WorldWideScience

Sample records for preschool child food

  1. Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  3. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  4. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  6. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  7. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  9. A Population-Based Study of Preschoolers' Food Neophobia and Its Associations with Food Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Worsley, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationships between food preferences, food neophobia, and children's characteristics among a population-based sample of preschoolers. Design: A parent-report questionnaire. Setting: Child-care centers, kindergartens, playgroups, day nurseries, and swimming centers. Subjects:…

  10. A Population-Based Study of Preschoolers' Food Neophobia and Its Associations with Food Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Worsley, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationships between food preferences, food neophobia, and children's characteristics among a population-based sample of preschoolers. Design: A parent-report questionnaire. Setting: Child-care centers, kindergartens, playgroups, day nurseries, and swimming centers. Subjects:…

  11. Parental perception of preschool child body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Wright, Dawn

    2011-10-01

    Obesity in preschoolers has risen dramatically in the last decade. Although studies have demonstrated that parents of preschoolers have incorrect perceptions of their child's body weight, little is known about the factors that may be associated with these perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental perceptions of preschool child body weight and parental psychosocial factors. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analyses. More than one third of the children in the sample were at risk for being overweight or were already overweight. However, less than 6% of parents felt that their child had an elevated body weight. Results from univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the parent's health literacy level was a significant predictor of the accuracy of their perceptions regarding their child's body weight (p perceptions. Results from this study indicate that assessing parental perceptions of preschool child body weight can help providers accurately understand how parents view their children and lead to tailored educational interventions. In addition, the results support previous research suggesting that parental health literacy is a key to providing high-quality family-centered care.

  12. The Influence of Theatre on a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    KRÁTKÁ, Pavlína

    2009-01-01

    The aim of work is to highlight the impact of theater on the personality development of children preschool age and education elements of theater. The theoretical part is aimed at the preschool age child's personality and the importance of pre-term for shaping the child's own identity. It is aimed at the game and its importance in the lives of children preschool age and the specificities of the performing arts working in the preschool age child. The practical part is devoted to research and to...

  13. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction.

  14. Using Reinforcer Pairing and Fading to Increase the Milk Consumption of a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    Tiger, Jeffrey H; Hanley, Gregory P

    2006-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the chocolate. The procedure and data collection were implemented by preschool teachers and resulted in increased milk drinking at school, which was maintained a...

  15. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background......Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  16. Using Reinforcer Pairing and Fading to Increase the Milk Consumption of a Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the…

  17. Remediating Child Poverty via Preschool: Exploring Practitioners' Perspectives in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…

  18. Remediating Child Poverty via Preschool: Exploring Practitioners' Perspectives in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…

  19. Effects of Peer Models' Food Choices and Eating Behaviors on Preschoolers' Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1980-01-01

    The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)

  20. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  2. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  3. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  4. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  5. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  6. Teacher-Child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how children's temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher-child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational…

  7. Ethnicity, Household Food Security, and Nutrition and Activity Patterns in Families With Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfour, Lila; Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan; Arheart, Kris L; Haney, Kanathy; Messiah, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between food security and child nutritional intake, sedentary behavior, and body mass index (BMI) and potential moderation by ethnic subgroup membership. Cross-sectional data analysis from baseline data of a preschool intervention trial. Twenty-eight subsidized child care centers in Miami-Dade County, FL. Children ages 2 to 5 (n = 1,211) and their caregivers. The BMI percentile and the following 4 factors (via confirmatory factor analysis): food security, consumption of fruits/vegetables, consumption of unhealthy foods, and sedentary behaviors. Separate linear mixed models tested relationships between food security and main outcome measures with an interaction term to test for possible moderation by ethnicity. Results indicated a significant relationship (P food security and child consumption of fruit/vegetables, consumption of unhealthy foods, and sedentary behavior, but not with BMI percentile. With greater food security, Haitians reported greater consumption of fruit/vegetables and sedentary behavior. With greater food security, Cubans and non-Hispanic whites reported less consumption of unhealthy foods, while Haitians reported greater consumption. Results showed higher food security was associated with higher consumption of fruit/vegetables, consumption of unhealthy foods, and sedentary behavior, but this was moderated by ethnicity. Implications for healthy weight interventions among low-income preschoolers should focus on the importance of food security and tailor intervention strategies for diverse ethnic groups accordingly. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Renovascular hypertension and intrarenal artery aneurysms in a preschool child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, David J.; Barletta, Gina-Marie; Bunchman, Timothy E. [Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Helen DeVos Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Mowry, Jeanne A. [Oregon Health Sciences University, Pediatric Nephrology, Northwest Permanente, P.C. and Doernbecher Children' s Hospital, Portland, OR (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Renovascular hypertension from renal artery aneurysmal formation is a rare complication of fibromuscular dysplasia. Few data exist to direct the management of intrarenal artery aneurysms in pediatric patients. We report the presentation, diagnosis and management of renovascular hypertension and intrarenal aneurysmal disease in a preschool child. (orig.)

  9. Preschool and Early Childhood: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography cites 67 items relating to preschool and early childhood selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts." Bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts are provided for each entry. One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings in the area of handicapped and gifted…

  10. Child, home and institutional predictors of preschool vocabulary growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druten-Frietman, L.J.G.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth and stability over time in 385 young children (two to four years of age) who attended a preschool. The relation between child, family, and institutional factors (i.c gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES), family background (native/non-native), teacher

  11. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ...

  12. The association of television and video viewing with fast food intake by preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Sandora, Thomas J; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Goldmann, Donald A; Gillman, Matthew W

    2006-11-01

    To examine the extent to which television (TV) and video viewing is associated with consumption of fast food by preschool-age children. In a cross-sectional study of 240 parents of children ages 2.0 to 5.9 years, parents reported the number of hours their child watched TV/videos on an average weekday and weekend day in the past month; a daily, weighted average of TV/video viewing was then calculated. The main outcome was parents' report of their children's fast food intake, using the question, "How many times a week does your child eat at fast food restaurants such as McDonald's, Burger King, or Kentucky Fried Chicken?" dichotomized to (never/ or =1 time/wk). The association of TV/video viewing with fast food intake was evaluated by multiple logistic regression before and after adjusting for several potential confounders. Twenty-two percent of parents reported that their child ate at fast food restaurants at least once per week. After adjusting for parents' age, race/ethnicity, and household income as well as child's age and sex, for each 1-hour increase of TV/video watched per day, the odds ratio (OR) for consuming fast food > or =1 time per week was 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 2.49). After further adjustment for socio-environmental factors that might serve as proxies for the availability of healthy food options, such as parental time constraints and the availability and high cost of fresh fruits and vegetables in their neighborhoods, the OR for consuming fast food > or =1 time per week was minimally attenuated (OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 2.31). TV/video viewing was correlated with fast food consumption among preschool children in this study. Our findings raise the possibility that greater exposure to TV and videos may influence preschool children's consumption of unhealthful foods.

  13. Teacher-child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel YOLERİ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine how children’s temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher–child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational survey method was used in this study. The sample consisted of 195 preschool children. According to the results, a negative significant relationship was found between the teacher-child relationships scores and the reactivity sub-dimension of temperament. Also, there are positive significant relationships between teacher-child relationship scores and language skills. In addition, both the reactivity sub dimension of temperament and language skills demonstrate a predictor effect on the teacher-child relationships. Reactivity was the most important temperament trait factor affecting relationships.

  14. Food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool – an exploratory study from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Hanna; Höijer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a need for research both in relation to food education at preschools and in relation to how the individual teacher can handle and relate to the many different scientific facts and paradigms that are prevalent in relation to food, health, and a sustainable lifestyle. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and meanings that preschool teachers associate with involving food as a tool for learning in planned educational activities. Design An exploratory study was conducted in 14 preschools with 131 teachers. Twenty semi-structured individual or group interviews with 45 preschool staff were conducted, and 10 interviews were selected for analysis. Results According to participants, both children and teachers developed a sensory language; children became more positive towards tasting and teachers discovered new possibilities for interdisciplinary work. However, the results also show that an allowing system, with both an interested and confident teacher who recognises the competent child and a supportive organisation, is needed in order to make food a meaningful tool for learning in preschool. Discussion According to previous studies, food has the potential to play an important part in everyday activities at preschool, both in planned educational activities as well as at meal situations. Our results imply that a holistic understanding of food in preschool is required for long-term work with food as a natural part of the everyday activities. Conclusion The results imply that it is fun and meaningful for both children and teachers, and quite possible, to work with food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool. In order to include food as a way to work with the preschool curriculum for a sustainable lifestyle, an allowing system is needed. PMID:27717411

  15. Food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool – an exploratory study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sepp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need for research both in relation to food education at preschools and in relation to how the individual teacher can handle and relate to the many different scientific facts and paradigms that are prevalent in relation to food, health, and a sustainable lifestyle. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and meanings that preschool teachers associate with involving food as a tool for learning in planned educational activities. Design: An exploratory study was conducted in 14 preschools with 131 teachers. Twenty semi-structured individual or group interviews with 45 preschool staff were conducted, and 10 interviews were selected for analysis. Results: According to participants, both children and teachers developed a sensory language; children became more positive towards tasting and teachers discovered new possibilities for interdisciplinary work. However, the results also show that an allowing system, with both an interested and confident teacher who recognises the competent child and a supportive organisation, is needed in order to make food a meaningful tool for learning in preschool. Discussion: According to previous studies, food has the potential to play an important part in everyday activities at preschool, both in planned educational activities as well as at meal situations. Our results imply that a holistic understanding of food in preschool is required for long-term work with food as a natural part of the everyday activities. Conclusion: The results imply that it is fun and meaningful for both children and teachers, and quite possible, to work with food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool. In order to include food as a way to work with the preschool curriculum for a sustainable lifestyle, an allowing system is needed.

  16. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  17. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2015-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ), especially for socially disadvantaged children. The intervention preschools received extra training of the preschool teachers, whereas control preschools did not receive any training. The results show impro...

  18. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  19. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  20. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069

  1. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-08-01

    How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2-5 y of age. We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  3. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  4. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  5. Teacher-Child Relationships, Behavior Regulation, and Language Gain among At-Risk Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mary Beth; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Many preschoolers from low socioeconomic-status (SES) backgrounds demonstrate lags in their language development, and preschool participation is viewed as an important means for mitigating these lags. In this study, we investigated how teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior regulation within preschool classrooms were associated…

  6. The role of preschool teacher in child structured and unstructured play

    OpenAIRE

    Bajde, Karmen

    2016-01-01

    The thesis entitled The Role of Preschool Teacher in Child Structured and Unstructured Play focuses on play, play materials and the role of preschool teacher in the preschool period. The theoretical part focuses on the meaning of child’s play and play materials as well as the role of the preschool professionals. Various types, factors and characteristics of child’s play were presented and play materials were defined. Toy quality criteria are also briefly described. The chapter dealing with th...

  7. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background...... as well as an instrumental variable approach based on wider geographic area aggregates to test whether those correlations reveal unbiased causal effects. The identification of truly effective quality characteristics of day-care centres enhances policymakers' resource allocation to make all children...

  8. Using Food Aversion to Decrease Severe Pica by a Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Summer J.; Tamm, Lori; Wier, Kristin G.

    2006-01-01

    Food aversion was shown to be effective in the reduction of plastic pica by a 4-year-old boy with autism. The participant was suffering from digestive complications due to the ingestion of plastic from a variety of toys. The intervention was initially conducted in the child's preschool classroom during instructional periods and was systematically…

  9. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children.

  10. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2016-04-29

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  12. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  13. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ), especi......From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ...

  14. Low Income Preschoolers' Non-Parental Care Experiences and Household Food Insecurity. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2012-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Colleen; Arteaga, Irma; Gable, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Rates of food insecurity in households with children have significantly increased over the past decade. The majority of children, including those at risk for food insecurity, participate in some form of non-parental child care during the preschool years. To evaluate the relationship between the two phenomenon, this study investigates the effects…

  15. [Food insecurity and nutritional status of preschool children in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the relation between malnutrition and food insecurity (FI) in preschool children from Mexico. Information of 10 513 preschool children and their families was analyzed. The FI was measured through the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA). Adjusted prevalence of FI and malnutrition with related variables were assessed by logistic regression. 31% of households had moderate and server FI. Rural and south, indigenous households, in the Q1 and Q2, showed the highest prevalence of moderate and severe FI as well. We observed a high tendency of malnutrition in the severe FI group; the prevalence of overweight was similar in the four groups of FI. Conclusions. The risk of chronic malnutrition is 42% bigger in children less than five years old with severe FI than in those that experienced food security.

  16. Associations of Preschool Type and Teacher-Child Relational Quality with Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Moses, Laurence Kimberly; Bolt, Elizabeth N.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined associations of preschool type (i.e., urban and suburban Head Start and university-affiliated center) and teacher-child variables with positive and negative child outcomes among 145 preschoolers (74 boys). Differences emerged across preschools, with urban Head Start children scoring lowest on the emotional…

  17. [Diagnosis and treatment of food allergies in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, G; Eng, P

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of food allergies in preschool children has increased in the last few decades. Depending on the triggering allergen, children may outgrow many hypersensitivity reactions to food proteins by the age of 3 - 5 years. Despite improved diagnosis and knowledge, food allergies are still restricting the quality of life in affected subjects and their families. There is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestation from mild cutaneous symptoms to life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. Food proteins are the most frequent cause of anaphylactic reactions in childhood and adolescence. The task of primary care physicians includes identification of at-risk patients, early diagnosis and advice to family members concerning preventive measures and emergency treatment (e. g. adrenaline) in case of accidental ingestion of the culprit food. There is still no causal treatment of food allergy available. Therefore, strict avoidance of the causative food remains the most important measure to date.

  18. Comparative Study of Child Assessment Practices in English and Korean Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Kwi-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Child assessment practices in English and Korean preschools were compared by analysing data from interviews with educators, examples of child assessment, and official documents from each country. Child assessment in England was systematically implemented and characterised by several methodological and procedural strengths, whereas assessment in…

  19. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ...

  20. Maternal Socialization and Child Temperament as Predictors of Emotion Regulation in Turkish Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…

  1. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Preschool Teacher Cognitions and Responses to Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural differences as…

  2. Circle of Security in Child Care: Putting Attachment Theory into Practice in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Glen; Hoffman, Kent; Powell, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Circle of Security-Classroom (COS-C) approach to applying attachment theory in preschool settings. Early childhood is an incubator for a wide range of development including the underpinnings of school readiness. Secure teacher-child relationships support this process. However, most preschool staff members lack guidance…

  3. Child-Centred Education: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Self-Reported Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Ramazan; Erden, Feyza Tantekin; Morrison, George S.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the beliefs and self-reported practices of preschool teachers with regard to the concept of child-centred education, as well as the consistency between these beliefs and practices. Data were collected via interviews with 20 female teachers employed in public preschools in Ankara, Turkey. The results indicated that the…

  4. Technology-Enhanced Storytelling Stimulating Parent-Child Interaction and Preschool Children's Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…

  5. Circle of Security in Child Care: Putting Attachment Theory into Practice in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Glen; Hoffman, Kent; Powell, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Circle of Security-Classroom (COS-C) approach to applying attachment theory in preschool settings. Early childhood is an incubator for a wide range of development including the underpinnings of school readiness. Secure teacher-child relationships support this process. However, most preschool staff members lack guidance…

  6. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  7. Relationship of intake of plant-based foods with 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity and food neophobia in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, M; Nakamura, K; Tamai, Y; Wada, K; Sahashi, Y; Watanabe, K; Ohtsuchi, S; Ando, K; Nagata, C

    2012-01-01

    Diets rich in plant-based foods such as vegetables, fruits and soy foods have been suggested to have beneficial effects on health. However, phytochemicals contained in plant-based foods are generally bitter and acrid. We investigated whether intake of vegetables, fruits and soy foods is associated with sensitivity to bitterness and reluctance to eat new foods (food neophobia) in Japanese preschool children. Subjects of this cross-sectional study were healthy Japanese, 167 boys and 156 girls, aged 4-6 years. Intake of vegetables, fruits and soy foods was estimated from 3-day dietary records. Subjects were classified as either tasters or non-tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) based on their ability to taste 0.56 mmol/l PROP. Information on each child's age, height, weight, food neophobia status and food variety, as well as maternal diet and parental control over the child's eating, was obtained by a parent-administered questionnaire. Food neophobia was assessed using the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). A high intake of vegetables was significantly associated with a low CFNS score in boys after controlling for covariates (P=0.0008). Among the boys, soy food intake was significantly higher in PROP non-tasters than in tasters, except those with low CFNS scores (P=0.0019). High intake of soy foods was significantly associated with a low neophobia score in PROP tasters but not in non-tasters (P=0.0024). These data suggest that sensitivity to bitter taste and food neophobia may influence the consumption of vegetables and soy foods among Japanese preschool boys.

  8. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay

    2015-03-01

    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect.

  9. Mother and preschool teacher as assessors of the child's language competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja Peklaj

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers include child's parents as assessors of his/her language development as the results of many studies suggest their assessments to be valid and reliable measures of child's language competence. In the longitudinal study, presented in this paper, we examined whether child's mother and his/her preschool teacher can provide a valid estimation of child's language development. The sample included 80 Slovenian children from different preschool institutions, aged 3;1 years at first and 4;1 years at second assessment. Children's language competence was assessed individually, directly by the testators using Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test and indirectly by mothers and preschool teachers using the Child's Language Competence Questionnaire for Parents and Preschool Teachers. The achieved results showed that the estimates given by mothers and preschool teachers represent valid measures of child's language competence but not stable in time. The estimations given by mothers and preschool teachers explain a small share in variability of children's achievements on the Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test.

  10. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Bao, Yanjun

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers.

  11. Preschool-Age Problem Behavior and Teacher-Child Conflict in School: Direct and Moderation Effects by Preschool Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were…

  12. Redefining "child-directed advertising" to reduce unhealthy television food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-04-01

    Food and beverage companies have pledged to reduce unhealthy marketing to children through the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI). However, public health experts question the initiative's effectiveness because pledges apply to only some types of marketing. For instance, the CFBAI covers only TV advertising that is "child-directed," defined as advertising during programs for which children make up 35% or more of the viewing audience. To quantify the proportion of food and beverage TV advertisements (ads) viewed by children that is covered by current CFBAI pledges and examine the potential impact of broader definitions of child-directed advertising. Nielsen data were used to quantify percentages of children (aged 2-11 years) in the audience (i.e., child-audience share), as well as absolute numbers of child viewers, for all national TV programs in 2009. Nielsen advertising data provided the number of food and beverage ads viewed by preschoolers (aged 2-5 years); older children (aged 6-11 years); and adults (aged 18-49 years) during programs with various child-audience compositions. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2011. Just 45%-48% of food ads viewed by children met current CFBAI definitions of child-directed advertising. Expanding this definition to include advertising during programs with a child-audience share of 20% or higher and/or 100,000 or more child viewers would cover 70%-71% of food advertising seen by children but just one third of ads seen by adults. Children viewed an estimated 35% fewer food ads during TV programs with a high child-audience share (≥50%) in 2009 compared with 2004. However, ensuring that nutrition standards apply to the majority of food ads viewed by children requires broader definitions of child-directed advertising. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Randomized Exposure to Food Advertisements and Eating in the Absence of Hunger Among Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Lansigan, Reina K; Ramanujam, Archana; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2016-12-01

    Preschoolers in the United States are heavily exposed to unhealthy food advertisements. Whether such exposure promotes cued eating has not been documented in this age group. Randomized experiment among 60 children, aged 2 to 5 years, recruited in 2015-2016 from New Hampshire and Vermont. Children completed the experiment at a behavioral laboratory. Children were provided with a healthy snack to consume upon arrival then randomized to view a 14-minute TV program embedded with advertisements for either a food or a department store. Children were provided 2 snack foods to consume ad libitum while viewing the TV program; 1 of those snacks was the food advertised. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) was operationalized as the kilocalories of snack foods consumed. t tests were used to compare EAH by advertisement condition; linear regression models assessed effect modification by the child's age, sex, BMI percentile, and parental feeding restriction. Mean age was 4.1 (SD 0.9) years, 55% of children were male, 80% were non-Hispanic white, and 20% were overweight or obese. There were no differences in child or socioeconomic characteristics by advertisement condition. Child BMI was not related to EAH. Mean kilocalories consumed during the EAH phase was greater among children exposed to the food advertisements (126.8, SD: 58.5) versus those exposed to the nonfood advertisements (97.3, SD: 52.3; P = .04), an effect driven by greater consumption of the advertised food (P advertisement exposure may encourage obesogenic-eating behaviors among the very young. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  15. Volunteers as Teachers of Child Management to Parents of Behaviour-Disordered Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.

    1984-01-01

    Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…

  16. Preschoolers' Emotion Regulation Strategy Understanding: Relations with Emotion Socialization and Child Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Pamela M.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Smith-Simon, Kristen E.; Cohen, Laura H.

    2009-01-01

    Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child…

  17. Parent Physical Punishment and Child Aggression in a Singapore Chinese Preschool Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngee Sim, Tick; Ping Ong, Lue

    2005-01-01

    We examine how parental physical punishment (caning and slapping) and child aggression are related, and possible moderation by authoritative control and rejection. A sample of 286 Singapore Chinese preschoolers ages 4-6 reported on rejection; their parents reported on control, caning, and slapping; and their teachers rated child aggression.…

  18. Volunteers as Teachers of Child Management to Parents of Behaviour-Disordered Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.

    1984-01-01

    Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…

  19. Designing Better Preschools: Improving Communication between Designers and Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Cindy V.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examined communications between designers and child development professionals during the preschool design process. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted to investigate the need for communication support between child development professionals, parents, and design professionals (n = 20) during the process of…

  20. How to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to inform and guide ... two to five year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...

  1. [Relation between food habits and nutritional status of preschool children in a rural community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, M P; Pérez-Gil, S E; Batrouni Kerkebe, L

    1986-12-01

    Food habits in regard to the nutritional status of preschool children and their socioeconomic situation were analyzed in this research. The study was carried out in Cuetzalan, State of Puebla; all families were studied and, besides the presence of a preschool child in the home, both father and mother should also be living in the same house. Forty children considered as well nourished and 40 malnourished in the opposite case, were selected, taking the limits of the Gómez classification. In order to define socioeconomic differences between the two groups, the sample population was divided into different levels, with the following results. The socioeconomic level of the well-nourished children did correlate with a good living standard of their families; in the other case, families with a low socioeconomic status, presented more nutritional problems. A questionnaire was applied to every mother selected. This included two items: a) In the first case, we tried to assess the mother's attitude towards food habits and children's illnesses. b) In the second case, the mother's knowledge concerning pregnancy, breast feeding, feeding of the child during the first year of life, taboos, beliefs and other aspects which could be related to nutrition. On the whole, the main objective of this study was attained, because significant differences were found between these two groups. Firstly, a good relationship between food habits and good nutritional status of the children was found. Secondly, mother with well-nourished children had better food habits and better socioeconomic status than mothers having children with poor health status, and therefore, of a lower socioeconomic status.

