WorldWideScience

Sample records for preschool disruptive behavior

  1. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  2. Classwide Functional Analysis and Treatment of Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Veena Y.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling, Heather E.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Hardy, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively few functional assessment and intervention studies have been conducted in preschool classrooms with children of typical development who engage in high incidence problem behaviors. Moreover, limited studies have used functional assessment procedures with the class as the unit of analysis. This study included functional analyses and a…

  3. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  4. Interactions between Maternal Parenting and Children's Early Disruptive Behavior: Bidirectional Associations across the Transition from Preschool to School Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…

  5. Methylphenidate Has Superior Efficacy Over Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Preschool Children with Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Nauta, Maaike H; Emmelkamp, Paul; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2018-02-01

    To compare the effectiveness between parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) and methylphenidate in preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and disruptive behaviors who had remaining significant behavior problems after previous behavioral parent training. We included 35 preschool children, ranging in age between 3.4 and 6.0 years. Participants were randomized to PCIT (n = 18) or methylphenidate (n = 17). Outcome measures were maternal ratings of the intensity and number of behavior problems and severity of ADHD symptoms. Changes from pretreatment to directly posttreatment were compared between groups using two-way mixed analysis of variance. We also made comparisons of both treatments to a nonrandomized care as usual (CAU) group (n = 17) regarding intensity and number of behavior problems. All children who started one of the treatments were included in the analyses. Mothers reported a significantly more decreased intensity of behavior problems after methylphenidate (pre-post effect size d = 1.50) compared with PCIT (d = 0.64). ADHD symptoms reduced significantly over time only after methylphenidate treatment (d = 0.48) and not after PCIT. Changes over time of children in the CAU treatment were nonsignificant. Although methylphenidate was more effective than PCIT, both interventions may be effective in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behaviors. Our findings are preliminary as our sample size was small and the use of methylphenidate in preschool children lacks profound safety data as reflected by its off-label status. More empirical support is needed from studies with larger sample sizes.

  6. Disruptive behavior in preschool children: distinguishing normal misbehavior from markers of current and later childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji S; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    To investigate which disruptive behaviors in preschool were normative and transient vs markers of conduct disorder, as well as which disruptive behaviors predicted the persistence of conduct disorder into school age. Data from a longitudinal study of preschool children were used to investigate disruptive behaviors. Caregivers of preschoolers ages 3.0-5.11 years (n = 273) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment to derive the following diagnostic groups: conduct disorder, externalizing disorder without conduct disorder, internalizing disorder without externalizing disorder, and healthy. At school age, participants were again assessed via an age-appropriate diagnostic interview. Logistic and linear regression with pairwise group comparisons was used to investigate clinical markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Losing one's temper, low-intensity destruction of property, and low-intensity deceitfulness/stealing in the preschool period were found in both healthy and disordered groups. In contrast, high-intensity argument/defiant behavior, both low- and high-intensity aggression to people/animals, high-intensity destruction of property, high-intensity deceitfulness/stealing, and high-intensity peer problems were markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Inappropriate sexual behavior was not a marker for preschool conduct disorder but was a predictor of school age conduct disorder. These findings provide a guide for primary care clinicians to help identify preschoolers with clinical conduct disorder and those who are at risk for persistent conduct disorder in childhood. Preschoolers displaying these symptoms should be targeted for mental health assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Safavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group. Assessment was performed by Conners′ rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00, with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894, and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671 were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00. Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children.

  8. Testing the impact of a social skill training versus waiting list control group for the reduction of disruptive behaviors and stress among preschool children in child care: the study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Larose, Marie-Pier; Geoffroy, Marie Claude; Laurin, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    Most preschoolers growing up in western industrialized countries receive child care services (CCS) during the day, while their parents are at work. Meta-analytic data suggest that CCS represent a stressful experience for preschoolers. This may be because preschoolers have not yet developed the social skills necessary to cope with the new and rapidly fluctuating social contexts of CCS. We tested the effectiveness of a child care-based social skill training program aiming to improve children's social behaviors and reduce the stress they experience. We used a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) to compare children's social behaviors and stress levels in pre- and post-intervention according to whether they received a social skill training intervention or not. Nineteen (n = 19) public CCS (n = 362, 3-years-old preschoolers) of underprivileged neighborhoods (Montreal, Canada) were randomized to one of two conditions: 1) social skills training (n = 10 CCS); or 2) waiting list control group (n = 9 CCS). Educators in the intervention group conducted bi-weekly social skills training sessions over a period of 8 months. The intervention covered four topics: making social contacts, problem solving, emotional self-regulation, as well as emotional expression and recognition. Main outcome measures included preschoolers' disruptive (e.g. aggression, opposition, conflicts) and prosocial behaviors (e.g. sharing toys, helping another child), and stress levels assessed by salivary cortisol sampling at pre and post intervention assessments. Educators' practices will be tested as potential mediators of the expected changes in behaviors and neuroendocrine stress. To our knowledge, this is the first cRCT to test the effectiveness of a child care based social skill training program on the reduction of disruptive behaviors and levels of stress. Significant challenges include the degree of adherence to the intervention protocol as well educators and preschoolers' turnover

  9. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  10. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…

  11. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  12. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  13. Merely Misunderstood? Receptive, Expressive, and Pragmatic Language in Young Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremillion, Monica L.; Martel, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) often seem to have poorer language skills compared to same-age peers; however, language as an early risk factor for DBD has received little empirical attention. The present study provides an empirical examination of associations between normal language variation and DBD by investigating receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language skills and preschool DBD symptoms. The sample consisted of 109 preschoolers ages 3 to 6 (M = 4.77 years, SD = 1.10, 59% boys; 73% with DBD, including oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) along with their primary caregivers, who completed a clinician-administered interview, symptom questionnaires, and a questionnaire measure of pragmatic language, and teacher and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires. Children completed objective tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Preschoolers with DBD showed poorer receptive, expressive, and pragmatic skills compared to preschoolers without DBD. Preschoolers with ADHD-only or ADHD+ODD exhibited poorer language skills, compared to ODD and non-DBD groups. Specificity analyses suggested that parent-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity were particularly associated with poorer language skills. Thus, preschoolers with DBD exhibited poorer language skills compared to preschoolers without DBD, and preschoolers with increased hyperactivity-impulsivity exhibited particular problems with language skills. This work suggests the need for early assessment of language in preschoolers, particularly those with ADHD, as well as the possible utility of tailored interventions focused on improving language skills, particularly for those with high hyperactivity-impulsivity. PMID:23924073

  14. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  15. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E Lidewei; Coelman, Frederique J G; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2012-06-13

    Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5%) dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59). The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively), which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an effective intervention strategy for young children and their

  16. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamse Mariëlle E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI, obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5% dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59. Results The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively, which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an

  17. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  18. Behavioral/Emotional Problems of Preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.A.; Achenbach, T.M.; Ivanova, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age...... and gender effects were quite similar across societies. The rank orders of mean item ratings were similar across diverse societies. For 7,380 children from 13 societies, ratings were also obtained from a parent. In all 13 societies, mean Total Problems scores derived from parent ratings were significantly...

  19. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  20. The Structure of Childhood Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica; Roberts, Bethan; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) frequently co-occur. Comorbidity of these 2 childhood disruptive behavior domains has not been satisfactorily explained at either a structural or etiological level. The current study evaluated a bifactor model, which allows for a "g" factor in addition to…

  1. Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children 0 to 6 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Giedinghagen, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), specifically oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, are common, serious, and treatable conditions among preschoolers. DBDs are marked by frequent aggression, deceitfulness, and defiance, and often persist through the lifespan. Exposure to harsh or inconsistent parenting, as frequently seen with parental depression and stress, increases DBD risk. Candidate genes that may increase DBD risk in the presence of childhood adversity have also been identified, but more research is needed. Neurophysiologic and structural correlates with DBD also exist. Parent management training programs, focusing on increasing parenting competence and confidence, are the gold standard treatment of preschool DBDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disruptive Effects of Colorful versus Non-Colorful Play Area on Structured Play – a Pilot Study with Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Stern-Ellran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To contribute to young children's development, sensory enrichment is often provided via colorful play areas. However, little is known about the effects of colorful environments on children while they engage in age-appropriate tasks and games. Studies in adults suggest that aspects of color can distract attention and impair performance, and children are known to have less developed attentional and executive abilities than adults. Preliminary studies conducted in children aged 5-8 suggest that the colorfulness of both distal (e.g., wall decorations and proximal (e.g., the surface of the desktop environments can have a disruptive effect on children's performance. The present research seeks to extend the previous studies to an even younger age group and focus on proximal colorfulness. With a sample of 15 pre-schoolers (3-4 years old we examined whether a colorful play surface compared to a non-colorful (white play surface would affect engagement in developmentally appropriate structured play. Our pilot findings suggest that a colorful play surface interfered with preschoolers' structured play, inducing more behaviors indicating disruption in task execution compared with a non-colorful play surface. The implications of the current study for practice and further research are discussed.

  3. An organizational assessment of disruptive clinician behavior: findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Jo M; Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated registered nurses' (RNs) and physicians' (MD) experiences with disruptive behavior, triggers, responses, and impacts on clinicians, patients, and the organization. Using the Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey for Hospital Settings, it was found that RNs experienced a significantly higher frequency of disruptive behaviors and triggers than MDs; MDs (45% of 295) and RNs (37% of 689) reported that their peer's disruptive behavior affected them most negatively. The most frequently occurring trigger was pressure from high census, volume, and patient flow; 189 incidences of harm to patients as a result of disruptive behavior were reported. Findings provide organizational leaders with evidence to customize interventions to strengthen the culture of safety.

  4. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L, alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline.

  5. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…

  6. Disrupting Mating Behavior of Diaphorina citri (Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujo, S; Hartman, E; Norton, K; Pregmon, E A; Rohde, B B; Mankin, R W

    2016-12-01

    Severe economic damage from citrus greening disease, caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' bacteria, has stimulated development of methods to reduce mating and reproduction in populations of its insect vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Male D. citri find mating partners by walking on host plants, intermittently producing vibrational calls that stimulate duetting replies by receptive females. The replies provide orientational feedback, assisting the search process. To test a hypothesis that D. citri mating can be disrupted using vibrational signals that compete with and/or mask female replies, courtship bioassays were conducted in citrus trees with or without interference from female reply mimics produced by a vibrating buzzer. Statistically significant reductions occurred in the rates and proportions of mating when the buzzer produced reply mimics within 0.4 s after male courtship calls compared with undisturbed controls. Observations of courtship behaviors in the two bioassays revealed activity patterns that likely contributed to the reductions. In both disruption and control tests, males reciprocated frequently between structural bifurcations and other transition points where signal amplitudes changed. Males in the disruption bioassay had to select among vibrational signals combined from the buzzer and the female at each transition point. They often turned towards the buzzer instead of the female. There was a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of males mating if they contacted the buzzer, possibly due to its higher vibration amplitude and duration in comparison with female replies. Potential applications of D. citri mating disruption technology in citrus groves are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. [Dialectical behavior therapy approaches with disruptive behavior disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Manetsch, Madleina; Vriends, Noortje

    2016-11-01

    Disruptive behaviour disorders comprise the diagnosis conduct disorder (CD) and in adults the diagnosis antisocial personality disorder (APD). CD is seen as a difficult-to-treat disorder with a high risk for persistent behavioral problems. In addition, CD is seen as the precursor to antisocial personality disorder (Kretschmer et al., 2014). Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed by Marsha Linehan (1991) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but because of the core deficits in emotion regulation in disruptive behavior disorders, DBT is also increasingly being recommended for the treatment of CD and APD. This review presents DBT adaptions for the forensic setting and for the treatment of CD/APD. Clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Relationship between Preschool Teachers' Reports of Children's Behavior and their Behavior toward those Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jennifer; Arnold, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between preschool children and their teachers are an important component of the quality of the preschool experience. This study used attribution theory as a framework to better understand these relationships, examining the connection between teachers' perceptions of children's behavior and teachers' behavior toward those…

  9. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  10. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  11. Child Effortful Control as a Mediator of Parenting Practices on Externalizing Behavior: Evidence for a Sex-Differentiated Pathway across the Transition from Preschool to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.

    2011-01-01

    An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…

  12. Beyond Behavioral Modification: Benefits of Socio-Emotional/Self-Regulation Training for Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Hart, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; M[subscript age] = 5.16 years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically…

  13. Effects of Advance Organizer Instruction on Preschool Children's Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Burk, Jill

    This study investigated the effects of advanced organizer instruction on 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers' learning of general prosocial skill concepts, rules for using prosocial skills, and spontaneous prosocial behavior. The six prosocial skills considered included cooperation, sharing, taking turns, helping, demonstration of awareness of another's…

  14. The Pedagogical Support for Preschool Children with Deviant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…

  15. Reciprocity of Prosocial Behavior in Japanese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…

  16. Effects of Peer Models' Food Choices and Eating Behaviors on Preschoolers' Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1980-01-01

    The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)

  17. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de

    2016-09-01

    To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. 370 preschoolers, aged 4 to 6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6%-90.9%), followed by light (4.6%-7.6%), moderate (1.3%-3.0%) and vigorous (0.5%-2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.83) and the playground (OR=0.08; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77), the playground (OR=2.82; 95%CI 1.14 to 6.96) and the recess (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Applying a Socioecological Model to Understand Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Parents and Preschool Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…

  19. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  20. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Kato-Shimizu

    Full Text Available Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  1. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  2. Impact of Short-Term Training in Social Cognition in Preschoolers with Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, Marine; Jacobs, Emilie; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    In two experimental and exploratory studies, we wanted to test the differentiated effects on preschoolers with externalizing behavior (EB) of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions, in comparison with typically developing (TD) preschoolers or with preschoolers with EB whom didn't receive…

  3. Oral health knowledge attitudes and behaviors of migrant preschooler parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Sherri M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish baseline data about oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of migrant and seasonal farm workers (MSFW). The study focused on MSFWs that are parents of preschool-aged children, and who utilized services at 3 migrant dental clinics. An oral health knowledge attitudes and behaviors survey was developed and pilot tested in 2006. The resulting 34 item survey was administered by trained promotores de salud (community health workers) to 45 parents of preschoolers (15 at each clinic site) served by 3 migrant dental clinics. Parents answered questions as they pertained to their oldest preschooler (up to age 5). Dental visits in the last 12 months were reported for 26 (58%) of the children. Fifteen parents (33%) had a dental visit in the last year. Thirty-five parents (77/8%) reported their child's oral health to be good, and 21 (46.7%) reported their own to be good. Half of the children were enrolled in Head Start (HS). Of those, 18 (79%) had a dental visit in the last year, whereas 8 (36%) of those not enrolled in HS had a visit. Discrepancies existed for the age parents believed children should stop using a bottle and the age they actually did stop using a bottle. There were discrepancies in knowledge about decay causing drinks and consumption of drinks by preschool-aged children. MSFWs remain an underserved population with poor access to oral health care and multiple factors affecting oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. A better understanding of influences on oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors within the population can assist in implementing appropriate interventions for the maintenance of good oral health in MSFW families. HS can have a positive impact on oral health for MSFW children.

  4. Moral stories emphasizing actors' negative emotions toward their nonhelping behavior promote preschoolers' helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xu; Hao, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Specific emotions, especially guilt, are considered to facilitate children's prosocial behavior. The current study differentiated moral stories with a helping theme in terms of the valence and source of emotions and aimed to clarify the effect of these stories on preschoolers' helping intentions and behavior. A total of 322 preschoolers between 4 and 6 years old were randomly assigned to four experimental groups and one control group. A specific type of moral story was presented to each of the experimental groups, whereas a nonmoral story was presented to the control group. The preschoolers were also asked to answer relevant questions to examine their story comprehension. The preschoolers' donating intentions and behavior were then measured. The results showed that all the experimental groups expressed more donating intentions than the control group. However, only the group that read the moral story emphasizing the actor's negative emotions toward his nonhelping behavior displayed more donating behavior than the control group. Therefore, the current study reveals that various moral stories dealing with a helping theme can facilitate helping intentions among preschoolers and that only certain stories can promote their helping behavior. Thus, it indicates the specificity of moral stories that facilitate prosocial behavior in terms of the valence and source of emotions in those stories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Universal versus tailored solutions for alleviating disruptive behavior in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman-Kishony, Talia; Shvarts, Shifra

    2015-01-01

    Disruptive behavior among hospital staff can negatively affect quality of care. Motivated by a standard on disruptive behavior issued by The Joint Commission (LD 3.10), as well as the desire to improve patient care, minimize liability, and improve staff retention, hospitals are setting policies to prevent and resolve disruptive behaviors. However, it is unknown whether uniform conflict management tools are equally effective among different hospital settings. We surveyed residents and nurses to identify similarities and differences among hospital departments in the antecedents, characteristics, and outcomes of disruptive behaviors, and in the effectiveness of conflict management tools. We used a quantitative questionnaire-based assessment to examine conflict perceptions in eight different hospital departments at Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel. Most participants (89 %) reported witnessing disruptive behavior either directly or in other parties; the most significant causes were identified as intense work, miscommunication, and problematic personalities. The forms of these behaviors, however, varied significantly between departments, with some more prone to expressed conflicts, while others were characterized by hidden disruptive behaviors. These outcomes were correlated by the antecedents to disruptive behavior, which in turn affected the effectiveness of alleviating strategies and tools. Some tools, such as processes for evaluating complaints, teamwork and conflict management courses, and introducing a behavioral mission statement, are effective across many antecedents. Other tools, however, are antecedent-specific, falling into two principal categories: tools directly removing a specific problem and tools that offer a way to circumvent the problem. Conflict resolution tools and strategies, based on residents and nurse perceptions, may be more effective if tailored to the specific situation, rather than using a "one-size-fits-all" approach.

  6. Preschool children with externalizing behaviors: experience of fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B L; Heller, T L

    1996-08-01

    Childhood behavior disorders are related to family stress and maladjustment. Little is known, however, about the adjustment of families with preschool-aged children at risk for subsequent behavior disorders. Moreover, fathers' perceptions of child problem behavior and their reactions to it generally have been neglected. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 52 preschool-aged children assigned to one of three groups: control, moderate externalizing, and high externalizing. Higher child externalizing behavior was associated with greater negative family impact, lowered parenting sense of efficacy, and child-rearing practices that were more authoritarian and less authoritative. Mothers and fathers did not differ in actual perceived level of child behavior problems, although both believed that mothers saw more problems. Child Group x Parent interactions indicated that mothers experienced increased stress and a need for help with moderate as well as high child externalizing behaviors, whereas fathers were not elevated on these measures unless the child's externalizing behaviors were high. Implications of these findings for early family intervention are considered.

  7. Disruptive behavior scale for adolescents (DISBA): development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, Mahmood; Fakhri, Ahmad; Vali, Esmaeel; Vali, Farzaneh; Veiga, Feliciano H; Stein, L A R; Araban, Marzieh

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that if disruptive behavior is left unidentified and untreated, a significant proportion of these problems will persist and may develop into problems linked with delinquency, substance abuse, and violence. Research is needed to develop valid and reliable measures of disruptive behavior to assist recognition and impact of treatments on disruptive behavior. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale for disruptive behavior in adolescents. Six hundred high school students (50% girls), ages ranged 15-18 years old, selected through multi stage random sampling. Psychometrics of the disruptive behavior scale for adolescents (DISBA) (Persian version) was assessed through content validity, explanatory factor analysis (EFA) using Varimax rotation and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The reliability of this scale was assessed via internal consistency and test-retest reliability. EFA revealed four factors accounting for 59% of observed variance. The final 29-item scale contained four factors: (1) aggressive school behavior, (2) classroom defiant behavior, (3) unimportance of school, and (4) defiance to school authorities. Furthermore, CFA produced a sufficient Goodness of Fit Index > 0.90. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were acceptable at 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. The findings from this study suggest that the Iranian version of DISBA questionnaire has content validity. Further studies are needed to evaluate stronger psychometric properties for DISBA.

  8. Aberrant behavior and cognitive ability in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Gustav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.

  9. Profile of Mental and Behavioral Disorders Among Preschoolers in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan M. Al-Sharbati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of mental and behavioral disorders in preschoolers is critical for a better prognosis, ultimately leading to improved quality of life for both the child and the family. Our study investigated the clinical profile of mental and behavioral disorders in children < 7 years of age, seeking consultation at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 1 June 2006 and 31 December 2010. The objective was to explore demographic variables, intervention types, and annual trends. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study was conducted by reviewing the electronic records of preschoolers seeking consultation on mental and behavioral disorders at the Department of Behavioral Medicine. The diagnosis was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV criteria. Results: The total number of cases was 466, the majority (77.9% being boys. The cumulative frequencies and annual hospital-based prevalence rates were estimated for each category of mental and behavioral disorders. Our findings showed increased service utilization among preschoolers, as reflected in the annual trend and case-specific prevalence rates. While comorbidity was common, the most frequent disorders encountered were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (70.8%, developmental language disorder (23.6%, autism spectrum disorders (20.2%, and disruptive behavior disorders (11.6%. The most commonly prescribed drugs/supplementation were risperidone (18.7%, atomoxetine (9.7%, omega-3 (8.8%, and methylphenidate (6.2%. Conclusions: Consultations for mental and behavioral disorders are being sought for Omani preschoolers. Beside pharmacotherapy, other interventions, which are an integral part of a much desired multidisciplinary approach should be introduced. Readdressing the missing needs is essential for a comprehensive approach to managing mental and behavioral disorders.

  10. MANAGING DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS IN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khasinah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes students’ disruptive behaviors in language classroom that may greatly affect language teaching and learning process, especially in ESL or EFL classes. Teachers should know what disruptive behavior is to enable them to deal with problems occurred in their classroom or to take preventive actions to keep their students well-behaved during the class. This can reduce the occurrence of misbehavior of students in their classroom. To prevent disruption in the classroom, teachers should establish behavioral expectations in the first day of the semester and the expectations can be based on students attendance, arrivals and departures, class participation, full English speaking, and other appropriate conducts in the syllabus and discuss them at the outset of the term. The agreement is then assigned as a learning contract or a code of conducts with which bounds the whole class. Consequently, whenever students are misbehaved, teachers and other students will directly know and recognize that the behaviors are out of the code. There are factors reasoning students to behave badly, so teachers as trouble solvers have to find appropriate strategies that are effective in helping students keep the code. Otherwise, the disruptions will escalate quickly and the problems will increase in numbers rapidly and finally, teachers will have to work very hard to avoid teaching failure and “losing face” when they cannot manage the disruption as listed in the expectation.

  11. Bob Bear: A Strategy for Improving Behaviors of Preschoolers Identified as At Risk or Developmentally Delayed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Meredith; Meese, Ruth L.; Keith, Stephen; Mathews, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Social learning theory, sociodramatic play, and the use of puppets and stuffed animals may be beneficial for improving social behaviors of preschoolers with and without disabilities. Therefore, this action research study is developed on the belief that a stuffed animal (Bob Bear) will enhance appropriate behaviors for preschool children when used…

  12. Aggression and Withdrawal Related Behavior within Conflict Management Progression in Preschool Boys with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Laura; Westlund, Karolina; Ljungberg, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined conflict behavior in naturalistic preschool settings to better understand the role of non-affiliative behavior and language in conflict management. Method: Free-play at preschool was filmed among 20 boys with typically developing language (TL) and among 11 boys with Language Impairment (LI); the boys 4-7 years old.…

  13. Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala Is Disrupted in Preschool-Aged Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mark D; Li, Deana D; Keown, Christopher L; Lee, Aaron; Johnson, Ryan T; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Rogers, Sally J; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Amaral, David G; Nordahl, Christine Wu

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether functional connectivity of the amygdala is altered in preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to assess the clinical relevance of observed alterations in amygdala connectivity. A resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging study of the amygdala (and a parallel study of primary visual cortex) was conducted in 72 boys (mean age 3.5 years; n = 43 with ASD; n = 29 age-matched controls). The ASD group showed significantly weaker connectivity between the amygdala and several brain regions involved in social communication and repetitive behaviors, including bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes, and striatum (p amygdala and frontal and temporal lobes was significantly correlated with increased autism severity in the ASD group (p amygdala and regions of the brain important for social communication and language, which might be clinically relevant because weaker connectivity was associated with increased autism severity. Moreover, although amygdala connectivity was associated with behavioral domains that are diagnostic of ASD, altered connectivity of primary visual cortex was related to sensory hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Family Typology and Appraisal of Preschoolers' Behavior by Female Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Sallie P; Moore, Leslie C

    2015-01-01

    Children with vulnerable caregivers may be at risk for being labeled as having behavior problems when typical behaviors are viewed by their caregivers as problematic, and therefore, research examining the accuracy of the caregivers' perceptions of children's behaviors is needed. The purpose of this study was to use the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation as the theoretical foundation to explore family factors associated with the primary female caregiver's appraisal of her child's behavior, the extent to which the primary female caregiver's appraisal of her child's behavior may be distorted, and the child's level of risk of having a behavioral problem. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Data were collected from female caregivers of preschoolers (N = 117). Family factors, demographic characteristics, comfort in parenting, appraisal of behaviors, daily stress, parenting stress, depressive symptoms, social support, ratings of children's behaviors, and distortion in the ratings were measured. Associations were studied using ANOVA, ANCOVA, and chi-squared tests. Family typology was not associated with the female caregiver's appraisals of her child's behavior (p = .31). Distortion of the caregiver's rating of her child's behavior was not associated with family hardiness (high or low; p = .20.) but was associated with having a child with an elevated risk for behavioral problems (p < .01). Families classified as vulnerable were significantly more likely to have a child with elevated risks of having behavioral problems than families classified as secure or regenerative. Findings emphasized the association between family factors (hardiness and coherence) and young children's behaviors. Additional research is needed into how these factors affect the young child's behavior and what causes a caregiver to have a distorted view of her child's behavior.

  15. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  16. Intellectual Disability Modifies Gender Effects on Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Gray, Kylie M.; Ellis, Louise A.; Taffe, John; Emerson, Eric; Tonge, Bruce J.; Horstead, Sian K.

    2010-01-01

    In typically developing children, boys are more commonly diagnosed than girls with disruptive behavior disorders, namely, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. For children with intellectual disability (ID), the evidence for this gender effect is less clear. In this report we examine gender…

  17. Quantity of Group Child Care, Behavior Problems, and Prosocial Behaviors: A Study with Portuguese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Nuno; Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Monteiro, Ligia; Figueiredo, Mafalda; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Data from a national sample of Portuguese preschool centers were used to examine the relationship between age of start and number of hours in child care and levels of externalizing and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were both parents and teachers of 543 children (mean age = 4.5 years, 50.6% girls). Children started…

  18. Disruptive behavior in the workplace: Challenges for gastroenterology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisarajivakul, Nalinee; Lucero, Catherine; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Poles, Michael; Gillespie, Colleen; Zabar, Sondra; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Malter, Lisa

    2017-05-14

    To assess first-year gastroenterology fellows' ability to address difficult interpersonal situations in the workplace using objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Two OSCEs ("distracted care team" and "frazzled intern") were created to assess response to disruptive behavior. In case 1, a fellow used a colonoscopy simulator while interacting with a standardized patient (SP), nurse, and attending physician all played by actors. The nurse and attending were instructed to display specific disruptive behavior and disregard the fellow unless requested to stop the disruptive behavior and focus on the patient and procedure. In case 2, the fellow was to calm an intern managing a patient with massive gastrointestinal bleeding. The objective in both scenarios was to assess the fellows' ability to perform their duties while managing the disruptive behavior displayed by the actor. The SPs used checklists to rate fellows' performances. The fellows completed a self-assessment survey. Twelve fellows from four gastrointestinal fellowship training programs participated in the OSCE. In the "distracted care team" case, one-third of the fellows interrupted the conflict and refocused attention to the patient. Half of the fellows were able to display professionalism despite the heated discussion nearby. Fellows scored lowest in the interprofessionalism portion of post-OSCE surveys, measuring their ability to handle the conflict. In the "frazzled intern" case, 68% of fellows were able to establish a calm and professional relationship with the SP. Despite this success, only half of the fellows were successfully communicate a plan to the SP and only a third scored "well done" in a domain that focused on allowing the intern to think through the case with the fellow's guidance. Fellows must receive training on how to approach disruptive behavior. OSCEs are a tool that can assess fellow skills and set a culture for open discussion.

  19. Behavioral and social cognitive processes in preschool children's social dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Roseth, Cary; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine; Dupuis, Danielle; Hickey, Meghan; Peshkam, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, naturalistic study addressed behavioral and social cognitive processes implicated in preschool children's social dominance. In the first objective, we examined the degree to which peer aggression, affiliation, and postaggression reconciliation predicted social dominance across a school year. Consistent with predictions, all three predicted dominance early in the year while only affiliation predicted dominance later in the year, suggesting that aggression, affiliation, and reconciliation were used to establish social dominance where affiliation was used to maintain it. In the second, exploratory, objective we tested the relative importance of social dominance and reconciliation (the Machiavellian and Vygotskian intelligence hypotheses, respectively) in predicting theory of mind/false belief. Results indicated that social dominance accounted for significant variance, beyond that related to reconciliation and affiliation, in predicting theory of mind/false belief status. Results are discussed in terms of specific behavioral and social cognitive processes employed in establishing and maintaining social dominance. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  1. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  2. Social Skills, Problem Behaviors and Classroom Management in Inclusive Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Esra G.; Tufan, Mumin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine preschool teachers' classroom management skills and investigate the relationships between teachers' classroom management skills and inclusion students' social skills and problem behaviors. Relational screening model was used as the research method. Study group consisted of 42 pre-school teachers working in Kocaeli…

  3. Predictors of Intrusive Sexual Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler J; Lindsey, Rebecca A; Bohora, Som; Silovsky, Jane F

    2018-04-10

    Intrusive sexual behaviors (ISBs) are a specific type of problematic sexual behavior characterized by the invasive nature of the acts (e.g., touching others' private parts, attempting intercourse; Friedrich, 1997). The limited amount of research on ISBs has focused on sexual abuse history as the primary predictor. However, Friedrich, Davies, Feher, and Wright (2003) found that ISBs in children up to age 12 were related to four broad conceptual factors: (a) exposure to sexual content, (b) exposure to violent behavior, (c) family adversity, and (d) child vulnerabilities. The current study sought to replicate Friedrich's study using a clinical sample of 217 preschool-aged children (ages two to six). Results supported variables from within the child vulnerabilities construct (externalizing behaviors, β EXT  = 0.032, p = 0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria met (β PTSD  = 0.177, p = 0.02), and an inverse relationship with age (β AGE  = -0.206, p = 0.024). These results highlight the importance of considering childhood behavioral patterns and reactivity to traumatic events as correlates of ISBs in young children.

  4. Endocrine Disruption of Vasopressin Systems and Related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B. Patisaul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are chemicals that interfere with the organizational or activational effects of hormones. Although the vast majority of the EDC literature focuses on steroid hormone signaling related impacts, growing evidence from a myriad of species reveals that the nonapeptide hormones vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OT may also be EDC targets. EDCs shown to alter pathways and behaviors coordinated by AVP and/or OT include the plastics component bisphenol A (BPA, the soy phytoestrogen genistein (GEN, and various flame retardants. Many effects are sex specific and likely involve action at nuclear estrogen receptors. Effects include the elimination or reversal of well-characterized sexually dimorphic aspects of the AVP system, including innervation of the lateral septum and other brain regions critical for social and other non-reproductive behaviors. Disruption of magnocellular AVP function has also been reported in rats, suggesting possible effects on hemodynamics and cardiovascular function.

  5. Relationship of maternal parenting behaviors to preschool children's temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F

    1981-01-01

    Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.

  6. Behaviors induced or disrupted by complex partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L S; Ma, J; McLachlan, R S

    2000-09-01

    We reviewed the neural mechanisms underlying some postictal behaviors that are induced or disrupted by temporal lobe seizures in humans and animals. It is proposed that the psychomotor behaviors and automatisms induced by temporal lobe seizures are mediated by the nucleus accumbens. A non-convulsive hippocampal afterdischarge in rats induced an increase in locomotor activity, which was suppressed by the injection of dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist in the nucleus accumbens, and blocked by inactivation of the medial septum. In contrast, a convulsive hippocampal or amygdala seizure induced behavioral hypoactivity, perhaps by the spread of the seizure into the frontal cortex and opiate-mediated postictal depression. Mechanisms underlying postictal psychosis, memory disruption and other long-term behavioral alterations after temporal lobe seizures, are discussed. In conclusion, many of the changes of postictal behaviors observed after temporal lobe seizures in humans may be found in animals, and the basis of the behavioral change may be explained as a change in neural processing in the temporal lobe and the connecting subcortical structures.

  7. AVPR1A variant associated with preschoolers' lower altruistic behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reut Avinun

    Full Text Available The genetic origins of altruism, defined here as a costly act aimed to benefit non-kin individuals, have not been examined in young children. However, previous findings concerning adults pointed at the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A gene as a possible candidate. AVPR1A has been associated with a range of behaviors including aggressive, affiliative and altruistic phenotypes, and recently a specific allele (327 bp of one of its promoter region polymorphisms (RS3 has been singled out in particular. We modeled altruistic behavior in preschoolers using a laboratory-based economic paradigm, a modified dictator game (DG, and tested for association between DG allocations and the RS3 "target allele." Using both population and family-based analyses we show a significant link between lower allocations and the RS3 "target allele," associating it, for the first time, with a lower proclivity toward altruistic behavior in children. This finding helps further the understanding of the intricate mechanisms underlying early altruistic behavior.

  8. Emotional, behavioral, and developmental features indicative of neglect or emotional abuse in preschool children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Aideen Mary; Maguire, Sabine Ann; Mann, Mala Kanthi; Lumb, Rebecca Caroline; Tempest, Vanessa; Gracias, Shirley; Kemp, Alison Mary

    2013-08-01

    Early intervention for neglect or emotional abuse in preschoolers may mitigate lifelong consequences, yet practitioners lack confidence in recognizing these children. To define the emotional, behavioral, and developmental features of neglect or emotional abuse in preschoolers. A literature search of 18 databases, 6 websites, and supplementary searching performed from January 1, 1960, to February 1, 2011, identified 22 669 abstracts. Standardized critical appraisal of 164 articles was conducted by 2 independent, trained reviewers. Inclusion criteria were children aged 0 to 6 years with confirmed neglect or emotional abuse who had emotional, behavioral, and developmental features recorded or for whom the carer-child interaction was documented. Twenty-eight case-control (matched for socioeconomic, educational level, and ethnicity), 1 cross-sectional, and 13 cohort studies were included. Key features in the child included the following: aggression (11 studies) exhibited as angry, disruptive behavior, conduct problems, oppositional behavior, and low ego control; withdrawal or passivity (12 studies), including negative self-esteem, anxious or avoidant behavior, poor emotional knowledge, and difficulties in interpreting emotional expressions in others; developmental delay (17 studies), particularly delayed language, cognitive function, and overall development quotient; poor peer interaction (5 studies), showing poor social interactions, unlikely to act to relieve distress in others; and transition (6 studies) from ambivalent to avoidant insecure attachment pattern and from passive to increasingly aggressive behavior and negative self-representation. Emotional knowledge, cognitive function, and language deteriorate without intervention. Poor sensitivity, hostility, criticism, or disinterest characterize maternal-child interactions. Preschool children who have been neglected or emotionally abused exhibit a range of serious emotional and behavioral difficulties and adverse

  9. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  10. Peer Rejection and Internalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Peer Victimization in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Aslan, Özge

    2018-05-23

    The author examined the relationship among peer rejection, peer victimization, and internalizing behaviors. The author hypothesized that physical and relational victimization would have a different indirect effect on the relationship between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. Participants were 94 preschool children (37 girls; average age 49.97 months) from two university preschools located in the northern part of the United States. The results indicated that internalizing behaviors predicted the mediating variables only regarding relational victimization. Relational victimization indirectly affected the association between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. The study provides evidence of the mediating effect of victimization behaviors on the relationship among peer rejection, victimization, and internalizing behaviors.

  11. Does Preschool Self-Regulation Predict Later Behavior Problems in General or Specific Problem Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Spiegel, Jamie A; Goodrich, J Marc; Morris, Brittany M; Osborne, Colleen M; Lerner, Matthew D; Phillips, Beth M

    2017-11-01

    Findings from prior research have consistently indicated significant associations between self-regulation and externalizing behaviors. Significant associations have also been reported between children's language skills and both externalizing behaviors and self-regulation. Few studies to date, however, have examined these relations longitudinally, simultaneously, or with respect to unique clusters of externalizing problems. The current study examined the influence of preschool self-regulation on general and specific externalizing behavior problems in early elementary school and whether these relations were independent of associations between language, self-regulation, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 815 children (44% female). Additionally, given a general pattern of sex differences in the presentations of externalizing behavior problems, self-regulation, and language skills, sex differences for these associations were examined. Results indicated unique relations of preschool self-regulation and language with both general externalizing behavior problems and specific problems of inattention. In general, self-regulation was a stronger longitudinal correlate of externalizing behavior for boys than it was for girls, and language was a stronger longitudinal predictor of hyperactive/impulsive behavior for girls than it was for boys.

  12. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  13. [Effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Xue, Hong-Li; Chen, Qian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children. The stratified cluster multistage sampling method was used to perform a questionnaire survey in the parents of 1 284 children aged 3-6 years in the urban area of Lanzhou, China. The general status questionnaire, Conners Child Behavior Checklist (Parent Symptom Question), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, Second edition, Chinese version (FACESII-CV) were used to investigate behavioral problems and family cohesion and adaptability. The overall detection rate of behavioral problems in preschool children was 17.13%. The children with different types of family cohesion had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with free-type family cohesion showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (40.2%). The children with different types of family adaptability also had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with stiffness type showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (25.1%). The behavioral problems in preschool children were negatively correlated with family cohesion and adaptability. During the growth of preschool children, family cohesion and adaptability have certain effects on the mental development of preschool children.

  14. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  15. Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness

  16. Parent-Child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E.; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E. Lidewei; Coelman, Frederique J. G.; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be

  17. Ending disruptive behavior: staff nurse recommendations to nurse educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Kathleen M; Hutcheson, Jane B; Peden, Ann R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to identify educational strategies that can prepare new graduates to manage disruptive behavior (DB) in the workplace. DB is any inappropriate behavior, confrontation, or conflict - ranging from verbal abuse to sexual harassment - that harms or intimidates others to the extent that quality of care or patient safety could be compromised. Individual interviews were conducted with nine staff nurses currently in practice in acute care settings in the United States. Staff nurses recommended educational strategies that focused on communication skills for professional practice. These included learning how to communicate with hostile individuals, and giving and receiving constructive criticism. Descriptions that participants provided about their work culture were an unexpected finding that has relevance for nurse educators as they prepare students for transition to practice Nurses described lack of management support and intervention for DB situations, personality clashes with coworkers, and devaluation of nursing work as affecting professional practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep Differences by Race in Preschool Children: The Roles of Parenting Behaviors and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kristina E; Millet, Genevieve; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether socioeconomic variables (SES) and parenting behaviors mediate differences in sleep problems between Black and White preschool-aged children. Parents of 191 preschool-aged children (53% male; 77% White) completed questionnaires regarding SES and sleep behaviors. Parenting behaviors and SES were analyzed as mediators of differences in sleep problems between Black and White children. Parent behaviors related to bedtime routine and independence mediated the relationship between race and parent-reported bedtime difficulty, parent confidence managing sleep, and sleep onset latency. SES mediated the relationship between race and sleep onset latency. Sleep differences between Black and White preschool children were primarily mediated by parent behaviors rather than socioeconomic variables. Results may reflect differences in cultural practices and provide important information for treatment and parent-directed intervention regarding improving sleep in young children.

  19. Disrupted cortical function underlies behavior dysfunction due to social isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takase, Kenkichi; Nakajima, Waki; Tada, Hirobumi; Ohya, Daisuke; Sano, Akane; Goto, Takahisa; Hirase, Hajime; Malinow, Roberto; Takahashi, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Stressful events during early childhood can have a profound lifelong influence on emotional and cognitive behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects neonatal brain circuit formation are poorly understood. Here, we show that neonatal social isolation disrupts molecular, cellular, and circuit developmental processes, leading to behavioral dysfunction. Neonatal isolation prevented long-term potentiation and experience-dependent synaptic trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors normally occurring during circuit formation in the rodent barrel cortex. This inhibition of AMPA receptor trafficking was mediated by an increase of the stress glucocorticoid hormone and was associated with reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) signaling, resulting in attenuated whisker sensitivity at the cortex. These effects led to defects in whisker-dependent behavior in juvenile animals. These results indicate that neonatal social isolation alters neuronal plasticity mechanisms and perturbs the initial establishment of a normal cortical circuit, which potentially explains the long-lasting behavioral effects of neonatal stress. PMID:22706303

  20. Relating testosterone levels and free play social behavior in male and female preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J R; Fano, E; Ahedo, L; Cardas, J; Brain, P F; Azpíroz, A

    2000-11-01

    This study assessed potential relationships between a series of behavioral measures seen in the interactions of preschool children with their peers (particularly aggressive behavior) and testosterone levels. 28 boys and 20 girls of preschool age were videotaped in free play interactions. Their behavior was then evaluated with particular emphasis on aggression and affiliation in play and social interactions. Testosterone levels were measured using radioimmunoassay in saliva samples. Correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship in boys between testosterone and giving and receiving aggression in the context of 'social interactions' (serious aggression), but not in the context of play (playful aggresstion). Testosterone can be a useful biological marker for serious aggression (and behavioral patterns reflecting different levels of sociability) in preschool boys.

