WorldWideScience

Sample records for preschool children participated

  1. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  2. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  3. Clinimetric Properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Shen, I-hsuan; Liu, I-Shu; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty-two children with CP (age range, two to five years and 11 months) and their caregivers participated in this study. The APCP consists of diversity and intensity…

  4. The Sensory Environment and Participation of Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Aimee; Pfeiffer, Beth

    2016-07-01

    Sensory processing is recognized as impacting participation for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Little research exists to examine the impact of the sensory environment on the participation patterns of children with ASD, specifically from a contextual standpoint. The researchers in this study examined the viewpoint of teachers and occupational therapists on the sensory-related environmental barriers to participation within the preschool context. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used for data collection and analysis. Thirteen preschool teachers and occupational therapists were interviewed. Sensory aspects of the environment both inhibited and enhanced participation. Physical and temporal components of the environment are identified as being the most influential. Modifications of the environment are identified as increasing participation. It is important to consider the sensory aspects of the environment, in addition to the sensory processing patterns of the person in assessment and intervention planning within the preschool environment.

  5. Digital Storytelling: Capturing Children's Participation in Preschool Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervin, Lisa; Mantei, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Children should be active participants in the environments in which they engage. However in the prior to school setting, it is not necessarily clear to educators how children understand their role and place within that community. Lave and Wenger's (2005) situated learning theory provides a useful frame to consider this developing sense of…

  6. An Earthquake Education Program with Parent Participation for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, Hulya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the earthquake education program which was prepared for 5 to 6 year old children and to draw attention to the importance of parent participation. The earthquake education program was applied to 93 children and 31 parents in the province of Denizli situated in the first degree seismic zone…

  7. An Earthquake Education Program with Parent Participation for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, Hulya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the earthquake education program which was prepared for 5 to 6 year old children and to draw attention to the importance of parent participation. The earthquake education program was applied to 93 children and 31 parents in the province of Denizli situated in the first degree seismic zone…

  8. Preschool Children's Participation in Representational and Non-Representational Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined representational and non-representational activities in which children in a Head Start classroom participated. This was an investigation from the perspective of cultural-historical activity theory of how components (e.g. artifacts and division of labour) of classroom activities vary across and within types of activities.…

  9. Parental perceptions of participation of preschool children with and without mobility limitations : validity and reliability of the PART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemps, R. J. J. K.; Siebes, R. C.; Gorter, J. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study provides information on the psychometric properties of a newly developed Dutch-language instrument for measuring parental perceptions of participation of preschool children (aged 2+ to 5+ years): the PART. Method. The PART was administered to parents of preschool children with (n

  10. Environmental Barriers to Participation of Preschool Children with and without Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Ju Kang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment plays a vital role in affecting participation of young children in home, school, and community. Knowledge of environmental barriers helps to develop solutions or strategies that enable participation. The study compared the environmental barriers perceived by parents of preschool children with physical disabilities (PD, n = 142 and with typical development (TD, n = 192 in Taiwan. Parents identified environmental barriers by structured interview using the Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Scale of Environment (CASE-C. The CASE-C is an 18-item measure of the impact of problems with physical, social, and attitudinal environmental features. Differences between the PD and TD groups in the summary scores for the CASE-C and the percentages of parents who perceived a problem for each item were examined by the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and Chi-square test. Parents of children with PD more often identified barriers related to family resources and community programs or services, social attitudes, assistance and supports outside of home, physical design of home and community, transportation, and assistive devices or equipment. Greater impacts of barriers were also reported by parents of preschool children with PD. Our findings provide evidence of environmental barriers that inform practice and policies to modify the barriers and provide an accessible and inclusive environment for families with young children.

  11. Are Parents of Preschool Children Inclined to Give Consent for Participation in Nutritional Clinical Trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipen Vasudev; Phatak, Ajay Gajanan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Micronutrient deficiencies can lead to anemia, growth restriction, and poor motor and cognitive development. A clinical trial was planned to assess the impact of nutritional supplementation on cognitive measures in preschool children. Conducting clinical trials in children is difficult due to underlying laws, hesitation of the research community, and difficult enrollment. We carried out a questionnaire-based feasibility survey to assess the interest of parents towards participation in such a nutrition-based study. Methods After approval from the Institutional Human Research Ethics Committee, the principals of four kindergarten schools at Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India consented to participate. Children at the participating schools were distributed a consent form and pre-tested questionnaire, to be taken home for parents to sign, fill and return. Results Out of a total of 1049 consent forms and questionnaires distributed, 602 (57.39%) signed and filled forms were returned. Despite fair awareness regarding the need of research, parents’ willingness to involve their children in a 6 month duration research study, not requiring invasive measures like blood pricks, was 180 (29.9%). Nearly half (250, 41.5%) did not respond and more than a quarter (172, 28.6%) declined participation on behalf of their children. Conclusion The interest level of a pre-school child's parents for participation of the child in a nutrition intervention study evaluating cognitive measures like memory is low. Understanding the study population’s motivating and inhibiting factors leading to decreased participation in clinical trials is necessary to facilitate the creation of a pertinent evidence base. PMID:27732680

  12. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  13. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  14. Coordination in orientation games of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Erika

    2013-01-01

    In the thesis we studied how orientation games have effect on preschool children whilst growing up. Even though the games in available litterature are meant for school children some authors stress that the games are appropriate for preschool children though you do have to have be careful when implementing them for preschoolers. Orientation games in their original form improve orientation, endurance and encourage competition. With participation we can improve all motor functions but for presch...

  15. Entrepreneurial Learning in Swedish Preschools: Possibilities for and Constraints on Children's Active Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulander, Eva; Ehrlin, Anna; Sandberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The website of the Swedish National Agency for Education states that preschools are to promote entrepreneurial learning. Many Swedish preschools, therefore, have started to work consciously with entrepreneurial learning as a way of fostering pupils' creativity and ability to make their own decisions. This article investigates whether and how…

  16. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  17. Preschool teachers´ views on childrens learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Thorleif; Brostrøm, Stig; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning......? What activities are important for learning? What are the best conditions for children's learning? How do preschool teachers understand participation in relation to children's learning in preschool? Results suggest that play, interactions with other children and adults, the provision of different...

  18. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  19. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  20. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  1. Preschool teachers’ views on children's learning: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning......? What activities are important for learning? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? How do preschool teachers understand participation in relation to children’s learning in preschool? Results suggest that play, interactions with other children and adults, the provision of different...

  2. Construct validity of the FOCUS© (Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six): a communicative participation outcome measure for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, K; Thomas-Stonell, N; Oddson, B; McLeod, S; Warr-Leeper, G; Robertson, B; Rosenbaum, P

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the construct validity of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS©). This measure is reflective of concepts in the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health--Children and Youth framework. It was developed to capture 'real-world' changes (e.g. communicative participation) in preschoolers' communication following speech-language intervention. A pre-post design was used. Fifty-two parents of 3- to 6-year-old preschoolers attending speech-language therapy were included as participants. Speech-language therapists provided individual and/or group intervention to preschoolers. Intervention targeted: articulation/phonology, voice/resonance, expressive/receptive language, play, and use of augmentative devices. Construct validity for communicative participation was assessed using pre-intervention and post-intervention parent interviews using the FOCUS© and the communication and socialization domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Significant associations were found between the FOCUS©, measuring communicative participation, and the VABS-II domains for: (i) pre-intervention scores in communication (r = 0.53, P < 0.001; 95% CI 0.30-0.70) and socialization (r = 0.67, P < 0.001; 95% CI 0.48-0.80); (ii) change scores over-time in communication (r = 0.45, P < 0.001; 95% CI 0.201-0.65) and socialization (r = 0.39, P = 0.002; 95% CI 0.13-0.60); and (iii) scores at post-intervention for communication (r = 0.53, P < 0.001; 95% CI 0.30-0.70) and for socialization (r = 0.37, P = 0.003; 95% CI 0.11-0.50). The study provided evidence on construct validity of the FOCUS© for evaluating real-world changes in communication. We believe that the FOCUS© is a useful measure of communicative participation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. THE VIEWS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN ABOUT SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin AYDOĞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available People’s early experiences related with sports are the good determinants of their attitudes and behaviors about sports in their future life. Early childhood period is very critical in people’s life span getting children adopt different habits besides enhancing their development. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the views and expectations of preschoolers about sports. The sample is 24 preschoolers who are between 3 - and - 6 - year - olds. In this study q ualitative research design is used and semi - structured interviews are conducted with participants. Data are analyzed and interpreted under categories by using content analysis. The results of this study are determined as; children could not quite understan d the terms; sports and sportsman, children have limited knowledge about who do sports, and how and where do sport, children know football and swimming as sports. The results were discussed by adhering the literature and the supportive preschool sports ac tivites were suggested.

  4. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  5. The Effects of Mother Participation in Relationship Education on Coparenting, Parenting, and Child Social Competence: Modeling Spillover Effects for Low-Income Minority Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Garneau, Chelsea; Vaughn, Brian; McGill, Julianne; Harcourt, Kate Taylor; Ketring, Scott; Smith, Thomas

    2016-11-14

    Although suggestions are that benefits of relationship and marriage education (RME) participation extend from the interparental relationship with parenting and child outcomes, few evaluation studies of RME test these assumptions and the relationship among changes in these areas. This quasi-experimental study focuses on a parallel process growth model that tests a spillover hypothesis of program effects and finds, in a sample of low-income minority mothers with a child attending a Head Start program, that increases in mother reports of coparenting agreement for RME participants predict decreases in their reports of punitive parenting behaviors. Although improvements in parenting behaviors did not predict increases in teacher reports of children's social competence, improvements in coparenting agreement were associated with increases in children's social competence over time. In addition, comparative tests of outcomes between parents in the program and parents in a comparison group reveal that RME program participants (n = 171) demonstrate significant improvements compared to nonparticipants (n = 143) on coparenting agreement, parenting practices, and teachers' reports of preschool children's social competence over a 1 year period. The findings are offered as a step forward in better understanding the experiences of low-resource participants in RME. Implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Children’s participation in Finnish pre-school education - Identifying, Describing and Documenting Children’s Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Leinonen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, analyzes, and evaluates children’s participatory in Finnish pre-school groups. Children’s participation is viewed in the context of the Core Curriculum for Pre-school Education in Finland (2010, in which children are considered active subjects, who interact with both other people and the environment. However, in practical data, collected via survey from pre-school educators, this ideology is restricted and the educators in pre-school groups focus on children’s participation from a narrow point of view that reflects a lack of connection between the Core Curriculum goals for pre-school education and the actual participatory practices children face.

  7. Developing preschool children social aptitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Brás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.

  8. Children's participation in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig

    2012-01-01

    and research in their own preschool settings. This article offers an argument based on theory and practical examples for the inclusion of children in educational and educational research. It also introduces some of the problems which warrant consideration if researchers are to understand and cooperate...... with children as co-researchers. The author 15 portrays the educational process and the research process as a possible way for the democratisation of children....

  9. Preschool Participation and BMI at Kindergarten Entry: The Case for Early Behavioral Intervention

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    Meghan E. McGrady

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preschool years (ages 3–5 are a critical period in growth and development. Emerging studies suggest that preschool attendance may be linked to future weight, and perhaps obesity. This study examined relationships between public preschool attendance, demographic variables, and weight at kindergarten entry. Participants included 2,400 children entering kindergarten in 2006. Height and weight were used to calculate a child's BMI category based on CDC norms. At kindergarten entry, 17% of participants were overweight, and 18% were obese. Children attending a public preschool were at an increased risk for overweight (OR=1.06 and obesity (OR=1.34 at kindergarten entry, χ2(2=6.81, P=.03 relative to children who did not attend preschool. No significant trends relationships between demographics and weight status were found, but demographic variables are summarized descriptively. Policy and clinical implications are provided.

  10. Computerized sociometric assessment for preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for prescho

  11. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  12. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

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    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  13. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  14. The inclusion of disadvantaged children in preschool programs: The children’s rights and social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jager Jerneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation of at least 95% of children between the ages of 4 and the mandatory school age in high-quality preschool programs represents an important contribution to the achievement of the Europe 2020 strategy. Slovenia is not far from achieving this objective; however, if we consider participation in preschool programs from the perspective of the entire population of preschool children and the realisation of children’s rights, we note that nearly a quarter of children - among them (at least in the wider European area the most disadvantaged - have not realised the right to education. We studied the awareness of the importance of ensuring access to preschool programs for all children on a representative sample of 106 Slovenian preschool principals by means of quantitative pedagogical research. The results show a high percentage of disadvantaged children in the preschool areas and in the preschools themselves; on the other hand, only a low percentage (only one-third of preschools collect data about disadvantaged children and implement preschool programs for them; only one-fifth of preschools implement preschool programs for disadvantaged children. In order to act responsibly and enable all children the right to education, we must start devoting greater attention to identifying and including disadvantaged children in preschool programs.

  15. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  16. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  17. Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the meaning of Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school – analyzed from the children’s perspectives (Aronsson, Hedegaard, Højholt, & Ulvik, 2012).The text is based on an ethnographic study where a group of Danish children where followed...... participation possibilities within the children’s communities in preschool. This means that we need both cooperation with the children’s parents and professional collaboration and information sharing across preschool and school and professional cooperation within the school....

  18. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  19. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  20. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  1. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  2. The utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Weng, Rhay-Hung; Su, Hsun-Pi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Taiwanese government considers fluoride varnish to be a major component of preventive dental cares for preschool children. This study aimed to explore the extent of utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children. Methods: Using preschool children under the age of 5 years as our participants, this study was conducted based on the 2008 Taiwan database of the Ministry of the Interior, linked with information gathered between 2006...

  3. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  4. ‘Swim for Health:’ Barriers to participation for pre-school aged children and their families in an aquatic activity intervention in the North of England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam B.; Sleap, Mike

    2008-01-01

    health inequalities across the region. Aquatic activity offers great potential for reducing obesity levels in at risk communities (e.g. Hardy 1990). A key group within this intervention was children of pre-school age and their parents in lower socio-economic groups. The study aimed to identify perceived...... indicate only 50% of participants engaged in physical activity without their families. Participants’ male partners engaged more in physical activity alone, suggesting strong gender roles in physical activity choices. Where solitary physical activity was in evidence, perfecting the body through ‘bodywork......’ was central. However, swimming was still popular as a family activity. Participants felt less self-conscious about the perceived deficiencies of their bodies when swimming with their families as they focussed instead on their children’s wellbeing, pool hygiene and risk. Hence, participants emphasised children...

  5. Children's participation in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...

  6. Pre-energy reasoning in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITRIS KOLIOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper explores the degree to which preschool children have the ability to use mental representations which constitute precursor energy models. Twenty-five children (10 boys and 15 girls participated in the study. They were presented with two different phenomenological situations considered as important for the establishment of pre-energy reasoning: the movement of a toy car with the use of batteries and the movement of an identical car with the use of a spring. The children were involved in personal, semi-structured interviews, which aimed at eliciting their explanations about the movement of the two cars. The analysis of children’s explanations reveals that they tend to explain the movement of cars in both phenomenological situations in naturalistic terms. These naturalistic explanations were mainly agentive, that is they regard the batteries and the spring correspondingly as external agents causing the cars’ movement. The major percentage of agentive naturalistic explanations was given in terms of the function of the objects under discussion, while a number of them were formulated in terms of distribution. These findings designate a developing understanding of physical causality and a pre-energy character in children’s reasoning, since they are capable of accounting for the two phenomenological situations in terms of object chains. Therefore, an attempt to introduce the aspect of energy transfer in preschool education could be considered.

  7. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  8. Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

  9. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  10. Affective forecasting bias in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Shalini; Bulley, Adam; von Hippel, William; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Adults are capable of predicting their emotional reactions to possible future events. Nevertheless, they systematically overestimate the intensity of their future emotional reactions relative to how they feel when these events actually occur. The developmental origin of this "intensity bias" has not yet been examined. Two studies were conducted to test the intensity bias in preschool children. In the first study, 5-year-olds (N=30) predicted how they would feel if they won or lost various games. Comparisons with subsequent self-reported feelings indicated that participants overestimated how sad they would feel to lose the games but did not overestimate their happiness from winning. The second study replicated this effect in another sample of 5-year-olds (n=34) and also found evidence of an intensity bias in 4-year-olds (n=30). These findings provide the first evidence of a negative intensity bias in affective forecasting among young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  12. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  13. Feasibility and Benefit of Parent Participation in a Program Emphasizing Preschool Child Language Development while Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the feasibility of homeless parents' participation in an intervention to increase use of facilitating language strategies during interactions with their preschool children while residing in family homeless shelters. This study also examined the intervention's impact on the parents' use of facilitating…

  14. Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, B; Roberts, I; Oakley, A

    2000-01-01

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  15. Prevalence and determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Berg, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    , the parents of the children were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 945 out of the 1201 eligible preschool children participated in the study (response rate = 79%). The children were aged 5-8 years. The majority were of German nationality (72.6%). Overall, 127 children (13......BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is among the most common infections in humans and has been recognized as major cause of various gastroduodenal diseases. There is limited knowledge, however, on the prevalence and determinants of this infection in children. We addressed these issues in a population......-based cross-sectional study in Southern Germany. METHODS: Study subjects were all preschool children in Ulm, a city in the South of Germany, who were screened for school fitness by physicians of the public health service in 1996. Infection status was determined by 13C-urea breath test. In addition...

  16. Pearls of Meaning: Preschool Children Respond to Multicultural Picturebooks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiufang Chen; Susan Browne

    2015-01-01

      Employing a qualitative practitioner research method, this study examined pre-school children's responses to multicultural picture books and gained insight into how pre-school children make meaning...

  17. Relationship between time use in physical activity and gross motor performance of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2017-02-01

    Participation in physical activity is an important health concern for children in most Western communities, but little is known about Asian children's participation. The purpose of this study was to extend the current knowledge on how much time preschool children in Taiwan spend on physical activity, to examine its relationship with gross motor performance and to provide information on the establishment of physical activity guidelines for preschool children in Taiwan. Two hundred and sixty-four children between 36 and 71 months old were recruited from a university medical centre and from preschools in Taiwan. The primary outcomes were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition and the modified Preschool-aged Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. 89.8% of our participants did not meet the recommendations from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education for time spent in physical activities. Participants spent an average of 155 minutes/week in low intensity physical activity. Children with motor difficulties tended to spend less time on physical activity than did typically developing children. The mother's level of education and whether the child was overweight or obese correlated with how much time the children spent on physical activity. We conclude that paediatric occupational therapists should explain to parents the relationship between physical activity and motor development and advocate for developmentally positive physical activities for preschool children. Physical activity guidelines for Taiwanese preschoolers should be established immediately. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. Green Settings for Children in Preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth

    This Danish study investigates the relationship between children in preschool (age range 3-6.5 years) and the outdoor environments they use. The main aim is to describe and analyse the outdoor features of significance for children’s activities and of importance for design and management of green...... settings for preschools. The intent is to facilitate transfer of knowledge from preschools to planners and managers of green settings such as woodland, parks, green lots and playgrounds. The central concept applied is that of affordances, here defined as the meaningful action possibilities...... between forest features and manufactured features, a detailed account of the affordances of ditches, and a description of the forest sites used by a Danish forest preschool. Children were attracted to features with changing and not fully explored action possibilities; forest features added variation...

  19. The Use of Music to Increase Task-Oriented Behaviors in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Gross Motor Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of music and music + instruction on task-oriented behaviors in preschool children with ASD within individual gross motor movement settings. Five preschool children (four boys; one girl) diagnosed with ASD attending a Midwestern private preschool for children with ASD served as participants. The…

  20. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many uncertainties remain in the diagnosis and treatment of preschool children with asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the subgroups of preschool children (aged 12-47 months) with recurrent asthma symptoms most likely to respond to inhaled fluticasone propionate (200...... the management of preschool children with recurrent asthma symptoms....

  1. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  2. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  3. Participation in sports practice and motor competence in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel da Rocha Queiroz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical model suggests that motor competence during early childhood is related to one's current and future health status and that practicing sports seems to be playing a special role in creating such competence. This study aimed to compare performance in gross motor skills among preschoolers participating in regular sports practice (SP and those not participating (NSP, including comparisons by gender. The study uses secondary data from a population-based study of performance regarding the locomotor and object control skills of preschoolers (3 to 5 years old. Preschoolers were assigned to groups SP or NSP, paired by age and sex according to skills: locomotor (n = 54; 30 boys or object control (n = 37; 17 boys. Analysis of variance showed that the SP group outperformed the NSP one, and there were gender differences only within SP group. Starting to practice sports during early childhood helps to build motor competence and benefits both genders.

  4. Preschool Children's Expectations for Parental Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Angie Geertsen

    1998-01-01

    Many factors influence preschool children's expectations for parental discipline. Parent characteristics such as personality, values, social class, and disciplinary methods can affect the expectations children have for parental discipline. Children's ability to understand and interpret parental messages can also influence how they will respond. All of these factors need to be taken into consideration in order for effective communication between parents and children to occur. In this study,...

  5. An Art Appreciation Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Kim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week art appreciation curriculum on 17 preschool children's levels of self-esteem, art involvement, and art appreciation. Pre- and postintervention tests demonstrated that, as a result of the curriculum, the children's self-esteem increased and that they displayed greater interest and knowledge of art. (MDM)

  6. Selective Listening Asymmetry in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1977-01-01

    Forty-two right-handed preschool children listened to dichotic presentations of digit names and were told to report only the digit arriving at the designated ear. A significant right-ear superiority was found, demonstrating a left lateralization of verbal processing in children as young as three years of age. (Author/JMB)

  7. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  8. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…

  9. An Art Appreciation Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Kim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week art appreciation curriculum on 17 preschool children's levels of self-esteem, art involvement, and art appreciation. Pre- and postintervention tests demonstrated that, as a result of the curriculum, the children's self-esteem increased and that they displayed greater interest and knowledge of art. (MDM)

  10. Predictors of Social Skills for Preschool Children at Risk for ADHD: The Relationship between Direct and Indirect Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa B.; Shapiro, Edward S.; DuPaul, George J.; Lutz, J. Gary; Kern, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between direct and indirect measurements of social skills and social problem behaviors for preschool children at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was examined. Participants included 137 preschool children, aged 3 to 5 years, at risk for ADHD, who were participating in a larger study examining the effects of…

  11. Peer Effects in Preschool Classrooms: Is Children's Language Growth Associated with Their Classmates' Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Mashburn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With an increasing number of young children participating in preschool education, this study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Specifically, this work examined whether peer effects were influential to preschoolers' growth in language skills over an academic year and whether peer effects manifest…

  12. Peer Effects in Preschool Classrooms: Is Children's Language Growth Associated with Their Classmates' Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Mashburn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With an increasing number of young children participating in preschool education, this study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Specifically, this work examined whether peer effects were influential to preschoolers' growth in language skills over an academic year and whether peer effects manifest…

  13. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  14. Does the Brown Banana Have a Beak? Preschool Children's Phonological Awareness as a Function of Parents' Talk about Speech Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Robertson, Sarah-Jane; Divers, Sarah; Schaughency, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children's phonological awareness develops rapidly in the preschool years and is an important contributor to later reading skill. This study addresses the role of parents' talk in preschool children's phonological awareness development. A community sample of 27 parents and their 3- to 4-year-old children participated in a new "Sound…

  15. Does the Brown Banana Have a Beak? Preschool Children's Phonological Awareness as a Function of Parents' Talk about Speech Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Robertson, Sarah-Jane; Divers, Sarah; Schaughency, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children's phonological awareness develops rapidly in the preschool years and is an important contributor to later reading skill. This study addresses the role of parents' talk in preschool children's phonological awareness development. A community sample of 27 parents and their 3- to 4-year-old children participated in a new "Sound…

  16. Prevention of obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Julie; Barber, Sally; Singhal, Atul

    2010-05-01

    Obesity is a serious problem that affects children from diverse ethnic backgrounds in both industrialised and developing countries. Worldwide, an estimated twenty-two million children obese by 2050. Recent evidence suggests that most obesity is established during the preschool years, and because one in five obese 4 year olds will become obese adults this situation has major implications for public health. The causes of obesity in preschool children are complex and multifactorial. Although 30-50% of the predisposition towards obesity in preschool children can be explained by genetic factors, environmental influences also play a crucial role. The preschool period in particular is a pivotal time during which long-term dietary and physical activity habits are established, with potential lifelong effects on health. However, research in this age-group is limited. Previous studies have aimed to improve diet, increase physical activity and achieve behavioural change. However, few of these studies have been successful and there is an urgent need, therefore, for the development of evidence-based interventions aimed at the prevention of preschool obesity.

  17. Quality of preschool education in preschool institution and children's social competence

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Lešnik; Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2006-01-01

    The present study addressed the relation between the quality of preschool education and children's social competence. The main purpose of the study was to examine how professional workers (preschool teachers and preschool teachers' assistants) evaluate their work with children in the context of stimulating children's social development, and to determine the relationship between the professional workers' self-evaluations and children's social competence. Professional worker...

  18. Comparison of psychomotor development in urban and rural preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amouzadeh Khalili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Baekgrouund & purpose: The purpose of this study was comparing the motor and cognitive development of urban and rural preschool children in Semnan, Iran.Materials and Methods: 97 healthy preschool children participated in the study, including 57 urban (n1=57 and 40 rural (n2=40 children.6 assessment methods including equilibrium on one leg, drawing a man, Juorchin, fekr-e-bekr, equilibrium board and the test of easy fine motor, were employed to evaluate the motor and cognitive development in the participants.For analysis of the obtained results t tests was used to determine significant differences between the two groups.Results:equilibrium on one leg and the test of easy fine motor, considering there was significant differences between, urban and rural groups.In the other four tests there was no significant differences between the two groups.Conclusion: the findings indicated that the rural children have more success in motor skills when compared to urban children, while in cognitive tests the two groups showed the same results, indicating. That revision is required for the preschool programme

  19. Conformity to peer pressure in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B M; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous public judgments right before them. A follow-up study with 18 groups of 4 children between 4;0 and 4;6 years of age revealed that children did not change their "real" judgment of the situation, but only their public expression of it. Preschool children are subject to peer pressure, indicating sensitivity to peers as a primary social reference group already during the preschool years.

  20. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  1. Children´s and Preschool Teacher´s Photographs of New Preschool Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim

    . The aim of the project, (inspired from action research, new childhood sociology, phenomenology) is to create knowledge (on basis of experiences, narratives, observations/field notes, photos/visual knowledge) about the preschool environment, which might qualify the discourse of kindergartens and the new...... transparent (widespread use of glass in both interior and exterior walls). The new architecture is based on (neoliberal) ideas of flexibility and puts the emphasis on early childhood learning. But one thing is the ideas of politicians, architects and builders, another is how the buildings are "lived......" and coded/decoded (Bernstein) and experienced by the participants. The paper and presentation will focus on issues of interpretation visual data and dilemmas experienced during the process of cooperation with the preschool teachers and children. A key issue is the asymmetry between children and adults...