  2. "Snacks are not food". Low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J O; Wright, G; Herman, A N; Malhotra, K; Serrano, E L; Foster, G D; Whitaker, R C

    2015-01-01

    Snacking has become more frequent among US preschool-aged children in recent decades and represents a significant proportion of daily energy intake. Social influences on snacking among children, however, are not well understood. This qualitative research described low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children using data from 7 focus groups with 32 participants. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method to identify themes. Mothers described snacks as involving less preparation, balance, and sustenance than meals (Theme 1). Mothers also made reference to some snacks as not being "real food" (Theme 2). At the same time, snacks had significant hedonic value as reflected in mothers' enjoyment of those foods (Theme 3), the effectiveness of snacks to manage children's behavior (Theme 4), and the variety of restrictions that mothers placed on children's access to snacks, such as locking cabinets, offering small servings, and reducing the number of snacks in sight (Theme 5). Two overarching themes highlighted distinctions mothers made in feeding children snacks vs. meals as well as the powerful hedonic appeal of snacks for both mother and child. These observations suggest that low-income, urban mothers of preschool-aged children may perceive snacks as serving a more important role in managing children's behavior than in providing nutrition. Child feeding interventions should address non-food related ways of managing children's behavior as well as encouraging caregivers to see snacks as structured opportunities for nutrition and connecting with their children.

  3. Predictors of Children's Kindergarten Classroom Engagement: Preschool Adult-Child Relationships, Self-Concept, and Hyperactivity/Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Amelia Kate; Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Baghurst, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to identify preschool factors that are associated with children's classroom engagement during their 1st school year. The study was guided by a social-motivational process model that highlights the importance of parent-child and teacher-child relationships in promoting engagement. In preschool, parents and…

  4. Psychosocial problems in pre-school children : Recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care objective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care Objective. To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among pre-school children in the general populatio

  5. Parental perception of child weight in the first two years-of-life: a potential link between infant feeding and preschoolers' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaad, Salma M A; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 23% of preschoolers are overweight or obese. Establishing a healthy dietary lifestyle at an early age can improve later child diet and body weight. This study examined the determinants of past infant feeding practices that do not follow standard feeding recommendations (breastfeeding for less than 6 months duration, cow's milk prior to the first year of age and solid foods at or before 4 months of age). It also examined the role of parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life on past infant feeding practices as well as current child diet and body weight. Families of 497 preschoolers aged 22-63 months (39.0 ± 8.2) were recruited from 30 child care centers in East-Central Illinois. Main findings indicate that past infant feeding practices were common and varied by socio-demographic factors including race/ethnicity, parental education and child gender. Children perceived as overweight in the first 2 years-of-life tended to breastfeed for lesser duration. Additionally, the majority (79.8%) of preschoolers who were classified as overweight using BMI percentile were perceived as non-overweight by the parent in the first 2 years-of-life. Mean daily total fatty/sugary food intake was higher among those perceived to be non-overweight in the first 2 years-of-life. These findings have identified parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life as a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy child diet and obesity among preschoolers.

  6. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  7. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes Towards Nutritional Information on Food Labels in Turkey and Recommendations for an Educational Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unusan, Nurhan

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate preschool teachers' attitudes towards nutrition labels. A sample of 154 preschool teachers was surveyed to determine their label-reading behaviours and knowledge. A total of 71.5% of the preschool teachers reported that they read food labels when purchasing food items (i.e. rather often or sometimes).…

  8. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes Towards Nutritional Information on Food Labels in Turkey and Recommendations for an Educational Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unusan, Nurhan

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate preschool teachers' attitudes towards nutrition labels. A sample of 154 preschool teachers was surveyed to determine their label-reading behaviours and knowledge. A total of 71.5% of the preschool teachers reported that they read food labels when purchasing food items (i.e. rather often or sometimes).…

  9. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group.

  10. Efficacy of steroid treatments in the asthmatic preschool child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2002-01-01

    Asthma represents the most common chronic disease in preschool children. Hospital admission for wheezy disorders is the most common paediatric chronic disease causing hospital admission and more common in young children than later in life.......Asthma represents the most common chronic disease in preschool children. Hospital admission for wheezy disorders is the most common paediatric chronic disease causing hospital admission and more common in young children than later in life....

  11. Effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) in a preschool setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Gershenson, Rachel A; Farahmand, Farahnaz K; Thaxter, Peter J; Behling, Steven; Budd, Karen S

    2009-11-01

    This research addressed the need for trained child care staff to support optimal early social-emotional development in urban, low-income, ethnic minority children. We evaluated effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), an approach adapted from Eyberg's Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). TCIT focuses on increasing preschool teachers' positive attention skills and consistent discipline in order to enhance children's psychosocial functioning and prevent mental health problems. A total of 12 teachers participated in small-group workshop sessions with in vivo coaching on their use of skills in the classroom. A multiple-baseline design across four classrooms (3 teachers each) evaluated effects of training on teacher behaviors during weekly classroom observations. Findings indicated systematic increases in trained skills during intervention, and consumer evaluations showed that the training was rated positively. Our results suggest that TCIT is a promising approach for enhancing positive teacher-child interactions in a preschool setting and should receive further investigation.

  12. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  13. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  14. Parent Perspectives on How a Child-Centered Preschool Experience Shapes Children's Navigation of Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan; Bentley, Dana Frantz

    2013-01-01

    The authors used qualitative case study methodology to explore parents' perceptions of their children's readiness for kindergarten. The authors interviewed parents, focusing on their children's experiences during their transition from a child-centered, play-based preschool setting guided by an emergent curriculum into a range of diverse…

  15. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  16. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  17. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  18. Variation in Children's Classroom Engagement Throughout a Day in Preschool: Relations to Classroom and Child Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Williford, Amanda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in preschool children's positive and negative engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks, and how that variability was related to both classroom activity settings (e.g., teacher-structured time, outdoor time, transitions) and child factors (age, gender). Participants were 283 socioeconomically and…

  19. Planning for health promotion in low-income preschool child care settings: focus groups of parents and child care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; LaPelle, Nancy; Gupta, Ruchi S; Finkelstein, Jonathan A

    2006-01-01

    To identify potentially successful strategies, barriers, and facilitators for health promotion in preschool child care settings. We conducted 6 focus groups including each of the following: parents of children attending child care centers and home-based family child care (2 in English, 1 in Spanish) and directors of child care centers and family child care providers (2 in English, 1 in Spanish). Systematic thematic analysis was conducted to generate themes to address study questions. A total of 24 parents and 45 child care providers, serving predominantly urban, low-income children in Boston, participated. Parents and child care providers agreed that in-person group discussions would be the most effective strategy for providing health education information to parents. Several barriers that could affect implementation emerged. First, some providers expressed frustration toward parents' attitudes about child safety and health. Second, there was diversity of opinion among providers on whether conducting health promotion activities was consistent with their training and role. In addition, literacy, language, and cultural barriers were identified as potential barriers to health promotion in child care. In order to be successful, health promotion strategies in child care settings will need to overcome tensions between providers and parents, allow professional growth of child care providers to serve in a health promotion role, and better integrate external health resources and personnel. Group sessions and peer learning opportunities that are culturally and linguistically sensitive are potentially successful strategies for implementation of health promotion interventions for many parents.

  20. More than Teacher Directed or Child Initiated: Preschool Curriculum Type, Parent Involvement, and Children's Outcomes in the Child-Parent Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Clements, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Niles, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American) in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20…

  1. The mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elisabeth M; Frankel, Leslie A; Hernandez, Daphne C

    2017-06-01

    Emotional eating, or eating in response to negative emotions rather than internal hunger cues, has been related to many maladaptive eating patterns that contribute to weight gain and obesity. The parent feeding practice of use of food as a reward is positively associated with children emotionally overeating, yet, little is known as to the potential behavioral mechanism linking these behaviors. The current study examined the mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 254) completed online questionnaires targeting parent feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and child self-regulation in eating. Mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macros in SPSS. Results demonstrated that the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating was partially mediated by child self-regulation in eating, even after controlling for parent and child gender, household income, and race/ethnicity. In summary, parental use of food as a reward leads to children's diminished ability to regulate intake, which then leads to increased emotional over eating. Results of this study have implications for both the prevention of disordered eating behaviors and childhood obesity prevention programs, suggesting the need to assist children in learning how to self-regulate in the presence of food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esins, Svenja; Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Wagner, Katharina; Achtergarde, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample The description of child behavior in mother-child-interaction is important in early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders in preschool children. The Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) may serve this diagnostic purpose. We aim to examine interrater-reliability of SIRS and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity to maternal behavior by Play-PAB, and a measure of mother-child-relationsship by Parent-Infant-Global-Assessment-Scale (PIRGAS). Five raters assessed 47 ten-minute video sequences of parent-child-interaction recorded at the Family Day Hospital for Preschool Children with SIRS, Play-PAB, and PIRGAS. We report psychometric properties of SIRS, and present the association with Play-PAB and PIRGAS. SIRS shows a satisfying interrater-reliability for all items. Positive child behavior e. g. the SIRS' "child responsiveness" shows negative correlation to Play-PAB-scales' parental "hostility" and "intrusiveness", but independence of parental "involvement", "positive emotionality", and "discipline". Child and parental behavior show expected associations with the global relationship measure PIRGAS. The assessment of child behavior in parent-child-interaction with SIRS can be quickly learned and reliably applied without extensive training. SIRS shows meaningful relations to parental behavior and a clinical global measure of the caregiver-child-relationship. We recommend SIRS for clinical diagnostics to describe child behavior in mother-child-interaction.

  3. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  4. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  5. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  6. Acute lymphangitis in a preschool child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Huai Seng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year old preschool boy presented with apruritic red streak at the dorsum of his right foot travelingupward from the affected site which was red and swollen.Insect sting was the more likely trigger which had causedthe cellulitis and subsequently the acute lymphangitis.

  7. Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…

  8. Evaluation of psychometric properties and factorial structure of the pre-school child behaviour checklist at the Kenyan Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Abubakar, Amina; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R J C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Behavioural/emotional problems may be common in preschool children living in resource-poor settings, but assessment of these problems in preschool children from poor areas is challenging owing to lack of appropriate behavioural screening tools. The child behaviour checklist (CBCL) is wid

  9. Effectiveness of a child's fable on the cognition of preschools when used to address childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Kathleen Bradshaw; Abbot Eng, CaSandra Rene'

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of a child's fable on the cognition of preschoolers when used to address childhood obesity. A single group, pretest/posttest design was used with 57 preschool children. Analysis of variance compared pre-existing differences between the four classes with respect to pre-test scores. A repeated measures t-test analyzed changes in scores as a result of the intervention. Following the fable intervention, students showed a significant difference (0.5) between their pre- and post-test scores, indicating this method to an effective learning strategy in this setting and age population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of maternal food choices with caries status and sugar consumption among preschool children in Vikarabad town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shakeel Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children choose sweet, energy dense foods in preference to more nutritious options. Despite being aware about healthy food, mothers regularly purchase, prepare and allow their children to eat unhealthy food. Aims: To explore the association between the knowledge of mothers of preschool children about making food choices and oral health of their children and to assess the association with their children′s sugar consumption and caries status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 mother and child pairs from preschools and Anganwadi centers in the Vikarabad town of Ranga Reddy district in Telangana using simple random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire filled by their mothers who gathered their views on choices about food; a 3-day diet chart and clinical assessment of the children′s caries status. Chi-square, t-test and ANOVA were used. Results: Majority of mothers were motivated by their child′s preferences (51%, availability and accessibility of food products (19% and affordability (15% when making food choices for their children. Though, mothers had a favorable knowledge regarding food choices for their children and about oral health, it was not found to be associated with caries status of their children. However, the association between the sweet scores of the children and their caries status was significant. Conclusion:Though the mothers had favorable knowledge about providing healthy foods to their children, it did not reflect in their behavior when choosing foods. Higher sugar consumption of the children was associated with more dental caries.

  11. Child food insecurity increases risks posed by household food insecurity to young children's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Food Security Scale (USFSS) measures household and child food insecurity (CFI) separately. Our goal was to determine whether CFI increases risks posed by household food insecurity (HFI) to child health and whether the Food Stamp Program (FSP) modifies these effects. From 1998 to 2004, 17,158 ...

  12. Changing Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions to Improve Preschool Children's Externalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; DeCoster, Jamie; Hartz, Karyn A; Carter, Lauren M; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Hatfield, Bridget E

    2016-12-19

    A randomized controlled trial was used to examine the impact of an attachment-based, teacher-child, dyadic intervention (Banking Time) to improve children's externalizing behavior. Participants included 183 teachers and 470 preschool children (3-4 years of age). Classrooms were randomly assigned to Banking Time, child time, or business as usual (BAU). Sparse evidence was found for main effects on child behavior. Teachers in Banking Time demonstrated lower negativity and fewer positive interactions with children compared to BAU teachers at post assessment. The impacts of Banking Time and child time on reductions of parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior were greater when teachers evidenced higher-quality, classroom-level, teacher-child interactions at baseline. An opposite moderating effect was found for children's positive engagement with teachers.

  13. SUPPORT OF PSYCHO-PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed needs, ability and the ways of supporting psychophysical activity of a pre-school child. Primary child’s need for movement, which should be invented by play, boosts impulses for growth and development of the organism and is considered as a main condition of it’s psycho-physical development. In the way of physical development child should be encouraged on many different ways of movement: walking, running, jumping, but also crawling, climbing, throwing, catching… For the development of skill of detection optimal senses stimulation is good way, in point of making communication with nature and social surroundings. Thru play and practical activity it is possible to contribute to acceptable way of showing emotional condition of the child. Thinking and imagination at start are very dependable of emotions, and they develop also thru playing and practical activity. It is also possible to contribute a start of development of the main character line which are made from imitation and identification of child with parents and teachers. Functional contribution of psycho-physical activity of pre-school child is possible to achieve if, with skill and a lot of pedagogy talent, awards and compliment are given to child, and giving to them honor and promises

  14. Persistent optimizing: how mothers make food choices for their preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Audrey; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Macdonald, Marilyn

    2015-04-01

    Mothers' ability to provide healthy food choices for their children has become more complex in our current obesogenic environment. We conducted a total of 35 interviews with 18 mothers of preschool children. Using constructivist grounded theory methods, we developed a substantive theory of how mothers make food choices for their preschoolers. Our substantive theory, persistent optimizing, consists of three main integrated conceptual categories: (a) acknowledging contextual constraints, (b) stretching boundaries, and (c) strategic positioning. Implications to improve mothers' ability to make healthy food choices that reduce their children's risk of becoming overweight or obese are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Relationship between overall child development and caries severity in Chilean three-year-old preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Mufdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between caries and overall child development in three-year-old children in the cities of Linares and Talca, Chile, 2014-2015. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 170 preschool children attending daycare centers in Linares and Talca. Four dimensions of child development (language, cognition, motor skills and socio-emotional development were qualitatively assessed using the child learning and development test (TADI, for its acronym in Spanish. Nutritional development was calculated with the weight/height index. Caries history was assessed by the dmft index and compromised tissue quantification. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's rho, ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: A negative linear correlation was observed between dmft and total TADI score (r=-0.20, p=0.00, and the dimensions of language (r=-0.19, p=0.01, cognition (r=-0.18, p=0.02 and socio-emotional development (r=-0.21, p=0.01. Preschoolers with a dmft of >6.5 had a lower average TADI score than those with a dmft of <2.6 (p=0.009. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of compromised tissue quantification between preschool children with normal and altered development. No statistically significant association between dmft and nutritional development was found. Conclusion: A relationship between caries severity and overall child development in three-year-old preschool children was observed. Longitudinal studies are required to assess causality.

  16. MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD AT PRESCHOOL AGE AND FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOSKOVSKA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ in their exposure likes to point the most complicated problems, which appeared when the mentally retarded child was born in a family that is followed by dramatic changes of their wishes and aspirations. In this contexts the authors elaborated many questions as well as:· relation between the parents;· mentally retarded child in the setting and living ambient;· social problems of mentally retarded children and their families;· the rule of the treats in the work with parents of mentally retarded child.

  17. Estimation of the level of cognitive development of a preschool child using the system of situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Gorev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a model of reliable estimation of cognitive development of a preschool child by means of the system of situations. Thus the leading technology is modeling the systems of open-type tasks of mathematical contents and the system analysis of big selections of experimental data based on the two-point scale of four parameters: optimality of the ideas offered by children; efficiency of the reasoning given by them; originality of their answer and level of decision development. As a result of the pilot study conducted in 2015 on selection of 3,800 preschool children, it was succeeded to approve the offered technology of estimation and to generalize results in the form of the integrated assessment of relative character – coefficient of cognitive development level. Mathematical-statistical processing of the results of the research allows to prove uniformity of experimental selection and to specify the level of cognitive development with a reliable accuracy of normal distribution for each age group of the preschool child basing on calculation of samples quartiles that in turn can define the further program of individual development of a child providing his transition to higher level of the general education and consequently, higher quality of education.

  18. Preschoolers' influence on and help with beverage selection at the grocery store is linked to maternal responsiveness and child beverage intake: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Guzman, Melissa; Wakefield, Dorothy; Sisson, Susan B; Mayeux, Lara

    2016-12-01

    Children's involvement in beverage selection or purchase has seldom been investigated. The responsiveness dimension of parental feeding styles has been related to healthy maternal feeding practices. Assessing mothers' reports of responsiveness and demandingness in grocery stores may shed light on influences on purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fruit juice (FJ). Study objectives were to explore whether (1) maternal responsiveness and demandingness were associated with preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases during grocery shopping and whether (2) preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases were associated with child intake of these beverages. Mothers of 3-to-5-year-old children (n=185) who co-shopped with the child completed the Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire, reported frequency of child help with selection and influence on beverage purchase via questionnaire, and provided a one-day weekend food recall for the child. In adjusted logistic regressions, responsiveness was associated with child help selecting FJ (OR=6.50, 95% CI[1.04, 40.75], pparenting behaviors associated with grocery shopping should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Making children laugh: parent-child dyadic synchrony and preschool attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Jean-FrançOis; Yurkowski, Kim; Schmiedel, Sabrina; Martin, Jodi; Moss, Ellen; Pallanca, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether dyadic synchrony of father-child and mother-child interactions in a playful context were associated with attachment organization in preschool children. One hundred seven children (48 boys, Mage = 46.67 months, SD = 8.57) and their mothers and fathers (counterbalanced order of lab visits) participated in a playful interaction without toys (Laughing Task procedure). Playful interactions were coded based on the degree to which the dyads demonstrated a variety of behavior representing dyadic synchrony and task management. Children's attachment behavior toward fathers and mothers was observed in a modified separation-reunion procedure adapted for the preschool period. Results demonstrate that mothers and fathers are similar in their effort to arouse and engage their child in a playful context, but mothers achieved a greater synchrony with their child. Disorganized attachment to either mother or father is linked with a lack of synchrony in dyadic interaction. Findings are in contrast with prevailing theory, suggesting that despite gender-related differences in parental playful behaviors, dyadic synchrony is equally important in both mother- and father-child relationships for the development of organized social and affectional bonds.

  20. Raising a Fit Preschooler

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    ... Your Preschooler Too Active? Sleep and Your Preschooler Games for Preschoolers Motivating Preschoolers to Be Active Should Your Preschooler Play Sports? Safe Exploring for Preschoolers Your Child's Weight Kids and Exercise Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: ...

  1. Child personality measures as contemporaneous and longitudinal predictors of social behaviour in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Predictive relations from personality measures to children's social behaviour in pre-school were examined for 3 year old children (at Time 1; T1 who were reassessed one year later (at Time 2; T2. At both times, mothers and fathers separately rated children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003, while the pre-school teachers assessed the same children on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Three general predictive models were examined, contemporaneous (at T1 and T2, longitudinal, and cumulative. Mother- and father-rated child personality was contemporaneously predictive of children's social behaviour as assessed by their pre-school teachers. The most consistent predictions across the spouses and at both times of measurement were obtained for child externalizing behaviour. More disagreeable and emotionally stable children, as opposed to their less disagreeable and more in stable counterparts, were concurrently observed to exhibit more externalizing tendencies during the time spent in pre-school. Maternal reports were longitudinally predictive of children's social competence and internalizing behaviour and the father reports predicted internalizing and externalizing behaviour one year later. Neuroticism at age 3 was consistently linked to internalizing tendencies at age 4 across parents both longitudinally and cumulatively. Father-rated Disagreeableness at age 3 was predictive of externalizing behaviour one year later in both longitudinal and cumulative models, while the contemporaneous information on child Disagreeableness and Neuroticism (reversed at T2, independent of the respective child traits at T1, significantly improved the cumulative predictions of externalizing behaviour from maternal reports. In general, child personality scores derived from maternal data sets were more powerful predictors of children's social behaviour across

  2. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  3. Individuating "Sparks" and "Flickers" of "A Life" in Dance Practices with Preschoolers: The "Monstrous Child" of Colebrook's Queer Vitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz; Palmer, Anna; Gustafsson, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    What are the dominant images of the Child in contemporary Western societies? In order to challenge some dominant images of the Child, this essay explores the possibilities of analyzing an experimental dance practice with preschoolers aged 1-2 years with Claire Colebrook's theorizing on "the war on norms". Colebrook suggests a "Queer…

  4. Individuating "Sparks" and "Flickers" of "A Life" in Dance Practices with Preschoolers: The "Monstrous Child" of Colebrook's Queer Vitalism

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    Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz; Palmer, Anna; Gustafsson, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    What are the dominant images of the Child in contemporary Western societies? In order to challenge some dominant images of the Child, this essay explores the possibilities of analyzing an experimental dance practice with preschoolers aged 1-2 years with Claire Colebrook's theorizing on "the war on norms". Colebrook suggests a "Queer…

  5. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

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    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  6. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  7. Associations between characteristics of the home food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children: A cross-sectional study

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    Wyse Rebecca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood is critical to the development of lifelong food habits. Given the high proportion of children with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, identification of modifiable factors associated with higher consumption may be useful in developing interventions to address this public health issue. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the home food environment that are associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of Australian preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with 396 parents of 3 to 5 year-old children attending 30 preschools within the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Children's fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using a valid and reliable subscale from the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Associations were investigated between children's fruit and vegetable intake and characteristics of the home food environment including parental role-modeling, parental providing behaviour, fruit and vegetable availability, fruit and vegetable accessibility, pressure to eat, family eating policies and family mealtime practices. Characteristics of the home food environment that showed evidence of an association with children's fruit and vegetable consumption in simple regression models were entered into a backwards stepwise multiple regression analysis. The multiple regression analysis used generalised linear mixed models, controlled for parental education, household income and child gender, and was adjusted for the correlation between children's fruit and vegetable consumption within a preschool. Results The multiple regression analysis found positive associations between children's fruit and vegetable consumption and parental fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.005, fruit and vegetable availability (p = 0.006 and accessibility (p = 0.012, the number of occasions each day that parents provided their child with fruit and vegetables

  8. FTO at rs9939609, food responsiveness, emotional control and symptoms of ADHD in preschool children.

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    Fleur P Velders

    Full Text Available The FTO minor allele at rs9939609 has been associated with body mass index (BMI: weight (kg/height (m(2 in children from 5 years onwards, food intake, and eating behaviour. The high expression of FTO in the brain suggests that this gene may also be associated with behavioural phenotypes, such as impulsivity and control. We examined the effect of the FTO minor allele (A at rs9939609 on eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in young children, thus before the BMI effect becomes apparent. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards. 1,718 children of European descent were genotyped for FTO at rs9939609. With logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model, we examined the association between the FTO minor allele and eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in preschool children. There was no relation between FTO at rs9939609 and child BMI at this age. The A allele at rs9939609 was associated with increased food responsiveness (OR 1.21, p = 0.03. Also, children with the A allele were less likely to have symptoms of ADHD (OR 0.74, p = 0.01 and showed more emotional control (OR 0.64, p = 0.01 compared to children without the A allele. Our findings suggest that before the association between FTO and BMI becomes apparent, the FTO minor allele at rs9939609 leads to increased food responsiveness, a decreased risk for symptoms of ADHD and better emotional control. Future studies are needed to investigate whether these findings represent one single mechanism or reflect pleiotropic effects of FTO.

