fliess-Douer O, Vanlandewijck YC, Van Der Woude LHV. Most essential wheeled mobility skills for daily life: an international survey among paralympic wheelchair athletes with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:629-35. Objectives: To create a hierarchical list of the most essential

  12. Using Real-Worldness and Cultural Difference to Enhance Student Learning in a Foundation Phase Life Skills Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Mariette; Ebrahim, Hasina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to explore how real-world experience, inclusive of engagement with cultural differences, influences the quality of students' learning in a Life Skills module in pre-service Foundation Phase teacher education. The study was conducted with 147 students in their final year of the Bachelor of Education (Foundation Phase specialisation), at…

  13. The Effect of Life Skills Training on Mental Health of Iranian Middle School Students: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Jamali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research aimed to study the effect of life skill training on mental health of Iranian middle school students.Method: This experimental study was conducted In 2015 on 100 students of city of Ghaemshahr (North of Iran, who were randomly selected and divided into two equal groups of intervention (n = 50 and control (n = 50. Qualified trainers provided eight sessions (two sessions a week for 2 hours of life skills training to the intervention group for one month. The control group did not participate in any training sessions during the same period. Mental health in both groups was assessed by a questionnaire pre- and post-training. Data were analyzed using descriptive and infernal (ANCOVA and paired t-test statistic tests.Results: The average age of the participants in both groups was 13.5±1.01. ANCOVA test results revealed that the average score of violence, addiction, stress and sensation-seeking before and after the training was statistically significant in the intervention group and control groups (p<0.001.Conclusion: Life skills training had positive effects on mental health of the participants. Given the importance of mental health in modern societies, it is necessary for schools to incorporate life skills in their curriculum to support the mental health of adolescents.

  14. Analyzing Perspective Taking Skills of 5- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children in Relation to Their Self-Perception and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Seçer, Zarife; Önder, Alev

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the ability of preschool children to take on a perspective, based on their self-perception and gender. A relational survey method was used, with 124 children between ages 5 and 6 participating--74 girls (59.7%) and 50 boys (40.3%). The Self-Perception Scale for Children and Perspective-Taking Test was…

  15. Influences on preschool children's oral health-related quality of life as reported by English and Spanish-speaking parents and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Catherine D; Divaris, Kimon; Zeldin, Leslie P; Rozier, R Gary

    2016-09-01

    This study examined young, preschool children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among a community-based cohort of English and Spanish-speaking parent-child dyads in North Carolina, and sought to quantify the association of parent/caregiver characteristics, including spoken language, with OHRQoL impacts. Data from structured interviews with 1,111 parents of children aged 6-23 months enrolled in the Zero-Out Early Childhood Caries study in 2010-2012 were used. OHRQoL was measured using the overall score (range: 0-52) of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). We examined associations with parents' sociodemographic characteristics, spoken language, self-reported oral and general health, oral health knowledge, children's dental attendance, and dental care needs. Analyses included descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate methods based upon zero-inflated negative binomial regression. To determine differences between English and Spanish speakers, language-stratified model estimates were contrasted using homogeneity χ 2 tests. The mean overall ECOHIS score was 3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.6-4.2]; 4.7 among English-speakers and 1.5 among Spanish speakers. In multivariate analyses, caregivers' education showed a positive association with OHRQoL impacts among Spanish speakers [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.12 (95% CI = 1.03-1.22), for every added year of schooling], whereas caregivers' fair/poor oral health showed a positive association among English speakers (PR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.02-1.41). The overall severity of ECOHIS impacts was low among this population-based sample of young, preschool children, and substantially lower among Spanish versus English speakers. Further studies are warranted to identify sources of these differences in - actual or reported - OHRQoL impacts. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Parental Perceptions of Participation in 4-H Beef, Sheep and Swine Livestock Projects and the Fostering of Life Skill Development in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Heavner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Beef, sheep and swine 4-H youth livestock projects have a great deal of hands-on learning opportunities for members. However, what are parents’ perceptions about livestock projects and the development of life skills? The purpose of this research effort was to determine the life skill development gained by 4-H members participating in 4-H beef, sheep or swine projects in West Virginia. A total of 207 caregivers offered insight into the study and answered life skill development questions. These questions were related to decision making, relating to others, developing and maintaining records, accepting responsibility, building positive self esteem, self motivation, knowledge of the livestock industry, developing organizational skills, problem solving, developing oral communication skills, setting goals, developing self-discipline, and working in teams. The findings of this study provide positive insights into the relationship between the development of valuable life skills and 4-H beef, sheep and swine projects.