  2. The utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Weng, Rhay-Hung; Su, Hsun-Pi

    2016-08-01

    The Taiwanese government considers fluoride varnish to be a major component of preventive dental cares for preschool children. This study aimed to explore the extent of utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children. Using preschool children under the age of 5 years as our participants, this study was conducted based on the 2008 Taiwan database of the Ministry of the Interior, linked with information gathered between 2006 and 2008 on preventive healthcare and health insurance from the Bureau of Health Promotion and the National Health Research Institute. A total of 949,023 preschool children (fluoride varnish services. The percentage of Taiwanese preschool children that used fluoride varnish was 34.85%.The probability that fluoride varnish would be utilized was higher among children with catastrophic illness/injury or relevant chronic illnesses than those without. In addition, the probability of children with disabilities using fluoride varnish was lower than that of nondisabled children. Finally, parent sex, parent age, urbanization level of residence, and parents' premium-based salary significantly affected the children's utilization probability of fluoride varnish. In order to increase the utilization of fluoride varnish among preschool children in Taiwan in the future, target groups consisting of females, children fluoride varnish in children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  3. How Do Young Children with DCD Participate and Enjoy Daily Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, O.; Jarus, T.; Erez, Y.; Rosenberg, L.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental problems may decrease participation of children. The objective of this study was to evaluate multidimensional aspects of participation amongst preschool children with and without DCD. Participants included 63 children with mean age of 4.96 years (SD = 0.62; range = 4.02-6.35 years). Twenty one children were diagnosed with DCD, 21…

  4. The Effect of a Phonological Awareness Intervention Program on Phonological Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Metaphonological Abilities of Preschool Children At-Risk for Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a phonological awareness intervention program on phonological memory, phonological sensitivity, and metaphonological abilities of preschool children at-risk for reading disabilities. The participants in this study were 40 preschool children selected from three preschools located within three…

  5. Preschool Children's Control of Action Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good…

  6. Reference values for spirometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlates of Attraction Among Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael B.

    The generalizability of several variables which have been related to attraction among adults to preschool children was investigated. It was found that perceived physical attractiveness, perceived proximity, and familiarity are all significantly positively correlated with how popular a child is in his nursery school class. (Author)

  8. Green Settings for Children in Preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth

    between forest features and manufactured features, a detailed account of the affordances of ditches, and a description of the forest sites used by a Danish forest preschool. Children were attracted to features with changing and not fully explored action possibilities; forest features added variation...

  9. The Moral Judgments of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Gerald E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Preschoolers' responses to Piagetian moral judgment stories indicate that they respond differentially to good and bad intent (punishing the bad intentions but not responding to good or neutral intentions), but that only older children respond reliably and differentially to consequences. (RL)

  10. Development of Spanish Consonants in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Mary Ann

    1993-01-01

    This study tested the production of 18 Spanish consonants by 120 Mexican-American preschool children (ages 3-5), to determine the age of acquisition of Spanish consonants. Data are provided on percent of correct production of each sound at six different age levels and are graphically illustrated to compare age of acquisition with another study's…

  11. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  12. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  13. Screening Preschool Children for Visual Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Adhikari, BOptom

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular and/or vision defects are one of the most common reasons for the referral of young children to the hospital. Vision disorders are the fourth most common disability of children and the leading cause of handicapping conditions in childhood. In preschool-age children, amblyopia and amblyogenic risk factors, such as strabismus and significant refractive errors, are the most prevalent and important visual disorders. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of visual disorders in preschool children in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.Methods: Four hundred and eighty-four children attending eight preschools in Kathmandu Valley underwent detailed optometric examination. Visual acuity was assessed with either Sheridan Gardiner or Kay Picture chart monocularly. Binocularity was assessed with cover test and prism bar neutralisation. Refraction was carried out in all children. In most instances this was done without the use of a cycloplegic agent. Stereopsis was assessed with the Lang stereo test. Anterior and posterior segment abnormalities were assessed by using a pen light, hand-held slit lamp, and direct ophthalmoscope.Results: Refractive error was the most common visual disorder. Considering our criteria of refractive error for myopia ≥ 0.50 D, hyperopia ≥ 1.50 D, astigmatism ≥ 1.00 D, and anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D, the overall prevalence of refractive error in our study was 31.82%. The overall prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was 24.17%, 2.48%, and 5.17%, respectively. Anisometropia was present in 1.65% of the participants, and 2%, 1.4%, and 0.2% had strabismus, amblyopia, and nystagmus, respectively.Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of refractive error in our studied population needs more attention. The results suggest that there is a need for a large-scale community-based preschool screening program in Nepal so that affected children can be identified early and appropriate treatment can be

  14. Preschool children's understanding of frame construction

    OpenAIRE

    Podstudenšek, Gašper

    2012-01-01

    Present study presents the preschool children’s understanding of framework concept, geometric forms in which framework can be represented and favorized by children. In addition the present study explores the extend of children’s knowledge of various materials, used in framework construction, and their conclusions of possible geometric forms, made by various materials in framework construction. 4 and 5 year old children were involved in present study by answering the questions before and after...

  15. Validity and Feasibility of a Digital Diet Estimation Method for Use with Preschool Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Stuff, Janice; Goodell, Lora Suzanne; Liu, Yan; Martin, Corby K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the study was to assess the validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children in "Head Start." Methods: Preschool children and their caregivers participated in validation (n = 22) and feasibility (n = 24) pilot studies. Validity was determined in the metabolic research unit using…

  16. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  17. Preschool enrollment is associated with lower odds of childhood obesity among WIC participants in LA County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Maria; Harrison, Gail G; Whaley, Shannon; McGregor, Samar; Jenks, Eloise; Afifi, Abdelmonem

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has increased rapidly during the past few decades. Research into social and behavioral determinants of obesity could lead to innovative strategies for prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and preschool enrollment and number of hours in child care among low-income preschool-aged children who were participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). We conducted a case-control study including 556 3- to 4-year-old children who were either obese (BMI > 95th percentile of reference standard) or normal-weight (BMI 25-75th percentile). The population was largely (96%) Hispanic, an ethnic group that has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity in adults and children in the US. In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for a variety of psychosocial and cognitive home environment variables, key demographics and maternal variables, the odds ratio of being obese was 0.61 for children who attended preschool more than 4 days a week (95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Watching television or videos for an hour or more on a typical day (odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 1.07-2.75)), and higher maternal BMI (odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11)) were independently related to odds of obesity. The impact of preschool attendance and TV viewing are potentially instructive in terms of preventive interventions for children at this age.

  18. The Effect of Literacy Intervention in Preschool Children's Dramatic Play on Literacy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily A.

    This study on the effect of participation in field trips as a literacy intervention in play investigated how preschool children incorporated the literacy behaviors emphasized during the field trips into their play activities. Authentic literacy materials were included in two dramatic play centers before and after 15 children participated in…

  19. CONSTRUCTION ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY FOR CHILDREN PRE-SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  20. Autism, Processing Speed, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Hedvall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Methods. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6–6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n=77 or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III (n=113. Cognitive data were related to adaptive functioning as measured by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS. Results. Cognitive profiles were characterized by low verbal skills. Low processing speed quotients (PSQs were found in 66 (78% of the 85 children who were able to participate in the processing speed subtests. Except for Socialization, all VABS domains (Communication, Motor Skills, Daily Living Skills, and Adaptive Behavior Composite scores correlated significantly with PSQ. Multiple regression analysis showed that PSQ predicted 38%, 35%, 34%, and 37% of the variance for Communication, Daily Living Skills, Motor Skills, and total Adaptive Composite scores, respectively. Conclusion. Preschool children with ASD had uneven cognitive profiles with low verbal skills, and, relatively, even lower PSQs. Except for Socialization, adaptive functioning was predicted to a considerable degree by PSQ.

  1. Autism, processing speed, and adaptive functioning in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Holm, Anette; Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6-6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls) with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n = 77) or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III) (n = 113). Cognitive data were related to adaptive functioning as measured by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Cognitive profiles were characterized by low verbal skills. Low processing speed quotients (PSQs) were found in 66 (78%) of the 85 children who were able to participate in the processing speed subtests. Except for Socialization, all VABS domains (Communication, Motor Skills, Daily Living Skills, and Adaptive Behavior Composite scores) correlated significantly with PSQ. Multiple regression analysis showed that PSQ predicted 38%, 35%, 34%, and 37% of the variance for Communication, Daily Living Skills, Motor Skills, and total Adaptive Composite scores, respectively. Preschool children with ASD had uneven cognitive profiles with low verbal skills, and, relatively, even lower PSQs. Except for Socialization, adaptive functioning was predicted to a considerable degree by PSQ.

  2. Intellectual maturity and physical fitness in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Mora-López, David; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    There is an important connection between body growth, physical fitness and cognition. The association between physical fitness and cognitive function has been investigated in some studies, but little is known about the relationship between physical and motor performance and intellectual maturity in preschool children. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the association between intellectual maturity and physical and motor fitness in preschool children. A total of 1012 children aged 3-6 years participated voluntarily. A fitness test battery and the Goodenough-Harris drawing test (GHDT) were used. Boys did better in the standing broad jump and 20 m sprint (P test variables and GHDT. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between crude GHDT score and the fitness test variables. From an early age, physical-motor performance and intellectual maturity are linked. Fitness condition is able to predict intellectual maturity. Increasing the amount of time devoted to physical education can promote cognitive benefits in preschool children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. A Conceptual Design of Mobile Learning Applications for Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin; Kostadinova, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the possibilities of using mobile learning in the Bulgarian preschool education of young children. The state preschool educational regulations are presented and discussed. The problem concerning the children's safety when using mobile devices in terms of access to information on the Internet is revealed and analyzed. Two conceptual models of applications for mobile learning aimed at preschool children are designed. Their advantages and disadvantages are outlined and di...

  4. A Conceptual Design of Mobile Learning Applications for Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin; Kostadinova, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the possibilities of using mobile learning in the Bulgarian preschool education of young children. The state preschool educational regulations are presented and discussed. The problem concerning the children's safety when using mobile devices in terms of access to information on the Internet is revealed and analyzed. Two conceptual models of applications for mobile learning aimed at preschool children are designed. Their advantages and disadvantages are outlined and di...

  5. Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

    2012-02-01

    The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants.

  6. Social determinants of state variation in special education participation among preschoolers with developmental delays and disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth M; Carle, Adam C; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Ganz, Michael; Hauser-Cram, Penny; McCormick, Marie C

    2011-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at risk for secondary complications and lower academic performance, which contributes to lower health and well-being and may be ameliorated by access to special education services. This paper examines state variability in preschool special education participation among a United States population-based cohort with parent-reported developmental delays and disabilities. Analyses explore the extent to which observed variability can be explained by state socio-economic attributes and special education policy and funding. Rates of special education varied significantly across states and were highest in states with least income inequality and lowest in states with most income inequality. Place variation in preschool special education participation stems, in part, from child characteristics, but to a larger extent, from state socio-economic attributes.

  7. Didactic computer games for preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski Gržinič, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it is hard to imagine life without technology that surrounds everywhere we go. The game belongs to every child’s life and all the children know how to play games and they love doing it. Playing games is crucial for children as it helps them getting familiar with the world around them and helps them understand different life situations. In my thesis we work with preschool children playing games with the help of technology, more exactly with computers and tablets. Our main goal is tryi...

  8. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  9. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  10. Nighttime Fears and Fantasy-Reality Differentiation in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…

  11. Analysis of applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the use of mobile learning in Bulgarian education by young children. The most used mobile operating systems are analyzed. Also some of the most used existing applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children are presented and classified. Keywords: Mobile applications for preschool children, mobile learning.

  12. Preschool Children's Conceptions of Moral and Social Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined preschool children's conceptions of moral and conventional rules. Children judged the seriousness, rule contingency, rule relativism, and amount of deserved punishment for 10 depicted moral and conventional preschool transgressions. Constant across ages and sexes, children evaluated moral transgressions as more serious offenses and more…

  13. Analysis of applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the use of mobile learning in Bulgarian education by young children. The most used mobile operating systems are analyzed. Also some of the most used existing applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children are presented and classified. Keywords: Mobile applications for preschool children, mobile learning.

  14. [Mortality by avoidable causes in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurán, Albenia; López, Elizabeth; Pinilla, Consuelo; Sierra, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    The infant-mortality rate in children aged less than five is an indicator of the general state of health of a population and directly reflects the quality of life and the level of socio-economic development of a country. Avoidable mortality was assessed in preschool children as a reflection of Colombia quality of life and socio-economic development. Mortality trends were analyzed in preschool children aged less than five throughout Colombia during a 20-year period from 1985-2004, and focused on mortality causes that were considered avoidable. This was a descriptive, retrospective study; the sources of information were Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística records of deaths and population projections 1985-2004. Mortality rate due to avoidable causes was the statistical indicator. In children aged less than one, the reducible mortality due to "early diagnosis and medical treatment" occupied the first place amongst causes for every year of the study period and accounted for more than 50% of recorded deaths. In children aged 1 to 4, the category "other important reducible causes" was associated with 40% of recorded deaths-deaths due mainly to respiratory diseases. Over the 20-year period, the avoidable mortality rate decreased by 34% in children aged less than one, in children 1-4, it decreased by 23%. Although the infant-mortality rate in preschool children was reduced, the decrease was small, from 80% to 77%. The situation requires more analysis with respect to strategies in public health, particularly concerning preventable diseases of the infancy.

  15. The Association between Adult Participation and the Engagement of Preschoolers with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Ann M; Reszka, Stephanie S; Boyd, Brian A; Pan, Yi; Hume, Kara; Odom, Samuel L

    2016-01-01

    The ability for a child to engage in the classroom is associated with better academic outcomes. Yet, there is limited information on how child characteristics of autism and adult behavior impact engagement. This study examined (1) the pattern of adult participation and child engagement in preschool classrooms that serve children with ASD, (2) the associations between child engagement and adult participation, and (3) how characteristics of ASD (autism severity, language ability, and challenging behavior) moderate the relationship between adult participation and child engagement. Overall, children were less likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Moderators impacted this relationship. Children with higher levels of autism severity were more likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Similarly, children with lower language abilities were more likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Finally, children with higher levels of challenging behaviors were less likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. These findings have important implications for how adults can best support the engagement of children with ASD.

  16. The Association between Adult Participation and the Engagement of Preschoolers with ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Sam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability for a child to engage in the classroom is associated with better academic outcomes. Yet, there is limited information on how child characteristics of autism and adult behavior impact engagement. This study examined (1 the pattern of adult participation and child engagement in preschool classrooms that serve children with ASD, (2 the associations between child engagement and adult participation, and (3 how characteristics of ASD (autism severity, language ability, and challenging behavior moderate the relationship between adult participation and child engagement. Overall, children were less likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Moderators impacted this relationship. Children with higher levels of autism severity were more likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Similarly, children with lower language abilities were more likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Finally, children with higher levels of challenging behaviors were less likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. These findings have important implications for how adults can best support the engagement of children with ASD.

  17. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  18. Parents' participation in cultural practices with their preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudge Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss cross-cultural similarities and variations in parents' engagement in the everyday activities in which their preschool-age children engage, focusing on mothers' and fathers' presence in the same setting as their children, the impact of their presence on the types of activities in which the children engaged, and the extent of mothers' and fathers' involvement with their children in those activities. The data were gathered from different societies - the United States, Korea, Russia, Estonia, and Kenya. They reveal that the children were involved primarily in play (more than in lessons, work, or conversation, and this was unaffected by the presence of either parent. However, parents were relatively less likely to be involved in their children's play than in the other activities. Mothers, not surprisingly, were more likely to be found in the same setting as their children and, even when taking account of their greater presence, were more likely to be involved with their children than were fathers.

  19. Relationship Between Parents and Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand children’s subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Children’s well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.

  20. EMOTIONAL STATE OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FROM SOCIAL SHELTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Yu. Bruk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of a study of the emotional state of preschool children who are in difficult circumstances and in social shelter. The study involved 10 children participated (6 boys and 4 girls aged 4-6 years of social shelter (Independent institution of social service of the population of the Tyumen Region Center for Social Assistance to Families and Children "Maria" Tyumen. The control group consisted of children who are brought up in a family and attending kindergarten number 123 Tyumen, in the amount of 16 people: 9 girls and 7 boys. The study of emotional states of preschoolers was conducted using projective techniques drawing tests "House Tree Person" in modification of R.F. Belyauskayte. To determine the anxiety of children in relation to a number of typical life situations of communication with other people was used the projective technique "Test of anxiety" of R. Temml, M. Dorki, V. Amena, obtained diagnostic data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Mathematical analysis of the significance of differences was determined by calculating the U Mann Whitney. Preschoolers from social shelter in contrast to the control group of children have higher levels of anxiety are the most intense  and  stressful  relations in  the  system  "childchild." They are closed, can not be influenced, so they can be naughty, which leads to difficulties interaction and understanding of others, so they need an individual approach on the part of the teacher in the educational process. These children have difficulty communicating, which are shown in the restriction or denial of contact with others, which causes problems with the development of communication skills and experience of negative emotions.

  1. DETECTION OF UNDERNUTRITION AMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Undernutrition among Indian preschool children is very much prevalent and is the predisposing factor for various types of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To detect prevalence of under nutrition among preschool children and to find out sensitive tool for detection of under nutrition. Study design: A cross sectional study. Study subjects: Children of age group be low 6 years attending anganwadi. Sample size: Total 108 children attending anganwadi were included in the study. Data collection: Data was recorded in prestructured proforma, consisting information regarding personal data and anthropometric measurements li ke height, weight, head circumference, mid arm circumference etc. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of undernutrition according to weight for height, body mass index, weight for age by IAP classification and by Kanawati and Mc Laren index was 36.11%, 41.67%, 42.59% and 66.67%, respectively. Most sensitive tool observed was Kanawati and Mc Laren index to detect true positive undernutrition cases. CONCLUSION: Maximum number of undernutrition cases were detected by Kanawati and Mc Laren index, whose ability of d etecting true undernutrition cases is very much high in comparison with other indices, even though the sensitivity to detect normal children and predictive ability is less. So the Kanawati and Mc Laren index is considered superior to detect undernutrition in the community

  2. Amblyopia prevalence and risk factors in Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Amy Shih-I; Rose, Kathryn A; Leone, Jody F; Sharbini, Sharimawati; Burlutsky, George; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with amblyopia in a sample of Australian preschool children. Population-based, cross-sectional study. The Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study examined 2461 (73.8% participation) children aged between 6 and 72 months from 2007 to 2009. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed in children aged ≥ 30 months using the Electronic Visual Acuity system, and a subset using the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution chart. Amblyopia was categorized into unilateral and bilateral subtypes: Unilateral amblyopia was defined as a 2-line difference in reduced VA between the 2 eyes, in addition to strabismus, anisometropia, and/or visual axis obstruction; bilateral amblyopia was defined as bilateral reduced VA with either bilateral visual axis obstruction or significant bilateral ametropia. Information on ethnicity, birth parameters, and measures of socioeconomic status were collected in questionnaires completed by parents. Amblyopia. We included 1422 children aged 30 to 72 months, of whom 27 (1.9%) were found to have amblyopia or suspected amblyopia. Mean spherical equivalent for the amblyopic eyes was +3.57 diopters, with a mean VA of 20/50. Only 3 of the 27 amblyopic children had previous diagnoses or treatments for amblyopia. In regression analysis controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity, amblyopia was significantly associated with hyperopia (odds ratio [OR], 15.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5-36.4), astigmatism (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.5-12.7), anisometropia (OR, 27.8; 95% CI, 11.2-69.3), and strabismus (OR, 13.1; 95% CI, 4.3-40.4). There were no significant associations of amblyopia with low birthweight (0.05). Amblyopia was found in 1.9% of this Australian preschool sample, which is comparable with prevalence rates reported by other recent studies in preschool children. Refractive errors, particularly significant hyperopia and astigmatism, in addition to anisometropia and strabismus, were the major amblyogenic factors

  3. Differences in aerobic fitness and lifestyle characteristics in preschoolers according to their weight status and sports club participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kriemler, Susi; Nydegger, Andreas; Zahner, Lukas; Niederer, Iris; Bürgi, Flavia; Puder, Jardena J

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses differences in adiposity, aerobic fitness, and lifestyle characteristics in preschoolers according to their weight status and sports club (SC) participation. As part of the Ballabeina study, 600 randomly selected preschoolers (mean age 5.1 ± 0.6 years; 50.2% girls) were analyzed. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance, aerobic fitness by the 20-meter shuttle run test, and physical activity by accelerometers. Eating habits, media use, and SC participation were assessed by questionnaires. Overweight children (Swiss national percentiles) and children not participating in SC had both lower aerobic fitness and higher % body fat compared to their respective counterparts (all p ≤ 0.028). In addition, children not participating in SC were less physically active, had more media use, and ate less healthy compared to children participating in SC (all p ≤ 0.023). Controlling for parental sociocultural determinants attenuated differences in % body fat, in physical activity, and in eating habits. Aerobic fitness differs both according to weight status and SC participation in preschoolers. Furthermore, in view of the many differences in lifestyle behaviors, SC participation at this age could represent a more discriminatory indicator of healthy lifestyle characteristics than weight status. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  4. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  5. Utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined the utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist (BPC) with preschool children. Found the BPC sensitive in differentiating clinical from nonclinical groups. Findings suggest that the Behavior Problem Checklist, although not specifically designed to assess preschool age children, may be effective with this population. (Author)

  6. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  7. The Benefits of Reading Aloud to Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, Janel Christine

    Noting that reading aloud to preschool children significantly influences their reading development, this master's thesis examines the many benefits from reading aloud to preschoolers. The thesis reviews research indicating that when parents read aloud, they help their children learn vocabulary, complex sentence structure, and story structure.…

  8. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  9. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  10. Utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined the utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist (BPC) with preschool children. Found the BPC sensitive in differentiating clinical from nonclinical groups. Findings suggest that the Behavior Problem Checklist, although not specifically designed to assess preschool age children, may be effective with this population. (Author)

  11. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  12. Using Syllable-Timed Speech to Treat Preschool Children Who Stutter: A Multiple Baseline Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Natasha; Andrews, Cheryl; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Menzies, Ross

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of the effects of a syllable-timed speech treatment on three stuttering preschool children. Syllable-timed speech involves speaking with minimal differentiation in linguistic stress across syllables. Three children were studied in a multiple baseline across participants design, with…

  13. Promoting Snack Time Interactions of Children with Autism in a Malaysian Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Hoon; Lee, Lay Wah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive social skills intervention package combining peer-mediated strategies and environmental arrangements on the peer interactions of three children with autism in a Malaysian preschool. Following baseline, nine typically developing children participated in social initiation…

  14. The Association between Preschool Children's Socio-Emotional Functioning and Their Mathematical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta, L.; Fisher, Paige, H.; Arnold, David, H.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred eight preschool children and their teachers participated in a cross-sectional study of the socio-emotional correlates of mathematics skills. Children's strengths and difficulties were considered as possible correlates of skills. Initiative, self-control, and attachment were all related to better math skills. Overall behavior problems,…

  15. Assessing Preschool Children's Competitive Behaviour: An Observational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiakara, Angeliki; Digelidis, Nikolaos M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a direct observational system in order to assess competitive behaviours in preschool children. Participants were 176 children (90 boys, 86 girls; M[subscript age]?=?5.2 years) from 10 kindergarten classes of one town of Central Greece. A new observational system (Observational System Assessing Competition in…

  16. Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Preschool Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Walden, Tedra A.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Emotional regulation of preschool children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) was assessed through use of a disappointing gift (DG) procedure (P. M. Cole, 1986; C. Saarni, 1984, 1992). Method: Participants consisted of 16 CWS and CWNS (11 boys and 5 girls in each talker group) who were 3 to 5 years of age. After…

  17. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  18. A comparison of the play skills of preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Behr, Ann; Rodger, Sylvia; Mickan, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Play is commonly acknowledged as being important to children's development. School-aged children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to be less involved in play and more socially isolated than their typically developing peers, but little is known about play of preschool children with DCD. Using a quasi-experimental design, developmental play skills and frequency in engagement in play of two independent groups of preschool children aged 4 to 6 years with (n = 32) and without (n = 31) probable DCD were compared. Play skills were assessed using the Revised Knox Preschool Play Scales and the Play Observation Scale based on 30 minutes of videotape of free play at preschool. Preschool children with probable DCD had a lower developmental play age and engaged less frequently in play than their typically developing peers. Given the importance of play, children with DCD need to be identified and supported to enable them to play at preschool similarly to their peers. [OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health 2013;33(4):198-208.].

  19. Social competence of preschool children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, K; Timonen, S; Hagström, K; Hämäläinen, P; Eriksson, K; Nieminen, P

    2009-02-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the social competence of 3- to 6-year-old children with epilepsy (n=26) compared with that of age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n=26). Social competence was assessed with the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised, and the Child Behavior Checklist. The results indicate that the children with epilepsy, especially with complicated epilepsy, had fewer age-appropriate social skills and more attention and behavior problems than the healthy children, as reported by parents. It is possible that the lack of age-appropriate social skills and the presence of attention problems predispose to behavioral problems. Also, epilepsy-related factors impaired the achievement of social competence. This study shows that the preschool children with complicated, early-onset epilepsy are at increased risk of difficulties in social competence.

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent Training and Emotion Socialization Program for Families of Hyperactive Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Jasmin L.; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that…

  1. A Little Bit of the Blues: Low-Level Symptoms of Maternal Depression and Classroom Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of child…

  2. "Play Skills" for Shy Children: Development of a "Social Skills Facilitated Play" Early Intervention Program for Extremely Inhibited Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Schneider, Barry H.; Matheson, Adrienne; Graham, Allison

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and provide a preliminary evaluation of a social-skills-based early intervention program specifically designed to assist extremely inhibited preschoolers. Participants were a sample of n = 522 extremely inhibited preschool-aged children, who were randomly assigned to either the "Social Skills…

  3. Assessment of nutritional status of preschool children of Gumbrit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of nutritional status of preschool children of Gumbrit, North West Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Conclusion: The nutritional status of children in rural communities is affected by low family income.

  4. Utterance Complexity and Stuttering on Function Words in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richels, Corrin; Buhr, Anthony; Conture, Edward; Ntourou, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation between utterance complexity and utterance position and the tendency to stutter on function words in preschool-age children who stutter (CWS). Two separate studies involving two different groups of participants (Study 1, n = 30; Study 2, n = 30) were conducted. Participants were…

  5. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  6. Emergent verbal behavior in preschool children learning a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard J; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]). After intervention, increases in untaught second-language tacts (e.g., "What is this in Welsh?" [ceffyl]) and listener responses (e.g., "Point to the ceffyl") were observed for all 3 participants.

  7. Gender differences in preschool children's play

    OpenAIRE

    Tarman Starc, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the final thesis is to shed some light on gender-based differences which can be observed in the way preschool children (aged 3 to 6) play, focusing on differences in the type of play, the size of play groups of boys and girls as well as differences in their playing behaviour with special focus on prosocial and aggressive behaviour. Moreover, the educators' attitude towards play is examined, i.e. how they intervene in the play of boy and girls. In the theoretical part the key c...