  1. Preschool externalizing behavior predicts gender-specific variation in adolescent neural structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Z K Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus is believed to underlie the development of much psychopathology. However, to date only limited longitudinal data relate early behavior with neural structure later in life. Our objective was to examine the relationship of early life externalizing behavior with adolescent brain structure. We report here the first longitudinal study linking externalizing behavior during preschool to brain structure during adolescence. We examined the relationship of preschool externalizing behavior with amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex volumes at age 15 years in a community sample of 76 adolescents followed longitudinally since their mothers' pregnancy. A significant gender by externalizing behavior interaction revealed that males-but not females-with greater early childhood externalizing behavior had smaller amygdala volumes at adolescence (t = 2.33, p = .023. No significant results were found for the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Greater early externalizing behavior also related to smaller volume of a cluster including the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction across genders. Results were not attributable to the impact of preschool anxiety, preschool maternal stress, school-age internalizing or externalizing behaviors, or adolescent substance use. These findings demonstrate a novel, gender-specific relationship between early-childhood externalizing behavior and adolescent amygdala volume, as well as a cross-gender result for the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction.

  2. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E.L.; Coelman, F.J.G.; de Boer, F.; Lindauer, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or

  3. Preventing preschool externalizing behavior problems through video-feedback intervention in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Juffer, F.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Mangelsdorf, S.C.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined.

  4. Preventing preschool externalizing behavior problems through video-feedback intervention in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, Mariska; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Zevalkink, D.J.

    In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined.

  5. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents' Reports from 24 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Goncalves, Miguel; Gudmundsson, Halldor; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Pluck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1 1/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"-oriented scales; a Stress…

  6. Playing It Cool: Temperament, Emotion Regulation, and Social Behavior in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Kimberly A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Kochanoff, Anita; Whipple, Beth

    2004-01-01

    The contributions of temperamental styles and emotional coping strategies to the development of preschoolers' social competence and behavior problems were investigated. The ability to cope with emotion was found to be more important than temperament alone in the development of prosocial behavior. Our results indicate that the use of passive coping…

  7. Behavioral determinants of mothers' safety measures to prevent injuries of pre-school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, E.; Geus, G.H. de; Kok, G.

    1995-01-01

    Home-related injuries are a major threat to pre-school children in the western world. In this study the behavioral determinants of 18 parental safety measures were assessed. To select behavioral determinants, the Attitude-Social influence-Self-efficacy/barriers model was used with the inclusion of

  8. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  9. Trained, Generalized, and Collateral Behavior Changes of Preschool Children Receiving Gross-Motor Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Holborn, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Results indicated that the program improved the 10 targeted gross-motor skills and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. The program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications are…

  10. Girls' disruptive behavior and its relationship to family functioning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, L.M.; Loeber, R.; Hipwell, A.E.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework.

  11. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indicate...

  12. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  13. Attention and Perseverance Behaviors of PreSchool Children Enrolled in Suzuki Violin Lessons and Other Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Laurie

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of attention span and persevering behaviors of preschool children. Finds the Suzuki Method of violin instruction is associated with longer attention spans and more persevering behaviors than creative movement instruction or other preschool programs. Concludes that teachers prefer the Suzuki Method's approach to other forms of…

  14. A Method and a Model for Describing Competence and Adjustment: A Preschool Version of the Classroom Behavior Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Earl S.; Edgerton, Marianna D.

    A preschool version of the Classroom Behavior Inventory which provides a method for collecting valid data on a child's classroom behavior from day care and preschool teachers, was developed to complement the earlier form which was developed and validated for elementary school populations. The new version was tested with a pilot group of twenty-two…

  15. Effects of Class-Wide Self-Monitoring on On-Task Behaviors of Preschoolers with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Mine Sonmez; Ozkan, Serife Yucesoy

    2015-01-01

    The effects of class-wide self-monitoring on the on-task behaviors of preschoolers with developmental disabilities were determined. Also examined were whether the on-task behaviors of preschoolers with developmental disabilities had approximated the level of typically developing peers at the end of intervention, and classroom teachers and…

  16. The Development and Validation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System to Characterize Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stacy R.; Finlon, Kristy J.; Izard, Carroll E.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes the development and evaluation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System (BEEOS), a direct observation tool to characterize preschoolers' social and emotion behaviors during semistructured activities in the classroom. The BEEOS was used to observe 148 Head Start preschoolers, and…

  17. Impact of Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Following Exposure to the September 11 Attacks on Preschool Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Yehuda, Rachel; Schwartz, Deena; Abramovitz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether conjoined maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with increased behavioral problems among terrorism-exposed preschool children (N = 116; 18-54 months), this study compared clinically significant child behavioral problem rates among the preschool children of mothers with PTSD and depression,…

  18. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  19. Disrupted expected value signaling in youth with disruptive behavior disorders to environmental reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Fowler, Katherine A; Sinclair, Stephen; Schechter, Julia C; Majestic, Catherine M; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James

    2014-05-01

    Youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), including conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), have difficulties in reinforcement-based decision making, the neural basis of which is poorly understood. Studies examining decision making in youth with DBD have revealed reduced reward responses within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex (vmPFC/OFC), increased responses to unexpected punishment within the vmPFC and striatum, and reduced use of expected value information in the anterior insula cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal choices. Previous work has used only monetary reinforcement. The current study examined whether dysfunction in youth with DBD during decision making extended to environmental reinforcers. A total of 30 youth (15 healthy youth and 15 youth with DBD) completed a novel reinforcement-learning paradigm using environmental reinforcers (physical threat images, e.g., striking snake image; contamination threat images, e.g., rotting food; appetitive images, e.g., puppies) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behaviorally, healthy youth were significantly more likely to avoid physical threat, but not contamination threat, stimuli than youth with DBD. Imaging results revealed that youth with DBD showed significantly reduced use of expected value information in the bilateral caudate, thalamus, and posterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal responses. The current data suggest that youth with DBD show deficits to environmental reinforcers similar to the deficits seen to monetary reinforcers. Importantly, this deficit was unrelated to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, suggesting that caudate impairment may be a common deficit across youth with DBD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Emergent Verbal Behavior in Preschool Children Learning a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard J.; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]).…

  1. Harsh Parenting As a Potential Mediator of the Association Between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Disruptive Behavior in Families With Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Henry, David; Kestler, Jacqueline; Nieto, Ricardo; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2016-07-01

    Young children living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are often also exposed to harsh parenting. Both forms of violence increase children's risk for clinically significant disruptive behavior, which can place them on a developmental trajectory associated with serious psychological impairment later in life. Although it is hypothesized that IPV behaviors may spillover into harsh parenting, and thereby influence risk for disruptive behavior, relatively little is known about these processes in families with young children. The current study examines the overlap of the quality and frequency of psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting, and tests whether harsh parenting mediates the relationship between IPV and child disruptive behavior in a diverse cross-sectional sample of 81 children ages 4 to 6 years. Results suggest that mothers reporting a greater occurrence of psychologically aggressive IPV (e.g., yelling, name-calling) more often engage in psychological and physical aggression toward their children (odds ratios [ORs] = 4.6-9.9). Mothers reporting a greater occurrence of IPV in the form of physical assault more often engage in mild to more severe forms of physical punishment with potential harm to the child (ORs = 3.8-5.0). Psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting all significantly correlated with maternal reports of child disruptive behavior (r = .29-.40). Psychological harsh parenting partially mediated the association between psychological IPV and child disruptive behavior. However, a significant direct effect of psychological IPV on preschool children's disruptive behavior remained. Implications for child welfare policy and practice and intervention, including the need for increased awareness of the negative impact of psychological IPV on young children, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Toward Improved Parenting Interventions for Disruptive Child Behavior : Engaging Disadvantaged Families and Searching for Effective Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.H.O.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk

  3. Cumulative Effects of Mothers' Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…

  4. Utilization of Superheroes Social Skills to Reduce Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Cavell, Hannah J.

    2016-01-01

    The current pilot study investigated the effectiveness of the Superheroes Social Skills program in decreasing disruptive and aggressive behavior of elementary-age students with high-incidence disabilities. Six students in a self-contained classroom, identified as displaying high rates of disruptive and aggressive behavior toward peers, were…

  5. Randomized Trial of Anger Control Training for Adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhdolsky, Denis G.; Vitulano, Lawrence A.; Carroll, Deirdre H.; McGuire, Joseph; Leckman, James F.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A randomized trial to examine the efficacy of anger control training for treating adolescents with Tourette's syndrome and disruptive behavior reveals that those administered with the anger control training showed a decrease in their Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale score by 52 percent as compared with a decrease of 11 percent in the treatment as…

  6. Transported Versus Homegrown Parenting Interventions for Reducing Disruptive Child Behavior : A Multilevel Meta-Regression Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Melendez-Torres, G.J.; Knerr, W.; Gardner, F.

    OBJECTIVE: Children's disruptive behavior problems place children at high risk for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and carry a high burden for individuals and society. Policy makers and service providers aiming to reduce children's disruptive behavior problems must often choose

  7. Overweight and Obese Status in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Kristen K.; Sharp, William G.; McCracken, Courtney E.; De Vinck-Baroody, Oana; Dong, Liansai; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Eugene Arnold, L.; Weitzman, Carol; Leventhal, John M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are common in pediatric populations. Children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior may be at higher risk. This study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are more likely to be overweight or obese than matched controls. Baseline data from medication-free children…

  8. Gender and age differences in expressing disruptive behavior during class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekić Jasmina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the phenomenon of school indiscipline which proved to be an important factor of disruption in the teaching process. The aims of our research were to determine whether there were gender and age differences in expressing indiscipline during a class, as well as to examine the latent space of the School Indiscipline Scale. The sample included 897 students (42.1% boys and 57.9% girls who attend elementary (46.6% or secondary (53.4% school, aged 12 - 19. The instrument used was the Scale of School Indiscipline. The results of the component analysis indicated four components: nonparticipation, aggression, defiance to authority and cheating. By applying the MANOVA test we detected gender differences in all four subscales: that girls tend to cheat or not participate in the teaching process, while boys are more inclined to aggression and authority defiance. Regarding age differences it was noted that elementary school students are more inclined to behave aggressively while secondary school students tend not to participate and cheat. Bearing in mind that knowing gender and age differences of expressing unwanted behavior in school is very important it seems that the success of any prevention programs depend, to a large extent, upon their congruence with the students with different characteristics.

  9. Parenting Behavior in Mothers of Preschool Children with ASD: Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greet Lambrechts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD encounter many daily challenges and often experience much stress. However, little research exists about parenting behavior among these parents. With this study, we aim to address this gap. We examined the structure and internal consistency of a questionnaire intended to measure parenting behavior among mothers of young children with ASD. Furthermore, we compared parenting behavior among mothers of young children with and without ASD between two and six years old. Factor analyses resulted in a factor solution with seven subscales of parenting behavior. Two additional subscales especially relevant for parenting preschoolers with ASD were also considered. Analyses of covariance, controlling for gender and age, showed significantly higher scores for Discipline and Stimulating the Development in the control group in comparison with the ASD group. These findings suggest that mothers of preschoolers with ASD are still trying to find strategies to guide and stimulate their child’s behavior and development effectively.

  10. Examination of the Social Behavior of 4 Age Old Preschool Children According to Teacher Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervişe AMCA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to compare the social behavior of children according to the teacher interviews. Screening model method has been used at this research which is one of the descriptive research methods. The study group of this research was created totally 691 children, from the age group of 4, which were observed at least 8 weeks objectively by 52 school teachers at 42 preschools in Nicosia, Kyrenia, Guzelyurt, Famagusta and Iskele which are under the Ministry of National Education of TRNC in the academic year of 2014-2015. In order to reach the demographics of the children of the study group: "Preschool Social Behaviour Questionnaire Form For Teachers" has been used to measures the children, school and family information form, relational aggression, physical aggression, prosocial behaviour and depressive feelings of age 4 group of preschool children. The data obtained through the surveys have been transmitted to the computer environment and in order to analyze the data, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 for Windows Evolution version has been used. Frequency tables were used to tell the demographic characteristics on children of the research and the social behavior in preschool scale and to realize the cyclic of their behaviour. The static identifier has been given on preschool children’s social behavior scale general and their scores than the average size of the subscale, standard deviation, minimum and maximum statics as identifier. According to the research findings: children with divorced parents compared to children with married parents have higher behavior of physical aggression, behavior of relational aggression and the show of depressive feelings besides lower levels of positive social behaviors.

  11. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals…

  12. The Connections between Family Characteristics, Parent-Child Engagement, Interactive Reading Behaviors, and Preschoolers' Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katie Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family characteristics (i.e., SES and race), parent-child engagement, and interactive reading behaviors on preschooler's emergent literacy scores. This study used a structural equation model to examine variables that impact emergent literacy development by evaluating data from the Early Childhood…

  13. Common Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Preschool Children: Presentation, Nosology, and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen Link; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    We review recent research on the presentation, nosology and epidemiology of behavioral and emotional psychiatric disorders in preschool children (children ages 2 through 5 years old), focusing on the five most common groups of childhood psychiatric disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders,…

  14. In Building a Script for an Emotion, Do Preschoolers Add Its Cause before Its Behavior Consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    An emotion concept is a script in which an emotion event is an ordered sequence of subevents from situational cause through bodily changes to behavioral consequence. As children build a script for each emotion, in what order do they add each subevent? Preschoolers (N = 108, three to five years), were asked to name the protagonist's emotion in…

  15. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  16. Preschoolers' distress and regulatory behaviors vary as a function of infant-mother attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; Leerkes, Esther M; King, Elizabeth K

    2016-08-01

    Children (N=98) with higher attachment security scores, and lower resistance and avoidance scores during the Strange Situation at 16 months demonstrated somewhat more adaptive observed and mother-reported emotion regulation as preschoolers independent of maternal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cultural Differences in Korean- and Anglo-American Preschoolers' Social Interaction and Play Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farver, Jo Ann M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compared Korean American and Anglo-American preschoolers' social and play behavior to determine the influence of culture on early development and to understand how culture shapes and organizes the environment in which children's social and play activities take place. Suggests that children's social interaction and pretend play are influenced by…

  18. Association between Autistic Traits in Preschool Children and Later Emotional/Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Aya; Stickley, Andrew; Haraguchi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Kamio, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Although children with a greater number of autistic traits are likely to have other mental health problems, research on the association between earlier autistic traits in preschool children and later emotional/behavioral outcomes is scarce. Using data from 189 Japanese community-based children, this study examined whether autistic traits at age 5…

  19. The Effects of "Positive Action" on Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Competence and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Lewis, Kendra M.; Duncan, Robert J.; Korucu, Irem; Napoli, Amy R.

    2018-01-01

    Children from low-income families are at greater risk for poor social-emotional development and physical health and may be in need of intervention. This study examined the extent to which the "Positive Action" ("PA") preschool lessons improved low-income children's social-emotional competence and health behaviors. Mixed…

  20. The Predictive Power of Preschool Children's Social Behaviors on Their Play Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Büsra; Ergin, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research study is to investigate children's play skills in terms of social behaviours (physical aggression, relational aggression, positive social behaviors, and depressive feelings). The participants in this study consisted of 300 children between 60 and 72 months studying at preschool education institutions. The research data…

  1. Behavioral/Emotional Problems of Preschoolers: Caregiver/Teacher Reports from 15 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Denner, Silvia; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel; Guomundsson, Halldor; Jusiene, Roma; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Lobel, Sofia P.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Markovic, Jasminka; Mas, Paola A.; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Montirosso, Rosario; Pluck, Julia; Pronaj, Adelina Ahmeti; Rodriguez, Jorge T.; Rojas, Pamela O.; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age and gender effects were quite similar across…

  2. How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts between Temperament and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers, the relationships between children's maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament…

  3. Observing Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Behavior: Structure, Foundations, and Prediction of Early School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K.; Mincic, Melissa S.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private childcare and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  4. Infant Attachment Disorganization and Moderation Pathways to Level and Change in Externalizing Behavior during Preschool Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the child, parent, and family conditions under which attachment disorganization was related to both level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool among a community sample. Using the ordinary least squares regression, we found that attachment disorganization at 12 months significantly predicted children's…

  5. Sympathy, Distress, and Prosocial Behavior of Preschool Children in Four Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommsdorff, Gisela; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; Mayer, Boris

    2007-01-01

    This study examined emotional responding (sympathy and distress) and prosocial behavior as well as their relations across four cultures in a specific context. Preschool children (N = 212) from two Western cultures, Germany and Israel, and two South-East Asian cultures, Indonesia and Malaysia, participated in this study. Children's emotional…

  6. Exposure to Media Violence and Other Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Laura A.; Perez, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the play behavior of 70 preschool children and its relationship to television violence and regulatory status. Linear regression analysis showed that violent program content and poor self-regulation were independently and significantly associated with overall and physical aggression. Advanced maternal age and child age and…

  7. Extension of a Theory of Predictive Behavior to Immediate Recall by Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    This paper is concerned with memory functions in sequentially structured behavior. Twenty-five 4- and 5-year-old preschool children participated in a prediction experiment in which a stack of cards (each card alternately having a patch of red or green tape on it) was displayed to the child. The child was presented with a card and asked to predict…

  8. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  9. Multidimensionality of Teachers' Graded Responses for Preschoolers' Stylistic Learning Behavior: The Learning-to-Learn Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Paul A.; Fantuzzo, John W.; Warley, Heather P.; Waterman, Clare; Angelo, Lauren E.; Gadsden, Vivian L.; Sekino, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of preschool learning behavior has become very popular as a mechanism to inform cognitive development and promote successful interventions. The most widely used measures offer sound predictions but distinguish only a few types of stylistic learning and lack sensitive growth detection. The Learning-to-Learn Scales was designed to…

  10. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  11. A Little Bit of the Blues: Low-Level Symptoms of Maternal Depression and Classroom Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of child…

  12. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  13. Low intensity behavioral treatment supplementing preschool services for young children with autism spectrum disorders and severe to mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (on average 6.5 h per week) supplementing preschool services in 3-6-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder and severe to mild intellectual disability. Treatment was implemented in preschools (i.e., daycare centers)

  14. The Efficacy of a Home-School Intervention for Preschoolers with Challenging Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Preschool First Step to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Edward G.; Frey, Andy; Walker, Hill M.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Golly, Annemieke; Forness, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The field of early intervention is currently faced with the challenge of reducing the prevalence of antisocial behavior in children. Longitudinal outcomes research indicates that increased antisocial behavior and impairments in social competence skills during the preschool years often serve as harbingers of future adjustment problems in a number…

  15. Testosterone during pregnancy and gender role behavior of preschool children: a longitudinal, population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Johnston, Katie J; Golding, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Levels of testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in blood samples from pregnant women and related to gender role behavior in 342 male and 337 female offspring at the age of 3.5 years. Gender role behavior was assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a standardized measure on which a parent indicates the child's involvement with sex-typical toys, games, and activities. Levels of T, but not SHBG, related linearly to gender role behavior in preschool girls. Neither hormone related to gender role behavior in boys. Other factors, including the presence of older brothers or sisters in the home, parental adherence to traditional sex roles, the presence of a male partner in the home, and maternal education, did not relate to gender role behavior in this sample and did not account for the relation observed between T and behavior. Although other, unmeasured factors may explain the relation, the results suggest that normal variability in T levels prenatally may contribute to the development of individual differences in the gender role behavior of preschool girls.

  16. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Pazuki; Majid Hajifaraji; Morvarid Nikoosokhan; Anahita Houshyarrad; Taghi Pourebrahim; Bahram Rashidkhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association between parental behavior and the dietary intake of Tehranian preschool children aged 2-6 years. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 310 children aged 2-6 years from the kindergartens of 22 districts of Tehran, a qualitative validated 85-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by interviewing with their parents. Also the effect of parental behavior on the children’s dietary ...

  17. Preschool children's response to behavioural parent training and parental predictors of outcome in routine clinical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Nauta, Maaike H; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) for preschool children with disruptive behaviours and to explore parental predictors of response. METHODS: Parents of 68 preschool children, aged between 2.7 and 5.9 years, participated in BPT. We evaluated the changes

  18. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-09-13

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.

  19. Infant attachment disorganization and moderation pathways to level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2016-12-01

    This research examined the child, parent, and family conditions under which attachment disorganization was related to both level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool among a community sample. Using the ordinary least squares regression, we found that attachment disorganization at 12 months significantly predicted children's externalizing behavior at 36 months and this prediction was not contingent on any other factors tested. For predicting changes in externalizing behavior from 36 to 60 months, we found a significant main effect of family cumulative risk and an interaction effect between attachment disorganization at 12 months and maternal sensitivity at 24 months. Specifically, high disorganization was related to a significant decrease in externalizing behavior from 36 to 60 months when maternal sensitivity at 24 months was high. Our main-effect findings replicated the significant effect of attachment disorganization and cumulative risk on externalizing behavior with preschool-aged children. Our interaction finding provided support for understanding the parenting conditions under which infant attachment disorganization may be related to change in externalizing behavior during preschool ages. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  20. Social-emotional development through a behavior genetics lens: infancy through preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher; Mullineaux, Paula Y; Biebl, Sara J W

    2012-01-01

    The field of developmental behavior genetics has added significantly to the collective understanding of what factors influence human behavior and human development. Research in this area has helped to explain not only how genes and environment contribute to individual differences but also how the interplay between genes and environment influences behavior and human development. The current chapter provides a background of the theory and methodology behind behavior genetic research and the field of developmental behavior genetics. It also examines three specific developmental periods as they relate to behavior genetic research: infancy, toddlerhood, and early preschool. The behavior genetic literature is reviewed for key socioemotional developmental behaviors that fit under each of these time periods. Temperament, attachment, frustration, empathy, and aggression are behaviors that develop in early life that were examined here. Thus, the general purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of how genes and environment, as well as the interplay between them, relate to early socioemotional behaviors.

  1. Temperamental correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in young children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V; Violette, Heather; Wrightsman, Jessica; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2002-04-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that temperamental behavioral disinhibition measured in early childhood would be associated with disruptive behavior disorders. We used variables from laboratory-based behavioral observations originally devised to assess behavioral inhibition to construct a theory-based a priori definition of "behavioral disinhibition" in 200 young children at-risk for panic disorder, depression, or both and 84 children of parents without anxiety or major depressive disorder. We then compared behaviorally disinhibited and nonbehaviorally disinhibited children on rates of DSM-III-R disorders and measures of academic and social dysfunction. Behavioral disinhibition was significantly associated with higher rates of disruptive behavior disorders and mood disorders. Children with behavioral disinhibition were significantly more likely than nondisinhibited, noninhibited children to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to have comorbid mood and disruptive behavior disorders. Moreover, disinhibited children had lower Global Assessment of Functioning Scale scores and were more likely to have been in special classes and to have problems with school behavior and leisure activities. These results suggest that behavioral disinhibition may represent a temperamental precursor to disruptive behavior problems, particularly ADHD. Longitudinal studies using behavioral assessments of behavioral disinhibition are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Pediatric emotional dysregulation and behavioral disruptiveness treated with hypnosis: a time-series design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Alex; Iglesias, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A case of pediatric oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with concomitant emotional dysregulation and secondary behavioral disruptiveness was treated with hypnosis by means of the hypnotic hold, a method adapted by the authors. An A-B-A-B time-series design with multiple replications was employed to measure the relationship of the hypnotic treatment to the dependent measure: episodes of emotional dysregulation with accompanying behavioral disruptiveness. The findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between the degree of change from phase to phase and the treatment. Follow-up at 6 months indicated a significant reduction of the frequency of targeted episodes of emotional dysregulation and behavioral disruptiveness at home.

  3. Effect of Play Therapy Applications on Shyness Behaviors of Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Kockaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of play therapy on a child who have shyness behavior through parent and teacher evaluations in preschool. The research was carried out with the participation of one shy student from six age groups who has been registered at 2014-2015 academic year in Saraykoy Central Mukerrem Tokat Kindergarten in Saraykoy, Denizli. AB experimental design was used from single subject design in the study. When results of the research examined, according to child's mother and teacher, play therapy intervention reduced emotional problems and peer relation problems and caused increase in prosocial behaviors. It could be said that play therapy program might have effective and significant impact on preschool children who have shyness behavior. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(1.000: 31-44

  4. Music and On-task Behaviors in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Shannon Titus; Porretta, David L; Sainato, Diane

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of music (music with lyrics versus music with lyrics plus instruction) relative to on-task behaviors in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a gross motor setting. Five preschool children (4 boys, 1 girl) diagnosed with ASD served as participants. A multiple baseline across participants in conjunction with an alternating-treatment design was used. For all participants, music with lyrics plus instruction increased on-task behaviors to a greater extent than did music with lyrics. The results of our study provide a better understanding of the role of music with regard to the behaviors of young children with ASD.

  5. Girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849

  6. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills With Executive Function and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age  = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.

  7. The role of parent psychopathology in the development of preschool children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.

  8. Cognitive-behavioral versus non-directive therapy for preschoolers with severe nighttime fears and sleep-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michal; Ronen, Alon; Apter, Alan; Sadeh, Avi

    2017-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol for preschoolers with severe nighttime fears and sleep-related problems, with an active control treatment. Ninety children aged four to six years (63% boys) with severe nighttime fears and their parents were randomized to either cognitive-behavioral therapy including parent involved play (CBT-PIP) or to a structurally equivalent non-directive treatment (TEPT; triadic expressive play therapy). Treatment conditions were also equivalent in parent- and child-rated credibility and expectancy, and in therapist-rated compliance. Children and parents were assessed at baseline, during the first intervention week and four weeks after treatment. Measures included actigraphy, daily sleep logs, structured diagnostic interviews and parent questionnaires. Significant reductions were observed in nighttime fears and objectively and subjectively measured sleep disruptions in both intervention groups following treatment. Parent reports indicated more advantageous outcomes for CBT-PIP compared to TEPT, with greater reductions in sleep problems and co-sleeping as well as higher customer satisfaction in the former group. While CBT-PIP showed no significant advantage compared to the active control in reducing fears or in improving objectively measured sleep, it was significantly more beneficial in reducing the adverse behavioral features of nighttime fears. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Child Temperament, Maternal Feeding Practices, and Parenting Styles and Their Influence on Obesogenic Behaviors in Hispanic Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innella, Nancy; McNaughton, Diane; Schoeny, Michael; Tangney, Christy; Breitenstein, Susan; Reed, Monique; Wilbur, Joellen

    2018-01-01

    Although obesogenic behaviors (physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and dietary intake) are known predictors of childhood weight status, little is known about mother and child behaviors contributing to obesogenic behaviors and obesity in Hispanic preschool children, whose obesity rate is higher than in non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine relationships among child temperament, maternal behaviors (feeding practices and parenting style), child obesogenic behaviors, and child weight status in 100 Hispanic preschool children. Results showed that higher scores on the negative affectivity dimension of child temperament were associated with higher scores on the dimension of permissive parenting, and permissive parenting was associated with less time spent in sedentary behaviors ( B = -3.53, confidence interval [-7.52, -0.90]). Findings can guide school nurses in developing interventions that consider child temperament and parenting style to promote nonobesogenic behavior in Hispanic preschoolers.

  10. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Perceived Distributive Injustice, the Key Factor in Nurse’s Disruptive Behaviors: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Afzali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disruptive behaviors are one of the most topics affecting the wellbeing of organizations, therefore, it has become a significant research area. The purpose of this study was to determine experiences and perceptions of nurses who were involved in disruptive behaviors. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted by using a conventional content analysis. The data was obtained through 15 unstructured and in-depth interviews with nurses in six hospitals of Tehran city, Iran. A purposive sampling method was used. All interviews were recorded, typed and analyzed simultaneously. Results: The main theme obtained from the nurses’ views and experiences analysis about disruptive behaviors were injustice and discrimination in hospitals including injustice in payments, work division, interactions, and judgment and evaluations. Conclusion: It seems that the best way to prevent and correct the disruptive behaviors was to eliminate the perceived nurses’ injustice feeling and establishment the justice and fairness in organizations.

  12. Perceived Distributive Injustice, the Key Factor in Nurse's Disruptive Behaviors: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Mahboobeh; Mokhtari Nouri, Jamileh; Ebadi, Abbas; Khademolhoseyni, Seyyed Mohamad; Rejeh, Nahid

    2017-09-01

    Introduction: Disruptive behaviors are one of the most topics affecting the wellbeing of organizations, therefore, it has become a significant research area. The purpose of this study was to determine experiences and perceptions of nurses who were involved in disruptive behaviors. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted by using a conventional content analysis. The data was obtained through 15 unstructured and in-depth interviews with nurses in six hospitals of Tehran city, Iran. A purposive sampling method was used. All interviews were recorded, typed and analyzed simultaneously. Results: The main theme obtained from the nurses' views and experiences analysis about disruptive behaviors were injustice and discrimination in hospitals including injustice in payments, work division, interactions, and judgment and evaluations. Conclusion: It seems that the best way to prevent and correct the disruptive behaviors was to eliminate the perceived nurses' injustice feeling and establishment the justice and fairness in organizations.

  13. Anxiety disorders and behavioral inhibition in preschool children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Frank W; Backes, Aline; Sander, Charlotte S; Weber, Monika; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of anxiety disorders in preschool children and their associations with behavioral inhibition as a temperamental precursor. A representative sample of 1,342 children aged 4–7 years (M = 6;1, SD = 4.80) was examined with a standardized parental questionnaire, including items referring to anxiety disorders at the current age and behavioral inhibition at the age of 2 years. The total prevalence of anxiety disorders was 22.2 %. Separation anxiety (SAD) affected 7 %, social phobia (SOC) 10.7 %, specific phobia (PHOB) 9.8 % and depression/generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD) 3.4 % of children. The prevalence of most types of anxiety was higher in girls except for separation anxiety, which affected more boys. Behavioral inhibition in the second year of life was associated with all types of anxiety. Anxiety disorders are common but frequently overlooked in preschool children. Different subtypes can be differentiated and are often preceded by behavioral inhibition. Assessment, prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders are recommended in preschool children.

  14. Factor Structure of Child Behavior Scale Scores in Peruvian Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erin L.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Soto, Cesar Merino; Simmons, Crystal S.; Anguiano, Rebecca; Brett, Jeremy; Holman, Alea; Martin, Justin F.; Hata, Heidi K.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior rating scales aid in the identification of problem behaviors, as well as the development of interventions to reduce such behavior. Although scores on many behavior rating scales have been validated in the United States, there have been few such studies in other cultural contexts. In this study, the structural validity of scores on a…

  15. Observing preschoolers' social-emotional behavior: structure, foundations, and prediction of early school success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K; Mincic, Melissa S; Sirotkin, Yana S; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private child-care and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and stability of both versions; and, using the shortened measure, to examine (b) age, gender, and risk status differences in social-emotional behaviors; (c) contributions of emotion knowledge and executive function to social-emotional behaviors; and (d) contributions of social-emotional behaviors to early school adjustment and kindergarten academic success. Results show that reliability of MPAC-R/S was as good, or better, than the MPAC-R. MPAC-R/S structure, at both times of observation, included emotionally negative/aggressive, emotionally regulated/prosocial, and emotionally positive/productive behaviors; MPAC-R structure was similar but less replicable over time. Age, gender, and risk differences were found. Children's emotion knowledge contributed to later emotionally regulated/prosocial behavior. Finally, preschool emotionally negative/aggressive behaviors were associated with concurrent and kindergarten school success, and there was evidence of social-emotional behavior mediating relations between emotion knowledge or executive function, and school outcomes. The importance of portable, empirically supported observation measures of social-emotional behaviors is discussed along with possible applications, teacher utilization, and implementation barriers.

  16. Disruptive Effects of Contingent Food on High-Probability Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Borrero, John C.; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B.; DeLeon, Iser G.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the…

  17. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  18. Aggression and withdrawal related behavior within conflict management progression in preschool boys with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Laura; Westlund, Karolina; Ljungberg, Tomas

    2007-10-01

    This study examined conflict behavior in naturalistic preschool settings to better understand the role of non-affiliative behavior and language in conflict management. Free-play at preschool was filmed among 20 boys with typically developing language (TL) and among 11 boys with Language Impairment (LI); the boys 4-7 years old. Conflict behavior was coded and analyzed with a validated system. Post-conflict non-affiliative behavior (aggression and withdrawal) displays, and the links between the displays and reconciliation (i.e., former opponents exchange friendly behavioral shortly after conflict termination) was examined. Group comparisons revealed boys with LI displayed aggression in a smaller share of conflicts, but exhibited [Symbol: see text]active' withdrawal (left the room), in a larger conflict share. Boys with TL overcame aggression (more common TL behavior) and after reconciled, to a greater extent than the boys with LI after active withdrawal (more common LI behavior). Also, after reciprocal or only verbal aggression, boys with LI reconciled to a lesser extent than boys with TL. The boys with LI demonstrated difficulties confronting conflict management, as well as concluding emotionally heightened and aggressive behavioral turns.

  19. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  20. Behavioral and emotional profile and parental stress in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Giulia; Postorino, Valentina; Fatta, Laura M; Sanges, Veronica; De Peppo, Lavinia; Vassena, Lia; Rose, Paola De; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were shown to experience more stress than parents of typically developing peers, although little is known about risk factors predicting stress in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental stress levels and behavioral and emotional problems in a sample of preschool children with ASD as compared to typically developing (TD) peers and to investigate the role of several factors, including the severity of autistic symptoms, adaptive skills, cognitive abilities and behavioral and emotional problems, on parental stress. Results confirmed that parents of children with ASD experience higher stress levels than parents of TD and that children with ASD show more behavioral and emotional problems than controls. Moreover, our results showed that behavioral and emotional problems are strong predictors of parental stress, while stress related to a parent-child dysfunctional relationship was associated with daily living and communication skills as well as cognitive abilities. Findings revealed different behavioral and emotional problems affecting parental stress in ASD and TD samples. No association between the severity of autism symptoms and parental stress was detected. These results suggest that dysfunctional behaviors in preschool children with ASD have a strong impact on parental stress, profoundly affecting the well-being of the entire family. Therefore, strategies aimed at the early detection and management of these behavioral and emotional problems are crucial in order to prevent parental stress and to develop the most appropriate treatment interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preschool Teachers' Responses to Challenging Behavior: The Role of Organizational Climate in Referrals and Expulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shauna; Smith-Bonahue, Tina; Kemple, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Challenging behavior in preschool can lead to harmful outcomes for some children. While interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing or eliminating challenging behavior, evidence suggests that young children with challenging behavior are under-identified for services, increasing their risk for expulsion from early childhood programs.…

  2. Callous-Unemotional Features, Behavioral Inhibition, and Parenting: Independent Predictors of Aggression in a High-Risk Preschool Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Frick, Paul J.; Boris, Neil W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Cornell, Amy H.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A behaviorally-uninhibited temperament, callous-unemotional (CU) features, and harsh parenting have been associated with specific patterns of aggressive behavior in older children and adolescents. We tested the additive and interactive effects of these factors in predicting different types of aggressive behavior in a high-risk preschool sample.…

  3. [Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Check List for Preschool Children to Measure Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, Kanami; Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Hayashi, Takashi; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro; Nakai, Kunihiko

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) problems are observed commonly among school-age children. However, questionnaires specific to ADH behaviors among preschool children are very few. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the 25-item Behavioral Check List (BCL), which was developed from interviews of parents with children who were diagnosed as having Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and measures ADH behaviors in preschool age. We recruited 22 teachers from 10 nurseries/kindergartens in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. A total of 138 preschool children were assessed using the BCL. To investigate inter-rater reliability, two teachers from each facility assess seven to twenty children in their class, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. The teachers additionally answered questions in the 1/5-5 Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) to investigate the criterion validity of the BCL. To investigate structural validity, exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. The internal consistency reliability of the BCL was good (α = 0.92) and correlation analyses also confirmed its excellent criterion validity. Although exploratory factor analysis for the BCL yielded a five-factor model that consisted of a factor structure different from that of the original one, the results were similar to the original six factors. The ICCs of the BCL were 0.38-0.99 and it was not high enough for inter-rater reliability in some facilities. However, there is a possibility to improve it by giving raters adequate explanations when using BCL. The present study showed acceptable levels of reliability and validity of the BCL among Japanese preschool children.

  4. CREATIVITY OF PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS AND THEIR STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, Güneş; Akyol, Aysel Köksal

    2015-12-01

    Although creativity provides a considerable number of advantages, many teachers have direct and indirect prejudices against creative students since they may display distracting and disruptive behaviors toward teachers and classmates. To determine how teachers' creativity affects their students' creative development, 90 preschool and elementary school teachers and 90 pupils were assessed for creative thinking. The children's sex was not correlated with creativity scores. There were small, significant relationships between various measures of preschool teachers' and students' creativity.

  5. Using a social story intervention to decrease inappropriate behavior of preschool children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkhana Khantreejitranon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the inappropriate behavior of preschool children with autism in a classroom and examined the effectiveness of the use of social stories to decrease inappropriate autistic behavior. An A-B-A-B single subject design was used across the five participants selected for the study. Investigating the problematic social skills and developing a social story intervention for the preschool autistic children was completed, followed by an examination of the effectiveness of the social story intervention. Ten common problematic social skills among the autistic children in preschool were identified—walking around, making loud noises, not sharing their toys with others, showing frustration when feeling unsatisfied, having no patience, not putting toys away when finished, taking other people's belongings without permission, not knowing how to greet others, destroying things when feeling frustrated, and giving a hug to other people at inappropriate times. It was found that the social story intervention helped to decrease inappropriate behavior in children with autism. The social story intervention consisted of five social story books and five e-books (one story per child using a single subject design with an A-B-A-B pattern. The autistic children preferred social stories from the hardcopy books compared with stories from the e-books. A fourth stage time trial was used over 6 weeks, five times per week, for a total of 30 times. The findings suggested that the use of properly constructed social stories can be effective in decreasing the inappropriate behavior of children with autism. However, each story intervention should be applied with caution because of individual differences between children. The social story intervention should be designed only for autistic children who exhibit specific inappropriate social behavior. Keywords: autistic child, inappropriate behavior, social skills, social story

  6. Teachers' ratings of disruptive behaviors: the influence of halo effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, H; Courtney, M; Pelham, W E; Koplewicz, H S

    1993-10-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of teachers' ratings and examined whether these ratings are influenced by halo effects. One hundred thirty-nine elementary school teachers viewed videotapes of what they believed were children in regular fourth-grade classrooms. In fact, the children were actors who followed prepared scripts that depicted a child engaging in behaviors characteristic of an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an oppositional defiant disorder or a normal youngster. The findings provide support for a bias that was unidirectional in nature. Specifically, teachers rated hyperactive behaviors accurately when the child behaved like an ADHD youngster. However, ratings of hyperactivity and of ADHD symptomatic behaviors were spuriously inflated when behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder occurred. In contrast, teachers rated oppositional and conduct problem behaviors accurately, regardless of the presence of hyperactive behaviors. The implications of these findings regarding diagnostic practices and rating scale formats are discussed.

  7. International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents' reports from 24 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...... Disorders-oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3-12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total...

  8. Applying a Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective to Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Implications for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Patrick M; White, Stuart F; Thompson, Ronald W; Blair, R J R

    2018-02-12

    A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition. The potential implications for current and future classroom-based assessments and interventions for students with these deficits are discussed.

  9. Disruptive Behaviors and Maternal Responsibility: A Complex Portrait of Stigma, Self-Blame, and Other Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria C.; Arcia, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Feelings of stigma and self-blame were studied among 62 Cuban, Dominican, and Puerto Rican mothers of 4- to 10-year-old children with disruptive behaviors. Data were collected and analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results indicated that 42% blamed themselves for their children's behaviors, and 39% felt stigmatized by others.…

  10. Is My Teaching Disturbing You? Strategies for Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle

    2010-01-01

    Faculty in higher education are experiencing a new generation of college students referred to as Generation X (Gen-Xers) and Millennials. The characteristics and behaviors of Gen-Xers and Millennials have created a more challenging classroom learning environment. Some educators may choose to ignore disruptive behaviors or may simply not know which…

  11. Changes in Adult Behavior to Decrease Disruption from Students in Nonclassroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohanon, Hank

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing classroom disruptions that result from hallway-related behavior in high school settings can be very challenging for high school staff. This article presents a case example of preventing problem behavior related to hallway settings in a high school with over 1,200 students. The interventions are described, and the results of the plan are…

  12. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to…

  13. Heavy Metal in Children's Tooth Enamel: Related to Autism and Disruptive Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maryam M.; Ly, Agnes R.; Goldberg, Wendy A.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Dudgeon, John V.; Mull, Christopher G.; Chan, Tony J.; Kent, Erin E.; Mason, Andrew Z.; Ericson, Jonathon E.

    2012-01-01

    To examine possible links between neurotoxicant exposure and neuropsychological disorders and child behavior, relative concentrations of lead, mercury, and manganese were examined in prenatal and postnatal enamel regions of deciduous teeth from children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), high levels of disruptive behavior (HDB), and typically…

  14. ROLE OF ETHIC CONVERSATION IN FORMING OF CORRECT BEHAVIOR FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TIME-LAGGED PSYCHICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Anatolevna Shatrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the actual topic of the moral education of the person preschooler disclosed behaviors senior preschool children with normal and mental retardation; The influence of ethical discussions on the process of correcting the shortcomings in the behavior of children with mental retardation.Purpose to reveal the influence of ethical discussions on the process of correction of disorders in the behavior of preschool children with mental retardation.Organizing and conducting ethical discussions on the basis of works of fiction, as a method of scientific research.Methodology. Results: the study noted that most children learn to assess the actions of literary heroes, it was more likely to use the rules of ethical behavior in everyday life, to show friendship, compassion, empathy, care, kindness and compassion. This form of regulation of behavior of senior preschool children with mental retardation makes the most efficient «nurture» in their rules, regulations, ethics, communication and behavior.Practical implications: special and inclusive education of preschool children.