  9. Language Development in the Pre-School Child.

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    Lenskyj, Helen

    This brief overview of child language acquisition begins with a discussion of the affective and cognitive dimensions of the transition period from babbling to speech. Three theories of language acquisition--reinforcement theory, social learning theory, and "innate mechanism" theory--are reviewed. Several theories of the function of language,…

  10. Food Intakes by Preschool Children in Flanders Compared with Dietary Guidelines

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    Inge Huybrechts

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare food group intakes among preschool children with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG and to determine the proportion of children meeting these guidelines. Food consumption of preschool children (2.5-6.5 years living in Flanders (Belgium were assessed in a cross-sectional study, using proxy reported 3d estimated dietary records (EDR (n 696. Statistical modelling was used to account for within-individual variation in the 3d EDR. Mean daily intakes of most food groups (beverages, vegetables, fruit and milk were below the minimum recommendations. Only ‘grains and potatoes’ and ‘meat products’ were in line with the recommendations and ‘bread and cereals’ showed borderline intakes. Mean intakes of energy-dense and low-nutritious foods, which are discouraged within a healthy diet (like snacks and sugared drinks, were high. Furthermore, the percentage of children complying with the different food-based dietary guidelines was for most food groups extremely low (ranging from approximately 4% for fluid and vegetable intakes up to 99% for potato intakes. Boys had in general higher mean intakes of the recommended food groups. In conclusion, preschool children in Flanders follow eating patterns that do not meet Flemish FBDG. Although the impact of these eating habits on preschooler’s current and future health should be further investigated, it is clear that nutrition education and intervention are needed among preschool children and their parents in Flanders.

  11. Association between perceived self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies among working parents with preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Demers, Karine; Turcotte, Sylvain; Mongeau, Lyne

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the associations between the perception of self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies among working parents with preschool children. In this cross-sectional study, 417 working parents with at least one child between the ages of 2 and 5 years completed a self-administered questionnaire. The association between perceived self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies referred to as home-based or "away from home" food strategies, and was verified with logistic regression analysis. High self-efficacy among working parents was associated with planning a menu for the upcoming week (OR=1.171-1.959), preparation of healthy meals with only few ingredients on hand (OR=1.152-1.495), and preparation of meals in advance (OR=1.131-1.364), which are home-based food strategies. Low self-efficacy was linked to adoption of «away from home» food strategies such as eating in fast-food restaurants (OR=0.713-0.898). self-efficacy related to meal management stands out as one of the priority consideration in planning nutrition interventions targeting working parents. Actions related to acquiring cooking skills, planning menus, and drawing up grocery lists would also be of value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reach Out and Eat: Food and Beverages Depicted in Books for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jessica L.; Linchey, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.; Patel, Anisha I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine food and beverage depictions in books for preschoolers. Methods Books for preschoolers from Reach Out and Read (ROR; n = 42), public library (n = 27), and Publisher's Weekly booklists (n = 31) were examined for nutritive and empty-calorie food and beverage depictions. Results It was found that 66% of books depicted at least I food or beverage. More books depicted nutritive items than empty-calorie items (87.5% vs 54.7%, P branding. With regard to messaging, approximately a third of books with the most empty-calorie depictions promoted unhealthy foods. Conclusions When selecting books for ROR, it may be important to consider food and beverage depictions and messages. PMID:25715825

  13. Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: Recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care objective. Abstract

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    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care Objective. To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among pre-school children in the general

  14. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ek

    Full Text Available Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ.Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM, adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC. CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators.478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese. A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06 after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30 indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37. Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71.The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children

  15. Through the eyes of a child: preschoolers' identification of emotional expressions from the child affective facial expression (CAFE) set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; Baker, Lewis; Thrasher, Cat

    2017-08-10

    Researchers have been interested in the perception of human emotional expressions for decades. Importantly, most empirical work in this domain has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing for various emotional expressions. Recently, the Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set was introduced to the scientific community, featuring a large validated set of photographs of preschool aged children posing for seven different emotional expressions. Although the CAFE set was extensively validated using adult participants, the set was designed for use with children. It is therefore necessary to verify that adult validation applies to child performance. In the current study, we examined 3- to 4-year-olds' identification of a subset of children's faces in the CAFE set, and compared it to adult ratings cited in previous research. Our results demonstrate an exceptionally strong relationship between adult ratings of the CAFE photos and children's ratings, suggesting that the adult validation of the set can be applied to preschool-aged participants. The results are discussed in terms of methodological implications for the use of the CAFE set with children, and theoretical implications for using the set to study the development of emotion perception in early childhood.

  16. Association Between Maternal Stress, Work Status, Concern About Child Weight, and Restrictive Feeding Practices in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyden, Katheryn; Sisson, Susan B; Morris, Amanda S; Lora, Karina; Weedn, Ashley E; Copeland, Kristen A; DeGrace, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home. Results Mothers were 32.6 ± 5.2 years of age and spent 39.7 ± 12.0 h/week at work. Seventy-one percent worked full time. Children were 3.4 ± 1.0 years of age and 51% male. Stress (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.001) and concern about child weight (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.00) were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Mothers with severe/extremely severe stress used restriction more than mothers with normal stress, respectively (3.63 ± 0.80, 3.30 ± 0.81, p = 0.03). No difference was found among mothers with mild/moderate stress (3.50 ± 0.63, p = 0.06). There was no association between work hours (p = 0.50) or work status (p = 0.91) and the use of restrictive feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal stress and concern about child weight were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Considering the current rates of childhood obesity in the United States, understanding factors that influence a child's food environment is advantageous and can help improve maternal and child health.

  17. The impact of television commercials on food preferences of preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective is to determine if fruit and vegetable (FV) commercials have an impact on preschool children's preferences for specific FV. A year of extensive formative assessment was conducted to develop two 30-second commercials; Judy Fruity promoted apples and bananas and Reggie Veggie promoted br...

  18. Relationships between weight status and child, parent and community characteristics in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Gregory, Parriel; Cliff, Dylan P

    2009-01-01

    To examine, using an Ecological Systems Theoretical framework, relationships between weight status and child, parent and community characteristics and risk factors among preschool children. Cross-sectional data was collected from 140 children and their parents from 11 randomly selected preschools. Outcome variables included: motor development; perceived competence; objectively measured physical activity; time spent in active and quiet play; location and number of televisions; parental rules around physical activity and time spent watching television; availability of sport and physical activity programs; and parks and open spaces and access to footpaths. Overweight children spent more time in quiet play and watching television and less time in active play and physical activity. Perceived competence and motor development were similar for both overweight and non-overweight children. Associations between weight status and several parent and community characteristics were not evident, except for access to footpaths. Overweight children had greater access to footpaths compared with non-overweight children (p=0.046). The results reported here showed little difference between overweight and non-overweight children in relation to a variety of child, parent and community variables. However, for some characteristics, differences in older children have been reported. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm when these characteristics begin to differ, what effects these differences have on behaviour and weight-status, and therefore when targeted treatment should be provided during a child's development.

  19. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  20. Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sally; Rabiee-Khan, Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    The growing concern about poor dietary practices among low-income families has led to a 'victim blaming' culture that excludes wider social and environmental factors, which influence household food choices. This small-scale qualitative study investigated influences on the diets of young children in families on a low income in the West Midlands, UK. Using semi-structured interview schedule, rich data was gathered through individual interviews with 11 mothers of pre-school children. Information was collected about the type and range of food given following the introduction of solid foods including factors influencing parent's knowledge and diet, sources of nutrition advice and financial constraints. Food accessibility and storage issues were also explored. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Findings highlighted that parents and professionals may have different interpretations about 'cooking from scratch'. The results indicated that some parents have poor understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet. However, most parents included fruit and vegetables to varying degrees and were motivated to give their children healthy foods, suggesting that, with adequate support and information, the diets of these children could be improved. There was evidence that when striving to improve the diet of their children, many parents' diets also improved. The findings from this small-scale in-depth study highlighted a number of issues for local and national policy and practice in the area of nutrition and child health in the early years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Social behaviour in pre-school children: a child-centred follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Vidmar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years, their personality type (resilient, average, willful and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004, 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self-report data sets. The styles differed mainly by authoritative parenting and stimulation, and appeared structurally similar between the spouses. Parental agreement on individual style membership significantly exceeded chance levels, but was relatively low. Therefore further analyses considered maternal parenting style only. The mothers also filled in The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 and the teachers (concurrently and one year later filled in The Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation scales (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Child personality type membership was based on classifications derived in a previous study. Relatively, the personality type exerted the strongest and the most consistent effects on child social behavior in pre-school. Social functioning of the resilient and the willful children was somewhat more efficient in comparison to their counterparts with the average profile, even though the latter showed the most improvement in these domains between ages 3 and 4. With the willful children only, less-than-optimal parenting had an adverse effect on the development of externalizing behavior, while the development of social adjustment was negatively affected by the children's late entry to pre-school.

  2. Combining child social skills training with a parent early intervention program for inhibited preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  4. Food group intake patterns and nutrient intake vary across low-income Hispanic and African American preschool children in Atlanta: a cross sectional study

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    Salvo Deborah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food group intake patterns of low income Hispanic and African American preschool children are not well documented. The aim of this study was to perform a food group intake analysis of low income minority preschool children and evaluate how macronutrient and micronutrient intake compares to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI. Methods A cross sectional study design using three-day food diaries analyzed by dietary analysis software (Nutrient Database System for Research was used. Children were recruited from well-child clinics at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Hughes Spalding and North Dekalb Grady Satellite Clinic, Atlanta, GA. Low-income, African American and Hispanic preschool age children (n = 291 were enrolled. A total of 105 completed and returned the 3-day food diaries. Chi-squared tests were used to assess demographic variables. The mean percentage of intake per day of specific food groups and sub-groups were obtained (servings of given food group/total daily servings. Food intake data and proportion of children meeting DRIs for macro- and micronutrients were stratified by race/ethnicity, nutritional status, and caloric intake, and were compared using t-tests. Regression models controlling for age, BMI and sex were obtained to assess the effect of total caloric intake upon the proportional intake of each studied food group. Results The mean age of African American children was 2.24 ± 1.07 years and Hispanic children 2.84 ± 1.12 years. African Americans consumed more kcal/kg/day than Hispanics (124.7 ± 51 vs. 96.9 ± 33, p  Conclusions Food group intake patterns among low-income children differ by ethnic group. There is a need for more research to guide program design and target nutritional interventions for this population.

  5. Food intake patterns and factors affecting in preschool children in Bushehr city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nazari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous factors, some obvious and others subtle, determine food intake patterns in children. Likes and dislikes are established in the early years. The purpose of this study is to assess the food consumption pattern and factors affecting in preschool children in bushehr city. Materials and Methods: This is descriptive, analytical study. The total of 191 preschool children (6 years old was selected at random sampling method. Data were collected by food frequency questionnaire and were analyzed by table of serving sizes food groups for children and adolescents and by SPSS software 16. Results: Frequency Of milk consumption was 41.9% daily, 40.9% weekly, and 12.6% rarely. Frequency Of fish consumption was 1.6% daily, 71.7% weekly, and 16.8% rarely. Frequency Of chicken consumption was 1% daily, 83.4% weekly, and 9.9% rarely. Frequency Of fruit consumption was 69.6% daily, 22% weekly, and 7.3% rarely. There was significant statistical relationship between Frequency consumption Of dairy, salad, fruit , juices, chicken, egg, and fathers ‘job and fathers’ and mothers’ education level.(P<0. 05 Conclusion: It is concluded that situation of food group consumption about dairy, meats, vegetables, cereals is poor but fruit consumption was good in preschool children. Based on results we recommended planning for educational program in relation to Nutrition and food group consumption by media and in school and public centers and health centers.

  6. The negative effects of poverty & food insecurity on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Chyatte, Michelle; Breaux, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the first three years of life to the developing child, examines the importance of early childhood nutrition and the detrimental effects on child health and development due to poverty and food insecurity. As development experts learn more about the importance of the first three years of life, there is growing recognition that investments in early education, maternal-child attachment and nurturance, and more creative nutrition initiatives are critical to help break the cycle of poverty. Even the slightest forms of food insecurity can affect a young child's development and learning potential. The result is the perpetuation of another generation in poverty. Conceptualizing the poorly developed child as an embodiment of injustice helps ground the two essential frameworks needed to address food insecurity and child development: the capability approach and the human rights framework. The capability approach illuminates the dynamics that exist between poverty and child development through depicting poverty as capability deprivation and hunger as failure in the system of entitlements. The human rights framework frames undernutrition and poor development of young children as intolerable for moral and legal reasons, and provides a structure through which governments and other agencies of the State and others can be held accountable for redressing such injustices. Merging the development approach with human rights can improve and shape the planning, approach, monitoring and evaluation of child development while establishing international accountability in order to enhance the potential of the world's youngest children.

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Schiffer, Linda A; Campbell, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: 'perceived responsibility', 'concern about child's weight', 'restriction', 'pressure to eat', and 'monitoring' and the 6-factor model also tested 'food as a reward'. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from 'restriction' and one low-variance item from 'perceived responsibility' were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that 'food as a reward' is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups.

  8. Shape of snack foods does not predict snack intake in a sample of preschoolers: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Lauren E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, the proportion snacking has increased. Snack foods consumed are predominantly not nutritious foods. One potential venue to increase children’s diet quality is to offer healthy snack foods and we explored if shaped snack foods would lead to increased consumption. Methods We investigated the consumption of high-fiber snacks (banana bread, pancakes, and sandwiches served either in normal (round, square or shaped (heart, hands, animals form to preschoolers 2–5 years old attending a local child care center (n = 21. The 9 weeks long, prospective, cross-over intervention study was designed to expose each child repeatedly to each snack in each shape (4 times per snack. Snacks were served as morning or afternoon snack and caretakers’ reports were used to account for the child’s consumption of a meal preceding the study snack (breakfast or lunch. Results There was no significant difference in snack consumption between the shaped and normal snacks. However, the mean energy intake from snacks was significantly greater for Caucasian children compared with Asian children. Further, Asian children consumed much less banana bread than the other two snacks. Overall, children who had not eaten breakfast or lunch prior to the morning or afternoon snack ate significantly more calories from the snacks (84.1 kcal, p-value  Conclusion Findings of this study confirm previous research that the shape of the foods does not affect snack consumption in children. However, we also report two unexpected findings: a the strong interaction between ethnicity and snack consumption and b that Asian children consumed much less banana bread than Caucasian children. The role of children’s ethnic background profoundly affects snack preference and must be considered in the study of children’s eating behaviors and in interventions to promote healthy eating habits.

  9. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  10. Latino Parents' Insight on Optimal Sleep for Their Preschool-Age Child: Does Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Thompson-Lastad, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is a risk factor for pediatric obesity. Latino children are among those groups in which both short sleep duration and obesity are prevalent. Therefore, this study sought to explore Latino parents' views about ideal sleep duration and sleep-related practices for their preschool-age children in an urban setting. Between October 2013 and January 2014, Latino parents of 2- to 5-year-old children were interviewed at 3 pediatric clinics (San Francisco, Calif). Using a semistructured interview guide, parents were asked to describe bedtime routines and sleep practices of their preschool-age children, including behavioral, parental, social, and contextual factors that may affect children's sleep. Interviews were conducted in Spanish and English. Parents also completed a brief survey on demographic information. Interviews were analyzed on the basis of a priori and emergent themes. Latino parents (n = 18) were mostly female, with a mean age of 31 years; most were foreign born; and more than half had a monthly household income of $2000 or less. The following themes emerged: parents' ideas about optimal sleep duration for their preschool-age child, consistent bedtime routines, room sharing and bed sharing, parent work and child school schedules that affect children's sleep, and crowded housing and neighborhood noise that disrupt children's sleep. These findings increase our understanding of the factors related to achieving optimal sleep duration among Latino children living in urban and often crowded housing. Findings could be used to inform future research on how to increase parental knowledge of healthy sleep practices and adequate sleep among Latino parents of young children. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary habits of Serbian preschool and schoolchildren with regard to food of animal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, V.; Šarčević, D.; Glišić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to explore attitudes and habits of Serbian preschool and school children in consumption of meat products, milk and milk products, eggs and egg products and honey and bee products. The survey was conducted on a sample of 227 children, divided into three different age groups: preschool (ages 4-6), primary school I-IV grade (ages 7-11) and primary school V-VIII grade (ages 12-15). The results showed that all examined groups of children consumed meat products, milk and milk products, eggs and egg products, and honey and bee products. In all groups of children, the most frequently consumed food (among our food category choices) was dried ham (consumed by 19.64% of preschool children; 23.75% of schoolchildren from I-IV grade; 19.74% of schoolchildren from V-VIII grade). Fewer preschool children consumed sterilized milk compared to children of school age. The results showed that in all three groups of children, the most commonly consumed milk products were yoghurt (from 12.20 to 15.29% of children consumed these) and sour cream (from 11.57 to 12.74% of children consumed this), while kefir was the least-consumed product. In addition, there was no difference in consumption of boiled or fried eggs in the examined groups of children, while the consumption of egg products (mayonnaise) was higher in the group of preschool children than in the group of schoolchildren from V-VIII grade. Preschool children consumed honey 14.99% more often than schoolchildren from I-IV grade, and 14.49% more often than did schoolchildren from grade V-VIII.

  12. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  13. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the 'Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy L; Collins, Clare E

    2016-11-10

    Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0-5.9 years) in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months (p parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months (p parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children.

  14. The Age of Entry into High-Quality Preschool, Child and Family Factors, and Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Three blocks of factors were considered as predictors of four year old children's (N = 286) personality, non-verbal intelligence and social behaviour in preschool: (a) personality characteristics at time 1 (T1) when the participants were three years old; (b) parental education and parenting practices measured at T1; and (c) age of child's entry to…

  15. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  16. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  17. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  18. PREVALENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES IN THE POPULATION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FROM THE CITY OF OSIJEK

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Nika; Vlahović, Jelena; MIŠKULIN, MAJA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is an immune-mediated hypersensitivity to allergens in food. This allergy affects about 6-8% of children younger than three years, about 4% of school-age children and about 2% of the adult population in the world. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of food allergies in the population of preschool children from the city of Osijek and to identify the most common causes of these allergies in the study population. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study ...

  19. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotion socialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotion socialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotion socialization processes throughout the preschool period.

  20. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy.

  1. Age at introduction of ultra-processed food among preschool children attending day-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Silveira, Jonas Augusto C; Menezes, Rísia Cristina Egito de; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar

    To identify the age of introduction of ultra-processed food and its associated factors among preschool children. Cross-sectional study carried out from March to June 2014 with 359 preschool children aged 17 to 63 months attending day-care centers. Time until ultra-processed food introduction (outcome variable) was described by the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the log-rank test was used to compare the survival functions of independent variables. Factors associated with ultra-processed food introduction were investigated using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. The results were shown as hazard ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The median time until ultra-processed food introduction was six months. Between the 3rd and 6th months, there is a significant increase in the probability of introducing ultra-processed food in the children's diet; and while the probability in the 3rd month varies from 0.15 to 0.25, at six months the variation ranges from 0.6 to 1.0. The final Cox proportional hazards model showed that unplanned pregnancy (1.32 [1.05-1.65]), absence of prenatal care (2.50 [1.02-6.16]), and income >2 minimum wages (1, 50 [1.09-2.06]) were independent risk factors for the introduction of ultra-processed food. Up to the 6th month of life, approximately 75% of preschool children had received one or more ultra-processed food in their diet. In addition, it was observed that the poorest families, as well as unfavorable prenatal factors, were associated with early introduction of ultra-processed food. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Household food security and adequacy of child diet in the food insecure region north in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbadi, Pascal; Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2017-01-01

    Adequate diet is of crucial importance for healthy child development. In food insecure areas of the world, the provision of adequate child diet is threatened in the many households that sometimes experience having no food at all to eat (household food insecurity). In the context of food insecure northern Ghana, this study investigated the relationship between level of household food security and achievement of recommended child diet as measured by WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding Indicators. Using data from households and 6-23 month old children in the 2012 Feed the Future baseline survey (n = 871), descriptive analyses assessed the prevalence of minimum meal frequency; minimum dietary diversity, and minimum acceptable diet. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of minimum acceptable diet with household food security, while accounting for the effects of child sex and age, maternal -age, -dietary diversity, -literacy and -education, household size, region, and urban-rural setting. Household food security was assessed with the Household Hunger Scale developed by USAID's Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project. Forty-nine percent of children received minimum recommended meal frequency, 31% received minimum dietary diversity, and 17% of the children received minimum acceptable diet. Sixty-four percent of the children lived in food secure households, and they were significantly more likely than children in food insecure households to receive recommended minimum acceptable diet [O.R = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82]. However, in 80% of food secure households, children did not receive a minimal acceptable diet by WHO standards. Children living in food secure households were more likely than others to receive a minimum acceptable diet. Yet living in a food secure household was no guarantee of child dietary adequacy, since eight of 10 children in food secure households received less than a minimum acceptable diet. The results call for research

  3. The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile in Preschool Children: A Broad Dysregulation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, Sanne Barbara; Deutz, Marike Hester Francisca; Deković, Maja; Bunte, Tessa; Schoemaker, Kim; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Prinzie, Peter; van Baar, Anneloes; Matthys, Walter

    2015-07-01

    Children with concurrent impairments in regulating affect, behavior, and cognition can be identified with the Anxious/Depressed, Aggressive Behavior, and Attention Problems scales (or AAA scales) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Jointly, these scales form the Dysregulation Profile (DP). Despite persuasive evidence that DP is a marker for severe developmental problems, no consensus exists on the preferred conceptualization and operationalization of DP in preschool years. We addressed this concern by testing and validating the factor structure of DP in a group of predominantly clinically referred preschool children. Participants were 247 children (195 boys and 52 girls), aged 3.5 to 5.5 years. Children were assessed at baseline and 18 months later, using parent and teacher reports, a clinical interview with parents, behavioral observations, and neuropsychological tasks. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a bifactor model, with a general DP factor and 3 specific factors representing the AAA scales, fitted the data better than a second-order model and a one-factor model for both parent-reported and teacher-reported child problem behavior. Criterion validity analyses showed that the DP factor was concurrently and longitudinally associated with markers of dysregulation and clinically relevant criteria, whereas the specific factors representing the AAA scales were more differentially related to those criteria. DP is best conceptualized as a broad syndrome of dysregulation that exists in addition to the specific syndromes as represented by the AAA scales. Implications for researchers and clinicians are discussed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. More nutritious food is served in child-care homes receiving higher federal food subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Kirkpatrick, Shannon; Johnson, Donna B

    2011-05-01

    The US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) serves 2.3 million children by providing monetary subsidies for food to participating child-care providers. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that higher reimbursement rates for food result in higher food expenditures and higher nutritional quality of foods served in family child-care homes participating in CACFP. Sixty family home child-care providers were recruited in 2008-2009 from King County, Washington. Half the sample received higher reimbursements and the other half received the lower rates. Participants provided a 5-day menu of meals/snacks served and food shopping receipts. The nutritional quality of foods served was assessed from portion-standardized menus. Nutritional quality was quantified as the mean adequacy (mean percent of dietary reference intake) for seven nutrients of concern for child health. Food expenditures were calculated by linking menus with receipts. Student's t tests for independent samples and general linear models were used to test for between-group differences. The two groups of providers were socioeconomically and demographically similar with comparable professional backgrounds. However, higher reimbursement providers had significantly greater menu expenditures than the lower reimbursement group ($2.36 vs $1.96/child/day; P=0.031). Reimbursement level was not associated with a difference in calories, but menus of higher reimbursement providers showed a significantly higher mean nutritional adequacy (64.5% vs 56.3%; P=0.033). The finding that reimbursement rates were positively associated with food expenditures and the nutritional quality of foods served suggests that raising CACFP reimbursements can improve child nutrition. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis in Infants and Preschool-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar-Marques, J; Carreiro-Martins, P.; Papoila, AL; Caires, I; Pedro, C; Araújo-Martins, J; Virella, D; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Leiria-Pinto, P; Neuparth, N.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) prevalence data in infants and preschool-age children are sparse, and proposed risk factors lack confirmation. In this study, 19 children’s day care centers (DCC) from 2 main Portuguese cities were selected after stratification and cluster analysis. An ISAAC’s (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) derived health questionnaire was applied to a sample of children attending DCCs. Outcomes were FA parental report and anaphylaxis. Logistic regression wa...