  8. Bullying in preschool: The associations between participant roles, social competence, and social preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Marina; Caravita, Simona C S; Coppola, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    The different roles of bullying participation (bully, follower, victim, defender of the victim, and outsider) have not been investigated in preschool children. The aims of this study were to use a peer-report measure to assess these roles and to investigate their associations with social competence among pre-schoolers. We also explored whether status among peers, indicated by being socially preferred, mediates the relationship between social competence and bullying roles. Three hundred twenty 3- to 6-year-old children participated in the study. Bullying roles and social preference were assessed by means of peer reports, whereas social competence was investigated with a Q-Sort methodology, based on observations in classrooms. Bullying was also assessed by means of teacher reports. The results showed quite a clear distinction among roles and a correspondence between peer and teacher assessments, except for the role of outsider. The role of defender was positively associated with social competence, whereas the other roles were negatively associated. In a subsample, social preference statistically predicted the role of bully and mediated between social competence and bullying. The findings are discussed in terms of the importance of assessing bullying and its correlates at a very young age, although roles may further develop when children grow up. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Peer effects in preschool classrooms: is children's language growth associated with their classmates' skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Mashburn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With an increasing number of young children participating in preschool education, this study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Specifically, this work examined whether peer effects were influential to preschoolers' growth in language skills over an academic year and whether peer effects manifest differently based on children's status in reference to their peers. Peer effects were assessed for 338 children in 49 classrooms. A significant interaction between the language skills of children's classmates and children's fall language skills indicated that peer effects were strongest for children with low language skills who were in classrooms that served children with relatively low skill levels, on average. Findings further showed that reference status, or children's relative standing to their peers, has the greater consequence for children with very low language skills in relation to their peers. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Assessment of the Social and Emotional Functioning of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roy P.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews selected issues and techniques in interviewing, direct observation, rating scales, sociometry, and associative techniques as used in the context of preschool assessment. Special problems encountered in assessing the social and emotional functioning of preschool children are discussed. (Author/LMO)

  11. Language Competence and Social Focus among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naerland, Terje

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how various aspects of language competence are related to social focus among preschoolers. The study presented is based on video-recorded observation of 64 children, aged 11-61 months, during free play at their kindergarten. A measure of social focus in the preschool, regarded as an indicator of social status, was constructed…

  12. Preschool Predictors of Narrative Writing Skills in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Nelson, Lauren; Zeisel, Susan; Kasambira Fannin, Danai

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the preschool predictors of elementary school narrative writing skills. The sample included 65 typically developing African American children, ranging in age from 5.0 to 5.5 years, and was 44.6% male. Targeted preschool predictors included measures of phonological processing, core language abilities, prereading skills, and…

  13. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068

  14. Using Therapeutic Toys to Facilitate Venipuncture Procedure in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, José Ronaldo Soares; Pizzoli, Lourdes Margareth Leite; Amorim, Amanda Regina do Prado; Pinheiros, Fernanda Tais; Romanini, Giovanna Chippari; da Silva, Jack Gomes; Joanete, Shirley; Alves, Silvana S M

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous access procedures in children are considered to be one of the most stressful because it is invasive, and the use of needles generates anxiety, insecurity, and fear. Playful strategies using dolls and even the materials used for venipuncture can assist children in understanding, accepting, and coping with the procedure. Field research was developed on the applicability of the therapeutic toy in the preparation of preschool children for venipuncture procedure based on the protocol developed by Martins, Ribeiro, Borba, and Silva (2001) and Kiche and Almeida (2009). The study was done in a private hospital in Greater São Paulo, Brazil, with 10 children ages 3 to 6 years. Data were gathered through observation and questionnaires completed by the children's adult guardians. Before the activity, the children showed fearful facial expressions, used monosyllabic responses, and avoided looking at the health care professional. After the strategy of using therapeutic toy dolls and puppets, 40% of the children calmly accepted the venipuncture procedure, and 100% showed a change to their initial negative reaction, became more communicative and cooperative, and participated and interacted with researchers, even after the end of the activity and procedure. The strategy of therapeutic toys helps make an unfamiliar environment, strangers, and a procedure characterized as painful and difficult less stressful. Pediatric nurses are in a good position to use this resource to offer more humanized care to children.

  15. Science and technology awareness for preschool children: a working model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available these positive experiences as references to support their developing interests and attitudes towards Science and Technology. The Process TekkiTots started in 2006 when Morning Star Montessori preschool in the Pretoria area expressed the need for Science... to preschool children. I put together twenty-five lessons and presented it to a group of six children at a Montessori preschool once a week. It took on average an hour to complete a lesson. I observed the interest the children showed and eagerness to take...

  16. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saidi

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sera from children 1 - 6 years of age, representative of a large serum collection, were tested for the prevalence of antibodies against different viruses. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibodies were found in 68% for measles; 61 % for rubella; 75'% for influenza A2/Hong Kong/68, 16% for influenza B/Md./59, 0% for group A arboviruses, 10% for group B arboviruses, 3% for phlebotomus fever group and 4% for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (C-CHF group of arboviruses Poliomyelitis-neutralizing antibodies for type 1, 2 and 3 were 90%; 85% and 84%~ respectively. Antibody to EH virus was detected in 84% of the sera by immuno-fluorescence. None of the sera were positive for hepatitis-B antigen or antibody by immuno-precipitation test. The prevalence of some viral antibodies found in this survey are compared with results obtained from surveys in other parts of the country.

  17. Development of the Parent Form of the Preschool Children's Communication Skills Scale and Comparison of the Communication Skills of Children with Normal Development and with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…

  18. THE CAUSES AND THE COURSE OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Abaseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on etiology and clinical course of CKD stage  3 to 5 in children of preschool  age could help obstetricians, pediatricians, and nephrologists with proper diagnostics and management of this condition and prediction of outcomes. Aim: To study causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool  children. Materials and methods: The causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 were investigated in 55 preschool children aged from 7 months  to 8 years. Twenty four had  CKD stage  3 to 4 and  31 children with endstage  CKD  were  on  peritoneal  dialysis. Results:96% of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool children were due  to  congenital/genetic kidney abnormalities. Predictors  of renal  replacement therapy  beginning in the first 5 years of life were as follows: antenatal detection of congenital  abnormalities  of the kidney and urinary tract, oligohydroamnion, high neonatal  BUN levels.  Anemia, hyperparathyroidism, arterial hypertension were more prevalent  in children on the dialysis stage of CKD, and myocardial hypertrophy and/or of the left ventricle dilatation were found in 26% of them. Forty two percent of children had growth retardation, and 40% had delayed  speech  development. Conclusion: The course CKD in preschool  children is characterized by a combination of typical metabolic  disorders with the growth  retardation (often dramatic and delayed mental development that significantly limits the possibilities of the social adaptation of these children and social activities of their parents. Participation  of  neuropsychiatrists,  clinical psychologists, and teachers, rather than pediatricians and  nephrologists only, is desirable  in management of preschool children with CKD stage 3 to 5.

  19. Left-Handed Preschool Children with Orthopedic Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Katharine M.

    1983-01-01

    The mental development of 332 preschool-age children with orthopedic disabilities was assessed at a children's hospital over a 10-year period, and comparisons were made for right-handed and left-handed. The left-handed children were slower than right-handed children in learning speech and language skills (Author/SEW)

  20. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    over time. There was no statistically significant difference between cognitive functioning in both groups of children. No negative effects of pre-school education were identified. The results are in partial contradiction to other research and literature - specifically the outcome in cognitive functioning was unexpected. This can be attributed to limited number of participants. However we suppose that the results support the importance of pre-school education. Its impact could be further studied using longitudinal studies as well as focusing in more detail on the individual aspects of social exclusion and its effects on school readiness.

  1. Preschool Teachers' Views on Children's Learning: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge; Margetts, Kay; Nyland, Berenice; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Ugaste, Aino; Vrinioti, Kalliope

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning? What activities are important for learning? What…

  2. Long-term Maintenance of a Classroom-Based Social Skills Training for Preschool Children.

    OpenAIRE

    清水, 寿代

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined long-term maintenance of classroom-based Social Skills Training (SST) on preschool children. Twenty-six preschool children (4-5 age) participated in six sessions of SST. The target social skills were positive social initiations and responses. The coaching procedure comprised instruction, modeling, behavioral rehearsal, feedback, and reinforcement. The results indicated maintenance of intervention effects in teacher-rated social skills, problem behavior, and social b...

  3. rickets in rural kenyan preschool children: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-03

    Mar 3, 2013 ... Baseline clinical assessments performed for a nutrition intervention study in preschool children. (n=324) ... Committee of the University of Nairobi, School of. Medicine, and .... Program [Subgrant DAN-1328-G-00-0046-00]. The.

  4. Correlates of Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Preschool Disadvantaged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    Describes a pilot project with two objectives: 1) to develop measures of curiosity and exploration applicable to preschool children, and 2) to investigate the relationship between variations in exploratory behavior and other aspects of emotional and cognitive growth. (WY)

  5. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL TRIBAL CHILDREN IN NORTH KERALA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bindu V; Thomas Bina; Biju George

    2017-01-01

    .... Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition. The present study is an attempt to assess the nutritional status of pre-school children of Kozhikode district in Kerala...

  6. Anemia and associated factors among Kuwaiti preschool children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nawal Mubarak Al-Qaoud

    2014-07-25

    Jul 25, 2014 ... Design: A sample of 578 Kuwaiti preschool children (4–5 years of age) and their mothers were .... and weight without shoes and in light clothing to the nearest ..... Kuwait Nutrition Profile – Nutrition and Consumer Protection.

  7. Ethics in Researching Young Children's Play in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Værum

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done...

  8. Preschool Siblings of Handicapped Children--Impact of Peer Support and Training. Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Debra

    1985-01-01

    Six developmentally normal preschool siblings of disabled children participated in workshops in which modeling, rehearsal, and role play were used to improve siblings' understanding of disabilities while strengthening their self-perceptions and attitudes toward their disabled brother or sister. (Author/CL)

  9. Preschool Based JASPER Intervention in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism: Pilot RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, Kelly Stickles; Ishijima, Eric; Chang, Ya-Chih; Kasari, Connie

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study, we tested the effects of a novel intervention (JASPER, Joint Attention Symbolic Play Engagement and Regulation) on 3 to 5 year old, minimally verbal children with autism who were attending a non-public preschool. Participants were randomized to a control group (treatment as usual, 30 h of ABA-based therapy per week) or a…

  10. Social Competence in Preschool Children: Replication of Results and Clarification of a Hierarchical Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Antonio J.; Peceguina, Ines; Daniel, Joao R.; Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested assumptions and conclusions reached in an earlier confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) study of the social competence (SC) construct for preschool children. Two samples (total N = 408; a new Portuguese sample and one from US samples that had participated in the original study) contributed data. Seven SC indicators were tested for…

  11. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  12. Variation in Children's Classroom Engagement Throughout a Day in Preschool: Relations to Classroom and Child Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Williford, Amanda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in preschool children's positive and negative engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks, and how that variability was related to both classroom activity settings (e.g., teacher-structured time, outdoor time, transitions) and child factors (age, gender). Participants were 283 socioeconomically and…

  13. Health lifestyles of pre-school children in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Povlsen, Lene; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2013-01-01

    Holistic understanding of health is one of the key principles of health promotion indicating that the health status of individuals and populations is determined by a variety of environmental, economic, social and personal factors. Traditionally, research focus has been on school-aged children...... and school-based interventions and less on pre-school children and their families' engagement in promoting health in everyday life. The aim of the present study was to explore factors that parents of pre-school children in the Nordic countries experienced as influencing health lifestyles in their children......'s everyday lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 parents of pre-school children in the five Nordic countries. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The parents identified themselves as the primary shapers of their children's lifestyles and described influencing factors...

  14. Autism, Processing Speed, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Åsa Hedvall; Elisabeth Fernell; Anette Holm; Jakob Åsberg Johnels; Christopher Gillberg; Eva Billstedt

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Methods. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6–6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls) with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n = 77) or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III) (n = 113). Cognitive data wer...

  15. Family Involvement in Preschool Education: Rationale, Problems and Solutions for the Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    This aim of this study is to examine the views of teachers, administrators and parents about the problems that emerge during family involvement in preschool activities and solutions for these problems. The participants were 10 teachers, 10 parents and 10 administrators from 4 preschools and 6 kindergartens in the Palandöken and Yakutiye districts…

  16. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  17. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  18. [Relations between aggressive behavior and family factors among preschool children in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shou-mei; Wang, Ling; Shi, Ying-juan; Li, Ping

    2011-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of aggressive behavior among preschool children and its related family factors. 1234 preschool children in ten kindergartens were rated on their aggressive behavior by their parents, using Child Behavior Checklist (CBCI), Parent Behavior Inventory (PBI) and a general questionnaire. The overall prevalence of aggressive behavior among preschool children was 12.9% (95%CI: 11.0 - 15.0) according to the CBCL assessment, with the rate being slight higher (13.7%, 93/680) in boys than in girls (11.9%, 66/554). Data from logistic regression analysis showed that parents' hostile/coercive parenting style (OR = 2.396, 95%CI: 1.636 - 3.510) and inconsistent parenting attitude between parents and grandparents (OR = 1.867, 95%CI: 1.287 - 2.710) would lead to more aggressive behaviors in preschool children. Compared with children without difficulty in falling asleep, those who often (OR = 3.415, 95%CI: 1.901 - 6.135) or sometimes (OR = 2.147, 95%CI: 1.256 - 3.671) had problem falling asleep at night had more aggressive behaviors. On the other hand, factors as: watching TV less than 1 hour each day (OR = 0.252, 95%CI: 0.136 - 0.467), father in older age (OR = 0.703, 95%CI: 0.503 - 0.983) and participating in regular outdoor activities (OR = 0.617, 95%CI: 0.399 - 0.955) were protective factors to the aggressive behaviors of the children. The prevalence of aggressive behavior in preschool children was high which called for more attention. Intervention programs targeting the family should consider the influencing factors as ways of parenting, consistent attitude on parenting in the family etc. to reduce the occurrence of aggressive behavior among preschool children.

  19. Earthcycles: Environmental Education with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Webber, Mavis

    Early childhood educators and parents face the task of educating young children in Canada about environmental issues. The sooner young children participate in activities with an environmental theme, the more likely they are to appreciate the environment. This booklet is designed to introduce early childhood educators to environmental education…

  20. WITHDRAWN: Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, Bozhena; Roberts, Ian; Oakley, Ann

    2016-10-11

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  1. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  2. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    OpenAIRE

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received...

  3. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  4. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type...... provide a valuable reference material for studies monitoring future trends in obesity, MS and PA behaviour in Denmark and other countries.Knowledge about sources of variation in PA among preschool children is scarce and our findings need to be replicated in future studies. A potentially important finding...... and time of day. Additionally, the between-preschool variation in mean PA was estimated using the intraclass correlation. METHODS: We invited 627 children 5-6 years of age attending 43 randomly selected preschools in Odense, Denmark. Aiming and catching MS was assessed using subtests of the Movement...

  5. Validation of a questionnaire to measure mastery motivation among Chinese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents. Further, 44 children (39 boys and 5 girls) with developmental disabilities were recruited. The children were assessed on the cognitive sub-test of the Preschool Development Assessment Scale (PDAS). Their parents completed the task and effort motivation scales, as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Their teachers also completed the task and effort motivation scales. Rasch analysis results provided support for the unidimensionality of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales. The parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales correlated positively with the PDAS cognitive sub-test and the SDQ prosocial scale scores, and negatively with the SDQ total problem behavior scores. Children with developmental disabilities were assigned lower scores by their teachers and parents on the two motivation scales, compared with children with typical development. Reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales were above .70. The results suggested that the task and effort motivation scales were promising instruments for the assessment of motivation among Chinese preschool children.

  6. Syntax and Prosody in Narratives: A Study of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Paola; Zampini, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco; D'Odorico, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines narrative competence and its relationships with syntactic and prosodic skills in preschool children. The narrative skills of 30 typically developing Italian children were assessed during their first year of kindergarten attendance (T1) and again one year later (T2). A picture book was used to elicit children's…

  7. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  8. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  9. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  10. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool Onset (PO) Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of preschool onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or 1st grade was tested in a sample of N = 146 preschool-age children (3 to 5.11). Method Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children’s roles in relational aggression as aggressor, victim, aggressive-victim, or non-aggressor/non-victim were determined at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school entry. Results Preschoolers diagnosed with PO-psychiatric disorders were 3 times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims. Children diagnosed with PO-disruptive, depressive, and/or anxiety disorders were at least 6 times as likely as children without PO-psychiatric disorders to become aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying for other key risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggested that PO-psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and school-age children’s roles in relational aggression based on teacher-report. Recommendations for future research and preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the development of relational aggression in early childhood by identifying and targeting PO-psychiatric disorders are made. PMID:22917202

  11. A Community-Based Programme for the Prevention of Burns and Scalds to Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harre, Niki; Polzer-Debruyne, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    A New Zealand program was designed to reduce burn and scald hazards in the home. Seven groups of parents and caregivers of preschool children participated. Three months after the program, selected participants had sustained 68% of the positive practice changes they had made. Evaluation also noted barriers to participant change and strengths and…

  12. Acquiring the Language of Learning: The Performance of Hawaiian Preschool Children on the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    The Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI) was designed as a diagnostic tool for 3- to 6-year-old children to assess children's abilities to use language to solve thinking problems typically posed by teachers. The PLAI was developed after observing middle-class teachers in preschool classrooms encourage children to use language in…

  13. Evaluating preschool children's preferences for motivational systems during instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Nicole A; Hanley, Gregory P

    2007-01-01

    Preschool teachers rely on several strategies for motivating children to participate in learning activities. In the current study, we evaluated the effectiveness of and preference for three teaching contexts in which embedded, sequential, or no programmed reinforcement was arranged. The embedded context included highly preferred teaching materials, the sequential context included highly preferred edible items for correct responding, and a control context included neither. In addition, an exclusively play-oriented activity was included as a fourth option to determine if one of the direct teaching contexts could compete with a relatively unstructured and exclusively child-led activity. All participants preferred the sequential context (use of high-quality consequences) over the embedded context (use of high-quality teaching materials), 2 of the 4 participants preferred some motivational system to none at all, and the play area was selected over all variants of the instructional contexts during the majority of trials. We found either no or small differences in correct responding in the different instructional contexts; however, rates of undesirable behavior were highest in the least preferred interaction area for 3 of the 4 participants. Implications for the design of effective and preferred teaching environments for young children are discussed.

  14. Music and On-task Behaviors in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Shannon Titus; Porretta, David L; Sainato, Diane

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of music (music with lyrics versus music with lyrics plus instruction) relative to on-task behaviors in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a gross motor setting. Five preschool children (4 boys, 1 girl) diagnosed with ASD served as participants. A multiple baseline across participants in conjunction with an alternating-treatment design was used. For all participants, music with lyrics plus instruction increased on-task behaviors to a greater extent than did music with lyrics. The results of our study provide a better understanding of the role of music with regard to the behaviors of young children with ASD.

  15. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  16. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC20....... A high body mass index tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.99....

  17. Manifestations of sexual abuse in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, M M

    1995-01-01

    All adults who interact with preschool children need to be aware of possible indicators of sexual abuse. This information is especially important to advanced practice psychiatric/mental health nurses who interact with preschool-aged children in clinical, therapeutic, educational, research, legal, and community settings and to other nurses working in pediatric settings. Because there are few, if any, absolute physical indicators of child sexual abuse, the identification of empirically based emotional and behavioral indicators is important. This article reviews six studies that sought to identify such indicators for the preschool population. Studies reviewed confirm that not all sexually abused children are equally traumatized. When sexually abused children were compared to groups of non-sexually abused children receiving psychiatric services only one discriminating variable consistently arose. When overt sexual behavior, inappropriate for age, is manifested by a preschool-aged child, sexual abuse should be suspected. The identification of manifestations of sexual abuse in preschool-aged children is an appropriate topic for nursing research.

  18. Cognitive, Linguistic and Print-Related Predictors of Preschool Children's Word Spelling and Name Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…

  19. Cognitive, Linguistic and Print-Related Predictors of Preschool Children's Word Spelling and Name Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…

  20. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  1. Evaluation of oral health awareness in parents of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Bhavneet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Little data are available on the initiative shown by the parents for dental health care of their preschool children in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the status of oral health awareness in parents of preschool children. Materials and Methods: A total of 230 preschool children were included in the study and their parents were analyzed for their child dental awareness by holding free dental checkups and interactive meetings with the help of their respective schools. Results and Conclusion: Results revealed that there is a low initiation of the parents when oral health care of small children is concerned; however, an active collective effort of the school and dental team can make awareness program effective.

  2. Forms of Physical Activity of Biała Podlaska Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradus Paulina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity is fundamental to children's all-round development in the first six years of their life. It is particularly significant in preschool age, when the need for movement is predominant. Psychomotor development, conditioned by children's innate abilities and their own activity, depends upon the influence of external surroundings as well as parental upbringing and preschool education. The aim of the study was to obtain data regarding physical activity (both structured and unstructured of children during their stay in a kindergarten. Material and methods. The study was conducted in five state kindergartens situated in four main housing estates of Bia³a Podlaska. It included 11 groups of older preschool children. It was a diagnostic study. A diagnostic poll method employed in the study included interviews with teachers, lesson observations (during one day and document analyses (programmes and class registers. Results. During their stay in a kindergarten children take part in physical activities for 1.5 hours a day. During this period they participate in obligatory forms of physical activity such as morning gymnastics, movement plays, outdoor activities and gymnastic exercises. Furthermore, optional movement activities are organised in kindergartens (different forms in different kindergartens. Such extra classes enable children to be physically active for over two more hours per week. Conclusions. In terms of caring about health and motor development of children, not all elements of preschool education programmes are fully realised. Training sessions, workshops and lectures showing diverse forms of physical activity for children ought to be organised for preschool teachers.

  3. Preschool--An Arena for Children's Learning of Social and Cognitive Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to investigate Swedish preschool teachers' accounts of children's learning in relation to the goals in the Swedish preschool curriculum. The research question is: "What do preschool teachers see as fundamental aspects of learning in preschool practice?" The study is based on interactionist perspectives founded in Urie…

  4. Storytelling with robots: Learning companions for preschool children's language development

    OpenAIRE

    Kory, Jacqueline Marie; Breazeal, Cynthia Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Children's oral language skills in preschool can predict their academic success later in life. As such, increasing children's skills early on could improve their success in middle and high school. To this end, we propose that a robotic learning companion could supplement children's early language education. The robot targets both the social nature of language learning and the adaptation necessary to help individual children. The robot is designed as a social character that interacts with chil...

  5. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  6. Prophylactic inhalation therapy in preschool children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.A. Tasche (Marjolein)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractRespiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity in preschool children. Confronted with young children with respiratory symptoms the physician faces many uncertainties regarding the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, namely: • labelling of chronic and recurrent respiratory symptoms a

  7. Evaluating rehabilitation interventions in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) face limitations in their daily activities, in particular regarding mobility and self-care. Although many treatment ideas and approaches are available, evidence to show which intervention is the most effective for preschool children with CP is lacking. Furthermore,

  8. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…

  9. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  10. Thai and American Fathers' Involvement with Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulananda, Oracha; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)

  11. Energy cost of activities in preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute energy cost of activities in children increase with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cos...

  12. Civic and Patriotic Education of Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokeyeva, Ekaterina V.; Andreeva, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the current research devoted to civic and patriotic education of pre-school children is determined by the contradiction between the necessity of civic-patriotic education of children in the current context, their readiness to defend their Motherland and the lack of the development of this issue both in pedagogical theory and…

  13. Preschool Provision and Children of Migrants in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice; Nyland, Chris; Yan, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese children with an urban household registration ("hukou") normally attend subsidized preschools for three years prior to primary school. This is an experience available to relatively few of China's many millions of migrant children whose families are registered as rural residents but choose to migrate to urban areas. This paper…

  14. Social Skills Development for Preschool Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrenkopf, Carol; And Others

    Social skills development of preschool children with visual impairments is discussed. A review of the literature considers the field of child development and social cognition, the effect of blindness on child development, and the effects of blindness on social cognition. Three areas concerning the development of social skills for children with…

  15. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  16. Nutrition Survey of White Mountain Apache Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, George M.; And Others

    As part of a national study of the nutrition of preschool children, data were collected on 201 Apache children, 1 to 6 years of age, living on an Indian reservation in Arizona. This report reviews procedures and clinical findings, and gives an analysis of growth data including skeletal maturation, nutrient intakes and clinical biochemical data. In…

  17. Evaluating rehabilitation interventions in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) face limitations in their daily activities, in particular regarding mobility and self-care. Although many treatment ideas and approaches are available, evidence to show which intervention is the most effective for preschool children with CP is lacking. Furthermore,

  18. PAH EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...

  19. Observations of Representational Practices by Indian-Descent Children in a US Preschool Classroom: Connections among People, Spaces and Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined children's experiences with producing and comprehending external representations in a preschool classroom. Data collection and analyses focused on how artifacts, spaces, adult-guided routines, and social conventions shape young children's representational development. Participants included 4- and…

  20. The Relationship between Motor Abilities and Early Social Development in a Preschool Cohort of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…

  1. The Effects of an Intensive Shared Book-Reading Intervention for Preschool Children at Risk for Vocabulary Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kwok, Oiman; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjung; Simmons, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intensive shared book-reading intervention on the vocabulary development of preschool children who were at risk for vocabulary delay. The participants were 125 children, who the researchers stratified by classroom and randomly assigned to one of two shared book-reading conditions (i.e., the experimental, Words…

  2. Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Preschool Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Marks, David J.; Bedard, Anne-Claude V.; Chacko, Anil; Curchack, Jocelyn T.; Yoon, Carol A.; Healey, Dione M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether cognitive enhancement can be delivered through play to preschoolers with ADHD and whether it would affect severity of ADHD symptoms. Method: Twenty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children and their parents participated in separate group sessions (3-5 children/group). Child groups were introduced games designed to enhance…

  3. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  4. Establishing books as conditioned reinforcers for preschool children as a function of an observational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-Dudek, Jessica; Oblak, Mara; Greer, R Douglas

    2011-01-01

    We tested the effects of an observational intervention (Greer & Singer-Dudek, 2008) on establishing children's books as conditioned reinforcers using a delayed multiple baseline design. Three preschool students with mild language and developmental delays served as the participants. Prior to the intervention, books did not function as reinforcers for any of the participants. The observational intervention consisted of a situation in which the participant observed a confederate being presented with access to books contingent on correct responses and the participant received nothing for correct responses. After several sessions of this treatment, the previously neutral books acquired reinforcing properties for maintenance and acquisition responses for all three participants.

  5. More than Teacher Directed or Child Initiated: Preschool Curriculum Type, Parent Involvement, and Children's Outcomes in the Child-Parent Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Clements, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Niles, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American) in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20…

  6. Longitudinal changes in polysyllable maturity of preschool children with phonologically-based speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wang, Cen; Baker, Elise; McCormack, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Children's polysyllables were investigated for changes in (1) consonant and vowel accuracy, (2) error frequency and (3) polysyllable maturity over time. Participants were 80 children (4;0-5;4) with phonologically-based speech sound disorders who participated in the Sound Start Study and completed the Polysyllable Preschool Test (Baker, 2013) three times. Polysyllable errors were categorised using the Word-level Analysis of Polysyllables (WAP, Masso, 2016a) and the Framework of Polysyllable Maturity (Framework, Masso, 2016b), which represents five maturity levels (Levels A-E). Participants demonstrated increased polysyllable accuracy over time as measured by consonant and vowel accuracy, and error frequency. Children in Level A, the lowest level of maturity, had frequent deletion errors, alterations of phonotactics and alterations of timing. Participants in Level B were 8.62 times more likely to improve than children in Level A at Time 1. Children who present with frequent deletion errors may be less likely to improve their polysyllable accuracy.