  17. A Focus into the Charity "Young Enterprise Northern Ireland" and How Effective Their "Company Programme" Is at Increasing "Life Skills" in Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - This research project has investigated the "Company Programme" of the charity YE and how effective it is at increasing Life Skills in young people. Data has been obtained using student questionnaires and teacher interviews. Previous studies have been completed on "Life Skills" and "Enterprise Programmes",…

  18. The Development of a Sport-Based Life Skills Scale for Youth to Young Adults, 11-23 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauthen, Hillary Ayn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a sport-based life skills scale that assesses 20 life skills: goal setting, time management, communication, coping, problem solving, leadership, critical thinking, teamwork, self-discipline, decision making, planning, organizing, resiliency, motivation, emotional control, patience, assertiveness, empathy,…

  19. The interplay of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior among youth students in contemporary China: a large scale cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. Methods 5972 students, randoml...

  20. The Effectiveness of the Life Skills Program IPSY for the Prevention of Adolescent Tobacco Use: The Mediating Role of Yielding to Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichold, Karina; Tomasik, Martin J.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Spaeth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of a life skills program to impede tobacco use in early adolescence was scrutinized. The focus was on the mediating role of yielding to peer pressure. The universal school-based life skills program IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) against adolescent substance use was implemented over 3…

  1. The Quality of Life of High-Skilled Employees in Hungary. The Experts' Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide an overview of the working conditions of high-skilled employees in Hungary, by resorting to comparisons with the other Central and Eastern European countries, based on research carried out by the author during a three-month placement (August 1st-October 31st 2011 at the Institute of Sociology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. This work combines several sources and methods for gathering information: theoretical documentation, secondary analysis of data, in-depth interviews with some experts in the field. The study results indicate the presence, for the knowledge workers in Hungary, of some common problems of this category of employees in all former communist countries, such as number of working hours per week more than EU average, low rate of participation in training, problems health such as stress, depression, heart disease etc., employees' complaints related to overworking associated with low wages in the public sector and with rigid hierarchy, lack of work-life balance, standards imposed by the parent company etc. in some multinational firms; cases of good practice appear at the micro level, mainly in Scandinavian capital firms or in companies in the IT sector.

  2. Life skills: evaluation of a theory-driven behavioral HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Johnson, Amy K; Kuhns, Lisa M; Cotten, Christopher; Joseph, Heather; Margolis, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Young transgender women are at increased risk for HIV infection due to factors related to stigma/marginalization and participation in risky sexual behaviors. To date, no HIV prevention interventions have been developed or proven successful with young transgender women. To address this gap, we developed and pilot tested a homegrown intervention "Life Skills," addressing the unique HIV prevention needs of young transgender women aged 16-24 years. Study aims included assessing the feasibility of a small group-based intervention with the study population and examining participant's engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors pre- and 3-months-post-intervention. Fifty-one (N = 51) young transgender women enrolled in the study. Our overall attendance and retention rates demonstrate that small group-based HIV prevention programs for young transgender women are both feasible and acceptable. Trends in outcome measures suggest that participation in the intervention may reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention with a control group is warranted.

  3. Development of the life skills for promotion of health with art-therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Romina; Diamare, Sara; D'Alterio, Vittorio; Nappi, Bianca; Ruocco, Claudia; Guida, Enrico

    2014-11-01

    Individuals, who work in an organization, develop a shared perception that influences their behavior and emotions. This perception guides operators in the interpretation of the main business processes and in the modes of decision-making. The Italian Ministry of Public Administration in 2004 issued a directive to improve the organizational well-being and the emotional state of the environment in the workplace. This law identifies the necessity of an organizational climate that fosters creativity at the workplace, for the development and the efficiency of public administration. Several studies have shown that the development of creativity in the operators becomes a resource for the organization to facilitate the adaptation to change and to the solution of problems. So the techniques of creativity can be used as a training strategy for the quality management and human resources, optimizing services. The following pilot study evaluates the effectiveness of a training course for veterinary staff of ASL Napoli 1 Centre The aim of the course has been promoting the well-being, the development of life skills and the resilience of the learners using techniques of creativity and art therapy.

  4. Factors influencing the development of end-of-life communication skills: A focus group study of nursing and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Karen; O'Neill, Bernadette; Bloomfield, Jacqueline G