  6. Food depictions in picture books for preschool children: Frequency, centrality, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jane A; Descartes, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The food content and messages depicted in popular children's picture books were examined using a set of 100 "Favorite Books for Preschoolers." Sixty-nine of these books depicted food and comprised the sample. Examined were: the types and frequencies of food depicted in the text and/or illustrations of the books; the centrality (central, background); and the affect (positive, neutral, or negative) of those depictions. Each food item was counted, categorized by type, and where possible, coded for centrality and affect. Fruit was the most frequently depicted food, followed by sweetened baked goods, dairy, and vegetables. However, centrality and affect differed for these foods. For example, sweet baked goods were high in both centrality and affect. In contrast vegetables were relatively high in centrality but most often neutral in affect. Ice cream, although not in many books, always was associated with positive outcomes. Results were compared to findings in the literature on food messages presented in children's television programs. The ratio of healthy foods to nutrient-poor foods was higher in the books. However, as in television, the books emphasized the desirability of sweetened foods. The results point to the need for detailed analyses of the types of presentations associated with different foods presented in books for children, as well as for continued investigations into food messages in the growing range of media available to young children.

  7. Styles of parent-child interactions in families with preschool-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to cultural-historical and activity approaches, collaborative activity with an adult, including communication as a type of meta-activity, is considered to be the necessary mechanism of child development. A child is considered to be an active partner, possessing his/her own motives, and is guided by mental representations of the parent and interactions with him/her. Russian psychologists have developed a range of parenting style classifications; however, these styles primarily emphasize a parent’s position, contrary to methodological perspectives, with inadequate consideration of a child’s own agency. The aims of the current research were to investigate actual goal-oriented interactions between preschoolers and their parents and to outline certain patterns (types of interactions, considering both partners and analyzing interac- tions according to the activity model. A total of 75 parent-child dyads (children aged from 4.6 years to 6.11 years participated in “collaborative activity trials” in which the observational method was based on the activity approach. Cluster analysis (k-means clusterization revealed five different groups of parent-child dyads: conflictual, harmonious, distant and two-fold dominant (with dominant parent or dominant child. Between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in a range of parameters of activity and emotional components of interactions. The harmonious type of interactions is not prevalent, although subgroups with different types of domination are the most common, which may be attributed to cultural peculiarities. Domination-subordination misbalance does not seem to seriously distort the normal developmental trajectory; however, in cases of conflictual and distant dyads, interactional issues might hinder the course of goal-oriented activity, which might serve as a predictor for potential difficulties in further learning.

  8. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for…

  9. Teacher-and child-managed academic activities in preschool and kindergarten and their influence on children's gains in emergent academic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Annika K E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313715726; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool (n = 8) and kindergarten (n = 8) classrooms revealed that

  10. Teacher-and Child-Managed Academic Activities in Preschool and Kindergarten and Their Influence on Children's Gains in Emergent Academic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed in…

  11. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…

  12. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. © 2013.

  13. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes...

  14. Effects of food price shocks on child malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Arndt, Thomas Channing; Salvucci, Vincenzo;

    2016-01-01

    A propitiously timed household survey carried out in Mozambique over the period 2008/2009 permits us to study the relationship between shifts in food prices and child nutrition status in a low income setting. We focus on weight-for-height and weight-for-age in different survey quarters...... characterized by very different food price inflation rates. Using propensity score matching techniques, we find that these nutrition measures, which are sensitive in the short run, improve significantly in the fourth quarter of the survey, when the inflation rate for basic food products is low, compared...... production year, as substantially increasing malnutrition amongst under-five children in Mozambique....

  15. More than teacher directed or child initiated: Preschool curriculum type, parent involvement, and children's outcomes in the child-parent centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20 Child-Parent Centers in 1983-1985 and kindergarten in 1985-1986. We found that implementation of an instructional approach rated high by Head Teachers in teacher-directed and child-initiated activities was most consistently associated with children’s outcomes, including school readiness at kindergarten entry, reading achievement in third and eighth grades, and avoidance of grade retention. Parent involvement in school activities, as rated by teachers and by parents, was independently associated with child outcomes from school readiness at kindergarten entry to eighth grade reading achievement and grade retention above and beyond the influence of curriculum approach. Findings indicate that instructional approaches that blend a teacher-directed focus with child-initiated activities and parental school involvement are origins of the long-term effects of participation in the Child-Parent Centers.

  16. Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton Susan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating, child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food, and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI. Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term.

  17. Nutritional status of preschool children in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and food insecurity, food groups, and nutrient consumption among population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathya P Manimunda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood undernutrition is a public health concern in India. But on such a serious issue, there are no data available from the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar (A and N Islands. Objectives: Present study was designed to know the prevalence of food insecurity, to estimate food group and nutrient intake among the community, and undernutrition and clinical signs of micronutrient deficiency among the preschool children of A and N islands. Materials and Methods: Multistage random sampling was followed to select the households containing children aged 6-59 months. In the selected households' sociodemographic particulars, Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS, among preschoolers the weight and height were recorded along with the documentation of clinical signs of micronutrient deficiency, morbidities suffered over previous fortnight, and measurement of hemoglobin. Diet survey was carried out in every fourth household. Results: A total of 1259 preschoolers residing in 1082 households were examined, HFIAS was measured in 710 households in Andaman group of islands and diet survey was conducted in 290 households. The prevalence of undernutrition was around 27%, stunting was 36%, and anemia was around 81%. Undernutrition and anemia prevalence were significantly low among Nicobarese children. After adjusting for all the determinants, tribal in domicile had favorable outcome [odds ratio (OR: 0.28 (0.18, 0.43], while below poverty line family had adverse outcome on undernutrition [OR: 1.72 (1.20, 2.46]. Conclusion: Though the prevalence of undernutrition is relatively low in the islands, but high prevalence of anemia needs to be addressed. Nicobarese children fare better in almost all indicators of nutritional well-being except for stunting.

  18. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS, household dietary diversity score (HDDS, and food consumption score (FCS. Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth but not acute malnutrition (wasting with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94. Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet.

  19. An Ecological Approach to Exploring Rural Food Access and Active Living for Families With Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buro, Brandy; Gold, Abby; Contreras, Dawn; Keim, Ann L; Mobley, Amy R; Oscarson, Renee; Peters, Paula; Procter, Sandy; Smathers, Carol

    2015-01-01

    To identify factors using the Ecological Model of Childhood Overweight related to accessing nutritious foods and physical activity opportunities from the perspectives of rural parents of preschoolers. A mixed-methods study using a quantitative survey (Active Where?) and qualitative interviews. Analyzed interview themes provided context to the survey results. The setting was Head Start centers, county human service offices, and Women, Infants, and Children Program sites in rural counties in the Midwest. Rural parents (n = 377) of preschoolers took part in the survey in 7 Midwestern states; 15 similar participants were interviewed from 1 of the states. Transcribed interviews were coded. Frequencies and chi-square tests were computed; significance was set at P proximity to recreation spaces and traffic safety issues influenced physical activity. For food access, close proximity to full service grocery stores did not influence access to healthy foods because respondents traveled to urban communities to purchase healthy foods. Public transportation solutions and enhanced neighborhood safety are potential community-wide obesity prevention strategies in rural communities. However, interventions should be tailored to the community's stage of readiness. Strong social networks should be considered an asset for community change in these regions. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire among low-income African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Nelson, Timothy D; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Valenzuela, Jessica M; Sherman, Susan N; Johnson, Susan L; Powers, Scott W

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the factor structure for three of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) subscales, a widely used measure of parental feeding practices, among 296 low-income parents of African American preschool children. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an overall poor fit among CFQ subscales; Restriction, Pressure to Eat, and Concern about Child Weight, (chi(2), (df=87=300.249, CFI=1.00, NNFI=1.07, RMSEA=.091). Additionally, Cronbach's Alpha coefficients for 2 of the three subscales were below acceptable recommendations (Restriction=0.69; Pressure to Eat=0.58). These results suggest further psychometric clarification is needed to understand commonly reported feeding practice constructs among low-income African American mothers of preschool aged children.

  1. Supplemental nutrition assistance program participation and child food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabli, James; Worthington, Julie

    2014-04-01

    This article investigates the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and child food security by using data from the largest national survey of the food security of SNAP participants to date. The analysis used a survey of nearly 3000 households with children and a quasi-experimental research design that consisted of 2 sets of comparisons. Using a cross-sectional sample, we compared information collected from SNAP households within days of program entry with information collected from a contemporaneous sample of SNAP households that had participated for ∼6 months. Next, by using a longitudinal sample, we compared baseline information collected from new-entrant SNAP households with information from those same households 6 months later. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between SNAP and child food security. SNAP participation was associated with an approximately one-third decrease in the odds of children being food insecure in both samples. In the cross-sectional analysis only, SNAP was also associated with a decrease in the odds of children experiencing severe food insecurity (designated very low food security). Findings were qualitatively robust to different empirical specifications. After controlling for other possible confounders, we found children in households that had participated in SNAP for 6 months experienced improvements in food security. On the basis of these findings, we conclude SNAP serves a vital role in improving the health and well-being of low-income children by increasing food security. Future research is needed to determine whether specific groups of children experience differential improvements in food security.

  2. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ..., 2010, at 75 FR 41793. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) [Per meal rates in whole or fractions... 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983.) This notice has been determined to be not significant and was reviewed... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day...

  3. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ..., 2009, at 74 FR 34295. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) Lunch and Centers Breakfast supper \\1... related notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983.) This notice has been determined to be not... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day...

  4. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...

  5. Your Child's Development: 1 Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 1 Month KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: ...

  6. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 3 Years KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: ...

  7. Assessment of food, nutrition, and physical activity practices in Oklahoma child-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Campbell, Janis E; May, Kellie B; Brittain, Danielle R; Monroe, Lisa A; Guss, Shannon H; Ladner, Jennifer L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the obesogenic practices in all-day child-care centers caring for preschool-aged children. This study used a cross-sectional, self-reported survey mailed to centers across Oklahoma (n=314). Frequency of responses and χ(2) were calculated comparing region and star rating. Items where the majority of centers frequently report best practices include: daily fruits served (76%), daily nonfried vegetables served (71%), rarely/never served sugary drinks (92%), rarely/never used food to encourage good behaviors (88%), staff join children at table most of the time (81%), staff rarely eat different foods in view of children (69%), visible self-serve or request availability of water (93%), regular informal communication about healthy eating (86%), opportunities for outdoor play (95%), not withholding activity for punishment (91%), accessible play equipment (59% to 80% for different types of equipment), and minimization of extended sitting time (78%). Practices where centers can improve include increasing variety of vegetables (18%), reducing frequency of high-fat meats served (74% serve more than once per week), increasing high-fiber and whole-grain foods (35% offer daily), serving style of "seconds" (28% help kids determine whether they are still hungry), nonfood holiday celebrations (44% use nonfood treats), having toys and books that encourage healthy eating (27%) and physical activity (25%) in all rooms in the center, a standard nutrition (21%) and physical education (50%) curriculum, and following a written physical activity policy (43%). Practitioners can use these data to develop benchmarks and interventions, as this was the first study to assess statewide obesogenic practices in child care.

  8. Preschool Science Environment: What Is Available in a Preschool Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tsunghui

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated preschool science environments in 20 preschool classrooms (N=20) in 13 midwestern child care centers. By operationalizing Neuman's concept of "sciencing," this study used The Preschool Classroom Science Materials/Equipment Checklist, the Preschool Classroom Science Activities Checklist, and the Preschool Teacher…

  9. An Investigation of Children's Understanding of Food and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Jones, Ithel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the influences of age, family socio-economic status (SES), and parents' food knowledge on preschool, kindergarten, and second grade students' conceptual understanding of food and nutrition. Fifty-two parent-child dyads, consisting of 17 preschoolers, 17 kindergartners, and 18 second graders participated in…

  10. An Investigation of Children's Understanding of Food and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Jones, Ithel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the influences of age, family socio-economic status (SES), and parents' food knowledge on preschool, kindergarten, and second grade students' conceptual understanding of food and nutrition. Fifty-two parent-child dyads, consisting of 17 preschoolers, 17 kindergartners, and 18 second graders participated in…

  11. Enjoyment of tactile play is associated with lower food neophobia in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Helen; Thakker, Dipti

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that parental reports of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity are associated with lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in children. This study aimed to pilot a behavioral observation measure of tactile play in young children. The primary aim of the study was to see whether children's enjoyment of tactile play was associated with higher F/V consumption, as well as lower food neophobia. Seventy 2- to 5-year-old children (37 males and 33 females) and their parents were recruited through children's centers in the Leicester region of the United Kingdom during July to October 2012. Children's engagement in two tactile play tasks using sticky foods (mashed potatoes and vegetarian gelatin) was observed and rated by both the researcher and parent. Parents were asked to complete a series of questionnaires measuring F/V consumption, food neophobia, and sensory processing. It was found that lower child food neophobia was significantly related to enjoyment of tactile play, whereas child F/V consumption was associated with parental F/V consumption, but not enjoyment of tactile play. The findings strengthen the idea that tactile processing may be associated with the acceptance of food variety, but not the total amount of F/V consumed. Additional research is indicated to determine whether tactile play tasks can be used to lower child food neophobia.

  12. Transitioning to new child-care nutrition policies: nutrient content of preschool menus differs by presence of vegetarian main entrée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Baum, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Children who attend child care outside the home may be at increased risk for developing obesity. In 2012, the South Carolina ABC Child Care program issued new standards for food and nutrition. The goal of our study (conducted June to December 2012) was to examine changes that occurred at a large, Columbia, SC, preschool during the implementation of the South Carolina ABC Child Care program standards using an observational design, including a survey of parents and nutrient analysis of menus. The nutrition content of menu items before (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) and after (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) implementation of the new standards was compared. In addition, parents (N=75) were surveyed to examine opinions and support for the changes. Independent samples t tests were used to compare nutrient values before and after menu changes and analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-change vegetarian menus and pre- and post-change nonvegetarian menus. There were no significant differences between before and after menus with the exception of a 0.3 cup/day increase in vegetables (PVegetarian menus after the revisions were significantly higher in fiber (13 ± 3 g) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (11 ± 3 g; Pvegetarian menu items has the potential to improve the nutrient content of menus while keeping energy intake, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol levels at a more optimum level.

  13. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  14. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  15. Child Effortful Control as a Mediator of Parenting Practices on Externalizing Behavior: Evidence for a Sex-Differentiated Pathway across the Transition from Preschool to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.

    2011-01-01

    An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…

  16. Maternal stress and family quality of life in response to raising a child with autism: from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Rebecca L; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-11-01

    While the impact of raising a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is well documented, with mothers reporting higher levels of stress than mothers of children with other disabilities, positive maternal outcomes have also been identified. What remains unclear, however, is the role of child age on maternal outcomes. We sought to clarify the role of child age in maternal stress and family quality of life (FQoL) in mothers raising a child with ASD. Participants included 140 mothers of children aged 3-16 years grouped to represent four key stages of childhood (preschool, early school years, middle school, early high school). Using a cross-sectional design, mothers completed questionnaires assessing potential risk (e.g., child problem behaviour, symptom severity) and protective (e.g., family characteristics) factors attributed to maternal outcomes. The results revealed significant age related group differences in child internalising behaviour and ASD symptomatology between the early and middle school years. Lower levels of adaptive social behaviour in older age groups were also found. Although mothers of older children reported significantly less support from professionals than mothers of younger children, no significant age effects were found to contribute to maternal reports of stress or FQoL. The current findings support the view that mothers appear to demonstrate stable levels of stress and FQoL despite fluctuations in key child variables and a reduction in supports, across age, highlighting the ongoing nature of maternal needs and heightened levels of child symptomatology during adolescence.

  17. Child food neophobia is heritable, associated with less compliant eating, and moderates familial resemblance for BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Myles S; Heo, Moonseong; Keller, Kathleen L; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2013-08-01

    The heritability of food neophobia, the tendency to avoid new foods, was tested in 4-7-year-old twins. We also examined whether food neophobia is associated with parent-child feeding relations or child body fat. 66 same-sex twin pairs, including 37 monozygotic (MZ) and 29 dizygotic (DZ) pairs were studied. Food neophobia was assessed by parent questionnaire (Child Food Neophobia Scale, CFNS), as were child-feeding practices and "division of responsibility" feeding relations. Child anthropometry and percent body fat were directly measured. MZ and DZ twin pair correlations for food neophobia were r = 0.71 and r = -0.01, respectively: heritability= 72%. Greater food neophobia was associated with reduced child eating compliance of prompted foods (P foods (P food demands (P = 0.01). Interestingly, the correlation between maternal BMI and child BMI z-score was significant only for children high (P = 0.03), but not low (P = 0.55), in food neophobia. Child food neophobia, a highly heritable trait previously linked to emotionality, was associated with less compliant parent-child feeding relations. Strategies to combat food neophobia and foster more harmonious feeding relationships may have a role in obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. The Relationship Between Parent Perception of Child Weight, Parent Feeding Style, and Child BMI Among Low-Income, African American Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Jhazmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In February 2011, First Lady Michelle Obama revealed her plan to end the childhood obesity epidemic in America. With childhood obesity considered a health crisis, it is crucial to begin serious prevention efforts. Shaping healthy eating habits and the physical activity of children at the preschool age is a great step toward life-long prevention. The U.S. populations most affected by and at-risk for childhood obesity are African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Overweight and obesity rates are also particularly on the rise among preschool children. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight status, parent feeding style and child body mass index (BMI. A total of 82 primary caregivers of preschool-age children participated in the study. Participants were low-income and primarily African American. Primary caregivers completed surveys that included a demographic questionnaire, caregiver feeding style questionnaire and a parent perception measure. The children’s BMI information was gathered from Head Start’s nutrition coordinator. Results showed that 35% of children in the current sample had a BMI at or above the 85th percentile, which is considered overweight. Results suggest that parents perceive their child’s weight status to be at a healthier level than objective BMI estimates suggest. Parent feeding style was not significantly related to child BMI in the current study.

  19. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamse Mariëlle E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI, obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5% dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59. Results The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively, which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an

  20. Preschool and School Phases of Postmaxillectomy Prosthetic Rehabilitation in a Child: A Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashti, Mahmoud E; Sumita, Yuka I; Aswehlee, Amel M; Haraguchi, Mihoko; Otomaru, Takafumi; Hattori, Mariko; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2016-10-03

    This report describes the postmaxillectomy prosthetic rehabilitation of a child with maxillary chondrosarcoma over an 8-year period. Specifically, it (1) describes the planning and rehabilitation procedures carried out during the period from before the operation to the time when the patient started elementary school and (2) reports the results of evaluations of the patient's oral and psychosocial function conducted during the school phase. The prosthetic treatment plan was separated into two phases (the preschool and school phases) and was started prior to surgery, when an immediate surgical obturator was designed by the surgeons. After the operation, it was considered important to provide the patient and her mother with training regarding how the defect should be cleaned, trismus prevention, and how the prosthesis should be fitted. In addition, esthetic improvements and the ability to speak clearly were also targeted during treatment planning. After surgery, obturators were fabricated in a conventional manner and fitted at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years. The patient's oral function during the use of the obturators was evaluated objectively. Marked improvements in oral function were seen during both treatment phases. The patient's ability to perform psychosocial functions at school also improved during the use of the obturators. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. Relations of mother's sense of coherence and childrearing style with child's social skills in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki; Shizawa, Miho

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationships between mothers' sense of coherence (SOC) and their child's social skills development among preschool children, and how this relationship is mediated by mother's childrearing style. Mothers of 1341 Japanese children, aged 4-5 years, completed a self-report questionnaire on their SOC and childrearing style. The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the social skills scale (SSS), which comprises three factors: cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Path analyses revealed that the mother's childrearing mediated the positive relationship between mother's SOC and the cooperation, self-control, and assertiveness aspects of children's social skills. Additionally, there was a significant direct path from mother's SOC to the self-control component of social skills. These findings suggest that mother's SOC may directly as well as indirectly influence children's social skills development through the mediating effect of childrearing. The results offer preliminary evidence that focusing on support to improve mothers' SOC may be an efficient and effective strategy for improving children's social skills development.

  2. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ, and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Factor analysis of the 63 items reliably recovered a four-component solution in both, maternal and paternal self-reports indicating the following broad-band parenting practices: Authoritative Parenting, Ineffective Control, Power Assertion, and Stimulation. Variables loading high on more than one component and those that did not load on the same factor obtained from maternal and paternal data were excluded from further analyses. The 51 items that were retained and corresponded to the four factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency for both samples of respondents. In addition, parental stimulation was positively linked to authoritative parenting, while it was negatively related to ineffective control and power assertion. The mothers perceived themselves to be more authoritative and stimulative than did fathers, who described themselves as more power assertive and ineffective in control. The parent-pairs were also found to share, at least to some extent, similar parenting practices, whereas their self-perceived expression of these practices was not dependent on their child's gender.

  3. Food neophobia and enjoyment of tactile play: Associations between preschool children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Helen; Sahota, Simran

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine whether the relationship between enjoyment of tactile play and food neophobia observed in children (Coulthard & Thakker, 2015) would be related to levels seen in their parents. One hundred and twenty six participants were recruited from playgroup centres in the Walsall area of the West Midlands, UK; 63 children (2-5 years; 30 girls and 33 boys) and 63 attendant parents (53 mothers and 10 fathers). Children and their parents' enjoyment of a tactile play task was rated by both the parent and a researcher, and questionnaire measures of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity were completed by the parent for both themselves and their children. Strong associations were found between parent and child scores across all the measures; food neophobia, tactile sensitivity and tactile play enjoyment. The variables most strongly related to child food neophobia were parental neophobia and enjoyment of tactile play (parent and child). These findings indicate that family resemblance exists not only for food neophobia, but for tactile sensory processing as well, and may represent a possible inherited route to neophobia. The findings strengthen the suggestion that tactile processing is associated with food neophobia although the causal nature of this relationship is still not known.

  4. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong; Cheng, Halina; Leung,Patrick W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically derived taxonomy of preschool psychopathology. However, the utility of the measures and their taxonomy of preschool psychopathology to the Chinese is lar...

  5. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappmann, Jessica L; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C; Cohen, Deborah A; Davis, Sally M

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Head Start centers. No significant relationships emerged between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity, certain feeding behaviors, or public food assistance utilization. Additional research is necessary to understand relationships between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity status, use of public assistance benefits, and certain feeding behaviors among rural preschool-aged children in predominantly Hispanic and American Indian communities.