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Social Cue Cards for Preschool Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Amberly; Connell, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the effects of Social Cue Cards on the social communication skills of three preschool age children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using a multiple-baseline across-participants design, Social Cue Cards were implemented and direct observations of participants' identified target…

  8. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.

  9. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Федорова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used:  the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps:  diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31

  10. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  11. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  12. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  13. SARS, Preschool Routines and Children's Behaviour: Observations from Preschools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    All schools in Hong Kong were closed in April 2003 to prevent the spread of SARS. This paper considers the influence of the SARS epidemic on children's routines and behaviour when preschools re-opened, after a six-week closure. Observations were made in 20 kindergartens and principals of another 10 kindergartens completed questionnaires. The…

  14. Nutritional status of preschool children attending kindergartens in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysha, Agim; Gjergji, Tahire M; Ploeger, Angelika

    2017-06-02

    There is very limited data on malnutrition of preschool children in Kosovo. The main objective of the study is to provide a nutritional status profile of preschool children attending kindergartens in Kosovo. Cross-sectional study of children aged 12-59 months (n = 352 children) and children aged 60-83 months (n = 134) enrolled in public and private kindergartens of Kosovo. Anthropometric measurements used for this study are weight and height of the preschoolers (12-83 months). A measuring board was used for measuring the length/height of children younger than 2 years, while digital weight and height scale Seca 763 was used for measuring of preschool children taller than 110 and Seca 213 was used for measuring the height for children who were shorter than 110 cm. Statistical analyses of underweight and overweight trends across sex and age groups as well as between children from public and private kindergartens were carried out. Qualitative variables were tested with a chi-square test. The differences between groups were assessed with a Student t test for normally distributed variables and a Mann-Whitney test for abnormally distributed numerical variables. The mean z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and BMI-for-age largely fell within 0.0 and 1.0. The percentage of stunted children is 3%, whereas child wasting is 1.9%. The overall percentage of obese children is 2.3%; furthermore, 8.9% are overweight and 27.3% have a possible risk of being overweight. The incidence of children underweight is slightly decreasing. The prevalence of overweight and obese children in sample chosen is evident.

  15. Urinary schistosomiasis in preschool children in settlements around Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria: implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafiana, C F; Ekpo, U F; Ojo, D A

    2003-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in preschool children below the age of 5 years in three settlements around Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of 209 children screened, 150 (71.8%) had an infection, with no significant difference between males and females; 42.9% of infants were infected. Both prevalence and intensity of infection increased significantly with age (P infections were light (men and women revealed that infection in preschool children was primarily because of exposure occasioned by the mothers' domestic (washing and bathing) and occupational (fishing) activities, while older children could go swimming on their own. Although the participants claimed that using a different water supply may not be effective in combating the disease, as their entire existence was tied to the reservoir, we propose that health education geared towards changing behaviour and attitudes is necessary. As preschool children are a source of both contamination and transmission, control programmes must take them into account.

  16. Quality of relationships between preschool children and their divorced mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrakouli Ε.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the consequences of parental divorce on preschool children aged 2,5 to 6,5 years old. More specifically, conflict, dependence and positive aspects of relationship were investigated. A total of 29 divorced mothers and their preschool children and 29 matched control married mothers and their children were ascertained from a general population. Mothers completed the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS developed by Pianta (1992. Mother –reported PCRS scores showed no differences on dependence and positive aspects of relationship, but conflict scale was significantly lower in children of divorce than in controls. However, younger children of divorced mothers (2,5 -4 years had significantly higher dependence on their mothers than the older ones (4-6,5. Additionally, mothers’ higher education was related to children less dependence and less conflict.

  17. Influence of Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Habits on Dental Fear in Croatian Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosic, Z; Novacic, A; Juric, H

    2016-04-01

    Preschool age is defined as the time from age 3 to age 6. This period in a child's life is when important attitudes and oral hygiene habits are developed and dental fear can be a severely limiting factor in dental health maintenance. The purpose of this research was to collect data on oral hygiene habits and the quality of dental fear with respect to preschool aged children, and to try to define statistically significant differences, with respect to age, sex and geographical background. The research was conducted by questionnaire method on 796 preschool aged children, ages 3-6, in two big cities located in different geographical areas (Split-coast area and Zagreb-continental area). Statistical data processing was conducted by implementing the χ²-test. Statistical analysis showed that there is a difference in oral hygiene habits between children in Zagreb and Split, and also among children of different ages and gender: the older the children are, the less the parents participate in maintaining their children's oral hygiene. By the gender girls show better oral hygiene habits. Furthermore, dental fear isn't necessarily related to past dental experiences. This study demonstrated that children mostly afraid of the dental drill.

  18. Can They Use Their Words? An Investigation of the Relationship between Language Competence and Emotion Regulation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimowicz, Tamara D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language competence and emotion regulation in children between the ages of 48 and 60 months. Thirty-one children who attended subsidized preschool programs serving children from low SES families participated, along with their primary caretaker. The children's receptive and expressive language…

  19. The reading habits of parents of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The reading habits of parents of preschool children are very important for development of reading literacy. The role of parents in reading is very high. It is important that parents often read for themselves and for their children regardless of age, sex and education. With reading they are giving the children an example and attach great importance to reading. An important factor is the frequency of library visits and dealing with books. On the reading habits of parents have important influenc...

  20. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention.

  1. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children - United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-24

    Childhood obesity continues to be a leading public health concern that disproportionately affects low-income and minority children. Children who are obese in their preschool years are more likely to be obese in adolescence and adulthood and to develop diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, and sleep apnea. One of the Healthy People 2010 objectives (19-3) is to reduce to 5% the proportion of children and adolescents who are obese. CDC's Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is the only source of nationally compiled obesity surveillance data obtained at the state and local level for low-income, preschool-aged children participating in federally funded health and nutrition programs. To describe progress in reducing childhood obesity, CDC examined trends and current prevalence in obesity using PedNSS data submitted by participating states, territories, and Indian tribal organizations during 1998-2008. The findings indicated that obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children increased steadily from 12.4% in 1998 to 14.5% in 2003, but subsequently remained essentially the same, with a 14.6% prevalence in 2008. Reducing childhood obesity will require effective prevention strategies that focus on environments and policies promoting physical activity and a healthy diet for families, child care centers, and communities.

  2. Can music lessons increase the performance of preschool children in IQ tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Hossein; Mirbaha, Hilda; Pournaseh, Mehrangiz; Sagan, Olivia

    2014-02-01

    The impact of music on human cognition has a distinguished history as a research topic in psychology. The focus of the present study was on investigating the effects of music instruction on the cognitive development of preschool children. From a sample of 154 preschool children of Tehran kindergartens, 60 children aged between 5 and 6 were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving music lessons and the other (matched for sex, age and mother's educational level) not taking part in any music classes. Children were tested before the start of the course of music lessons and at its end with 4 subtests of the Tehran-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (TSB). The experimental group participated in twelve 75-min weekly music lessons. Statistical analysis showed significant IQ increase in participants receiving music lessons, specifically on the TSB verbal reasoning and short-term memory subtests. The numerical and visual/abstract reasoning abilities did not differ for the two groups after lessons. These data support studies that found similar skills enhancements in preschool children, despite vast differences in the setting in which the instruction occurred. These findings appear to be consistent with some neuroimaging and neurological observations which are discussed in the paper.

  3. Characteristics of Swedish Preschools That Provide Education and Care to Children with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…

  4. Examination of the Messages Preschool Teachers Use against Undesirable Behaviors of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeli, Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, through in-class observations, the messages preschool teachers use against children's undesirable behaviors, in order to warn the children and remove negative behaviors. The study group consisted of six preschool teachers. The messages used by preschool teachers against undesirable behaviors of children…

  5. The Impact of Pre-School on Young Children's Cognitive Attainments at Entry to Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Pam; Elliot, Karen; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the impact of pre-school experience on young children's cognitive attainments at entry to primary school and analyses data collected as part of a wider longitudinal study, the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) project, which followed a large sample of young children attending 141 pre-school centres drawn from…

  6. The Relations among Young Children's Peer-Reported Trustworthiness, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, K. J.; Michalik, N.; Eisenberg, N.; Betts, L. R.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five (38 male and 27 female) preschool children (mean age=5 years 1 month) completed measures of peers' trustworthiness (promise keeping and secret keeping). Teachers rated the preschool children's inhibitory control, trustworthiness, and preschool adjustment. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) yielded support for the hypothesized model. The…

  7. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  8. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  9. [Relationship between phonological awareness and behavioral problems in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Linda P; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2010-07-01

    Phonological awareness is a key precursor of reading and writing skills in preschool children. Many children with reading and spelling problems have comorbid disorders that have a negative impact on their development. Research to date has rarely focused on the interaction between behavioral problems and phonological awareness. The study investigates whether preschool children with difficulties in phonological awareness already show behavioral problems. Children (N = 188) were interviewed to assess their level of phonological awareness and teachers used the SDQ to rate their behavioral strengths and difficulties. Children with low levels of phonological awareness have more emotional problems, are more hyperactive, and have more problems with peers than children with higher levels of phonological awareness. No gender differences were found. The results indicate that already at preschool age children with low levels of phonological awareness show more behavioral problems than children with higher levels of phonological awareness. The results are comparable to those of school children who have writing and reading difficulties and behavioral problems.

  10. Nasal nitric oxide levels in healthy pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, G L; Bodini, A; Peroni, D G; Sandri, M; Brunelli, M; Pigozzi, R; Boner, A L

    2010-12-01

    The evaluation of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has been proposed as a screening tool in children with clinically suspectable primary ciliary dyskinesia. Nevertheless, normal values have been reported for school-aged children. This study was designed to identify normal nNO levels in pre-school children. nNO was assessed in 300 healthy children aged between 1.5 and 7.2. Two hundred and fifty of them were unable to fulfill the guideline requirements for nNO measurement and were assessed by sampling the nasal air continuously with a constant trans-nasal aspiration flow for 30 s during tidal breathing. For those children who were able to cooperate, the average nNO concentration was calculated according to guidelines. A statistically significant relationship between nNO level and age was demonstrated in this study group of pre-school children (p < 0.001). An increase in nNO of about 100 ppb was observed in children older than 6 yr vs. those aged < 3. This study presents a description of normal nNO values in pre-school children. The effect of the age and the eventual presence of rhinitis and snoring need to be considered whenever nNO is evaluated in the clinical practice, in particular in non-cooperative children.

  11. Sleep clinical record: what differences in school and preschool children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Villa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The sleep clinical record (SCR may be a valid method for detecting children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. This study aimed to evaluate whether there were differences in SCR depending on age and to identify the possible risk factors for OSA development. We enrolled children with sleep disordered breathing between 2013 and 2015, and divided them according to age into preschool- and school-age groups. All patients underwent SCR and polysomnography. OSA was detected in 81.1% and 83.6% of preschool- and school-age groups, respectively. Obesity, malocclusions, nasal septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy were significantly more prevalent in school-age children (p6.5 had a sensitivity of 74% in predicting OSA in preschool children with positive predictive value of 86% (p=0.0001. Our study confirms the validity of the SCR as a screening tool for patient candidates for a PSG study for suspected OSA, in both school and preschool children.

  12. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL TRIBAL CHILDREN IN NORTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu V

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tribals are one of the most vulnerable groups in India. Under-nutrition and various morbidities go hand in hand, particularly in children. Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition. The present study is an attempt to assess the nutritional status of pre-school children of Kozhikode district in Kerala. The objectives of this study were 1. To study the prevalence of malnutrition among the preschool tribal children 2. To study the associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was a community-based, cross- sectional. Study was carried out in randomly selected 10 panchayaths in Kozhikode. Cluster sampling method was used. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Various indices of nutritional status were expressed in standard deviation units (z scores from the reference median. RESULTS More than half of the children say 57.6% (152/246 had deficits in at least one of the two anthropometric indicators. The prevalence of underweight and stunting was 47.3% and .38.6% respectively. The analysis showed significant associations between under-nutrition and educational status of mother, tribe to which the child belonged, large family size, high birth order and low preschool attendance. CONCLUSION The findings of the present study revealed the widespread prevalence of under-nutrition among pre-school tribal children and highlight a need for an integrated approach towards improving the child health as well as nutritional status in this area.

  13. Recruitment and participation in pre-school and school-based fluoride varnish pilots - the South Central experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, S; John, J H

    2013-09-01

    To assess recruitment and participation within seven school/pre-school-based programmes for fluoride varnish applications. Year-long pilots were undertaken in six primary schools (ages four to seven years) and one pre-school (ages three to four years). Three applications of fluoride varnish were carried out coinciding with the three school terms. In spite of intensive recruitment efforts, only 78% of the total 589 children were enrolled in the pilot; 15% had to be excluded because no response could be obtained from their parents. At the end of 12 months, 79% of enrolled children (62% of total) had received all three applications. Children did not receive applications because they were absent on the days when the dental team were carrying out the screening or fluoride varnish applications, were ill, or because the child refused. The highest refusal rate was in the pre-school. Younger children need to be targeted if improvement in the oral health of five-year-olds is to be achieved, the only dental measure in the Public Health Outcomes Framework, but they were less likely to cooperate. More research is needed on approaches to maximise participation in community programmes such as this, if they are to achieve significant population-level improvements in child dental health.

  14. Summary of: recruitment and participation in pre-school and school-based fluoride varnish pilots - the South Central experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugan, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To assess recruitment and participation within seven school/pre-school-based programmes for fluoride varnish applications. Year-long pilots were undertaken in six primary schools (ages four to five years) and one pre-school (aged three years). Three applications of fluoride varnish were carried out coinciding with the three school terms. In spite of intensive recruitment efforts, only 78% of the total 589 children were enrolled in the pilot; 15% had to be excluded because no response could be obtained from their parents. At the end of 12 months, 79% of enrolled children (62% of total) had received all three applications. Children did not receive applications because they were absent on the days when the dental team were carrying out the screening or fluoride varnish applications, were ill, or because the child refused. The highest refusal rate was in the pre-school. Younger children need to be targeted if improvement in the oral health of five-year-olds is to be achieved, the only dental measure in the Public Health Outcomes Framework, but they were less likely to cooperate. More research is needed on approaches to maximise participation in community programmes such as this, if they are to achieve significant population-level improvements in child dental health.

  15. Effects of a play program on creative thinking of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Berrueco, Laura

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a play program in the creative thinking of preschool children. The study used a repeated measures experimental pretest-posttest design with control groups. The sample included 86 participants aged 5 to 6 years (53 experimental and 33 control participants). Before and after administering the program, two evaluation instruments were applied: The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Torrance, 1990) and Behaviors and Traits of Creative Personality Scale (Garaigordobil & Berrueco, 2007). The program consisted of a weekly 75-minute play session throughout the school year. ANOVA results showed that the program significantly increased the verbal creativity (fluency, flexibility, originality), graphic creativity (elaboration, fluency, originality), and behaviors and traits of creative personality. In the pretest phase, there were no differences in the creativity of boys and girls, and the program stimulated a similar level of change in both sexes. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing creative programs with preschool children.

  16. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1996-10-01

    The role of demographic, developmental, and familial mediating factors on treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children was evaluated. Sixty-seven sexually abused preschool children and their parents were evaluated shortly after disclosure of sexual abuse and then were provided with one of two treatment interventions. At the completion of treatment, the parents and their children were reevaluated. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory, and the Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of emotional and behavioral symptoms in children. Parents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III, the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire, the Parental Support Questionnaire, and the Maternal Social Support Index. Children completed the Preschool Symptom Self-Report to assess self-reported affective symptoms and the Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to assess developmental level. Correlational analyses were conducted to analyze the relationships between the hypothesized mediating variables and the outcome measures at posttreatment across the two treatment groups. Multiple regression analyses were also performed. Both parental depression and parental emotional distress correlated significantly with several of the child outcome measures. Battelle scores were significantly negatively correlated with several outcome measures. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire remained a highly significant predictor of treatment outcome. The findings indicate a strong correlation between parental emotional distress related to the abuse and treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children, independent of the type of treatment provided. The findings indicate the importance of addressing parental distress related to the abuse in providing effective treatment to sexually abused

  17. Preschool children's caregivers' attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orawan Suwansingha; Praphasri Rirattanapong

    2014-01-01

    .... Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 320 caregivers of preschool children aged 3-6 years, who were attending the public preschools in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao, and they completed self-administered questionnaires...

  18. Physical Activity, Obesity Status, and Blood Pressure in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Susana; Trost, Stewart G; Rêgo, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Mota, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    To examine the combined effects of physical activity and weight status on blood pressure (BP) in preschool-aged children. The sample included 733 preschool-aged children (49% female). Physical activity was objectively assessed on 7 consecutive days by accelerometry. Children were categorized as sufficiently active if they met the recommendation of at least 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Body mass index was used to categorize children as nonoverweight or overweight/obese, according to the International Obesity Task Force benchmarks. BP was measured using an automated BP monitor and categorized as elevated or normal using BP percentile-based cut-points for age, sex, and height. The prevalence of elevated systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP was 7.7% and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obese was 32%, and about 15% of children did not accomplish the recommended 60 minutes of daily MVPA. After controlling for age and sex, overweight/obese children who did not meet the daily MVPA recommendation were 3 times more likely (OR 3.8; CI 1.6-8.6) to have elevated SBP than nonoverweight children who met the daily MVPA recommendation. Overweight or obese preschool-aged children with insufficient levels of MVPA are at significantly greater risk for elevated SBP than their nonoverweight and sufficiently active counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN ANXIETY AND STYLE OF FAMILY UPBRINGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mazurova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Children personality is actively formed at the preschool period, as they enter wider circle of social relationships and everyday tasks become more complicated. The most common emotional problem among preschool children is anxiety as a possible precursor of neurosis. Aim: to study the character of anxiety and the main causes of its development in preschool children in order to determine the structure of psychological care. Patients and methods: 68 children, 68 mothers and 22 fathers were included into the study. We used the following methods: observation, interview, projective and test methods. Results: each third child was diagnosed increased level of anxiety. Anxiety-inducing situations were mainly associated with disturbances of safety feeling in family. Correlation between ineffective types of parental relationship and high level of children anxiety was established. Conclusions: decrease in children anxiety is impossible without harmonization of parental aims in accordance to age and special features of children development. Structure and duration of rehabilitation should be based on analysis of somatic and neuro-psychic state of children, as well as social situation of development.

  20. Parenting approaches and digital technology use of preschool age children in a Chinese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Fowler, Cathrine; Lam, Winsome Yuk Yin; Wong, Ho Ting; Wong, Charmaine Hei Man; Yuen Loke, Alice

    2014-05-07

    Young children are using digital technology (DT) devices anytime and anywhere, especially with the invention of smart phones and the replacement of desktop computers with digital tablets. Although research has shown that parents play an important role in fostering and supporting preschoolers' developing maturity and decisions about DT use, and in protecting them from potential risk due to excessive DT exposure, there have been limited studies conducted in Hong Kong focusing on parent-child DT use. This study had three objectives: 1) to explore parental use of DTs with their preschool children; 2) to identify the DT content that associated with child behavioral problems; and 3) to investigate the relationships between approaches adopted by parents to control children's DT use and related preschooler behavioral problems. This exploratory quantitative study was conducted in Hong Kong with 202 parents or guardians of preschool children between the ages of 3 and 6 attending kindergarten. The questionnaire was focused on four aspects, including 1) participants' demographics; 2) pattern of DT use; 3) parenting approach to manage the child's DT use; and 4) child behavioral and health problems related to DT use. Multiple regression analysis was adopted as the main data analysis method for identifying the DT or parental approach-related predictors of the preschooler behavioral problems. In the multiple linear regression model, the 'restrictive approach score' was the only predictor among the three parental approaches (B:1.66, 95% CI: [0.21, 3.11], p parents play a crucial role in fostering appropriate and safe DT use. It is suggested that parents practice a combination of restrictive, instructive and co-using approaches, rather than a predominately restrictive approach, to facilitate their child's growth and development. Further studies are needed to explore the parent-child relationship and parents' self-efficacy when managing the parent-child DT use, to develop

  1. What is science in preschool and what do teachers have to know to empower children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kristina; Gullberg, Annica

    2014-06-01

    In this article we problematize the purpose of teaching science in preschool and the competences preschool teachers need in order to conduct science activities in the classroom. The empirical data were collected through an action research project with five preschool and primary school teachers (K-6). In the first section of this paper we use one situation, a floating-sinking experiment, as an illustration of how two different epistemological perspectives generate different foci on which kind of science teaching competences can be fruitful in preschool settings. In the first perspective, the central goal of science teaching is the development of the children's conceptual understanding. With this perspective, we found that the science activities with children were unsuccessful, because their thoughts about concepts did not develop as expected, the situation even enhanced a "misconception" concerning density. Moreover, the teacher was unsuccessful in supporting the children's conceptual learning. The second perspective uses a feminist approach that scrutinizes science, where we investigate if the floating-sinking activity contributes to a feeling of participation in a scientific context for the children and if so how the teacher promotes this inclusion. This second perspective showed that the children's scientific proficiency benefited from the situation; they had a positive experience with density which was reinforced by the teacher. The children discovered that they had power over their own learning by using an experimental approach. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that there are competences other than subject matter knowledge that are also important when preschool teachers engage children in scientific activities. Through process-oriented work with the teacher group, we identified four concrete skills: paying attention to and using children's previous experiences; capturing unexpected things that happen at the moment they occur; asking questions that

  2. The role of educational and clinical prevention of dental diseases in older preschool children in a preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Vanchakova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 19 preschool children (8 ofthem with speech disorders, 19 parents, 4 preschool teacher were to identify low hygienic knowledge and skills of parents and children. Children in violation of the formation of speech found in the playback lag motor tasks on the space-time parameters, broke a sequence of elements of action, lowered its component parts, the longer formulated phrase. What to consider when creating training programs for oral health.

  3. The relations among young children's peer-reported trustworthiness, inhibitory control, and preschool adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Ken J. Rotenberg; Michalik, Nicole; Eisenberg, Nancy; Betts, Lucy R.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five (38 male and 27 female) preschool children (mean age = 5 years 1 month) completed measures of peers' trustworthiness (promise keeping and secret keeping). Teachers rated the preschool children's inhibitory control, trustworthiness, and preschool adjustment. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) yielded support for the hypothesized model. The expected positive paths were found from (1) gender to preschool adjustment and inhibitory control, (2) age to peer-reported trustworthiness, (3) ...

  4. Speech Sound Disorders in a Community Study of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To undertake a community (nonclinical) study to describe the speech of preschool children who had been identified by parents/teachers as having difficulties "talking and making speech sounds" and compare the speech characteristics of those who had and had not accessed the services of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Method:…

  5. Helicobacter pylori among preschool children and their parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Berg, Gabriele

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed the role of parental infection status in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection in a large population-based sample of preschool-aged children. The subjects, who lived in Ulm, Germany, and in two nearby communities, were screened for school fitness between January...

  6. Processes of Curiosity and Exploration in Preschool Disadvantaged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…

  7. Preschool Impact on Children: Its Sustaining Effects into Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlind, Steven J.

    1980-01-01

    Children in kindergarten grade were studied comparing pupils who had previously attended preschool with those who had not. Reading (or reading readiness) and mathematics achievement, academic potential, social and emotional maturity, conformity to successful pupil behaviors, and adjustment to academic and social setting in the classroom were…

  8. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  9. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  10. Affiliative Structures and Social Competence in Portuguese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…

  11. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Noncompliance by Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, David A; Harris, Carelle; Reagan, Renee; Rasey, Amy

    2007-01-01

    A functional analysis showed that noncompliance occurred most often for 2 preschoolers when it resulted in termination of a preferred activity, suggesting that noncompliance was maintained by positive reinforcement. A differential reinforcement procedure, which involved contingent access to coupons that could be exchanged for uninterrupted access to the activity maintaining noncompliance, was successful in increasing compliance for both children.

  12. Teachers' Definitions of Self-Esteem When Rating Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)

  13. The Pedagogical Support for Preschool Children with Deviant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…

  14. Bronchoprotection with a leukotriene receptor antagonist in asthmatic preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Nielsen, K G

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) could provide bronchoprotection against the cold, dry air-induced response in asthmatic preschool children. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of the specific LTRA montelukast at 5...

  15. Cold air challenge and specific airway resistance in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    prognosis in preschool children. Cold air challenge and plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) are feasible candidate methods for diagnosis, clinical monitoring and research during this critical period of lung growth and development. Methodology and practical aspects of cold air...

  16. A Piagetian Method of Evaluating Preschool Children's Development in Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Constance; Peper, Robert

    A preschool curriculum for lower class children was developed based on Piaget's theory. Evaluation procedures were developed to parallel a Piagetian curriculum. According to Piagetian theory, the mechanism of classification is the coordination of the intensive and extensive properties of a group of objects. The ability to dichotomously classify…

  17. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  18. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  19. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  20. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  1. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  2. Preschool development of coloured children in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preschool development of coloured children in Cape Town. ... Journal Home > Vol 79, No 6 (1991) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text ... by the screening process. Developmental milestones were similar to those studies reported in the literature. At 12 months the development correlated best with family stability.

  3. Diet Management of PKU for Infants and Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Phyllis B.; Wenz, Elizabeth

    The report focuses on the diet management of infant and preschool children with phenylketonuria (PKU), a congenital deficiency resulting in brain damage. The effective methods for rapidly lowering serum phenylalanine levels following diagnosis are discussed, a method for prescribing and calculating the phenylalanine-restricted diet is described,…

  4. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  5. Emergent Verbal Behavior in Preschool Children Learning a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard J.; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]).…

  6. Update on leukotriene receptor antagonists in preschool children wheezing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montella Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common chronic disease in young children. About 40% of all preschool children regularly wheeze during common cold infections. The heterogeneity of wheezing phenotypes early in life and various anatomical and emotional factors unique to young children present significant challenges in the clinical management of this problem. Anti-inflammatory therapy, mainly consisting of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS, is the cornerstone of asthma management. Since Leukotrienes (LTs are chemical mediators of airway inflammation in asthma, the leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs are traditionally used as potent anti-inflammatory drugs in the long-term treatment of asthma in adults, adolescents, and school-age children. In particular, montelukast decreases airway inflammation, and has also a bronchoprotective effect. The main guidelines on asthma management have confirmed the clinical utility of LTRAs in children older than five years. In the present review we describe the most recent advances on the use of LTRAs in the treatment of preschool wheezing disorders. LTRAs are effective in young children with virus-induced wheeze and with multiple-trigger disease. Conflicting data do not allow to reach definitive conclusions on LTRAs efficacy in bronchiolitis or post-bronchiolitis wheeze, and in acute asthma. The excellent safety profile of montelukast and the possibility of oral administration, that entails better compliance from young children, represent the main strengths of its use in preschool children. Montelukast is a valid alternative to ICS especially in poorly compliant preschool children, or in subjects who show adverse effects related to long-term steroid therapy.