    2016-01-01

    Poor communication between health care professionals and dying patients and their families results in complaints about end-of-life care. End-of-life communication skills should be a core part of nursing and medical education but research suggests that qualified doctors and nurses find this a challenging area of practice. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing the development of end-of-life communication skills by nursing and medical students. A qualitative study comprising five focus groups. Second year undergraduate nursing (n=9 across 2 focus groups) and fourth year undergraduate medical students (n=10 across 3 focus groups) from a London University. Barriers and facilitators influenced nursing and medical students' experience of communication with dying patients and their families in clinical practice. Extrinsic barriers included gatekeeping by qualified staff and lack of opportunity to make sense of experiences through discussion. Intrinsic barriers included not knowing what to say, dealing with emotional responses, wasting patients' time, and concerns about their own ability to cope with distressing experiences. Facilitating factors included good role models, previous experience, and classroom input. In addition to clinical placements, formal opportunities for reflective discussion are necessary to facilitate the development of students' confidence and skills in end-of-life communication. For students and mentors to view end-of-life communication as a legitimate part of their learning it needs to be specified written practice-learning outcome. Mentors and supervisors may require training to enable them to facilitate students to develop end-of-life communication skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of early-life exposure to household gas appliances and indoor nitrogen dioxide with cognition and attention behavior in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Torrent, Maties; de Cid, Rafael; Guxens, Mònica; Bustamante, Mariona; Künzli, Nino; Sunyer, Jordi

    2009-06-01

    The authors investigated the association of early-life exposure to indoor air pollution with neuropsychological development in preschoolers and assessed whether this association differs by glutathione-S-transferase gene (GSTP1) polymorphisms. A prospective, population-based birth cohort was set up in Menorca, Spain, in 1997-1999 (n = 482). Children were assessed for cognitive functioning (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities) and attention-hyperactivity behaviors (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) at age 4 years. During the first 3 months of life, information about gas appliances at home and indoor nitrogen dioxide concentration was collected at each participant's home (n = 398, 83%). Genotyping was conducted for the GSTP1 coding variant Ile105Val. Use of gas appliances was inversely associated with cognitive outcomes (beta coefficient for general cognition = -5.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): -9.92, -0.28; odds ratio for inattention symptoms = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.14, 11.33), independent of social class and other confounders. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were associated with cognitive function (a decrease of 0.27 point per 1 ppb, 95% CI: -0.48, -0.07) and inattention symptoms (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.12). The deleterious effect of indoor pollution from gas appliances on neuropsychological outcomes was stronger in children with the GSTP1 Val-105 allele. Early-life exposure to air pollution from indoor gas appliances may be negatively associated with neuropsychological development through the first 4 years of life, particularly among genetically susceptible children.

  6. Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalic, Sharon F; Fagan, Abigail A; Argamaso, Susanne

    2008-01-18

    Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST) drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers), ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence). Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage). Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery) were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness). Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that organizations should consider to ensure fidelity, such as

  7. Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagan Abigail A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. Methods This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Results Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers, ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence. Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage. Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness. Conclusion Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that

  8. ICF-CY as a Framework for Understanding Child Engagement in Preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Adolfsson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Engagement in preschool predicts children's development, learning, and wellbeing in later school years. The time children engage in activities and social interactions is conditional for preschool inclusion. Engagement is part of the construct participation, which is determined by attendance and involvement. Two suggested underlying dimensions of engagement had been identified as essential when assessing children's participation in preschool activities. As engagement is a key question in inclusion of all children, and preschool becomes a common context for them, it is increasingly important to understand the concept of engagement in those settings. In Sweden most children attend preschool but children in need of special support tend not to receive enough support for their everyday functioning. This study aimed to conceptualize child engagement in preschool with ICF-CY as a framework to clarify core and developmental engagement dimensions included in Child Engagement Questionnaire (CEQ. The content of CEQ was identified through linking processes based on ICF linking rules with some exceptions. Specific challenges and solutions were acknowledged. To identify engagement dimensions in the ICF-CY, CEQ items related to ICF-CY chapters were integrated in the two-dimensional model of engagement. Findings showed that engagement measured for preschool ages was mostly related to Learning and Applying knowledge belonging to Activities and Participation but the linkage detected missing areas. Broader perspectives of children's everyday functioning require extended assessment with consideration to mutual influences between activities, participation, body functions, and contextual factors. Related to core and developmental engagement, findings highlight the importance for preschool staff to pay attention to how children do things, not only what they do. Activities related to core engagement include basic skills; those related to developmental engagement set

  9. Life skills, mathematical reasoning and critical thinking: a curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel E; Macdonald, John; Somerset, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that youth are two to three times more likely than adults to report gambling related problems. This paper reports on the development and pilot evaluation of a school-based problem gambling prevention curriculum. The prevention program focused on problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, coping skills, and knowledge of the nature of random events. The results of a controlled experiment evaluating the students learning from the program are reported. We found significant improvement in the students' knowledge of random events, knowledge of problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring, and knowledge of coping skills. The results suggest that knowledge based material on random events, problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, and coping skills can be taught. Future development of the curriculum will focus on content to expand the students' coping skill options.

  10. The Situated Nature of Preschool Children's Conflict Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberg, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the peer conflict strategies of preschool children are situated and therefore vary across different conflict situations. Hypothetical conflict interviews were administered through a series of puppet shows. Participants were 178 preschool children. Results indicate that preschool children's conflict management skills are situated in peer conflict, because their strategies are to a greater or lesser degree influenced by the opponent's strategies....