  6. Phthalates dietary exposure and food sources for Belgian preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Fierens, Tine; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Servaes, Kelly; Vanermen, Guido; Boon, Polly E; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that for phthalates, the intake of contaminated foods is the most important exposure pathway for the general population. Up to now, data on dietary phthalate intake are scarce and - to the authors' knowledge - not available for the Belgian population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: (1) to assess the long-term intake of the Belgian population for eight phthalates considering different exposure scenarios (benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP); dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diethyl phthalate (DEP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)); (2) to evaluate the intake of BBP, DnBP, DEP and DEHP against tolerable daily intake (TDI) values; and (3) to assess the contribution of the different food groups to the phthalate intake. The intake assessment was performed using two Belgian food consumption databases, one with consumption data of preschool children (2.5 to 6.5 years old) and another of adults (≥15 years old), combined with a database of phthalate concentrations measured in over 550 food products sold on the Belgian market. Phthalate intake was calculated using the 'Monte Carlo Risk Assessment' programme (MCRA 7.0). The intake of DEHP was the highest, followed by DiBP. The intake of BBP, DnBP and DEP was far below the TDI for both children and adults. However, for DEHP, the 99th percentile of the intake distribution of preschoolers in the worst case exposure scenario was equal to 80% of the TDI, respectively. This is not negligible, since other exposure routes of DEHP exist for children as well (e.g. mouthing of toys). Bread was the most important contributor to the DEHP intake and this may deserve further exploration, since the origin of this phthalate in bread remains unclear.

  7. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  8. Parental child abuse potential and subsequent coping competence in disadvantaged preschool children: moderating effects of sex and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Cristina M; Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E; de Arellano, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of abuse potential in parents on subsequent coping competence domains in their children, using a model empirically supported in a high-risk community sample by Moreland and Dumas (2007). Data from an ethnically diverse sample of 579 parents enrolled in the PACE (Parenting Our Children to Excellence) program was used to evaluate whether parental child abuse potential assessed at pre-intervention negatively contributed to child affective, achievement, and social coping competence in preschoolers one year later, and whether these associations were moderated by sex or ethnicity. Cross-sectional results indicated that parental child abuse potential was negatively related to child affective and achievement coping competence, after accounting for variance associated with child behavior problems. However, child abuse potential was not predictive of subsequent coping competence in any domain after controlling for previous levels of child coping competence. No moderating effects were found for sex and ethnicity, but results showed main effects of sex and ethnicity in cross-sectional analyses. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental impacts of a teacher professional development program in Chile on preschool classroom quality and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-03-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found moderate to large positive impacts on observed emotional and instructional support as well as classroom organization in prekindergarten classrooms after 1 year of the program. After 2 years of the program, moderate positive impacts were observed on emotional support and classroom organization. No significant program impacts on child outcomes were detected at posttest (1 marginal effect, an increase in a composite of self-regulation and low problem behaviors, was observed). Professional development for preschool teachers in Chile can improve classroom quality. More intensive curricular approaches are needed for these improvements to translate into effects on children.

  10. The Attitude of Parents to Pre-School Inclusive Education for Normal Children and a Child with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Gubina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of the researchis pre-school inclusive education, this kind of organization of the learning process, in which all children are included in a single system of education and training in educational institutions of General type, regardless of mental, physical and other characteristics, where they receive the necessary support and takes into account their special educational needs (children with Down syndrome. The main source of empirical data quantitative and qualitative methods of the survey of parents and teachers in inclusive groups of kindergartens of Moscow, conducted by the authors in April 2016. The subject of research is the attitude of parents of normal children to preschool inclusive education a child with Down syndrome based on their socio-demographic characteristics, level of education and awareness in the field of inclusion.

  11. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 250.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care...

  12. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  13. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  14. Feasibility of repeated 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:This study evaluates the feasibility among preschoolers of the 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) method combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program for the 24-HDR (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigati...

  15. Interacting with the Child in Preschool: A Crossroad in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    How can preschool teachers approach multiplicity and complexity in the preschool? The aim of this article is to discuss two approaches to education, one based on design and the other on open reflection, and to propose "situational sensitivity" as a concept connected within the latter approach. Special attention is paid to the ethical…

  16. Links between Preschoolers' Behavioral Regulation and School Readiness Skills: The Role of Child Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Hee; Lee, Kangyi; Sung, Miyoung

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined relations among preschoolers' behavioral regulation, gender, and school readiness outcomes in preacademic and classroom skills using a sample of South Korean preschoolers aged 3-5 ("N" = 229). Behavioral regulation was assessed using a direct measure, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which requires…

  17. The neuromotor examination of the preschool child and its prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reviews the methods available for neurological or neuromotor evaluation at preschool age. General textbooks on pediatric neurology describe the neurological examination at preschool age in terms of the assessment of the evaluation of cranial nerves, muscle tone, muscle power, refle

  18. The neuromotor examination of the preschool child and its prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reviews the methods available for neurological or neuromotor evaluation at preschool age. General textbooks on pediatric neurology describe the neurological examination at preschool age in terms of the assessment of the evaluation of cranial nerves, muscle tone, muscle power, refle

  19. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  20. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  1. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the ‘Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy L.; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0–5.9 years) in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months (p parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months (p parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children. PMID:27834906

  2. The stories of adoptive gay parents about acceptance and discrimination in the pre-school of their child or children

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. Gay adoption in South Africa is a most recent equal right bestowed on the Gay Lesbian Bisexual and Transgender (GLBT) community. To date little research has been done in South Africa and globally on this phenomenon, and even less in relation to the schools children from gay headed families attend. The purpose of the inquiry was to explore the stories of adoptive gay parents about acceptance and discrimination in the pre-school of their child or children. The inquiry draws on Queer Th...

  3. Overweight and obesity in preschoolers: Prevalence and relation to food consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretha Matos de Araujo

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To determine overweight and obesity prevalence in preschool children from public education, and to determine their relation to food consumption. Method: Cross-sectional study with children aged between 2 and 5 years, of both sexes, enrolled at municipal day care centers. Socioeconomic, demographic and anthropometric data were collected, in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI for age. Data on food consumption were assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. χ2 test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation were used at a significance level of 5%. Results: Of 548 children, 52% were male, with mean age of 4.2 years old. Most families had incomes between 1 and 2 minimum wages (59.7%, in addition to 10 years (mothers of education. Anthropometric parameters did not differ significantly between sexes. According to the BMI-for-age, it was found that most of children were well-nourished (85.2%, 8.2% had the risk of becoming overweight, and 4.2% were overweight. The most consumed foods were: rice (100%, beans (99.4%, bread (98.5%, fruit (98.5%, red meat (97.1%, butter and margarine (95.4%, biscuits, cakes and sweet pies (94.1%, dairy products (94.1%, chocolate milk (91.7%, and soft drinks (90.2%. Consumed foods that were strongly correlated (r > 0.7 to the risk of/excess weight were, as follows: bread; biscuits, cakes, sweet pies; dairy products; chocolate milk; sausages. Conclusion: There was low prevalence of overweight and absence of obesity among the population assessed. The risk of overweight was greater among girls. Data from the study showed deviations in food consumption.

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2008-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity in preschool children has increased dramatically in recent years. The preschool years (age 3-6 years) have been regarded as critical for the programming of energy balance, via the concept of early 'adiposity rebound'. Children who undergo early adiposity rebound are at increased risk of later obesity. Recent evidence suggests that associations between timing of adiposity rebound and later obesity may not reflect programming, but might denote that 'obesogenic' growth trajectories are often established by the preschool period. Studies of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children show that levels of physical activity are typically low and sedentary behaviour high. The review of evidence presented here is supportive of the hypothesis that physical activity is protective against obesity in the preschool period, and that sedentary behaviour, particularly television viewing, is obesogenic. Definitive evidence on dose-response relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity remain unclear. Dose-response evidence could be obtained fairly readily by intervention and longitudinal observational studies that use accelerometry in preschool children. The generalisability of much of the evidence base is limited and there is a need for research on the influence of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the preschool years in the aetiology of obesity in the developing world.

  5. Conflict Competence of Preschool Children and its Relationship with the Sociometric Status of the Child in the Peer Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisenkova N.S.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the conflict competence of children of preschool age and identification of its relationship with the child's sociometric status in the peer group. The hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the sociometric status of preschoolers in the peer group and the strategy of their behavior in a conflict situation, a conflict of competence. The study involved children (41 children: 22 boys and 19 girls aged 5-7 years, attending preparatory groups in kindergartens in Moscow (in 2011-2013. The study was conducted using an experimental technique "Desk of cooperation" (M. Madsen, aimed at the study of conflict competence, the sociometric technique "Two Houses" (modification by R.I. Govorova, and a survey of educators aimed at identifying the status position in the preschool group peers. According to the survey, we can say that there are qualitative differences in the strategies of behavior in the conflict that children with different sociometric status choose.

  6. Your Child's Development: 2 Years (24 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 2 Years (24 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your ...

  7. Using Negative Reinforcement to Increase Self-Feeding in a Child with Food Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Petula C. M.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a negative reinforcement-based treatment on the self-feeding of 1 child with food selectivity by type and texture. Self-feeding increased when the child could choose to either self-feed 1 bite of a target food or be fed 1 bite of the target food and 5 bites of another food. Possible mechanisms that underlie the…

  8. Maternal encouragement and discouragement: Differences by food type and child weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-06-01

    Childhood obesity prevention practice guidelines recommend that parents encourage the intake of certain types of foods and discourage the intake of others. It is unknown if parents of children of different weight statuses encourage or discourage their child's intake differently based on food type. The objective of this study was to determine the association of child weight status with maternal encouragement and discouragement of for four different types of food. A total of 222 mother-child dyads were video-taped during the standardized, sequential presentation of four foods to both participants: cupcakes (familiar dessert), green beans (familiar vegetable), halva (unfamiliar dessert) and artichoke (unfamiliar vegetable). Mother's encouragements and discouragements of child intake were reliably coded for each food type. Poisson regression models were used to test the independent association of child weight status (normal weight, overweight and obese) with encouragement and discouragement for each food type. Mothers of an obese, vs. normal or overweight child, had lower rates of encouragement for a familiar dessert (p = 0.02), and a higher rates of discouragements for a familiar dessert (p = 0.001), a familiar vegetable (p = 0.01), and an unfamiliar vegetable (p = 0.001). There were no differences in encouragements or discouragements between mothers of an overweight, vs. obese child, for any of the 4 food types. Mothers of obese children may alter their feeding behavior differentially based on food type. Future work should examine how interventions promoting maternal encouragement or discouragement of different food types impact child weight status.

  9. Soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems: the role of food insecurity and sleep patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christian

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems differs by food security status and sleep patterns in young children. Cross-sectional observational data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), which collected information on food insecurity, soft drinks consumption, sleep patterns and child behaviour problems. Bivariate and multivariate ordinary least-squares regression analyses predicting child behaviour problems and accounting for socio-economic factors and household characteristics were performed. Twenty urban cities in the USA with a population of 200 000 or more. Parental interviews of 2829 children who were about 5 years old. Soft drinks consumption was associated with aggressive behaviours, withdrawn and attention problems for children aged 5 years. However, the association differed by food security status. The association was mostly statistically insignificant among food-secure children after accounting for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. On the other hand, soft drinks consumption was associated with behaviour problems for food-insecure children even after accounting for these factors. However, after accounting for child sleep patterns, the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems became statistically insignificant for food-insecure children. The negative association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems could be explained by sleep problems for food-insecure children. Since about 21 % of households with children are food insecure, targeted efforts to reduce food insecurity would help improve dietary (reduce soft drinks consumption) and health behaviours (improve sleep) and reduce child behaviour problems.

  10. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates, and Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations...

  11. One Year of Preschool or Two - Is It Important for Adult Outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Humpage, Sarah; Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A

    2014-05-01

    Until the last year, public funding for preschool education had been growing rapidly over a decade with most state programs providing one year of preschool for four year olds. Fewer three year olds are enrolled in preschool. To investigate the importance of enrollment duration, this study is the first to estimate long-term dosage effects of years of preschool. We use data from a cohort of 1,500 students in the Chicago Longitudinal Study who enrolled in the Chicago Public Schools in the mid-1980s. Many of these students participated in a high-quality preschool program called Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for one or two years. To address selection with multiple treatments, we employ inverse propensity score weighting. Relative to children who attended one year of CPC preschool, the two-year group is significantly less likely to receive special education or be abused or neglected or to commit crimes. The findings provide support for the long-term benefits of greater exposure to preschool.

  12. Childhood overweight and obesity among Kenyan pre-school children: association with maternal and early child nutritional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A

    2010-04-01

    To report on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in Kenya and examine the associations between childhood overweight and selected maternal and child-related factors. Demographic Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1495 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years in Kenya. Over 30 % of the children were stunted, approximately 16 % were underweight, 4 % were wasted, approximately 18 % were overweight and 4 % were obese; 8 % were both overweight/obese and stunted. Maternal overweight and obesity, higher levels of maternal education, being a large or very large child at birth, and being stunted were each associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. Older children and large household size were each associated with lower odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. The analysis demonstrates the presence of under- and overnutrition among Kenyan pre-school children and the importance of focusing on expanding efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition within this population. It also identifies some of the modifiable factors that can be targeted in these efforts.

  13. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  14. McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (McGovern-Dole program) helps support education, child development, and food security for some of the world's poorest children. It provides for donations of U.S. agricultural products, as well as financial and technical assistance, for school feeding and maternal and…

  15. Roles for Schools and School Social Workers in Improving Child Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Frongillo, Edward A.; Fishbein, Eliza M.; Burke, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is associated with a range of child developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges, all of which can inhibit a child's school success. Schools offer a number of formal and informal services aimed at reducing food insecurity, but the problems associated with identifying children in need, addressing issues of stigma, and…

  16. Roles for Schools and School Social Workers in Improving Child Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Frongillo, Edward A.; Fishbein, Eliza M.; Burke, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is associated with a range of child developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges, all of which can inhibit a child's school success. Schools offer a number of formal and informal services aimed at reducing food insecurity, but the problems associated with identifying children in need, addressing issues of stigma, and…

  17. Strategies low-income parents use to overcome their children's food refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents play a key role in the development of eating habits in preschool children, as they are the food "gatekeepers". Repeated exposure to new foods can improve child food preferences and consumption. The objective of this study was to determine parent feeding strategies used to influence child acc...

  18. Food insecurity and maternal-child nutritional status in Mexico: cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Morales-Ruan, Carmen; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-07-31

    To examine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and risk of childhood stunting and to determine whether this association is modified by maternal-child overweight/obesity. Observational cross-sectional study. Data come from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012 by its initials in Spanish), representative of rural and urban areas. Our study sample included 5087 mother-preschool child pairs and 7181 mother-schoolchild pairs. Differences in the prevalence (95% CI) of each HFI category by socioeconomic characteristics and maternal-child nutritional status were estimated. A logistic regression model was conducted for stunting and overweight among preschool children and for stunting and overweight/obesity among schoolchildren, adjusting for pertinent covariates. HFI was measured according to the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA by its initials in Spanish). Weight and recumbent lenght or height measures were obtained from children. Overweight and obesity in women were determined according to the WHO Growth Reference Charts. The following covariates were included: sex of the child. urbanicity (urban/rural), region of residence and maternal education. Benefiting from food assistance programmes and socioeconomic status index were also included. Results were expressed as adjusted ORs. Stunting proved more prevalent in preschool children with moderate or severe HFI (16.2% and 16.8%, respectively) (p=0.036 and p=0.007, respectively) than in their counterparts with mild or no HFI (13.2% and 10.7%, respectively). Furthermore, the interaction between HFI and maternal obesity had a significant impact on stunting in preschool children (pobese mothers but not in those with obese mothers. We have discovered a new relationship between HFI and maternal obesity on the one hand and risk of childhood stunting on the other hand. This may reflect a shared mechanism involving dual forms of malnutrition. © Article author

  19. La preparacion del maestro y la interaccion entre maestro y nino en programas preescolares (Teacher Preparation and Teacher-Child Interaction in Preschools). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Susan; Wilcox-Herzog, Amanda

    It is generally agreed that because so much basic early learning occurs through interactive experiences when children are very young, the quality of teacher-child interactions contributes substantially to effects of group care and preschool education on children. Thus it is important to know if specialized teacher education in early childhood…

  20. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  1. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Lee Jones

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs, and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥ 7 hours/night and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score. The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥ 10 hours/night, family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤ 2 hours/day of TV, video, DVD, and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  2. Improving nutrition in home child care: are food costs a barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Johnson, Donna B

    2012-02-01

    Child-care providers have a key role to play in promoting child nutrition, but the higher cost of nutritious foods may pose a barrier. The present study tested the hypothesis that higher nutritional quality of foods served was associated with higher food expenditures in child care homes participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). In this cross-sectional study, nutritional quality of foods served to children and food expenditures were analysed based on 5 d menus and food shopping receipts. Nutritional quality was based on servings of whole grains, fresh whole fruits and vegetables, energy density (kJ/g) and mean nutrient adequacy (mean percentage of dietary reference intake) for seven nutrients of concern for child health. Food expenditures were calculated by linking receipt and menu data. Associations between food expenditures and menu quality were examined using bivariate statistics and multiple linear regression models. USA in 2008-2009. Sixty child-care providers participating in CACFP in King County, Washington State. In bivariate analyses, higher daily food expenditures were associated with higher total food energy and higher nutritional quality of menus. Controlling for energy and other covariates, higher food expenditures were strongly and positively associated with number of portions of whole grains and fresh produce served (P = 0·001 and 0·005, respectively), with lower energy density and with higher mean nutrient adequacy of menus overall (P = 0·003 and 0·032, respectively). The results indicate that improving the nutritional quality of foods in child care may require higher food spending.

  3. Veterinary antibiotics in food, drinking water, and the urine of preschool children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Ho, Keith W K; Ying, Guang-Guo; Deng, Wen-Jing

    2017-09-07

    Due to the harmful effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) residues in food on children's health, urine samples from 31 preschool and primary school children were analyzed for 13 common VAs. Samples of raw and cooked pork, chicken, fish, milk and drinking water from the children's living areas were also analyzed for residual VAs. Urinalysis revealed one to four target antibiotics in 77.4% of the sample group, with concentrations as high as 0.36ng/mL. Norfloxacin and penicillin had the highest detection rates (48.4% and 35.5%, respectively), with median concentrations of 0.037 and 0.13ng/mL, respectively. The VA burden of children in HK was lower than that in Shanghai. Enrofloxacin, penicillin, and erythromycin were the most detected VAs in raw and cooked food. Only oxytetracycline was detected in terminal tap water, and none were detected in milk. Tetracycline and doxycycline hyclate were detected in organic eggs (up to 7.1ng/g) and regular eggs (up to 6.6ng/g), which were common in children's diets. Traditional Chinese cooking processes did not completely eliminate VAs, and the concentrations of some VAs increased, especially after frying and roasting. The estimated daily intake (EDI) results show that the contribution of dietary intake and that based on the urine concentrations of VAs were far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The EDIs from urine were significantly lower than those based on cooked foods. The highest level of achievement percentage (LAP) based on dietary consumption and urine concentrations were 39.7% and 1.79%, respectively, and thus current levels of exposure to VAs would not seem to pose a risk to children's health. However, harmful effects of residual VAs during developmental periods may occur with exposure to much lower doses than those considered harmful to adults, and further investigation of these emerging pollutants is urgently encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of food price inflation on infant and child mortality in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Hoon; Lee, Suejin A; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Cyn-Young

    2016-06-01

    After a historic low level in the early 2000s, global food prices surged upwards to bring about the global food crisis of 2008. High and increasing food prices can generate an immediate threat to the security of a household's food supply, thereby undermining population health. This paper aims to assess the precise effects of food price inflation on child health in developing countries. This paper employs a panel dataset covering 95 developing countries for the period 2001-2011 to make a comprehensive assessment of the effects of food price inflation on child health as measured in terms of infant mortality rate and child mortality rate. Focusing on any departure of health indicators from their respective trends, we find that rising food prices have a significant detrimental effect on nourishment and consequently lead to higher levels of both infant and child mortality in developing countries, and especially in least developed countries (LDCs). High food price inflation rates are also found to cause an increase in undernourishment only in LDCs and thus leading to an increase in infant and child mortality in these poorest countries. This result is consistent with the observation that, in lower-income countries, food has a higher share in household expenditures and LDCs are likely to be net food importing countries. Hence, there should be increased efforts by both LDC governments and the international community to alleviate the detrimental link between food price inflation and undernourishment and also the link between undernourishment and infant mortality.

  5. Health impact assessment and monetary valuation of IQ loss in pre-school children due to lead exposure through locally produced food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, J; Buekers, J; Van Holderbeke, M; Torfs, R

    2012-01-01

    A case study has been performed which involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb) and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR) in response to current and future legislation. Consecutive model calculations (MSCE-HM, WATSON, XtraFOOD, IEUBK) were performed by different partners on the project as part of the full chain approach to derive estimates of blood lead (B-Pb) levels in children as a consequence of the consumption of local produce. The estimated B-Pb levels were translated into an average loss of IQ points/child using an empirical relationship based on a meta-analysis performed by Schwartz (1994). The calculated losses in IQ points were subsequently further translated into the average cost/child using a cost estimate of €10.000 per loss of IQ point based on data from a literature review. The estimated average reduction of cost/child (%) for all countries considered in 2010 under BAU and MFTR are 12.16 and 18.08% as compared to base line conditions, respectively. In 2020 the percentages amount to 20.19 and 23.39%. The case study provides an example of the full-chain impact pathway approach taking into account all foreseeable pathways both for assessing the environmental fate and the associated human exposure and the mode of toxic action to arrive at quantitative estimates of health impacts at the individual and

  6. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  7. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  8. Preschoolers' Social Interest toward a Child with ASD and Their Theory of Mind Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai-Mashiach, Mati; Ziv, Margalit; Dromi, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities of typically developing preschoolers in three age groups: three- to four-, four- to five- and five- to six-years-old (n = 110), who differed in their spontaneous social interest toward included children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social interest was assessed by administering a…

  9. The Relationship of Parenting Stress and Child Temperament to Language Development among Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah

    2008-01-01

    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to…

  10. Independence and Interplay between Maternal and Child Risk Factors for Preschool Problem Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the independence and interplay between cognitive risk factors (poor executive function/emotion understanding) and maternal risk factors (low education/high depression) for preschool problem behaviors, indexed by multi-measure, multi-informant (mother/teacher/ researcher) ratings. A socio-economically diverse sample of 235…

  11. Age, Sex, Intelligence and Parents' Occupation and the Moral Development of the Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    1984-01-01

    Results indicate that preschool children are capable of making moral judgments in both apology-restitution and guilt-innocence test contexts. Age and sex are significantly related to both moral judgment measures, while intelligence and parent occupation are unrelated to both measures. (Author/RH)

  12. Relations among Home Literacy Environment, Child Characteristics and Print Knowledge for Preschool Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…

  13. Feasibility and Benefit of Parent Participation in a Program Emphasizing Preschool Child Language Development while Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the feasibility of homeless parents' participation in an intervention to increase use of facilitating language strategies during interactions with their preschool children while residing in family homeless shelters. This study also examined the intervention's impact on the parents' use of facilitating…

  14. The Relationship of Parenting Stress and Child Temperament to Language Development among Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah

    2008-01-01

    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to…

  15. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  16. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Cheng, Halina; Leung, Patrick W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically…

  17. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... June 30, 2013, on July 24, 2012, in the Federal Register at 77 FR 43229. Adjusted Payments The... related notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983.) This notice has been determined to be not... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day...