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" (PreBERS) with Preschool Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Synhorst, Lori; Epstein, Michael H.; Allen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" (PreBERS) is a standardized, norm-referenced instrument that assesses emotional and behavioral strengths of preschool children. This study investigated whether the PreBERS four-factor structure (i.e., emotional regulation, school readiness, social confidence, and family involvement)…

  8. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Radulović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of excessive body weight and obesity among children is increasing in many countries, including our country. It is believed that one of the two most important reasons for this increase is insufficient physical activity of children.The aim of this study was to examine the state of the level of nourishment of preschool children in relation to their level of physical activity. The survey was conducted in preschools in Pancevo. The sample consisted of 193 children (88 boys and 105 girls, aged 4 and 5 years. The assessment of the level of nourishment of the children and their parents was done after the standard anthropometric measurements of height, body weight, determining the body mass index and waist circumference and comparing the obtained values with the growth plates given by World Health Organization. Physical activity of the children was evaluated by a questionnaire which parents filled up. Inappropriate level of nourishment had 60 (31.1% children, of which 26 (13.5% with excessive body mass, obese 29 (15.0%, while 5 (2.5% were malnourished. Children are most attracted to sports such as ballet or folk dances, ball games and swimming, but only 22 (15.83% children are members of some sports club. The lack of finances and the lack of sports facilities and terrains are given as reasons by most parents. During the implementation of physical activities, 65.2% of children are never or sometimes exposed to excessive physical effort. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity among preschool children in Pancevo was high, particularly among children with excessive body weight and obese children. Socio-demographic and behavioral factors as well as behavior of parents significantly contributed to physical inactivity.

  9. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baune Bernhard T

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a pre-school and the duration of preschool attendance have on the prevalence of these impairments is not known. Methods In a retrospective survey spanning six years (1997–2002 we reviewed the records of 6,230 preschool children who had undergone routine school entry assessments. These children had been assessed utilising a modified manual of the "Bavarian Model" for school entry examinations. This model outlines specific criteria for impairments of motor, cognitive, behavioural and psychosocial functioning. Prevalence rates for physical and behavioural impairments were based on the results of these assessments. The relationship between the prevalence of impairments and the duration of preschool attendance and the location of the preschool attended was estimated utilizing logistic regression models. Results We found that 20.7% of children met the criteria for at least one type of impairment. Highest prevalence rates (11.5% were seen for speech impairments and lowest (3.5% for arithmetic impairments. Boys were disproportionately over represented, with 25.5% meeting the criteria for impairment, compared to 13.0% for girls. Children who had attended preschool for less than one year demonstrated higher rates of impairment (up to 19.1% for difficulties with memory, concentration or perseverance compared to those who had attended for a longer duration (up to 11.6% for difficulties with pronouncation. Children attending preschool in an urban location had slightly

  10. Pre-School Age Visually Impaired Children's Motives for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.

  11. Shared activities of parents with their preschool children during family pastime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkin V.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the structure of the pastime of contemporary preschool children and the importance and prevalence of various kinds of activities that parents and their children share. The emphasis is on those features of parental behavior that are determined by gender role (mother/father, family status (two-parent/separated family, style of parentchild relationship, and also child’s gender. The work is based on data from 1,936 questionnaires received from parents of preschool children (from 1.5 to 7 years old who were attending Moscow kindergartens. The research was carried out in 41 kindergartens in 9 districts of Moscow. The survey uncovered several social-psychological features of the position parents take while organizing their shared pastime with preschool children: the influence of traditional gender-role models of parental behavior; the “complementary” principle of mother’s and father’s social-role positions in the upbringing of a daughter; the distortion of traditional maternal behavior in the upbringing of a son in a separated family; the reduced organization of shared play with a child in a separated family; the influence of the style of the parent-child relationship on the participation of parents in their children’s activities. The dynamics show how the parents’ position changes as their children grow older (from 1.5 years to 7 years: namely, the decrease of parents’ organization of and participation in a preschool child’s activities has a negative impact on their emotional state while interacting with the child.

  12. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    ’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives...

  13. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Barbara A; Russo, Theresa J; Burdick, Patrick A; Jenkins, Paul L

    2004-02-01

    Television viewing has been associated with increased violence in play and higher rates of obesity. Although there are interventions to reduce television viewing by school-aged children, there are none for younger children. To develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Randomized controlled trial conducted in 16 preschool and/or day care centers in rural upstate New York. Children aged 2.6 through 5.5 years. Children attending intervention centers received a 7-session program designed to reduce television viewing as part of a health promotion curriculum, whereas children attending the control centers received a safety and injury prevention program. Change in parent-reported child television/video viewing and measured growth variables. Before the intervention, the intervention and control groups viewed 11.9 and 14.0 h/wk of television/videos, respectively. Afterward, children in the intervention group decreased their television/video viewing 3.1 h/wk, whereas children in the control group increased their viewing by 1.6 h/wk, for an adjusted difference between the groups of -4.7 h/wk (95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -1.0 h/wk; P =.02). The percentage of children watching television/videos more than 2 h/d also decreased significantly from 33% to 18% among the intervention group, compared with an increase of 41% to 47% among the control group, for a difference of -21.5% (95% confidence interval, -42.5% to -0.5%; P =.046). There were no statistically significant differences in children's growth between groups. This study is the first to show that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects associated with reductions in young children's television viewing.

  14. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres M. Della Lucia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR® fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool and the other received only polished rice (control preschool. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  15. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  16. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C; Santos, Laura Luiza M; Cardoso, Leandro M; Martino, Hércia S D; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-05-14

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice(®) (UR(®))) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2-6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR(®) added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR(®) on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  17. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  18. Evaluation of a Social Marketing Campaign Targeting Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L.; Bellows, Laura; Beckstrom, Leslie; Anderson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a pilot social marketing program to increase preschoolers' willingness to try new foods. Methods: Four Head Start centers participated (2 experimental, 2 control) in a study using a quasi-experimental design. Experimental sites received a 12-week intervention developed using social marketing…

  19. Evaluation of a Social Marketing Campaign Targeting Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L.; Bellows, Laura; Beckstrom, Leslie; Anderson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a pilot social marketing program to increase preschoolers' willingness to try new foods. Methods: Four Head Start centers participated (2 experimental, 2 control) in a study using a quasi-experimental design. Experimental sites received a 12-week intervention developed using social marketing…

  20. Implicit Knowledge of Grammatical Gender in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belacchi, Carmen; Cubelli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the role of nominal gender in animal categorization in preschoolers. Given the regularities characterizing gender system, at both syntactical and morphological level, Italian language is suitable to address this issue. In three experiments, participants were asked to classify pictures of animals as male or female.…

  1. Perceptual anchoring in preschool children: not adultlike, but there.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference, a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference, no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a

  2. Assessing Bully/Victim Problems in Preschool Children: A Multimethod Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vlachou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies addressing the issue of bullying during the preschool period are still extremely rare. The main aim of the present research was to study the prevalence rates of bullying in preschool children using a multimethod approach. Participants were 167 preschool children (ages 4–6 and 8 classroom teachers. Measures were four forms of bullying: verbal, physical, and relational bullying and rumour spreading. Data were collected through peer nominations, self- and teacher reports, and natural observations. Results have shown that the frequencies of bullying episodes vary greatly according to the source of information. Moreover, agreement between informants was either nonsignificant or moderate. This is extremely important when conducting relevant empirical research with preschool populations. It is probable that inconsistent results obtained in previous research may be due to the selection of one or another source of information. It is of primary importance to design methodological tools that are both valid and reliable if prevention programs against victimisation are to be consistent and effective.

  3. [Neuropsychic development in preschool children in conditions of the informatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, E A; Tarmaeva, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    The new millennium was marked by the transition of humanity to a new stage of the development--the Information Society, which is an objective reality and affects on all aspects of living environment, including the health of children. The last decade was characterized by the increase of the use of means of informatization, the level of aggression and aggressiveness of children, the decrease of intellectual indices, deterioration of mental health, an increase of children with behavioral problems, hyperactivity, inattention, decrease of mental capacity. In a study on the example of preschool educational institution in the city of Irkutsk in the conditions of the changing of the informatization level of the society in the time period from 1998 to 2012, there were revealed the changes in indices of intellectual development, mental capacity and anxiety of children. Under observation there were 211 children aged from 5.5 to 6.5 years in the preschool institution of the central district of the city of Irkutsk. There were formed two groups of children: I group--children who attended kindergarten in 1998 and group II--children attending kindergarten in 2012. Age groups of preschool children were consistent with their calendar age: from 5 years 5 months 30 days to 6 years 5 months 30 days. In the study of intellectual development there has been shown the decrease of the number of children with average intelligence level and an increase in children with the below-average intelligence level, the increase of the speed (p < 0.05.) and the decrease of the quality (p < 0.05.) of the information processing in the Anfilov test for the mental performance and the increase the general level of anxiety, aggressive background and unmotivated fears "out" at the present time stage (2012).

  4. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  5. Examining Preschool Teachers' Attitudes, Comfort, Action Orientation and Preparation to Work with Children Reared by Gay and Lesbian Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Archana V.; Averett, Paige; Parker White, Carmel; Deese, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed preschool teachers' attitudes towards homosexuality, their comfort levels in working with same sex parents and their children, their action orientation and preparedness to work on this topic. Twenty teachers from public schools and 20 from private child care settings in North Carolina, USA, participated in the study. Two…

  6. Feeding Practices and Styles Used by a Diverse Sample of Low-Income Parents of Preschool-age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K.; Gromis, Judy C.; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Design: Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Setting: Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Participants: Thirty-two parents of…

  7. Developing Relationships between Language and Behaviour in Preschool Children from the Early Language in Victoria Study: Implications for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Lesley; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Cini, Eileen; Eadie, Patricia; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Following a biopsychosocial model, the study investigated the role of child factors (gender, IQ), maternal factors (psychological distress, maternal education and vocabulary, maternal distress) and environmental factors (SES) in the relationship between language impairment and behaviour problems in preschool children. Participants were drawn from…

  8. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  9. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  10. The Development of Theory of Mind and Positive and Negative Reciprocity in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Joanna; Takagishi, Haruto; Benech, Catalina; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the acquisition of false-beliefs theory of mind (ToM) and reciprocity in preschoolers. Preschool-aged children completed a task assessing the understanding of false beliefs, and played an Ultimatum Game (UG) with another child in a face-to-face setting. Negative reciprocity was assessed by examining the rejection of unfair offers made by another child in the UG, while positive reciprocity was assessed by examining allocations made by participants in a Dictator Game (DG) following the UG. The results indicated that children who had passed a task assessing first-order false beliefs were more likely to make generous offers in a DG following a fair offer made by their partner in a proceeding UG, but that false beliefs ToM was unrelated to the rejection of unfair offers in the UG.

  11. Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Maria; Grindefjord, Margaret; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group......BACKGROUND: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. METHODS: Five......) while 237 had received standard preventive care (reference group). Oral samples were collected with a sterile swab and analysed with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization using 12 pre-determined bacterial probes. Caries and background data were collected from clinical examinations and questionnaires...

  12. [Food insecurity and nutritional status of preschool children in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the relation between malnutrition and food insecurity (FI) in preschool children from Mexico. Information of 10 513 preschool children and their families was analyzed. The FI was measured through the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA). Adjusted prevalence of FI and malnutrition with related variables were assessed by logistic regression. 31% of households had moderate and server FI. Rural and south, indigenous households, in the Q1 and Q2, showed the highest prevalence of moderate and severe FI as well. We observed a high tendency of malnutrition in the severe FI group; the prevalence of overweight was similar in the four groups of FI. Conclusions. The risk of chronic malnutrition is 42% bigger in children less than five years old with severe FI than in those that experienced food security.

  13. Preschool children's Collaborative Science Learning Scaffolded by Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridberg, Marie; Thulin, Susanne; Redfors, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on a project aiming to extend the current understanding of how emerging technologies, i.e. tablets, can be used in preschools to support collaborative learning of real-life science phenomena. The potential of tablets to support collaborative inquiry-based science learning and reflective thinking in preschool is investigated through the analysis of teacher-led activities on science, including children making timelapse photography and Slowmation movies. A qualitative analysis of verbal communication during different learning contexts gives rise to a number of categories that distinguish and identify different themes of the discussion. In this study, groups of children work with phase changes of water. We report enhanced and focused reasoning about this science phenomenon in situations where timelapse movies are used to stimulate recall. Furthermore, we show that children communicate in a more advanced manner about the phenomenon, and they focus more readily on problem solving when active in experimentation or Slowmation producing contexts.

  14. Teachers' Perceptions of a Community Participation Programme for Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Candice; Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2013-01-01

    Preschoolers with autism face a number of challenges in integrating into different community activities owing to behavioural, communication and emotional concerns. Since the year 2009, the Hong Kong Heep Hong Society has developed a training programme for enhancing community participation among individuals with autism. The current project reports…

  15. [Fluoride urinary excretion in Mexico City's preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Murrieta-Pruneda, Francisco; López-Jiménez, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of urinary fluoride excretion during dental developing stage has been reported for different countries with community fluoride programs. Also, one of the factors that could influence on retention and excretion of fluoride is the deficient nutrition so the aim of this study was to determine fluoride urinary excretion by a group of preschool children with and without malnutrition. Urinary samples from 24 hours were collected from 60 preschool children selected by convenience from Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, 30 with malnutrition and 30 with standard nutritrional status by weight for age. The samples were analyzed by fluoride especific electrode. Orion 720A. The average concentration of fluoride in urine from preschool children with and without malnutrition were 0.89 +/- 0.4 mg/L and 0.80 +/- 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The mean of 24 hours total fluoride excreted were 367 +/- 150 microg/24 hrs. in malnutrition children and 355 +/- 169 microg/24 hrs. for those with standard nutritional status. There were no differences statistically significant between groups. The urinary fluoride excretion for children with and without malnutrition were in the optimal range of fluoridation for the prevention of caries decay. Malnutrition was no associated with changes on fluoride orine concentration and excretion rates.

  16. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  17. Disruptive behavior in preschool children: distinguishing normal misbehavior from markers of current and later childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji S; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    To investigate which disruptive behaviors in preschool were normative and transient vs markers of conduct disorder, as well as which disruptive behaviors predicted the persistence of conduct disorder into school age. Data from a longitudinal study of preschool children were used to investigate disruptive behaviors. Caregivers of preschoolers ages 3.0-5.11 years (n = 273) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment to derive the following diagnostic groups: conduct disorder, externalizing disorder without conduct disorder, internalizing disorder without externalizing disorder, and healthy. At school age, participants were again assessed via an age-appropriate diagnostic interview. Logistic and linear regression with pairwise group comparisons was used to investigate clinical markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Losing one's temper, low-intensity destruction of property, and low-intensity deceitfulness/stealing in the preschool period were found in both healthy and disordered groups. In contrast, high-intensity argument/defiant behavior, both low- and high-intensity aggression to people/animals, high-intensity destruction of property, high-intensity deceitfulness/stealing, and high-intensity peer problems were markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Inappropriate sexual behavior was not a marker for preschool conduct disorder but was a predictor of school age conduct disorder. These findings provide a guide for primary care clinicians to help identify preschoolers with clinical conduct disorder and those who are at risk for persistent conduct disorder in childhood. Preschoolers displaying these symptoms should be targeted for mental health assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

    OpenAIRE

    Baune Bernhard T; Stich Heribert L; Caniato Riccardo N; Krämer Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a p...

  19. Tour as a form of cognitive activity of children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniya Shanc

    2016-01-01

    In article the author considers theoretical approaches to the concept of "activity", "cognitive activity", especially the development of cognitive activity in preschool age; reveals the role of excursions in the development of cognitive activity of preschool children, justifies the need for the organization of excursion activity in the conditions of preschool educational organization.

  20. The Development of Preschool Children's Musical Abilities through Specific Types of Musical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolic, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the conducted research was to explore how much preschool teachers value certain types of musical activities, which positively influence the development of preschool children's musical abilities. The assumption in the research was that preschool teachers would choose musical games as the most prominent activity type in their educational…

  1. Factors affecting the placement of preschool-aged deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, C R; Wilson, A K; Lindsay, P H

    1989-03-01

    The placement in and movement among preschool programs of 131 children with severe and profound hearing losses was monitored over four years. Longitudinal data were obtained on the children's linguistic and social development. In the first year of the study, most of the children were enrolled in auditory/oral (A/O) programs. By the final year, most were enrolled instead in total communication (TC) programs; similar movement occurred from individual to classroom programs. Children in A/O individual programs had the most hearing, highest intelligence and most favorable family profile, followed by children in A/O classes, TC individual programs, and TC classes. Scores on measures of spoken language followed the same pattern. On measures of receptive language and mother-child communication, children in A/O individual programs and those in TC classes had similar scores. Children in TC individual programs came next, and last were children in A/O classes. These findings have implications for the choice of programs for preschool deaf children.

  2. Expressive and receptive language skills in preschool children from a socially disadvantaged area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ashling; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'shea, Aoife

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that children present with receptive language skills that are equivalent to or more advanced than expressive language skills. This profile holds true for typical and delayed language development. This study aimed to determine if such a profile existed for preschool children from an area of social deprivation and to investigate if particular language skills influence any differences found between expressive and receptive skills. Data from 187 CELF P2 UK assessments conducted on preschool children from two socially disadvantaged areas in a city in southern Ireland. A significant difference was found between Receptive Language Index (RLI) and Expressive Language Index (ELI) scores with Receptive scores found to be lower than Expressive scores. The majority (78.6%) of participants had a lower Receptive Language than Expressive score (RLI ELI), with very few (3.2%) having the same Receptive and Expressive scores (RLI = ELI). Scores for the Concepts and Following Directions (receptive) sub-test were significantly lower than for the other receptive sub tests, while scores for the Expressive Vocabulary sub-test were significantly higher than for the other expressive sub tests. The finding of more advanced expressive than receptive language skills in socially deprived preschool children is previously unreported and clinically relevant for speech-language pathologists in identifying the needs of this population.

  3. Preschool children learn about electric circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Jarc, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In the theoretical part of my thesis, I first summarized what can be found in literature concerning electricity treatment (Labinowicz, Driver) and particularities of topics treatment in a preschool period, as well. I presented the concepts of electricity and electrical current, respectively, and several simple devices that operate on the basis of electricity, sources and the concept of electric energy. In the empirical part I first presented the questionnaire for identification of childr...

  4. Developmental Profiles of Mucosal Immunity in Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ewing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (<.001, having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (<.05, and having been exposed to ETS at home (<.05. Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (<.05. Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (<.001, while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (<.01 whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (<.01. Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months.

  5. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibbritt David W

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. Methods The data comes from the baseline measurement of a one year follow-up study on obesity in 670 children attending kindergartens in HCMC. Dietary information for each child at the school and home settings was collected using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs, by interviewing teachers and parents or main caregivers. The average energy and nutrient intake in a day was calculated. The proportion of children with energy intake from macronutrients meeting or exceeding the recommendations was estimated based on the 2006 recommended daily allowance (RDA for Vietnamese children in this age group. Results The dietary intake of the participants contained more energy from protein and fat, particularly animal protein and fat, and less energy from carbohydrates, than the RDA. Most children (98.1% had mean energy intake from protein greater than the recommended level of 15%, and no child obtained energy from animal fat that was in accordance with the recommendation of less than 30% of the total fat intake. Nearly one half of children (46.5% consumed less than the advised range of mean energy intake from carbohydrate (60%–70%. Conclusion In this preschool child population in HCMC, in which obesity is emerging as major public health problem, there is an imbalance in dietary intake. Healthy eating programs need to be developed as a part of an obesity prevention program for young children in HCMC.

  6. Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases Among Preschool Children in Western Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh B Tondare , Vaishali V Raje, Satish V Kakade , Madhavi V Rayate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Malnutrition and infectious diseases both occur in the same unfortunate children and together they play a major role in causing the high morbidity and mortality in them. Out of all the childhood illnesses, acute respiratory tract infections, diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition are the principle causes of illness and death in the developing countries. Acute Diarrhoeal diseases (ADD’s are reported to be the 2nd leading cause of child morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To study the attack rate of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease among pre-school children and to study the socio-demographic variables of pre-school children suffering from Acute Diarrhoeal Disease. Methods: A Longitudinal study was conducted among preschool children (3-5years who were selected from Private pre-primary school of urban area and followed for the period of one year. Mother/guardian/teacher was interviewed by using pre-tested proforma during this period. Results: About 56% of children found suffering from ADD with 0.6 episodes per children per year among private pre-primary school. Higher proportions of ADD affected children were residing in nuclear type of family, belonging to middle socio-economic class, mothers were literate & housewives, born with order >2 compared to non ADD affected children. Conclusion: Maximum number of children from private pre-primary schools suffered with nearly one attack of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease with maternal illiteracy and working mothers found favorable factors. Immunization coverage, EBF and proper weaning play a very important role in prevention of infections."

  7. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxocariasis in preschool children in Aragua state, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María; García, Héctor; Figuera, Liliana; González, Verónica; Lamas, Félix; López, Katherinne; Mijares, Víctor; Corrales, Yeasiry; Lares, María; Ferrer, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Toxocara canis. In Venezuela, the magnitude of the disease is unknown and seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out in Aragua state. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in eight preschools in three municipalities from Aragua state in Venezuela. A total of 224 children aged between 1 and 6 years were studied (43.8% [98/224] male and 56.2% [126/224] female). Blood samples were obtained for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara spp. using ELISA. Participating families were given a questionnaire and children included in the study were clinically evaluated by paediatricians, and signs and symptoms observed were included in the questionnaires. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies were detected in 29.0% (65/224) of children. The seroprevalence in the different preschools studied ranged between 4.2% and 60.6%. Leucocytosis and eosinophilia were also detected. Analysis of questionnaires indicated that boys were more at risk than girls. Younger children were also more at risk. Other significant risk factors were socio-economic strata (IV and V), inadequate improvised housing, earthen flooring indoors and outdoors and the presence of dogs in preschools. The results from this work show the presence of infection and a high prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara spp. in the studied municipalities and indicate that toxocariasis poses a serious health problem to preschool children in Aragua state. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Relationship between Bruxism and Malocclusion among Preschool Children in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafournia, Maryam; Hajenourozali Tehrani, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Bruxism is defined as a habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. In younger children bruxism may be a consequence of the masticatory neuromuscular system immaturity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bruxism and investigate the relationship between occlusal factors and bruxism among preschool children. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional survey, 400 3-6-year-old children were selected randomly from different preschools in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into two groups of bruxers and non-bruxers as determined by the clinical examination and their parents’ reports. The examiner recorded the primary canines (Class I, Class II, and Class III) and molars (mesial step, distal step, flash terminal plane) relationship, existence of anterior and posterior crossbite, open and deep bite. Also, rotated teeth, food impaction, sharp tooth edges, high restorations, extensive tooth caries, and painful teeth (categorized as irritating tooth conditions) were evaluated. The relationship between bruxism and occlusal factors and irritating tooth conditions was evaluated with chi-square test. Results Bruxism was seen in 12.75% of the subjects. Statistically significant relationships existed between bruxism and some occlusal factors, such as flash terminal plane (P = 0.023) and mesial step (P = 0.001) and also, between food impaction, extensive tooth caries, tooth pain, sharp tooth edge and bruxism. Conclusion The results showed significant relationship of bruxism with primary molar relationships and irritating tooth conditions among preschool children. PMID:23277860

  10. Association between obesity and asthma in preschool Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vàzquez-Nava, Francisco; Morales Romero, Jaime; Crodova Fernandez, José A; Saldívar-González, Atenogenes H; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Barrientos Gomez, Maria del C; Lin-Ochoa, Dolorez; Vázquez Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2010-07-07

    The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI) in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile), overweight (> or =85th and obesity (> or =95th percentile). Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66-1.58), obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68-1.30), and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.

  11. Association between Obesity and Asthma in Preschool Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile, overweight (ࣙ85th and <95th percentile, and obesity (ࣙ95th percentile. Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66–1.58, obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68–1.30, and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.

  12. Teachers' language practices and academic outcomes of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David K

    2011-08-19

    Early childhood programs have long been known to be beneficial to children from low-income backgrounds, but recent studies have cast doubt on their ability to substantially increase the rate of children's academic achievement. This Review examines research on the role of language in later reading, describes home and classroom factors that foster early language growth, and reviews research on preschool interventions. It argues that one reason interventions are not having as great an impact as desired is because they fail to substantially change the capacity of teachers to support children's language and associated conceptual knowledge.

  13. Pets, pica, pathogens and pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, R W; Stack, Tom; Blair, R. E.; Keel, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of pica in pre-school children was investigated by studying 192 children attending a general paediatric hospital clinic and 69 attending a general practice surgery. The incidence of pica was twice as common in those who kept pets in both study groups. Half of the pet-keeping children with pica had eaten their pet's food. Imitative behaviour is suggested as a probable cause. Pet-keeping compounds a child's risk of infestation not only by providing close contact with a reservoir o...

  14. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  15. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  16. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  17. Preschool Language Profiles of Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia: Continuities with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles; Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children at family risk of dyslexia have been reported to show phonological deficits as well as broader language delays in the preschool years. Method: The preschool language skills of 112 children at family risk of dyslexia (FR) at ages 3½ and 4½ were compared with those of children with SLI and typically developing (TD) controls.…

  18. Impact of rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on laboratory measurements of nutritional status of preschool children

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    Ceres Mattos Della Lucia

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortification of food constitutes an important strategy for the control of micronutrient deficiency and has advantages such as high population coverage and maintenance of eating habits. This study aimed to assess the impact of using fortified rice (Ultra Rice® - UR® on the nutritional status of preschoolers. Ninety-nine children enrolled in two philanthropic preschools participated of the study. Children of one of the preschools were offered UR® mixed with polished rice, as part of school meals (test group and the children of another preschool were offered pure polished rice (control group. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after 4 months of intervention. Dietary assessment and sensory evaluation of UR® mixed with polished rice were performed during the study. The fortified rice improved the concentrations of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The fortified rice showed good acceptability among preschoolers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on the nutritional status of children.

  19. Assessment of sleep problems in preschool aged children: an adaptation of the children's sleep habits questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Penny; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel; Crowley, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of the children's sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ) when used with preschool and toddler age children. Mothers of 105 children ages 2-5 completed the CSHQ, the child behavior checklist (CBCL), and a sleep diary. Internal consistency for the original subscales on the CSHQ ranged from .55 to .82 and factor analysis resulted in four factors that tap into critical aspects of sleep. The concurrent validity of the revised scales of the CSHQ was adequate. Overall the results from this study suggest a revised factor structure may be more appropriate for use with preschool and toddler age children.

  20. Attitudes of typically developing children's parents toward inclusive education of visually impaired preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković Marija; Vučinić Vesna; Jablan Branka; Eškirović Branka

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of pilot research on attitudes of parents who have typically developing children toward integrating children with visual impairments into regular preschool education system. The research is the result of a study on the advantages of adapted questionnaire which assesses attitudes of typically developing children's parents on inclusion of children with visual impairments. The sample consists of 34 parents who have typically developing children. We analyzed their ...