  11. Simulation-based end-of-life care training during surgical clerkship: assessment of skills and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Priti P; Brown, Ronald; White, Mary; Markert, Ronald J; Eustace, Rosemary; Tchorz, Kathryn

    2015-06-15

    Assessment of interpersonal and psychosocial competencies during end-of-life care training is essential. This study reports the relationship between simulation-based end-of-life care Objective Structured Clinical Examination ratings and communication skills, trust, and self-assessed empathy along with the perceptions of students regarding their training experiences. Medical students underwent simulation-based end-of-life care OSCE training that involved standardized patients who evaluated students' communication skills and physician trust with the Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist and the Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale. Students also completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. Pearson correlation was used to examine the relationship between OSCE performance grades and communication, trust, and empathy scores. Student comments were analyzed using the constant comparative method of analysis to identify dominant themes. The 389 students (mean age 26.6 ± 2.8 y; 54.5% female) had OSCE grades that were positively correlated with physician trust scores (r = 0.325, P training to be a valuable learning experience and appreciated its placement early in clinical training. We found that simulation-based OSCE training in palliative and end-of-life care can be effectively conducted during a surgery clerkship. Moreover, the standardized patient encounters combined with the formal assessment of communication skills, physician trust, and empathy provide feedback to students at an early phase of their professional life. The positive and appreciative comments of students regarding the opportunity to practice difficult patient conversations suggest that attention to these professional characteristics and skills is a valued element of clinical training and conceivably a step toward better patient outcomes and satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-school reading badge called "Iridescent Little Fish" and its impact on reading habits later in life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka Kristan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The project called Footsteps to the Book is being carried out at the youth department of the Library Miran Jarc in Novo mesto; in it, preschool children from the municipalities Novo mesto, Šentjernej and Škocjan participate. The child wins the reading badge - Iridescent Little Fish with a pin - by telling four stories (or poemsin the library that havebeen told or read to him by his parents. Family appreciation can be won by both parents and children. The project has been started with the intention of lessening the impact of media upon children, and of strengthening the spiritual bondage among parents and children through reading. The purpose of the above mentioned activity is to develop and enrich child's language and thinking and help h im form positive self esteem. Through family reading, we tried to attract to the library not only small children but also their parents and to get them accustomed to the regular use of library materials. The opinions of parents,librarians, teachers and educators are very encouraging and the cooperation of children is better each year.

  13. Understanding Barriers and Solutions Affecting Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Englund, Michelle M.; Storm, Karen J.; Bailey, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children's school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers' attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of…

  14. Cognitive, Linguistic and Print-Related Predictors of Preschool Children's Word Spelling and Name Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…

  15. Preschool Attendance in Chicago Public Schools: Relationships with Learning Outcomes and Reasons for Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Gwynne, Julia A.; Stitziel Pareja, Amber; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; Jagesic, Sanja; Sorice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Significant attention is currently focused on ensuring that children are enrolled in preschool. However, regular attendance is also critically important. Children with better preschool attendance have higher kindergarten readiness scores, this is especially true for students entering with low skills. Unfortunately, many preschool-aged children are…

  16. The Effect of Early Childhood Language Training Programs on the Contemporary Formation of Grammar Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Kamhöfer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    While there is a big literature on the benefits of pre-school education, only little is known why kindergarten attendance improves later-life outcomes. This is partly because most studies analyze the effect of complete 2 years pre-school programs. In order to shed light into the black box of kindergarten education, I am using the German National Educational Panel Study and regress the level of grammar skills - a main intelligence component - on the participation in a nationwide-used language ...

  17. Optimizing life success through residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities: study protocol of a mixed-methods, prospective, comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; King, Gillian; Rudzik, Alanna; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2016-09-06

    Young people with disabilities often lag behind their typically developing peers in the achievement of adult roles, which has been attributed to a lack of opportunities to develop critical life skills. Residential Immersive Life Skills (RILS) programs provide situated learning opportunities to develop life skills alongside peers and away from home in real-world settings. Retrospective research suggests that attending RILS programs is a transformative experience that empowers youth, provides parental hope, and increases service provider expertise. However, prospective, comparative research is needed to determine longer term benefits of these programs on youth life trajectories, in addition to exploring the program features and participant experiences that optimize program success. This protocol describes a 5-year, multi-site prospective study examining the effects of RILS programs for youth with disabilities. The study involves RILS programs at three sites in Ontario, Canada. Cohorts of treatment and control groups will receive the study protocol over 3 successive years. Thirty English-speaking participants aged 14-21 years with a child-onset disability and the cognitive capacity to engage in goal setting will be recruited every year for 3 years in the following groups: youth attending a RILS program (Group A); a deferred RILS control group of youth (Group B); a control group of youth attending a non-residential life skills program (Group C); and a control group matched on age, diagnoses, and cognitive capacity not receiving any life skills intervention (Group D). All participants will complete measures of self-determination and self-efficacy at four time points. Program opportunities and experiences will also be assessed in-the-moment at the RILS programs. Qualitative interviews pre-program and at 3- and 12-months post-program will be undertaken with a sub-sample of youth and parents to explore their expectations and experiences. This study will address key gaps