  18. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  19. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  20. Food and general neophobia in Swedish families: parent-child comparisons and relationships with serving specific foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, U K; Sjödén, P O

    1996-04-01

    The aims were to investigate the occurrence of food and general neophobia in Swedish families with children 2-17 years of age, parent-child correlations with respect to neophobia and the relationships between neophobia and the reported serving of specific foods in the family. A group of 370 randomly selected families from two Swedish towns (stratified, 185 from each) were invited and 57 (15%) participated. The results are based on the Food and General Neophobia Scales (Pliner & Hobden, 1992), parental ratings of child food neophobia and an ad hoc Food Frequency Questionnaire. The overall levels of neophobia were relatively low for both children and parents. There were only a few significant gender differences with respect to Food Neophobia but fathers and boys scored numerically higher than did mothers and girls on several items in the Food Neophobia Scale. The children, particularly boys, showed significantly higher Food and General Neophobia than their parents. Both Food and General Neophobia tended to decrease with increasing age among the children. Families were divided according to whether specific foods had been served or not. This classification showed virtually no relationship with the degree of food neophobia of family members. However, the higher the food neophobia in mothers and children, the fewer of the listed uncommon foods had been served in the family.

  1. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Halina

    2010-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically derived taxonomy of preschool psychopathology. However, the utility of the measures and their taxonomy of preschool psychopathology to the Chinese is largely unknown and has not been studied. The present study aimed at testing the cross-cultural factorial validity of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF, as well as the applicability of the taxonomy of preschool psychopathology they embody, to Mainland Chinese preschoolers. Country effects between our Chinese sample and the original U.S. sample, gender differences, and cross-informant agreement between teachers and parents were also to be examined. A Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF was completed by parents and teachers respectively on 876 preschoolers in Mainland China. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the original, U.S.-derived second order, multi-factor model best fit the Chinese preschool data of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. Rates of total behavior problems in Chinese preschoolers were largely similar to those in American preschoolers. Specifically, Chinese preschoolers scored higher on internalizing problems while American preschoolers scored higher on externalizing problems. Chinese preschool boys had significantly higher rates of externalizing problems than Chinese preschool girls. Cross-informant agreement between Chinese teachers and parents was relatively low compared to agreement in the original U.S. sample. Results support the generalizability of the taxonomic structure of preschool psychopathology derived in the U.S. to the Chinese, as well as the applicability of the Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. PMID:20821258

  2. Food and family: a socio-ecological perspective for child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H; Jones, Blake L

    2012-01-01

    Using an ecological framework (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), and the specific concepts outlined in the "Six-C's Model" of contributors to child overweight and obesity by Harrison et al. (2011), this chapter reviews recent evidence linking the dynamics of food consumption to socialization practices, child health, media influences, and contextual factors such as poverty and culture. We discuss the multiple influences of food in a child's life, focusing on each of the different levels of the Six-C's Model, highlighting the influences of parental feeding practices, family mealtimes, and television viewing on food consumption. We provide examples of childhood obesity and household food insecurity to illustrate how food and family connect across different ecologies to result in either poor or optimal outcomes for children under different levels of risk. We conclude with recommendations for research, practice, and policy surrounding children's food consumption.

  3. Your Child's Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ...

  4. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  5. Understanding and Changing Food Consumption Behavior Among Children: The Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Jayne K; Noar, Seth M; Thayer, Linden

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical models attempting to explain diet-related weight status among children center around three individual-level theories. Alone, these theories fail to explain why children are engaging or not engaging in health-promoting eating behaviors. Our Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model takes a comprehensive approach and was developed specifically to help explain child food consumption behavior and addresses many of the theoretical gaps found in previous models, including integration of the life course trajectory, key influencers, perceived behavioral control, and self-regulation. Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model highlights multiple levels of the socioecological model to explain child food consumption, illustrating how negative influence at multiple levels can lead to caloric imbalance and contribute to child overweight and obesity. Recognizing the necessity for multi-level and system-based interventions, this model serves as a template for holistic, integrated interventions to improve child eating behavior, ultimately impacting life course health development.

  6. The Legal Regulations of the Preschool Teachers Child Abuse Behavior%我国幼儿教师虐待儿童行为的法律干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美锟

    2012-01-01

    幼儿教师以暴力、体罚、冷漠和忽视等方式对幼儿进行虐待的现象已经引起了社会的广泛重视。幼儿阶段的身心发展非常重要,幼儿教师残忍的虐待行为不仅会伤害到幼儿的身体健康,更加会影响幼儿的心理发展,给童年记忆造成了无法磨灭的阴影,影响深远。针对幼儿教师的虐待行为,《教师法》、《刑法》、《行政处罚法》都存在可以干预的方式,建立幼儿教师准入机制,增设"虐待儿童罪",设立监管幼儿教师教学行为的专门机构等,都是约束幼儿教师虐待行为的可行手段。%Preschool teachers use the violence,corporal punishment,indifference and neglect for child abuse has such as the phenomenon has aroused widely attention of society.Preschool teachers cruel abusive behavior will not only harm children's health,but also will affect children's psychological development.According to preschool teacher's abusive behavior,the "Pedagogic law","Criminal law","The law on administrative punishments",establish the way can intervention preschool teachers access system,set up the "child abuse sin" and set up supervision of preschool teachers' teaching behaviors,are the abusive behavior of preschool teachers constraints viable method.

  7. Supervisors' perceptions of productivity of employees with preschool children in workplace on-site child care

    OpenAIRE

    Marickovich, Patricia Pesut

    1989-01-01

    Corporate leaders at Dominion Bankshares Corporation established an on-site child care facility at its operations center for its Roanoke, Virginia employees. The immediate supervisors of parents of children enrolled in the Dominion Child Development Center were surveyed to determine the factors they believed affected worker productivity and their perceptions of how employees' work habits had changed as a result of the opening of the child care center. A description of ...

  8. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    .... This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used...

  9. Maternal feeding strategies and child's food intake: considering weight and demographic influences using structural equation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Warschburger Petra; Kröller Katja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research concerning child's food intake have considered various influencing factors, for example parental feeding strategies, demographic and weight factors. At this time, however, there are few findings that explore these factors simultaneously. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test a structural equation model regarding the associations between maternal feeding strategies and child's food intake. Methods 556 mothers and their children between 1 and 10 years of ag...

  10. Simple Justice: A Case for Mainstreaming the Severely Emotionally Handicapped Bilingual Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Stephania; Levy, Linda

    The paper deals with a mental health program designed to treat the 2 1/2 to 5 year old Mexican American child with severe emotional or behavioral problems. Components of the program included a mutual agreement with Parent Child Centers (Headstart) in the community; staff who had expertise to evaluate, diagnose, design, and implement an individual…

  11. Preschoolers' Aggression and Parent-Child Conflict: A Multiinformant and Multimethod Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Bishop, Christa M.

    2008-01-01

    This multiinformant and multimethod study (N = 47) investigated the link between the parent-child relationship system and the display of physical and relational aggression with peers at school during early childhood. Children (mean age = 43.54 months, SD = 8.02) were observed (80 min/child) during free play, and parents and teachers were asked to…

  12. Child Routines and Self-Regulation Serially Mediate Parenting Practices and Externalizing Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bater, Lovina Rose; Jordan, Sara Sytsma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies clearly indicate that parenting practices relate to child externalizing behaviors, although the mechanisms underlying this relation are less well understood. There has been limited evaluation of child routines and self-regulation in relation to these variables, and no known studies have evaluated all of these variables…

  13. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  14. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  15. Crossover Effects Among Parental Hostility and Parent-Child Relationships During the Preschool Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    Parental hostility may have widespread effects across members of the family, whereby one parent's hostility might disrupt the other parent's ability to maintain a positive relationship with his or her children. The present study prospectively examined crossover effects of parental hostility on parent-child relationship quality in a sample of 210 families. At child ages 3, 4, and 5, mothers and fathers completed questionnaires assessing feelings of hostility. In addition, mother-child and father-child dyadic relationship quality were coded at each age during naturalistic home observations. Results from structural equation analyses indicated that mother and father hostility were relatively stable over the two year period. Further, results were consistent with notions of fathering vulnerability, such that the father-child relationship might be especially susceptible to parental hostility. Possible compensatory processes, wherein mothers may compensate for father hostility, were also explored. Child and parent gender add further complexity to the results, as the father-son relationship appears most susceptible to crossover effects of parental hostility, whereas the father-daughter relationship might be somewhat protected in the early childhood period. Findings from the current investigation highlight the need for broader perspectives on family functioning, considering influences across family subsystems and the effects of both parent and child gender.

  16. Estimation of the Level of Cognitive Development of a Preschool Child Using the System of Situations with Mathematical Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorev, Pavel M.; Bichurina, Svetlana Y.; Yakupova, Rufiya M.; Khairova, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development of personality can be considered as one of the key directions of preschool education presented in the world practice, where preschool programs are educational ones, and preschool education is the first level of the general education. Thereby the purpose of the research is to create a model of reliable estimation of cognitive…

  17. ANXIETY AND ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER IN PRESCHOOLERS RECEIVING PSYCHIATRIC CARE: THE FATHER-CHILD ACTIVATION RELATIONSHIP AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account.

  18. Child Care Choices, Food Choices, and Children’s Obesity Status

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of differences in child care and food environments on obesity among children in the age group of four to six years. To address non-random selection of children into different child care settings, we first predict market price of child care and market wages, and then examine how these affect choice of child care settings and the amount of time children spend in different settings. Using panel data models, we analyze the role of care settings on frequency of consumption o...

  19. Food aid and child nutrition in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes R. Quisumbing

    2003-01-01

    "Food aid programs have become increasingly important for disaster relief in many developing countries. In Ethiopia, a drought-stricken economy with one of the lowest per capita incomes in the world, food aid has amounted to almost 10 million metric tons (mt) from 1984 to 1998, almost 10 percent of annual cereal production. Because of the importance of food aid in Ethiopia, much effort has been devoted to evaluation of its effectiveness.....Many evaluations of food aid have examined its impac...

  20. Effects of food price shocks on child malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Hussain, M. Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    to the first semester or three quarters, when food price inflation was generally high. The prevalence of underweight, in particular, falls by about 40 percent. We conclude that the best available evidence points to food penury, driven by the food and fuel price crisis combined with a short agricultural...

  1. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  2. The relationship between child and parent food hedonics and parent and child food group intake in children with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Osterholt, Kathrin M; Hart, Chantelle N; Jelalian, Elissa; Wing, Rena R; Goldfield, Gary S

    2011-03-01

    Many factors influence children's dietary intake, including children's and parents' food hedonics (liking), and parent intake. This secondary data analysis studied the relationship between child and parent liking, and parent intake and child intake of fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, snack foods, and sweetened beverages in 4- to 9-year-old overweight/obese (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children presenting for obesity treatment (September 2005 to September 2007) in Providence, RI. One hundred thirty-five parent-child pairs, with complete baseline dietary (3-day food record) and food group hedonic data were included. Hedonic ratings were mean ratings using a 5-point Likert scale (lower scores represented greater liking of a food group). Children were aged 7.2±1.6 years, 63.0% girls, 12.6% African American, and 17.8% Hispanic, with a mean body mass index z score of 2.3±0.6. Total servings consumed by children over 3 days were: fruits 2.7±3.2, vegetables 3.4±2.5, low-fat dairy 2.4±2.1, snack foods 5.9±4.2, and sweetened beverages 2.7±3.1. After demographic and anthropometric variables were controlled, parent intake was positively related (Pchildren with obesity/overweight, parent intake was consistently related to child intake. Changing parent intake may be important in helping to change the dietary intake of young children with overweight/obesity.

  3. School-based nutrition programs are associated with reduced child food insecurity over time among Mexican-origin mother-child dyads in Texas Border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalty, Courtney C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R

    2013-05-01

    In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers' and children's (aged 6-11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs. Forty-eight Mexican-origin mother-child dyads completed standardized, Spanish-language food-security instruments during 2 in-home visits between July 2010 and March 2011. Multilevel longitudinal logistic regression measured change in food security while accounting for correlation in repeated measurements by using a nested structure. Cohen's κ statistic assessed dyadic discordance in child food insecurity. School-based nutrition programs reduced the odds of child food insecurity by 74% [OR = 0.26 (P food insecurity [OR = 4.63 (P = 0.03)]. Fair dyadic agreement of child food insecurity was observed [κ = 0.21 (P = 0.02)]. Obtaining accurate prevalence rates and understanding differences of intrahousehold food insecurity necessitate measurement at multiple occasions throughout the year while considering children's perceptions and experiences of food insecurity in addition to parental reports.

  4. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices : Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ek; Kimmo Sorjonen; Karin Eli; Louise Lindberg; Jonna Nyman; Claude Marcus; Paulina Nowicka

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Ques...

  5. [The use of therapeutic play in the intensive care of a preschool child with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Hua; Feng, Jui-Ying

    2015-04-01

    Hospitalization is a stressful experience for children that increases their anxiety and fears, generates resistance and noncompliance, and, as a result, delays necessary treatments. Developing an age-appropriate intervention to reduce the hospitalization-related stress perceived by children is an important component of pediatric nursing. This case study used therapeutic play and drawing to care for a virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome preschooler who stayed in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between 11/13/2012 and 11/19/2012. Stressors faced by the patient included separation from primary caregiver, unfamiliarity with the medical environment and equipment, non-comprehension of the treatment and medication regimens, and loss of control. The patient displayed incorporative behaviors such as crying, screaming, refusing to be touched, and requesting parental accompaniment. Painting and picture books were used as developmentally appropriate interventions to understand the patient's feelings and to provide a means for him to project and release emotions. This strategy successfully assisted the child to overcome the perceived stress of hospitalization and to cooperate with healthcare providers on his treatment.

  6. Child-Robot Interactions for Second Language Tutoring to Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Paul; de Haas, Mirjam; de Jong, Chiara; Baxter, Peta; Krahmer, Emiel

    2017-01-01

    In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner. We also believe that the first impressions children have about robots are crucial for them to build trust and common ground, which would support child-robot interactions in the long term. We therefore propose a strategy to introduce the robot in a safe way to toddlers. Other features relate to the ability to adapt to individual children's language proficiency, respond contingently, both temporally and semantically, establish joint attention, use meaningful gestures, provide effective feedback and monitor children's learning progress. Technical challenges we observe include automatic speech recognition (ASR) for children, reliable object recognition to facilitate semantic contingency and establishing joint attention, and developing human-like gestures with a robot that does not have the same morphology humans have. We briefly discuss an experiment in which we investigate how children respond to different forms of feedback the robot can give.

  7. Child-Robot Interactions for Second Language Tutoring to Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner. We also believe that the first impressions children have about robots are crucial for them to build trust and common ground, which would support child-robot interactions in the long term. We therefore propose a strategy to introduce the robot in a safe way to toddlers. Other features relate to the ability to adapt to individual children’s language proficiency, respond contingently, both temporally and semantically, establish joint attention, use meaningful gestures, provide effective feedback and monitor children’s learning progress. Technical challenges we observe include automatic speech recognition (ASR for children, reliable object recognition to facilitate semantic contingency and establishing joint attention, and developing human-like gestures with a robot that does not have the same morphology humans have. We briefly discuss an experiment in which we investigate how children respond to different forms of feedback the robot can give.

  8. Socioeconomic Status and Parent-Child Relationships Predict Metacognitive Questions to Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Foster, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of metacognitive language exposure to early educational achievement is widely recognized in the development literature. However, few studies have explored parents' metacognitive language, while accounting for family SES and stress within the parent-child relationship. This is a preliminary descriptive study to explore…

  9. Preschool psychopathology reported by parents in 23 societies: testing the seven-syndrome model of the child behavior checklist for ages 1.5-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas M; Rescorla, Leslie A; Harder, Valerie S; Ang, Rebecca P; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Gudmundsson, Halldor S; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W L; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G; Woo, Bernardine S C; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R; Verhulst, Frank C

    2010-12-01

    To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the seven-syndrome model separately for each society. The primary model fit index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), indicated acceptable to good fit for each society. Although a six-syndrome model combining the Emotionally Reactive and Anxious/Depressed syndromes also fit the data for nine societies, it fit less well than the seven-syndrome model for seven of the nine societies. Other fit indices yielded less consistent results than the RMSEA. The seven-syndrome model provides one way to capture patterns of children's problems that are manifested in ratings by parents from many societies. Clinicians working with preschoolers from these societies can thus assess and describe parents' ratings of behavioral, emotional, and social problems in terms of the seven syndromes. The results illustrate possibilities for culture-general taxonomic constructs of preschool psychopathology. Problems not captured by the CBCL/1.5-5 may form additional syndromes, and other syndrome models may also fit the data. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Food quality assessment in parent–child dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2011-01-01

    of attention. The purpose of this article is to discuss the interpersonal aspects of food quality formation, and to explore these in the context of parents buying new types of healthier in-between meals for their children. To pursue this we introduce the concept of dyadic quality assessment and apply...... parental knowledge of their children’s quality assessments significantly affect the willingness to pay. Accordingly, interaction between parents and children should be promoted when developing, testing and marketing new and healthier food products for children.......When the buyer and the consumer of a food product are not identical, the risk of discrepancies between food quality expectations and experience is even higher than when the buyer is also the consumer. In such situations the interpersonal aspects of food quality formation become the focus...

  11. Impact of Commercials on Food Preferences of Low-Income, Minority Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; Goh, Eugenia Tsuei; Goodell, L. Suzanne; Acuff, Daniel S.; Reiher, Robert; Buday, Richard; Ottenbacher, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether fruit and vegetable (FV) commercials have an impact on preschool children's preferences for specific FV. Design: A year of extensive formative assessment was conducted to develop 2 30-second commercials: "Judy Fruity" promoted apples and bananas and "Reggie Veggie" promoted broccoli and carrots.…

  12. Food-Related Advertising on Preschool Television: Building Brand Recognition in Young Viewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study used content analysis to explore how much and what type of advertising is present in television programming aimed at toddlers and preschool-aged children and what methods of persuasion are being used to sell products and to promote brands to the youngest viewers. Methods: Four randomly selected, 4-hour blocks (9 AM to 1 PM)…

  13. Impact of Commercials on Food Preferences of Low-Income, Minority Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; Goh, Eugenia Tsuei; Goodell, L. Suzanne; Acuff, Daniel S.; Reiher, Robert; Buday, Richard; Ottenbacher, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether fruit and vegetable (FV) commercials have an impact on preschool children's preferences for specific FV. Design: A year of extensive formative assessment was conducted to develop 2 30-second commercials: "Judy Fruity" promoted apples and bananas and "Reggie Veggie" promoted broccoli and carrots.…

  14. Food-Related Advertising on Preschool Television: Building Brand Recognition in Young Viewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study used content analysis to explore how much and what type of advertising is present in television programming aimed at toddlers and preschool-aged children and what methods of persuasion are being used to sell products and to promote brands to the youngest viewers. Methods: Four randomly selected, 4-hour blocks (9 AM to 1 PM)…

  15. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-10-18

    Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children's food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as "healthy" or "less-healthy". We purchased all child-oriented snacks found in stores inside and within 200 square meters from four schools in an urban community. Snacks were classified as child-oriented if the package had any promotional characters, premium offers, children's television/movie tie-ins, sports references, or the word "child". We used a checklist to assess child-oriented references and price. Snacks were classified as "healthy" or "less-healthy" according to the UK standards for the Nutritional Profiling Model. We analyzed 106 packages found in 55 stores. The most commonly used technique was promotional characters (92.5%) of which 32.7% were brand-specific characters. Premium offers were found in 34% of packages and were mostly collectibles (50%). Most marketing techniques were located on the front and covered nearly 25% of the package surface. Median (interquartile range) price was US$ 0.19 (0.25). Nutrition labels were found in 91 (86%) packages and 41% had a nutrition related health claim. Most snacks (97.1%) were classified as "less-healthy". In Guatemala, the food industry targets children through several marketing techniques promoting inexpensive and unhealthy snacks in the school environment. Evidence-based policies restricting the use of promotional characters in unhealthy snack food packages need to be explored as a contributing strategy to control the obesity epidemic.

  16. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  17. Use of computer access technology as an alternative to writing for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, Brightlin Nithis; Samuel, Preethy Sarah; Manigandan, C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of an outcome-driven model of decision-making in the implementation of computer access technology (CAT) for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy. The child did not have the fine motor skills required to hold a pencil but had the cognitive abilities to learn to write; therefore, we explored the use of a CAT device to enable written communication. Case study methodology was used to describe the selection process, child-level outcomes, and clinical challenges faced by the therapist in the use of a consortium model that was designed for an outcome-driven model of decision-making. The critical role of an occupational therapist in this process using a family-centered approach is discussed.

  18. Characterizing dinner meals served and consumed by low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Stuff, Janice E; Hughes, Sheryl O; Liu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A dinner meal is consumed by approximately 95% of preschool children, yet few studies have characterized the dinner meal within a broader environmental context. The primary goal of this study was to identify the average quantities of foods served and consumed at the dinner meal by preschool children. A secondary goal was to look at factors that influenced the total amounts of food and energy consumed among preschoolers at the dinner meal. Food intake at a family dinner meal was measured using digital photography in African-American and Hispanic-American preschool children (n = 231). Pictorial records were converted to gram and energy estimates of food served and consumed; grams were converted to kilocalories for each food using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional software. Foods were categorized by groups/subgroups. Comparison of means and coefficient of variation was examined overall and by food groups for food grams (and energy) served, consumed, and wasted. The relationship of mother/child characteristics to amounts served and consumed were analyzed by regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Plate waste was high; 30% of the foods served to the child at the dinner meal were not consumed. The amounts of food and beverage served and consumed varied within and among the food groups studied. The proportion of children served a major food group at the dinner meal varied considerably: 44% fruit/juice, 97% vegetables, 99% grains, 97% meats, 74% dairy, 66% sweetened beverages, 92% fat and oils, and 40% sweets and sugars. The amount of food served was positively associated with the amount consumed (p dinner meal was positively associated with energy intake consumed (p < 0.0001). Plate waste and variation in amounts served and consumed was substantial. The amount of food served was positively associated with the amount of food consumed by preschool children.

  19. Parents of preschool fire setters: perceptions of the child-play fire hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Faranda, Donna M; Porth, Don; Lim, Nicholas K

    2006-09-01

    The present study sought to learn about risk perceptions held by parents of preschool fire-setters. A 41-item survey was distributed to 60 parents whose children, aged 6 years and younger, had previously set fires and who were involved in intervention programmes throughout the US. Most parents did not think their children would play with matches/lighters, or knew how to use these items, although some had witnessed their children playing with matches/lighters previously. Most parents reported having taken precautions to keep matches/lighters out of reach and also educating their children about fire. Regardless, children not only set fires, but in 40% of cases climbed to access the match/lighter. Parents' perceptions of their children's proclivity for fire play were not consistent with their actual fire-play behaviour. Parents underestimated the likelihood that their children would play with matches/lighters. Although most reportedly undertook preventative measures aimed at thwarting fire play, these strategies were ineffective. Traditionally relied upon precautionary techniques, such as storing lighters out of reach and discussing the dangers of fire, were not sufficient to stem interest and resultant fire play.

  20. Mothers' parenting and child sex differences in behavior problems among African American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V

    2013-10-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. In this study, we examined whether associations between observations of mothers' positive and negative parenting and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consisted of 137 African American low-income families with one sibling approximately 2 years old and the closest-aged older sibling who was approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, whereas lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors.