  1. Nutritional status of preschool children in Novi Sad

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    Stupar Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status of preschool children (preparatory group - before starting school, aged 6 to 7 years. The survey was conducted in four kindergartens preschool 'Happy Childhood' in Novi Sad, in a sample of 209 children (116 boys and 92 girls. Anthropometric measurements were carried out in October 2012. Based on the results calculated BMI (body mass index (weight (kg / body height2 (m2 and determined the degree of nutritional status of each child. Parameter values of BMI were adjusted by age and gender. Survey results show that 116 boys, 72.41% has an normal weight, under nutrition were 5.17%, while moderate nutritional abnormalities observed at 13.79%, obesity was found in 8.62% boys. The girls have similar results, namely obesity was 9.78%, prone to obesity 7.61%, the optimal weight of 75% and under nutrition 7.61% girls.

  2. Preschool children's mathematical knowledge: The effect of teacher "math talk.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibanoff, Raquel S; Levine, Susan C; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Hedges, Larry V

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the amount of mathematical input in the speech of preschool or day-care teachers and the growth of children's conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year. Three main findings emerged. First, there were marked individual differences in children's conventional mathematical knowledge by 4 years of age that were associated with socioeconomic status. Second, there were dramatic differences in the amount of math-related talk teachers provided. Third, and most important, the amount of teachers' math-related talk was significantly related to the growth of preschoolers' conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year but was unrelated to their math knowledge at the start of the school year.

  3. Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, P L P; Baraldi, E; Bisgaard, H

    2008-01-01

    preschool child with recurrent wheeze, but should be discontinued if there is no clear clinical benefit. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials with clear descriptions of patients are needed to improve the present recommendations on the treatment of these common syndromes.......There is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children who wheeze...... is recommended for the treatment of episodic (viral) wheeze and can be started when symptoms of a viral cold develop. Given the large overlap in phenotypes, and the fact that patients can move from one phenotype to another, inhaled corticosteroids and montelukast may be considered on a trial basis in almost any...

  4. What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Louise A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are

  5. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... bone mass and bone density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Background data and information regarding TV viewing and computer use was obtained from parent completed questionnaires. Physical activity during waking hours was filtered from body movements during nocturnal sleep...

  6. Assessing volume of accelerometry data for reliability in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; O'Connell, Eoin; Okely, Anthony D; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2012-12-01

    This study examines what volume of accelerometry data (h·d) is required to reliably estimate preschool children's physical activity and whether it is necessary to include weekday and weekend data. Accelerometry data from 493 to 799 (depending on wear time) preschool children from the Melbourne-based Healthy Active Preschool Years study were used. The percentage of wear time each child spent in total (light-vigorous) physical activity was the main outcome. Hourly increments of daily data were analyzed. t-tests, controlling for age and clustering by center of recruitment, assessed the differences between weekday and weekend physical activity. Intraclass correlation coefficients estimated reliability for an individual day. Spearman-Brown prophecy formula estimated the number of days required to reach reliability estimates of 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9. The children spent a significantly greater percentage of time being physically active on weekend compared with weekdays regardless of the minimum number of hours included (t = 12.49-16.76, P 8 d of data were required to reach a reliability estimate of 0.7 with 10 or more hours of data per day; 3.3-3.4 d were required to meet the same reliability estimate for days with 7 h of data. Future studies should ensure they include the minimum amount of data (hours per day and number of days) as identified in this study to meet at least a 0.7 reliability level and should report the level of reliability for their study. In addition to weekdays, at least one weekend day should be included in analyses to reliably estimate physical activity levels for preschool children.

  7. Relationship of maternal parenting behaviors to preschool children's temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F

    1981-01-01

    Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.

  8. Low intensity phonological awareness training in a preschool classroom for children with communication impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Sandra P; Espeland, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a term that refers to one's knowledge of the sound structure of spoken language. Children who understand that sounds in language represent the letters used in reading and writing typically learn to read more easily than children who do not. Children with language and/or speech impairments often demonstrate a lack of phonological awareness. Thus, it is important to identify problems in phonological awareness and to implement intervention programs early. The purpose of this study was to determine if a low intensity, classroom phonological awareness program improved phonological awareness skills for preschool children with language and/or speech impairments. Results suggested that children made significant gains in phonological awareness after participating in the intervention. As a result of this activity, the reader will be able to: (1) identify components of phonological awareness program; (2) evaluate effectiveness of phonological awareness intervention.

  9. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  10. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Navarro, José Blas; Penelo, Eva; Domènech, Josep M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB), which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments. A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM) estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5. The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high) or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers). Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way. Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  11. Sideropenic anemia in preschool children and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dušica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sideropenic anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. The children are at higher risk of iron deficiency than adults due to their rapid growth during infancy and relatively higher requirements of iron. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence of sideropenic anemia in pre-school children and relevant risk factors. METHOD: Study on sideropenic anemia of preschool children was performed in Zaječar Municipality in 2003. Subjects: all children, age 6-7 years, who lived in the Zaječar Municipality (554 children. The investigation included: interview of children's parents and laboratory analysis of blood. RESULTS: The frequency of sideropenic anemia was 5.23% in tested children (hemoglobin level less than 11g/dl. Sex and place of residence had no significant impact on hemoglobin concentration in blood of children. Likewise, social status and education of parents had no significant impact on iron deficiency anemia. Higher incidence of infections was found in children with lower hemoglobin concentration in blood (p<0.05. It made no difference if children attended the kindergarten or not. Nutrition of children in kindergarten does not correct domestic nutrition, which should be one of its basic roles. CONCLUSION: Since sideropenic anemia gives rise to serious health problems, such as poor cognitive and motor development and behavioral problems, it is important to take corrective measures regarding domestic and social nutrition of children. Therefore, it is necessary to take action in preventing the sideropenic anemia and provide normal growth and development.

  12. Parental education and physical activity in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, S; Ricardo, N; Soares-Miranda, L; Santos, R; Moreira, C; Mota, J

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively assess pre-school children's total physical activity (TPA) patterns and compliance with guidelines and to examine differences relative to parental education. The sample consisted on 509 healthy pre-school children, aged 3-6 years recruited from kindergartens located in the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal. The PA was assessed for 7 consecutive days by accelerometry. For TPA, we followed the guidelines of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (children who spent at least >120  min per day in active play). For TPA, we calculated the proportion of children who spent at least >120  min per day in active play and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), we calculated the proportion of children who spent at least >60  min per day in active play. Parental education was analysed according to the Portuguese education system. Children with parents in the highest education level were less active than children from low and middle education level (P ≤ 0.001) in all patterns of PA (week and weekend). Regarding TPA during the week we found that the majority of children from low and middle parental education meet the NASPE guidelines. On the other hand, more than half the children from high parental education did not meet these recommendations (P ≤ 0.001) and MVPA recommendations (P ≤ 0.05). In both recommendations, children from low parental education were twice more likely to meet the recommendations compared with children belonging to high parental education. Parent education was negatively associated with children's daily physical activity patterns and compliance with guidelines. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. "Snacks are not food". Low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J O; Wright, G; Herman, A N; Malhotra, K; Serrano, E L; Foster, G D; Whitaker, R C

    2015-01-01

    Snacking has become more frequent among US preschool-aged children in recent decades and represents a significant proportion of daily energy intake. Social influences on snacking among children, however, are not well understood. This qualitative research described low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children using data from 7 focus groups with 32 participants. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method to identify themes. Mothers described snacks as involving less preparation, balance, and sustenance than meals (Theme 1). Mothers also made reference to some snacks as not being "real food" (Theme 2). At the same time, snacks had significant hedonic value as reflected in mothers' enjoyment of those foods (Theme 3), the effectiveness of snacks to manage children's behavior (Theme 4), and the variety of restrictions that mothers placed on children's access to snacks, such as locking cabinets, offering small servings, and reducing the number of snacks in sight (Theme 5). Two overarching themes highlighted distinctions mothers made in feeding children snacks vs. meals as well as the powerful hedonic appeal of snacks for both mother and child. These observations suggest that low-income, urban mothers of preschool-aged children may perceive snacks as serving a more important role in managing children's behavior than in providing nutrition. Child feeding interventions should address non-food related ways of managing children's behavior as well as encouraging caregivers to see snacks as structured opportunities for nutrition and connecting with their children.

  14. Efficacy of Family Anxiety Management Training with Mothers of Anxious Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Bassak-Nejad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of family management training in reducing anxiety difficulties in preschool children (4 to 6 years old in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: The present research is a pilot study with pre-test/post-test control group design. A total of 50 mothers whose children scored 1.0 standard deviation above the mean on Spence’s children anxiety scale (parent report form were randomly chosen and then divided into experimental and control groups. According to the treatment plan, the participants underwent ten 120-minute sessions of family anxiety management training. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance demonstrates that experimental intervention is efficient in reduction of children anxiety (p=0.03. Following up the experimental group for a course of one month show that intervention impact can last over the time. Conclusion: The results indicate that family anxiety management training has been effective in reduction of anxiety disorders in anxious children (4 to 6 years old, studying at kindergartens within Ahvaz. Therefore, it can be useful strategy as an educational and preventive program in pre-school and school children.

  15. Enhancing early literacy skills for preschool children: bringing a professional development model to scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul R; Smith, Karen E; Assel, Michael A; Gunnewig, Susan B

    2006-01-01

    A quasi-experimental, statewide intervention targeting preschool teachers' enhancement of children's language and early literacy was evaluated. Across 2 years and 20 Head Start sites, 750 teachers participated (500 target, 250 control), with 370 classrooms randomly selected to conduct pre- and posttest assessments (10 randomly selected children per class). The inability to randomize children to classrooms was addressed by examining children's performance for teachers who were control teachers in Year 1 and target teachers in Year 2. We also compared teachers with 2 years of training with teachers with 1 year of training and with control teachers. Greater gains were found for children in target classrooms than for those in control classrooms for all skills, but particularly for language skills, in Year 2, and this varied by program site. The presence of a research-based early literacy curriculum, higher levels of teacher education, and full-day versus half-day programs were significant moderators of intervention effectiveness. The challenges of implementing a statewide initiative across programs that varied in their readiness to implement a cognitively rich experience for preschool children are discussed.

  16. Features of physical development of preschool children

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    Zavgorodnyaya R.V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphofunctional features of organism of children of primary school age are considered in intercommunication with their somatotype. The inspected contingent was made by 90 practically healthy children in age from 6 to 9 years. The anthropometric signs of children were characterized an increase gravimetric type-high indexes with predominance of asthenic somatotype and increase of normosthenic and hypersthenic to the end of the studied period. Complex anthropometric research of indexes of children allowed to estimate their physical development.

  17. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.

    1986-03-29

    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  18. Societal Burden and Correlates of Acute Gastroenteritis in Families with Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lapo Mughini-Gras; Roan Pijnacker; Moniek Heusinkveld; Remko Enserink; Rody Zuidema; Erwin Duizer; Titia Kortbeek; Wilfrid van Pelt

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infection morbidity remains high amongst preschool children in developed countries. We investigated the societal burden (incidence, healthcare utilization, and productivity loss) and correlates of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in families with preschoolers. Monthly for 25 months, 2000 families reported AGE symptoms and related care, productivity loss, and risk exposures for one preschooler and one parent. Amongst 8768 child-parent pairs enrolled, 7.3% parents and 17.4% children...

  19. INFLUENCE OF PROGRAMMED EXERCISE ON THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Stanojević

    2016-01-01

    The research was conducted on a sample of 36 examinees consisting of male children of preschool institutions in Niš, aged five and six ± 6 months. The main objective of the research was to determine the adaptive processes influenced by programmed exercise on the development of motor skills of preschool children. The aim was to provide the conditions for the establishment of rational procedures for optimal planning, programming and control of the motor exercise of preschool child...

  20. Enterobiasis among preschool children: a study from Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muge, Oguzkaya Artan; Baykan, Zeynep; Artan, Cem

    2008-11-01

    The infection rate of Enterobius vermicularis was investigated in 1,070 preschool children aged 5-7 years in Kayseri, Turkey by cellotape anal swab from May-September 2005. The children's parents were asked to complete questionnaires inquiring into the potential risk factors involved. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 5.1%. The infection rate among boys and girls was similar. The association between family size, household income/month, education level of the parents, employment status of the mother and enterobiasis were found to be significant.

  1. Iranian refugee children in Sweden: effects of organized violence and forced migration on preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, K; Brandell-Forsberg, M

    1995-04-01

    Using play techniques, individual assessments were made of 50 preschool children from 47 Iranian refugee families living in Sweden, while their parents were interviewed about the children's exposure to violence and separation. Reenacting play involving war and persecution was performed by 19 of the children, most of them eyewitnesses to violence. The study demonstrated ways of obtaining information directly from young children to supplement parental reports.

  2. Early versus Late Entry to Preschool: Some Developmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between cognitive, motor, social and personality development of 3-year-old children and the age of their entry into preschool, which ranged from 10 to 45 months. 247 children from 17 preschools in different regions of Slovenia, all implementing the same National Curriculum, participated. Preschool teachers…

  3. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  4. An Evaluation of Social Adaptation Skills of Children with and without Preschool Education Background Based on Their Mothers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunindi, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to discover if preschool teaching affects children's development of social skills and behaviours. Mothers of 50 children from middle socio-economic class families attending preschools and mothers of 50 children from the same socio-economic class families not attending preschools were included in the study. "Social…

  5. Learning Resource Units for Young Children: A Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Karen S., Comp.

    These learning resource units are based on the philosophy and goals for early childhood education which have been established for the school district of Pittsburgh. They are intended to assist teachers in planning for preschool children's educational experience. Activities in the learning resource units should be selected in response to children's…

  6. Beverage intake among preschool children and its effect on weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Yang, Su-Jau; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2006-10-01

    The obesity epidemic in the United States continues to increase. Because obesity tends to track over time, the increase in overweight among young children is of significant concern. A number of eating patterns have been associated with overweight among preschool-aged children. Recently, 100% fruit juice and sweetened fruit drinks have received considerable attention as potential sources of high-energy beverages that could be related to the prevalence of obesity among young children. Our aim was to evaluate the beverage intake among preschool children who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and investigate associations between types and amounts of beverages consumed and weight status in preschool-aged children. We performed a secondary analysis of the data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002, which is a continuous, cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of the United States. It included the collection of parent reported demographic descriptors, a 24-hour dietary recall, a measure of physical activity, and a standardized physical examination. The 24-hour dietary recall was obtained in person by a trained interviewer and reflected the foods and beverages that were consumed by the participant the previous day. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey food groups were classified on the basis of the US Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies. We reviewed the main food descriptors used and classified all beverages listed. One hundred percent fruit juice was classified as only beverages that contained 100% fruit juice, without sweetener. Fruit drinks included any sweetened fruit juice, fruit-flavored drink (natural or artificial), or drink that contained fruit juice in part. Milk included any type of cow milk and then was subcategorized by percentage of milk fat. Any sweetened soft drink

  7. Reliability and validity of the test of gross motor development-II in Korean preschool children: applying AHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Il; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Il-Hyeok

    2014-04-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development-II (TGMD-II) is a frequently used assessment tool for measuring motor ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of TGMD-II's weighting scores (by comparing pre-weighted TGMD-II scores with post ones) as well as examine applicability of the TGMD-II on Korean preschool children. A total of 121 Korean children (three kindergartens) participated in this study. There were 65 preschoolers who were 5-years-old (37 boys and 28 girls) and 56 preschoolers who were 6-years-old (34 boys and 22 girls). For internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity, only one researcher evaluated all of the children using the TGMD-II in the following areas: running; galloping; sliding; hopping; leaping; horizontal jumping; overhand throwing; underhand rolling; striking a stationary ball; stationary dribbling; kicking; and catching. For concurrent validity, the evaluator measured physical fitness (strength, flexibility, power, agility, endurance, and balance). The key findings were as follows: first, the reliability coefficient and the validity coefficient between pre-weighted and post-weighted TGMD-II scores were quite similar. Second, the research showed adequate reliability and validity of the TGMD-II for Korean preschool children. The TGMD-II is a proper instrument to test Korean children's motor development. Yet, applying relative weighting on the TGMD-II should be a point of consideration.

  8. A Report of Survey on Conditions of Preschool Children's Family Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yujuan

    2011-01-01

    The author composes a questionnaire about conditions of preschool children's family music education. The survey includes 280 preschool children in a city of Shandong province. It finds that most parents have recognized the importance of early childhood music education, but there is the tendency of utilitarian. The content of family music education…

  9. Making Differences and Reflecting on Diversities: Embodied Nationality among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on embodied practices in processes of nationalization among preschool children at the age of 6. It analyses how children define themselves and others, how they characterize and frame Finnishness through embodiment. The analysis is based on an ethnographic study in two preschool classes. It is argued that nationality works in a…

  10. Promoting Oral Language Skills in Preschool Children through Sociodramatic Play in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, P. L. N. Randima

    2016-01-01

    Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention…

  11. Mass media negative impact on the development and education of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Zarema Shhahytova; Anastasia Sitkova

    2014-01-01

    Globalization and modernization have both positive and negative sides. With the development of information technologies, new problems appear such as mass media influence on person, perception and education of preschool age children. The authors discuss the problem of mass media influence on preschool children education.

  12. Drawing Children into Reading: A Qualitative Case Study of a Preschool Drawing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFauw, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    This article details a qualitative case study of 24 preschool children engaged with step-by-step drawing instruction provided by five educators as they developed their fine motor skills and drew detailed objects using the Drawing Children Into Reading curriculum (Halperin, W. A. (2011a). "Project 50 preschool manual." South Haven, MI:…

  13. Predictors of Care-Giver Stress in Families of Preschool-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, K. M.; Sanders, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined the predictors, mediators and moderators of parent stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disability. Method: One hundred and five mothers of preschool-aged children with developmental disability completed assessment measures addressing the key variables. Results: Analyses demonstrated that…

  14. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  15. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  16. A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

    2012-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…

  17. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  18. Development and Validation of a Musical Behavior Measure for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gina Jisun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure for use in assessing musical behaviors of preschool children in the context of regular music instruction and to determine the validity and the reliability of the measure. The Early Childhood Musical Behavior Measure (ECMBM) was constructed for use with preschool-aged children to measure their…

  19. A Latent Variable Approach to Determining the Structure of Executive Function in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Muller, Ulrich; McInerney, Robert J.; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    The composition of executive function (EF) in preschool children was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A sample of 129 children between 3 and 5 years of age completed a battery of EF tasks. Using performance indicators of working memory and inhibition similar to previous CFA studies with preschoolers, we replicated a unitary EF…

  20. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  1. Children's Meaning-Making of Nature in an Outdoor-Oriented and Democratic Swedish Preschool Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, Susanne; Öhman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the Swedish preschool educational tradition is characterised by outdoor-oriented and democratic approaches. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate what consequences these approaches have for preschool children's meaning-making of nature, when studied in practice, in children's spontaneous outdoor…

  2. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  3. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  4. The Effectiveness of Preschool for Children from Low-Income Families: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Edith

    This report, one of several background papers for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education, examines the effects of preschool experience on Illinois children from low income families. The 1980 U. S. Census for Illinois identified 81,959 preschool-age children (3 to 5 years old) from poverty-level families; 54 of these young…

  5. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  6. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  7. Sustained Attention during Learning Activities: An Observational Study with Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Florente; Menez, Marina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse possible developmental trends in sustained attention through the pre-school period, as well as the influence of social and physical distractions. Three samples of children, one per each pre-school grade, were observed during learning activities required by the teacher. Children's behaviour was coded…

  8. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  9. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  10. A Plan for Itinerant Educational Consultant Services for Preschool Visually Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA.

    A demonstration project was conducted involving itinerant educational consultant services for preschool visually handicapped children with the objective of preventing social and sensory deprivation and of developing personal independence. Channels were established for referral of applicable visually handicapped preschool children to the program.…

  11. Preschool for California's Children: Promising Benefits, Unequal Access. Policy Brief 04-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Margaret; Fuller, Bruce; Rumberger, Russell; Tran, Loan

    2004-01-01

    Parents and policymakers are turning to preschools to better advance the school readiness and broader development of young children. Much remains unknown, including how preschool programs of varying quality affect diverse groups of children. This is particularly important as several California counties embark on ambitious and costly efforts to…

  12. Technology-Enhanced Storytelling Stimulating Parent-Child Interaction and Preschool Children's Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…

  13. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  14. Parent-Reported Eating and Leisure-Time Activity Selection Patterns Related to Energy Balance in Preschool- and School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children's eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design: Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well visit. Setting: Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants: One hundred…

  15. Atherogenic risk factors among preschool children in Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos M Hatzis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the presence of atherogenic factors among preschool children of Crete, Greece. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The study population included 1189 children, aged four to seven years, examined from January to May 2005, in public kindergartens. Biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were performed. Results: Of the boys 27.4% were classified as overweight or obese (obese 10.8%. The respective percentage for girls was 28.5% (obese 9%; 7.4% percent of the boys and 7.9% of the girls had blood pressure above the ninety-fifth percentile. TC of > 200 mg / dl was found in 14.4% and LDL-C of > 130 mg / dl in 13.8% of the children. Children with serum TG of > 100 mg / dl had a significantly higher mean WC and BMI than those with triglyceride levels of ≤ 80 mg / dl (59.7 vs. 55.9 cm and 17.9 vs. 16.6 kg / m 2 ; P < 0.05. Similarly, children with HDL-C < 45 mg / dl had significantly higher WC and BMI than children with HDL-C ≥ 60 mg / dl (57.7 vs. 53.5 cm and 17.1 vs. 16.5 kg / m 2 ; P < 0.05. Obese children had an Odds Ratio of 2.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.05 − 7.85, P = 0.041 for hypertriglyceridemia, as compared to non-obese children. Conclusion: Levels of obesity and especially central obesity were strongly related to other atherogenic risk factors in Cretan preschool children indicating the presence of this major public health problem in early ages.

  16. Conformity to peer pressure in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Haun, D.; Tomasello, M.

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous public judgments right before them. A follow-up study with 18 groups of 4 children between 4;0 and 4;6 years of age revealed that children did not chang...

  17. Changing Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions to Improve Preschool Children's Externalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; DeCoster, Jamie; Hartz, Karyn A; Carter, Lauren M; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Hatfield, Bridget E

    2016-12-19

    A randomized controlled trial was used to examine the impact of an attachment-based, teacher-child, dyadic intervention (Banking Time) to improve children's externalizing behavior. Participants included 183 teachers and 470 preschool children (3-4 years of age). Classrooms were randomly assigned to Banking Time, child time, or business as usual (BAU). Sparse evidence was found for main effects on child behavior. Teachers in Banking Time demonstrated lower negativity and fewer positive interactions with children compared to BAU teachers at post assessment. The impacts of Banking Time and child time on reductions of parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior were greater when teachers evidenced higher-quality, classroom-level, teacher-child interactions at baseline. An opposite moderating effect was found for children's positive engagement with teachers.

  18. Supporting Teachers in Vietnam to Monitor Preschool Children's Wellbeing and Involvement in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Filip; Braeye, Sarah; Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong; Dang, Tuyet Anh; Vromant, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Vietnam is promoting active teaching and learning as a key strategy to enhance children's learning in preschools. This change depends largely on building the capacities of teachers to implement child-centered education in practice and handover the initiative for learning to children. Vietnamese teachers need to be better equipped with pedagogical…

  19. Attitudes of typically developing children's parents toward inclusive education of visually impaired preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of pilot research on attitudes of parents who have typically developing children toward integrating children with visual impairments into regular preschool education system. The research is the result of a study on the advantages of adapted questionnaire which assesses attitudes of typically developing children's parents on inclusion of children with visual impairments. The sample consists of 34 parents who have typically developing children. We analyzed their attitudes toward inclusion of children with visual impairments and the relation of those attitudes with gender and education. The results contribute to better understanding of the position of visually impaired children in the inclusive education system.

  20. Improving Learning Outcomes: The iPad and Preschool Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiliar, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The digital age has reached early childhood, and the use of touch screens by young children is common place. Research on the use of touch screen tablets with young children is becoming more prevalent; however, less information is available on the use of touch screen tablets to support young children with disabilities. Touch screen tablets may offer possibilities to preschool children with disabilities to participate in learning in a digital way. The iPad provides easy interaction on the touch screen and access to a multitude of engaging early learning applications. This paper summarizes a pilot study with 8 young children with disabilities included in a preschool classroom, who were given iPads to use in class and at home for a period of 21 weeks. Systematic observations, classroom assessments, and teacher and parent interviews documented the improvements in learning outcomes for each child in many areas including, but not limited to: shape and color recognition, letter recognition, and tracing letters throughout six research cycles.

  1. Symbolic Representation across Domains in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examined understanding of notational representation among 3- to 5-year-olds. Children solved problems when shown cards with a picture or word indicating identity or a quantity indicator. In the easier condition, children had difficulty solving the problems as a function of their familiarity with the notation, suggesting weaknesses in…

  2. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  3. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  4. Association between obesity and asthma in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Yoshie; Adachi, Yuichi; Itazawa, Toshiko; Yoshida, Koichi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Odajima, Hiroshi; Akasawa, Akira; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Obesity may increase the risk of subsequent asthma. We have previously reported that there is a clear association between obesity and asthma in Japanese school-aged children. To evaluate whether a similar association exists in younger children, a nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was performed focusing on children aged 4-5 yr. A child who had experienced wheezing during the past 12 months and had ever been diagnosed with asthma by a physician was defined as having current asthma. Overweight and underweight were defined as BMI ≥90th percentile and ≤10th percentile, respectively, according to the reference values for Japanese children from 1978 to 1981. After excluding 2547 children because of incomplete data, 34,699 children were analyzed. Current asthma was significantly more prevalent in overweight children compared with underweight and normal weight children (13.2% for overweight vs. 10.5% for underweight and 11.1% for normal weight; both p preschool children, obesity is already associated with asthma, and there was no gender effect on this association. Physicians should consider the impact of obesity when managing asthma in younger children.

  5. Art Appreciation for Developing Communication Skills among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Duh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary process of teaching fine arts, children’s own creative expression and art appreciation are used to encourage learners towards both perception and reception; consequently, the evaluation and internalization of works of art play an equally important role. In a qualitative empirical research study that takes the form of a case study, we studied the response of children to works of art and their demonstrated communication skills in this. The results have shown that children respond to works of art on multiple levels. With non-standardized narrative group interviews, we observed children’s associations. Children perceived and internalized the given artworks and also put their emotions into words. The study has shown that systematic development of art appreciation among pre-school children can have a positive impact on their communication skills.

  6. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  7. The relationship of body weight to altitude in preschool children of Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Elhabeeb M Khalid

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion : The findings of this study indicate that thinness is a major nutritional problem among lowland preschool children. This may be attributed to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions on the health of children at low altitude.

  8. GameBlocks: an entry point to ICT for pre-school children

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a system designed for pre-school children that offers an alternative introduction to the world of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), specifically computer programming. Illiterate children can construct simple...