  18. Evaluating self-esteem modifications after a Life Skills Based Education (LSBE) intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangirolami, Francesca; Iemmi, Diego; Vighi, Valentina; Pellai, Alberto

    2016-12-22

    A satisfactory level of self-esteem has been recognized as crucial factor contributing to healthy lifestyle, especially among children and adolescents. We performed an analysis of the impact of Life-Skills Based Education (LSBE) in a cohort of pupils in a Primary School of Sondrio (Northern Italy) and we made a comparison with a control group in a Primary school of the same province where no intervention was performed. Changes in levels of self-esteem were assessed through Italian version of the Multidimensional Self-concept Test of Bruce Bracken - T.M.A. For research purpose we used four of the six scales of the Italian version of the Multidimensional Self-esteem Test - T.M.A. The questionnaire was handed out to a total of 318 pupils: 132 students had received a LSBE intervention and 186 hadn't received any intervention. Median and interquartile range are in the normal range, both for the intervention and control groups. The four subscales showed an improving trend from the beginning (T1) to the end (T2) of the school year, both for the intervention and control groups. Regarding the intervention group, we found statistically significant changes in the subscales of quality of interpersonal relationships (p=0.003) and emotional competencies (p=0.02); regarding the control group, we found statistically significant changes in all the subscales analyzed. Considering the variable "sex", we found a statistically significant improvement only for male students and for the subscale "quality of interpersonal relationships" (p=0.007). The population trend observed suggests an improvement in competencies and levels of self-esteem in the cohort subjected to a LSBE intervention. Data analysis revealed significant differences in the subscales of quality of interpersonal relationships and emotional competencies, suggesting that LSBE interventions have an higher impact on males than on females. A longer follow-up could be useful in order to provide more reliable and significant

  19. Who Goes to Preschool and Why Does It Matter? Preschool Policy Brief. Issue 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven; Yarosz, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    In a world shaped by global competition, preschool education programs play an increasingly vital role in child development and school readiness. There is growing awareness that early learning's impacts persist across children's life spans, affecting educational achievement, adult earning and even crime and delinquency. Preschool education is…

  20. Guided self-determination improves life skills with Type 1 diabetes and A1C in randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, Vibeke; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    Objective To report 1-year results of newly developed method, guided self-determination (GSD), applied in group training (GSD-GT) for Type 1 diabetes patients with persistent poor glycaemic control. Methods GSD was designed on the basis of qualitative research to help patients develop life skills...... is a worthy candidate for further research. We consider it adjustable to people with type 2 diabetes and other chronic conditions....

  1. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners' Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ku Hyun; Song, Keun Jeong; Lee, Chang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Basic life support (BLS) training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min), level 2 (80 min), level 3 (120 min), and level 4 (180 min). Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p CPR and use AEDs (all, p training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs. PMID:27529066

  2. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners’ Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyuck Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basic life support (BLS training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min, level 2 (80 min, level 3 (120 min, and level 4 (180 min. Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p<0.001 and average chest compression depth (p=0.003. All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p<0.001. Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs.

  3. The Role of Grit in College Student Health Care Management Skills and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Christina M; Bakula, Dana M; Gamwell, Kaitlyn L; Mullins, Alexandria J; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2017-10-01

    To examine the relationship of grit, an intrapersonal characteristic defined by perseverance and passion for long-term goals, to health care management skills and adolescent and young adult (AYA) health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Higher levels of grit were expected to relate to greater health care management skills and HRQoL, and skills were predicted to mediate the relationship between grit and HRQoL. Four hundred seventy undergraduates (Mdnage=19, interquartile range = 2) completed online questionnaires, including the short Grit Scale, Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire, and 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) (HRQoL). Higher grit related to greater health care management skills (R2=0.15 p.05). This preliminary investigation illustrates the role of grit in AYA health, suggesting that it may be a target for interventions aimed at improving skills and HRQoL outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Influence of motive activity on forming of proof skills of healthy way of life of students of higher educational establishments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trotsenko V.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation and the analysis of impellent activity of students is considered. The importance of impellent activity in forming a healthy way of life of students is shown. In research the data of questionnaire of students are used. sports priorities of students are revealed should to undertake in attention by development of the program of physical training. The wide spectrum of the reasons which interfere with exercises is revealed. These reasons should be considered during individual work with each student. It is proved, that impellent activity influences forming of proof skills of a healthy way of life of students.