  15. Neuropsychological Profile Related with Executive Function of Chinese Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Neuropsychological Measures and Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Feng; Shuai, Lan; Zhang, Jin-Song; Wang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Teng-Fei; Tan, Xin; Pan, Jing-Xue; Shen, Li-Xiao

    2018-03-20

    Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children. The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function. Preschoolers with ADHD showed higher scores in all domains of the BRIEF-P (inhibition: 30.64 ± 5.78 vs.20.69 ± 3.86, P ADHD subtypes, all ADHD presentations had higher scores in several domains of the BRIEF-P (P ADHD-combined symptoms (ADHD-C) group had the poorest ratings on inhibition and the ability to Plan/Organize. For neuropsychological measures, the results suggested that the ADHD-C group had poorer performances than the ADHD-predominantly inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I) group on Statue tasks (F = 7.34, η 2 = 0.12, P ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive symptoms group had significantly poorer performances compared to the ADHD-C group in the Block Construction task (F = 4.89, η 2 = 0.067, P = 0.003). However, no significant group differences were found between the ADHD-I group and normal control. Based on the combined evaluation of performance-based neuropsychological tests and the BRIEF-P, preschoolers with ADHD show difficulties of neuropsychological function in many aspects.

  16. The Neurodevelopmental Basis of Early Childhood Disruptive Behavior: Irritable and Callous Phenotypes as Exemplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Perlman, Susan B; Blair, R James; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Pine, Daniel S

    2018-02-01

    The arrival of the Journal's 175th anniversary occurs at a time of recent advances in research, providing an ideal opportunity to present a neurodevelopmental roadmap for understanding, preventing, and treating psychiatric disorders. Such a roadmap is particularly relevant for early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental conditions, which emerge when experience-dependent neuroplasticity is at its peak. Employing a novel developmental specification approach, this review places recent neurodevelopmental research on early childhood disruptive behavior within the historical context of the Journal. The authors highlight irritability and callous behavior as two core exemplars of early disruptive behavior. Both phenotypes can be reliably differentiated from normative variation as early as the first years of life. Both link to discrete pathophysiology: irritability with disruptions in prefrontal regulation of emotion, and callous behavior with abnormal fear processing. Each phenotype also possesses clinical and predictive utility. Based on a nomologic net of evidence, the authors conclude that early disruptive behavior is neurodevelopmental in nature and should be reclassified as an early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition in DSM-5. Rapid translation from neurodevelopmental discovery to clinical application has transformative potential for psychiatric approaches of the millennium. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1938: Electroencephalographic Analyses of Behavior Problem Children Herbert Jasper and colleagues found that brain abnormalities revealed by EEG are a potential causal factor in childhood behavioral disorders. (Am J Psychiatry 1938; 95:641-658 )].

  17. Reinforcement Behavior Therapy by Kindergarten Teachers on Preschool Children’s Aggression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Yektatalab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression is a kind of behavior that causes damage or harm to others. The prevalence of aggression is 8–20% in 3–6 years old children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of training kindergarten teachers regarding reinforcement behavior therapy on preschoolers’ aggression. Methods: In this cluster randomized control trial, 14 out of 35 kindergarten and preschool centers of Mohr city, Iran, were chosen using random cluster sampling and then randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. All 370 kindergarten and preschool children in 14 kindergarten were assessed by preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire and 60 children who obtained a minimum aggression score of 117.48 for girls and 125.77 for boys were randomly selected. The teachers in the intervention group participated in 4 educational sessions on behavior therapy and then practiced this technique under the supervision of the researcher for two months. Preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire was computed in both intervention and control groups before and after a two-month period. Results: The results demonstrated a significant statistical difference in the total aggression score (P=0.01, verbal (P=0.02 and physical (P=0.01 aggression subscales scores in the intervention group in comparison to the control group after the intervention. But the scores of relational aggression (P=0.09 and impulsive anger (P=0.08 subscales were not statistically different in the intervention group compared to the controls. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of teaching reinforcement behavior therapy by kindergarten teachers in decreasing verbal and physical aggression in preschoolers.

  18. Lasting effects of short-term training on preschoolers' street-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Rachel R; Dolgin, Kim G

    2010-03-01

    Can short-term training improve preschoolers' knowledge of road-crossing concepts as well as behavior in a real traffic situation? Forty children, aged four to five years, were assigned to one of four conditions (game, story, song, and control). Each condition participated in four 15-min classroom-based lessons over four weeks. Two assessments measuring knowledge of street-crossing concepts and one assessment measuring behavior on a real street were used to evaluate performance at baseline and one week and six months post-training. Children in all three experimental conditions showed a significant improvement over the control on the two conceptual assessments. Only children in the game condition significantly improved their behavior on the street-crossing assessment. Furthermore, children in all three experimental conditions retained the same levels of improvement at the six-month follow-up. These results demonstrate that one hour of training can create lasting improvements on preschool children's conceptual knowledge of traffic safety and road-crossing behavior on a real street. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurocognitive, Social-Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children with Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Gerson, Arlene C.; Johnson, Rebecca J.; Mendley, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Morgenstern, Bruce; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The negative impact of End Stage Kidney Disease on cognitive function in children is well established, but no studies have examined the neurocognitive, social-behavioral, and adaptive behavior skills of preschool children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Participants included 124 preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, ages 12-68 months (median=3.7 years), and an associated mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50.0 ml/min per 1.73m2. In addition to level of function and percent of participants scoring≥1SD below the test mean, regression models examined the associations between biomarkers of CKD (GFR, anemia, hypertension, seizures, abnormal birth history), and Developmental Level/IQ, attention regulation, and parent ratings of executive functions, social-behavior, and adaptive behaviors. Results Median scores for all measures were in the average range; however, 27% were deemed at-risk for a Developmental Level/IQpreschool children with mild to moderate CKD, but the need for ongoing developmental surveillance in this population remains warranted, particularly for those with abnormal birth histories, seizures, and heightened disease severity. PMID:26890559

  20. Disruptive Behaviors in an Emergency Department: the Perspective of Physicians and Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maddineshat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disruptive behaviors cause many problems in the workplace, especially in the emergency department (ED.This study was conducted to assess the physician’s and nurse’s perspective toward disruptive behaviors in the emergency department. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 45 physicians and 110 nurses working in the emergency department of five general hospitals in Bojnurd participated. Data were collected using a translated, changed, and validated questionnaire (25 item. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: Findings showed that physicians gave more importance to nurse-physician relationships in the ED when compared to nurses’ perspective (90% vs. 70%. In this study, 81% of physicians and 52% of nurses exhibited disruptive behaviors. According to the participants these behaviors could result in adverse outcomes, such as stress (97%, job dissatisfaction and can compromise patient safety (53%, quality of care (72%, and errors (70%. Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors could have a negative effects on relationships and collaboration among medical staffs, and on patients’ quality of care as well. It is essential to provide some practical strategies for prevention of these behaviors.

  1. Effect of a multidisciplinary treatment program on eating behavior in overweight and obese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Gianni; Kuitert, Mirije W B; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2018-04-25

    The effects of multidisciplinary treatment programs on eating behavior in overweight preschool-aged children are largely unknown. We evaluated a multidisciplinary intervention program on eating behavior in 3- to 5-year-old overweight children, comparing them with children given standard treatment. We also assessed the parental eating behavior changes and investigated associations between parents and children. We randomized 75 children to a multidisciplinary intervention or to a standard care program. During a 16-week period, children and parents in the multidisciplinary group were given dietary advice, physical activity sessions and, for parents only, psychological counseling. Children and parents in the standard group visited a pediatrician 3 times and were given information on a healthy lifestyle. At baseline, after 16 weeks, and after 12 months, children were measured and parents completed the Dutch Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ-C) for their children and the DEBQ for themselves. At the three time points, 70 (93.3%), 57 (91.9%), and 42 (73.7%) DEBQ-Cs were analyzed. We found no differences in the changes in eating behavior between the two groups over time. In both groups, there was a significant increase in restrained eating behavior present at 16 weeks, however, this was no longer present at 12 months. We found no associations between changes in eating behavior between the children and their parents. A multidisciplinary obesity intervention program in preschool-aged children induced more restrained eating behavior between baseline and 16 weeks. However, there was no difference with the children in the standard care group.

  2. The discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5 -DSM5 scales to identify disruptive and internalizing disorders in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Osa, Nuria de la

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5 (Manual for the ASEBA Preschool-Age Forms & Profiles, University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families, Burlington, 2000) DSM5 scales attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety and depressive problems for detecting the presence of DSM5 (DSM5 diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, APA, Arlington, 2013) disorders, ADHD, ODD, Anxiety and Mood di...

  3. Disruptive behaviors in the classroom: initial standardization data on a new teacher rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G L; Owen, S M

    1990-10-01

    This study presents initial standardization data on the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI), a teacher-completed measure of disruptive classroom behaviors. SESBIs were completed on 1116 children in kingergarten through fifth grade in a rural eastern Washington school district. Various analyses (Cronbach's alpha, corrected item-total correlations, average interitem correlations, principal components analyses) indicated that the SESBI provides a homogeneous measure of disruptive behaviors. Support was also found for three factors within the scale (e.g., overt aggression, oppositional behavior, and attentional difficulties). While the child's age did not have a significant effect on the SESBI, the child's gender did have a significant effect on scale scores as well as on most of the items, with males being rated more problematic than females. The SESBI was also able to discriminate between children in treatment for behavioral problems or learning disabilities and children not in treatment.

  4. Child behavior checklist dysregulation profile in children with disruptive behavior disorders: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Pisano, Simone; Milone, Annarita; Muratori, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    A Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profile defined as Dysregulation Profile (DP) (scores 2 standard deviations or more in anxiety/depression, aggression, attention subscales) has been correlated to poor emotional and behavioral self-regulation. The clinical meaning and the prognostic implications of CBCL-DP are still debated, although it seems associated with severe psychopathology and poor adjustment. In the present study, we used the CBCL-DP score to examine the adolescent outcomes (psychiatric diagnosis, substance use, psychiatric hospitalization) in 80 referred children with disruptive behavior disorders -DBD- (Oppositional Defiant Disorder or conduct disorder), aged 8-9 years, 72 males (90%) and 8 females (10%), followed-up until the age of 14-15 years. Children with higher score on the CBCL-DP profile were at increased risk for presenting ADHD and mood disorders in adolescence. While ADHD in adolescence was predicted also by an ADHD diagnosis during childhood, CBCL-DP score was the only significant predictor of a mood disorder at 14-15 years. On the contrary, CBCL-DP score was not associated with a higher risk of conduct disorder, substance use and hospitalizations in adolescence. A cost-effective and reliable diagnostic measure such as the CBCL may be a part of the diagnostic procedure aimed to capture these at-risk children, to monitor their natural history up to adolescence, and to prevent the risk of a full-blown mood disorder. The small sample size and a selection bias of severe patients with DBD limit the generalization of the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Disruption of behavior and brain metabolism in artificially reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; Porras, Mercedes G; Parra, Leticia; González-Ríos, Jacquelina; Garduño-Torres, Dafne F; Albores-García, Damaris; Avendaño, Arturo; Ávila-Rodríguez, Miguel A; Melo, Angel I; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Mendoza-Garrido, Ma Eugenia; Toriz, César; Diaz, Daniel; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Ángeles, Karina; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Early adverse life stress has been associated to behavioral disorders that can manifest as inappropriate or aggressive responses to social challenges. In this study, we analyzed the effects of artificial rearing on the open field and burial behavioral tests and on GFAP, c-Fos immunoreactivity, and glucose metabolism measured in anxiety-related brain areas. Artificial rearing of male rats was performed by supplying artificial milk through a cheek cannula and tactile stimulation, mimicking the mother's licking to rat pups from the fourth postnatal day until weaning. Tactile stimulation was applied twice a day, at morning and at night, by means of a camel brush on the rat anogenital area. As compared to mother reared rats, greater aggressiveness, and boldness, stereotyped behavior (burial conduct) was observed in artificially reared rats which occurred in parallel to a reduction of GFAP immunoreactivity in somatosensory cortex, c-Fos immunoreactivity at the amygdala and primary somatosensory cortex, and lower metabolism in amygdala (as measured by 2-deoxi-2-[ 18 fluoro]-d-glucose uptake, assessed by microPET imaging). These results could suggest that tactile and/or chemical stimuli from the mother and littermates carry relevant information for the proper development of the central nervous system, particularly in brain areas involved with emotions and social relationships of the rat. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1413-1429, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes following Resolution of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N Biggs

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the long term effects of resolution of SDB in preschool children, either following treatment or spontaneous recovery, on cognition and behavior. Children diagnosed with SDB at 3-5y (N = 35 and non-snoring controls (N = 25, underwent repeat polysomnography (PSG and cognitive and behavioral assessment 3 years following a baseline study. At follow-up, children with SDB were grouped into Resolved and Unresolved. Resolution was defined as: obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI ≤1 event/h; no snoring detected on PSG; and no parental report of habitual snoring. 57% (20/35 of children with SDB received treatment, with SDB resolving in 60% (12/20. 43% (15/35 were untreated, of whom 40% (6/15 had spontaneous resolution of SDB. Cognitive reduced between baseline and follow-up, however this was not related to persistent disease, with no difference in cognitive outcomes between Resolved, Unresolved or Control groups. Behavioral functioning remained significantly worse in children originally diagnosed with SDB compared to control children, regardless of resolution. Change in OAHI did not predict cognitive or behavioral outcomes, however a reduction in nocturnal arousals, irrespective of full resolution, was associated with improvement in attention and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that resolution of SDB in preschool children has little effect on cognitive or behavioral outcomes over the long term. The association between sleep fragmentation and behavior appears independent of SDB, however may be moderated by concomitant SDB. This challenges the assumption that treatment of SDB will ameliorate associated cognitive and behavioural deficits and supports the possibility of a SDB phenotype.

  7. Impaired behavioral and neurocognitive function in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Yael E; Bar-Yishay, Orit; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Goldbart, Aviv D; Tarasiuk, Ariel; Tal, Asher

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to examine the hypothesis that behavioral and neurocognitive functions of preschool children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) are impaired compared to healthy children, and improve after adenotonsillectomy (TA). A comprehensive assessment battery was used to assess cognitive and behavioral functions, and quality of life in children with OSAS compared to matched controls. 45 children (mean age 45.5 ± 9 months, 73% boys, BMI 15.7 ± 2) with OSAS were compared to 26 healthy children (mean age 48.6 ± 8 months, 46% boys, BMI 16.4 ± 2). Mean AHI in the OSAS group was 13.2 ± 10.7 (ranging from 1.2 to 57). Significantly impaired planning and fluency (executive function) were found in children with OSAS, as well as impaired attention and receptive vocabulary. Parents and teachers described the OSAS group as having significantly more behavior problems. Quality of life questionnaire in children with OSAS (mean 2.3, range 0.7-4.3) was significantly worse compared to controls (mean 0, range: 0-4), P improvement was documented in verbal and motor fluency, sustained attention, and vocabulary. After TA, fewer behavioral problems were seen. Preschool children with OSAS present significantly impaired executive functions, impaired attention and receptive vocabulary, and more behavior problems. One year after TA, the prominent improvements were in behavior and quality of life. These findings suggest that the impact of OSAS on behavioral and cognitive functions begins in early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  9. Lasting effect of intimate partner violence exposure during preschool on aggressive behavior and prosocial skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Voith, Laura A; Gromoske, Andrea N

    2015-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure can negatively affect children's social behavior. However, it is unknown if the negative effects of IPV exposure during the preschool years are sustained through the early school years, if maladaptive behavior in one domain (e.g., aggressive behavior) is linked to subsequent maladaptive behavior in a different developmental domain (e.g., prosocial skill deficits), and if these relations differ by gender. This study addresses these gaps by using data from a sample of 1,125 children aged 3 to 4 at Time 1 and aged 5 to 7 at Time 2 from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. A series of nested longitudinal structural equation models were tested. Aggressive behavior and prosocial skills were stable across time. Time 1 IPV was associated with increased aggressive behavior at Time 1, which in turn was related to increased Time 2 aggressive behavior. Gender differences emerged; Time 2 IPV was associated with prosocial skills deficits for girls but not boys. A cross-domain relation existed between Time 1 aggressive behavior and Time 2 prosocial skills deficits for boys but not girls. These findings support that behavioral problems demonstrated later in childhood may emerge from earlier adverse developmental experiences and that difficulties in one domain may spill over into other developmental domains. Gender-specific interventions to promote competence in children may contribute to diverting children from maladaptive developmental outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. How preschoolers and adults represent their joint action partner's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Meyer, M; Hartstra, E; Bekkering, H; Hunnius, S

    2017-10-24

    We investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying turn-taking joint action in 42-month-old children (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) using a behavioral task of dressing a virtual bear together. We aimed to investigate how participants represent a partners' behavior, i.e., in terms of specific action kinematics or of action effects. The bear was dressed by pressing a smaller and a bigger button. In the Action-response task, instructions asked participants to respond to the partner by pressing the same or opposite button; in the Action-effect task they had to respond to the partner's action effect by dressing the bear with the lacking part of the clothing, which in some cases implied pressing the same button and in other cases implied pressing the opposite button. In 50% of the trials, the partner's association between each button and the ensuing effect (dressing the bear with t-shirt or pants) was reversed, while it never changed for participants. Both children and adults showed no effect of physical congruency of actions, but showed impaired performance in the Action-effect task if their partner achieved her effect through a different action-effect association than their own. These results suggest that, when encoding their partner's actions, agents are influenced by action-effect associations that they learnt through their own experience. While interference led to overt errors in children, it caused longer reaction times in adults, suggesting that a flexible cognitive control (that is still in development in young children) is required to take on the partner's perspective.

  11. Preventing Behavioral Disorders via Supporting Social and Emotional Competence at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Annika; Albers, Lucia; von Kries, Rüdiger; Hillenbrand, Clemens; Hennemann, Thomas

    2015-09-25

    13-18% of all preschool children have severe behavioral problems at least transiently, sometimes with long-term adverse consequences. In this study, the social training program "Lubo aus dem All! - Vorschulalter" (Lubo from Outer Space, Preschool Version) was evaluated in a kindergarten setting. 15 kindergartens were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, in a 2:1 ratio. The intervention was designed to strengthen emotional knowledge and regulation, the ability to take another person's point of view, communication skills, and social problem solving. The control group continued with conventional kindergarten activities. The primary endpoint was improvement in social-cognitive problem solving strategies, as assessed with the Wally Social Skills and Problem Solving Game (Wally). Secondary endpoints were improvement in prosocial behavior and reduction in problematic behavior, as assessed with the Preschool Social Behavior Questionnaire (PSBQ) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF). Data were collected before and after the intervention and also 5 months later. Mixed models were calculated with random effects to take account of the cluster design and for adjustment for confounding variables. 221 children in kindergarten, aged 5-6 years, were included in the study. Randomization was unsuccessful: the children in the intervention group performed markedly worse on the tests carried out before the intervention. Five months after the end of the intervention, the social-cognitive problem solving strategies of the children in the intervention group had improved more than those of the children in the control group: the intergroup difference in improvement was 0.79 standard deviations of the Wally test (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-1.46). This effect was just as marked 5 months later (0.63, 95% CI 0.03-1.23). Prosocial behavior, as measured by the PSBQ, also improved more in the intervention group, with an intergroup difference of 0

  12. Disruptive behavior disorders in offspring of parents with major depression: associations with parental behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Petty, Carter; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Park, Jennifer; Beilin, Ari; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Although the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk to develop disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in addition to MDD, it remains unclear whether this heightened risk is due to MDD or to comorbid DBD in the parents. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from offspring at risk for MDD and panic disorder and comparison children, we stratified 169 children of parents who had been treated for MDD based upon presence (n=50) or absence (n=119) of parental history of DBD (ADHD, oppositional disorder, and conduct disorder) and contrasted them with children of parents with DBD but without MDD (n=19) and children whose parents had neither MDD nor DBD (n=106). The children had been assessed in middle childhood using structured diagnostic interviews. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD had significantly higher rates of MDD, DBD in general, and ADHD in particular, compared with offspring of parents with MDD alone. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD also had higher rates of mania than controls. Both parental MDD and DBD conferred independent risk for MDD and DBD in the offspring. However, only parental DBD conferred independent risk for conduct disorder and ADHD and only parental MDD conferred independent risk for oppositional defiant disorder. Elevated rates of DBD in the offspring of parents with MDD appear to be due in part to the presence of DBD in the parents. Further studies of samples not selected on the basis of parental panic disorder are needed to confirm these results.

  13. Risky Decision Making in Substance Dependent Adolescents with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Bokhoven, I. van; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Lochman, J.E.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents

  14. Violent and disruptive behavior among drug-involved prisoners: relationship with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Peter D; Melnick, Gerald; Jiang, Lan; Hamilton, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and violent/disruptive behavior among 192 inmates who participated in prison-based substance abuse treatment. Participants came from two sites able to provide narrative reports of disciplinary actions in the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies' Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument study. In multivariate logistic models, a lifetime history of thought insertion/control ideation (OR, 11.6; 95% CI, 1.8-75.2), antisocial personality disorder (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-8.9), and disciplinary action related to possession of controlled substances or contraband (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.9-12.3) were associated with increased risk for violent or disruptive behavior while in prison, whereas lifetime phobic symptoms (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.54) and high school graduation (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-1.0) were associated with a decreased risk of violence and disruptive behavior in general. We conclude that, among inmates in substance abuse treatment, symptoms that increase risk for violence or disruptive behavior include thought control/insertion ideation and disciplinary infractions related to controlled substances, contraband, or failure to participate in assigned programs, as well a history of antisocial personality disorder.

  15. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  16. Onset and Progression of Disruptive Behavior Problems among Community Boys and Girls: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R.; Nicholson, Jody S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common forms of psychopathology seen among community youth. This study investigated prospective symptomatology of these disruptive behavior disorders from ages 5 though 14 in an at-risk community-based sample of 170 boys and girls born to…

  17. The Token Economy: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicole Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a token economy as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an open concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…

  18. Comorbid Internalizing and Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Adolescents: Offending, Trauma, and Clinical Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences between comorbid internalizing and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), and those with either internalizing disorder or DBD. We focused on differences with regard to trauma exposure and offending characteristics in 8,431 juvenile justice youths. Self-reported,

  19. Empathy Problems in Youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders, with and without CU Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijper, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369283414; de Wied, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/089238672; van Goozen, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215

    2017-01-01

    This chapter first examines the nature of empathy problems in clinically referred disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) youth with callous unemotional (CU) traits. It then examines whether a lack of empathy contributes to a differentiation between DBD subtypes. The chapter also explores whether the

  20. Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Disruptive and Off-Task Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, Emily D.; Wills, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on the use of functional analysis in schools, there is a need for more demonstrations of this technology being used during the course of typical instruction. In this study, we conducted functional analyses of disruptive and off-task behavior in a reading classroom setting for 3 participants of typical…

  1. A Packaged Intervention To Reduce Disruptive Behaviors in General Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini-Scully, Diane; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of a packaged intervention designed to reduce disruptive behaviors in two 8-year-old female students. The intervention was delivered through a contingency contract and was comprised of precision requests, antecedent strategies, and the reductive technique of response costs. The intervention resulted in reduction of disruptive…

  2. Facial EMG responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions in boys with disruptive behavior disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, de M.; Boxtel, van Anton; Zaalberg, R.; Goudena, P.P.; Matthys, W.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the assumption that facial mimicry is a key factor in emotional empathy, and clinical observations that children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are weak empathizers, the present study explored whether DBD boys are less facially responsive to facial expressions of emotions than

  3. The discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales to identify disruptive and internalizing disorders in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Trepat, Esther; Domenech, Josep Maria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5 (Manual for the ASEBA Preschool-Age Forms & Profiles, University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families, Burlington, 2000) DSM5 scales attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety and depressive problems for detecting the presence of DSM5 (DSM5 diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, APA, Arlington, 2013) disorders, ADHD, ODD, Anxiety and Mood disorders, assessed through diagnostic interview, in children aged 3-5. Additionally, we compare the clinical utility of the CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales with respect to analogous CBCL/1½-5 syndrome scales. A large community sample of 616 preschool children was longitudinally assessed for the stated age group. Statistical analysis was based on ROC procedures and binary logistic regressions. ADHD and ODD CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales achieved good discriminative ability to identify ADHD and ODD interview's diagnoses, at any age. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 Anxiety scale discriminative capacity was fair for unspecific anxiety disorders in all age groups. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 depressive problems' scale showed the poorest discriminative capacity for mood disorders (including depressive episode with insufficient symptoms), oscillating into the poor-to-fair range. As a whole, DSM5-oriented scales generally did not provide evidence better for discriminative capacity than syndrome scales in identifying DSM5 diagnoses. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales discriminate externalizing disorders better than internalizing disorders for ages 3-5. Scores on the ADHD and ODD CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales can be used to screen for DSM5 ADHD and ODD disorders in general populations of preschool children.

  4. Prevalence of behavioral inhibition among preschool aged children in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipasha Meysamie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the identified risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescence and adulthood is inhibited behaviors in childhood. The present study sought to examine the relationship between behavioral inhibition with some of the internal (personal and external (family environment factors in a sample of preschool children in kindergartens. In a cross sectional study in 2009, data was collected trough a structured questionnaire completed by parents and teachers in day-care centers. A total of 1403 children were assessed. Analysis was performed through complex sample analysis. The results showed that 7.4% (CI95%= 6.1%-9.1% of children according to parents' and 8.1% (CI95%= 6%- 10.7% according to teachers' evaluation classified as behaviorally inhibited. The higher levels of behavioral inhibition were shown by girls, first children, single parent families and older children. Birth year before 2004, birth rank, living in a single parent family and maternal level of education were independent predictors for behavioral inhibition in logistic regression modeling. There is relatively high prevalence of inhibited behaviors among Iranian children. Further examination of diagnosed children with behavioral inhibition by experienced psychiatrists is needed. Also establishing consultation centers for behaviorally inhibited children and instructing their parents and teachers are recommended.

  5. Internet-Assisted Parent Training Intervention for Disruptive Behavior in 4-Year-Old Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourander, Andre; McGrath, Patrick J; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Vuorio, Jenni; Sinokki, Atte; Fossum, Sturla; Unruh, Anita

    2016-04-01

    There is a large gap worldwide in the provision of evidence-based early treatment of children with disruptive behavioral problems. To determine whether an Internet-assisted intervention using whole-population screening that targets the most symptomatic 4-year-old children is effective at 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. This 2-parallel-group randomized clinical trial was performed from October 1, 2011, through November 30, 2013, at a primary health care clinic in Southwest Finland. Data analysis was performed from August 6, 2015, to December 11, 2015. Of a screened population of 4656 children, 730 met the screening criteria indicating a high level of disruptive behavioral problems. A total of 464 parents of 4-year-old children were randomized into the Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) intervention group (n = 232) or an education control (EC) group (n = 232). The SFSW intervention, an 11-session Internet-assisted parent training program that included weekly telephone coaching. Child Behavior Checklist version for preschool children (CBCL/1.5-5) externalizing scale (primary outcome), other CBCL/1.5-5 scales and subscores, Parenting Scale, Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits, and the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. All data were analyzed by intention to treat and per protocol. The assessments were made before randomization and 6 and 12 months after randomization. Of the children randomized, 287 (61.9%) were male and 79 (17.1%) lived in other than a family with 2 biological parents. At 12-month follow-up, improvement in the SFSW intervention group was significantly greater compared with the control group on the following measures: CBCL/1.5-5 externalizing scale (effect size, 0.34; P anxiety (effect size, 0.26; P = .003), and emotional problems (effect size, 0.31; P = .001); Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits callousness scores (effect size, 0.19; P = .03); and self-reported parenting skills (effect size

  6. Affective network and default mode network in depressive adolescents with disruptive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun Mi Kim,1 Sung Yong Park,1 Young In Kim,1 Young Don Son,2 Un-Sun Chung,3,4 Kyung Joon Min,1 Doug Hyun Han1 1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 4School Mental Health Resources and Research Center, Kyungpook National University Children’s Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Aim: Disruptive behaviors are thought to affect the progress of major depressive disorder (MDD in adolescents. In resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC studies of MDD, the affective network (limbic network and the default mode network (DMN have garnered a great deal of interest. We aimed to investigate RSFC in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors.Methods: Twenty-two adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors (disrup-MDD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used a seed-based correlation approach concerning two brain circuits including the affective network and the DMN, with two seed regions ­including the bilateral amygdala for the limbic network and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC for the DMN. We also observed a correlation between RSFC and severity of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors.Results: The disrup-MDD participants showed lower RSFC from the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus compared to HC participants. Depression scores in disrup-MDD participants were negatively correlated with RSFC from the amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex. The disrup-MDD participants had higher PCC RSFC compared to HC participants in a cluster that included the left precentral gyrus, left insula, and left parietal lobe. Disruptive behavior scores in disrup-MDD patients were positively

  7. Dissociation of sad facial expressions and autonomic nervous system responding in boys with disruptive behavior disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Penny; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Williams, Bailey

    2007-01-01

    Although deficiencies in emotional responding have been linked to externalizing behaviors in children, little is known about how discrete response systems (e.g., expressive, physiological) are coordinated during emotional challenge among these youth. We examined time-linked correspondence of sad facial expressions and autonomic reactivity during an empathy-eliciting task among boys with disruptive behavior disorders (n = 31) and controls (n = 23). For controls, sad facial expressions were ass...

  8. The Sleeping Habits of Preschool Children Are Related to Temperament, Behavior, and Social Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seockhoon Chung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Children’s sleep habits are important for their health and development. Here, we investigated the relationship between sleep habits, behavior, personality, and social responsiveness in children. Methods A total of 38 preschool children were assessed using the Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL, Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI, Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ, and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. Results Harm avoidance according to JTCI was positively correlated with bedtime resistance (r = 0.34; p = 0.04 and sleep anxiety on the CSHQ (r = 0.43; p < 0.01. Emotional lability on the K-CBCL was significantly associated with parasomnias (r = 0.38; p = 0.02, while lower social cognition and social communication scores on the SRS were associated with sleep anxiety (r = −0.34; p = 0.03 and parasomnias (r = −0.38; p = 0.01. Path analysis showed that among the JTCI subscales, both harm avoidance and persistence were significantly associated with social cognition. Conclusions Clinicians should pay particular attention to psychological components as potential contributors to sleep habits when managing sleep problems in preschool children.

  9. Pharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laje, Gonzalo; Bernert, Rebecca; Morse, Rebecca; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C M

    2010-11-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Children and adults with SMS appear to have unique neurobehavioral problems that include: sleep disturbance, self-injurious and maladaptive behaviors, stereotypies, and sensory integration disorders. We gathered retrospective psychotropic use information from parents or other caregivers of 62 individuals with SMS who were asked about use of psychotropic medication from a list of commonly used psychiatric medications. For those drugs identified, respondents were asked to rate the experience with the particular medication using a likert-type scale. Drugs were grouped into seven main categories: (1) stimulants; (2) antidepressants; (3) antipsychotics; (4) sleep aides; (5) mood stabilizers; (6) alpha 2 agonists; and (7) benzodiazepines. Relative frequencies, means and standard deviations pertaining to age and medication effect were derived for each medication category. Six of the seven medication categories examined showed no meaningful deviations from the "no change" score. The benzodiazepine group showed a mild detrimental effect. There were no gender differences in efficacy. Use of psychotropic medication started early in life (mean age 5 years), particularly with sleep aides. Although no medication category was identified as efficacious in SMS, all the categories reported herein may be considered as an option for brief symptomatic relief.

  10. The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile in Preschool Children: A Broad Dysregulation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, Sanne Barbara; Deutz, Marike Hester Francisca; Deković, Maja; Bunte, Tessa; Schoemaker, Kim; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Prinzie, Peter; van Baar, Anneloes; Matthys, Walter

    2015-07-01

    Children with concurrent impairments in regulating affect, behavior, and cognition can be identified with the Anxious/Depressed, Aggressive Behavior, and Attention Problems scales (or AAA scales) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Jointly, these scales form the Dysregulation Profile (DP). Despite persuasive evidence that DP is a marker for severe developmental problems, no consensus exists on the preferred conceptualization and operationalization of DP in preschool years. We addressed this concern by testing and validating the factor structure of DP in a group of predominantly clinically referred preschool children. Participants were 247 children (195 boys and 52 girls), aged 3.5 to 5.5 years. Children were assessed at baseline and 18 months later, using parent and teacher reports, a clinical interview with parents, behavioral observations, and neuropsychological tasks. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a bifactor model, with a general DP factor and 3 specific factors representing the AAA scales, fitted the data better than a second-order model and a one-factor model for both parent-reported and teacher-reported child problem behavior. Criterion validity analyses showed that the DP factor was concurrently and longitudinally associated with markers of dysregulation and clinically relevant criteria, whereas the specific factors representing the AAA scales were more differentially related to those criteria. DP is best conceptualized as a broad syndrome of dysregulation that exists in addition to the specific syndromes as represented by the AAA scales. Implications for researchers and clinicians are discussed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  12. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth eFulton; Elizabeth eFulton; Valsamma eEapen; Valsamma eEapen; Rudi eČrnčec; Amelia eWalter; Amelia eWalter; Sally eRogers

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  13. A Program to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a School Based Upon a Practical Application of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Carl G.

    This practicum report describes a program to aid in reducing the incidence of disruptive behavior of students through the use of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology. The report contains a general definition of the problem, which was the reduction of the disruptive student behavior, and the objectives to be achieved from the program. There is a…

  14. The role of friends' disruptive behavior in the development of children's tobacco experimentation: results from a preventive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Vuijk, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52%

  15. Investigating the Association between Home-School Dissonance and Disruptive Classroom Behaviors for Urban Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M.; Burris, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Sean T.

    2018-01-01

    Disruptive classroom behaviors are a major schooling dilemma in urban schools. While several contextual and motivational factors have been statistically associated with disruptive classroom behaviors, one overlooked factor has been home-school dissonance. The current study examined the relationship between 260 middle school students' reports of…

  16. Exploring predictors of change in behavioral problems over a 1-year period in preterm born preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappin, Renske; Wijnroks, Lex; Uniken Venema, Monica; Jongmans, Marian

    2018-02-01

    Although predictors of the prevalence of behavioral problems in preterm-born children have been frequently studied, predictors of behavioral change in these children remain unknown. Therefore, in this study we explore predictors of short-term changes in problem behavior in preterm-born preschoolers, an age period characterized by rapid behavioral change. Two- to 5-year-old children born with a gestational age behavioral problems. Following screening, 59 children with a t-score ≥60 on either the internal, external or total problem scale of the Child Behavior Checklist were included in the study. Linear mixed modeling was used to investigate predictors of change in behavior over a 1-year period. Higher levels of parenting stress, parent perceived child vulnerability, and parental hostility towards the child and lower educational levels of the mother significantly predicted increases in externalizing behavior. The higher the age of the child, the more internalizing problems decreased. Parenting stress, parent perceived child vulnerability and parental hostility towards the child were the only modifiable predictors of increases in externalizing behavior, whilst no modifiable predictors of internalizing behavior were found. There may be a reciprocal interaction between stress in parents and child externalizing problems. Furthermore, stress and worries may directly influence parents' reports on behavioral measures, because it could cause them to be concerned by behavior otherwise perceived as normal. Therefore, future interventions for parents of preterm-born children should primarily address parental stress and concerns regarding their child. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analyzing the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work: an integrative review*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Meneses Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work. METHOD An integrative review carried out in the theoretical phase of a qualitative research substantiated by the theoretical framework of the Hybrid Model of Concept Development. The search for articles was conducted in the CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, PubMed and SciVerse Scopus databases in 2013. RESULTS 70 scientific articles answered the guiding question and lead to attributes of disruptive behavior, being: incivility, psychological violence and physical/sexual violence; with their main antecedents (intrapersonal, interpersonal and organizational being: personality characteristics, stress and work overload; and consequences of: workers' moral/mental distress, compromised patient safety, labor loss, and disruption of communication, collaboration and teamwork. CONCLUSION Analysis of the disruptive behavior concept in healthcare work showed a construct in its theoretical stage that encompasses different disrespectful conduct adopted by health workers in the hospital context, which deserve the attention of leadership for better recognition and proper handling of cases and their consequences.

  18. Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Therapy in Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Lin Huang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a behavioral parent therapy (BPT program in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using multidimensional evaluations, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the Teacher Report Form (TRF. Between 2001 and 2005, the parents of 21 preschool children with ADHD were divided into six groups and participated in a series of 11 BPT sessions. Before and after BPT, the parents completed the CBCL, and the teachers completed the TRF. The behavioral and emotional problems of the children showed improvement after the BPT sessions, specifically for the following categories: internalizing problems, anxious/depressed syndromes, somatic complaints, externalizing problems, rule-breaking behaviors, aggressive behaviors, social problems, thought problems, and attention problems. In the DSM-oriented scale of the CBCL, affective problems, anxiety problems, somatic problems, ADHD problems, oppositional defiant disorder problems, and conduct disorder problems showed significant improvements. On the DSM scale of the TRF, Inattention syndrome improved significantly after the BPT sessions, while other syndromes showed non-significant changes. We conclude that the BPT program significantly improved the children's behavioral problems at home and inattention problems at school.

  19. Impact of Self-concept on Preschoolers' Dental Anxiety and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanparast, Leila; Vafaei, Ali; Sohrabi, Azin; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Bahadori, Zahra; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Dadashi, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims . Different factors affect children's behavior during dental treatment, including psychological and behavioral characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of self-concept on child's anxiety and behavior during dental treatment in 4 to 6-year-old children. Materials and methods. A total of 235 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years were included in this descriptive analytic study. Total self-concept score for each child was assessed according to Primary Self-concept Scale before dental treatment. Child's anxiety and child's behavior were assessed, during the restoration of mandibular primary molar, using clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale, respectively. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the total self-concept score with the results of clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale. Results. There was a moderate inverse correlation between the self-concept and clinical anxiety rating scale scores (r = -0.545, P self-concept and child's behavior scores (r = 0.491, P self-concept had lower anxiety level and better behavioral feedback during dental treatment.

  20. Emotion Knowledge and Self-Regulation as Predictors of Preschoolers' Cognitive Ability, Classroom Behavior, and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah

    2012-01-01

    The development of children's cognitive and social skills is a topic of considerable importance and interest in education and educational psychology. The current study examines whether emotion knowledge and self-regulation predict cognitive competence, social competence, and classroom behavior problems among a sample of 74 preschoolers (40 boys).…

  1. The Effects of Action and Violence in Television Programs on the Social Behavior and Imaginative Play of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston-Stein, Aletha; And Others

    The independent contributions of action and violence in television programs to children's attention and social behavior were investigated. Pairs of preschool children were assigned to one of four television conditions (1) high action-high violence, (2) high action-low violence, (3) low action-low violence, or (4) no television. Action was defined…

  2. Teachers' Emotional and Behavioral Support and Preschoolers' Self-Regulation: Relations with Social and Emotional Skills during Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dubas, Judith S.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children's observed social integration and positive mood in a play…

  3. Effects of a Food and Nutrition Course on the Self-Reported Knowledge and Behavior of Preschool Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unusan, Nurhan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined effects of food and nutrition knowledge on the self-reported behaviors of preschool teacher candidates who completed a 10-week course. Self-reported information was gathered at entry, after completion of the course, and follow up 4 months after completion of the course. A paired t-test compared responses at pre, post and follow…

  4. Health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral problems in mild to moderate prematures at (pre-)school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketharanathan, N.; Lee, W.; Mol, A.C. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a gap in the knowledge of longterm outcome of mild to moderate prematures compared to the extreme prematures or very low birth weight infants. AIM: Determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in (pre-)school age children

  5. Infant behavioral assessment and intervention program in very low birth weight infants improves independency in mobility at preschool age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Koldewijn, Karen; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Houtzager, Bregje; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program(©) (IBAIP) in very low birth weight infants on sensory processing and daily activities at preschool age. Follow-up of children included in a randomized controlled trial. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  6. The Role of In-Class Physical Arrangements in Supporting Preschool Children's Behavior Regulation Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk Kara, H. Gozde

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand the role of physical arrangements within the classroom in the development of behavior regulation skill of preschool children. From among the types of action research, the technical/scientific/cooperative action research was employed in the current study. In the selection of the participants, one of the…

  7. Maternal cognitions about distress and anxiety in young Latino children with disruptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcia, Emily; Castillo, Hector; Fernández, María C

    2004-03-01

    This study was undertaken to describe how Caribbean Latina mothers understand distress in children, the behaviors that they attribute to it, and the labels that they use to express their cognitions. Findings from 62 mothers of young children with disruptive behaviors indicated that mothers made attributions about anxiety in 40% of the children with a high likelihood of clinical anxiety. Hyperactive and restless behavior, but not children's fears, was understood by mothers to reflect anxiety. References to 'nervios' could be categorized into: an illness condition, a crisis condition, and a temperament type. Only temperament usage was applied to children.