  1. Escherichia coli contamination of child complementary foods and association with domestic hygiene in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Sarker Masud; Kwong, Laura; Rahman, Musarrat Jabeen; Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Md Zahidur; Das, Kishor Kumar; Luby, Stephen P; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-05-01

    To determine the frequency and concentration of Escherichia coli in child complementary food and its association with domestic hygiene practices in rural Bangladesh. A total of 608 households with children 4 h (APR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.2), in compounds where water was unavailable in the food preparation area (APR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 4.2), where ≥1 fly was captured in the food preparation area (APR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.6), or where the ambient temperature was high (>25-40 °C) in the food storage area (APR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.4). Interventions to keep stored food covered and ensure water availability in the food preparation area would be expected to reduce faecal contamination of complementary foods. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Influence of Family Size, Household Food Security Status, and Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    illness, especially diarrhea or a rapid deterioration in the food supply. ... administered the pre-tested questionnaires. The .... with nonhuman milk or formula was initiated was five months and ..... limitation is the inability to validate the accuracy.

  3. The infant food industry and international child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1977-01-01

    Declining breast-feeding, with accompanying increased marasmus and diarrhea, has occurred in developing countries because of many factors, including inappropriate health services, new urban life styles, and so forth. The infant food industry must bear a considerable burden of blame as a result of "unethical" advertising. Responses have most recently included various journalistic and legal actions. There is a need for revised roles for the infant food industry, and for mechanisms to monitor intrinsically harmful practices.

  4. [Junk food consumption and child nutrition. Nutritional anthropological analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Portia; Romo, Marcela M; Castillo, Marcela A; Castillo-Durán, Carlos

    2004-10-01

    The increasing consumption of junk food and snacks in Chile in recent years and its association with marketing strategies and prevalent diseases, is reviewed. In the context of world economy, junk food is a global phenomenon. The availability of junk food and snacks at low prices and marketing has triggered an evolution of consumption of foods that require neither the structure nor the preparation of a formal meal. Many studies have suggested that the increase in snack consumption is associated with an increase in obesity, tooth decay and other chronic diseases among children and adolescents. The hypothesis suggests a link between the pattern of snack consumption and an increase increase in the energy density of food consumed, a decrease in satiety, passive over consumption, and an increase in obesity. Between 1977 and 1996, the contribution: of snacks to daily energy intake among children between 2 and 5 years increased by 30% in the United States. In each age group in Chile the frequency of non-transmissible chronic diseases is increasing due primarily to a westernized diet that is high in fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar and a sedentary lifestyle. Education about junk food consumption and healthy eating habits in the family, starling since childbirth and public policies about healthy lifestyles should be strengthened.

  5. Objective measurement of posture and posture transitions in the pre-school child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gwyneth; Reilly, John J; Paton, James Y

    2012-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that between-individual variation in posture and posture transitions may have important health consequences in adults. The early life development of between-individual variation in posture and posture transitions has not been studied, and the physiological consequences of such variations in childhood are unknown, largely because of the absence of objective methods for measuring posture and posture transitions in young children. This study aimed to examine the objective measurement of posture transitions in pre-school children with the activPAL™ monitor (PAL Technologies, Glasgow). Single-unit activity monitors such as the activPAL™ have a limited output, with data categorized as 'sit/lie', 'stand' or 'walk' and the consequences of this for measurement of posture transitions in young children are unknown. Thirty children (mean age 4.1 years) were videoed for 1 h in nursery while wearing an activPAL™. Video was analysed on a second-by-second basis, with all postures categorized. From direct observation, time spent was sit/lie 46%; stand 35%; walk/run 16%; 3% was spent in heterogeneous non-sit/lie/upright postures (crawl, crouch, and kneel up). Despite these 'non-standard' postures being responsible for a low proportion of time, posture transitions involving them contributed to 34% of total transitions. There was a significant rank-order correlation (r = 0.79, p posture transitions measured by activPAL™ and by direct observation. 'Non-standard' postures in young children are probably not a problem if the aim is to measure total time sedentary or active, and the activPAL™ may measure between-individual variation in transitions adequately in young children. However, non-standard postures may present problems for the detailed characterization of posture transitions in early childhood.

  6. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  7. Dietary Diversity and Food Waste in a Rural Connecticut Daycare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Margaret E.

    The relationship between diversity in the contents of preschool children's lunchboxes, food waste, and other variables was investigated among 32 children in a rural day care center located in a university community. Lunchbox contents and food waste were observed on five occasions for each child. Data were gathered on 10 variables (such as age of…

  8. Dietary Diversity and Food Waste in a Rural Connecticut Daycare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Margaret E.

    The relationship between diversity in the contents of preschool children's lunchboxes, food waste, and other variables was investigated among 32 children in a rural day care center located in a university community. Lunchbox contents and food waste were observed on five occasions for each child. Data were gathered on 10 variables (such as age of…

  9. THE MEANING OF FOOD FOR OBESE MEN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    physical deformity (like obesity) are made to feel ashamed and experience a .... participants who were obese as a child, food was seen as ..... current food activities. He does this by .... litative study in mothers of UK pre-schoolers. Appetite 57 ...

  10. Associations between Participation in the National School Lunch Program, Food Insecurity, and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    This study examined the association between food insecurity, participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and child well-being. Participants were children age 6-12 years in families in which at least one child participated in the NSLP. Data came from the 1997 Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Food…

  11. Food security, maternal feeding practices and child weight-for-length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Cristina S; Roncancio, Angelica; Moramarco, Michael W; Hinojosa, Martha B; Davila, Yolanda R; Mendias, Elnora; Reifsnider, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Over consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor foods may contribute to childhood obesity. We hypothesized that greater than recommended servings of sugar sweetened beverages and foods, indicators of food security, and a high maternal recumbent weight-for-length are positively associated with high percentages of child overweight/obesity. This secondary data analysis consisted of a sample of 240 mother-child dyads. The original studies were designed to examine the effect of a public health nursing intervention on optimal childhood growth for low-income, minority children. Eligibility to participate included: 1) mothers self-identified as Hispanic; 2) children were 12-24 months old; and 3) children were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC); and 4) children were free of any major disease. Multivariate logistic regression examined the association between child weight, weight-for-length, maternal recumbent weight-for-length, child's eating schedule, maternal attitudes on feeding, food security, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, desserts and fatty meats. Receiving SNAP was positively associated with child weight-for-length (WL). Children whose mothers reported ever having received SNAP were 2.01 times more likely to be overweight compared to children whose mothers did not report ever having received SNAP (95% CI=1.04-3.90). Children who consumed desserts were 2.87 times more likely to be overweight compared to children who did not consume desserts (95% CI=1.19-6.88). Also, child's caloric intake was significantly associated with child WL. Children who consumed more calories were 1.00 times more likely to be overweight compared to children who consumed fewer calories (95% CI=1.00-1.00). Research on food security and children's weight has reported mixed findings. Methodological issues have been identified as contributory to the inconsistent findings. Of paramount importance to these studies is the

  12. Parasite and maternal risk factors for malnutrition in preschool-age children in Belen, Peru using the new WHO Child Growth Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Núñez, Carmen; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2007-12-01

    Child malnutrition, including wasting, underweight and stunting, is associated with infections, poor nutrient intake, and environmental and socio-demographic factors. Preschool-age children are especially vulnerable due to their high growth requirements. To target interventions for preschool-age children in a community of extreme poverty in Peru, we conducted a household survey between October 2005 and January 2006 to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its risk factors. Of 252 children Child Growth Standards. Risk factors for wasting were: (1) moderate-high intensity Trichuris infection (OR 2.50; 95 % CI 1.06, 5.93); (2) hookworm infection (OR 6.67; 95 % CI 1.08, 41.05); (3) age (OR6-month 1.27; 95 % CI 1.11, 1.46); (4) maternal education (secondary incomplete) (OR 5.77; 95 % CI 2.38, 13.99); and (5) decreasing maternal BMI (OR1 kg/m2 1.12; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.23). Risk factors for underweight were: (1) moderate-high intensity Trichuris infection (OR 4.74; 95 % CI 1.99, 11.32); (2) age (OR6-month 1.22; 95 % CI 1.07, 1.38); (3) maternal education (secondary incomplete) (OR 2.92; 95 % CI 1.40, 6.12); and (4) decreasing maternal BMI (OR1 kg/m2 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21). Risk factors for stunting were: (1) age (OR6-month 1.14; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.27) and (2) decreasing maternal height (OR1 cm 1.12; 95 % CI 1.06, 1.20). Overall, risk factors for malnutrition included both child and maternal determinants. Based on these data, locally appropriate and cost-effective dietary, de-worming and educational programmes should be targeted to mothers and preschool-age children.

  13. Changes in household food insecurity are related to changes in BMI and diet quality among Michigan Head Start preschoolers in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Erica C; Kasper, Nicole; Lumeng, Julie C; Brophy Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred A; Miller, Alison L; Contreras, Dawn; Peterson, Karen E

    2017-04-04

    Children living in households that have recently become food insecure may be particularly vulnerable to adverse weight and dietary changes, but longitudinal studies examining these associations are lacking. Using data from 501 Head Start preschoolers from Michigan (48% male) who were followed during one school year as a part of a randomized obesity prevention trial, we examined changes in children's adiposity indices and dietary quality according to changes in household food insecurity. Household food insecurity change status was categorized as persistently food secure, became food secure, persistently food insecure, or became food insecure. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate relative changes in BMI-for-age z scores (BAZ), triceps skinfolds-for-age z scores (TAZ), or diet quality (assessed with the 2010 Healthy Eating Index) over the school year according to food insecurity category. We found that girls from households that became food insecure over the year had a 0.21 unit higher gain in BAZ than girls from households that were persistently food secure, after adjustment for potential confounders (95% CI 0.02 to 0.39, P = 0.03). Girls from households that became food secure had improvements in dietary quality over the year compared to girls from persistently food insecure households (adjusted difference in Healthy Eating Index score change = 9.1 points; 95% CI 3.0 to 15.0; p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant associations with changes in TAZ. Among boys, there were no associations between changes in household food insecurity and changes in BAZ, TAZ, or dietary quality. In summary, we found that BMI and diet quality changes of Head Start preschool girls were correlated with short-term changes in household food insecurity. Continued research efforts should focus on identifying the most effective ways to promote the health of children in food insecure households, especially those who may have recently transitioned or are

  14. Effects of food price shocks on child malnutrition: The Mozambican experience 2008/2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, M Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2016-09-01

    A propitiously timed household survey carried out in Mozambique over the period 2008/2009 permits us to study the relationship between shifts in food prices and child nutrition status in a low income setting. We focus on weight-for-height and weight-for-age in different survey quarters characterized by very different food price inflation rates. Using propensity score matching techniques, we find that these nutrition measures, which are sensitive in the short run, improve significantly in the fourth quarter of the survey, when the inflation rate for basic food products is low, compared to the first semester or three quarters, when food price inflation was generally high. The prevalence of underweight, in particular, falls by about 40 percent. We conclude that the best available evidence points to food penury, driven by the food and fuel price crisis combined with a short agricultural production year, as substantially increasing malnutrition amongst under-five children in Mozambique.

  15. Development and preliminary validation of Chinese preschoolers' eating behavior questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for caregivers to assess the eating behavior of Chinese preschoolers. METHODS: To assess children's eating behaviors, 152 items were derived from a broad review of the literature related to epidemiology surveys and the assessment of children's eating behaviors. All of these items were reviewed by 50 caregivers of preschoolers and 10 experienced pediatricians. Seventy-seven items were selected for use in a primary questionnaire. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a variability analysis on the data from 313 preschoolers used to evaluate this primary questionnaire, we deleted 39 of these 77 items. A Chinese Preschoolers' Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CPEBQ was finally established from the remaining 38 items. The structure of this questionnaire was explored by factor analysis, and its reliability, validity and discriminative ability were evaluated with data collected from caregivers of 603 preschoolers. RESULTS: The CPEBQ consisted of 7 dimensions and 38 items. The 7 dimensions were food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habit, satiety responsiveness, exogenous eating, emotional eating and initiative eating. The Cronbach's α coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. There were significant differences between the scores of normal-weight, overweight and obese preschoolers when it was referred to food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habits, satiety responsiveness and emotional eating (p<0.05. Differences in caregiver's education levels also had significant effects on scores for food fussiness, eating habits and exogenous eating (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The CPEBQ satisfies the conditions of reliability and validity, in accordance with psychometric demands. The questionnaire can be employed to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese preschoolers' eating behaviors; therefore, it can be used in child health care

  16. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: Relationships between absolute and relative intakes of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, L A; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-08-01

    Children's appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5year olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from 0.78 to 0.91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child's choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  17. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the

  18. Childhood caries as influenced by maternal and child characteristics in pre-school children of Kerala-an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Retnakumari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The most common chronic disease of childhood is early childhood caries which is five times more prevalent than asthma and seven times higher than that of allergic rhinitis. Most children do not receive dental care until they are three years old, yet by the time more than thirty percent of children from lower socioeconomic groups already have caries. To determine the prevalence and severity of early childhood caries among pre-school children, to describe the child characteristics associated with the development of early childhood caries and to find the association of early childhood caries and maternal risk factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among children attending the immunization clinic of Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, Medical College, Trivandrum and children attending the randomly selected Anganwadies and Day care centres in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala, wherein there are migrants from all over the State. A total of 350 children aged 12-36 months and their mothers were studied. The mother was first interviewed by a structured questionnaire; then the child′s and mothers clinical examination was carried out covering caries experience and oral hygiene status. Results: Among 350 children studied the prevalence of dental caries in this study population was found to be 50.6 %( 177. Statistically significant associations were found between the severity of decay and the child′s age(P<0.001, female gender(P<0.05,low socioeconomic status (P<0.05, feeding frequency (P<0.05, type of feeding(P<0.01, fell asleep with nipple in mouth (P<0.05, duration of breast feeding(P<0.001, consumption of cariogenic type of snacks(P<0.01, age of commencement of tooth brushing(P<0.05, brushing frequency(P<0.05, oral hygiene status of child(P<0.001, DMFS scores of mothers (P<0.001, and oral hygiene status of mother (P<0.001.

  19. Does Acculturation Matter?: Food Insecurity and Child Problem Behavior among Low-Income, Working Hispanic Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen S.; Zearley, Karli Kondo; Favasuli, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Recent literature has noted that in some cases, less acculturation may be protective against adverse outcomes. This study sought to clarify the relationships between acculturation, food insecurity, and child outcomes. A sample of 339 low-income participants, comprised of non-Hispanic Whites (n = 171), English-speaking Hispanics (n = 89), and…

  20. Qualidade nutricional e gastos com a alimentação de pré-escolares Nutritional quality and food expenditure in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rauber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correlação dos gastos com a alimentação e a qualidade dietética de pré-escolares de baixa condição socioeconômica, considerando a ingestão de micronutrientes e alimentos de alta densidade de açúcar e gordura. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 346 crianças de 3 a 4 anos de idade que participaram do estudo "Dez passos em ação I" (BRATSA I, uma coorte aninhada a um ensaio de campo randomizado. Foram realizados dois inquéritos recordatórios de 24 horas. Calculou-se o gasto com a alimentação utilizando o preço dos alimentos coletado em diferentes estabelecimentos e ajustado para as quantidades ingeridas. RESULTADOS: A média de gasto com a alimentação das crianças estimada para um mês foi de R$ 100,17±34,1. A ingestão de ferro (r = 0,115; p = 0,033, zinco (r = 0,214; p OBJECTIVE: To assess correlations between the cost and the nutritional quality of the diets of preschool children from low socioeconomic status families, taking into account intakes of micronutrients and foods with high concentrations of sugars and fats. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study undertaken with 346 children aged 3 to 4 years recruited for the "Ten steps in action" (BRATSA I study, who comprise a nested cohort from the randomized field study. Two 24-hour dietary recall surveys were conducted. Expenditure on food was calculated by taking the price of each food, as verified at a number of different establishments, and adjusting it for the quantity eaten. RESULTS: Mean expenditure on food for one child was R$ 100.17±34.1 per month. There was a positive correlation between intakes of iron (r = 0.115; p = 0.033, zinc (r = 0.214; p < 0.001, and vitamins A (r = 0.197; p < 0.001 and C (r = 0.162; p < 0.001, adjusted to 1,000 kcal, and expenditure on food/1,000 kcal. There were no significant relationships between expenditure on food/1,000 kcal and risk of overweight (p = 0.208 or intake of foods with a high fat or sugar

  1. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Katherine; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Evans, Alexandra; Hedberg, Ann-Marie; Dave, Jayna; Sharma, Shreela

    2012-12-01

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of preschoolers. Questionnaires measured the access and availability of various foods in the home, parental practices, and meal consumption behaviors. Mixed model logistic regression and ANCOVA were used to assess ethnic differences. Unhealthy foods were available for both groups. Hispanic families were more likely to have fresh vegetables (AOR = 2.9, P ≤ 0.001), fruit (AOR = 2.0, P = 0.004), and soda available (AOR = 1.40, P = 0.001) compared to African-Americans. African-Americans families were more likely to restrict (AOR = 0.63, P ≤ 0.001) and reward with dessert (AOR = 0.69, P ≤ 0.001). Hispanic families consumed more family meals together (P = 0.003) and less meals in front of the television (P ≤ 0.006). Health promotion interventions should consider the behavioral differences between ethnicities.

  2. Children’s Executive Function and High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low nutrient (HCLN) food. Design One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from larger randomized control trial Setting Southern California elementary schools Subjects Fourth and fifth grade children (n = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program Results Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.11/0.25, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02/0.10, p perception of parent concurrent fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models’ convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. PMID:25194147

  3. A qualitative study of beliefs about food relating to child nutrition in the Lower Jimi Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble, Jessica; Keeble, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A previous study that we carried out confirmed that malnutrition is a problem amongst the young child population in the Lower Jimi Valley. This study begins to explore the cultural and traditional food beliefs in order to target the interventions of health services in reducing childhood malnutrition. The study was undertaken during maternal and child health clinics conducted on a foot patrol from Koinambe Health Centre in the villages of Kompiai, Komengwai, Kupeng, Injim and Kwiama. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with small groups of women to uncover beliefs regarding nutrition and feeding during pregnancy, infancy and childhood. This study has highlighted practices that nutritionally disadvantage young children. The four most significant are late weaning, restriction of foods, infrequency of feeding and the low priority given to children during meal times. It is suggested that it is the use, control and distribution of food, rather than its shortage, that contribute most significantly to the problem of childhood malnutrition in this area.

  4. Nutritional quality of foods and beverages on child-care centre menus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to assess the nutritional quality of foods and beverages listed on menus serving children in government-sponsored child-care centres throughout Mexico. Design For this cross-sectional menu assessment, we compared (i) food groups and portion sizes of foods and beverages on the menus with MyPlate recommendations and (ii) macronutrients, sugar and fibre with Daily Reference Intake standards. Setting Menus reflected foods and beverages served to children attending one of 142 government-sponsored child-care centres throughout Mexico. Subjects There were fifty-four distinct menus for children aged 4–6 months, 7–9 months, 10–12 months, 13–23 months, 24–47 months and 48–72 months. Results Menus included a variety of foods meeting minimum MyPlate recommendations for each food category except whole grains for children aged 48–72 months. Menus listed excessive amounts of high-energy beverages, including full-fat milk, fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverages for children of all ages. The mean daily energy content of menu items yielded an average of 2·76 MJ for infants, 4·77 MJ for children aged 13–23 months, 5·36 MJ for children aged 24–47 months and 5·87 MJ for children aged 48–72 months. Foods and beverages on menus provided sufficient grams of carbohydrate and fat, but excessive protein. Conclusions Menus provided a variety of foods but excessive energy. Whole grains were limited, and high-energy beverages were prevalent. Both may be appropriate targets for nutrition intervention. Future studies should move beyond menus and assess what children actually consume in child care. PMID:23036360

  5. Child fear reactivity and sex as moderators of links between parenting and preschool behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V

    2015-11-01

    Reduced supportive parenting and elevated negative parenting behaviors increase risks for maladaptive social adjustment during early childhood (e.g., Campbell, Shaw, & Gilliom, 2000). However, the magnitude of these risks may vary according to children's individual characteristics, such as sex and temperament. The current study examines whether children's sex and fear reactivity moderate the associations between mothers' observed parenting and children's behavior problems 1 year later. The sample consists of 151 predominantly African American, low-income families with one sibling who is approximately 2 years old and the closest aged older sibling who is approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate that fear distress (i.e., fearfulness) moderated associations between mothers' observed negative parenting and children's increased behavior problems, such that only those children with mean or higher observed fear distress scores showed increased behavior problems when exposed to mother's negative parenting. Child sex moderated associations between fear approach reactivity (i.e., fearlessness) and mothers' observed supportive parenting. Specifically, low fear approach combined with supportive parenting was associated with fewer behavior problems for boys only. Implications of these findings for preventive intervention are discussed.

  6. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: Results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case–control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n = 198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n = 253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference −21.4, 95% CI: −24.0, −18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference −5.1, 95% CI: −9.5, −0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born

  7. Relationship between Frequency of Sugary Food and Drink Consumption with Occurrence of Dental Caries among Preschool Children in Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahara, A M; Fashihah, M H; Nurul, A Y

    2010-04-01

    Dental caries are attributed to various factors including diet. The present crosssectional study determined the frequency of sugary food and drink consumption and defined its relationship to dental caries among preschool children. A total of 50 preschoolers (aged 5-6 years) in three kindergartens of the Department of Community Development (KEMAS) in Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur participated in this study. A set of structured questionnaires was used to assess the frequency of sugary food and drink consumption. Dental check ups were performed by a dentist. The dft index (decayed, filled teeth) was used to describe incidence of caries in subjects. Results showed that 62% of the subjects had dental caries. with the mean dft score being 3.72. The frequency of sugary food consumption by the majority of subjects was 2 times a day, while the frequency of sugary drink consumption was more than 3 times a day. There was no significant relationship between frequency of sugary food and drink consumption with incidence of caries. Subjects with high dft scores were more likely to report dental pain. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers in this study was high, indicating a need for effective dental health promotion to improve dental health status of this age group.

  8. Child-directed and nutrition-focused marketing cues on food packaging: links to nutritional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Matthew A; Brown, Autumn M; Houtzer, Hunter V; Thomas, Tyler J

    2017-04-01

    We tested whether the presence of both child-targeted and nutrition-focused (i.e. parent-targeted) marketing cues on food packaging was associated with the nutritional content of these products. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 403 food packages chosen randomly from the supermarket's online portal along with all products (n 312) from the cereal aisle in a supermarket from the Southeastern USA. We examined main and interaction effects for cues on nutritional content (e.g. energy density, sugar, sodium, fibre). A regional supermarket chain in the Southeastern USA. Tests of main effects indicated that increased presence of nutritional cues was linked to more nutritious content (e.g. less sugar, less saturated fat, more fibre) while the increased presence of child-targeted cues was uniformly associated with less nutritious content (e.g. more sugar, less protein, less fibre). Among the interaction effects, results revealed that products with increased nutrition-focused and child-targeted cues were likely to contain significantly more sugar and less protein than other products. Products that seek to engage children with their packaging in the supermarket are significantly less nutritious than foods that do not, while product packages that suggest nutritional benefits have more nutritious content. More importantly, the study provides evidence that those products which try to engage both child and parent consumers are significantly less healthy in crucial ways (e.g. more sugar, less fibre) than products that do not.

  9. How is this child feeling? Preschool-aged children’s ability to recognize emotion in faces and body poses

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined children’s recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children (N = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills, which included five tasks (three with faces and two with bodies). Parents and teachers reported on children’s aggressive behaviors and social skills. Children’s emotion accuracy o...

  10. Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/Con Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use.