  5. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children…

  6. The Effectiveness of Life Skills Training on the MotherـChild Relationship in Mothers of Children with Hearing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    خلیل کاکاوندی

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of life skills training on the mother-child relationship in mothers of children with hearing problems. The study’s procedure was experimental with pretest-posttest design employing a control group. The participants include 36 mothers of children with hearing problems in Shiraz who were selected by an available sampling method and assigned into experimental and control group, randomly; hence, each group included 18 mothers. Both groups had undergone a pre-test. The experimental group received life skills training in 12 sessions while the control group did not. After the intervention period the post-test was administered for both groups. The Roth mother-child relationship strategies scale (1961 was employed to assess the mother-child relationship strategies. The data analyses by ANCOVA showed that there was a significant effect in the mean score of mother-child relationship in mothers of children with hearing problems in the experimental group (p<0/0001 and increased the acceptance of child and reduced the overprotection, the overindulgence and the child rejection among the mothers of experimental group. Therefore, life skills training program construction and employment are highly recommendable to improve mother-child relationship strategies among mothers of children with hearing problems.

  7. Five Years Old Preschool Children's Motor-Verbal Skills:A Follow-up into the First-grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Mirzaei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective : "n "nThe major objective of this study was to determine the means and 95% confidence interval of normal 6 years old children's motor-verbal skills. Based on the results of this study we could develop a measure to diagnose abnormal motor skills. In addition, in this follow-up study, we compared the first-graders' motor-verbal skills to their own skills one year earlier. "nMethod: In this follow-up study, the development of motor-verbal skills was studied in 220 normal readers in the first-grade after 1 year. We administered naming speed test and word and phrase repetition to assess motor-verbal skills. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistic and paired t-test. "nResults: The mean of the 6 years old first-graders' speed naming was 87 words per 100 second. In addition, means and standard deviations of word and phrase repetition were 8.41(2.92 and 6.51(1.73 respectively. In addition,, paired t-test showed a significant difference between naming speed, word and phrase repetition first-grade and 5 years old children score(naming speed: t=10.95, p<0.001, word repetition: t= 14.23, p<0.001, phrase repetition: t=12.11, p<0.001 . Conclusion:In general, 5 years old children's motor-verbal skills significantly improved after one year. Furthermore, the results of this study provide the norm for speech and language pathologists and other professionals. It is important to note that if 5 years old children's motor-verbal skills are under this norm, it will be anticipated that they are at the risk of literacy problem and dyslexia.

  8. Comparison of an interactive CD-based and traditional instructor-led Basic Life Support skills training for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardegan, Karen J; Schofield, Margot J; Murphy, Gregory C

    2015-08-01

    Basic Life Support (BLS) is a life-saving and fundamental skill in resuscitation. However, studies have reported limitations in BLS training outcomes for both health professional and lay populations, and noted the resource and time-intensive nature of traditional training approaches. This exploratory study evaluated the effectiveness of an interactive CD-based BLS training programme that included unsupervised manikin practice compared with a traditional instructor-led BLS training programme involving demonstration and supervised practice. A quasi-experimental post-test with follow-up design was used. The sample was comprised of two cohorts: Novice second-year undergraduate Nursing students (n=187) and Practising Nurses (n=107) in their first year of hospital employment. BLS skill outcomes were assessed at one week and again at eight weeks post training. No statistically significant differences were found between the CD and traditional instructor-led BLS training methods in BLS skills of Novice and Practising Nurses at one week and eight weeks post training. However, there was a decrement in skill between one week and eight weeks post-training across both groups and an overall low level of competence. The failure to find a difference between the CD-based BLS programme with unsupervised manikin practice and a resource-intensive traditional instructor-led BLS training programme may indicate equivalence of the programmes or, even study design limitations. It is concerning that competence displayed by trainees from both groups was less than optimal and suggests the need for renewed efforts to develop and evaluate BLS training programmes which can achieve high rates of competence with acceptable skill retention over time. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A randomized control intervention trial to improve social skills and quality of life in pediatric brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Sung, Lillian; Bartels, Ute; Schulte, Fiona; Chung, Joanna; Cataudella, Danielle; Hancock, Kelly; Janzen, Laura; Saleh, Amani; Strother, Douglas; Downie, Andrea; Zelcer, Shayna; Hukin, Juliette; McConnell, Dina