  8. Mild myelin disruption elicits early alteration in behavior and proliferation in the subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth A; Busquet, Nicolas; Shepherd, Douglas; Dietz, Robert M; Herson, Paco S; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M; Li, Anan; George, Nicholas M; Restrepo, Diego; Macklin, Wendy B

    2018-02-13

    Myelin, the insulating sheath around axons, supports axon function. An important question is the impact of mild myelin disruption. In the absence of the myelin protein proteolipid protein (PLP1), myelin is generated but with age, axonal function/maintenance is disrupted. Axon disruption occurs in Plp1 -null mice as early as 2 months in cortical projection neurons. High-volume cellular quantification techniques revealed a region-specific increase in oligodendrocyte density in the olfactory bulb and rostral corpus callosum that increased during adulthood. A distinct proliferative response of progenitor cells was observed in the subventricular zone (SVZ), while the number and proliferation of parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells was unchanged. This SVZ proliferative response occurred prior to evidence of axonal disruption. Thus, a novel SVZ response contributes to the region-specific increase in oligodendrocytes in Plp1 -null mice. Young adult Plp1- null mice exhibited subtle but substantial behavioral alterations, indicative of an early impact of mild myelin disruption. © 2018, Gould et al.

  9. The Association Between Student Reports of Classmates’ Disruptive Behavior and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Blank

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Classroom disciplinary climate and its correlation to students’ performance is a widely debated issue. Policy reports tend to assume that classroom disruptions interfere with the learning experience. Empirical evidence for this assumption, however, which carefully distinguishes classroom climate from the school climate in general, is still wanting. This study examines the relation between student reports regarding disciplinary infractions to student achievement, with a special focus on classroom disruptions. Multilevel regressions were used to estimate the contribution of classroom and school disciplinary infractions on eighth-grade students’ test scores. Reports of disruptive behavior proved to correlate negatively with test scores, whereas the effect of other school and classroom characteristics, including teachers’ attitudes and school disciplinary policy, were insignificant (controlling for students’ prior achievements. We conclude that a disruptive classroom climate can hinder the learning process and lower the achievement of the entire class, regardless of the conduct of any particular student. Therefore, a special focus on disruptions in the classroom, in contradistinction with school disciplinary climate in general—which is lacking in most studies—emerges as instrumental to the understanding of how school climate relates to student achievement.

  10. Reciprocal relationships between parenting behavior and disruptive psychopathology from childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf

    2008-07-01

    Theoretical models suggest that child behaviors influence parenting behaviors, and specifically that unpleasant child behaviors coerce parents to discontinue engaging in appropriate discipline. This study examined reciprocal relationships between parenting behaviors (supervision, communication, involvement, timid discipline and harsh punishment) and child disruptive disorder symptoms (ADHD, ODD and CD) in a clinic-referred sample of 177 boys. Annual measures, including structured clinical interviews, were obtained from the beginning of the study (when boys were between the ages of 7 to 12) to age 17. Specific reciprocal influence was observed; only timid discipline predicted worsening behavior, namely ODD symptoms, and ODD symptoms predicted increases in timid discipline. Greater influence from child behaviors to parenting practices was found: ODD also predicted poorer communication and decreased involvement, and CD predicted poorer supervision. ADHD was neither predictive of, nor predicted by, parenting behaviors. The results are specifically supportive of a coercive process between child behaviors and parenting behaviors, and generally suggestive of greater influence of child behaviors on parenting behaviors than of parenting behaviors on child behaviors.

  11. Erratum to: Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R; Turner, Karen M T

    2015-10-01

    The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is owned by the University of Queensland (UQ). The University through its main technology transfer company UniQuest Pty Limited has licensed Triple P International Pty Ltd to disseminate the program worldwide. Royalties stemming from this dissemination activity are distributed to the Parenting and Family Support Centre, School of Psychology, UQ; Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences at UQ; and contributory authors. No author has any share or ownership in Triple P International Pty Ltd. Matthew Sanders is the founder and an author on various Triple P programs and a consultant to Triple P International. Karen Turner is an author of various Triple P programs.

  12. Correlates of Healthy Lifestyle Beliefs and Behaviors in Parents of Overweight or Obese Preschool Children Before and After a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention With Text Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Lisa K; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hekler, Eric; Small, Leigh; Jacobson, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Significant gaps exist in the published literature regarding the treatment of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children, especially in primary care settings. Parental influence plays an important factor in the development of healthy behaviors in children, yet there is no consensus about why some behavior change intervention strategies for parents of young children are more influential and effective than others. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to assess correlations among the study variables (healthy lifestyle beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors) in parents of overweight/obese preschool children. A second aim explored if the parent's level of cognitive beliefs and perceived difficulty of engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors correlated with text messaging cognitive behavioral support. Fifteen preschool-parent dyads from primary care clinics completed a 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck's Cognitive Theory guided the intervention content, and Fogg's Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention was delivered using a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging. Supported are the interconnected relationships among the study variables, that is, parental healthy lifestyle beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors. At baseline, parental healthy lifestyle belief scores significantly correlated with perceived difficulty (rs = 0.598, p behaviors (rs = 0.545, p cognitive behavioral skills building and tailored text messaging, the need for general support via text messaging lessened, warranting additional research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational in students from Callao, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Gordillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, attending public schools in Callao, Peru. Students from single-sex schools showed less frequent disruptive behavior in each of the three measured categories—disruptive behaviors, behaviors that show lack of responsibility and anti-social behavior. A weak correlation was found between each of the three categories and the main variable. The study controlled for extraneous variables.

  14. Psychoticism and disruptive behavior can be also good predictors of school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Widaman, Keith; Mansur-Alves, Marcela; Bacelar, Tatiane Dias; Saldanha, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The relations of Gf (Standard Progressive Matrices Raven), Gc (verbal scale of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version), personality dimensions (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Junior Version), and disruptive behavior (TDAH scale) with school achievement (measured by TDE test and PISA test) were investigated. Two samples of students (total N = 534) representing a broad range of socioeconomic status (SES) participated in this study. Path models were conducted. The results demonstrated that (1) in both samples no sex differences related to school achievement were found; (2) in the first sample, after controlling for age and SES differences, Gf and psychoticism predicted (.38 and -.13, respectively) school achievement (measured by TDE test); (3) in the second sample, after controlling for SES differences to which additional measures were administered, Gf and Gc positively predicted (.22 and .40, respectively) school achievement (measured by PISA test). In addition, psychoticism and disruptive behavior also predicted school performance (-.14 and -.28, respectively). Some theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Disruption of male reproductive behavior in threespine stickleback asterosteus aculeatus exposed to 17β-estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibe, Asa Espmark; Rosenqvist, Gunilla; Jenssen, Bjoern Munro

    2002-01-01

    In past years we have witnessed decreased reproductive capacity in many wildlife species due to exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting properties. In this laboratory experiment male three spine sticklebacks asterosteus aculeatus exposed to 17β-estradiol (2.0 μg/g) dispersed in peanut oil, on days 1, 7, 14, and 21, showed impaired paternal care compared to control fish that were exposed to peanut oil only. There were no differences between the two groups in number of males that built nests or in courtship displays. However, exposed males started nest building significantly later than control males. This study suggests that some but not all essential traits of male reproductive behavior may be altered as a result of exposure to 17β-estradiol. To reveal harmful effects of chemicals with suggested reproductive-disrupting properties it is thus important to take a wide variety of variables related to reproductive behavior into consideration

  16. Examination of the association between lifestyle behavior changes and weight outcomes in preschoolers receiving treatment for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Clifford, Lisa M; Bandstra, Nancy F; Filigno, Stephanie S; Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Rausch, Joseph R; Stark, Lori J

    2014-01-01

    Preschoolers (ages 2-5 years) have been significantly underrepresented in the obesity treatment outcome literature, despite estimates that 12.1% are already obese. As such, little is known about the most important intervention targets for weight management within this age group. The aims of this study were (a) to examine lifestyle behavior changes for 30 obese preschoolers participating in a weight-control intervention and (b) to explore which lifestyle behavior changes predicted changes in body mass index (BMI) z score. Preschooler height, weight, diet (three 24-hr recalls), physical activity (accelerometry), and television use (parent report) were measured at baseline and posttreatment (6 months). A linear regression was conducted to examine pre- to posttreatment changes in diet (i.e., intake of calories, sugar-sweetened beverages, fruits and vegetables, and sweet and salty snacks) and activity (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous activity and television use) behaviors on changes in BMI z score. Despite significant reductions in sugar-sweetened beverage intake and television use, and increases in fruit and vegetable intake, only reductions in absolute caloric intake significantly predicted reductions in BMI z score. Our findings suggest that attaining healthy caloric goals may be the most important component of weight-control interventions for preschoolers. Future research using innovative methodologies, such as the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, may be helpful to prospectively identifying the lifestyle behavior changes that are most effective in helping families to achieve healthy weight outcomes for preschoolers and thereby improve intervention efficiency and decrease treatment burden for families. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Effect of play therapy on behavioral problems of mal-adjusted pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khanbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present research was conducted to study the effect of play therapy on reducing behavioral problems of mal-adjusted children (children with oppositional defiant disorder. Method: By using multistage cluster sampling, regions 6, 7, and 8 in Tehran were selected, and among kindergartens of these areas, 3 kindergartens under the support of welfare organization were randomly selected. From pre-school children of these 3 kindergartens, 40 children that could have behavioral disorder according to their teachers and parents complaints, were carefully tested, and among them, by the results obtained from child symptom inventory questionnaire (CSI-4, teacher's form, and a researcher-made self-control checklist, 16 children who showed severe symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder were selected, and they were randomly divided into control and experimental group. This research is quasi-experimental, and is done by the use of pre-test, post-test, and control group. Results: values of calculated F for oppositional defiant disorder in control and experimental group is meaningful after fixing the effect of pre-test (F(1,12=74/94, P<0/001 so there is a meaningful difference between means of disobedience disorder post-test scores in experimental and control group by having the fixed effect of pre-test effect. Comparison of adjusted means of 2 groups shows that the mean of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in experimental group (M=14/09 is lower than control group (M=36/66. Therefore, applying play therapy in experimental group in comparison with control group, who did not receive these instructions, caused reduction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in pre-school children. Conclusion: Results of this research show that the children's disobedience is reduced by benefiting from play therapy.

  18. Summer Treatment Program for Preschoolers with Externalizing Behavior Problems: a Preliminary Examination of Parenting Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Ros, Rosmary; Hart, Katie C; Slavec, Janine

    2017-11-07

    Within an at-risk sample of preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP), the current study examined the initial promise of a multimodal intervention, the Summer Treatment Program for Pre-Kindergarteners (STP-PreK), in improving parenting outcomes. Using an open trial design, 154 parents and their preschool children (73% male; M age  = 5.06 years; 82% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP (57% of which were referred by schools or mental health/medical professionals) completed a baseline and post-treatment assessment. A subsample of 90 families completed a follow-up assessment approximately 6 to 9 months after treatment completion. Parental measures of parenting stress and discipline strategies were collected across all three assessments. Observational data were also collected across all assessments during a 5-min standardized child-led play situation and a 5-min parent-led clean up task. The parenting component of the STP-PreK included a School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP) of which the behavioral management component was implemented via a Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) adaptation (8 weekly group sessions with 15-20 parents in each group, lack of requirement of "mastery" criteria). All parenting outcomes (both ratings and observed) significantly improved after the intervention (Cohen's d mean effect size across measures 0.89) with all effects being maintained at the 6-9 month follow-up. These findings highlight the initial promise of our SRPP's PCIT adaptation in targeting multiple aspects of parenting while yielding comparable parenting skills acquisition compared to traditional individual PCIT.

  19. Sex dimorphic behaviors as markers of neuroendocrine disruption by environmental chemicals: the case of chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, A; Ricceri, L; Tait, S; Calamandrei, G

    2012-12-01

    The complexity of the neuroendocrine level of investigation requires the assessment of behavioral patterns that extend beyond the reproductive functions, which are age- and sex-specific in rodents, described by defined clusters of behavioral items regulated by genetic, hormonal, and epigenetic factors. The study of social behavior in laboratory rodents reveals sex-dimorphic effects of environmental chemicals that may be undetected either by a traditional neurotoxicological approach or referring to the classical definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Here we review data on the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to the non-persistent organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos, whose neurotoxic activity at low doses is currently a matter of concern for children's health. In mice exposed to chlorpyrifos in utero and/or in early development social/emotional responses are differently affected in the two sexes in parallel with sex-dependent interference on hypothalamic neuroendocrine pathways regulating social behaviors (vasopressin, oxytocin, and steroid regulated systems). Through the analysis of complex sex-dimorphic behavioral patterns we show that neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting activities of CPF overlap. This widely diffused organophosphorus pesticide might thus be considered as a neuroendocrine disruptor possibly representing a risk factor for sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac profile and disruptive behavior in boys at risk for delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, D S; Wasserman, G; Coplan, J; Staghezza-Jaramillo, B; Davies, M; Fried, J E; Greenhill, L; Shaffer, D

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations in youth between antisocial behavior and cardiovascular profile. Younger brothers of adjudicated delinquents (N = 120) received a standardized psychiatric assessment and an assessment of three factors often studied in behavioral cardiology research: family history of hypertension, resting blood pressure, and obesity. As a group, relative to population norms, these youth exhibited signs of obesity and elevated blood pressure, with 30% of the sample appearing clinically obese and 24% having a blood pressure above the 90th percentile for national norms in their age cohort. Within the sample, score on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Delinquency scale correlated with blood pressure (r = .29-.34) and an index of obesity, weight/height3 (r = .20). Further, scores on the CBCL Delinquency, Aggression, and Externalizing scales were elevated in boys with a positive family history of hypertension. Among boys at risk for delinquency, disruptive psychopathology relates to factors often studied in behavioral cardiology research. Relationships between risk factors for ischemic cardiovascular disease and hostile behavior may be manifested with measures of disruptive psychopathology.

  1. Incremental Net Benefit of Early Intervention for Preschool-Aged Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L; Dickerson, John F; Saldana, Lisa; Fisher, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Of 1 million cases of child maltreatment identified every year in the United States, one-fifth result in foster care. Many of these children suffer from significant emotional and behavioral conditions. Decision-makers must allocate highly constrained budgets to serve these children. Recent evidence suggests that Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers can reduce negative outcomes for these children, but the relative benefits and costs of the program have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess net benefit, over 24 months, of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers compared to regular foster care. Data were from a randomized controlled trial of 117 young children entering a new foster placement. A subsample exhibited placement instability (n = 52). Intervention services including parent training, lasted 9-12 months. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers significantly increased permanent placements for the placement instability sample. Average total cost for the new intervention sample was significantly less than for regular foster care (full sample: $27,204 vs. $30,090; P = .004; placement instability sample: $29,595 vs. $36,061; P = .045). Incremental average net benefit was positive at all levels of willingness to pay of zero or greater, indicating that the value of benefits exceeded costs. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers has significant benefit for preschool children in foster care with emotional and behavioral disorders compared to regular foster care services. At even modest levels of willingness to pay, benefits exceed costs indicating a strong likeliness that this program is an efficient choice for improving outcomes for young children with emotional and behavioral disorders in foster care.

  2. Technology-enhanced program for child disruptive behavior disorders: development and pilot randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Parent, Justin; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Gonzalez, Michelle; Anton, Margaret; Newey, Greg A

    2014-01-01

    Early onset disruptive behavior disorders are overrepresented in low-income families; yet these families are less likely to engage in behavioral parent training (BPT) than other groups. This project aimed to develop and pilot test a technology-enhanced version of one evidence-based BPT program, Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC). The aim was to increase engagement of low-income families and, in turn, child behavior outcomes, with potential cost-savings associated with greater treatment efficiency. Low-income families of 3- to 8-year-old children with clinically significant disruptive behaviors were randomized to and completed standard HNC (n = 8) or Technology-Enhanced HNC (TE-HNC; n = 7). On average, caregivers were 37 years old; 87% were female, and 80% worked at least part-time. More than half (53%) of the youth were boys; the average age of the sample was 5.67 years. All families received the standard HNC program; however, TE-HNC also included the following smartphone enhancements: (a) skills video series, (b) brief daily surveys, (c) text message reminders, (d) video recording home practice, and (e) midweek video calls. TE-HNC yielded larger effect sizes than HNC for all engagement outcomes. Both groups yielded clinically significant improvements in disruptive behavior; however, findings suggest that the greater program engagement associated with TE-HNC boosted child treatment outcome. Further evidence for the boost afforded by the technology is revealed in family responses to postassessment interviews. Finally, cost analysis suggests that TE-HNC families also required fewer sessions than HNC families to complete the program, an efficiency that did not compromise family satisfaction. TE-HNC shows promise as an innovative approach to engaging low-income families in BPT with potential cost-savings and, therefore, merits further investigation on a larger scale.

  3. Descriptive analysis of preschool physical activity and sedentary behaviors - a cross sectional study of 3-year-olds nested in the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Christian; Christensen, Line Brinch; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Further collection of surveillance data is warranted, particularly in preschool populations, for optimizing future public health promotion strategies. This study aims to describe physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) across different settings, including time in and out...

  4. Telomere length is associated with oppositional defiant behavior and maternal clinical depression in Latino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E

    2015-06-16

    Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3-5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (β = -363.99, 95% CI -651.24 to 764.74; P = 0.01), shorter maternal TL (β = 502.92, 95% CI 189.21-816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (β = 24.63, 95% CI 1.14-48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children.

  5. FATHER-CHILD PLAY DURING THE PRESCHOOL YEARS AND CHILD INTERNALIZING BEHAVIORS: BETWEEN ROBUSTNESS AND VULNERABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, Lieselotte; Teufl, Lukas; Ruiz, Nina; Piskernik, Bernhard; Supper, Barbara; Remiorz, Silke; Gesing, Alexander; Nowacki, Katja

    2017-11-01

    Play observations with a total of 400 toddlers and preschoolers were videotaped and rated for Intensity and Quality of play with their parents. Parents were asked about perceived stress and personality characteristics (Big 5). Child's motor, cognitive skills, temperament, and internalizing behaviors were assessed. Study 1 investigated the robustness of play across child age and gender, and examined differences between fathers and mothers. Study 2 explored the vulnerability of play with fathers of children born preterm (PT-fathers) and fathers who had experienced adverse childhoods (AC-fathers). Study 3 investigated child internalizing behaviors. Intensity of play was maintained almost independently of child age and gender. It was similar for AC- and PT-fathers, and similar to maternal Intensity. In contrast, paternal Quality of play was higher with boys and independent of fathers' personality and perceived parenting stress whereas maternal Quality of play was higher with girls and linked to mothers' perceived parenting competence, acceptability of the child, and neuroticism. AC-fathers scored significantly low on Quality, as did PT-fathers, but the Quality of their play became better with growing child age, birth weight, and cognitive (but not motor and temperament) scores. Finally, child internalizing behaviors were negatively related to paternal Quality of play. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Dietary Behaviors and Caregiver Perceptions of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Amber; Ji, Meimei; Zhang, Yefu; Zou, Jiaojiao; Li, Mingzhi; Yang, Lina; Lin, Qian

    2018-04-11

    Introduction : Early childhood obesity in China has become a pressing public health concern. A substantial barrier to healthy weight management is poor parental recognition of child overweight. This study examined the relationship between caregiver perceptions of child weight and dietary practices. Methods : A total of 364 children between 2 and 6 years old from six urban preschools in Changsha (China) were included in a cross-sectional study. Information on household demographics, health behaviors, and caregiver attitudes was collected through a self-administered caregiver questionnaire. Chi-squared tests, t -tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between caregiver perceptions, dietary behaviors, and child weight status. Results : Over 60% of caregivers with overweight/obese children underestimated their children's weight status. These caregivers were less likely to worry about weight and restrict their children's dietary intakes. Children of caregivers who incorrectly classified their weights were also more likely to have a poor appetite. Caregivers of male children and those from families with incomes between 7000 and 11,000 Ren Min Bi (RMB) were more likely to underestimate weight compared to caregivers with daughters and those from higher income households. Conclusions : Although accurate weight perception may be important for motivating healthy behavioral changes, it may also lead to greater restriction of children's diets, which has been linked to long-term weight gain. Interventions to improve awareness of child overweight should be coupled with efforts that teach caregivers about healthy weight management strategies.

  7. Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Preschool Teachers Based on their Employment Status

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem BAYRAK; Mehmet Ali HAMEDOĞLU

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the organizational commitment and organizational citizenship levels of preschool teachers on the basis of different variables. 254 preschool teachers were included in the research. “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire” and “Organizational Citizenship Questionnaire” were respectively used for determination of the organizational commitment and organizational citizenship levels of preschool teachers. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was perf...

  8. Technology-Assisted Parent Training Programs for Children and Adolescents With Disruptive Behaviors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Pawar, Aditya; Mathur, Nandita; Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

    To systematically review digitally assisted parent training programs (DPTs) targeting the treatment of children and adolescents with disruptive behaviors. A search was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases for peer-reviewed studies published between January 1, 2000, and March 1, 2016. Reference lists of included and review articles were searched manually for additional references. Broad search terms in varying combinations for parent, training, technologies, and disruptive behavior problems were used. We included English-language articles reporting on the effectiveness of DPTs targeting child or adolescent disruptive behaviors (eg, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder). DPTs designed to use digital media or software programs not to be primarily used within a therapy setting (eg, group, face-to-face) were included. Study design, recruitment and sample characteristics, theoretical background, digital program features, user's engagement, and measures of child behavior were extracted. Fourteen intervention studies (n = 2,427, 58% male, 1,500 in DPT conditions, 12 randomized trials) examining 10 programs met inclusion criteria. Interventions included self-directed noninteractive (eg, podcasts; 3 studies) and interactive (eg, online software; 4 studies) DPTs, remotely administered DPTs combined with professional phone-based coaching (2 studies), and a smartphone enhancement of standard treatment. Interventions were delivered over a mean ± SD period of 8.7 ± 4.2 weeks, most (11/14; 78.6%) were remotely administered, and all recruitment procedures included an outreach for parents outside of mental health-care settings. For programs with > 5 sessions, the mean ± SD completion rate of available sessions was 68.6% ± 13.1%. In comparison to no treatment control, self-directed programs yielded significant improvements in child behavior for children (age technology enhancements may increase engagement and outcomes of standard treatment. The

  9. Examining the Associations Among Home-School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M; Graves, Scott L; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home-school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home-school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed.

  10. Examining the Associations Among Home–School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home–school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home–school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed. PMID:27081213

  11. Trajectories and the influencing factors of behavior problems in preschool children: a longitudinal study in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu; Hu, Xumin; Liu, Buyun; Hu, Min

    2016-06-01

    Since child mental health problem was a global health issue, many researchers in western countries has focused on the trajectory of it to provide evidence for prevention programs. We designed this study to determine the trajectories of children's behavior problems, and to explore the effect of parent predictors on children's behavior problems in Guangzhou, China. Children (N = 1480) for this longitudinal, population-based survey, were recruited from eight regular kindergartens (October, 2010) across four districts in Guangzhou. Repeated measurement design analysis was used to compare the variation in behavioral problems by gender, only child status, and temperament. Logistic regression was applied to analyze the effect of parents' risks (maternal depression, parenting style) on the change in child problem behaviors. The scores of behavior problems (externalizing, emotional, social communication problems) were stable during the entire preschool period by gender and child number. Children with difficult temperament exhibited more problem behaviors than children with easy temperament in the early years, and the misbehaviors declined significantly over time. Moreover, maternal depression and the increase in excessive interference/over protective or punishing parenting strategies resulted in an increase in child behavior problems. There was no difference between the only-child status and child with siblings in the trajectory of problem behaviors. Parent factors were significant predictions of trajectory of child behavior problem during preschool age.

  12. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational) in students from Callao, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo, Enrique G.

    2013-01-01

    Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, at...

  13. Examining the Associations Among Home–School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Control...

  14. The Co-Development of Relational Aggression and Disruptive Behavior Symptoms from Late Childhood through Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpitarte, Alazne; Atherton, Olivia E; Robins, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Researchers have debated whether relational aggression is a developmentally-normative behavior or a sign of some underlying psychopathology. However, due to the dearth of longitudinal studies, we know little about how relational aggression and more severe forms of disruptive behavior co-develop. The present study examined bidirectional associations between relational aggression and two psychiatric disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth followed from age 10 to 16. Results showed that individuals who engaged in relational aggression tended to increase over time in ODD and CD symptoms, and conversely, individuals exhibiting symptoms of ODD and CD tended to increase in relational aggression. These findings held for boys and girls, for youth born in Mexico and the U.S., and after controlling for physical aggression. Thus, relational aggression seems to be both a developmentally-normative behavior and a predictor of future mental health problems.

  15. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verbestel, Vera; Duvinage, Kristin; Iotova, Violeta; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Wildgruber, Andreas; Mouratidou, Theodora; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2014-02-19

    High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers' sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers' sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with the inclusion of parental involvement. The

  16. Effect of play therapy on behavioral problems of maladjusted preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Niloufar; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Khanbani, Mehdi; Farid, Saeedeh; Chiti, Parisa

    2011-01-01

    The present research was conducted to study the effect of play therapy on reducing behavioral problems of children with oppositional defiant disorder. Using multistage cluster sampling, regions 6, 7, and 8 in Tehran were selected. Among kindergartens of these areas, 3 kindergartens which were supported by the welfare organization were randomly selected. Of all the pre-school children of these 3 kindergartens, 40 children who could have behavioral disorder, according to their teachers and parents, were carefully tested. Of them, 16 children who showed severe symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, were selected via the results obtained from the child symptom inventory questionnaire (CSI-4), teacher's form, and a researcher-made self-control checklist, Then, the subjects were randomly divided into one control and one experimental group. This research is quasi-experimental, and is conducted using pre-test, post-test, and control group. Values of the calculated F for oppositional defiant disorder in control group and experimental group was meaningful after fixing the effect of pre-test (Pplay therapy reduced severity of ADHD in those children in experimental group compared to those in control group who did not receive such instructions. Results of this research demonstrates that children's disobedience can be reduced by play therapy.

  17. Multimodal Analysis of Estimated and Observed Social Competence in Preschoolers With/Without Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Pereira Dias

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social skills compete with behavior problems, and the combination of these aspects may cause differences in social competence. This study was aimed at assessing the differences and similarities in the social competence of 26 preschoolers resulting from: (1 groups which they belonged to, being one with social skills and three with behavior problems (internalizing, externalizing and mixed; (2 types of assessment, considering the estimates of mothers and teachers, as well as direct observation in a structured situation; (3 structured situations as demands for five categories of social skills. Children’s performance in each situation was assessed by judges and estimated by mothers and teachers. There was a similarity in the social competence estimated by mothers, teachers and in the performance observed. Only the teachers distinguished the groups (higher social competence in the group with social skills and lower in the internalizing and mixed groups. Assertiveness demands differentiated the groups. The methodological aspects were discussed, as well as the clinical and educational potential of the structured situations to promote social skills.

  18. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents’ Reports From 24 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Döpfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Gonçalves, Miguel; Guđmundsson, Halldór; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiené, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Bárbara César; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Plück, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, José; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children’s behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½–5 by parents in 24 societies (N =19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3–12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total Problems scores for 18 of the 24 societies were within 7.1 points of the omnicultural mean of 33.3 (on a scale of 0–198). Gender and age differences, as well as gender and age interactions with society, were all very small (effect sizes societies, correlations between mean item ratings averaged .78, and correlations between internal consistency alphas for the scales averaged .92, indicating that the rank orders of mean item ratings and internal consistencies of scales were very similar across diverse societies. PMID:21534056

  19. The development of cognitive empathy and concern in preschool children: A behavioral neuroscience investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Meidenbauer, Kimberly L; Cowell, Jason M

    2018-05-01

    This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic pain in both children and adults, larger early (~200 ms) ERPs were identified when perceiving painful versus neutral stimuli. In the slow wave window (~800 ms), a significant interaction of empathy condition and stimulus type was driven by a greater difference between painful and neutral images in the empathic concern condition. Across early development, children exhibited enhanced N2 to pain when engaging in empathic concern. Greater pain-elicited N2 responses in the cognitive empathy condition also related to parent dispositional empathy. Children's own prosocial behavior was predicted by several individual differences in neural function, including larger early LPP responses during cognitive empathy and greater differentiation in late LPP and slow wave responses to empathic concern versus affective perspective taking. Left frontal activation (greater alpha suppression) while engaging in affective perspective taking was also related to higher levels of parent cognitive empathy. Together, this multilevel analysis demonstrates the important distinction between facets of empathy in children; the value of examining neurobehavioral processes in development. It provides provoking links between children's neural functioning and parental dispositions in early development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ethnic differences in problem perception: Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Prevalence of behavior problems and associated factors in preschool children from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia M. dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify the prevalence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among preschoolers from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil, and their associations with maternal mental health and family characteristics.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study of 349 children aged 49 to 72 months, randomly selected from 20,000 households representing the range of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in Salvador. In 1999, we assessed sociodemographic variables and family environment characteristics. In 2001, we used the Child Behavior Checklist to measure and describe the frequencies of behavior problems. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to estimate associations between family and maternal factors and prevalence of behavior problems.Results:The overall prevalence of behavior problems was 23.5%. The prevalence of internalizing problems was 9.7%, and that of externalizing problems, 25.2%. Behavior problems were associated with several maternal mental health variables, namely: presence of at least one psychiatric diagnosis (odds radio [OR] 3.01, 95%CI 1.75-5.18, anxiety disorder (OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.20-3.46, affective disorder (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.21-3.65, and mental health disorders due to use of psychoactive substances (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.18-4.55.Conclusion:The observed prevalence of child behavior problems fell within the range reported in previous studies. Maternal mental health is an important risk factor for behavior problems in preschool-aged children.

  2. Road trauma in teenage male youth with childhood disruptive behavior disorders: a population based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teenage male drivers contribute to a large number of serious road crashes despite low rates of driving and excellent physical health. We examined the amount of road trauma involving teenage male youth that might be explained by prior disruptive behavior disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of consecutive male youth between age 16 and 19 years hospitalized for road trauma (cases or appendicitis (controls in Ontario, Canada over 7 years (April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2009. Using universal health care databases, we identified prior psychiatric diagnoses for each individual during the decade before admission. Overall, a total of 3,421 patients were admitted for road trauma (cases and 3,812 for appendicitis (controls. A history of disruptive behavior disorders was significantly more frequent among trauma patients than controls (767 of 3,421 versus 664 of 3,812, equal to a one-third increase in the relative risk of road trauma (odds ratio  =  1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.54, p<0.001. The risk was evident over a range of settings and after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.56, p<0.001. The risk explained about one-in-20 crashes, was apparent years before the event, extended to those who died, and persisted among those involved as pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Disruptive behavior disorders explain a significant amount of road trauma in teenage male youth. Programs addressing such disorders should be considered to prevent injuries.

  3. The role of pre-school children motor behavior in developing their self-concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of motor behavior and general intellectual abilities were performed on a sample of 42 pre-school children (22 boys and 20 girls aged 6 (±3 months; moreover, the self-concept of those children was analysed. For the assessment of their motor behavior six movement tasks were chosen and the Mary Gutrich scale was applied for the analysis of the results. The children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the means of Raven's colored progressive matrices so as to enable the groups to homogenise, as well as to eliminate potential parasite factors when drawing conclusions. The self-concept analysis was performed using the pshychological interview during the course of which the children described their impression of their own abilities with regard to the past, present and future. The data related to the self-concept were complemented with the analysis of the children's drawings. The statistical analysis of the data gathered showed that motor behavior plays a significant role in developing one's self-concept, which is especially true of boys. Even though there is no significant statistical difference between boys and girls with respect to the quality of their motor behavior, there are significant differences between them pertaining to the vocabulary they use when describing their own selves, i.e. their self-concept, especially with respect to the present and future. Boys seem to use more extensive motor-related vocabulary when describing themselves, especially those with greater motor skills. Both boys and girls show a tendency to describe themselves as incapable in the past. When describing their present moment capabilities, girls tend to use vocabulary related to play and independence, whereas they mostly use vocabulary related to professions and sex roles when referring to the future. These findings indicate that social factors are of immense importance from a very early age, especially among girls. Moreover, the results show that

  4. Preschool Participation and BMI at Kindergarten Entry: The Case for Early Behavioral Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. McGrady

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preschool years (ages 3–5 are a critical period in growth and development. Emerging studies suggest that preschool attendance may be linked to future weight, and perhaps obesity. This study examined relationships between public preschool attendance, demographic variables, and weight at kindergarten entry. Participants included 2,400 children entering kindergarten in 2006. Height and weight were used to calculate a child's BMI category based on CDC norms. At kindergarten entry, 17% of participants were overweight, and 18% were obese. Children attending a public preschool were at an increased risk for overweight (OR=1.06 and obesity (OR=1.34 at kindergarten entry, χ2(2=6.81, P=.03 relative to children who did not attend preschool. No significant trends relationships between demographics and weight status were found, but demographic variables are summarized descriptively. Policy and clinical implications are provided.

  5. Managing Disruptive Physician Behavior: First Steps for Designing an Effective Online Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Puddester

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interviews with physician leaders from hospitals in a mid-sized Ontario City were conducted to determine their needs with regard to managing disruptive physician behaviour. These findings were used to inform the design of a two-day skill-development workshop for physician leaders on disruptive behaviour. The workshop was evaluated using a modified version of the Learner Experience Feedback Form, which was built to align with W(eLearn, http://www.ennovativesolution.com/WeLearn/ a framework developed to guide the design, delivery, development, and evaluation of online interprofessional courses and programs (MacDonald, Stodel, Thompson, & Casimiro, 2009. The surveys gathered information related to the content, media, service, structure, and outcomes of the workshop. The findings from the focus group interviews and workshop evaluation identify physician leaders’ needs with regard to disruptive behavior and were used to inform the design of the world’s first Online Physician Health and Wellness Resource http://www.ephysicianhealth.com/ an open access learning resources currently being used globally, in 91 countries. The resource was the recipient of the winner of the International Business/Professional 2010 International eLearning Award. The findings demonstrated the importance of conducting a needs analysis and using a framework to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of effective online healthcare education.

  6. Sleep disruption increases seizure susceptibility: Behavioral and EEG evaluation of an experimental model of sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrnčić, Dragan; Grubač, Željko; Rašić-Marković, Aleksandra; Šutulović, Nikola; Šušić, Veselinka; Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Stanojlović, Olivera

    2016-03-01

    Sleep disruption accompanies sleep apnea as one of its major symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is particularly common in patients with refractory epilepsy, but causing factors underlying this are far from being resolved. Therefore, translational studies regarding this issue are important. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep disruption on seizure susceptibility of rats using experimental model of lindane-induced refractory seizures. Sleep disruption in male Wistar rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by treadmill method (belt speed set on 0.02 m/s for working and 0.00 m/s for stop mode, respectively). Animals were assigned to experimental conditions lasting 6h: 1) sleep disruption (sleep interrupted, SI; 30s working and 90 s stop mode every 2 min; 180 cycles in total); 2) activity control (AC, 10 min working and 30 min stop mode, 9 cycles in total); 3) treadmill chamber control (TC, only stop mode). Afterwards, the animals were intraperitoneally treated with lindane (L, 4 mg/kg, SI+L, AC+L and TC+L groups) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, SIc, ACc and TCc groups). Convulsive behavior was assessed by seizure incidence, latency time to first seizure, and its severity during 30 min after drug administration. Number and duration of ictal periods were determined in recorded EEGs. Incidence and severity of lindane-induced seizures were significantly increased, latency time significantly decreased in animals undergoing sleep disruption (SI+L group) compared with the animals from TC+L. Seizure latency was also significantly decreased in SI+L compared to AC+L groups. Number of ictal periods were increased and duration of it presented tendency to increase in SI+L comparing to AC+L. No convulsive signs were observed in TCc, ACc and SIc groups, as well as no ictal periods in EEG. These results indicate sleep disruption facilitates induction of epileptic activity in rodent model of lindane-epilepsy enabling translational research of this phenomenon. Copyright

  7. Conditional deletion of Cadherin 13 perturbs Golgi cells and disrupts social and cognitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, M; Guo, L; Kim, J; Zainolabidin, N; Eulenburg, V; Augustine, G J; Chen, A I

    2018-02-15

    Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebellar cortex. To assess the function of Cdh13 and utilize the manipulation of Cdh13 expression in Golgi cells as an entry point to examine cerebellar-mediated function, we generated mice carrying Cdh13-floxed alleles and conditionally deleted Cdh13 with GlyT2::Cre mice. Loss of Cdh13 results in a decrease in the expression/localization of GAD67 and reduces spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in cerebellar Golgi cells without disrupting spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). At the behavioral level, loss of Cdh13 in the cerebellum, piriform cortex and endopiriform claustrum have no impact on gross motor coordination or general locomotor behaviors, but leads to deficits in cognitive and social abilities. Mice lacking Cdh13 exhibit reduced cognitive flexibility and loss of preference for contact region concomitant with increased reciprocal social interactions. Together, our findings show that Cdh13 is critical for inhibitory function of Golgi cells, and that GlyT2::Cre-mediated deletion of Cdh13 in non-executive centers of the brain, such as the cerebellum, may contribute to cognitive and social behavioral deficits linked to neurological disorders. © 2018 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pramipexole-induced disruption of behavioral processes fundamental to intertemporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick S; Stein, Jeffrey S; Smits, Rochelle R; Madden, Gregory J

    2013-05-01

    Evaluating the effects of presession drug administration on intertemporal choice in nonhumans is a useful approach for identifying compounds that promote impulsive behavior in clinical populations, such as those prescribed the dopamine agonist pramipexole (PPX). Based on the results of previous studies, it is unclear whether PPX increases rats' impulsive choice or attenuates aspects of stimulus control. The present study was designed to experimentally isolate behavioral processes fundamental to intertemporal choice and challenge them pharmacologically with PPX administration. In Experiment 1, the hypothesis that PPX increases impulsive choice as a result of enhanced sensitivity to reinforcer delays was tested and disconfirmed. That is, acute PPX diminished delay sensitivity in a manner consistent with disruption of stimulus control whereas repeated PPX had no effect on delay sensitivity. Experiments 2 and 3 elaborated upon this finding by examining the effects of repeated PPX on rats' discrimination of response-reinforcer contingencies and reinforcer amounts, respectively. Accuracy of both discriminations was reduced by PPX. Collectively these results provide no support for past studies that have suggested PPX increases impulsive choice. Instead, PPX impairs stimulus control over choice behavior. The behavioral approach adopted herein could be profitably integrated with genetic and other biobehavioral models to advance our understanding of impulsive behavior associated with drug administration. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Combined pharmacotherapy-multimodal psychotherapy in children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Manfredi, Azzurra; Brovedani, Paola; Pisano, Simone; Muratori, Pietro

    2016-04-30

    Although multi-component psychotherapeutic interventions are first-line treatments for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), pharmacotherapy is often associated for more severe patients. Our aim was to explore effectiveness of an associated pharmacotherapy in referred children with DBD receiving a one-year psychotherapeutic intervention. Aggression, callous unemotional (CU) traits and emotional dysregulation were outcome measures. The sample included 144 children, aged 8-12 years, 41 (29%) with an ADHD comorbidity. Fifty-five (38%) patients received an additional pharmacotherapy with one medication, methylphenidate, a second generation antipsychotic, or a mood stabilizer. Data were collected before and after the one-year treatment. According to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), aggressive behaviors, rule-breaking behaviors and emotional dysregulation improved in the whole group, as well as parent- and child-reported CU traits. The hierarchical regression model showed that additional pharmacotherapy significantly predicted lower scores at the CBCL aggressive behaviors and emotional dysregulation, but not CU traits at the end of the treatment. The interaction between methylphenidate and ADHD comorbidity predicted lower aggressive behaviors after the treatment. In summary, this naturalistic investigation suggest that an additional pharmacotherapy significantly improved aggression and emotional dysregulation, but not CU traits. When ADHD was comorbid, methylphenidate was more effective than antipsychotics or mood stabilizers in reducing aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  11. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eFulton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children.

  12. Does teachers’ education about social competence influence the frequency of pro-social and aggressive behavior in preschool children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavina Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children’s aggressive behavior is a common problem of specialists who work in preschool institutions, with proportionally less frequent occurrence of pro-social behavior. The aim of this action research was to determine whether additional training of educators in ways and skills of stimulating children’s social competence can influence reduced the frequency of aggressive and increased the frequency of pro-social behavior among children of preschool age. The training included 49 teachers, educators in kindergarten Čakovec, and comprised lectures, workshops and practical application that lasted for three months, under the mentorship of a psychologist. Before carrying out the activities and after the implementation period of three months, educators used the scale Pros/Ag (N = 466 to evaluate the children. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in the frequency of pro-social behavior and decrease in the frequency of aggressive behavior in children of both genders. However, in the absence of a control group, the reason for progress in the desired direction may be the maturation and error of evaluators, and hence the results can be generalized to a limited extent. Qualitative analysis of gender differences suggests the possibility that education leads to equalization of boys and girls in pro-social behavior, but not in aggressive behavior. The number of participants, as well as the results obtained, suggests interest and need to organize additional training in this area.

  13. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah

    2015-09-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with an adult-directed ABA approach on disruptive behavior during language intervention in the public schools. A randomized clinical trial design was used with two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance. The data showed that the children demonstrated significantly lower levels of disruptive behavior during the PRT condition. The results are discussed with respect to antecedent manipulations that may be helpful in reducing disruptive behavior.