  9. Investigation of MONE Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006) According to Children Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur Musaoglu, Ebru; Haktanir, Gelengul

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide…

  10. Neurocysticercosis in Preschool Children: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Sequeda Monterroza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of taenia solium. This disease is endemic in developing countries, showing the hig­hest incidence in schoolchildren and adolescent patients of the pediatric population. It shows clinical diversity and pathological findings, generally presenting intraparenchymal forms associated with seizures or extraparenchymal forms related to intracranial hypertension. Clinical and epidemio­logical suspicion of the disease obliges studies of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides the specific serological studies. Case presentation: A clinical case of a preschool girl with neurocysticercosis was registered at the Hospital Infantil Napoleon Franco Pareja (HINFP in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, characterized by a clinical picture which debuts with tonic seizures in extremities, so that a study of ct was requested, that showed encephalitis images compatible with brain cysticercosis. Hospitalization was decided, starting with cesticide, anticonvulsant, and anti-inflammatory management. Conclusion: The imaging findings and clinical course of neu­rocysticercosis in childhood are associated with the disease stage and the host immune response.

  11. Prevention of overweight and obesity in preschool children: an updated review

    OpenAIRE

    Satyanarayana G. Konda; Giri, Purushottam A.; Anjali S. Otiv

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of children are becoming overweight and obese. Overweight and obesity are arbitrarily defined as excess adipose tissue in the body. Although many risk factors for overweight and obesity have been identified for school-age children, less is known for preschool children. Prevention of overweight and obesity in preschool children is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and w...

  12. Theorising Creative Expression in Children's Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Patricia C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that phenomenology, the anthropology of the senses and of embodiment, performance theory and multi-modal pedagogies offer a rich set of theoretical ideas with which to consider children's expressive repertoires as overlooked forms of social participation and critique. Four case studies in relation to children's photography,…

  13. Children's Participation in Foster Care Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Vicky; Wingrove, Twila; Beal, Sarah J.; Faith-Slaker, April

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Empirical research regarding potential risks and benefits of children's participation in the legal system generally, and in the child dependency legal system in particular, is sparse and mostly characterized by small studies without comparison groups. The current study was designed to address the following questions regarding children's…

  14. ECOLOGICAL THERAPY AS CORRECTIONAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ELEMENT OF INTEGRATED APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF LOGONEUROSIS AMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kalashnikova

    2016-01-01

    is stated; most often not only somatic diseases but also logoneurotic attacks are registered among children. According to concluding observations of logopedists, through this program implementation, more than 50% of the preschool children participating in an experiment with the diagnosis of logoneurosis acquired the speech skills meeting language norms.Practical significance. The authors of the program of ecological therapy and staff of preschool educational institutions participating in the experiment, express confidence that the proposed techniques and methods allowing to remove neurotic manifestations among children and improve their psycho-emotional state through active development of sensorimotor skills, will be useful to teachers of educational and social institutions of all types working with children of preschool and younger school age. 

  15. Oral health status in preschool asthmatic children in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ehsani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, which is diagnosed by periodic symptoms of inflammation, bronchial spasm, and increased mucosal secretions. It has higher incidence among the preschool children. There are many contradictory reports based on the effect of asthma on oral health, however it has been hypothesized that asthma could lead to poor oral health. The objective of the present study was to investigate oral health indices in 44 preschool children of three to six years old with mild to moderate asthma and 46 matched healthy children in Tehran Children's Respiratory Center.Dental plaque, gingival inflammation, mouth breathing, and dental caries were evaluated by one trained examiner according to World Health Organization [WHO] criteria. Culture and colony counting of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus species were carried out in saliva specimens of the patients. The effects of different factors on the colony counts were statistically analyzed using linear regression analysis.The level of mother’s education and preexisting asthma disease in children had significant effect  on  the  colony counts  of  streptococcus  species whereas no  factor  was found  to influence the number of lactobacillus counts significantly. The results indicated no significant differences between the children with asthma and those without asthma regarding (decayed, missing, filled, teeth dmft index (mean of 3.34 in asthmatic children and 3.0 in the control group.Therefore, it can be deduced that the presence of asthma disease did not increase the probability of tooth decay.

  16. Impact of Structured Movement Time on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K.; Matsuyama, Abigail L.; Robinson, Leah E.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are not meeting national physical activity recommendations. This study compares preschoolers' physical activity engagement during two different physical activity opportunities: outdoor free play or a structured movement session. Eighty-seven children served as participants: 40 children participated in outdoor free play and…

  17. Impact of Structured Movement Time on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K.; Matsuyama, Abigail L.; Robinson, Leah E.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are not meeting national physical activity recommendations. This study compares preschoolers' physical activity engagement during two different physical activity opportunities: outdoor free play or a structured movement session. Eighty-seven children served as participants: 40 children participated in outdoor free play and…

  18. Vocabulary of preschool children with typical language development and socioeducational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Thaís Cristina da Freiria; Kuroishi, Rita Cristina Sadako; Mandrá, Patrícia Pupin

    2017-03-09

    To investigate the correlation between age, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in children with typical language development. The study sample was composed of 60 preschool children of both genders, aged 3 years to 5 years 11 months, with typical language development divided into three groups: G I (mean age=3 years 6 months), G II (mean age=4 years 4 months) and G III (mean age=5 years 9 months). The ABFW Child Language Test - Vocabulary and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) for emissive and receptive language were applied to the preschoolers. The socioeconomic classification questionnaire of the Brazilian Association of Survey Companies (ABEP) was applied to the preschoolers' parents/legal guardians. Data were analyzed according to the criteria of the aforementioned instruments and were arranged in Excel spreadsheet for Windows XP®. A multiple linear regression model was used, adopting a statistical significance level of 5%, to analyze the correlation between age, SES, and performance on the receptive and emissive vocabulary tests. In the ABEP questionnaire, participants were classified mostly into social level C (63.3%), followed by levels B (26.6%) and D (10%). The preschoolers investigated presented emissive and receptive vocabulary adequate for the age groups. No statistically significant difference was found for the variables age and SES regarding emissive and receptive vocabulary. Higher test scores were observed with increased age and SES, for social levels "B" compared with "D" and for "C" with "D". The variables age and socioeconomic status influenced the performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in the study group.

  19. Is There Any Association between TV Viewing and Obesity in Preschool Children in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ayako; Yorifuji, Takashi; Iwase, Toshihide; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Obesity in children is a serious public health problem, and TV viewing is considered a potential risk factor. Since, however, no relevant association studies have been conducted in Japan, we evaluated the association between TV viewing and obesity using a population-based study conducted in a Japanese town. All 616 preschool children in the town were enrolled in February 2008, and a self-administered questionnaire to collect children's and parents' characteristics was sent to the parents. We dichotomized the time spent TV viewing and evaluated associations by logistic regression using a "less than 2h" category as a reference. The questionnaire was collected from 476 participants (77.3%), of whom 449 were available for the final analyses. Among them, 26.9% of preschool children reported 2 or more hours of TV viewing per day and 8.2% were defined as obese. In logistic regression analyses, there was no positive association in unadjusted (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:0.50-2.49) or adjusted models for exclusively breastfed status, sleep duration, or maternal factors (OR = 1.11, 95% CI:0.50-2.51). We also found no positive association between TV viewing and overweight status, possibly owing to the influence of social environment, low statistical power, or misclassification.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for visual impairment in preschool children the sydney paediatric eye disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Amy Shih-I; Wang, Jie Jin; Samarawickrama, Chameen; Burlutsky, George; Rose, Kathryn A; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-08-01

    To assess the prevalence and associations of visual impairment (VI) in preschool children. Cross-sectional, population-based study. A total of 2461 children (73.8% participation rate), aged 6 to 72 months, were examined in the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study during 2007-2009; of whom 1188, aged 30 to 72 months, with complete visual acuity (VA) data in both eyes, were included in this report. Measurement of VA was attempted on all children using the Electronic Visual Acuity (EVA) system or a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart. Visual impairment was defined as presenting VA 0.05). Visual impairment in at least 1 eye was found in 6.4% of Australian preschool children, with bilateral VI found in 2.7%. Uncorrected refractive errors and amblyopia were the principal ocular conditions associated with VI. Low birthweight was a significant risk factor independent of age, gender, and ethnicity. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is There Any Association between TV Viewing and Obesity in Preschool Children in Japan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki,Ayako

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Obesity in children is a serious public health problem, and TV viewing is considered a potential risk factor. Since, however, no relevant association studies have been conducted in Japan, we evaluated the association between TV viewing and obesity using a population-based study conducted in a Japanese town. All 616 preschool children in the town were enrolled in February 2008, and a self-administered questionnaire to collect children's and parents' characteristics was sent to the parents. We dichotomized the time spent TV viewing and evaluated associations by logistic regression using a "less than 2h" category as a reference. The questionnaire was collected from 476 participants (77.3%, of whom 449 were available for the final analyses. Among them, 26.9% of preschool children reported 2 or more hours of TV viewing per day and 8.2% were defined as obese. In logistic regression analyses, there was no positive association in unadjusted (odds ratio [OR]1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:0.50-2.49 or adjusted models for exclusively breastfed status, sleep duration, or maternal factors (OR1.11, 95% CI:0.50-2.51. We also found no positive association between TV viewing and overweight status, possibly owing to the influence of social environment, low statistical power, or misclassification.

  2. RICKETS IN RURAL KENYAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwibo, N O; Nyawade, S; Neumann, C G

    2013-03-01

    Clinical rickets has not been reported previously in Embu district, Kenya. Baseline clinical assessments performed for a nutrition intervention study in preschool children (n=324) identified 28 cases of rickets (8.6% of study sample). Clinical characteristics included: delays of sitting, walking, and teething; bone and chest deformities; widened wrists and ankles; and bowed lower extremities. Risk factors identified were short duration of breastfeeding with feeding of cereal-based supplements with little or no milk, low calcium intake, limited sunlight exposure. Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies likely contributed to these cases. Treatment with Vitamin D3 and milk resulted in clinical improvement.

  3. Trajectories of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Irritability Symptoms in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Trepat, Esther; Domènech, Josep M

    2016-01-01

    This study traces the developmental course of irritability symptoms in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) from ages 3-5 and examines the psychopathological outcomes of the different trajectories at age 6. A sample of 622 3-year-old preschoolers (311 were boys), followed up until age 6, was assessed yearly with a semi-structured diagnostic interview with parents and at age 6 with questionnaires answered by parents, teachers and children. Growth-Mixture-Modeling yielded five trajectories of irritability levels for the whole sample (high-persistent 3.5%, decreasing 3.8%, increasing 2.6%, low-persistent 44.1% and null 46.0%). Among the children who presented with ODD during preschool age, three trajectories of irritability symptoms resulted (high-persistent 31.9%, decreasing 34.9% and increasing 33.2%). Null, low-persistent and decreasing irritability courses in the sample as a whole gave very similar discriminative capacity for children's psychopathological state at age 6, while the increasing and high-persistent categories involved poorer clinical outcomes than the null course. For ODD children, the high-persistent and increasing trajectories of irritability predicted disruptive behavior disorders, comorbidity, high level of functional impairment, internalizing and externalizing problems and low anger control at age 6. Irritability identifies a subset of ODD children at high risk of poorer longitudinal psychopathological and functional outcomes. It might be clinically relevant to identify this subset of ODD children with a high number of irritability symptoms throughout development with a view to preventing comorbid and future adverse longitudinal outcomes.

  4. Fast Mapping by Bilingual Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies show that young monolingual children's ability to "fast map" new word forms is closely associated with both their age and existing vocabulary knowledge. In this study we investigate potential relationships between age, fast mapping skills and existing vocabulary knowledge in both languages of developing bilingual preschool…

  5. Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

  6. Preschool-aged children's jumps: imitation performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Ramanantsoa, Marie-Martine; Golomer, Eveline

    2010-04-01

    Imitative behavior underlaid by perception and action links during children's development in complex locomotor skills has been the object of relatively few studies. In order to explore children's motor coordination modes, 130 children divided into five age groups from 3.5 to 7.5 years were instructed to imitate jumping tasks in spontaneous motor situation and in various imitative contexts by an adult providing verbal orders and gestural demonstrations. Their conformity to the model, stability and variability scores were coded from a video analysis when they performed jumps with obstacles. To evaluate their postural-motor control level, the durations of the preparatory phase and jumping flights were also timed. Results showed that all age groups generated the demonstrator's goal but not necessarily the same coordination modes of jumping. In imitation with temporal proximity, the model helped the youngest age groups to adopt his coordination modes and stabilized only the oldest age groups' performances starting from 5.5 years old, without effect on learning imitation. Differences between the youngest and oldest children in the jump duration suggested that the reproduction of a complex motor activity such as jumping with a one foot take-off would require resolution and adjustment of main postural stability.

  7. Religious feelings in pre-school children in their own and their mothers’ perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatala Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the expression of religious feelings in pre-school children and the perception of these feelings by the children’s’ mothers. Ninety Polish children from Catholic families aged 4, 5 and 6 participated in the study. A picture method along with interviews with children’s mothers were employed to gather the data. Data from the two sources was compared, taking into consideration the content and ways of expression of the described feelings. Relations between positive and negative feelings were investigated and further statistical analyses were focused mainly on negative feelings. It was found that structure of negative religious feelings obtained directly from the children bears significant similarity to the mothers’ perception.

  8. The development of communicative competence of preschool children in the multicultural space of kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the problem of communicative competence development of preschool children in conditions of multicultural educational organization is presented in article. The characteristic of competence-based approach in preschool education is given. The relevance of formation of key competencies at preschool age is shown. The role of multicultural space of kindergarten for formation the modern child identity, disclosure of his individual world, accumulation of experience of communication an...

  9. Brief Report: Comparison of Sensory-Motor and Cognitive Function between Autism and Asperger Syndrome in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Kawasaki, Chisato; Tsuchida, Reiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examined differences in sensory-motor, cognitive, and verbal impairment between 10 Japanese preschool children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) 10 children with high functioning autism (HFA) using the Japanese version of the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers. AS children surpassed HFA children in verbal skills but HFA children were better…

  10. Social behavior and sociometric status of pre-school children attending kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The measures of temporal reliability and criterion validity of the Slovenian version of Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale – Preschool Edition (SV-P are presented and discussed in the present contribution. Test-retest reliability indexes of the basic and composite scales were obtained with a sample of 39 children assessed in a two-month interval, while the temporal stability coefficients were obtained with an independent sample of 48 children evaluated after a six-month interval. All of the temporal reliability measures were proven sufficiently high. Sociometric indicators of a child's popularity and peer rejection were chosen as an external criterion to verify the concurrent validity of the SV-P. All of the children attending the same kindergarten groups as the target children (N=54 participated in a sociometric test. It was implemented in a form of combined nomination and paired-comparison technique using a group photo of the children in a kindergarten group. The results of the composite scales of SV-P – Social Competence, Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Genaral Adaptation – were related to the children's sociometric positions within the kindergarten group in the expected directions and to a satisfactory degree. In addition, the results obtained by the sociometric procedure with a sample of 210 children were analysed. They highlight the proportions of kindergarten children classified into different sociometric statuses - popular, neglected, rejected, controversial and average – and suggest that during the early childhood the children clearly prefer their same-sex peers.

  11. The Relationship Between Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Behavior Problems and Weight Status in Preschool Age Children in Head Start Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas, Mayra A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is a growing public health concern disproportionally affecting children and their families. Researchers have reported that of 85-90% of children who have witnessed IPV that occurs in the home, 47% of those are under the age of six (Graham-Bermann & Perkins, (2010. Surprisingly, few studies have explored the effects of IPV in preschool-age children. This study examined the relationship between maternal reports of exposure to IPV and preschool-age children’s behavior and physical health, particularly obesity. Participants consisted of 100, predominantly African American (92% primary care givers of children enrolled in Head Start programs in the city of Detroit. The purpose of this study is to: (1 describe the level of potential IPV in the homes of primary caregivers with a child in Head Start, and (2 to examine the relationship between IPV and preschool-age children’s behavioral problems and obesity, so that programs may be developed to better serve preschool-age IPV survivors and their families. There are two hypotheses for this study: (1 Primary caregivers who report incidents of IPV will also report more internalizing and externalizing behaviorial problems in their preschool-age children, and (2 primary caregivers who report incidents of IPV will have children with higher BMIs compared to children whose mothers did not report incidents of IPV.

  12. The snacking habits of white preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, B; Langenhoven, M L; Swanepoel, A S; Steyn, M

    1990-10-20

    Three-day estimated dietary records were kept for 194 white 3- and 4-year-old children to determine and evaluate the extent, nature and quality of their snacking. All but 1 child ate between meals, with morning and afternoon snacking being favoured in terms of frequency and quantity. Soft drinks were consumed most frequently, followed by fresh fruits and fruit juices, sweets and chocolates, milk and sugar. Between-meal eating contributed more than one-third of the average day's energy and approximately one-quarter of most vitamins and minerals to the children's diets. Foods eaten between meals were, however, significantly less nutrient-dense than mealtime foods. Non-basic foods supplied more energy to the diet than any of the five basic food groups, but minimal quantities of micronutrients. Sugar consumption, mostly in the form of sugary foods and drinks, was high, but was not consumed exclusively between meals. Such children should be encouraged to make more use of basic commodities, particularly when snacking.

  13. Examination of the Relationship between the Preschool Teachers' Attitudes towards Mathematics and the Mathematical Development in 6-Year-Old Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether there is a relationship between the preschool teachers' attitudes towards mathematics and mathematical development in 6-year-old preschool children. The sampling of the study was consisted of 30 teachers working with 6 years old children and their 120 students in public kindergartens and independent…

  14. How Parents Perceive and Feel about Participation in Community Activities: The Comparison between Parents of Preschoolers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-Fong; Wong, Bernard P.H.; Leung, Doris; Ho, Daphne; Au-Yeung, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared how parents of preschoolers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) perceived and felt about participation in community activities. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 380 Hong Kong parents of preschoolers with ASD and 214 Hong Kong parents of preschoolers without ASD. The two groups were not different in…

  15. Executive functions, oral language and writing in preschool children: Development and correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita de Cassia Batista Pazeto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF and oral language (OL are important for learning reading and writing (RW and for the development of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increase of the performances as a result of educational level for all OL and RW measures, but only for attention in the field of EF. Significant correlations were found between the measurements assessing the same cognitive domain, as well as inter-domain, although portraying a different pattern. The results indicate that OL and RW seem to develop rapidly in the course of preschool, while the EF have slower development. The fields of OL and RW, EF and RW are more interdependent, and EF and OL are relatively independent.

  16. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood.

  17. Iron Status Predicts Malaria Risk in Malawian Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Phiri, Kamija; Geskus, Ronald B.; Brabin, Bernard J.; Leenstra, Tjalling

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency is highly prevalent in pre-school children in developing countries and an important health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. A debate exists on the possible protective effect of iron deficiency against malaria and other infections; yet consensus is lacking due to limited data. Recent studies have focused on the risks of iron supplementation but the effect of an individual's iron status on malaria risk remains unclear. Studies of iron status in areas with a high burden of infections often are exposed to bias. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of baseline iron status for malaria risk explicitly taking potential biases into account. Methods and materials We prospectively assessed the relationship between baseline iron deficiency (serum ferritin children during a year of follow-up. Data were analyzed using marginal structural Cox regression models and confounders were selected using causal graph theory. Sensitivity of results to bias resulting from misclassification of iron status by concurrent inflammation and to bias from unmeasured confounding were assessed using modern causal inference methods. Results and Conclusions The overall incidence of malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria was 1.9 (95% CI 1.8–2.0) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.6–0.8) events per person-year, respectively. Children with iron deficiency at baseline had a lower incidence of malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria during a year of follow-up; adjusted hazard ratio's 0.55 (95%-CI:0.41–0.74) and 0.49 (95%-CI:0.33–0.73), respectively. Our results suggest that iron deficiency protects against malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria in young children. Therefore the clinical importance of treating iron deficiency in a pre-school child should be weighed carefully against potential harms. In malaria endemic areas treatment of iron deficiency in children requires sustained prevention of malaria. PMID:22916146

  18. Parenting Styles and Children's Social Skills as Perceived by Jordanian Mothers of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles in a sample of Jordanian mothers and their perceptions of the social skills exhibited by their preschool children. The sample consisted of 802 ("N"=802) mothers who responded to a three-part questionnaire: demographic information, parenting styles, and social skills. The results of this…

  19. Parenting Styles and Children's Social Skills as Perceived by Jordanian Mothers of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles in a sample of Jordanian mothers and their perceptions of the social skills exhibited by their preschool children. The sample consisted of 802 ("N"=802) mothers who responded to a three-part questionnaire: demographic information, parenting styles, and social skills. The results of this…

  20. Bystanders' Roles and Children with Special Educational Needs in Bullying Situations among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence that the origins of bullying lie in early childhood, very little is known about the nature of the phenomenon in preschool groups. The current understanding among studies conducted in the school environment is that bullying prevention can only be effective if training with individual children takes place…

  1. Bystanders' Roles and Children with Special Educational Needs in Bullying Situations among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence that the origins of bullying lie in early childhood, very little is known about the nature of the phenomenon in preschool groups. The current understanding among studies conducted in the school environment is that bullying prevention can only be effective if training with individual children takes place…

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Haris MEMISEVIC; Selmir HADZIC

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...

  3. Co-Occurrence of ODD and CD in Preschool Children With Symptoms of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Svensson, Elisabeth; Aase, Heidi;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patterns of co-occurrence between ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD) were examined in a sample of non-referred preschool children. ADHD subtypes and sex differences were also explored. METHOD: Children aged 3.5 years (n = 1,048) with high scores on ADHD...... were minor. CONCLUSION: There are important differences in co-occurring patterns of ODD and CD in preschool children with ADHD....

  4. Parenting, corpus callosum, and executive function in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Lucassen, Nicole; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Roza, Sabine J; Govaert, Paul; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 544), we investigated whether early parenting and corpus callosum length predict child executive function abilities at 4 years of age. The length of the corpus callosum in infancy was measured using postnatal cranial ultrasounds at 6 weeks of age. At 3 years, two aspects of parenting were observed: maternal sensitivity during a teaching task and maternal discipline style during a discipline task. Parents rated executive function problems at 4 years of age in five domains of inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and planning/organizing, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Maternal sensitivity predicted less executive function problems at preschool age. A significant interaction was found between corpus callosum length in infancy and maternal use of positive discipline to determine child inhibition problems: The association between a relatively shorter corpus callosum in infancy and child inhibition problems was reduced in children who experienced more positive discipline. Our results point to the buffering potential of positive parenting for children with biological vulnerability.

  5. Aberrant behavior and cognitive ability in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Gustav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.

  6. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  7. Montessori-Based Activities as a Trans-Generational Interface for Persons with Dementia and Preschool Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J.; Lee, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Montessori-based activities for persons with dementia have been used to successfully provide opportunities for programming between older adults and preschool children in shared site. intergenerational care programs. Such intergenerational programming allows older adults with dementia to fulfill roles of teacher or mentor to younger children or as collaborative workmates for persons with more advanced dementia while providing children with positive one-on-one interactions with older adults. We review several studies using this approach, describe characteristics of the programs, participants and results obtained and provide recommendations for those interested in extending this line of work. PMID:22423215

  8. Montessori-Based Activities as a Trans-Generational Interface for Persons with Dementia and Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J; Lee, Michelle M

    2011-12-12

    Montessori-based activities for persons with dementia have been used to successfully provide opportunities for programming between older adults and preschool children in shared site. intergenerational care programs. Such intergenerational programming allows older adults with dementia to fulfill roles of teacher or mentor to younger children or as collaborative workmates for persons with more advanced dementia while providing children with positive one-on-one interactions with older adults. We review several studies using this approach, describe characteristics of the programs, participants and results obtained and provide recommendations for those interested in extending this line of work.

  9. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

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    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  10. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

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    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  11. Iron status predicts malaria risk in Malawian preschool children.

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    Femkje A M Jonker

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Iron deficiency is highly prevalent in pre-school children in developing countries and an important health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. A debate exists on the possible protective effect of iron deficiency against malaria and other infections; yet consensus is lacking due to limited data. Recent studies have focused on the risks of iron supplementation but the effect of an individual's iron status on malaria risk remains unclear. Studies of iron status in areas with a high burden of infections often are exposed to bias. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of baseline iron status for malaria risk explicitly taking potential biases into account. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We prospectively assessed the relationship between baseline iron deficiency (serum ferritin <30 µg/L and malaria risk in a cohort of 727 Malawian preschool children during a year of follow-up. Data were analyzed using marginal structural Cox regression models and confounders were selected using causal graph theory. Sensitivity of results to bias resulting from misclassification of iron status by concurrent inflammation and to bias from unmeasured confounding were assessed using modern causal inference methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria was 1.9 (95% CI 1.8-2.0 and 0.7 (95% CI 0.6-0.8 events per person-year, respectively. Children with iron deficiency at baseline had a lower incidence of malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria during a year of follow-up; adjusted hazard ratio's 0.55 (95%-CI:0.41-0.74 and 0.49 (95%-CI:0.33-0.73, respectively. Our results suggest that iron deficiency protects against malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria in young children. Therefore the clinical importance of treating iron deficiency in a pre-school child should be weighed carefully against potential harms. In malaria endemic areas treatment of iron deficiency in children requires sustained

  12. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

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    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  13. Aberrant behavior of preschool children: Evaluation of questionnaire

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    Fajgelj Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study metric characteristics of children aberrant behavior questionnaire were analyzed. The analysis was performed on the sample of 1.165 children, aged 4-7, in preschool institutions in several towns of Vojvodina. The questionnaire contained 36 items of the Likert-type scale and was filled in by one parent of each child. The authors examined main metric characteristics of the complete questionnaire, as well as individual items under the Rasche’s measurement model. Generally, parents seldom notice aberrant behavior in their children. Most frequently they notice stubbornness, while very rarely torturing of animals. The item discrimination, on the whole, was found satisfying. The reliability of the questionnaire is 0.84., and all indicators of misfit are within satisfactory ranges. According to differential functioning of the items, the authors found gender and age specificities of parents’ evaluation of aberrant behavior of their children. Parents often notice stubbornness and moldiness in girls, and aggression in boys. According to the parent’s observations, younger children are characterized by nail nibbling, ticklishness, and fearfulness, whereas older children show a tendency to force their way by crying, waywardness and bed-wetting. By means of factor analysis of the items, three principal facets of aberrant behavior were determined: overindulgence, shyness and quarrelsomeness. Cross validation (hold out showed that these three facets were robust in relation to the selection of the sample.