    2018-01-01

    To determine if a group social skills intervention program improves social competence and quality of life (QOL) in pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS). We conducted a randomized control trial in which PBTS (8-16 years old, off therapy for over 3 months) were allocated to receive social skills training (eg, cooperation, assertion, using social cognitive problem solving strategies, role playing, games, and arts and crafts) in 8 weekly 2-hour sessions, or an attention placebo control (games and arts and crafts only). Outcomes were self-reported, proxy-reported (caregiver), and teacher-reported using the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), to measure social competence, and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL4.0, generic) to measure QOL at baseline, after intervention, and at 6 months follow-up. At baseline, SSRS were stratified into low and high scores and included as a covariate in the analysis. Compared to controls (n = 48), PBTS in the intervention group (n = 43) reported significantly better total and empathy SSRS scores, with improvements persisting at follow-up. The PBTS in the intervention group who had low scores at baseline reported the greatest improvements. Proxy and teacher reports showed no intervention effect. Participating in group social skills intervention can improve self-reported social competence that persisted to follow up. The PBTS should be given the opportunity to participate in social skills groups to improve social competence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Education and working life: VET adults' problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Wever, Bram De; Malin, Antero; Cincinnato, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly-advancing technological landscape in the European workplace is challenging adults’ problem-solving skills. Workers with vocational education and training need flexible abilities to solve problems in technology-rich work settings. This study builds on Finnish PIAAC data to understand adults’ (N=4503) skills for solving problems in technology-rich environments. The results indicate the critical issue that more than two thirds of adults with vocational education and train...

  11. S.E.A.L.S.+PLUS Self-Esteem and Life Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Dawson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available S.E.A.L.S.+PLUS is an activity book and CD-ROM featuring over 75 reproducible self-esteem and mental wellness lessons for youth ages 12-18. Topics include segments on Goal Setting, Stress Management, Health Awareness, Anger Management, Communication Skills and more. Youth professionals will appreciate this well designed, interactive resource as they engage youth in positive skill development.

  12. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health – Related quality of life in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS have delayed motor and cognitive development and have problems in health related quality of life (HRQOL. Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between cognitive function; attention/concentration, gross motor skills; standing and walking, running, jumping domains and HRQOL in children with DS. Subjects and methods: Seventy children with DS of both sexes (37 boys and 33 girls were selected from El Tarbia El Fekria School for children with Special Needs and Education and National Institute of neuro motor system. They were selected to be ranged in age from 8 to 12 years and to be free from visual, hearing or perceptual problems. They were divided into two age groups; group A (8–10 years, and group B (10–12 years. The Rehacom was used to evaluate the cognitive function (attention/concentration, the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88 was used to evaluate the gross motor skills and the Pediatric quality of life inventory parent-proxy report (PedsQL TM was used to evaluate the HRQOL. Results: There was a weak to moderate correlation between the cognitive function, GMFM and HRQOL in both age groups. The level of difficulty of attention/concentration was moderate, positively and significantly correlated with GMFM; standing and walking, running, jumping domains in both age groups. There was a moderate, positive and significant correlation was found between the physical score of HRQOL and walking, running, jumping domain in age group B and between the psychosocial score of HRQOL and standing domain in age group A. Conclusion: The cognitive function and HRQOL should be considered in the evaluation of children with DS in addition to gross motor skills as there was a correlation between the cognitive function, HRQOL and GMFM. Keywords: Cognitive function, Gross motor skills, Health – related quality of life, Down syndrome children

  13. Children's Sense of Agency in Preschool: A Sociocultural Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…

  14. Effects of Advance Organizer Instruction on Preschool Children's Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Burk, Jill

    This study investigated the effects of advanced organizer instruction on 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers' learning of general prosocial skill concepts, rules for using prosocial skills, and spontaneous prosocial behavior. The six prosocial skills considered included cooperation, sharing, taking turns, helping, demonstration of awareness of another's…

  15. Evaluation of a novel individualised communication-skills training intervention to improve doctors' confidence and skills in end-of-life communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Josephine M; Butow, Phyllis N; Waters, Amy; Laidsaar-Powell, Rebekah C; O'Brien, Angela; Boyle, Frances; Back, Anthony L; Arnold, Robert M; Tulsky, James A; Tattersall, Martin H N