  14. Dietary Behaviors and Caregiver Perceptions of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood obesity in China has become a pressing public health concern. A substantial barrier to healthy weight management is poor parental recognition of child overweight. This study examined the relationship between caregiver perceptions of child weight and dietary practices. Methods: A total of 364 children between 2 and 6 years old from six urban preschools in Changsha (China were included in a cross-sectional study. Information on household demographics, health behaviors, and caregiver attitudes was collected through a self-administered caregiver questionnaire. Chi-squared tests, t-tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between caregiver perceptions, dietary behaviors, and child weight status. Results: Over 60% of caregivers with overweight/obese children underestimated their children’s weight status. These caregivers were less likely to worry about weight and restrict their children’s dietary intakes. Children of caregivers who incorrectly classified their weights were also more likely to have a poor appetite. Caregivers of male children and those from families with incomes between 7000 and 11,000 Ren Min Bi (RMB were more likely to underestimate weight compared to caregivers with daughters and those from higher income households. Conclusions: Although accurate weight perception may be important for motivating healthy behavioral changes, it may also lead to greater restriction of children’s diets, which has been linked to long-term weight gain. Interventions to improve awareness of child overweight should be coupled with efforts that teach caregivers about healthy weight management strategies.

  15. Prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Elementary-School Students of Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa Namdari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Namdari P1, Nazari H2 1. Instructor, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Abstract Background: Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders starting from childhood and is considered an important mental health problem of the society. DBDs may have distractive effects on the social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationships of people in their childhood and adulthood. The present research was done to determine the prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in elementary school students of Khorramabad in 2005. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studying in grades one to five at elementary schools in Khorramabad (N = 943. Sixteen state and private schools (8 for girls and 8 for boys were selected in a cluster and multi–stage sampling method. The standardized questionnaire of Child Symptoms Inventories (CSI-4 was used to collect data on the prevalence of children’s psychiatric disorders. The results ware analyzed using descriptive statistic and Chi-square test. Results: The total sample included 943 children. There was 21.4% DBD behavior (17.7% oppositional defiant disorder and, 3.7% conduct disorder. The number of the boys was twice as that of the girls (28.7% vs. 14.4%. The students in grade 2 showed the lowest, and those in grade 3, 4 and 5 the highest prevalence rate of DBD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s grade (P= 0.02, parent’s education (P=0.005, P=0.006, Mother’s job (P= 0.03, income (P = 0.005 and DBD. However no significant relationship between father’s job, educational level of the students and parent’s mental problems and Disruptive Behavior Disorders was found. Conclusion: Due to the high

  16. Tributyltin impaired reproductive success in female zebrafish through disrupting oogenesis, reproductive behaviors and serotonin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Chen, Qi-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hao

    2018-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an organotin acting as aromatase (Cyp19a1) inhibitor, has been found to disrupt gametogenesis and reproductive behaviors in several fish species. However, few studies addressing the mechanisms underlying the impaired gametogenesis and reproduction have been reported. In this study, female adults of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were continuously exposed to two nominal concentrations of TBT (100 and 500 ng/L, actual concentrations: 90.8 ± 1.3 ng/L and 470.3 ± 2.7 ng/L, respectively) for 28 days. After exposures, TBT decreased the total egg number, reduced the hatchability and elevated the mortality of the larvae. Decreased gonadosomatic index (GSI) and altered percentages of follicles in different developmental stages (increased early-stage follicles and reduced mid/late-stage follicles) were also observed in the ovary of TBT-treated fish. TBT also lowered the plasma level of 17β-estradiol and suppressed the expressions of cyp19a1a in the ovary. In treated fish, up-regulated expressions of aldhla2, sycp3 and dmc1 were present in the ovary, indicating an enhanced level of meiosis. The mRNA level of vtg1 was dramatically suppressed in the liver of TBT-treated fish, suggesting an insufficient synthesis of Vtg protein, consistent with the decreased percentage of mid/late-stage follicles in the ovaries. Moreover, TBT significantly suppressed the reproductive behaviors of the female fish (duration of both sexes simultaneously in spawning area, the frequency of meeting and the visit in spawning area) and down-regulated the mRNA levels of genes involved in the regulation of reproductive behaviors (cyp19a1b, gnrh-3 and kiss 2) in the brain. In addition, TBT significantly suppressed the expressions of serotonin-related genes, such as tph2 (encoding serotonin synthase), pet1 (marker of serotonin neuron) and kiss 1 (the modulator of serotonin synthesis), suggesting that TBT might disrupt the non-reproductive behaviors of zebrafish. The present

  17. Dissociation of sad facial expressions and autonomic nervous system responding in boys with disruptive behavior disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Penny; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Williams, Bailey

    2009-01-01

    Although deficiencies in emotional responding have been linked to externalizing behaviors in children, little is known about how discrete response systems (e.g., expressive, physiological) are coordinated during emotional challenge among these youth. We examined time-linked correspondence of sad facial expressions and autonomic reactivity during an empathy-eliciting task among boys with disruptive behavior disorders (n = 31) and controls (n = 23). For controls, sad facial expressions were associated with reduced sympathetic (lower skin conductance level, lengthened cardiac preejection period [PEP]) and increased parasympathetic (higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) activity. In contrast, no correspondence between facial expressions and autonomic reactivity was observed among boys with conduct problems. Furthermore, low correspondence between facial expressions and PEP predicted externalizing symptom severity, whereas low correspondence between facial expressions and RSA predicted internalizing symptom severity. PMID:17868261

  18. Efektivitas Anger Management Training Untuk Menurunkan Agresivitas Pada Remaja Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrizulhaidi Nasrizulhaidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efektivitas anger management training untuk menurunkan agresivitas pada remaja disruptive behavior disorders. Subjek penelitian dipilih melalui screening dengan skala CPRS (Conduct Problem Risk Screen dan pengukuran agresivitas dengan skala Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ. AMT (Anger Management Training berupa psikoedukasi, yang mempelajari tentang pemahaman dasar marah, ekspresi marah dan akibatnya, mengidentifikasi diri saat marah, mengontrol pikiran marah dan menentukan tingkat kemarahan. Selanjutnya memahami anger management melalui film, relaksasi otot dan pernapasan, cara menyelesaikan konflik, cara mengontrol marah dan perencanaan dalam mengontrol marah. Adapun metode intervensi yang digunakan terdiri dari diskusi kasus, latihan individual, presentasi dan modelling perilaku. Penempatan subjek dengan random assignment dibagi menjadi dua kelompok. Kelompok eksperimen berjumlah 10 orang, mendapat AMT selama 3 kali pertemuan dan setiap pertemuan memerlukan waktu 120 menit. Sementara subjek di kelompok kontrol juga berjumlah 10 orang, namun tidak mendapatkan perlakuan. Dapat disimpulkan anger management efektif untuk menurunkan agresivitas. Dalam hal ini subjek di kelompok eksperimen mengalami penurunan agresivitas setelah mendapat AMT dan subjek di kelompok kontrol mengalami peningkatan agresivitas karena tidak mendapatkan AMT. Selain itu AMT dapat pula diberikan pada individu yang memiliki kemampuan di bawah rata-rata, dengan memodifikasi program yang lebih berbentuk operasional konkrit. Kata kunci: anger management training, agresivitas, disruptive behavior disorders

  19. Genetic Disruption of Circadian Rhythms in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Causes Helplessness, Behavioral Despair, and Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Dominic; Long, Jaimie E.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Barandas, Rita; Malinow, Roberto; Welsh, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is associated with disturbed circadian rhythms. To investigate the causal relationship between mood disorders and circadian clock disruption, previous studies in animal models have employed light/dark manipulations, global mutations of clock genes, or brain area lesions. However, light can impact mood by noncircadian mechanisms; clock genes have pleiotropic, clock-independent functions; and brain lesions not only disrupt cellular circadian rhythms but also destroy cells and eliminate important neuronal connections, including light reception pathways. Thus, a definitive causal role for functioning circadian clocks in mood regulation has not been established. Methods We stereotactically injected viral vectors encoding short hairpin RNA to knock down expression of the essential clock gene Bmal1 into the brain's master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Results In these SCN-specific Bmal1-knockdown (SCN-Bmal1-KD) mice, circadian rhythms were greatly attenuated in the SCN, while the mice were maintained in a standard light/dark cycle, SCN neurons remained intact, and neuronal connections were undisturbed, including photic inputs. In the learned helplessness paradigm, the SCN-Bmal1-KD mice were slower to escape, even before exposure to inescapable stress. They also spent more time immobile in the tail suspension test and less time in the lighted section of a light/dark box. The SCN-Bmal1-KD mice also showed greater weight gain, an abnormal circadian pattern of corticosterone, and an attenuated increase of corticosterone in response to stress. Conclusions Disrupting SCN circadian rhythms is sufficient to cause helplessness, behavioral despair, and anxiety-like behavior in mice, establishing SCN-Bmal1-KD mice as a new animal model of depression. PMID:27113500

  20. Genetic Disruption of Circadian Rhythms in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Causes Helplessness, Behavioral Despair, and Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Dominic; Long, Jaimie E; Proulx, Christophe D; Barandas, Rita; Malinow, Roberto; Welsh, David K

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder is associated with disturbed circadian rhythms. To investigate the causal relationship between mood disorders and circadian clock disruption, previous studies in animal models have employed light/dark manipulations, global mutations of clock genes, or brain area lesions. However, light can impact mood by noncircadian mechanisms; clock genes have pleiotropic, clock-independent functions; and brain lesions not only disrupt cellular circadian rhythms but also destroy cells and eliminate important neuronal connections, including light reception pathways. Thus, a definitive causal role for functioning circadian clocks in mood regulation has not been established. We stereotactically injected viral vectors encoding short hairpin RNA to knock down expression of the essential clock gene Bmal1 into the brain's master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In these SCN-specific Bmal1-knockdown (SCN-Bmal1-KD) mice, circadian rhythms were greatly attenuated in the SCN, while the mice were maintained in a standard light/dark cycle, SCN neurons remained intact, and neuronal connections were undisturbed, including photic inputs. In the learned helplessness paradigm, the SCN-Bmal1-KD mice were slower to escape, even before exposure to inescapable stress. They also spent more time immobile in the tail suspension test and less time in the lighted section of a light/dark box. The SCN-Bmal1-KD mice also showed greater weight gain, an abnormal circadian pattern of corticosterone, and an attenuated increase of corticosterone in response to stress. Disrupting SCN circadian rhythms is sufficient to cause helplessness, behavioral despair, and anxiety-like behavior in mice, establishing SCN-Bmal1-KD mice as a new animal model of depression. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavior of hard X-ray emission in discharges with current disruptions in the DAMAVAND and TVD tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshi, E.; Amrollahy, R.; Bortnikov, A.V.; Brevnov, N.N.; Gott, Yu.V.; Shurygin, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the behavior of hard X-ray emission in discharges with current disruptions in the DAMAVAND and TVD tokamaks. The current disruptions are caused by either an MHD instability or the instability related to the vertical displacement of the plasma column. Experiments were conducted at a fixed value of the safety factor at the plasma boundary (q a ≅ 2.3). Experimental data show that, during a disruption caused by an MHD instability, hard X-ray emission is suppressed by this instability if the amplitude of the magnetic field fluctuations exceeds a certain level. If the disruption is caused by the instability related to the vertical displacement of the plasma column, then hard X-ray emission is observed at the instant of disruption. The experimental results show that the physical processes resulting in the generation and suppression of runaway electron beams are almost identical in large and small tokamaks

  2. Nervous system disruption and concomitant behavioral abnormality in early hatched pufferfish larvae exposed to heavy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Sugahara, Yuki; Watanabe, Tomoe; Irie, Kouta; Ishida, Minoru; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Takata, Hiromi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2011-08-01

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.

  3. Direct Behavioral Consultation in Head Start to Increase Teacher Use of Praise and Effective Instruction Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Parker, Kizzy; Menousek, Kathryn; Zhou, Qi; Harpole, Lauren Lestremau; Olmi, D. Joe

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disruptive behaviors during early childhood are associated with many poor developmental outcomes including, but not limited to, school dropout and conduct disorder during adolescence. Much is known regarding effective intervention procedures for disruptive classroom behaviors by preschool children. Unfortunately, evidence-based…

  4. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Shoshani; Michelle Slone

    2017-01-01

    Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention co...

  5. The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…

  6. Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Adolescents with ASD: Comparisons to Youth with Intellectual Disability or Typical Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Dual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behavior problems and/or mental disorders has become increasingly recognized and studied. Reported rates in samples of mixed-age youth with ASD are often above 70%, making this comorbidity more the rule than the exception. The present study compared rates of disruptive behavior disorder…

  7. Treating young children's disruptive behavior problems: dissemination of an evidence- based parent management training program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle

    2015-01-01

    High levels of young children’s disruptive behavior problems are persistent, highly prevalent, and a serious public health concern. If left untreated, these behaviors can lead to serious difficulties in broad areas of child and family functioning, and economically impact the wider society.

  8. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders in Clinically Referred Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Boeldt, Debra; Chen, Diane; Coyne, Claire; Donald, Radiah; Duax, Jeanne; Hart, Katherine; Perrott, Jennifer; Strickland, Jennifer; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Davis, Shante; Kampani, Smita; Humphries, Marisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic validity of oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) for preschoolers has been questioned based on concerns regarding the ability to differentiate normative, transient disruptive behavior from clinical symptoms. Data on concurrent validity have accumulated, but predictive validity is limited. Predictive…

  9. Aggressive behaviour in preschool children. Neuropsychological correlates, costs of service use, and preventive efforts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    At ages two and three the vast majority of children shows a high level of aggression. During the preschool period the level of aggression generally declines. However, some children continue to show a high level of aggression and are at risk for the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD),

  10. Preschool outcomes following prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure: differences in language and behavior, but not cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katrina C; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A

    2016-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) is associated with language and behavioral outcomes in preschool-aged children, while accounting for confounds such as concomitant exposures and maternal mental illness. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study of mental illness in pregnancy was conducted at a university-based women's mental health clinic (April 2010-November 2012). A sample of 178 mother-child dyads participated in a laboratory visit at preschool age (2.5-5.5 years). The majority of women (87%) received psychotropic medication during pregnancy. Psychiatric status (based on DSM-IV), other medication use, and substance use were serially assessed and tested as confounds. Primary outcome measures included standardized measures of expressive language and cognitive function and mother and alternate caregiver ratings of child behavior problems, including the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression analyses revealed that, after controlling for relevant covariates, expressive language scores from the Test of Early Language Development, 3rd edition, were negatively associated with prenatal SRI exposure (β = -0.15, t = -2.41), while the PDD behavioral problems subscales completed by alternate caregivers and mothers were positively associated with prenatal SRI exposure (β = 0.17, t = 2.01; β = 0.16, t = 2.00, respectively). Cognitive function, measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd edition, was not associated with any medication exposures. The current data suggest a small but significant association between prenatal SRI exposure and preschool outcomes, including expressive language and behavior problems. These data corroborate data from recent, population-based studies, although overall, published findings are mixed. Replication and identification of moderating risk factors are needed to understand potential clinical implications.

  11. Why New Spinal Cord Plasticity Does Not Disrupt Old Motor Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2017-08-23

    When new motor learning changes the spinal cord, old behaviors are not impaired; their key features are preserved by additional compensatory plasticity. To explore the mechanisms responsible for this compensatory plasticity, we transected the spinal dorsal ascending tract before or after female rats acquired a new behavior-operantly conditioned increase or decrease in the right soleus H-reflex-and examined an old behavior-locomotion. Neither spinal dorsal ascending tract transection nor H-reflex conditioning alone impaired locomotion. Nevertheless, when spinal dorsal ascending tract transection and H-reflex conditioning were combined, the rats developed a limp and a tilted posture that correlated in direction and magnitude with the H-reflex change. When the right H-reflex was increased by conditioning, the right step lasted longer than the left and the right hip was higher than the left; when the right H-reflex was decreased by conditioning, the opposite occurred. These results indicate that ascending sensory input guides the compensatory plasticity that normally prevents the plasticity underlying H-reflex change from impairing locomotion. They support the concept of the state of the spinal cord as a negotiated equilibrium that reflects the concurrent influences of all the behaviors in an individual's repertoire; and they support the new therapeutic strategies this concept introduces. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The spinal cord provides a reliable final common pathway for motor behaviors throughout life. Until recently, its reliability was explained by the assumption that it is hardwired; but it is now clear that the spinal cord changes continually as new behaviors are acquired. Nevertheless, old behaviors are preserved. This study shows that their preservation depends on sensory feedback from the spinal cord to the brain: if feedback is removed, the acquisition of a new behavior may disrupt an old behavior. In sum, when a new behavior changes the spinal cord, sensory

  12. Vomeronasal organ lesion disrupts social odor recognition, behaviors and fitness in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjuan; Zhang, Jinhua; Liu, Dingzhen; Zhang, Jianxu

    2014-06-01

    Most studies support the viewpoint that the vomeronasal organ has a profound effect on conspecific odor recognition, scent marking and mating behavior in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in social odor recognition, social interaction and fitness is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a series of behavioral and physiological tests to examine the referred points in golden hamster. We found that male hamsters with vomeronasal organ lesion showed no preference between a predator odor (the anal gland secretion of the Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) and putative female pheromone components (myristic acid and palmitic acid), but were still able to discriminate between these 2 kinds of odors. In behavioral tests of anxiety, we found that vomeronasal organ removal causes female hamsters to spend much less time in center grids and to cross fewer center grids and males to make fewer crossings between light and dark boxes than sham-operated controls. This indicates that a chronic vomeronasal organ lesion induced anxious responses in females. In aggressive behavioral tests, we found that a chronic vomeronasal organ lesion decreased agonistic behavior in female hamsters but not in males. The pup growth and litter size show no differences between the 2 groups. All together, our data suggested that vomeronasal organ ablation disrupted the olfactory recognition of social chemosignals in males, and induced anxiety-like and aggressive behavior changes in females. However, a vomeronasal organ lesion did not affect the reproductive capacity and fitness of hamsters. Our studies may have important implications concerning the role of the vomeronasal organ in golden hamsters and also in rodents. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. ADHD with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: discrete or nondistinct disruptive behavior disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A

    2008-09-01

    In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male children and adolescents with either ADHD (n = 65), ADHD with ODD (n = 85), or ADHD with CD (n = 50) were compared using structured diagnostic interviews and parent, teacher, and clinician rating scales. In children with ADHD, significant differences emerged between ODD and CD in the domains of delinquency, overt aggression, and ADHD symptom severity; ADHD with CD was most severe, followed by ADHD with ODD, and ADHD had the least severe symptoms. Distinctions between ADHD with CD and the other two groups were found for parenting, treatment history, and school variables. Within the limits of a cross-sectional methodology, results support clinically meaningful distinctions between ODD and CD in children with ADHD.

  14. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. Morse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. Method A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, M age = 20 from a large public university completed an online survey. Results Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use.

  15. Mind wandering and motor control: off-task thinking disrupts the online adjustment of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Julia W Y; Dao, Elizabeth; Blinn, Patricia; Krigolson, Olav E; Boyd, Lara A; Handy, Todd C

    2012-01-01

    Mind wandering episodes have been construed as periods of "stimulus-independent" thought, where our minds are decoupled from the external sensory environment. In two experiments, we used behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to determine whether mind wandering episodes can also be considered as periods of "response-independent" thought, with our minds disengaged from adjusting our behavioral outputs. In the first experiment, participants performed a motor tracking task and were occasionally prompted to report whether their attention was "on-task" or "mind wandering." We found greater tracking error in periods prior to mind wandering vs. on-task reports. To ascertain whether this finding was due to attenuation in visual perception per se vs. a disruptive effect of mind wandering on performance monitoring, we conducted a second experiment in which participants completed a time-estimation task. They were given feedback on the accuracy of their estimations while we recorded their EEG, and were also occasionally asked to report their attention state. We found that the sensitivity of behavior and the P3 ERP component to feedback signals were significantly reduced just prior to mind wandering vs. on-task attentional reports. Moreover, these effects co-occurred with decreases in the error-related negativity elicited by feedback signals (fERN), a direct measure of behavioral feedback assessment in cortex. Our findings suggest that the functional consequences of mind wandering are not limited to just the processing of incoming stimulation per se, but extend as well to the control and adjustment of behavior.

  16. Disruption of model-based behavior and learning by cocaine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wied, Heather M; Jones, Joshua L; Cooch, Nisha K; Berg, Benjamin A; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    Addiction is characterized by maladaptive decision-making, in which individuals seem unable to use adverse outcomes to modify their behavior. Adverse outcomes are often infrequent, delayed, and even rare events, especially when compared to the reliable rewarding drug-associated outcomes. As a result, recognizing and using information about their occurrence put a premium on the operation of so-called model-based systems of behavioral control, which allow one to mentally simulate outcomes of different courses of action based on knowledge of the underlying associative structure of the environment. This suggests that addiction may reflect, in part, drug-induced dysfunction in these systems. Here, we tested this hypothesis. This study aimed to test whether cocaine causes deficits in model-based behavior and learning independent of requirements for response inhibition or perception of costs or punishment. We trained rats to self-administer sucrose or cocaine for 2 weeks. Four weeks later, the rats began training on a sensory preconditioning and inferred value blocking task. Like devaluation, normal performance on this task requires representations of the underlying task structure; however, unlike devaluation, it does not require either response inhibition or adapting behavior to reflect aversive outcomes. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine failed to show conditioned responding or blocking to the preconditioned cue. These deficits were not observed in sucrose-trained rats nor did they reflect any changes in responding to cues paired directly with reward. These results imply that cocaine disrupts the operation of neural circuits that mediate model-based behavioral control.

  17. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  18. Building partnerships: a pilot study of stakeholders' attitudes on technology disruption in behavioral health delivery and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucala, Madalina; Nilsen, Wendy; Muench, Frederick

    2017-12-01

    Collaborations between scientists, care providers, and technology industry professionals are becoming more relevant for developing, testing, and implementing behavioral health technologies. As the need for such partnerships increases, it is important to understand stakeholders' attitudes about their role in partnering for developing such technologies and how much do they expect technology to impact behavioral research and care. The aim of this study was to investigate how much technology disruption do stakeholders expect in healthcare, as well as their perceived contribution in partnering for developing behavioral health technologies. Stakeholders (N = 74) responded to an online convenience sampling survey. Over 89% of participants reported expecting that technology will bring at least a moderate amount of disruption in the current models of behavioral healthcare, with respondents with the most experience in digital health expecting the most disruption. As for their perception of each other's role in partnering for developing behavioral health technologies, one group's weakness was considered to be complemented by another group's strength. Academics were perceived as having more theoretical and research expertise but being less technology-savvy, while industry professionals were considered to excel at technological and marketing activities. Providers were considered to have the most clinical and real-world healthcare industry expertise. Our results indicate that technology is expected to disrupt current healthcare models, while also highlighting the need for collaboration, as no single group was considered to have sufficient expertise and resources to develop successful, effective behavioral health technologies on its own. These results may contribute to a better understanding of how technology disruption is affecting behavioral healthcare from the standpoint of its key players, which may lead to better collaborative models of research and care delivery.

  19. Factor validation of the portuguese version of the social skills scale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Seabra-Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of preschoolers’ social skills represents a topic of growing importance in research recently developed in the field. The purpose of this article is to present confirmatory factor analyses studies for the Social Skills scale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales – Second Edition (PKBS-2, a behavior rating scale that evaluates social skills and problem behaviors, adapted and validated for Portuguese preschool children. The 34 items of the Social Skills scale, distributed on three subscales (Social Cooperation/Adjustment, Social Interaction/Empathy and Social Independence/Assertiveness, were grouped into item-parcels. Model adjustment was analyzed for the total sample (N = 2000 and the analyses were replicated for the subsamples collected in the home (n = 1000 and school settings (n = 1000. The factor structure was very stable for the three samples, with high internal consistency levels and correlations between parcels/scales. The results highlight the utility/validity of the Social Skills scale of the PKBS-2 (Portuguese version.

  20. Relationship between parenting stress and informant discrepancies on symptoms of ADHD/ODD and internalizing behaviors in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Liang, Sophie Hsin-Yi; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Tseng, Yu-Han

    2017-01-01

    Parent and teacher ratings of child behaviors are often discrepant, and these discrepancies may be correlated with parenting stress. The present study explored whether various parenting stress factors are associated with discrepancies between parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as well as internalizing symptoms in preschool children. We recruited 299 Taiwanese preschool children (aged 4–6 years) from the community or via clinical referrals. A structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships among three factors derived from the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and informant discrepancies on symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and internalizing behaviors. Scores reported by parents were higher for each of the symptoms examined than those reported by teachers, and the degree of agreement between informants ranged from low to moderate. The parental distress factor of parenting stress was associated only with parent ratings, whereas other factors of parenting stress—parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parents’ stress resulted from their child’s temperament—were correlated with both parent and teacher ratings. Only parental distress factor predicted informant discrepancies for all behavioral symptoms assessed. Our findings suggest that parental distress should be considered when parent rating scores show significant discrepancies from that of teacher rating scores. PMID:29016602

  1. An environmentally relevant endocrine-disrupting antiandrogen, vinclozolin, affects calling behavior of male Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2010-09-01

    Vinclozolin (VIN) is an antiandrogenic model substance as well as a common fungicide that can affect the endocrine system of vertebrates. The objective of this study was to investigate how VIN affects mate calling behavior of South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) and whether it is effective at environmentally relevant concentrations. Male X. laevis were injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate their androgen-controlled mate calling behavior and were treated with VIN at concentrations of 10(-6), 10(-8) and 10(-10)M. VIN at 10(-6)M reduced calling activity. Furthermore, the vocalization composition of VIN-treated X. laevis was altered. The call types advertisement calls and chirping are uttered by reproductively active males, whereas the call types growling, ticking, and rasping indicate a sexually unaroused state of a male. VIN at any of the tested concentrations led to a decrease in utterance of calls, which indicate a sexually aroused state of the males, and an increase in relative proportions of calls, indicating a sexually unaroused state of the males. Additionally, the mean duration of clicks and the number of accentuated clicks during the advertisement calls decreased at all concentrations of VIN. No significant differences were observed in any other temporal or spectral calling parameters between the treatments. This study illustrates that exposure to the antiandrogen VIN might result in a reduced reproductive success by altering mate calling behavior of X. laevis. Moreover, it suggests that the behavioral parameters examined in this study can be used as sensitive biomarkers for detecting antiandrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds in amphibians. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of socioeconomic status on behavioral problems from preschool to early elementary school - A Japanese longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikuya Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school.The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval. The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year; 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report.For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems. Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems.In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these

  3. Media Exposure in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children Is Associated with Multiple Measures of Self-Regulatory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzer, Tiffany G; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred A; Contreras, Dawn; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C; Radesky, Jenny

    2018-05-01

    Excessive screen media exposure in childhood is associated with parent-reported self-regulation difficulties. No studies have used laboratory-based or teacher-reported measures of child self-regulatory behaviors. This study examines cross-sectional associations between preschooler screen media exposure and multiple measures of self-regulatory behaviors. Preintervention data were used from 541 preschoolers in the Growing Healthy study, an obesity prevention trial (2011-2015). Screen media exposure was measured by daily screen media exposure (hr/d), television (TV) in the bedroom, frequency of background TV, and TV with meals (1 = rarely/never, 4 = frequently). Child self-regulatory behaviors were measured by the following: child ability to delay gratification, a standardized waiting paradigm; teacher-reported Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation; and parent-reported difficult temperament on the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). Multivariate regression analyses modeled screen media exposure predicting each self-regulatory measure, adjusting for child age, sex, parent age, education, marital status, income-to-needs ratio, number of adults in household, parent depressive symptoms, and sensitivity. Children were aged 4.1 years (SD = 0.5), parents were aged 29.6 years (SD = 6.8), 48% had high school education or less, and 67% were married. Daily screen media exposure and background TV were associated with weaker observed self-regulation (β: -10.30 seconds for each hr/d media, -12.63 seconds for 1-point increase, respectively). Background TV and TV with meals were associated with greater parent-reported difficult temperament (β: 0.04 and 0.05 CBQ, respectively, for 1-point increase). Greater screen media exposure had small but significant associations with weaker observed and parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, self-regulatory behaviors. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the directionality of associations.

  4. Effect of socioeconomic status on behavioral problems from preschool to early elementary school - A Japanese longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki

    2018-01-01

    Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school. The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval). The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year) and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year); 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education) and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report. For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems). Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems. In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these associations could

  5. HEROs: Design of a Mixed-Methods Formative Research Phase for an Ecocultural Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating and Activity Behaviors in Rural Families With Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura L; McCloskey, Morgan; Clark, Lauren; Thompson, Darcy A; Bekelman, Traci A; Chamberlin, Barbara; Johnson, Susan L

    2018-04-10

    To describe the mixed-methods formative research phase in the development of the Healthy Environments Study (HEROs), a technology-based, interactive family intervention to promote healthy eating and activity behaviors for young children in the home environment. A mixed-method iterative approach, using ecocultural theory as a framework, will guide the development of both quantitative and qualitative formative research assessments. Rural eastern Colorado. Low-income families (n = 200) with preschool-aged children enrolled at 6 Head Start/preschool centers. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies will garner insights into 4 key topic areas: (1) food behaviors and environments (Remote Food Photography Method, parent focus group, and survey), (2) physical activity behaviors and environments (parent interview and survey), (3) mobile device use (parent survey and interview), and (4) daily life (ecocultural family interview and teacher/staff group discussions). Results will be interpreted in combination to allow for a holistic understanding of participant behaviors, beliefs, attitudes and values related to each of the 4 topic areas. Collectively, outcomes will provide a comprehensive picture of preschoolers' daily life and inform intervention design and strategies to enhance preschoolers' eating and activity behaviors in the home environment. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing the Efficacy of INSIGHTS on Student Disruptive Behavior, Classroom Management, and Student Competence in Inner City Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Rodriguez, Eileen T

    2010-03-01

    A prevention trial tested the efficacy of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers in six inner city schools. Teachers completed the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI) and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Competence and Social Acceptance (TRS) at baseline and again upon completion of the intervention. Boys participating in INSIGHTS, compared with those in the Read Aloud program, showed a significant decline in attentional difficulties and overt aggression toward others. Teachers in INSIGHTS, compared to those in the attention control condition, reported significantly fewer problems managing the emotional-oppositional behavior, attentional difficulties, and covert disruptive behavior of their male students. They also perceived the boys as significantly more cognitively and physically competent.

  7. Effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training to modify disruptive and prosocial child behavior: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Ankie T A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2013-12-01

    The present meta-analytic review examined effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training (IYPT) regarding disruptive and prosocial child behavior, and aimed to explain variability in intervention outcomes. Fifty studies, in which an intervention group receiving the IYPT was compared to a comparison group immediately after intervention, were included in the analyses. Results showed that the IYPT is an effective intervention. Positive effects for distinct outcomes and distinct informants were found, including a mean effect size of d=.27 concerning disruptive child behavior across informants. For parental report, treatment studies were associated with larger effects (d=.50) than indicated (d=.20) and selective (d=.13) prevention studies. Furthermore, initial severity of child behavior revealed to be the strongest predictor of intervention effects, with larger effects for studies including more severe cases. Findings indicate that the IYPT is successful in improving child behavior in a diverse range of families, and that the parent program may be considered well-established. © 2013.

  8. The Trouble with Boys: Social Influences and the Gender Gap in Disruptive Behavior. NBER Working Paper No. 17541

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Marianne; Pan, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of the home and school environments in explaining the gender gap in disruptive behavior. We document large differences in the gender gap across key features of the home environment--boys do especially poorly in broken families. In contrast, we find little impact of the early school environment on non-cognitive…

  9. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; Quekel, Lorentz G. B. A.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically healthy 10- to

  10. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  11. Characterizing Community-Based Mental Health Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren I.; Taylor, Robin; Garland, Ann F.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with disruptive behavior problems served in community-based mental health clinics, characterizes psychotherapy process and outcome, and examines differences between children with ASD and a non-ASD comparison group. Results indicate that children with ASD…

  12. Concurrent attenuated reactivity of alpha-amylase and cortisol is related to disruptive behavior in male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouw, M.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van de Ven, P.M.; Popma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Attenuated reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase has been proposed as a specific sympathetic marker of disruptive behavior in juveniles and may have additional value to studying other autonomic parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Investigating the interrelationships between

  13. Neural Rhythms of Change: Long-Term Improvement after Successful Treatment in Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, S.; Liao, V.; Liu, Z.X.; Granic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Neural changes were investigated for children with disruptive behavior problems one year after a treatment program ended. Thirty-nine children and their parents visited the research lab before, after, and a year after treatment ended. During those lab visits, electroencephalography (EEG) was

  14. Executive Functions and Child Problem Behaviors Are Sensitive to Family Disruption: A Study of Children of Mothers Working Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewage, Chandana; Bohlin, Gunilla; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Mothers in Sri Lanka are increasingly seeking overseas employment, resulting in disruption of the childcare environment. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal migration on executive function (EF) and behavior, thereby also contributing to the scientific understanding of environmental effects--or more specifically…

  15. Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation across Life Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to…

  16. Is It Incivility or Mental Illness? Understanding and Coping with Disruptive Student Behavior in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton-Cassill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Rising rates of incivility in the college classroom can generate stress for both faculty and students. However, incivility can take multiple forms, have different causes and require different management techniques. In some cases disruptive behavior is the result of student faculty interactions, and can be ameliorated by improved communication or…

  17. Pre-Schoolers' Verbal and Behavioral Responses as Indicators of Attitudes and Scientific Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Yael Kesner; Spektor-Levy, Ornit; Mashal, Nira

    2016-01-01

    Today, early science education is a well-accepted view. Enhancing children's curiosity about the natural world and fostering positive attitudes toward science are primary goals of science education. However, questions remain regarding the appropriate ways to identify, nurture, and study these emotional states in pre-schoolers. This study examines…

  18. Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers: The Mediating Role of Social Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…

  19. Teachers' Assumptions Regarding the Severity, Causes, and Outcomes of Behavioral Problems in Preschoolers: Implications for Referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elaine; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Asked preschool teachers (N=100) to rate severity, long-term outcome, stability, and importance of constitutional and environmental determinants for case vignettes describing three syndromes: aggression, hyperactivity, and withdrawal, and to judge the need for referral. Results indicated little evidence of sex bias in teachers' evaluations of the…

  20. Fit5Kids TV reduction program and Latino preschoolers' TV viewing behaviors: A pilot cluster RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive television (TV) viewing has been associated with a greater risk of childhood obesity. Latino children watch higher amounts of TV than their peers and are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. Since TV viewing and obesity track from preschool into adolescence, early intervention...

  1. The use of the coping power program to treat a 10-year-old girl with disruptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Boxmeyer, Caroline; Powell, Nicole; Wojnaroski, Mary; Yaros, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the successful application of the Coping Power program by school-based clinicians to address a 10-year-old girl's disruptive behavior symptoms. Coping Power is an empirically supported cognitive-behavioral program for children at risk for serious conduct problems and their parents. The following case study illustrates the core features of the Coping Power child and parent components while describing the use of assessment data and clinical decision making during the implementation of a manualized intervention.

  2. Testing the Efficacy of INSIGHTS on Student Disruptive Behavior, Classroom Management, and Student Competence in Inner City Primary Grades

    OpenAIRE

    McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Rodriguez, Eileen T.

    2009-01-01

    A prevention trial tested the efficacy of INSIGHTS into Children?s Temperament as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers in six inner city schools. Teachers completed the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI) and the Teacher?s Rating Scale of Child?s Actual Competence ...

  3. [Effect of an intervention based on child-care centers to reduce risk behaviors for obesity in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; González-Unzaga, Marco A; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca

    Preschool age is a critical stage for health promotion and prevention of obesity, which is an emerging public health problem in children. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention based on child-care centers to reduce risk behaviors for obesity among preschool children. A 12-month cluster-randomized community trial was conducted in 16 Mexican Institute of Social Security child-care centers in Mexico City. Children between 2 and 4 years of age enrolled in the selected child-care centers participated in the study. Intervention comprised 12 weekly curriculum sessions for the children, and six family workshops. Changes in children's dietary and physical activity, food availability at home, and maternal feeding styles were determined after 6 and 12 months. Changes within groups among stages, and between groups by stage were analyzed through χ 2 test. The intervention showed decrease of home availability for some non-recommended foods and increase in physical activity in the intervention group compared to the usual care group. Improvement in physical activity can be effective in the long term; innovative strategies aimed to modify family dietary risk behaviors are required. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Preschoolers' genetic, physiological, and behavioral sensitivity factors moderate links between parenting stress and child internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R H

    2017-05-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (M age  = 30.68 years, SD age  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (M age  = 3.50 years, SD age  = 0.51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes. A 4-year-old girl underwent 3 baseline and 10 videogame distraction sessions (5 passive and 5 interactive) using a restricted alternating treatments design. Observed behavioral distress was coded, and parents and nurses rated the child's distress and cooperative behavior. Relative to baseline, behavioral distress decreased and cooperative behavior increased immediately after the onset of videogame distraction. Single Case Randomization Tests revealed significantly lower behavioral distress and greater cooperation during interactive videogame distraction relative to passive videogame distraction. Interactive videogame distraction appears to be a feasible and effective pain management strategy for a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated painful medical procedures.

  6. Location influences snacking behavior of US infants, toddlers and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, Emma F; Deming, Denise M; Eldridge, Alison L

    2018-06-13

    Compare at-home and away-from-home snacking patterns of US infants and young children. A secondary analysis was conducted using nationwide, cross-sectional dietary survey data from the US Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008. The sample included infants (6-11.9 months, n = 505), toddlers (12-23.9 months, n = 925), preschool children (24-47.9 months, n = 1461). Weighted population descriptive statistics (means and standard errors) were calculated using SAS. Significance was determined at P ≤ 0.05. The main outcome measures of the analyses were the percent of children consuming snacks by location (at home, away from home) and snacking period (morning, afternoon and evening), energy and food groups consumed during snacks. Snacking at home was more prevalent than snacking away from home (toddlers, 73% vs 27%; preschoolers, 67% vs 33%). Away-from-home snacks provided about 50 additional calories per day for toddlers (346 vs 298 kcal/day, P ≤ 0.05) and preschoolers (371 vs 326 kcal/day, P ≤ 0.05) versus snacks consumed at home. Caregivers made similar snack choices for toddlers and preschoolers (milk/milk products, fruit/juice, grains and sweets) but differed in frequency of consumption by location. Among toddlers, milk/milk products were the most frequently consumed snacks at home (66%), while sweets were the top snacks consumed away from home (69%). Among preschoolers, sweets were the top snacks both at home (60%) and away (83%). Location is an important factor influencing snacking patterns of young children and should be considered when developing feeding guidelines. This data may be of use in the upcoming development of dietary guidelines in the U.S. for the population aged 0-2 years.

  7. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preschool Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    Differences in behavioral, social, and school functioning of 58 preschool-age (3 -5 years) children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 36 normal controls were examined at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.

  9. Scatter Plot Analysis of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Severe Disruptive Behavior in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Bouts, Lex; Smits, Marcel G.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at risk for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and disruptive behavior. This pilot study explores temporal characteristics of EDS and severe disruptive behavior across time of day and day of week in seven individuals with PWS (aged between 33 and 49 years) of whom five were matched to controls.…

  10. Social skills and behavior problems of urban, African American preschoolers: role of parenting practices, family conflict, and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally A; Kuvalanka, Katherine A; Randolph, Suzanne M

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the role of parenting, family routines, family conflict, and maternal depression in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. A sample of 184 African American mothers of Head Start children completed participant and child measures in a structured interview. Results of regression analyses revealed that mothers who utilized more positive parenting practices and engaged in more family routines had children who displayed higher levels of total prosocial skills. Positive parenting and lower levels of maternal depressive symptoms were predictive of fewer externalizing and internalizing child behavior problems. Lower family conflict was linked with fewer externalizing problems. Implications of the study for future research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors. PMID:25083349

  12. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Brendan F; Browne, Dillon T; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.

  13. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan F. Andrade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate, or influence (i.e., moderate, peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.