  14. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

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    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  15. Teaching Play Skills to Visually Impaired Preschool Children: Its Effect on Social Interaction

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    Ozaydin, Latife

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects that teaching visually impaired (VI) preschool children play skills has on their abilities to initialize and respond to social interactions with their typically developing (TD) peers in a reverse mainstreaming preschool class. The subjects of the study were three female VI students regularly attending…

  16. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  17. Wordless Book-Sharing Styles in Bilingual Preschool Classrooms and Latino Children's Emergent Literacy Skills

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    Schick, Adina

    2015-01-01

    The current study explored the preschool classroom environment as an important context for supporting dual-language learning Latino children's development of emergent literacy skills. The results of the study showed that teachers in Spanish-English bilingual preschool classrooms varied in the way they shared wordless picture books with the…

  18. A Study on Preschool Children's Name Writing and Writing Readiness Skills

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    Çetin, Özlem Simsek

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the name writing and writing readiness levels of preschoolers in terms of various variables and to identify the relationship between children's name writing skill and writing readiness levels. To that end, name-writing and writing-readiness skills of 204 preschoolers at the ages of 3, 4 and 5 were examined…

  19. The Preschool Attainment Record: A Concurrent Validity Study with Cerebral Palsied Children

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    Krasner, Paul R.; Silverstein, Leonard

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-seven multiply handicapped cerebral palsied preschool children were administered the Preschool Attainment Record, The Vineland Maturity Scale, and the Gesell Developmental Schedules in order to assess concurrent validity on the first measure. Significant correlations were obtained among the three measures. (Author/JKS)

  20. The Longitudinal Interplay of Psychopathology and Social Competence during Chinese Children's Transition to Preschool

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    Zhang, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal relations between psychopathology and social competence in a sample of 115 Chinese children during the transition to preschool initiated in their third year of life. Social competence was assessed by maternal reports at three months after preschool entry (T1) and at the end of the first (T2) and second…

  1. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

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    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  2. Vestibular Dysfunction in Preschool Children with a History of Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Jennifer; Mayberry, Wanda

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-five preschoolers, assigned to otitis media (OM) or no OM groups, were administered the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test and the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP). Children with a history of OM had significantly decreased scores on the Stepping and Vertical Writing MAP tests, indicating vestibulospinal dysfunction. (SK)

  3. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  4. The Effect of Stuttering Measurement Training on Judging Stuttering Occurrence in Preschool Children Who Stutter

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    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a standardized training program to improve preschool teachers' ability to identify occurrences of stuttering accurately and reliably in preschool children who stutter (CWS). Method: An Icelandic version of the Stuttering Measurement Assessment and Training (SMAAT) program [Ingham, R. J., Cordes, A. K., Kilgo,…

  5. "Then What Happened?" Studying Emergent Literacy in the Narrative Play of Preschool Children

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    Heppner, Denise H.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research was on examining a play-based, child-centered instructional technique known as story telling/story acting (ST/SA) within a Canadian preschool setting. The goal was to examine the changes that occurred in the narrative features of preschool children's stories, and to investigate whether ST/SA fostered emerging literacy…

  6. Language and Literacy Effects of Curriculum Interventions for Preschools Serving Economically Disadvantaged Children: A Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to review studies that report language and literacy outcomes associated with preschool curriculum-based interventions. Results from studies reporting on interventions targeting preschool children from low-income families were included regardless of the specific type of program. Although the majority of preschool…

  7. A Study on Preschool Children's Name Writing and Writing Readiness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Özlem Simsek

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the name writing and writing readiness levels of preschoolers in terms of various variables and to identify the relationship between children's name writing skill and writing readiness levels. To that end, name-writing and writing-readiness skills of 204 preschoolers at the ages of 3, 4 and 5 were examined…

  8. Usefulness of a Clinician Rating Scale in Identifying Preschool Children with ADHD

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    Gopin, Chaya; Healey, Dione; Castelli, Katia; Marks, David; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children (BRIC), a novel clinician inventory for preschoolers. Method: Completion of the BRIC for 214 preschoolers follows 2 evaluation sessions, generally separated by less than 2 weeks. Items are submitted to a Principal Components…

  9. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  10. "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD" as an Innovative Approach to Training and Education of Children at Preschool Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Larisa; Shkolyar, Luidmila; Savenkova, Luibov

    2016-01-01

    The authors reveal an innovative approach to training and education of preschool children. This approach is called "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD". It is based on the idea that the development of the preschool child's personality should be joyous and free "cultural self-creation" in terms of the collective co-creation, where adults and…

  11. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

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    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  12. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children.

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    Pfeiffer, Martin; Kotz, Rainer; Ledl, Thomas; Hauser, Gertrude; Sluga, Maria

    2006-08-01

    Our aim with this study was to establish the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 3- to 6-year-old children to evaluate cofactors such as age, weight, and gender and to estimate the number of unnecessary treatments performed. A total of 835 children (411 girls and 424 boys) were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis of flat foot was based on a valgus position of the heel and a poor formation of the arch. Feet of the children were scanned (while they were in a standing position) by using a laser surface scanner, and rearfoot angle was measured. Rearfoot angle was defined as the angle of the upper Achilles tendon and the distal extension of the rearfoot. Prevalence of flexible flat foot in the group of 3- to 6-year-old children was 44%. Prevalence of pathological flat foot was flat foot decreases significantly with age: in the group of 3-year-old children 54% showed a flat foot, whereas in the group of 6-year-old children only 24% had a flat foot. Average rearfoot angle was 5.5 degrees of valgus. Boys had a significant greater tendency for flat foot than girls: the prevalence of flat foot in boys was 52% and 36% in girls. Thirteen percent of the children were overweight or obese. Significant differences in prevalence of flat foot between overweight, obese, and normal-weight children were observed. This study is the first to use a three-dimensional laser surface scanner to measure the rearfoot valgus in preschool-aged children. The data demonstrate that the prevalence of flat foot is influenced by 3 factors: age, gender, and weight. In overweight children and in boys, a highly significant prevalence of flat foot was observed; in addition, a retarded development of the medial arch in the boys was discovered. At the time of the study, > 90% of the treatments were unnecessary.

  13. Making children laugh: parent-child dyadic synchrony and preschool attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Jean-FrançOis; Yurkowski, Kim; Schmiedel, Sabrina; Martin, Jodi; Moss, Ellen; Pallanca, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether dyadic synchrony of father-child and mother-child interactions in a playful context were associated with attachment organization in preschool children. One hundred seven children (48 boys, Mage = 46.67 months, SD = 8.57) and their mothers and fathers (counterbalanced order of lab visits) participated in a playful interaction without toys (Laughing Task procedure). Playful interactions were coded based on the degree to which the dyads demonstrated a variety of behavior representing dyadic synchrony and task management. Children's attachment behavior toward fathers and mothers was observed in a modified separation-reunion procedure adapted for the preschool period. Results demonstrate that mothers and fathers are similar in their effort to arouse and engage their child in a playful context, but mothers achieved a greater synchrony with their child. Disorganized attachment to either mother or father is linked with a lack of synchrony in dyadic interaction. Findings are in contrast with prevailing theory, suggesting that despite gender-related differences in parental playful behaviors, dyadic synchrony is equally important in both mother- and father-child relationships for the development of organized social and affectional bonds.

  14. Perceptual discrimination across contexts and contrasts in preschool-aged children

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    BYUN, Tara McALLISTER

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a proposed phonetically-based account of developmental phonological patterns that lack counterparts in adult typology. Adult listeners perceive some phonemic contrasts more accurately than others, and these differences in perceptual recoverability are posited to represent one influence on phonological typology. One hypothesis suggests that children and adults could differ in their patterns of relative perceptual sensitivity, and these differences could form the basis for some child-specific phonological patterns in production. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this claim. This study used a nonword discrimination task to investigate differences in perceptual recoverability across contrasts and contexts in typically-developing preschool children. Participants heard nonwords that were identical or differed by a single segment in initial or final position. Results revealed general agreement between child and adult listeners in the relative discriminability of different featural contrasts. For certain contrasts, discrimination accuracy was significantly greater in initial than final position, mirroring an asymmetry seen in adults. Overall, these results suggest that perceptual discrimination in preschool-aged children is broadly congruent with patterns of relative sensitivity observed in adult listeners. These findings suggest that factors other than perceptual recoverability should be explored to account for child-specific phonological patterns. PMID:26213418

  15. [Diagnosis and treatment of food allergies in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, G; Eng, P

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of food allergies in preschool children has increased in the last few decades. Depending on the triggering allergen, children may outgrow many hypersensitivity reactions to food proteins by the age of 3 - 5 years. Despite improved diagnosis and knowledge, food allergies are still restricting the quality of life in affected subjects and their families. There is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestation from mild cutaneous symptoms to life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. Food proteins are the most frequent cause of anaphylactic reactions in childhood and adolescence. The task of primary care physicians includes identification of at-risk patients, early diagnosis and advice to family members concerning preventive measures and emergency treatment (e. g. adrenaline) in case of accidental ingestion of the culprit food. There is still no causal treatment of food allergy available. Therefore, strict avoidance of the causative food remains the most important measure to date.

  16. Hand preferences in preschool children: Reaching, pointing and symbolic gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet, Hélène; Centelles, Laurie; Jover, Marianne; Plachta, Suzy; Vauclair, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Manual asymmetries emerge very early in development and several researchers have reported a significant right-hand bias in toddlers although this bias fluctuates depending on the nature of the activity being performed. However, little is known about the further development of asymmetries in preschoolers. In this study, patterns of hand preference were assessed in 50 children aged 3-5 years for different activities, including reaching movements, pointing gestures and symbolic gestures. Contrary to what has been reported in children before 3 years of age, we did not observe any difference in the mean handedness indices obtained in each task. Moreover, the asymmetry of reaching was found to correlate with that of pointing gestures, but not with that of symbolic gestures. In relation to the results reported in infants and adults, this study may help deciphering the mechanisms controlling the development of handedness by providing measures of manual asymmetries in an age range that has been so far rather neglected.

  17. A study of rural preschool practitioners' views on young children's mathematical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-03-01

    The project Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian states. The questions focused on five broad themes: children's mathematics learning, support for mathematics teaching, technology and computers, attitudes and feelings, and assessment and record keeping. We review results from the interview data for each of these themes, discuss their importance, and outline recommendations related to teacher education as well as resource development and research.

  18. [Overweight and obesity in preschool children: an underestimated problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka-Jasiocha, Joanna; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Janczarska, Danuta; Rumińska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    The spread of overweight and obesity is alarming in the face of metabolic syndrome development and its consequences. As obesity becomes a social norm, a lack of adequate attention seems to be noticed. In the development of obesity special attention is focused on preschool and pubertal periods, as they are considered as critical in the development of obesity and its persistence into adulthood. We have analyzed anthropological parameters of 302 overweight and obese children, patients of the Department of Pediatrics and Endocrinology between 2004-2007. Children were at the age from 1.5 y to 18.25 y. Overweight was diagnosed when BMI > or =1 SDS, obesity when BMI > or =2 SDS. 77% of boys and 86% of girls were obese. The mean value of BMI, expressed as SDS BMI, was +4.3 SDS (girls) and +4.5 SDS (boys) in children under 6 yrs, +3.03 SDS (girls) and +2.95 SDS (boys) in children between 6-14 yrs, +3.95 SDS (girls) and +4.08 (boys) in children above 14 yrs. The youngest group (i.e. under 6 yrs), although comparatively most obese, was sparse: 7% of all girls and 5.6% of all boys. The oldest group (i.e.above 14 yrs) was plentiful (45.6% of all girls and 27.8% of all boys) and comparatively very obese. Data of parents' weight status were completed in 56% of cases: 31.2% of mothers and 41.5% of fathers were overweight, 33.3% of mothers and 50.8% of fathers were obese. These observations can suggest that overweight and obesity can be underestimated and/or ignored/ disregarded in preschool and pubertal children. It seems to be alarming as these two periods of life are critical in the development of obesity. Special attention should be applied in the field of prevention of obesity, especially in younger children, and early identification of overweight small children and/ or children at risk of obesity.

  19. Enhancing Conceptual Change in Preschool Children's Representations of Light: A Sociocognitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Christidou, Vasilia; Hatzinikita, Vassilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a sociocognitive teaching strategy on young children's understanding of light. It explores their understanding of the concept of light as an entity that is transmitted independently of the light source and the final receiver. The study was conducted in three phases: pretest, teaching intervention, and post-tests. The sample consisted of 170 preschool children who were assigned to two groups. The children in the first group participated in activities which adopted a sociocognitive approach. In the context of this approach, a familiar metaphor was introduced in order to facilitate children to construct a "precursor model" about light. The children in the second group participated in activities with the same teaching objectives, but adopting an empiricist perspective. Statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney U test indicated that the cognitive progress of the sociocognitive group was more significant than the progress of the empiricist group. This provides evidence for the effect of the sociocognitive strategy on enhancing children in constructing a "precursor model" for the concept of light.

  20. Promoting Active Participation in Book Reading for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Veronica P.; Miramontez, Shane Herriott; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Schwartz, Ilene S.

    2014-01-01

    A common literacy practice in early childhood classrooms is reading aloud to children. Little is known, however, about the quality of engagement in shared reading activities for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dialogic reading is one method of shared reading in which adults encourage children to actively participate in the…

  1. Behavior and development of preschool children born to adolescent mothers: risk and 3-generation households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Papas, Mia A; Hussey, Jon M; Hunter, Wanda; Dubowitz, Howard; Kotch, Jonathan B; English, Diana; Schneider, Mary

    2002-04-01

    To investigate whether living in a 3-generation household (grandmother-mother-child) is associated with fewer behavior problems and better cognitive development among preschool children of mothers who gave birth during adolescence and whether it protects children from the behavior and developmental problems associated with maltreatment and maternal depression. Cohort study. Participants included low-income families recruited from 4 sites: East, Northwest, Midwest, and South, who are part of LONGSCAN, a longitudinal study of children's health, development, and maltreatment. One hundred ninety-four mothers who were adolescents (less than age 19) at delivery. Data were gathered when children were 4 to 5 years of age. Twenty-six percent of the children lived in 3-generation households, 39% had a history of maltreatment, and 32% of the mothers had depression scores in the clinical range. Child behavioral problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist, completed by the mother, and child developmental status was assessed with the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, administered by research assistants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that children who had been reported for maltreatment and had mothers with depressive symptoms had more externalizing behavior problems, compared with children who experienced neither risk or only 1 risk. However, when residential status was considered, children with the greatest number of externalizing behavior problems were those who experienced both maltreatment and maternal depressive symptoms and lived in 3-generation households. Children who had been reported for maltreatment or had mothers with depressive symptoms were more likely to have internalizing problems, compared with children with neither risk. Residential status was not related to children's internalizing behavior problems or cognitive development. Living in a 3-generation household did not protect preschool children from the behavior problems

  2. Prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faride Malekshahi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Malekshahi F1, Farhadi A2 1. Instructor, Department of Society Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Instructor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Childhood period it one of the most important stages of life in which individuals personality is formed. The majority of behavioral problems are due to attention deficit to the sensitive periods of childhood. This attention deficit leads to lack of agreement with environment and causes behavioural problems in children. Behavioural problem is attributed to a persons behaviour that his IQ isn lowered, but his or her mental and behavioural equilibrium is deviated from social norm and has severity, repetition and continuance in numerous times and places, so that his educational performance and behaviour will be frustrated and his efficiency is reduced. Such children are always rejected by others and in school there are a lot of grievances against them. Therefore, to pay attention children common behavioural problems is one of the most important topics and it prompt detection makes its treatment possible. So this study designed to determine prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children. Materials and methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 600 rural and urban pre-school children selected using random one stage sampling method. Data gathering tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic and behavioural disorders signs obtained from DSM IV. Reability and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the university teaching members and retest method with a correlation coefficient 98%. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver 11 and Ch-square test. Results: Results of the study showed that 79% of the rural, and 68% of the urban children were at least involved in one of the behavioural

  3. Predicting Teacher Participation in a Classroom-Based, Integrated Preventive Intervention for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Courtney N; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H; Willoughby, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    Preschools provide a promising setting in which to conduct preventive interventions for childhood problems, but classroom programs can only be effective if teachers are willing and able to implement them. This study is one of the first to investigate predictors of the frequency of teacher participation in a classroom-based, randomized controlled trial of an integrated prevention program for preschoolers. The intervention was designed to promote school readiness with an integrated social and academic program, to be implemented by teachers with the support of classroom consultants. The current study is part of a larger project conducted with Head Start and community child care centers that serve primarily economically disadvantaged families; 49 teachers from 30 centers participated in this study. Overall, teachers conducted approximately 70% of the program activities. Participation decreased significantly over time from the first to the final week of the intervention, and also decreased within each week of the intervention, from the first to the final weekly activity. Teachers working at community child care centers implemented more intervention activities than did Head Start teachers. Teacher concerns about the intervention, assessed prior to training, predicted less participation. In addition, teachers' participation was positively related to their perception that their centers and directors were supportive, collegial, efficient, and fair, as well as their job satisfaction and commitment. Teacher experience, education, ethnicity, and self-efficacy were not significantly related to participation. In multi-level models that considered center as a level of analysis, substantial variance was accounted for by centers, pointing to the importance of considering center-level predictors in future research.

  4. Acute appendicitis in preschoolers: a study of two different populations of children

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    Sivridis Efthimios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the incidence and the risk factors implicated in acute appendicitis in preschoolers in our region. Methods Over a 7-year period, 352 children underwent appendectomy for suspected acute appendicitis. Of these, data for 23 children were excluded because no inflammation of the appendix was found on subsequent histology. Of the remaining 329, 82 were ≤ 5 years old (i.e., preschool children and 247 were 5-14 years old. These two groups of children were further divided according to their religion into Muslims and Christian Orthodox: 43 of the children aged ≤ 5 years were Muslims and 39 were Christian Orthodox. A household questionnaire was designed to collect data concerning age, gender, type of residence area, living conditions, vegetable consumption, and family history of surgery for acute appendicitis as preschool children. The removed appendices were also assessed histologically for the amount of lymphoid tissue. Results Acute appendicitis of preschoolers developed more frequently in Muslims (39.4% than in Christians (17.7%; p p p > 0.05. Conclusions In our region, the percentage of preschool-aged Muslim children with acute appendicitis was remarkably high. One possible explanation for this finding could be the higher amount of lymphoid tissue in the wall of the appendix in Muslim preschool children together with their low standard of hygiene.

  5. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

    2011-01-01

    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development, but…

  6. Direct Labeling, Tester Expectancy and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Scottish Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Fiona K.; Toner, Ignatius J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the influence on Scottish preschool children's self-control of labels regarding patience given directly to the children themselves, and of the expectations regarding the children's patience provided to adult testers. Childrens self-control was assessed in a task in which each child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made…

  7. Sustained Attention and Social Competence in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Laura M. Bennett; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Brinkman, Tara M.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between sustained attention and social competence in preschool children. While studies demonstrate that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit poor social competence, less is known about typically developing children. Since children with ADHD have associated behavior…

  8. The utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children

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    Wen-Chen Tsai

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: In order to increase the utilization of fluoride varnish among preschool children in Taiwan in the future, target groups consisting of females, children < 3 years of age, and disabled children should be prioritized. Parental factors are also important in affecting the utilization of fluoride varnish in children.

  9. Postural status of preschool children in Novi Sad

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    Romanov Romana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in Novi Sad in the preschool institutions of 'Radosno detinjstvo' on a sample of 423 preschool children of both sexes, ages 6 and 7. The subject of this paper are postural disorders on the spinal column in the sagittal and frontal planes, as well as foot deformities. The aim of the research is to determine the frequency of disorder of postural status of the spine (kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis and deviation from the normal status of the foot, and the analysis of the differences between boys and girls. Assessment of the postural status of the feet was performed by means of using the Pedikom computer system for digital computerised pedography. Assessment of spine postural status was done by means of SpineScan portable device. Data were analysed according to the frequency for the assessment of spinal status, the status of the foot, all according gender. Significance of the gender-conditioned differences was determined by the Chi-square test. The results indicate that in the examined population, the most common posture is lordotic bad posture, 41.31% with male examinees and 36.66% with female examinees. A statistically significant difference in relation to sexual dimorphism was found for the parameter of scoliotic bad posture (Sig. = 0.008. In terms of deviation from the normal status of the feet, in the examined population, pronating foot level I accounts for 43.23%, pronating foot level II accounts for 16.66% and high-arched foot accounts for 10.16%. Quantitative results indicate the need for corrective gymnastic to correct but also prevent postural deformities by introducing of the same as an everyday directed activity of preschool population.

  10. [Study of anemia in giardiasis intestinalis in Tunisian preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, T; Chaker, E; Boughedir, J; el Mabrouk, S; Ben Rayana, M C

    1999-11-01

    The present work is based upon a prospective in study done in a semi-urban area of suburbs of Tunis, from february to November 1997. A total of 302 children aged between 6 month to 5 years were enrolled in the survey. The study aimed at assessing the extention of parasitoses in preschool aged children. The relationship between the Giardiasis intestinalis and ferropenic anemia. The prevalence of anemia is 31.78% (n = 302). The parasitologic analysis has shown that 113 children out of 302 are infected; 37.41%. We observed an obvious predominance of Giardia Lamblia: 62% (n = 113) pathogenic protozoon. The rate of anemia parasited children is amounted to 19.78%. During the Giardiasis, anemia is present in 23.17% of the cases. The Polyparasitism concerns 16% of the infested children. This anemia could be caused by a global bad absorption syndrome or by a ferro-elective bad absorption. A proper sanitary education, a purification action and also a curative treatment of the beaners carriers will be the only guarantees to decrease its morbidity.

  11. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

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    Kidon Mona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction after ASA challenge is seen in 0 to 22% of asthmatic children so challenged, ibuprofen at antipyretic doses may cause acute respiratory problems only in a very small number of mild to moderate asthmatics. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of acetaminophen may explain some occurrences of adverse reactions in patients with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity on the basis of its inhibitory activity on the newly described enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX-3. This nonspecific sensitivity to inhibition of COX is most likely genetically determined and shows a remarkable association with atopic disease even in the very young age group and possibly an increased predilection in specific ethnic groups. This review summarizes state-of-the-art published data on NSAID hypersensitivity in preschool children.

  12. Associations between preschool language and first grade reading outcomes in bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol; Lawrence, Frank R

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that monolingual preschoolers' oral language development (vocabulary and oral comprehension) contributes to their later reading abilities; however, less is known about this relationship in bilingual populations where children are developing knowledge of two languages. It may be that children's abilities in one language do not contribute to their reading abilities in their other language or that children's experiences with either language assist them in developing a common underlying proficiency that they draw upon when learning to read. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among bilingual children's receptive language development and reading outcomes in first grade. Eighty-one bilingual children who were attending Head Start participated in the study. Growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between children's language abilities during two years in Head Start and reading outcomes at the end of first grade. Children's growth in both English and Spanish receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension predicted their English and Spanish reading abilities at the end of first grade within languages. Associations were also observed between languages with growth in English receptive language predicting Spanish reading comprehension and growth in Spanish receptive language predicting English reading comprehension.

  13. Influence of environmental factors on intellectual efficiency of pre-school children

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    Jovanović Veljko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic goal of this research was to study the influence of environmental factors on intellectual efficiency of pre-school children. Research participants were 149 children (52 Roma, 48 non-Roma children of average socioeconomic status and 49 children of low socioeconomic status, of the average age of 81 months. Data were collected during maturity evaluation for school in primary schools in Sabac and Sremska Mitrovica. Children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the School Maturity Test, and the data on socioeconomic status and educational climate were obtained from parents, by administering the Questionnaire for collecting data about the child and the family and Interview with the parent. Results of covariance analysis indicated that the quality of stimulation, parental ambitions and financial status of the family have the biggest effect on intellectual achievement of children. Poorer cognitive efficiency is demonstrated by children who grow up in poverty and non-stimulative environment, and whose parents have low ambitions regarding their child's education. When these variables are controlled, there are no differences between groups in either of cognitive functions. The abilities of visual and motor coordination and attention proved out to be the most sensitive to the influences of environmental factors. The results indicate that environmental factors have a pervasive effect, since, besides the influence on manipulative abilities, they also determine achievement on tests used to estimate verbal abilities.

  14. Determination of Hearing Loss Prevalence in Preschool Children of Ahwaz

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    Mozafar Sarafraz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children learn to communicate by hearing sounds. If there is hearing loss, the cognitive and speaking abilities and language learning will deteriorate. Early detection and intervention are important factors in the successful treatment of hearing loss in children. Hearing loss (HL is divided into two main groups: conductive hearing loss (CHL and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL, the prevalence of the former being higher in children, many whose causes are easy to detect and treat. Material and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 785 children, aged 6-7 years, entering elementary school Grade 1 in the school year 2010/2011, were randomly selected from 10% of Ahwaz Hearing Loss Screening Centers, and their audiograms were studied. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and descriptive statistics. Results: Out of the 785 preschool children examined in this study, 77 children (9.8% suffered from HL (42.9% female and 57.1% male, 59.7% from CHL, and 40.3% from SNHL. Twenty-six percent suffered from bilateral HL and 74% from unilateral HL. Thirty-eight point ninety-six percent had abnormal tympanometry, 61% of whom were Type B. Most of the children (53% had mild HL. Thirty-one point two percent of parents were aware of their children's HL. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of HL, especially SNHL, in this study, which is usually permanent but detectable at the neonatal ages, raising public awareness and early screening of ear diseases, which can lead to the detection and treatment in most cases, seem to be vital.

  15. Effectiveness of screening preschool children for amblyopia: a systematic review

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    Lange Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amblyopia and amblyogenic factors like strabismus and refractive errors are the most common vision disorders in children. Although different studies suggest that preschool vision screening is associated with a reduced prevalence rate of amblyopia, the value of these programmes is the subject of a continuing scientific and health policy discussion. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the question of whether screening for amblyopia in children up to the age of six years leads to better vision outcomes. Methods Ten bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials and cohort studies with no limitations to a specific year of publication and language. The searches were supplemented by handsearching the bibliographies of included studies and reviews to identify articles not captured through our main search strategy. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, three studies suggested that screening is associated with an absolute reduction in the prevalence of amblyopia between 0.9% and 1.6% (relative reduction: between 45% and 62%. However, the studies showed weaknesses, limiting the validity and reliability of their findings. The main limitation was that studies with significant results considered only a proportion of the originally recruited children in their analysis. On the other hand, retrospective sample size calculation indicated that the power based on the cohort size was not sufficient to detect small changes between the groups. Outcome parameters such as quality of life or adverse effects of screening have not been adequately investigated in the literature currently available. Conclusion Population based preschool vision screening programmes cannot be sufficiently assessed by the literature currently available. However, it is most likely that the present systematic review contains the most detailed description of the main limitations in current

  16. Primary care management of respiratory tract infections in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Schilder, Anne G M; Hoes, Arno W; de Jong, Vanya F G M; Hak, Eelko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine age-specific antibiotic prescription and referral rates in preschool children diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) in primary care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Research database of the Netherlands University Medical Center Utrecht Primary Ca

  17. Oscillometric and Spirometric Bronchodilator Response in Preschool Children with and without Asthma

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    Youn Ho Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchodilator responses (BDR are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of asthma; however, their acceptability and repeatability have not been evaluated using quality control criteria for preschool children.

  18. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva; Filip D. Shavov

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools...

  19. The student`s training to creating computer games for preschool-age children

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    Мардарова И.К.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the special aspects of future kindergartner training to creating computer games for children of preschool age. The scratch-projects technology and recommendation for use at kindergarten pedagogical process are described in it.

  20. Primary care management of respiratory tract infections in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Schilder, Anne G M; Hoes, Arno W; de Jong, Vanya F G M; Hak, Eelko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine age-specific antibiotic prescription and referral rates in preschool children diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) in primary care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Research database of the Netherlands University Medical Center Utrecht Primary Ca