    2013-03-01

    We developed a novel individualised training program regarding end-of-life communication, designed to be time effective for busy junior-doctors working in hospital settings. We aimed to pilot this brief individualised training program with junior-doctors to explore its acceptability, feasibility and effect on the doctors' confidence, communication skills, attitudes towards psychosocial care and burnout. The content of the training intervention was informed by a systematic literature review and evidence-based clinical practice guidelines regarding end-of-life communication. The intervention was based on sound educational principles and involved three one-hour teaching sessions over a three-week period, including two individual sessions with an expert facilitator and simulated patient/caregiver. In addition, participants received written and audiovisual take-home learning materials. PARTICIPANTS were videotaped consulting with a simulated patient/caregiver pre/post training to assess the impact of the course on their communication behaviours. PARTICIPANTS completed de-identified questionnaires pre/post training, including self-assessed confidence, attitudes to psychosocial care, and the Maslach Burnout inventory. PARTICIPANTS included 22 junior-doctors from a large teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. All participants reported that the training was useful, had been helpful for their communication with patients and that they would recommend the training to others. Significant improvements were found in participants' communication skills (in seven out of 21 specific and all three global communication behaviours assessed, range P=0.02 to confidence in communicating about relevant topics (P<0.001), attitudes towards psychosocial care (P=0.03) and sense of personal accomplishment (P=0.043). There were no overall differences in participants' burnout levels. This intervention shows promise and warrants further formal evaluation.

  16. The interplay of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior among youth students in contemporary China: a large scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping

    2015-07-31

    Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. 5972 students, randomly selected from 6 universities, completed the questionnaire survey. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior. Bayesian network was further adopted to probe their probabilistic relationships. Of the 5972 students, 7.64% reported the presence of suicidal behavior (attempt or ideation) within the past one year period. Stressful life events such as strong conflicts with classmates and a failure in study exam constituted strong risk factors for suicidal behavior. The influence of coping skills varied according to the strategies adapted toward problems with a high score of approach coping skills significantly associated with a reduced risk of suicidal behavior. The Bayesian network indicated that the probability of suicidal behavior associated with specific life events was to a large extent conditional on coping skills. For instance, a stressful experience of having strong conflicts with classmates could result in a probability of suicidal behavior of 21.25% and 15.36% respectively, for female and male students with the score of approach coping skills under the average. Stressful life events and deficient coping skills are strong risk factors for suicidal behavior among youth students. The results underscore the importance of prevention efforts to improve coping skills towards stressful life events.

  17. 4-H & FFA Livestock Projects: Life Skills Gained and Knowledge Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle N. Holmgren

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Junior Livestock shows are one of the most popular 4-H and FFA projects in Utah. Thousands of youth participate in these shows from every county in Utah. County extension agents and FFA advisors spend much time with livestock committees, leaders, parents, and youth engaged in livestock shows. Can public funds spent on salaries be justified for county 4-H extension agents and FFA advisors who work with junior livestock shows? To help answer this question, 413 youth involved in livestock shows in Utah were surveyed in 2001. Youth were asked to share skills learned from their livestock projects. Value statements along with specific content skills were measured in the survey. The results indicate that from their 4-H and FFA projects, youth learned to accept responsibility, follow instructions, gain self-confidence, follow instructions, “do the right thing” as well as a variety of other values and content skills.

  18. An interprofessional workshop for students to improve communication and collaboration skills in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jeanne M; Blackhall, Leslie; Brashers, Valentina; Varhegyi, Nikole

    2015-12-01

    Interprofessional care is critical for patients at the end of life (EOL), but programs to teach communication skills to medical and nursing students are rare. The aims of this study were to determine whether an interprofessional workshop improves (1) student attitudes toward teamwork and (2) self-efficacy for communicating in difficult situations. Nursing and medical students attended a workshop with collaborative role play of an EOL conversation. Before the workshop, students showed different attitudes toward teamwork and collaboration and varying levels of confidence about communication skills. After the workshop, both groups reported more positive attitudes toward teamwork but a mixed picture of confidence in communication. Experiential interprofessional education workshops enhance perceptions about the benefits of teamwork, but further teaching and evaluation methods are needed to maximize the effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Distributing personal resuscitation manikins in an untrained population: how well are basic life support skills acquired?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Isbye, Dan Lou; Lippert, Freddy

    2012-01-01

    for resuscitation after 3.5 months with those obtained in untrained laypersons who completed the same course with instructor facilitation. Methods BLS skills of 55 untrained laypersons were assessed using the Laerdal ResusciAnne and PC Skill Reporting System in a 3 min test and a total score (12......-48 points) was calculated. The participants received a DVD training kit without instructions. The test was repeated after 3.5 months. Data were compared with data from a previous published study where participants completed the same course in groups with instructor facilitation. Results...

  20. Embedded Instruction Improves Vocabulary Learning during Automated Storybook Reading among High-Risk Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Howard; Kelley, Elizabeth; Greenwood, Charles; McCune, Luke; Carta, Judith; Atwater, Jane; Guerrero, Gabriela; McCarthy, Tanya; Schneider, Naomi; Spencer, Trina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated a small-group intervention designed to teach vocabulary and comprehension skills to preschoolers who were at risk for language and reading disabilities. These language skills are important and reliable predictors of later academic achievement. Method: Preschoolers heard prerecorded stories 3 times per week over the course…