  14. A metacognitive strategy for reducing disruptive behavior in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: GoFAR pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy C

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often characterized by disruptive behavior problems and there are few effective interventions available. GoFAR is a novel, 3-part intervention designed to improve self-regulation and adaptive living skills of children with FASD by improving metacognitive control of emotions and arousal. The intervention has 3 components: (i) GoFAR: a "serious game" designed to teach a metacognitive control strategy in a computer game environment; (ii) parent training on child behavioral regulation; and (iii) Behavior Analog Therapy (BAT) sessions, a practical application of the metacognitive learning methodology by parent and child in the context of learning adaptive skills. The learning strategy (FAR) teaches the child to Focus and make a plan, Act out the plan, and Reflect back on the plan. Thirty families were randomized to 3 groups: (i) GoFAR (n = 10); (ii) FACELAND (n = 10); or (iii) CONTROL (n = 10). The 2 intervention groups, GoFAR and FACELAND, used computer games to instruct children. Both groups also received 5 sessions of parent training followed by 5 sessions of joint parent/child therapy (BAT). Assessment of disruptive behavior, including frequency of temper tantrums, frustration tolerance, impulsivity, destructiveness, aggression, and maintaining attention were carried out before enrollment at Mid-Treatment, when game play and parent training were completed, and finally, after completing the BAT sessions. Parental report of disruptive behavior overall was significantly reduced in the GoFAR group after the first components, game play and parent training, and after the BAT sessions in the FACELAND group with no changes in the CONTROL group over time. The GoFAR(®) game was well received by children and effective in teaching the required skills. Mastering the FAR metacognitive strategy was associated with a reduction in disruptive behaviors in children with FASD suggesting that effective interventions can improve outcomes for

  15. Relationship among the Parenting Styles and the Social Competence and Prosocial Behaviors of the Children Who are Attending to State and Private Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Fatma Basak; Gure, Aysen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of social competence and prosocial behaviors of the boys and girls who are attending to private or state preschools with the parenting styles of mothers' perception. Participants of the research were 344 children's (ranging from 35 and 75 months of age) teachers and mothers.…

  16. Test Review for Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET) Manual: Assessing Universal Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo

    2013-01-01

    The Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET; Steed & Pomerleau, 2012) is published by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company in Baltimore, MD. The PreSET purports to measure universal and program-wide features of early childhood programs' implementation fidelity of program-wide positive behavior intervention and support (PW-PBIS) and is,…

  17. Early Mental Development as a Predictor of Preschool Cognitive and Behavioral Development in South Africa: The Moderating Role of Maternal Education in the Birth to Twenty Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Celia; Richter, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the influence of early development on preschool cognitive and behavioral outcomes in South Africa, as well as the role of family factors such as maternal education in moderating this association. The study involved 167 Black South African children (89 boys and 78 girls) from the Birth to Twenty study during their first 5…

  18. Parenting Behaviors and Preschool Children's Social and Emotional Skills: A Question of the Consequential Validity of Traditional Parenting Constructs for Low-Income African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWayne, C. M.; Owsianik, M.; Green, L. E.; Fantuzzo, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Few researchers have questioned the validity of traditional parenting dimensions (based largely on Baumrind's [Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88; Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4, 1-103] work)…

  19. Social Skills Intervention Planning for Preschoolers: Using the SSiS-Rating Scales to Identify Target Behaviors Valued by Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jennifer R.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' and parents' importance ratings of social behaviors for 95 preschoolers were examined using the "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales" (Gresham & Elliott, 2008). Multivariate analyses were used to examine parents' and teachers' importance ratings at the item and subscale levels. Overall,…

  20. Association of direct exposure to terrorism, media exposure to terrorism, and other trauma with emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Nomura, Yoko; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Doppelt, Osnat; Abramovitz, Robert; Brom, Daniel; Chemtob, Claude

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the differential impact of various types of trauma exposure on emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children. Participants were 95 mothers of 1- to 4-year-old children in Israel. Results suggested a differential pattern of associations between the types of trauma exposure (i.e., direct exposure to terrorism, media exposure to terrorism, and other trauma) and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. This line of research is important for the identification of risk factors and the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies to promote resilience in preschool children exposed to specific type(s) of trauma.

  1. Literature review on the preschool pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...

  2. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial of fish oil treatment for impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Bor, William; Adam, Kareen; Bowling, Francis G; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological research links aggression to low serum concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, such as those found in fish oil. However, no studies have specifically examined whether fish oil supplementation can reduce the frequency and severity of impulsive aggression in children with disruptive behavior disorders. Children presenting with impulsive aggression and meeting research criteria for diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders were randomized to receive either: 1) Fish oil capsules (4 g daily) for 6 weeks followed by placebo (identical-looking capsules) for 6 weeks; or 2) placebo for 6 weeks, followed by fish oil for 6 weeks, in a double-blind, crossover design. Primary outcomes were the Children's Aggression Scale and the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Secondary outcomes included emotional and behavioral functioning (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ]), hyperactivity symptoms (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD] Rating Scale), family functioning (Family Assessment Device), and cognitive functioning (Stop Signal Task, Trail-Making Task, and Eriksen Flanker Task). Serum concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were measured at baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks. Twenty-one children participated (81% male; mean age 10.3±2.2 years; range 7-14). Fish oil treatment increased serum concentrations of eicosapentanoic acid (F=14.76, pConduct Subscale, F=4.34, p=0.06). Fish oil treatment was associated with an improvement in one rating of hyperactivity (SDQ Hyperactivity Subscale, F=2.22, pchildren with disruptive behavior disorders.

  3. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  4. Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys / Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira; Francisco Dyonisio C. Mendes; Leonardo Conceição Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exp...

  5. “I'll do it when the snow melts”: The effects of deadlines and delayed outcomes on rule-governed behavior in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Braam, Cassandra; Malott, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the control exerted by different types of rules on the behavior of preschool children. Four similar rules were presented to eight, four-year-old children, using a multielement design. The contingencies the rules described varied in the specification of deadlines and in the delays in the delivery of the reinforcers. The results showed (a) rules specifying only response requirements did not reliably control behavior, (b) rules specifying an immediate deadline with the immedi...

  6. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan F. Andrade; Dillon T. Browne; Rosemary Tannock

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) refer...

  7. Psychometrics of the preschool behavioral and emotional rating scale with children from early childhood special education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew C; Cress, Cynthia J; Epstein, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study with a nationally representative sample, researchers found that the items of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale can best be described by a four-factor structure model (Emotional Regulation, School Readiness, Social Confidence, and Family Involvement). The findings of this investigation replicate and extend these previous results with a national sample of children (N = 1,075) with disabilities enrolled in early childhood special education programs. Data were analyzed using classical tests theory, Rasch modeling, and confirmatory factor analysis. Results confirmed that for the most part, individual items were internally consistent within a four-factor model and showed consistent item difficulty, discrimination, and fit relative to their respective subscale scores. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. The Use of Intercessory Prayer to Reduce Disruptive Behaviors of Patients With Dementia: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struve, Ann Riesselman; Lu, Der-Fa; Hart, Laura K; Keller, Theresa

    2016-06-01

    A prospective longitudinal design was used to identify the feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of 12 weeks of intercessory prayer to reduce the disruptive behaviors of six late-stage dementia patients. One group of Catholic nuns offered the Lord's Prayer for assigned patients twice a day. Intercessory prayer for the entire subject group was also offered, by a second group of nuns, via a Latria (modality) called "Perpetual Adoration." Disruptions were documented from 3 weeks preintervention to 3 weeks postintervention. Consents were received for two thirds of invited patients. Retention was reduced by the death of two patients. Fidelity, assessed by retrospective report, was maintained throughout the study. Use of off-label antipsychotic medications was reduced or discontinued in four patients during the trial. The repeated measures analysis of variance, while indicative of a trend, did not reach a level of significance, likely due to small sample size. However, the average effect on behavior resulted in a reduction of disruptive incidents, for the group, in approximately 27 behavior categories/week. This study suggests that it is feasible to improve the life quality of patients in the terminal phase of their illness through prayer reducing their need to respond to life in a disturbed manner. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Automated Behavioral Text Messaging and Face-to-Face Intervention for Parents of Overweight or Obese Preschool Children: Results From a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Lisa; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hekler, Eric B; Small, Leigh; Jacobson, Diana

    2016-03-14

    Children are 5 times more likely to be overweight at the age of 12 years if they are overweight during the preschool period. The purpose of this study was to establish the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of a cognitive behavioral intervention (TEXT2COPE) synergized with tailored mobile technology (mHealth) on the healthy lifestyle behaviors of parents of overweight and obese preschoolers delivered in a primary care setting. Fifteen preschooler-parent dyads recruited through primary care clinics completed a manualized 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck's Cognitive Theory guided the TEXT2COPE intervention content and Fogg's Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention employed a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging (short message service, SMS). To enhance the intervention's relevance to the family's needs, parents dictated the wording of the text messages and also were able to adapt the frequency and timing of delivery throughout program implementation. Self-reported findings indicate that the program is feasible and acceptable in this population. The intervention showed preliminary effects with significant improvements on parental knowledge about nutrition (P=.001) and physical activity (P=.012) for their children, parental beliefs (P=.001) toward healthy lifestyles, and parental behaviors (P=.040) toward engaging in healthy lifestyle choices for their children. Effect sizes were medium to large for all variables. The timing, frequency, and wording of the text messages were tailored to the individual families, with 69% of parents (9/13) increasing the frequency of the tailored SMS from being sent once weekly to as many as 5 times a week. Utilizing a cognitive behavioral skills intervention with SMS has great potential for supporting clinical care of overweight and obese preschool children and their families. Further exploration of the

  10. Using the theory of planned behavior to understand caregivers' intention to serve sugar-sweetened beverages to non-Hispanic black preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to determine the ability the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explain caregivers' intention to serve sugar-sweetened beverages to non-Hispanic black preschoolers. A sample of 165 caregivers of non-Hispanic black children preschoolers completed a written questionnaire. Multiple regression with path analysis confirmed the relationships of attitude and subjective norm, but not perceived behavioral control (PBC),with intention. After removing PBC, the model accounted for 45.1% of variance in intention. Nurses and other health care professionals can use these findings to tailor behaviorally-based obesity prevention programs at the individual, family, and community-based levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: A comparison between full-term and preterm dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Tooten, A.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother’s representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and

  12. A Randomized Trial of the Self-Management Training and Regulation Strategy (STARS): A Selective Intervention for Students with Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    To attain academic goals, school personnel must effectively manage 20% of students who engage in the disruptive behaviors that interrupt instruction, create teacher stress, and contribute to poor student outcomes. Without effective strategies, school personnel often respond to disruptive students with ineffective authoritarian tactics,…

  13. Evaluation of Improvement in Externalizing Behaviors and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder: A 1-Year Follow Up Clinic-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Milone, Annarita; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lambruschi, Furio; Masi, Gabriele; Lochman, John E

    2017-07-01

    Multi-component interventions based on cognitive behavioral principles and practices have been found effective in reducing behavioral problems in children with disruptive behavior disorders (oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder). However, it is still unclear if these interventions can affect children's callous-unemotional traits, which are predictive of subsequent antisocial behavior. Furthermore, it could be important to identify empirically supported treatment protocols for specific disorders addressed by child mental health services. The present study aimed to test the following two hypotheses: first, the Coping Power (CP) treatment program is able to reduce externalizing behaviors in children with disruptive behavior disorders treated in a mental health care unit; second, the CP program can reduce children's callous unemotional traits. The sample included 98 Italian children, 33 treated with the CP program; 37 with a less focused multi-component intervention, and 28 with child psychotherapy. The results showed that the CP program was more effective than the other two treatments in reducing aggressive behaviors. Furthermore, only the CP program was associated with a decrease in children's callous unemotional traits. The CP program was also associated with lower rate of referrals to mental health services at one-year follow-up. These findings support the importance of disseminating manualized and focused intervention programs in mental health services.

  14. Specificity of Reward Sensitivity and Parasympathetic-Based Regulation among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Rachel B; Musser, Erica D; Raiker, Joseph S; Coles, Erika K; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E

    2018-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with disruptionsin reward sensitivity and regulatory processes. However, it is unclear whether thesedisruptions are better explained by comorbid disruptive behavior disorder (DBD)symptomology. This study sought to examine this question using multiple levels ofanalysis (i.e., behavior, autonomic reactivity). One hundred seventeen children (aged 6 to 12 years; 72.6% male; 69 with ADHD) completed theBalloon-Analogue Risk Task (BART) to assess external reward sensitivity behaviorally.Sympathetic-based internal reward sensitivity and parasympathetic-based regulationwere indexed via cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia(RSA), respectively. Children with ADHD exhibited reduced internal reward sensitivity (i.e.,lengthened PEP; F(1,112)=4.01, p=0.047) compared to healthy controls and werecharacterized by greater parasympathetic-based dysregulation (i.e., reduced RSAaugmentation F(1,112)=10.12, p=0.002). However, follow-up analyses indicated theADHD effect was better accounted for by comorbid DBD diagnoses; that is, childrenwith ADHD and comorbid ODD were characterized by reduced internal rewardsensitivity (i.e., lengthened PEP; t=2.47, p=0.046) and by parasympathetic-baseddysregulation (i.e., reduced RSA augmentation; t=3.51, p=0.002) in response to rewardwhen compared to typically developing youth. Furthermore, children with ADHD and comorbid CD exhibited greater behaviorally-based external reward sensitivity (i.e.,more total pops; F(3,110)= 5.96, p=0.001) compared to children with ADHD only (t=3.87, p=0.001) and children with ADHD and ODD (t=3.56, p=0.003). Results suggest that disruptions in sensitivity to reward may be betteraccounted for, in part, by comorbid DBD.Key Words: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autonomic nervous system,disruptive behavior disorders, reward sensitivityPowered.

  15. Exploring the day-to-day life of mothers dealing with preschool children who have behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Sallie; Spratling, Regena; Minick, Ptlene

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the day-to-day life of mothers dealing with preschool children who have behavioral disorders and to explore the mothers' experiences with their children's health care. A qualitative design was used to explore mothers' experiences in their day-to-day lives. A purposive sample of eight mothers was interviewed in their homes. A recorded face-to-face format was used that included open-ended, semi-structured questions. Two major themes emerged from the day-to-day experiences of these mothers: "abandoning my other child" and "parenting in unsupportive environments". The theme of "parenting in unsupportive environments" reflects the frustrations the mothers felt in their day-to-day lives while trying to find help for their children. The theme of "abandoning my other child" refers to the siblings of the children with behavioral disorders being overlooked by the mothers because so much of the mothers' attention and time was given to the child with the behavioral disorder. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Promoting prosocial behavior and self-regulatory skills in preschool children through a mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function, self-regulation, and prosocial behavior in a sample of 68 preschool children. The KC intervention group showed greater improvements in social competence and earned higher report card grades in domains of learning, health, and social-emotional development, whereas the control group exhibited more selfish behavior over time. Interpretation of effect sizes overall indicate small to medium effects favoring the KC group on measures of cognitive flexibility and delay of gratification. Baseline functioning was found to moderate treatment effects with KC children initially lower in social competence and executive functioning demonstrating larger gains in social competence relative to the control group. These findings, observed over a relatively short intervention period, support the promise of this program for promoting self-regulation and prosocial behavior in young children. They also support the need for future investigation of program implementation across diverse settings.

  17. Neural Rhythms of Change: Long-Term Improvement after Successful Treatment in Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Woltering

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural changes were investigated for children with disruptive behavior problems one year after a treatment program ended. Thirty-nine children and their parents visited the research lab before, after, and a year after treatment ended. During those lab visits, electroencephalography (EEG was recorded during a challenging Go/No-go task. Treatment consisted of intensive 14-week combined cognitive behavioral therapy and parent management training sessions. For the analysis, participants were divided into long-term improvers (IMPs and long-term nonimprovers (NIMPs based on changes in their externalizing problem scores. The results showed early no-go theta power (4–8 Hz, 100–250 ms decreased for long-term IMPs compared to NIMPs. When participants were divided based on changes in their comorbid internalizing symptoms, effects were stronger and reductions in theta power were found for early as well as later phases (250–650 ms. We provided preliminary evidence that theta power is a useful neural measure to trace behavioral change linked to improved self-regulation even up to a year after treatment ended. Results may have implications for the characterization of children with disruptive behavior problems and may lead to the development of novel markers of treatment success.

  18. The processing of animacy information is disrupted as a function of callous-unemotional traits in youth with disruptive behavior disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Thornton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical amygdala responses to emotional stimuli have been consistently reported in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs; Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder. However, responding to animacy stimuli has not been systematically investigated. Yet, the amygdala is known to be responsive to animacy stimuli and impairment in responsiveness to animacy information may have implications for social cognitive development. Twenty-nine youth with DBDs and 20 typically developing youth, matched for IQ, age (Mage = 14.45, SD = 2.05 and gender, completed a dot probe task during fMRI. Stimuli consisted of negative/faces, negative/objects, neutral/faces and neutral/objects images. Youth with DBDs, relative to typically developing youth, showed: i reduced amygdala and lateral temporal cortex responses to faces relative to objects. Moreover, within the group of youth with DBDs, increasing callous-unemotional traits were associated with lesser amygdala responses to faces relative to objects. These data suggest that youth with DBDs, particularly those with high levels of CU traits exhibit dysfunction in animacy processing in the amygdala. This dysfunction may underpin the asociality reported in these youth.

  19. Habilidades Sociais Educativas Parentais e comportamentos de pré-escolares Parental Social Educational Skills and behavior of preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Barbosa Romera Leme

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivos, a partir dos relatos de 20 mães de crianças com problemas de comportamento (Grupo clínico e de 20 mães de crianças sem problemas de comportamento (Grupo não clínico: a comparar as freqüências das habilidades sociais e dos problemas de comportamento das crianças; b descrever as situações em que as crianças apresentavam os comportamentos problema e socialmente habilidosos; c descrever os comportamentos das mães diante dos comportamentos dos filhos; d descrever os comportamentos dos filhos diante dos comportamentos maternos. Pré-escolares foram selecionados por professoras que responderam a uma escala e os dados foram coletados através de entrevista e de escala com as mães. Os resultados indicaram que as crianças do Grupo não clínico apresentaram mais habilidades sociais e menos problemas de comportamento externalizantes que as crianças do Grupo clínico. As mães do Grupo não clínico relataram mais Habilidades Sociais Educativas Parentais de expressão de sentimentos e enfrentamento, e Comunicação e menos práticas negativas, que as mães do Grupo clínico.The study had for objectives, from the reports of 20 mothers of children with behavior problems (Clinical group and 20 mothers of children without behavior problems (Non-clinical group: a compare the frequencies of social skills and behavior problems of children; b describe the situations where the children had behavior problems and social skills; c describe the behaviors of mothers face behaviors of the children; d describe the behaviors of children ahead of maternal behaviors. Pre-school they were selected age by teachers who responded to a scale and who were collected through interview and scale with the mothers. The results indicated that children of Non-clinical group had more social skills and fewer externalizing behavior problems than children of the Clinical group. The mothers in the Non-clinical group reported more Parental Social

  20. Sympathetic- and parasympathetic-linked cardiac function and prediction of externalizing behavior, emotion regulation, and prosocial behavior among preschoolers treated for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Neuhaus, Emily; Chipman, Jane; Reid, M Jamila; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate measures of cardiac activity and reactivity as prospective biomarkers of treatment response to an empirically supported behavioral intervention for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cardiac preejection period (PEP), an index of sympathetic-linked cardiac activity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic-linked cardiac activity, were assessed among 99 preschool children (ages 4-6 years) with ADHD both at rest and in response to behavioral challenge, before participants and their parents completed 1 of 2 versions of the Incredible Years parent and child interventions. Main effects of PEP activity and reactivity and of RSA activity and reactivity were found. Although samplewide improvements in behavior were observed at posttreatment, those who exhibited lengthened cardiac PEP at rest and reduced PEP reactivity to incentives scored higher on measures of conduct problems and aggression both before and after treatment. In contrast, children who exhibited lower baseline RSA and greater RSA withdrawal scored lower on prosocial behavior before and after treatment. Finally, children who exhibited greater RSA withdrawal scored lower on emotion regulation before and after treatment. We discuss these findings in terms of (a) individual differences in underlying neurobiological systems subserving appetitive (i.e., approach) motivation, emotion regulation, and social affiliation and (b) the need to develop more intensive interventions targeting neurobiologically vulnerable children.

  1. Maternal and Early-Life Circadian Disruption Have Long-Lasting Negative Consequences on Offspring Development and Adult Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarr, Benjamin L; Grant, Azure D; Perez, Luz; Zucker, Irving; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2017-06-12

    Modern life involves chronic circadian disruption through artificial light and these disruptions are associated with numerous mental and physical health maladies. Because the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to perturbation, we hypothesized that early-life circadian disruption would negatively impact offspring development and adult function. Pregnant mice were subjected to chronic circadian disruption from the time of uterine implantation through weaning. To dissociate in utero from postnatal effects, a subset of litters was cross-fostered at birth from disrupted dams to control dams and vice versa. Postnatal circadian disruption was associated with reduced adult body mass, social avoidance, and hyperactivity. In utero disruption resulted in more pronounced social avoidance and hyperactivity, phenotypes not abrogated by cross-fostering to control mothers. To examine whether circadian disruption affects development by acting as an early life stressor, we examined birthweight, litter size, maternal cannibalism, and epigenetic modifications. None of these variables differed between control and disrupted dams, or resembled patterns seen following early-life stress. Our findings indicate that developmental chronic circadian disruption permanently affects somatic and behavioral development in a stage-of-life-dependent manner, independent of early life stress mechanisms, underscoring the importance of temporal structure during development, both in utero and early postnatal life.

  2. Disruption of motor behavior and injury to the CNS induced by 3-thienylboronic acid in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfán-García, E.D.; Pérez-Rodríguez, M. [Academias de Fisiología Humana, Bioquímica y Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón s/n, 11340 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Espinosa-García, C. [Departamento de Biología de la Reproducción, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM), 09310 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Castillo-Mendieta, N.T.; Maldonado-Castro, M.; Querejeta, E.; Trujillo-Ferrara, J.G. [Academias de Fisiología Humana, Bioquímica y Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón s/n, 11340 Ciudad de México (Mexico); and others

    2016-09-15

    The scarcity of studies on boron containing compounds (BCC) in the medicinal field is gradually being remedied. Efforts have been made to explore the effects of BCCs due to the properties that boron confers to molecules. Research has shown that the safety of some BCCs is similar to that found for boron-free compounds (judging from the acute toxicological evaluation). However, it has been observed that the administration of 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induced motor disruption in CD1 mice. In the current contribution we studied in deeper form the disruption of motor performance produced by the intraperitoneal administration of 3TB in mice from two strains (CD1 and C57BL6). Disruption of motor activity was dependent not only on the dose of 3TB administered, but also on the DMSO concentration in the vehicle. The ability of 3TB to enter the Central Nervous System (CNS) was evidenced by Raman spectroscopy as well as morphological effects on the CNS, such as loss of neurons yielding biased injury to the substantia nigra and striatum at doses ≥ 200 mg/kg, and involving granular cell damage at doses of 400 mg/kg but less injury in the motor cortex. Our work acquaints about the use of this compound in drug design, but the interesting profile as neurotoxic agent invite us to study it regarding the damage on the motor system. - Highlights: • Intraperitoneal 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induces tremor in CD1 or C57BL6 mice. • Injury on CNS as well as motor disruption is dose-dependent. • Damage is greater in basal ganglia than in cerebellum or motor cortex. • The DMSO as vehicle plays a key role in the induced effect. • Motor disruption seems to involve basal ganglia and cerebellum damage.

  3. Disruption of motor behavior and injury to the CNS induced by 3-thienylboronic acid in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfán-García, E.D.; Pérez-Rodríguez, M.; Espinosa-García, C.; Castillo-Mendieta, N.T.; Maldonado-Castro, M.; Querejeta, E.; Trujillo-Ferrara, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The scarcity of studies on boron containing compounds (BCC) in the medicinal field is gradually being remedied. Efforts have been made to explore the effects of BCCs due to the properties that boron confers to molecules. Research has shown that the safety of some BCCs is similar to that found for boron-free compounds (judging from the acute toxicological evaluation). However, it has been observed that the administration of 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induced motor disruption in CD1 mice. In the current contribution we studied in deeper form the disruption of motor performance produced by the intraperitoneal administration of 3TB in mice from two strains (CD1 and C57BL6). Disruption of motor activity was dependent not only on the dose of 3TB administered, but also on the DMSO concentration in the vehicle. The ability of 3TB to enter the Central Nervous System (CNS) was evidenced by Raman spectroscopy as well as morphological effects on the CNS, such as loss of neurons yielding biased injury to the substantia nigra and striatum at doses ≥ 200 mg/kg, and involving granular cell damage at doses of 400 mg/kg but less injury in the motor cortex. Our work acquaints about the use of this compound in drug design, but the interesting profile as neurotoxic agent invite us to study it regarding the damage on the motor system. - Highlights: • Intraperitoneal 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induces tremor in CD1 or C57BL6 mice. • Injury on CNS as well as motor disruption is dose-dependent. • Damage is greater in basal ganglia than in cerebellum or motor cortex. • The DMSO as vehicle plays a key role in the induced effect. • Motor disruption seems to involve basal ganglia and cerebellum damage.

  4. Modifying the affective behavior of preschoolers with autism using in-vivo or video modeling and reinforcement contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gena, Angeliki; Couloura, Sophia; Kymissis, Effie

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to modify the affective behavior of three preschoolers with autism in home settings and in the context of play activities, and to compare the effects of video modeling to the effects of in-vivo modeling in teaching these children contextually appropriate affective responses. A multiple-baseline design across subjects, with a return to baseline condition, was used to assess the effects of treatment that consisted of reinforcement, video modeling, in-vivo modeling, and prompting. During training trials, reinforcement in the form of verbal praise and tokens was delivered contingent upon appropriate affective responding. Error correction procedures differed for each treatment condition. In the in-vivo modeling condition, the therapist used modeling and verbal prompting. In the video modeling condition, video segments of a peer modeling the correct response and verbal prompting by the therapist were used as corrective procedures. Participants received treatment in three categories of affective behavior--sympathy, appreciation, and disapproval--and were presented with a total of 140 different scenarios. The study demonstrated that both treatments--video modeling and in-vivo modeling--systematically increased appropriate affective responding in all response categories for the three participants. Additionally, treatment effects generalized across responses to untrained scenarios, the child's mother, new therapists, and time.

  5. Maternal attitudinal inflexibility: longitudinal relations with mother-infant disrupted interaction and childhood hostile-aggressive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Sadia; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Chen, Diyu; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-12-01

    : The Personal Attitude Scale (PAS; Hooley, 2000) is a method that is under development for identifying individuals high in Expressed Emotion based on personality traits of inflexibility, intolerance, and norm-forming. In the current study, the goal was to measure the association between this maternal attitudinal inflexibility, early hostile or disrupted mother-infant interactions, and hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child. In a prospective longitudinal study of 76 low-income mothers and their infants, it was predicted that maternal PAS scores, assessed at child age 20, would be related to difficulties in early observed mother-infant interaction and to hostile-aggressive behavioral difficulties in the child. Results indicated that maternal difficulties in interacting with the infant in the laboratory were associated with maternal PAS scores assessed 20 years later. Hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child at age five were also predictive of PAS scores of mothers. However, contrary to prediction, these behavior problems did not mediate the association between mother-infant interaction difficulties and maternal PAS scores, indicating that the child's hostile-aggressive behavior problems did not produce the link between quality of early interaction and later maternal attitudinal inflexibility. The current results validate the PAS against observable mother-child interactions and child hostile-aggressive behavior problems and indicate the importance of future work investigating the maternal attitudes that are associated with, and may potentially precede, parent-infant interactive difficulties. These findings regarding the inflexible attitudes of mothers whose interactions with their infants are also disrupted have important clinical implications. First, once the stability of the PAS has been established, this measure may offer a valuable screening tool for the prenatal identification of parents at risk for difficult interactions with their children

  6. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  7. Disinfection of titanium dioxide nanotubes using super-oxidized water decrease bacterial viability without disrupting osteoblast behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrán-Partida, Ernesto [Department of Biomaterials, Dental Materials and Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Dentistry Mexicali, Autonomous University of Baja California, Av. Zotoluca and Chinampas St., 21040 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Valdez-Salas, Benjamín, E-mail: benval@uabc.edu.mx [Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Escamilla, Alan; Curiel, Mario [Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Valdez-Salas, Ernesto [Ixchel Medical Centre, Av. Bravo y Obregón, 21000 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Nedev, Nicola [Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Bastidas, Jose M. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes (NTs) on Ti6Al4V alloy were synthesized by anodization using a commercially available super-oxidized water (SOW). The NT surfaces were sterilized by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and disinfected using SOW. The adhesion and cellular morphology of pig periosteal osteoblast (PPO) cells and the behavior of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cultured on the sterilized and disinfected surfaces were investigated. A non-anodized Ti6Al4V disc sterilized by UV irradiation (without SOW) was used as control. The results of this study reveal that the adhesion, morphology and filopodia development of PPO cells in NTs are dramatically improved, suggesting that SOW cleaning may not disrupt the benefits obtained by NTs. Significantly decreased bacterial viability in NTs after cleaning with SOW and comparing with non-cleaned NTs was seen. The results suggest that UV and SOW could be a recommendable method for implant sterilization and disinfection without altering osteoblast behavior while decreasing bacterial viability. - Highlights: • The effect of super-oxidized water cleaning was studied on Ti6Al4V nanotubes. • Super oxidized-water cleaning caused a decline in S. aureus viability. • Osteoblast behavior was not disrupted after super-oxidized water disinfection. • Super-oxidized water is suggested as a cleaning protocol for TiO{sub 2} nanotubes.

  8. Disinfection of titanium dioxide nanotubes using super-oxidized water decrease bacterial viability without disrupting osteoblast behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán-Partida, Ernesto; Valdez-Salas, Benjamín; Escamilla, Alan; Curiel, Mario; Valdez-Salas, Ernesto; Nedev, Nicola; Bastidas, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO_2) nanotubes (NTs) on Ti6Al4V alloy were synthesized by anodization using a commercially available super-oxidized water (SOW). The NT surfaces were sterilized by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and disinfected using SOW. The adhesion and cellular morphology of pig periosteal osteoblast (PPO) cells and the behavior of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cultured on the sterilized and disinfected surfaces were investigated. A non-anodized Ti6Al4V disc sterilized by UV irradiation (without SOW) was used as control. The results of this study reveal that the adhesion, morphology and filopodia development of PPO cells in NTs are dramatically improved, suggesting that SOW cleaning may not disrupt the benefits obtained by NTs. Significantly decreased bacterial viability in NTs after cleaning with SOW and comparing with non-cleaned NTs was seen. The results suggest that UV and SOW could be a recommendable method for implant sterilization and disinfection without altering osteoblast behavior while decreasing bacterial viability. - Highlights: • The effect of super-oxidized water cleaning was studied on Ti6Al4V nanotubes. • Super oxidized-water cleaning caused a decline in S. aureus viability. • Osteoblast behavior was not disrupted after super-oxidized water disinfection. • Super-oxidized water is suggested as a cleaning protocol for TiO_2 nanotubes.

  9. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  10. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring predictors of change in behavioral problems over a 1-year period in preterm born preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schappin, Renske; Wijnroks, Lex; Uniken Venema, Monica; Jongmans, Marian

    OBJECTIVE: Although predictors of the prevalence of behavioral problems in preterm-born children have been frequently studied, predictors of behavioral change in these children remain unknown. Therefore, in this study we explore predictors of short-term changes in problem behavior in preterm-born

  12. Enhanced eyeblink conditioning in behaviorally inhibited individuals is disrupted by proactive interference following US alone pre-exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Todd Allen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety vulnerable individuals exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as well as enhanced proactive interference from CS or US alone pre-exposures (Holloway et al., 2012. US alone pre-exposures disrupt subsequent CR acquisition to CS-US paired trials as compared to context pre-exposure controls. While Holloway et al., (2012 reported enhanced acquisition in high trait anxiety individuals in the context condition, anxiety vulnerability effects were not reported for the US alone pre-exposure group. It appears from the published data that there were no differences between high and low anxiety individuals in the US alone condition. In the work reported here, we sought to extend the findings of enhanced proactive interference with US alone pre-exposures to determine if the enhanced conditioning was disrupted by proactive interference procedures. We also were interested in the spontaneous eyeblinks during the pre-exposure phase of training. We categorized individuals as anxiety vulnerability or non-vulnerable individuals based scores on the Adult Measure of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI. Sixty six participants received 60 trials consisting of 30 US alone or context alone pre-exposures followed by 30 CS-US trials. US alone pre-exposures not only disrupted CR acquisition overall, but behaviorally inhibited (BI individuals exhibited enhanced proactive interference as compared to non-inhibited (NI individuals. In addition, US alone pre-exposures disrupted the enhanced acquisition observed in BI individuals as compared to NI individuals following context alone pre-exposures. Differences were also found in rates of spontaneous eyeblinks between BI and NI individuals during context pre-exposure. Our findings will be discussed in the light of the neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning as well as possible factors such as hypervigilance in the amygdala and hippocampal systems, and possible learned helplessness. Applications of these findings of

  13. Which dimension of parenting predicts the change of callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Lai, Elisa; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Righini, Elisabetta; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    Several studies suggested that in addition to child-driven factors (i.e., temperamental style), parenting behavior can, at least in part, influence the maintenance of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in children; however, more information is needed to distinguish which styles (negative parenting or lack of positive parenting) predict increased levels of CU traits. The aim of the present treatment study was to examine which components of parenting are longitudinally associated with levels of CU traits in children with a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. The current study examined cross-lagged reciprocal effects models between positive and negative parenting practices, and the levels of child CU traits over three time points, including both positive and negative dimensions of parenting in the same model. Participants were 126 Italian children with diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder), 113 boys and 13 girls, 110 Caucasian, 48 with conduct disorder, and 78 with oppositional defiant disorder, treated with a multi-component intervention, based on cognitive behavioral principles and practices. Participants were all 9-10 years of age at the beginning of the study, and were followed-up until the age of 11-12 years (24 months in total, the first 12 under treatment) using parent report (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and Child Behavior Check List) and child report (Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits) measures. No significant cross-lagged path was found between negative parenting and CU traits; these two variables were also unrelated when positive parenting was considered in the same model. In contrast, reciprocal effects between positive parenting and CU were found: higher levels of positive parenting predicted lower levels of CU traits. The current findings suggest that the positive dimension of parenting may need to be targeted in the treatment of DBD children with higher CU traits. Copyright © 2016

  14. Neonatal disruption of serine racemase causes schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in adulthood: clinical rescue by d-serine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hagiwara

    Full Text Available D-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR. Given the role of D-serine in both neurodevelopment and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal disruption of D-serine synthesis by SRR inhibition could induce behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, in later life.Neonatal mice (7-9 days were injected with vehicle or phenazine methosulfate (Met-Phen: 3 mg/kg/day, an SRR inhibitor. Behavioral evaluations, such as spontaneous locomotion, novel object recognition test (NORT, and prepulse inhibition (PPI were performed at juvenile (5-6 weeks old and adult (10-12 weeks old stages. In addition, we tested the effects of D-serine on PPI deficits in adult mice after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. Finally, we assessed whether D-serine could prevent the onset of schizophrenia-like behavior in these mice. Neonatal Met-Phen treatment reduced D-serine levels in the brain, 24 hours after the final dose. Additionally, this treatment caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms in juveniles and to schizophrenia in adults. A single dose of D-serine improved PPI deficits in adult mice. Interestingly, chronic administration of D-serine (900 mg/kg/day from P35 to P70 significantly prevented the onset of PPI deficits after neonatal Met-Phen exposure.This study shows that disruption of D-serine synthesis during developmental stages leads to behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms and schizophrenia, in later life. Furthermore, early pharmacological intervention with D-serine may prevent the onset of psychosis in adult.

  15. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  16. The Effect of Child-Centered Play Therapy on the Externalizing Behaviors of Low Income Male Preschoolers during Group Instructional Time and Center Time: A Single-Case Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Christa Brown

    2017-01-01

    Low income male preschoolers with externalizing behaviors have continued behavior issues throughout elementary school, middle school, high school, and into adulthood and create stress for their teachers. Because of this, it is important to detect externalizing behaviors early and implement an appropriate intervention. A single subject reversal…

  17. Promoting Children's Social-Emotional Skills in Preschool Can Enhance Academic and Behavioral Functioning in Kindergarten: Findings from Head Start REDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Robert L; Bierman, Karen L; Domitrovich, Celene E; Gill, Sukhdeep

    2013-01-01

    This study examined processes of change associated with the positive preschool and kindergarten outcomes of children who received the Head Start REDI intervention, compared to "usual practice" Head Start. In a large-scale randomized-controlled trial (N = 356 children, 42% African American or Latino, all from low-income families), this study tests the logic model that improving preschool social-emotional skills (e.g., emotion understanding, social problem solving, and positive social behavior) as well as language/emergent literacy skills will promote cross-domain academic and behavioral adjustment after children transition into kindergarten. Validating this logic model, the present study finds that intervention effects on three important kindergarten outcomes (e.g., reading achievement, learning engagement, and positive social behavior) were mediated by preschool gains in the proximal social-emotional and language/emergent literacy skills targeted by the REDI intervention. Importantly, preschool gains in social-emotional skills made unique contributions to kindergarten outcomes in reading achievement and learning engagement, even after accounting for the concurrent preschool gains in vocabulary and emergent literacy skills. These findings highlight the importance of fostering at-risk children's social-emotional skills during preschool as a means of promoting school readiness. The REDI (Research-Based, Developmentally-Informed) enrichment intervention was designed to complement and strengthen the impact of existing Head Start programs in the dual domains of language/emergent literacy skills and social-emotional competencies. REDI was one of several projects funded by the Interagency School Readiness Consortium, a partnership of four federal agencies (the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Administration for Children and Families, the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the Department of Health and Human Services, and the

  18. Preschool Boys' Development of Emotional Self-regulation Strategies in a Sample At-risk for Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Skuban, Emily Moye; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Stoltz, Emilee

    2011-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has been conducted on changes in children's emotional self-regulation strategy (SRS) use after infancy, particularly for children at risk. The current study examined changes in boys' emotional SRS from toddlerhood through preschool. Repeated observational assessments using delay of gratification tasks at ages 2, 3, and 4 were examined with both variable- and person-oriented analyses in a low-income sample of boys (N = 117) at-risk for early problem behavior. Results were consistent with theory on emotional SRS development in young children. Children initially used more emotion-focused SRS (e.g., comfort seeking) and transitioned to greater use of planful SRS (e.g., distraction) by age 4. Person-oriented analysis using trajectory analysis found similar patterns from 2–4, with small groups of boys showing delayed movement away from emotion-focused strategies or delay in the onset of regular use of distraction. The results provide a foundation for future research to examine the development of SRS in low-income young children. PMID:21675542

  19. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5–5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S.W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W.L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S.C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5–5 (CBCL/1.5–5). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the seven-syndrome model separately for each society. Results The primary model fit index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), indicated acceptable to good fit for each society. Although a six-syndrome model combining the Emotionally Reactive and Anxious/Depressed syndromes also fit the data for nine societies, it fit less well than the seven-syndrome model for seven of the nine societies. Other fit indices yielded less consistent results than the RMSEA. Conclusions The seven-syndrome model provides one way to capture patterns of children's problems that are manifested in ratings by parents from many societies. Clinicians working with preschoolers from these societies can thus assess and describe parents' ratings of behavioral, emotional, and social problems in terms of the seven syndromes. The results illustrate possibilities for culture–general taxonomic constructs of preschool psychopathology. Problems not captured by the CBCL/1.5–5 may form additional syndromes, and other syndrome models may also fit the data. PMID:21093771

  1. Second-hand smoke exposure and the factors associated with avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children: a school-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei-Ting

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand Smoke (SHS exposure is a significant public health problem that may be responsible for serious health hazards for child. This study aimed to examine the exposure status of SHS and the factors associated with SHS avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a sample of the mothers of pre-school children (n = 1,020 in 30 registered kindergartens in eastern Taiwan. Overall, 919 (a response rate of 90% completed the questionnaires. Regression models were used to identify factors with respect to the avoidance behavior of SHS. Results The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 70% and 50% for the mothers and their children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, mothers who were current smokers (β = -0.260, p Conclusions The high prevalence rate of exposure to SHS for mothers and their children suggests that a well-designed future intervention program should be implemented in regard to pre-school children's mothers in order to prevent these mothers and their children from SHS exposure hazards, more particularly, to strengthen the knowledge base, to enhance self-efficacy and to foster a more positive attitude toward the avoidance of SHS in the mothers.

  2. Memory Strategies and Retrieval Success in Preschool Children: Relations to Maternal Behavior over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, O. Evren; Larkina, Marina; Kleinknecht, Erica; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined how maternal strategic behaviors during a mother-child collaborative sort-recall task of categorically similar items related to children's recall and children's strategic behavior in a sort-recall task that they completed independently. Mother-child dyads participated in the collaborative sort-recall task when children were 40 months…

  3. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006

  4. Association between Hypothesized Parental Influences and Preschool Children's Physical Activity Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Schary, David P.; Beets, Michael W.; Leary, Janie; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To date, most research investigating the influence of parents on children"s physical activity behavior has been conducted among school-aged children. As a result, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms through which parents can influence their young children's physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to…

  5. Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth A.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

  6. School-based intervention for childhood disruptive behavior in disadvantaged settings: A randomized controlled trial with and without active teacher support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liber, J.M.; de Boo, G.M.; Huizenga, H.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support

  7. School-based intervention for childhood disruptive behavior in disadvantaged settings: A school-based RCT with and without active teacher support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liber, J.M.; de Boo, G.M.; Huizenga, H.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support

  8. Enhanced Eyeblink Conditioning in Behaviorally Inhibited Individuals is Disrupted by Proactive Interference Following US Alone Pre-exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael Todd; Miller, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety vulnerable individuals exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as well as enhanced proactive interference from conditioned stimulus (CS) or unconditioned stimulus (US) alone pre-exposures (Holloway et al., 2012). US alone pre-exposures disrupt subsequent conditioned response (CR) acquisition to CS-US paired trials as compared to context pre-exposure controls. While Holloway et al. (2012) reported enhanced acquisition in high trait anxiety individuals in the context condition, anxiety vulnerability effects were not reported for the US alone pre-exposure group. It appears from the published data that there were no differences between high and low anxiety individuals in the US alone condition. In the work reported here, we sought to extend the findings of enhanced proactive interference with US alone pre-exposures to determine if the enhanced conditioning was disrupted by proactive interference procedures. We also were interested in the spontaneous eyeblinks during the pre-exposure phase of training. We categorized individuals as anxiety vulnerability or non-vulnerable individuals based scores on the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI). Sixty-six participants received 60 trials consisting of 30 US alone or context alone pre-exposures followed by 30 CS-US trials. US alone pre-exposures not only disrupted CR acquisition overall, but behaviorally inhibited (BI) individuals exhibited enhanced proactive interference as compared to non-inhibited (NI) individuals. In addition, US alone pre-exposures disrupted the enhanced acquisition observed in BI individuals as compared to NI individuals following context alone pre-exposures. Differences were also found in rates of spontaneous eyeblinks between BI and NI individuals during context pre-exposure. Our findings will be discussed in the light of the neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning as well as possible factors such as hypervigilance in the amygdala and hippocampal systems, and possible

  9. Effectiveness of Non-pharmacological Interventions on Stereotyped and Repetitive Behaviors in Preschool Children With Autism: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Zarafshan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to review the literature on non-pharmacological interventions used to treat stereotyped and repetitive behaviors by a systematic method. Methods: Two authors independently performed a search strategy on Medline/PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO on English articles published up to April 23, 2014 with relevant search keywords. We also reviewed the bibliographies of retrieved articles and conference proceedings to obtain additional citations and references. We used those articles that address any non-pharmacological interventions on reducing stereotyped and repetitive behaviors in preschool children with autism. Four independent reviewers screened relevant articles for inclusion criteria and assessed the quality of eligible articles with CONSORT checklist. Results: In our search, 664 relevant articles were found. After removing duplicates and screening based on title, abstract, and full text, 15 high quality studies were finally included in data analyses. The included articles were published from 1987 to 2013. Three studies were designed as A-B, two as A-B-A and reminders as A-B-A-B. The data and results of 3 clinical trials were synthesized; two of them were parallel randomized clinical trial and another one was designed as cross-over. Interventions were completely heterogeneous in case studies, including non-contingent auditory stimulation, response interruption and redirection, teaching the children to request assistance on the difficult tasks, family-implemented treatment for behavioral inflexibility with treatment approach, vocal or motor response interruption and redirection, brushing, water mist treatment, exposure response prevention, tangible reinforcement or social reinforcement, and music. Interventions in clinical trials included touch therapy, kata techniques training program, and aerobic exercise. Conclusions: The results of our review indicate that different kinds of non-pharmacological interventions can

  10. Tests of the disrupted behavioral rhythms hypothesis for accelerated summer weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The school-summer paradigm offers an opportunity to explore school-summer differences in children's behavioral rhythms and their association with seasonal changes in BMI. In the absence of the environmental demands and cues associated with the school year, children's behavioral rhythms (e.g., sleep...

  11. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pazuki

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Any effort to promote children’s dietary intake needs considering the role of parents in the development of feeding patterns, and interest in children to consume healthy foods. Keywords: Children, Dietary intake, Parental behavior patterns, Kindergarten

  12. Using Behavioral Parent Training to Treat Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Young Children: A How-to Approach Using Video Clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Burrell, T. Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the application of a behavioral parent training program, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), in the treatment of behavior disorders in young children. PCIT is unique in that it works with both the child and parent in treatment and it focuses on improving the parent-child relationship as a means to improving parent and…

  13. Mothers’ Parenting and Child Sex Differences in Behavior Problems among African American Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. This study examines whether associations between observations of mothers’ positive and negative parenting and children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consists of 137 African American, low-income families with one sibling approximately two-years-old and the closest aged older sibling who is approximately four-years-old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, while lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors. PMID:23937420

  14. A Direct Comparison of Self-Injurious and Stereotyped Motor Behavior Between Preschool-Aged Children With and Without Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, John; Spofford, Lisa; Dimian, Adele; Tervo, Raymond; MacLean, William E; Symons, Frank J

    2016-06-01

    To compare the prevalence of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and stereotyped motor behavior (STY) of preschool-aged children with developmental delays (DD group) and their peers without developmental delays (TD group) using a standardized caregiver report scale. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised was completed by caregivers of children with developmental delays and their peers without developmental delays. Frequency of occurrence and severity ratings for SIB and STY were compared between groups. SIB and STY were reported more often and at a greater level of severity in the DD group. Older chronological age was associated with more severe STY in the DD group but not the TD group. Gender was not related to STY or SIB for either group. Differences in STY and SIB were evident between preschoolers with and without DD. Findings are discussed from developmental and behavioral psychology perspectives regarding the expression of repetitive behavior in developmentally at-risk pediatric populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Default mode network connectivity in children with a history of preschool onset depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffrey, Michael S; Luby, Joan L; Botteron, Kelly; Repovš, Grega; Barch, Deanna M

    2012-09-01

    Atypical Default Mode Network (DMN) functional connectivity has been previously reported in depressed adults. However, there is relatively little data informing the developmental nature of this phenomenon. The current case-control study examined the DMN in a unique prospective sample of school-age children with a previous history of preschool depression. DMN functional connectivity was assessed using resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging data and the posterior cingulate (PCC) as a seed region of interest. Thirty-nine medication naïve school age children (21 with a history of preschool depression and 18 healthy peers) and their families who were ascertained as preschoolers and prospectively assessed over at least 4 annual waves as part of a federally funded study of preschool depression were included.   Decreased connectivity between the PCC and regions within the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), inferior parietal lobule, and cerebellum was found in children with known depression during the preschool period. Increased connectivity between the PCC and regions within the subgenual and anterior cingulate cortices and anterior MTG bilaterally was also found in these children. Additionally, a clinically relevant 'brain-behavior' relationship between atypical functional connectivity of the PCC and disruptions in emotion regulation was identified. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the DMN in children known to have experienced the onset of a clinically significant depressive syndrome during preschool. Results suggest that a history of preschool depression is associated with atypical DMN connectivity. However, longitudinal studies are needed to clarify whether the current findings of atypical DMN connectivity are a precursor or a consequence of preschool depression. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. The Good Behavior Game with Students in Alternative Educational Environments: Interactions between Reinforcement Criteria and Scoring Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jolene R.; Gratz, Olivia; Donaldson, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    The good behavior game (GBG) is a class-wide contingency management strategy that involves rewarding teams who engage in low levels of disruptive behavior. The GBG has been found to be effective with neuro-typical individuals from preschool to high school. In Study 1, teachers and experimenters implemented the GBG on alternating days in an…

  17. Planning for Biotarrorism. Behavioral & Mental Health Responses to Weapons of Mass Destruction & Mass Disruption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... Community and individual responses to potential bioterrorist events were described. Future approaches to the management and treatment of behavioral and mental health issues following exposure to biological agents and bioterrorism were discussed...

  18. Dopamine antagonists during parturition disrupt maternal care and the retention of maternal behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Elizabeth M; Rigero, Beth A; Bridges, Robert S

    2002-11-01

    Brief contact with pups at parturition enables the female rat to establish and retain the full repertoire of maternal behaviors, allowing her to respond rapidly to pups in the future. To determine whether the dopamine system is involved in the retention of maternal behavior, females were continuously infused with dopamine antagonists during the periparturitional period and then allowed either a brief interaction period with pups (3 h) or no interaction with pups (pups removed as they were born). Females were exposed to either the D1-like antagonist SCH 23390 (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg/day) or the D2-like antagonist clebopride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg/day). The high dose of either DA antagonist resulted in significant attenuation of maternal care immediately postpartum. When tested for the retention of maternal behavior 7 days later, however, only the females exposed to the D2 antagonist displayed a delayed response to shown full maternal behavior (FMB) towards donor pups. Thus, while both dopamine receptor subtypes appear necessary for the full and rapid expression of maternal behavior during the early postpartum period, only the D2 receptor subtype appears to be involved in the retention of this behavior.

  19. A review of early influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Mesa, Tatiana; Salas, Carlos F

    2017-07-01

    Promoting physical activity (PA) is a key component of preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Despite well-documented benefits of PA, globally, rates of PA among young children have declined over the past decades, and most children are not accruing sufficient PA daily. Helping children develop the foundation for PA habits early in life is critical for the promotion of health in childhood and prevention of chronic diseases later in life, and will ultimately promote longer and healthier lives for individuals and the general population. The purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of current evidence on influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children in high-income countries. A systematic review of three databases was performed. Studies conducted in high-income countries and published from 2000 onward that addressed influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children were identified and reviewed. Additionally, reference lists of identified articles and relevant published reviews were reviewed. Studies that met the following inclusion criteria were considered: (a) sample included preschoolers (age ≤5 years); (b) PA and/or sedentary behaviors or factors associated with PA and/or sedentary behaviors was assessed; (c) published in English; (d) used either quantitative or qualitative methods; and (e) conducted in a high-income country. Data were extracted from selected studies to identify influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children and organized using the social-ecological model according to multiple levels of influence. Results from included studies identify multiple factors that influence PA and sedentary behaviors of young children in high-income countries at the various levels of the social-ecological model including intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental, organizational, and policy. Given pediatric nurses' role as primary care providers, and their frequent and continued contact with parents

  20. Translating it into real life: a qualitative study of the cognitions, barriers and supports for key obesogenic behaviors of parents of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Spaccarotella, Kim; Hongu, Nobuko; Alleman, Gayle; Worobey, John; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-02-26

    Little is known about preschool parents' cognitions, barriers, supports and modeling of key obesogenic behaviors, including breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, sugary beverage intake, feeding practices, portion sizes, active playtime, reduced screen-time, sleep and selection of child-care centers with characteristics that promote healthy behaviors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine these factors via survey and focus groups among 139 parents of 2- to 5-year-old children. Standard content analysis procedures were used to identify trends and themes in the focus group data, and Analysis of Variance was used to test for differences between groups in the survey data. Results showed 80% of parents ate breakfast daily, consumed sugary beverages 2.7 ± 2.5SD days per week, and had at least two different vegetables and fruits an average of 5.2 ± 1.8SD and 4.6 ± 2.0SD days per week. Older parents and those with greater education drank significantly fewer sugary drinks. Parents played actively a mean 4.2 ± 2.2 hours/week with their preschoolers, who watched television a mean 2.4 ± 1.7 hours/day. Many parents reported having a bedtime routine for their preschooler and choosing childcare centers that replaced screen-time with active play and nutrition education. Common barriers to choosing healthful behaviors included lack of time; neighborhood safety; limited knowledge of portion size, cooking methods, and ways to prepare healthy foods or play active indoor games; the perceived cost of healthy options, and family members who were picky eaters. Supports for performing healthful behaviors included planning ahead, introducing new foods and behaviors often and in tandem with existing preferred foods and behaviors, and learning strategies from other parents. Future education programs with preschool parents should emphasize supports and encourage parents to share helpful strategies with each other.

  1. The influence of maternal child-rearing attitudes and teaching behaviors on preschoolers' delay of gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, C F; Harris, Y R

    2000-09-01

    This study was an exploratory examination of the influence of mothers' teaching behaviors, strategies, and child-rearing attitudes on their children's ability to delay gratification. In an externally imposed delay of gratification situation, 30 mothers from a rural university community taught their children strategies that could help them refrain from touching a brightly wrapped present when the mothers left the room. Results showed that mothers of children who did not delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with a permissive parenting style, whereas mothers of children who did delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with an authoritative parenting style. The results of this study are discussed with respect to the development of children's self-control and self-regulatory abilities.

  2. Prior exposure to interpersonal violence and long-term treatment response for boys with a disruptive behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Dorn, Lorah D; Kolko, David J; Rausch, Joseph R; Insana, Salvatore P

    2014-10-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is common in children with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and increases the risk for greater DBD symptom severity, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and neuroendocrine disruption. Thus, IPV may make it difficult to change symptom trajectories for families receiving DBD interventions given these relationships. The current study examined whether IPV prior to receiving treatment for a DBD predicted trajectories of a variety of associated outcomes, specifically DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol concentrations. Boys with a DBD diagnosis (N = 66; age range = 6-11 years; 54.5% of whom experienced IPV prior to treatment) of either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder participated in a randomized clinical trial and were assessed 3 years following treatment. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that prior IPV predicted smaller rates of change in DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol trajectories, indicating less benefit from intervention. The effect size magnitudes of IPV were large for each outcome (d = 0.88-1.07). These results suggest that IPV is a predictor of the long-term treatment response for boys with a DBD. Including trauma-focused components into existing DBD interventions may be worth testing to improve treatment effectiveness for boys with a prior history of IPV. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  3. Clerodendrum inerme Leaf Extract Alleviates Animal Behaviors, Hyperlocomotion, and Prepulse Inhibition Disruptions, Mimicking Tourette Syndrome and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon-Lie Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found a patient with intractable motor tic disorder, a spectrum of Tourette syndrome (TS, responsive to the ground leaf juice of Clerodendrum inerme (CI. Here, we examined the effect of the ethanol extract of CI leaves (CI extract on animal behaviors mimicking TS, hyperlocomotion, and sensorimotor gating deficit. The latter is also observed in schizophrenic patients and can be reflected by a disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response (PPI in animal models induced by methamphetamine and NMDA channel blockers (ketamine or MK-801, based on hyperdopaminergic and hypoglutamatergic hypotheses, respectively. CI extract (10–300 mg/kg, i.p. dose-dependently inhibited hyperlocomotion induced by methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, i.p. and PPI disruptions induced by methamphetamine, ketamine (30 mg/kg, i.p., and MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p. but did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, rotarod performance, and grip force. These results suggest that CI extract can relieve hyperlocomotion and improve sensorimotor gating deficit, supporting the therapeutic potential of CI for TS and schizophrenia.

  4. Astrocyte-specific disruption of SynCAM1 signaling results in ADHD-like behavioral manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula S Sandau

    Full Text Available SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes (termed GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice exhibit disrupted diurnal locomotor activity with enhanced and more frequent episodes of activity than control littermates during the day (when the animals are normally sleeping accompanied by shorter periods of rest. GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice also display high levels of basal activity in the dark period (the rodent's awake/active time that are attenuated by the psychostimulant D,L-amphetamine, and reduced anxiety levels in response to both avoidable and unavoidable provoking stimuli. These results indicate that disruption of SynCAM1-dependent astroglial function results in behavioral abnormalities similar to those described in animals model of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD, and suggest a hitherto unappreciated contribution of glial cells to the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  5. A Behavioral Framework for Managing Massive Airline Flight Disruptions through Crisis Management, Organization Development, and Organization Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tulinda Deegan

    In this study the researcher provides a behavioral framework for managing massive airline flight disruptions (MAFD) in the United States. Under conditions of MAFD, multiple flights are disrupted throughout the airline's route network, customer service is negatively affected, additional costs are created for airlines, and governments intervene. This study is different from other studies relating to MAFD that have focused on the operational, technical, economic, financial, and customer service impacts. The researcher argues that airlines could improve the management of events that led to MAFD by applying the principles of crisis management where the entire organization is mobilized, rather than one department, adapting organization development (OD) interventions to implement change and organization learning (OL) processes to create culture of innovation, resulting in sustainable improvement in customer service, cost reductions, and mitigation of government intervention. At the intersection of crisis management, OD, and OL, the researcher has developed a new conceptual framework that enhances the resiliency of individuals and organizations in responding to unexpected-yet-recurring crises (e.g., MAFD) that impact operations. The researcher has adapted and augmented Lalonde's framework for managing crises through OD interventions by including OL processes. The OD interventions, coupled with OL, provide a framework for airline leaders to manage more effectively events that result in MAFD with the goal of improving passenger satisfaction, reducing costs, and preventing further government intervention. Further research is warranted to apply this conceptual framework to unexpected-yet-recurring crises that affect operations in other industries.

  6. Comparative investigation of indicators of growth and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age in Isfahan during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yousefi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.

  7. Positive behavioral support planning in the inpatient treatment of severe disruptive behaviors: A description of service features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, Nakia M; Carr, Erika R; Hillbrand, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) plans are increasingly used on inpatient units to assess and treat serious and dangerous behaviors displayed by patients with serious psychiatric impairment. A contemporary extension of traditional applied behavior analytic procedures, PBS plans integrate theories from several domains with perspectives on community psychology, positive psychology, and recovery-oriented care. Because there is little evidence to suggest that more invasive, punitive disciplinary strategies lead to long-term positive behavioral change (Parkes, 1996), PBS plans have emerged as an alternative to the use of seclusion and restraint or other forms of restrictive measures typically used on inpatient psychiatric units (Hammer et al., 2011). Moreover, PBS plans are a preferred method of intervention because more invasive interventions often cause more harm than good to all involved (Elliott et al., 2005). This article seeks to provide an integrated framework for the development of positive behavior support plans in inpatient psychiatric settings. In addition to explicating the philosophy and core elements of PBS plans, this work includes discussion of the didactic and pragmatic aspects of training clinical staff in inpatient mental health settings. A case vignette is included for illustration and to highlight the use of PBS plans as a mechanism for helping patients transition to less restrictive settings. This work will add to the scant literature examining the use of positive behavioral support plans in inpatient psychiatric settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Development and Coherence of Future-Oriented Behaviors during the Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atance, Cristina M.; Jackson, Laura K.

    2009-01-01

    Although previous research has identified a number of interesting aspects of future thinking in adults, little is known about the developmental trajectory and coherence of future-oriented behaviors during early childhood. The primary goal of this study was to explore these issues by administering a battery of tasks assessing different aspects of…

  9. Preschool Interactive Peer Play Mediates Problem Behavior and Learning for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Romero, Sandy L.; Carter, Tracy M.

    2012-01-01

    The study employed a developmental, ecological, and resiliency framework to examine whether interactive peer play competencies mediated associations between teacher reported problem behavior and learning outcomes for a representative sample of urban low-income children (N = 507 across 46 Head Start classrooms). Structural equation models provided…

  10. Examination of the Social Behavior of 4 Age Old Preschool Children According to Teacher Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amca, Dervise; Kivanç Öztug, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to compare the social behavior of children according to the teacher interviews. Screening model method has been used at this research which is one of the descriptive research methods. The study group of this research was created totally 691 children, from the age group of 4, which were observed at least 8 weeks…

  11. Neurophysiology in preschool improves behavioral prediction of reading ability throughout primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Urs; Bucher, Kerstin; Brem, Silvia; Benz, Rosmarie; Kranz, Felicitas; Schulz, Enrico; van der Mark, Sanne; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Brandeis, Daniel

    2009-08-15

    More struggling readers could profit from additional help at the beginning of reading acquisition if dyslexia prediction were more successful. Currently, prediction is based only on behavioral assessment of early phonological processing deficits associated with dyslexia, but it might be improved by adding brain-based measures. In a 5-year longitudinal study of children with (n = 21) and without (n = 23) familial risk for dyslexia, we tested whether neurophysiological measures of automatic phoneme and tone deviance processing obtained in kindergarten would improve prediction of reading over behavioral measures alone. Together, neurophysiological and behavioral measures obtained in kindergarten significantly predicted reading in school. Particularly the late mismatch negativity measure that indicated hemispheric lateralization of automatic phoneme processing improved prediction of reading ability over behavioral measures. It was also the only significant predictor for long-term reading success in fifth grade. Importantly, this result also held for the subgroup of children at familial risk. The results demonstrate that brain-based measures of processing deficits associated with dyslexia improve prediction of reading and thus may be further evaluated to complement clinical practice of dyslexia prediction, especially in targeted populations, such as children with a familial risk.

  12. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  13. Influence of Teachers' Personal Health Behaviors on Operationalizing Obesity Prevention Policy in Head Start Preschools: A Project of the Children's Healthy Living Program (CHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Monica Kazlausky; Nigg, Claudio R; Fialkowski, Marie K; Braun, Kathryn L; Li, Fenfang; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    To quantify the Head Start (HS) teacher mediating and moderating influence on the effect of a wellness policy intervention. Intervention trial within a larger randomized community trial. HS preschools in Hawaii. Twenty-three HS classrooms located within 2 previously randomized communities. Seven-month multi-component intervention with policy changes to food served and service style, initiatives for employee wellness, classroom activities for preschoolers promoting physical activity (PA) and healthy eating, and training and technical assistance. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) classroom scores and teacher questionnaires assessing on knowledge, beliefs, priorities, and misconceptions around child nutrition and changes in personal health behaviors and status were the main outcome measures. Paired t tests and linear regression analysis tested the intervention effects on the classroom and mediating and moderating effects of the teacher variables on the classroom environment. General linear model test showed greater intervention effect on the EPAO score where teachers reported higher than average improvements in their own health status and behaviors (estimate [SE] = -2.47 (0.78), P teacher health status and behaviors included in a multi-component policy intervention aimed at child obesity prevention may produce a greater effect on classroom environments. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavioral Risk Assessment From Newborn to Preschool: The Value of Older Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michelle; Binnoon-Erez, Noam; Plamondon, Andre; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the plausibility of a risk prediction tool in infancy for school-entry emotional and behavioral problems. Familial aggregation has been operationalized previously as maternal psychopathology. The hypothesis was tested that older sibling (OS) psychopathology, as an indicator of familial aggregation, would enable a fair level of risk prediction compared with previous research, when combined with traditional risk factors. By using a longitudinal design, data on child and family risk factors were collected on 323 infants ( M = 2.00 months), all of whom had OSs. Infants were followed up 4.5 years later when both parents provided ratings of emotional and behavioral problems. Multiple regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted for emotional, conduct, and attention problems separately. The emotional and behavioral problems of OSs at infancy were the strongest predictors of the same problems in target children 4.5 years later. Other risk factors, including maternal depression and socioeconomic status provided extra, but weak, significant prediction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for emotional and conduct problems yielded a fair prediction. This study is the first to offer a fair degree of prediction from risk factors at birth to school-entry emotional and behavioral problems. This degree of prediction was achieved with the inclusion of the emotional and behavioral problems of OSs (thus limiting generalizability to children with OSs). The inclusion of OS psychopathology raises risk prediction to a fair level. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys / Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exposed to abusive physical punishment, adult fighting and violent TV programs engaged in more episodes of aggression during playful breaks. Boys who reported to play with toy guns at home did not engage in aggressive behavior more often than those who did not, but they displayed a higher proportion of pretended aggression. Results also indicated that aggressive behavior becomes more frequent as the number of aggressive models at home increases.

  16. Disruptions in effort-based decision-making and consummatory behavior following antagonism of the dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Cindee F; Johnson, Alexander W

    2017-03-01

    Dopamine is known to influence motivational processes, however the precise role of this neurotransmitter remains a contentious issue. In the current study we sought to further characterize dopamine signaling in reward-based decision-making and consummatory behavior in mice, via lateral ventricle infusion of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride. In Experiment 1, we examined effort-based decision-making, in which mice had a choice between one lever, where a single response led to the delivery of a low value reward (2% sucrose); and a second lever, which led to a higher value reward (20% sucrose) that gradually required more effort to obtain. As the response schedule for the high value reward became more strict, low dose (4μg in 0.5μl) central infusions of eticlopride biased preference away from the high value reward, and toward the lever that led to the low value reward. Similarly, a higher dose of eticlopride (8μg in 0.5μl) also disrupted choice responding for the high value reward, however it did so by increasing omissions. In Experiment 2, we assessed the effects of eticlopride on consumption of 20% sucrose. The antagonist led to a dose-dependent reduction in intake, and through an analysis of licking microstructure, it was revealed that this in part reflected a reduction in the motivation to engage in consummatory behavior, rather than alterations in the evaluation of the reward. These results suggest that disruptions in D2 receptor signaling reduce the willingness to engage in effortful operant responding and consumption of a desirable outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families™ Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent–child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. Methods/design This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child’s sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using

  18. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Patrick J; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Filbert, Katharine; Aromaa, Minna; Corkum, Penny; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Lampi, Katja; Penttinen, Anne; Sinokki, Atte; Unruh, Anita; Vuorio, Jenni; Watters, Carolyn

    2013-10-21

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent-child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures

  19. The Relation of Teachers' Emotional Intelligence and Students' Social Skills to Students' Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties: A Study of Preschool Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine predictors of students' emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool classrooms. Specifically, the study examined (a) the link between teachers' perceptions of their own emotional intelligence and students' emotional and behavioral difficulties, (b) the link between teachers'…

  20. "It does affect me” Disruptive behaviors in preadolescents directly and indirectly abused at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Aggressive and delinquent behaviors in preadolescents may be indicators of problems suffered at home from direct child abuse by one or both parents or indirect abuse, such as exposure to domestic violence. A total of 532 Italian preadolescents recruited in their schools took part in this study. They

  1. Ethnic differences in problem perception : Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care—a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less

  2. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Disruptive Behavior: An Empirical Evaluation of School Misconduct and Market Accountability. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools…

  4. Prenatal undernutrition disrupted the sexual maturation, but not the sexual behavior, in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Iwasa, Takeshi; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tokui, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Sumika; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to various stressors, including psychological, metabolic, and immune, in the perinatal period induces long-lasting effects in physiological function and increase the risk of metabolic disorders in later life. In the present study, sexual maturation and sexual behavior were assessed in prenatally undernourished mature male rats. All the pregnant rats were divided into the maternal normal nutrition (mNN) group and the maternal undernutrition (mUN) group. The mUN mothers received 50% of the amount of the daily food intake of the mNN mothers. Preputial separation and sexual behavior were observed in randomly selected pups of the mNN and mUN groups. The body weight of the mothers was significantly lighter in the mUN group than in the mNN group. Similarly, the pups in the mUN group showed a significantly lower body weight than those in the mNN group from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 15. The preputial separation day was significantly delayed in the mUN group, compared to the mNN group. Sexual behavior did not show any significant difference between the two groups. These findings indicated that prenatal undernutrition delayed sexual maturation, but did not suppress sexual behavior, in mature male rats.

  5. Developmental disruption of amygdala transcriptome and socioemotional behavior in rats exposed to valproic acid prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Catherine E; Hennessey, Thomas M; Gordon, Katelyn M; Ryan, Steve J; McNair, Morgan L; Ressler, Kerry J; Rainnie, Donald G

    2017-01-01

    The amygdala controls socioemotional behavior and has consistently been implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Precocious amygdala development is commonly reported in ASD youth with the degree of overgrowth positively correlated to the severity of ASD symptoms. Prenatal exposure to VPA leads to an ASD phenotype in both humans and rats and has become a commonly used tool to model the complexity of ASD symptoms in the laboratory. Here, we examined abnormalities in gene expression in the amygdala and socioemotional behavior across development in the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of ASD. Rat dams received oral gavage of VPA (500 mg/kg) or saline daily between E11 and 13. Socioemotional behavior was tracked across development in both sexes. RNA sequencing and proteomics were performed on amygdala samples from male rats across development. Effects of VPA on time spent in social proximity and anxiety-like behavior were sex dependent, with social abnormalities presenting in males and heightened anxiety in females. Across time VPA stunted developmental and immune, but enhanced cellular death and disorder, pathways in the amygdala relative to saline controls. At postnatal day 10, gene pathways involved in nervous system and cellular development displayed predicted activations in prenatally exposed VPA amygdala samples. By juvenile age, however, transcriptomic and proteomic pathways displayed reductions in cellular growth and neural development. Alterations in immune pathways, calcium signaling, Rho GTPases, and protein kinase A signaling were also observed. As behavioral, developmental, and genomic alterations are similar to those reported in ASD, these results lend support to prenatal exposure to VPA as a useful tool for understanding how developmental insults to molecular pathways in the amygdala give rise to ASD-related syndromes.

  6. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathways and processes of risk in associations among maternal antisocial personality symptoms, interparental aggression, and preschooler's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G; Vonhold, Sara E

    2012-08-01

    Two studies examined the nature and processes underlying the joint role of interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as predictors of children's disruptive behavior problems. Participants for both studies included a high-risk sample of 201 mothers and their 2-year-old children in a longitudinal, multimethod design. Addressing the form of the interplay between interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as risk factors for concurrent and prospective levels of child disruptive problems, the Study 1 findings indicated that maternal antisocial personality was a predictor of the initial levels of preschooler's disruptive problems independent of the effects of interparental violence, comorbid forms of maternal psychopathology, and socioeconomic factors. In attesting to the salience of interparental aggression in the lives of young children, latent difference score analyses further revealed that interparental aggression mediated the link between maternal antisocial personality and subsequent changes in child disruptive problems over a 1-year period. To identify the family mechanisms that account for the two forms of intergenerational transmission of disruptive problems identified in Study 1, Study 2 explored the role of children's difficult temperament, emotional reactivity to interparental conflict, adrenocortical reactivity in a challenging parent-child task, and experiences with maternal parenting as mediating processes. Analyses identified child emotional reactivity to conflict and maternal unresponsiveness as mediators in pathways between interparental aggression and preschooler's disruptive problems. The findings further supported the role of blunted adrenocortical reactivity as an allostatic mediator of the associations between parental unresponsiveness and child disruptive problems.

  8. Compensatory deficits following rejection: the role of social anxiety in disrupting affiliative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, Michael A; Maner, Jon K; DeWall, Nathan; Schmidt, Norman B

    2009-01-01

    Managing perceived or actual social rejection is an important facet of meeting basic needs for affiliation. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by significant distress and debilitation relating to affiliation and recent work suggests higher levels of social anxiety symptoms may adversely affect responses to social rejection. This study examined emotional and behavioral responding to a social rejection stressor to explore whether social anxiety moderates the effects of social rejection on prosocial compensatory behaviors. Individuals (N=37) evaluated on social anxiety symptoms were assigned to either a social rejection condition or control condition. Consistent with expectation, rejection promoted renewed interest in connecting with sources of positive social interaction among participants low in social anxiety. Participants with higher levels of social anxiety, however, failed to react to rejection in a positive or prosocial manner and exhibited some evidence of negative social responses. Such differential compensatory responding could have important implications for the genesis, maintenance, and treatment of SAD.

  9. What are the disruptive symptoms of behavioral disorders after traumatic brain injury? A systematic review leading to recommendations for good practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stéfan, Angélique; Mathé, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral disorders are major sequelae of severe traumatic brain injury. Before considering care management of these disorders, and in the absence of a precise definition for TBI-related behavioral disorder, it is essential to refine, according to the data from the literature, incidence, prevalence, predictive factors of commonly admitted disruptive symptoms. Systematic review of the literature targeting epidemiological data related to behavioral disorders after traumatic brain injury in order to elaborate good practice recommendations according to the methodology established by the French High Authority for Health. Two hundred and ninety-nine articles were identified. The responsibility of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the onset of behavioral disorders is unequivocal. Globally, behavioral disorders are twice more frequent after TBI than orthopedic trauma without TBI (Masson et al., 1996). These disorders are classified into disruptive primary behaviors by excess (agitation 11-70%, aggression 25-39%, irritability 29-71%, alcohol abuse 7-26% drug abuse 2-20%), disruptive primary behaviors by default (apathy 20-71%), affective disorders - anxiety - psychosis (depression 12-76%, anxiety 0.8-24,5%, posttraumatic stress 11-18%, obsessive-compulsive disorders 1.2-30%, psychosis 0.7%), suicide attempts and suicide 1%. The improvement of care management for behavioral disorders goes through a first step of defining a common terminology. Four categories of posttraumatic behavioral clinical symptoms are defined: disruptive primary behaviors by excess, by default, affective disorders-psychosis-anxiety, suicide attempts and suicide. All these symptoms yield a higher prevalence than in the general population. They impact all of life's domains and are sustainable over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthy Living Behaviors Among Chinese-American Preschool-Aged Children: Results of a Parent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; Brown, Alison; Lee, Victoria; Must, Aviva; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho

    2017-07-17

    Associations between diet, physical activity, parenting, and acculturation among Chinese-American children are understudied. Parents/caregivers of children attending child-care programs in Boston Chinatown completed a self-administered survey on demographics, child's diet, physical activities, anthropometrics, and parenting practices. Associations were evaluated in multivariable regression analysis, stratified by survey language preference, a proxy for acculturation. Responding Asian families = 132; 86.4% were immigrants; 75.8% completed the Chinese-version survey. Children (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 1.1 years) did not eat vegetables (31.8%), or play actively outside (45.4%) daily, 64.8% watched television/screens daily; 32.6% were overweight/obese (based on parent report). Parenting practices associated with obesity were apparent. Although healthy-living behavioral outcomes were less prevalent among less acculturated parents; multivariable adjustment attenuated the observed significant differences. Findings suggest opportunities for improvement in study children's diet and healthy-living behaviors, and underscore the need for further research on acculturation, and parenting styles in this population.

  11. Ethnic differences in parental feeding behaviors in UK parents of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cihang; Warkentin, Sarah; Mais, Laís Amaral; Carnell, Susan

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity is prevalent among ethnic minorities in the UK but little is known about parent feeding practices in these populations. We administered questionnaires assessing parental feeding behaviors and perceptions and concerns relating to child weight to White British (n = 271), South Asian (n = 59), and Black Afro-Caribbean (n = 42) parents of UK 3-5 year-olds. Child BMI z-scores were determined from measured heights and weights. South Asian and Black Afro-Caribbean parents exhibited greater pressure to eat than White British parents. Black Afro-Caribbean parents additionally scored higher on instrumental feeding and lower on monitoring, while South Asian parents scored higher on emotional feeding. Black Afro-Caribbean parents reported the greatest concern about both child overweight and underweight. Ethnic differences were unchanged by controlling for perceptions and concerns relating to child weight, or for actual BMI z, parent education, or household income. Exploratory analyses suggested some evidence for sex differences within ethnic groups. For example, South Asian parents of daughters scored higher than White British parents of daughters on emotional feeding, with no ethnic differences apparent for parents of sons. Our findings support considering variation in parent feeding behaviors and weight-related attitudes by parental ethnicity and child sex when developing obesity interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Incentive Processing in Persistent Disruptive Behavior and Psychopathic Traits: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; Veltman, Dick J; Pape, Louise E; van Lith, Koen; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Popma, Arne

    2015-11-01

    Children with early-onset disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), especially those with callous-unemotional traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe adult antisocial behavior. One possible underlying mechanism for persistence is deficient reward and loss sensitivity, i.e., deficient incentive processing. However, little is known about the relation between deficient incentive processing and persistence of antisocial behavior into adulthood or its relation with callous-unemotional and other psychopathic traits. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the neural correlates of incentive processing and both DBD persistence and psychopathic traits. In a sample of 128 adolescents (mean age 17.7) with a history of criminal offending before age 12, functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during a monetary incentive delay task designed to assess neural responses during incentive processing. Neural activation during incentive processing was then associated with DBD persistence and psychopathic traits, measured with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory. Compared with both healthy control subjects and youths who had desisted from DBD, persistent DBD subjects showed lower neural responses in the ventral striatum during reward outcomes and higher neural responses in the amygdala during loss outcomes. Callous-unemotional traits were related to lower neural responses in the amygdala during reward outcomes, while other psychopathic traits were not related to incentive processing. In the current study, aberrant incentive processing is related to persistence of childhood antisocial behavior into late adolescence and to callous-unemotional traits. This mechanism may underlie treatment resistance in a subgroup of antisocial youth and provide a target for intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of a multimodal treatment for disruptive behavior disorders in children and adolescents: focus on internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Paciello, Marinella; Lenzi, Francesca; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E; Muratori, Filippo

    2014-11-30

    Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are among the most common reasons for youth referrals to mental health clinics. Aim of this study is to compare short and medium term efficacy of a multimodal treatment program (MTP), compared to community care (treatment-as-usual, TAU). The sample included 135 youths with DBDs (113 males, age range 9-15 years, mean age 12±2.5 years) were assigned either to a MTP (n=64), or addressed to community care for a TAU (n=71). Outcome measures were the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). All subjects were assessed at the baseline (T0), after 1-year treatment (T1) and after a 2-year follow-up (T2). Compared with patients receiving TAU, youths in the MTP showed, both at T1 and T2, significantly lower scores on CBCL Externalizing Scale, Internalizing Scale, Anxious/Depressed, Social Problems, and Aggressive Behavior, and higher scores at the C-GAS. Improvement in Internalizing Scales was particularly evident, with a shift from the clinical to the non-clinical range. Rate of use of mental health services and scholastic failure were reduced in the MTP. It is suggested that the improvement of the Internalizing symptoms is a crucial component of the therapeutic process in this MTP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining How Adding a Booster to a Behavioral Nutrition Intervention Prompts Parents to Pack More Vegetables and Whole Gains in Their Preschool Children's Sack Lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Ranjit, Nalini; Calloway, Eric E; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Almansor, Fawaz; Briley, Margaret E; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia R

    2016-01-01

    Data from a five-week intervention to increase parents' packing of vegetables and whole grains in their preschool children's sack lunches showed that, although changes occurred, habit strength was weak. To determine the effects of adding a one-week booster three months post-intervention, children's (N = 59 intervention and 48 control) lunches were observed at baseline (week 0), post-intervention (week 6), pre-booster (week 20), and post-booster (week 26). Servings of vegetables and whole grains were evaluated in repeated measures models and results inspected relative to patterns projected from different explanatory models of behavior change processes. Observed changes aligned with projections from the simple associative model of behavior change. Attention in future studies should focus on behavioral intervention elements that leverage stimulus-response associations to increase gratification parents receive from providing their children with healthy lunches.

  15. The influence of classroom aggression and classroom climate on aggressive-disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Powers, C J

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4,179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5-8), this study examined the impact of 2 important features of the classroom context--aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of Grade 1. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and disruptive behavior disorders: prevalence, associations, and explanation of the relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary M; Cavanna, Andrea E; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and conduct disorder (CD) are both heterogeneous childhood onset conditions, and although patients with CD have been described in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome cohorts, little is known about the etiology of CD in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome or of the interrelationships. A cohort of 578 consecutive patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome was assessed using standard assessment protocols. A total of 13.5% of participants had only Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, whereas the rest had associated comorbidities and psychopathology. CD occurred in 14.5% of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome probands. These findings suggest that CD is not an integral part of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome but rather that CD in the context of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is related to the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as, and importantly, a family history of aggressive and violent behavior and forensic encounters.

  17. Behavior of endocrine disrupting chemicals in Johkasou improved septic tank in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S; Matsuo, H; Motoyama, M; Nomiyama, K; Shinohara, R

    2009-09-01

    The behavior of estrogens (estrone: E1, 17beta-estradiol: E2, estriol: E3 and ethinylestradiol: EE2) and an androgen (testosterone) in the water and sludge from Johkasou in Japan was investigated. The concentrations of E1, E2, E3 and testosterone in water samples from the Johkasou were 33-500, N.D. approximately 150, N.D. approximately 6,700 and 500 ng/L, respectively. In sludge samples, the concentrations of E1, E2, E3, and testostrerone were N.D. approximately 39, N.D. approximately 6.7, N.D. approximately 60 and 0.2-9.0 ng/L, respectively. EE2 was not detected in all samples. The removal rates of E1, E2, E3 and testosterone in Johkasou were 45%-91%, 66%-100%, 90%-100%, and about 90%, respectively.

  18. The Implementation of a Video-Enhanced Aikido-Based School Violence Prevention Training Program To Reduce Disruptive and Assaultive Behaviors among Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Andrew J.

    The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the…

  19. Outcomes and Stages of Child-Centered Play Therapy for a Child with Highly Disruptive Behavior Driven by Self-Concept Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jeff L.; Cochran, Nancy H.; Fuss, Angela; Nordling, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Children with highly disruptive behavior present problems for their peers and are often a heavy burden to the schools, teachers, counselors, and other adults who care for them. Without successful intervention, such children certainly face lives of high risk, emotional pain, and ever-increasing difficulty; from a humanistic perspective, such an…

  20. Impact of a universal intervention targeting childhood disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol initiation from age 10 to 13 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The distal impact of a school based universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol use from age 10 to 13 years was explored. Second grade classrooms (children aged 7 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Tobacco and

  1. Impact of a preventive intervention targeting childhood disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol initiation from age 10 to 13 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.; Crijnen, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The distal impact of a school based universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol use from age 10 to 13 years was explored. Second grade classrooms (children aged 7 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Tobacco and

  2. The Role of Co-Occurring Disruptive Behavior in the Clinical Presentation of Children and Adolescents with Anxiety in the Context of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Jones, Anna M.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) comorbidity on theoretically relevant correlates among 87 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and clinically significant anxiety. Relative to youth with ASD and anxiety alone, participants with ASD, anxiety, and DBD: (a) presented with significantly more…

  3. Risk of Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual Side Effects in Males 10-20 Years Old Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Disruptive Behavior Disorder and Treated with Risperidone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Tenback, Diederik; van Harten, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term treatment effects of risperidone on prolactin levels and prolactin-related side effects in pubertal boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Method: Physical healthy 10-20-year-old males with

  4. Violent Discipline Behaviors in Mothers of Preschool Children in Malatya, East Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaç Sönmez, Mehtap; Genç, Metin Fikret; Karaoğlu, Leyla

    2017-07-01

    Violent parenting behavior, whether physical or psychological, give harms to child well-being. This study was conducted to describe and compare the prevalence of discipline methods used by mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children in Malatya, Turkey. This is a cross sectional study and 552 mothers were administered a face-to-face questionnaire describe the methods they use to discipline their children in the year previous the survey. It was observed that nine of 10 women used violence on their children physically and psychologically. The study showed that nine of 10 mothers used physical and/or psychological punishment toward their children in the previous year. Nonviolent discipline was less prevalent than punitive discipline, such as psychological and physical punishment. The most commonly used method was psychological punishment. Significant sociodemographic associations with discipline methods were found. Mother's educational level, family income, child gender, and child age were the independent predictors that explained discipline methods used by mothers. Starting parenting classes and strengthening the child protection systems at national level were suggested.

  5. A risk function for behavioral disruption of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris from mid-frequency active sonar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moretti

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about the potential effects of noise pollution on marine life in the world's oceans. For marine mammals, anthropogenic sounds may cause behavioral disruption, and this can be quantified using a risk function that relates sound exposure to a measured behavioral response. Beaked whales are a taxon of deep diving whales that may be particularly susceptible to naval sonar as the species has been associated with sonar-related mass stranding events. Here we derive the first empirical risk function for Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris by combining in situ data from passive acoustic monitoring of animal vocalizations and navy sonar operations with precise ship tracks and sound field modeling. The hydrophone array at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, Bahamas, was used to locate vocalizing groups of Blainville's beaked whales and identify sonar transmissions before, during, and after Mid-Frequency Active (MFA sonar operations. Sonar transmission times and source levels were combined with ship tracks using a sound propagation model to estimate the received level (RL at each hydrophone. A generalized additive model was fitted to data to model the presence or absence of the start of foraging dives in 30-minute periods as a function of the corresponding sonar RL at the hydrophone closest to the center of each group. This model was then used to construct a risk function that can be used to estimate the probability of a behavioral change (cessation of foraging the individual members of a Blainville's beaked whale population might experience as a function of sonar RL. The function predicts a 0.5 probability of disturbance at a RL of 150 dBrms re µPa (CI: 144 to 155 This is 15dB lower than the level used historically by the US Navy in their risk assessments but 10 dB higher than the current 140 dB step-function.

  6. The Role of Classroom-Level Child Behavior Problems in Predicting Preschool Teacher Stress and Classroom Emotional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison Hope; Raver, C. Cybele; Morris, Pamela A.; Jones, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Despite the abundance of research suggesting that preschool classroom quality influences children's social-emotional development, the equally important and related question of how characteristics of children enrolled in a classroom influence classroom quality has rarely been addressed. The current article focuses on this…

  7. Friendships in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Holds Them Back, Child Characteristics or Teacher Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Shih, Wendy; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Children begin to show preferences for specific playmates as early as the first 2?years of life. Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty making friends, even in elementary and middle school. However, very little is known about earlier friendships in children with autism such as preschool friendships. This study examined friendships…

  8. Are We Talking about the Same Child? Parent-Teacher Ratings of Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Sofia O.; Seabra-Santos, Maria J.; Martin, Roy P.

    2015-01-01

    The parent-teacher agreement has become an important issue of children's psychological assessment. However, the amount of research available for preschool children is small and mainly based on one index of agreement with samples of modest size/representativeness. This study examined parent-teacher agreement (correlations) and discrepancies (t…

  9. [Behavioral intervention for preschool children with autism – outcome of parent-based Intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Claire; Eldevik, Sigmund

    2017-01-01

    Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has proved to be an effective intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this exploratory study, we evaluated the effects of a community-based service model with parents as active therapists. 13 children with ASD between 2 and 5 years of age at intake participated in the study. A waiting-list control design was employed. The children received 1 year of home-based EIBI for approximately 20 hours a week, their parents functioning as primary therapists. The waiting-list control group consisted of seven children who were tested 6 months before the intervention commenced. The intervention was based on the University of California at Los Angeles Young Autism Project model (UCLA YAP; Lovaas, 1981, 1987, 2003). The Psychoeducational Profile (3rd ed., PEP-3), the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (2nd ed., CARS 2) were used to measure outcome. In addition, a mental developmental index (MDI) was calculated on the basis of the Cognitive Verbal/Preverbal subscale of the PEP-3. After 1 year of EIBI, we found a significant increase in the PEP-3 scores and MDI scores as well as a significant reduction in the CARS 2 scores. No significant changes were seen when participants were on the waiting list. The stress level of the parents did not change significantly and in fact showed overall a slight decrease. This model of providing EIBI appears to hold some promise. Comprehensive parental involvement did not affect their stress level. The study need to be replicated with a larger sample and an improved design.

  10. Crack initiation behaviors of metallic walls subjected to high heat flux expected at plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Uno, Masayoshi; Seki, Masahiro.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies were performed to investigate crack initiation behavior near a surface of stainless steel and tungsten when subjected to extremely high heat flux. The improved electron beam test facility was used as the heat source. Two-dimensional thermal and elasto-plastic stress analyses were also performed. From the results for stainless steel, micro-cracks about 0.1 mm deep only initiated in the resolidified layer along dendrites. No cracks propagated into the non-melted zone, and repeated heating of up to 20 times did not affect the depth and population of the cracks. According to the elasto-plastic stress analyses, no fatigue cracks were expected. Cracks with a depth of more than a few millimeters were observed in a tungsten plate. The cracks initiated at a boundary between heated and unheated areas. They grew into the non-melted zone, and curved towards the center part of the heated area. The elasto-plastic stress analyses indicated that the cracks were initiated due to the residual tensile strain after heated at the surface of the test specimen. When the heat flux was repeated, the cracks propagated and penetrated to the rear side of the test specimen in several repetition. (author)

  11. Treatment of Escape-Maintained Behavior with Positive Reinforcement: The Role of Reinforcement Contingency and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Welter, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional analyses suggested that the disruptive behavior of three preschool children was maintained by escape from demands. While keeping the escape contingency intact, we conducted (a) a density analysis in which the children earned preferred items for task completion according to two schedules that varied in reinforcement density, and (b) a…

  12. Maternal depression and personality traits in association with child neuropsychological and behavioral development in preschool years: Mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2017-08-01

    Poor perinatal maternal mental health has been linked with negative outcomes on early child development; however, the importance of maternal personality has been neglected thus far. We aimed to examine the effects of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health, including assessment of maternal personality characteristics, on child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years in a population based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of 288 women at 28-32 weeks of gestation. A larger sample of 642 mothers completed the EPDS scale at 8 weeks postpartum. Children's neuropsychological (MSCA) and behavioral (ADHDT and SDQ) development were assessed at 4 years of age. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between the exposures and outcomes of interest after adjustment for potential confounders. Regarding child neuropsychological development, increased postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with child's perceptual performance, whereas increased maternal psychoticism was linked with child's motor ability at 4 years of age. Furthermore, elevated levels of maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, and the predisposing personality characteristics of trait anxiety and neuroticism, were associated with children's behavioral difficulties. A clinical diagnostic instrument for maternal mental health was not used and assessment of children's behavior was based on maternal report. These findings suggest that poor perinatal maternal mental health and an adverse personality profile may be associated with impaired child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of the evaluation methodology for the material relocation behavior in the core disruptive accident of sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Yoshiharu; Kamiyama, Kenji; Tagami, Hirotaka; Matsuba, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Tohru; Isozaki, Mikio; Yamano, Hidemasa; Morita, Koji; Guo, Liancheng; Zhang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The in-vessel retention (IVR) of core disruptive accident (CDA) is of prime importance in enhancing safety characteristics of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the CDA of SFRs, molten core material relocates to the lower plenum of reactor vessel and may impose significant thermal load on the structures, resulting in the melt through of the reactor vessel. In order to enable the assessment of this relocation process and prove that IVR of core material is the most probable consequence of the CDA in SFRs, a research program to develop the evaluation methodology for the material relocation behavior in the CDA of SFRs has been conducted. This program consists of three developmental studies, namely the development of the analysis method of molten material discharge from the core region, the development of evaluation methodology of molten material penetration into sodium pool, and the development of the simulation tool of debris bed behavior. The analysis method of molten material discharge was developed based on the computer code SIMMER-III since this code is designed to simulate the multi-phase, multi-component fluid dynamics with phase changes involved in the discharge process. Several experiments simulating the molten material discharge through duct using simulant materials were utilized as the basis of validation study of the physical models in this code. It was shown that SIMMER-III with improved physical models could simulate the molten material discharge behavior including the momentum exchange with duct wall and thermal interaction with coolant. In order to develop evaluation methodology of molten material penetration into sodium pool, a series of experiments simulating jet penetration behavior into sodium pool in SFR thermal condition were performed. These experiments revealed that the molten jet was fragmented in significantly shorter penetration length than the prediction by existing correlation for light water reactor conditions, due to the direct

  14. Punishment Insensitivity and Impaired Reinforcement Learning in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Nichols, Sara R.; Voss, Joel; Zobel, Elvira; Carter, Alice S.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth and adults with psychopathic traits display disrupted reinforcement learning. Advances in measurement now enable examination of this association in preschoolers. The current study examines relations between reinforcement learning in preschoolers and parent ratings of reduced responsiveness to socialization, conceptualized as a…

  15. Preschool Gender-Typed Play Behavior at Age 3.5 Years Predicts Physical Aggression at Age 13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Karson T F; Li, Gu; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2018-05-01

    Gender differences in play behavior and physical aggression have been consistently reported. Theoretical perspectives concerning evolutionary, social, and social-cognitive mechanisms suggest that male-typical play behavior during childhood increases subsequent physical aggression. The evidence supporting these connections is limited, however. The present study investigated the association between gender-typed play behavior in early childhood and physical aggression in early adolescence using a sample drawn from a longitudinal, population study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Based on gender-typed play behavior as measured by the Pre-School Activities Inventory at age 3.5 years, samples of masculine (64 boys, 60 girls), feminine (80 boys, 66 girls), and randomly selected control children (55 boys, 67 girls) were recruited at age 13 years and administered the Reinisch Aggression Inventory. After controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and conduct problems at age 3.5, significant group differences in physical aggression at age 13 were found among children classified as masculine, control, and feminine at age 3.5. Masculine children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than control children or feminine children, and control children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than feminine children. The association between gender-typed play behavior and physical aggression was not moderated by sex. These results suggest that the degree of childhood gender-typed play behavior independently predicts the degree of physical aggression at adolescence in boys and in girls.

  16. Brief report: Examining children's disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, C K Fred; Miller, Kimberly A; Eddy, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brief Report: Examining children’s disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, CK Fred; Miller, Kimberly A.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. PMID:26298676

  18. Does Patient Race/Ethnicity Influence Physician Decision-Making for Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Disruptive Behavior Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ann F; Taylor, Robin; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Sarina

    2015-06-01

    Race/ethnic disparities in utilization of children's mental health care have been well documented and are particularly concerning given the long-term risks of untreated mental health problems (Institute of Medicine, 2003; Kessler et al. Am J Psychiatry 152:10026-1032, 1995). Research investigating the higher rates of unmet need among race/ethnic minority youths has focused primarily on policy, fiscal, and individual child or family factors that can influence service access and use. Alternatively, this study examines provider behavior as a potential influence on race/ethnic disparities in mental health care. The goal of the study was to examine whether patient (family) race/ethnicity influences physician diagnostic and treatment decision-making for childhood disruptive behavior problems. The study utilized an internet-based video vignette with corresponding survey of 371 randomly selected physicians from across the USA representing specialties likely to treat these patients (pediatricians, family physicians, general and child psychiatrists). Participants viewed a video vignette in which only race/ethnicity of the mother randomly varied (non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and African American) and then responded to questions about diagnosis and recommended treatments. Physicians assigned diagnoses such as oppositional defiant disorder (48 %) and attention deficit disorder (63 %) to the child, but there were no differences in diagnosis based on race/ethnicity. The majority of respondents recommended psychosocial treatment (98 %) and/or psychoactive medication treatment (60 %), but there were no significant differences based on race/ethnicity. Thus, in this study using mock patient stimuli and controlling for other factors, such as insurance coverage, we did not find major differences in physician diagnostic or treatment decision-making based on patient race/ethnicity.

  19. The Reliability and Validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior Rating Scales in a Preschool Sample: Continuum Measures of Hyperactivity and Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Swanson, James M.; Riggs, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. Method: Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3…

  20. Preschool children's response to behavioural parent training and parental predictors of outcome in routine clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Nauta, Maaike H; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) for preschool children with disruptive behaviours and to explore parental predictors of response. Parents of 68 preschool children, aged between 2.7 and 5.9 years, participated in BPT. We evaluated the changes in children's behaviour after BPT with a one group pretest-posttest design, using a waiting period for a double pretest. Outcome was based on parents' reports of the intensity and number of behaviour problems on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Predictor variables included parents' attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, antisocial behaviours, and alcohol use, and maternal parenting self-efficacy and disciplining. Mother-reported child behaviour problems did not change in the waiting period but improved significantly after BPT (d = 0.63). High levels of alcohol use by fathers and low levels of maternal ineffective disciplining were each associated with somewhat worse outcome. BPT under routine care conditions clearly improves disruptive behaviours in preschool children. Mothers who consider themselves as inadequate in disciplining and mothers whose partners do not consume high levels of alcohol report the largest improvements. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Affective Disruption from Social Rhythm and Behavioral Approach System (BAS) Sensitivities: A Test of the Integration of the Social Zeitgeber and BAS Theories of Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Elaine M; Stange, Jonathan P; Labelle, Denise R; Shapero, Benjamin G; Weiss, Rachel B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-05-01

    The Behavioral Approach System (BAS)/Reward Hypersensitivity Theory and the Social Zeitgeber Theory are two biopsychosocial theories of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD) that may work together to explain affective dysregulation. The present study examined whether BAS sensitivity is associated with affective symptoms via a) increased social rhythm disruption in response to BAS-relevant life events, or b) greater exposure to BAS events leading to social rhythm disruption and subsequent symptoms. Results indicated that high BAS individuals were more likely to experience social rhythm disruption following BAS-relevant events. Social rhythm disruption mediated the association between BAS-relevant events and symptoms (hypothesis a). High BAS individuals experienced significantly more BAS-relevant events, which predicted greater social rhythm disruption, which predicted greater levels of affective symptoms (hypothesis b). Individuals at risk for BSD may be sensitive to BAS-relevant stimuli, experience more BAS-relevant events, and experience affective dysregulation due to the interplay of the BAS and circadian rhythms.

  2. Evaluation of a class wide teaching program for developing preschool life skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Gregory P; Heal, Nicole A; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Ingvarsson, Einar T

    2007-01-01

    Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years. Classroom observations were conducted during evocative situations to determine the likelihood of problem behavior (noncompliance, vocal or motor disruptions, aggression) and preschool life skills. A classwide teaching program was then implemented in a staggered manner across instruction following, functional communication, delay tolerance, and friendship skills. These four categories of preschool life skills, which included two to four related skills, were selected for classwide teaching because they were either identified by educators as important for early school success, have often been taught following functional assessments of more severe problem behavior, or both. Skills were taught on a classwide basis during typically scheduled activities (circle, free play, transitions, meals) via instructions, modeling, role play, and feedback. A multiple probe design showed that the program resulted in an 74% reduction in problem behavior and a more than four-fold increase in preschool life skills. Similar beneficial effects of the program were evident in questionnaire data gathered prior to and at the close of the evaluation. Finally, the teachers who implemented the program reported overall high levels of satisfaction with the classwide teaching program, the target skills, and the results. Implications for the design of early childhood experiences for preempting the development of serious problem behavior are discussed.

  3. Preschooler's social skills and behavior problems: comparison between mother and teacher assessments / Habilidades sociais e problemas de comportamento de pré-escolares: comparando avaliações de mães e de professoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work compared assessments carried out by mothers and teachers about the social skills and behavior problems of children identified by their teachers as having behavior problems. Participants were mothers and teachers of 24 preschool children presenting behavior problems, and 24 preschool children with high levels of social skills. The instruments used were the Socially Desired Behavior Questionnaire and the Rutter Child Behavior Scale: versions for parents and teachers. The main results were: (a mothers and teachers of children without behavior problems scored similar social skills, but different behavior problems, in which mothers perceived more behavior problems than teachers; (b mothers and teachers of children presenting behavior problems scored both social skills and behavior problems differently, in which mothers perceived higher levels of social skills and less behavior problems; (c gender differences were found only for behavior problems of the children presenting behavior problems. Results point to the need to have different informants, in different settings, in the assessment of child behavior.

  4. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... greater chance of experiencing learning disabilities such as reading disorders and verbal impairment. But what distinguishes children ...

  5. Skittish, shielded, and scared: relations among behavioral inhibition, overprotective parenting, and anxiety in native and non-native Dutch preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J; Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Huijding, Jorg; Rapee, Ronald M

    2013-10-01

    This study examined behavioral inhibition and overprotective parenting as correlates and predictors of anxiety disorder symptoms in preschoolers with a multi-cultural background (N=168). Parents of 3- to 6-year-old children completed a set of questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Parents were also interviewed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV at the 12-month point to assess the clinical severity of children's anxiety symptoms. Behavioral inhibition consistently emerged as a significant concurrent correlate of anxiety symptoms and this was particularly true for social anxiety symptoms. Overprotective parenting also emerged as a significant correlate of anxiety, but only in the case of non-social anxiety symptoms and mainly in non-native Dutch children. Prospective analyses revealed that behavioral inhibition was a significant predictor of social anxiety symptoms, while overprotective parenting did not explain significant variance in the development of children's anxiety over time. The support for an interactive effect of behavioral inhibition and overprotective parenting was unconvincing. Finally, it was found that children who exhibited stable high levels of behavioral inhibition throughout the study ran the greatest risk for developing an anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aflatoxin B1-contaminated diet disrupts the blood-brain barrier and affects fish behavior: Involvement of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Zeppenfeld, Carla Cristina; Descovi, Sharine N; Moreira, Karen Luise S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2018-04-04

    It is known that the cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are associated with behavioral dysfunction. However, the effects of a diet contaminated with AFB 1 on the behavior of silver catfish remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an AFB 1 -contaminated diet (1177 ppb kg feed -1 ) impaired silver catfish behavior, as well as whether disruption of the BBB and alteration of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes are involved. Fish fed a diet contaminated with AFB 1 presented a behavioral impairment linked with hyperlocomotion on days 14 and 21 compared with the control group (basal diet). Neurotransmitter levels were also affected on days 14 and 21. The permeability of the BBB to Evans blue dye increased in the intoxicated animals compared with the control group, which suggests that the BBB was disrupted. Moreover, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain synaptosomes was increased in fish fed a diet contaminated with AFB 1 , while activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na + , K + -ATPase) was decreased. Based on this evidence, the present study shows that silver catfish fed a diet containing AFB 1 exhibit behavioral impairments related to hyperlocomotion. This diet caused a disruption of the BBB and brain lesions, which may contribute to the behavioral changes. Also, the alterations in the activities of AChE and Na + , K + -ATPase in brain synaptosomes may directly contribute to this behavior, since they may promote synapse dysfunction. In addition, the hyperlocomotion may be considered an important macroscopic marker indicating possible AFB 1 intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral and Neural Sustained Attention Deficits in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Adleman, Nancy E; Curhan, Alexa; Zhang, Susan; Towbin, Kenneth E; Brotman, Melissa A; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), characterized by severe irritability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. This is the first study to characterize neural and behavioral similarities and differences in attentional functioning across these disorders. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers, 31 patients with DMDD, and 25 patients with ADHD (8 to 18 years old) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging attention task. Group differences in intra-subject variability in reaction time (RT) were examined. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging analytic approach precisely quantified trial-wise associations between RT and brain activity. Group differences manifested in the relation between RT and brain activity (all regions: p  2.54, partial eta-squared [η p 2 ] > 0.06). Patients with DMDD showed specific alterations in the right paracentral lobule, superior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, and cerebellar culmen. In contrast, patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited blunted compensatory increases in activity on long RT trials. In addition, youth with DMDD exhibited increased activity in the postcentral gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and cerebellar tonsil and declive (all regions: p  2.46, η p 2 > 0.06). Groups in the imaging sample did not differ significantly in intra-subject variability in RT (F 2,79  = 2.664, p = .076, η p 2  = 0.063), although intra-subject variability in RT was significantly increased in youth with DMDD and ADHD when including those not meeting strict motion and accuracy criteria for imaging analysis (F 2,96  = 4.283, p = .017, η p 2  = 0.083). Patients with DMDD exhibited specific alterations in the relation between pre-stimulus brain activity and RT. Patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited similar blunting of compensatory neural activity in frontal, parietal, and other regions. In addition, patients with DMDD showed increased RT variability compared with healthy

  8. The moderating effects of parenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibition and parent-reported guilt and empathy in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Amy H; Frick, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = .51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being behaviorally inhibited showed higher levels of parent-rated guilt and empathy than uninhibited children, irrespective of the type and quality of parenting they experienced. However, for uninhibited children, greater inconsistent discipline was associated with lower levels of guilt and lower levels of empathy, whereas higher levels of authoritarian parenting were associated with higher levels of guilt. These results support the presence of important interactions between temperament and parenting in explaining two critical dimensions of callous-unemotional traits.

  9. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: a comparison between full-term and preterm dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R A S; Hoffenkamp, H N; Tooten, A; Braeken, J; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother's representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and infant attachment. The participants were mothers of full-term (n = 75), moderately preterm (n = 68) and very preterm infants (n = 67). Maternal representations were assessed by the Working Model of the Child Interview at 6 months post-partum. Maternal interactive behavior was evaluated at 6 and 24 months post-partum, using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Care Research Network mother-infant observation scales. Infant attachment was observed at 24 months post-partum and was coded by the Attachment Q-Set. The results reveal that a premature childbirth does not necessarily generate disrupted maternal representations of the infant. Furthermore, maternal interactive behavior appears to be an important mechanism through which maternal representations influence the development of infant attachment in full-term and preterm infants. Early assessment of maternal representations can identify mother-infant dyads at risk, in full-term and preterm samples.

  10. Lactation exposure to BDE-153 damages learning and memory, disrupts spontaneous behavior and induces hippocampus neuron death in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Li, Xin; Nie, Jisheng; Niu, Qiao

    2013-06-23

    -down test was significantly increased in the 10mg/kg BDE-153 group at 2 months after treatment (P<0.05), and the BDE-153-treated rats' swimming times and distances in the target quadrant were significantly decreased at 1 month and 2 months after treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These parameters were also significantly increased in the opposite quadrant at 1 month after treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The spontaneous behavior was significantly reduced in the treated groups compared to the controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The severity of neurobehavioral dysfunction was dependent on the exposure dose of BDE-153, and worsened with age. Under an optical microscope, the treated rats' neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus were observed to be reduced and disarranged, and the cell junctions were loosened and the intercellular spaces were enlarged. Under a transmission electron microscope, the cell nucleus was observed to shrink; the chromatin was condensed and gathered near the nuclear membrane, the Nissl bodies and other organelles in the perikaryon were reduced, and the vacuole was observed to degenerate and even disappear. Moreover, compared to the controls, the cell apoptosis rates were significantly increased in the 5 and 10mg/kg BDE-153 groups (P<0.05), and the LDH activity was significantly increased in the 10mg/kg BDE-153 groups (P<0.01). Lactation exposure to BDE-153 damaged adult rats' learning and memory abilities, disrupted their spontaneous behavior (hypoactivity) and induced hippocampus neuron apoptosis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Theory-Based Determinants of Monitoring Obesogenic Behaviors of Pre-Schoolers among Hispanic Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Branscum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health interventions are greatly needed for obesity prevention, and planning for such strategies should include community participation. The study’s purpose was to develop and validate a theory-based instrument with low-income, Hispanic mothers of preschoolers, to assess theory-based determinants of maternal monitoring of child’s consumption of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB. Nine focus groups with mothers were conducted to determine nutrition-related behaviors that mothers found as most obesogenic for their children. Next, behaviors were operationally defined and rated for importance and changeability. Two behaviors were selected for investigation (fruits and vegetable and SSB. Twenty semi-structured interviews with mothers were conducted next to develop culturally appropriate items for the instrument. Afterwards, face and content validity were established using a panel of six experts. Finally, the instrument was tested with a sample of 238 mothers. Psychometric properties evaluated included construct validity (using the maximum likelihood extraction method of factor analysis, and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha. Results suggested that all scales on the instrument were valid and reliable, except for the autonomy scales. Researchers and community planners working with Hispanic families can use this instrument to measure theory-based determinants of parenting behaviors related to preschoolers’ consumption of fruits and vegetables, and SSB.

  12. Using mobile health technology to improve behavioral skill implementation through homework in evidence-based parenting intervention for disruptive behavior disorders in youth: study protocol for intervention development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Chacko, Anil; Isham, Andrew; Cleek, Andrew F.; McKay, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) (oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD)) are prevalent, costly, and oftentimes chronic psychiatric disorders of childhood. Evidence-based interventions that focus on assisting parents to utilize effective skills to modify children?s problematic behaviors are first-line interventions for the treatment of DBDs. Although efficacious, the effects of these interventions are often attenuated by poor implementation of the skills ...

  13. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children's food

  14. Patterns of change in early childhood aggressive-disruptive behavior: gender differences in predictions from early coercive and affectionate mother-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen-Ketchum, S A; Bates, J E; Dodge, K A; Pettit, G S

    1996-10-01

    The present study focused on mother-child interaction predictors of initial levels and change in child aggressive and disruptive behavior at school from kindergarten to third grade. Aggression-disruption was measured via annual reports from teachers and peers. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify 8 separate child aggression trajectories, 4 for each gender: high initial levels with increases in aggression, high initial levels with decrease in aggression, low initial levels with increases in aggression, and low initial levels with decreases in aggression. Mother-child interaction measures of coercion and nonaffection collected prior to kindergarten were predictive of initial levels of aggression-disruption in kindergarten in both boys and girls. However, boys and girls differed in how coercion and nonaffection predicted change in aggression-disruption across elementary school years. For boys, high coercion and nonaffection were particularly associated with the high-increasing-aggression trajectory, but for girls, high levels of coercion and nonaffection were associated with the high-decreasing-aggression trajectory. This difference is discussed in the context of Patterson et al.'s coercion training theory, and the need for gender-specific theories of aggressive development is noted.

  15. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  16. Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on the Social and Academic Behavior of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: The Moderating Role of Callous/Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether response to behavior modification with and without methylphenidate differed for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct problems (CP) depending on the presence of callous/unemotional (CU) traits. Participants were 37 children ages 7 to 12, including 19 with ADHD/CP-only and 18 with…

  17. "I'll do it when the snow melts": The effects of deadlines and delayed outcomes on rule-governed behavior in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, C; Malott, R W

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the control exerted by different types of rules on the behavior of preschool children. Four similar rules were presented to eight, four-year-old children, using a multielement design. The contingencies the rules described varied in the specification of deadlines and in the delays in the delivery of the reinforcers. The results showed (a) rules specifying only response requirements did not reliably control behavior, (b) rules specifying an immediate deadline with the immediate delivery of a reinforcer exerted reliable control, (c) rules specifying an immediate deadline with a one-week delay in the delivery of the reinforcer also exerted reliable control, and (d) rules specifying no deadline with a one-week delay in the delivery of the reinforcer exerted little control. These results suggest that a rule's specification of a deadline is crucial in its control of behavior, but the delay of the reinforcer is of little importance. This latter conclusion further suggests that problems in self-control do not result from delayed outcomes or the inablity to delay gratification, contrary to conventional wisdom.

  18. The Impact of Operating Room Layout on Circulating Nurse's Work Patterns and Flow Disruptions: A Behavioral Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramzadeh, Sara; Joseph, Anjali; San, Dee; Khoshkenar, Amin; Taaffe, Kevin; Jafarifiroozabadi, Roxana; Neyens, David M

    2018-01-01

    To assess how the adjacencies of functionally different areas within operating rooms (ORs) can influence the circulating nurse's (CN) workflow patterns and disruptions. The CN plays a significant role in promoting patient safety during surgical procedures by observing, monitoring, and managing potential threats at and around the surgical field. Their work requires constant movement to different parts of the OR to support team members. The layout of the OR and crowded and cluttered environment might impact the CN's workflow and cause disruptions during the surgery. A convenience sample of 25 surgeries were video recorded and thematically coded for CN's activities, locations, and flow disruptions. The OR layout was categorized into transitional zones and functional zones (workstations, supply zones, support zones, and sterile areas around the surgical table). CN's activities were classified into patient-, equipment-, material-, and information-related activities. Flow disruptions included those related to environmental hazards and layout. The CN traveled through multiple zones during 91% of the activities. The CN's workstation acted as a main hub from which the CN made frequent trips to both sides of the surgical table, the foot of the OR table, supply zones, and support zones. Transitional zones accounted for 58.3% of all flow disruption that the CN was involved in whereas 28% occurred in areas surrounding the OR bed. The similarity of the movement and flow disruption patterns, despite variations in OR layout, highlighted the adjacencies required between major zones that CNs regularly visit. These optimum adjacencies should be considered while designing ORs such that they are more efficient and safer.

  19. Investigating Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Stine Schmieg; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    This book shares knowledge collected from 2015 and onward within the Consortium for Digital Disruption anchored at Aalborg University (www.dd.aau.dk). Evidenced by this publication, the field of disruptive innovation research has gone through several stages of operationalizing the theory. In recent...... years, researchers are increasingly looking back towards the origins of the theory in attempts to cure it from its most obvious flaws. This is especially true for the use of the theory in making predictions about future disruptions. In order to continue to develop a valuable theory of disruption, we...... find it useful to first review what the theory of disruptive innovation initially was, how it has developed, and where we are now. A cross section of disruptive innovation literature has been reviewed in order to form a general foundation from which we might better understand the changing world...

  20. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence

  1. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-12-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4-5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence of concomitant language

  2. Sex difference in choice of concealed or exposed refuge sites by preschool children viewing a model leopard in a playground simulation of antipredator behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Coss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study of preschool children characterizes a semi-natural extension of experimental questions on how human ancestors evaded predation when encountering dangerous felids. In a pretend game on a playground, we presented full-size leopard and deer models to children (N = 39 in a repeatedmeasures experimental design. Prior to viewing the model presented 15-m away, each child was instructed by the experimenter to go where she or he would feel safe. The rationale for this study was based on the anthropological construct of “sexual dinichism,” positing that, during the Pliocene, smaller-bodied hominin females engaged in more arboreal behavior than larger-bodied males. Consistent with this construct, our previous simulation research using images of an African rock outcrop showed that, after viewing a lion, girls preferred a tree as refuge rather than a crevice or large boulder whereas boys did not differentiate these refuge sites. In this follow-up study, we predicted that, after viewing the model leopard, the preschool girls would differ from the boys by not choosing enclosed refuge sites analogous to the crevice. Analyses of a contingency table for the leopard model supported this hypothesis by yielding a significant interaction of sex and refuge location (p = .031, d = .76, the source of which was a reliably larger percentage of girls not choosing concealed refuge (p = .005, d = 2.3. The interaction of sex and refuge location for the model deer was not significant (p > .5. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the deer, the girls selected exposed playground refuge sites rather than concealing ones to maintain visual contact with the leopard as a contingency for future action

  3. School-based intervention for childhood disruptive behavior in disadvantaged settings: a randomized controlled trial with and without active teacher support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette M; De Boo, Gerly M; Huizenga, Hilde; Prins, Pier J M

    2013-12-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support (ATS) versus educational teacher support (ETS) (CBT + ATS vs. CBT + ETS). Screening (n = 1,929) and assessment (n = 224) led to the inclusion of 173 children ages 8-12 years from 17 elementary schools. Most of the children were boys (n = 136, 79%) of low or low-to-middle class socioeconomic status (87%); the sample was ethnically diverse (63% of non-Western origin). Children received CBT + ATS (n = 29) or CBT + ETS (n = 41) or were entered into a waitlist control condition (n = 103) to be treated afterward (CBT + ATS, n = 39, and CBT + ETS, n = 64). Effect sizes (ES), clinical significance (reliable change), and the results of multilevel modeling are reported. Ninety-seven percent of children completed treatment. Teachers and parents reported positive posttreatment effects (mean ES = .31) for CBT compared with the waitlist control condition on disruptive behavior. Multilevel modeling showed similar results. Clinical significance was modest. Changes had remained stable or had increased at 3-months follow-up (mean ES = .39). No consistent effect of teacher condition was found at posttreatment; however, at follow-up, children who received ETS fared significantly better. This study shows that a school-based CBT program is beneficial for difficult-to-reach children with disruptive behavior: The completion rate was remarkably high, ESs (mean ES = .31) matched those of previous studies with targeted intervention, and effects were maintained or had increased at follow-up.

  4. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Time-Dependent Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants During Pregnancy on Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Development in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupattelli, Angela; Wood, Mollie; Ystrom, Eivind; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Handal, Marte; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on children's behavioral, emotional, and social development by age 5 years, and over time since age 1.5 years. The prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We included women who reported depressive/anxiety disorders before and/or during pregnancy. Children born to women who used SSRIs in early (weeks 0-16), mid- (weeks 17-28), or late (> week 29) pregnancy were compared to those who were unexposed. Children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors (Child Behavior Checklist) and temperament traits (Emotionality, Activity and Shyness Temperament Questionnaire) were measured at 1.5, 3, and 5 years. Mean scores were calculated and standardized. General linear marginal structural models were fitted to account for time-varying exposure and confounders, and censoring; 3-level growth-curve models were used. A total of 8,359 mother-child dyads were included, and 4,128 children had complete outcome data at age 5 years. Children exposed to SSRIs in late pregnancy had an increased risk of anxious/depressed behaviors by age 5 years compared with unexposed children (adjusted β = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.96). Such risk was not evident for earlier timings of exposure. There was no evidence for a substantial prenatal SSRI effect on externalizing, social, and emotional problems. These findings suggest no substantial increased risk for externalizing, emotional, or social problems in preschool-aged children following prenatal SSRI exposure. Although the role of chance and potential unmeasured confounding cannot be ruled out, late-pregnancy SSRI exposure was associated with greater anxious/depressed behaviors in the offspring. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Disruption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.

    1982-07-01

    Calculations of disruption time and energy dissipation have been obtained by simulating the plasma as an electrical conducting loop that varies in resistivity, current density, major radius. The calculations provide results which are in good agreement with experimental observations. It is believed that this approach allows engineering designs for disruptions to be completed in large tokamaks such as INTOR or FED

  7. Preschool Children (Ages 2 to 4 Years) - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preschool years are characterized as a time of increasing autonomy, expanding language skills, increasing ability to control behavior, and broadening social circumstances, such as attending preschool or staying with friends or relatives.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other disruptive behavior disorders are risk factors for recurrent epistaxis in children: A prospective case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Erdoğan; Aksu, Hatice; Gürbüz-Özgür, Börte; Başak, Hatice Sema; Eskiizmir, Görkem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other disruptive behavior disorders in children with recurrent epistaxis (RE). Children aged between 6-11 years were enrolled according to presence (n=34) and absence (n=103) of RE. Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale was applied to parents. Moreover, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version was performed. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and ADHD were determined in 17.6% and 32.4% of patients, respectively. When psychiatric diagnoses between both groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found in terms of ADHD and ODD (p=0.028 and p=0.003). In children with RE, the frequency of ADHD and ODD are higher than children without RE. A referral to a child psychiatrist should be considered, if a child with RE also has symptoms of increased activity, inattention and/or body-injurious behaviors.

  9. ADHD and Disruptive behavior scores – associations with MAO-A and 5-HTT genes and with platelet MAO-B activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Jan-Olov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacological and genetic studies suggest the importance of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems in the pathogenesis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD. We have, in a population-based sample, studied associations between dimensions of the ADHD/DBD phenotype and Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO-B activity in platelets and polymorphisms in two serotonergic genes: the Monoamine Oxidase A Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MAO-A VNTR and the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTT LPR. Methods A population-based sample of twins, with an average age of 16 years, was assessed for ADHD/DBD with a clinical interview; Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Blood was drawn from 247 subjects and analyzed for platelet MAO-B activity and polymorphisms in the MAO-A and 5-HTT genes. Results We found an association in girls between low platelet MAO-B activity and symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD. In girls, there was also an association between the heterozygote long/short 5-HTT LPR genotype and symptoms of conduct disorder. Furthermore the heterozygote 5-HTT LPR genotype in boys was found to be associated with symptoms of Conduct Disorder (CD. In boys, hemizygosity for the short MAO-A VNTR allele was associated with disruptive behavior. Conclusion Our study suggests that the serotonin system, in addition to the dopamine system, should be further investigated when studying genetic influences on the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

  10. Preschool psychopathology reported by parents in 23 societies: testing the seven-syndrome model of the child behavior checklist for ages 1.5-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas M; Rescorla, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies.......To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies....

  11. Een twee-trajectenmodel voor de ontwikkeling van anti-sociaal gedrag bij kinderen met ADHD. / A two-track model for the development of antisocial behavior in children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.; Gebhardt, E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a model based on 2 developmental pathways which both result in the comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). It is suggested that disruptive behavior in preschool children can be differentiated according to aggressive and non-aggressive

  12. Short-term exposure to dim light at night disrupts rhythmic behaviors and causes neurodegeneration in fly models of tauopathy and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mari; Subramanian, Manivannan; Cho, Yun-Ho; Kim, Gye-Hyeong; Lee, Eunil; Park, Joong-Jean

    2018-01-08

    The accumulation and aggregation of phosphorylated tau proteins in the brain are the hallmarks for the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, disruptions in circadian rhythms (CRs) with altered sleep-wake cycles, dysregulation of locomotion, and increased memory defects have been reported in patients with AD. Drosophila flies that have an overexpression of human tau protein in neurons exhibit most of the symptoms of human patients with AD, including locomotion defects and neurodegeneration. Using the fly model for tauopathy/AD, we investigated the effects of an exposure to dim light at night on AD symptoms. We used a light intensity of 10 lux, which is considered the lower limit of light pollution in many countries. After the tauopathy flies were exposed to the dim light at night for 3 days, the flies showed disrupted CRs, altered sleep-wake cycles due to increased pTau proteins and neurodegeneration, in the brains of the AD flies. The results indicate that the nighttime exposure of tauopathy/AD model Drosophila flies to dim light disrupted CR and sleep-wake behavior and promoted neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preventive effects and cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschoolers with aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting problems and child behavior problems are being viewed as putative precursors of adult criminal and violent behavior. Moreover, aggressive behavior in early childhood affects daily life of both children and their surroundings, resulting in serious economic implications to society. In many

  14. Distinctive hippocampal and amygdalar cytoarchitectural changes underlie specific patterns of behavioral disruption following stress exposure in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Matar, Michael A; Zohar, Joseph; Kaplan, Zeev

    2014-12-01

    Alterations in cytoarchitecture and molecular signaling have been observed in adaptive and maladaptive responses to stress and presumably underlie the physiological and behavioral changes observed. The relationship between behavioral responses to stress exposure and changes in cytoarchitecture of subregions of the hippocampus and amygdala was investigated in an animal model of PTSD. Behaviors in elevated plus-maze and acoustic startle response tests were assessed in rats 7 days after exposure to predator scent stress. Brains were harvested 24h later. Neurons from CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus subregions and basolateral amygdala were reconstructed and subjected to Sholl analysis and spine density estimation. Glucocorticoid receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phospho-NR1-Ser-889, phospho-GluR1-Ser-845, phospho-calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II-Thy-286, post-synaptic density protein 95 and phospho-CREB-Ser-133 were evaluated in the hippocampus. Data were analyzed by retrospective classification of individual rats into three behavioral response groups. The extent and distribution of changes in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdalar dendrites was significantly associated with stress-induced behavioral response classification. Extreme (PTSD-like) behavioral disruption was associated with extensive neuronal retraction in the hippocampus and proliferation in the amygdala. Neither structure displayed such changes in minimal behavioral responders. Partial behavioral response was associated with identical changes in the hippocampus only. Patterns of change in requisite molecular signaling genes and endophenotypic markers corresponded to the structural and behavioral responses. The extent and distribution of changes in the cytoarchitecture of hippocampal and amygdalar subregions is directly related to the pattern of behavioral response of the individual to stress exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldina F Gaastra

    Full Text Available Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use. Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs for 24 within-subjects design (WSD and 76 single-subject design (SSD studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08, with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82 and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61. Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  16. Disrupted Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices...

  17. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Disruptions Page Content Article Body No matter how ...

  18. Digital Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    det digitale domæne ud over det niveau, der kendetegner den nuværende debat, så præsenteres der ny viden om digital disruption. Som noget nyt udlægges Clayton Christens teori om disruptiv innovation med et særligt fokus på små organisationers mulighed for eksponentiel vækst. Specielt udfoldes...... forholdet mellem disruption og den stadig accelererende digitale udvikling i konturerne til ny teoridannelse om digital disruption. Bogens undertitel ”faretruende og fascinerende forandringer” peger på, at der er behov for en nuanceret debat om digital disruption i modsætning til den tone, der er slået an i...... videre kalder et ”disruption-råd”. Faktisk er rådet skrevet ind i 2016 regeringsgrundlaget for VLK-regeringen. Disruption af organisationer er ikke et nyt fænomen; men hastigheden, hvormed det sker, er stadig accelererende. Årsagen er den globale mega-trend: Digitalisering. Og derfor er specielt digital...

  19. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  20. Innovative interventions to promote positive dental health behaviors and prevent dental caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman; Ho, Samuel Mun Yin

    2013-04-30

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessment (RA) tool, which is devised to facilitate dental counseling and may enhance MI in several ways. Through a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial, three intervention schemes (CE, CE+MI, and CE+MI+RA) will be compared for their effectiveness in eliciting dentally healthy behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children. This study targets 3-year-old children who are at a critical stage for embedding health habits. Children with unfavorable dental behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) and their parents will be recruited from 12 participating kindergartens. Parent-child dyads (n=690) will be randomly assigned into three groups. In the first group (CE), oral health information and advice will be delivered to parents through pamphlets. In the second group (CE+MI), in addition to the pamphlets, individual MI counseling with each parent will be performed by one of two trained dental hygienists. In the third group (CE+MI+RA), besides pamphlets and MI, interactive RA will be integrated into MI to motivate parents and facilitate their informed decision making and goal planning. At baseline and after 12 and 24 months, parents will complete a questionnaire and children will undergo a dental examination. The effectiveness of the intervention schemes will be compared over 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome will be caries increment in children and proportion of caries-free children. Secondary outcomes will be changes in parental efficacy for protecting