  11. Good Food, Bad Food, and White Rice: Understanding Child Feeding Using Visual-Narrative Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice. The process of gathering and working with photographs illuminated the complex negotiations in which caregivers engaged when making food and nutritional choices for their children. At the nexus of visual and medical anthropology, the visual-narrative elicitation process yielded nuanced, comprehensive understandings of how caregivers value the various foods they feed their children.

  12. Child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage brand appearances during prime-time television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speers, Sarah E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2011-09-01

    The food industry disproportionately markets to young people through product placements. Children and adolescents may be more susceptible to these disguised persuasive attempts. Quantify incidence and youth exposure to food and beverage brand appearances within shows on prime-time TV. Data on the number of food, beverage, and restaurant brand appearances within shows during prime-time programming in 2008 were purchased from Nielsen and analyzed by product category and company in 2010. Exposure to these brand appearances by children, adolescents, and adults were examined and compared with exposure to prime-time TV advertisements for the same categories and companies using additional Nielsen data. Food, beverage, and restaurant brands appeared a total of 35,000 times within prime-time TV programming examined by Nielsen in 2008. Regular soft drinks, traditional restaurants (i.e., not quickserve), and energy/sports drinks made up 60% of all brand appearances. Young people viewed relatively few of these appearances with one notable exception. Coca-Cola products were seen 198 times by the average child and 269 times by the average adolescent during prime-time shows over the year, accounting for 70% of child exposure and 61% of adolescent exposure to brand appearances. One show, American Idol, accounted for more than 95% of these exposures. Exposure of children to Coca-Cola products through traditional advertisements was much less common. Brand appearances for most food industry companies, except for Coca-Cola, are relatively rare during prime-time programming with large youth audiences. Coca-Cola has pledged to refrain from advertising to children, yet the average child views almost four Coke appearances on prime-time TV every week. This analysis reveals a substantial, potential loophole in current food industry self-regulatory pledges to advertise only better-for-you foods to children. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  13. Perceived parental food controlling practices are related to obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Tatjana; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ouwens, Machteld A

    2009-08-01

    To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogenic. Are these foods controlling practices more indicative of obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors? In a sample of 7-12-year-old boys and girls (n = 943) the perceived parental food controlling practices were related to various measures for unhealthy life style. Using factor analysis we assessed whether there is a constellation of lifestyle behaviors that is potentially obesogenic or leptogenic. Remarkably, perceived parental restriction and pressure loaded on two different factors. Perceived parental restriction to eat had a negative loading on a factor that further comprised potential obesogenic child life style behaviors, such as snacking (positive loading), time spend with screen media (television or computer) (positive loadings) and frequency of fruit consumption (negative loading). Perceived parental pressure to eat had a positive loading on a factor that further comprised potential leptogenic life style behaviors such as frequency of eating a breakfast meal and sporting (positive loadings). It is concluded that low perceived parental restriction in regard to food may perhaps be a sign of more uninvolved 'neglecting' or indulgent parenting/obesogenic home environment, whereas high perceived parental pressure to eat may be sign of a more 'concerned' leptogenic parenting/home environment, though more research into style of parenting is needed.

  14. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions.

  15. Impact of the economic crisis and increase in food prices on child mortality: exploring nutritional pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul

    2010-01-01

    The current economic crisis and food price increase may have a widespread impact on the nutritional and health status of populations, especially in the developing world. Gains in child survival over the past few decades are likely to be threatened and millennium development goals will be harder to achieve. Beyond starvation, which is one of the causes of death in famine situations, there are numerous nutritional pathways by which childhood mortality can increase. These include increases in childhood wasting and stunting, intrauterine growth restriction, and micronutrient deficiencies such as that of vitamin A, iron, and zinc when faced with a food crisis and decreased food availability. These pathways are elucidated and described. Although estimates of the impact of the current crisis on child mortality are yet to be made, data from previous economic crises provide evidence of an increase in childhood mortality that we review. The current situation also emphasizes that there are vast segments of the world's population living in a situation of chronic food insecurity that are likely to be disproportionately affected by an economic crisis. Nutritional and health surveillance data are urgently needed in such populations to monitor both the impacts of a crisis and of interventions. Addressing the nutritional needs of children and women in response to the present crisis is urgent. But, ensuring that vulnerable populations are also targeted with known nutritional interventions at all times is likely to have a substantial impact on child mortality.

  16. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  17. Drivers of overweight mothers' food choice behaviors depend on child gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlal, Sofia; McBride, Colleen M; Ward, Dianne S; Persky, Susan

    2015-01-01

    National data suggest a higher prevalence of obesity among boys. One possible cause could be the food choices made by parents on behalf of their children. This study sought to determine whether and how mothers' food choices for their children differ by child gender and to understand the drivers of these differences. Data were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial conducted using a virtual reality-based buffet restaurant. Overweight mothers filled out questionnaires and received an information module. They were then immersed in a virtual buffet restaurant to select a lunch for their 4- to 5-year-old child. Of the 221 overweight mothers recruited, 55% identified their daughters as the child for whom they would be choosing the food. The caloric content of boys' meals was 43 calories higher than girls' (p = .015). This difference was due to extra calories from the less healthy food category (p = .04). Multivariate analyses identified more predictors of calorie choices for daughters' than sons' meals. Predictors of calories chosen for girls included: having both biological parents overweight (β = 0.26; p = .003), mother's weight (β = 0.17; p = .05), mother's education (β = -0.28; p = .001), her restriction of her child's food intake (β = -0.20; p = .02), and her beliefs about the importance of genetics in causing obesity (β = 0.19; p = .03). Mother's weight was the sole predictor of boys' meal calories (β = 0.20; p = .04). Differences in dietary choices made for young girls and boys may contribute to lifelong gender differences in eating patterns. A better understanding of differences in feeding choices made for girls versus boys could improve the design of childhood obesity prevention interventions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  19. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Food Intakes among Flemish Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Huybrechts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ applied in a large region-wide survey among 2.5-6.5 year-old children for estimating food group intakes. Parents/guardians were used as a proxy. Estimated diet records (3d were used as reference method and reproducibility was measured by repeated FFQ administrations five weeks apart. In total 650 children were included in the validity analyses and 124 in the reproducibility analyses. Comparing median FFQ1 to FFQ2 intakes, almost all evaluated food groups showed median differences within a range of ± 15%. However, for median vegetables, fruit and cheese intake, FFQ1 was > 20% higher than FFQ2. For most foods a moderate correlation (0.5-0.7 was obtained between FFQ1 and FFQ2. For cheese, sugared drinks and fruit juice intakes correlations were even > 0.7. For median differences between the 3d EDR and the FFQ, six food groups (potatoes & grains; vegetables Fruit; cheese; meat, game, poultry and fish; and sugared drinks gave a difference > 20%. The largest corrected correlations (>0.6 were found for the intake of potatoes and grains, fruit, milk products, cheese, sugared drinks, and fruit juice, while the lowest correlations (<0.4 for bread and meat products. The proportion of subjects classified within one quartile (in the same/adjacent category by FFQ and EDR ranged from 67% (for meat products to 88% (for fruit juice. Extreme misclassification into the opposite quartiles was for all food groups < 10%. The results indicate that our newly developed FFQ gives reproducible estimates of food group intake. Overall, moderate levels of relative validity were observed for estimates of food group intake.

  20. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  1. Participating in a Food-Assisted Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Program in Rural Guatemala Alters Household Dietary Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Melissa L; Frongillo, Edward A; Leroy, Jef L; Blake, Christine E

    2016-08-01

    Food assistance programs may alter food choices, but factors determining households' decisions regarding food acquisition, preparation, and consumption in the context of food aid are not well understood. This study aimed to understand how the Programa Comunitario Materno Infantil de Diversificación Alimentaria (Mother-Child Community Food Diversification Program; PROCOMIDA), a food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition program in rural Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, altered household food choices. We conducted semistructured interviews and focus groups with 63 households in 3 participating (n = 32 households) and 3 control (n = 31) villages. A last-day food recall (without estimating quantities) and food-frequency questionnaire that used food cards assessed dietary choices. Qualitative analysis used thematic a priori and emergent coding; food group consumption frequencies were analyzed by using 2-level, logistic, mixed modeling, and chi-square testing while accounting for community clustering. Compared with control households, PROCOMIDA changed household food choices through a combination of providing food resources (with monthly food rations) and new knowledge and skills related to health and food (in the program's behavior change communication component) while reinforcing existing knowledge and beliefs. PROCOMIDA families consumed rice, red beans, and oil more frequently than did control families (differences of 2.20 (P foods were in the rations. PROCOMIDA families also ate chicken, local plants, and some vegetables more frequently. The importance of these foods was emphasized in the behavioral change communication component; these foods may have been more accessible because provision of food rations freed resources. Our findings suggest that if a program provides food free of cost to rural indigenous families in the context of a maternal and child nutrition and health program, it may be important to include a well-designed behavioral change communication

  2. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D K

    2016-06-23

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; PGreek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care.

  3. Food consumption patterns of young preschoolers: are they starting off on the right path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary Kay; Condon, Elizabeth; Briefel, Ronette R; Reidy, Kathleen C; Deming, Denise M

    2010-12-01

    To describe the food consumption patterns of US children aged 2 and 3 years. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2008 based on a single 24-hour dietary recall collected by telephone. A national random sample of children aged 2 and 3 years (n=1,461). The percentage of children consuming foods from specific food groups was estimated for the full sample of children aged 2 and 3 years and separately by year of age. About a third of 2-year-olds and a quarter of 3-year-olds consumed whole milk at least once in a day. About 70% of 2- and 3-year-olds consumed vegetables as a distinct food item at least once in day. French fries and other fried potatoes were the most commonly consumed vegetable. Almost three quarters of children (73%) consumed fruit as a distinct food item at least once in a day, and 59% consumed 100% juice. Fresh fruit was the most commonly consumed type of fruit. About 85% of children consumed some type of sweetened beverage, dessert, sweet, or salty snack in a day. Percentages of children consuming such foods were consistently higher for 3-year-olds than for 2-year-olds. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to expose young children to a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and healthier fats, and to limit consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages. Dietary guidance should stress the fact that children in this age group have high nutrient needs and relatively low energy requirements, leaving little room for such foods. Parents need advice that is specific, practical, and actionable. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neighborhood Playgrounds, Fast Food Restaurants, and Crime: Relationships to Overweight in Low-Income Preschool Children.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillary L. Burdette; Whitaker, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined over 7,000 low-income children between the ages of 3 and 5 living in Cincinnati. The authors hypothesized that children who lived farther from playgrounds, closer to fast food restaurants, and in unsafe neighborhoods might be more likely to be overweight. They conclude that overweight was not associated with proximity to playgrounds and fast food restaurants or with level of neighborhood crime.

  5. Neighborhood Playgrounds Fast Food Restaurants and Crime Relationships to Overweight in LowIncome Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hillary L Burdette Robert C Whitaker

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined over 7,000 low-income children between the ages of 3 and 5 living in Cincinnati. The authors hypothesized that children who lived farther from playgrounds, closer to fast food restaurants, and in unsafe neighborhoods might be more likely to be overweight. They conclude that overweight was not associated with proximity to playgrounds and fast food restaurants or with level of neighborhood crime.

  6. I'll Have What She's Having: The Impact of Model Characteristics on Children's Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Russell, Joshua W.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates children's use of social categories in their food selection. Across three studies, we presented preschoolers with sets of photographs that contrasted food-eating models with different characteristics, including model gender, race (Black, White), age (child or adult), and/or expression (acceptance or rejection of the…

  7. I'll Have What She's Having: The Impact of Model Characteristics on Children's Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Russell, Joshua W.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates children's use of social categories in their food selection. Across three studies, we presented preschoolers with sets of photographs that contrasted food-eating models with different characteristics, including model gender, race (Black, White), age (child or adult), and/or expression (acceptance or rejection of the…

  8. A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT AND NONCONTINGENT REINFORCEMENT TO TREAT FOOD SELECTIVITY IN A CHILD WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, Janelle; Wilder, David A; Chong, Ivy; Lugo, Ashley; Pike, Jessica; Rudy, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    We compared differential reinforcement plus escape extinction to noncontingent reinforcement plus escape extinction to treat food selectivity exhibited by a young child with autism. The interventions were equally effective for increasing bite acceptance and decreasing problem behaviors. However, a social validity measure suggested that noncontingent reinforcement was preferred by the child's caregiver.

  9. Food Assistance: Efforts To Control Fraud and Abuse in the Child and Adult Care Food Program Should Be Strengthened. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The Child and Adult Care Food Program provides over $1.5 billion in benefits annually to children and adults in day care. In order to address the longstanding problems of fraud and abuse present in the program, state agencies have been charged with the responsibility for implementing Food and Nutrition Service's (FNS) regulations to prevent and…

  10. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  11. Association between maternal lifestyle and preschool nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Bezerra Nobre

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Many of the health behaviors involved in the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD are originated in childhood under parental influence. Mothers are the ones most involved in the education and health care of children. Lifestyle (LS is a social determinant of health. Very few studies tried to understand the influence of maternal LS on child nutrition. Objective: To verify the association between maternal behavioral and non-behavioral LS and nutritional aspects in preschool children. Method: From January 2010 to December 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study with 255 mothers of preschool children who were residents of five different sub-districts in southwestern São Paulo. A proportional stratified random sample was selected using two layers (“schools” and “children”. From the mother, sociodemographic and LS information were collected. From the child, data on anthropometry, sedentary behavior and food intake were collected. The association was calculated using chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: Children who ate minimally processed food were born from mothers with more socially aware non-behavioral LS, while children that ate more processed food were born from mothers with more consumerist non-behavioral LS. No association was found between nutritional characteristics of preschoolers and types of maternal behavioral LS. Children presenting “sedentary behavior” and the habit of eating “ultra-processed foods” had 113% and 84% higher chances, respectively, of being born to mothers that belonged to the “consumerist” cluster. Conclusion: Mothers living a consumerist lifestyle can promote negative influences on child nutrition.

  12. Healthy incentive scheme in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, C Johnston

    2013-12-16

    A pre-school offering a full-day-care service provides for children aged 0-5 years for more than 4 h\\/d. Researchers have called for studies that will provide an understanding of nutrition and physical activity practices in this setting. Obesity prevention in pre-schools, through the development of healthy associations with food and health-related practices, has been advocated. While guidelines for the promotion of best nutrition and health-related practice in the early years\\' setting exist in a number of jurisdictions, associated regulations have been noted to be poor, with the environment of the child-care facility mainly evaluated for safety. Much cross-sectional research outlines poor nutrition and physical activity practice in this setting. However, there are few published environmental and policy-level interventions targeting the child-care provider with, to our knowledge, no evidence of such interventions in Ireland. The aim of the present paper is to review international guidelines and recommendations relating to health promotion best practice in the pre-school setting: service and resource provision; food service and food availability; and the role and involvement of parents in pre-schools. Intervention programmes and assessment tools available to measure such practice are outlined; and insight is provided into an intervention scheme, formulated from available best practice, that was introduced into the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

  13. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  14. Friendships in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Holds Them Back, Child Characteristics or Teacher Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Shih, Wendy; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Children begin to show preferences for specific playmates as early as the first 2?years of life. Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty making friends, even in elementary and middle school. However, very little is known about earlier friendships in children with autism such as preschool friendships. This study examined friendships…

  15. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  16. Maternal educational level and preschool children's consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages: mediation by the family food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Jansen, Pauline W; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2013-11-01

    To examine the associations between maternal educational level and preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages, and to assess the mediating effects of variables relating to the family food environment. We analyzed data from 2814 native Dutch preschoolers enrolled in a birth cohort study in Rotterdam (the Netherlands), between 2002 and 2006. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios of snacking ≥ 2 times/day and consuming sugar-containing beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day for children of mothers with low, mid-low, and mid-high educational levels (reference group: high educational level), before and after adjustment for mediators. Children of low and mid-low educated mothers were significantly more likely to consume excessive amounts of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages compared with children of high educated mothers, with the highest odds in children of low educated mothers (OR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.84, 3.23 and OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.87, 3.24 respectively). Parental feeding practices, parental consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and children's television time partly explained these associations. Maternal educational level is inversely related to preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages. Targeting the family food environment may be an effective way of reducing educational inequalities in children's unhealthy dietary behaviors. © 2013.

  17. Impact of requiring influenza vaccination for children in licensed child care or preschool programs--Connecticut, 2012-13 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Kudish, Kathy; Kennedy, Erin D; Sacco, Vincent; Cartter, Matthew L

    2014-03-07

    Preschool-aged children are at increased risk for severe influenza-related illness and complications. Congregate child care settings facilitate influenza transmission among susceptible children. To protect against influenza transmission in these settings, in September 2010, Connecticut became the second U.S. state (after New Jersey) to implement regulations requiring that all children aged 6-59 months receive at least 1 dose of influenza vaccine each year to attend a licensed child care program. To evaluate the impact of this regulation on vaccination levels and influenza-associated hospitalizations during the 2012-13 influenza season, vaccination data from U.S. and Connecticut surveys and the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) were analyzed. After the regulation took effect, vaccination rates among Connecticut children aged 6-59 months increased from 67.8% during the 2009-10 influenza season to 84.1% during the 2012-13 season. During the 2012-13 influenza season, among all 11 EIP surveillance sites, Connecticut had the greatest percentage decrease (12%) in the influenza-associated hospitalization rate from 2007-08 among children aged ≤4 years. Additionally, the ratio of the influenza-associated hospitalization rates among children aged ≤4 years to the overall population rate (0.53) was lower than for any other EIP site. Requiring vaccination for child care admission might have helped to increase vaccination rates in Connecticut and reduced serious morbidity from influenza.

  18. Parent-Child Interaction and the Development of Racial Group Identity and Self Concepts of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Harriette; McAdoo, John L.

    This study focuses on three areas: (1) mother-child and father-child verbal and nonverbal interactions; (2) racial differences in parent-child interactions, children's self esteem and children's racial attitudes; and (3) relationships between parenting style and children's feelings of self-worth and racial preferences. Subjects were 40 black and…

  19. Gender Division of Labour in Food Production and Decision Making Power and Impact on Household Food Security and Child Nutrition in Rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Shoo, Tiransia Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Background Food insecurity which is the one of the causes of child malnutrition is still prevalent in Tanzania. One of the causes of food insecurity as it has been reported by other scholars is gender inequality. Women, especially in developing countries have been reported to have very high workload in food production compared to men and in decision making power they are often subordinate to men. Other studies have showed that gender roles are dynamic and they change over time with economi...

  20. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psaki Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27 was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42% was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%. In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008. A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and

  1. Psychometric Assessment of the Achenbach & Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist in Pre-schoolers between 4,0 and 5,5 years old of lower Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Zambrano Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Achenbach and Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist was assessed psychometrically in a group of 100 preschool students between 4,0 and 5,5 years old who attend a public school at Bogota city. It was done by applying formats to parents and teachers. These formats were previously translated, linguistically adapted and piloted. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the total scale was 0,94 -0,94 for parents and 0,95 for teachers-. The analysis of factors by main components saturated the variance in 87%, although it did not correspond to the factors proposed by the original model. This measure gives diagnostic information about the children’s behavioral structure from a multiaxial perspective. Moreover, it identifies profiles of the internalizing and externalizing dimensions of behavior.

  2. Child and Parental Reports of Bullying in a Consecutive Sample of Children With Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, Rachel A.; Ambrose, Michael A.; Ravid, Noga L.; Mullarkey, Chloe; Rubes, Melissa; Chuang, Kelley; Sicherer, Mati; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The social vulnerability that is associated with food allergy (FA) might predispose children with FA to bullying and harassment. This study sought to quantify the extent, methods, and correlates of bullying in a cohort of food-allergic children. METHODS: Patient and parent (83.6% mothers) pairs were consecutively recruited during allergy clinic visits to independently answer questionnaires. Bullying due to FA or for any cause, quality of life (QoL), and distress in both the child and parent were evaluated via questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 251 families who completed the surveys, 45.4% of the children and 36.3% of their parents indicated that the child had been bullied or harassed for any reason, and 31.5% of the children and 24.7% of the parents reported bullying specifically due to FA, frequently including threats with foods, primarily by classmates. Bullying was significantly associated with decreased QoL and increased distress in parents and children, independent of the reported severity of the allergy. A greater frequency of bullying was related to poorer QoL. Parents knew about the child-reported bullying in only 52.1% of the cases. Parental knowledge of bullying was associated with better QoL and less distress in the bullied children. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying is common in food-allergic children. It is associated with lower QoL and distress in children and their parents. Half of the bullying cases remain unknown to parents. When parents are aware of the bullying, the child’s QoL is better. It is important to proactively identify and address cases in this population. PMID:23266926

  3. FTO at rs9939609, Food Responsiveness, Emotional Control and Symptoms of ADHD in Preschool Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P. Velders (Fleur); F.R.C. de Wit (Frank); P.W. Jansen (Pauline); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe FTO minor allele at rs9939609 has been associated with body mass index (BMI: weight (kg)/height (m)2) in children from 5 years onwards, food intake, and eating behaviour. The high expression of FTO in the brain suggests that this gene may also be associated with behavioural

  4. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i energy intake (EI obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water and (ii the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001 from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively. Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001, as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  5. Responsive feeding and child interest in food vary when rural Malawian children are fed lipid-based nutrient supplements or local complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Mäkinen, Samppa; Ashorn, Ulla; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-07-01

    Caregiver and child behaviours during feeding have been used to measure responsiveness, which has been recognised as important for child growth and development. The aims of this study were to understand how caregiver and child behaviours differ when feeding lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) vs. local complementary food and to detect associations between behaviours and child interest in food. Sixteen moderately underweight 6-17-month-old Malawian children receiving 50 g/day of supplementary LNS for 12 weeks were videotaped during LNS (n = 32) and local complementary feeding (n = 28) episodes. Behaviours were coded at the level of the intended bite (1674 total bites). The analysis used regression models adjusted for within-subject correlation. Caregivers were less likely to allow children to self-feed and more likely to use physical pressure during LNS vs. complementary food bites. Positive caregiver verbalization was infrequent and did not differ by type of food. Higher odds of accepting a bite were associated with the bite containing LNS, odds ratio (OR) 3.05; 90% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 4.71), the child self-feeding, OR 5.70; 90% CI (2.77, 11.69), and positive caregiver verbalization, OR 2.46; 90% CI (1.26, 4.80), while lower odds of acceptance were associated with negative child verbalization during feeding, OR 0.27; 90% CI (0.17, 0.42). In this sample, caregivers used more responsive feeding practices during bites of local complementary food and were more controlling when feeding LNS. Responsive caregiver behaviours predicted child acceptance of food. These results could be used to design interventions in Malawi to improve responsive feeding practices in general and during LNS use.

  6. Comparison of planned menus and centre characteristics with foods and beverages served in New York City child-care centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Dixon, L Beth; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the extent to which child-care centre menus prepared in advance correspond with food and beverage items served to children. The authors identified centre and staff characteristics that were associated with matches between menus and what was served. Design Menus were collected from ninety-five centres in New York City (NYC). Direct observation of foods and beverages served to children were conducted during 524 meal and snack times at these centres between April and June 2010, as part of a larger study designed to determine compliance of child-care centres with city health department regulations for nutrition. Setting Child-care centres were located in low-income neighbourhoods in NYC. Results Overall, 87% of the foods and beverages listed on the menus or allowed as substitutions were served. Menu items matched with foods and beverages served for all major food groups by > 60%. Sweets and water had lower match percentages (40 and 32%, respectively), but water was served 68% of the time when it was not listed on the menu. The staff person making the food and purchasing decisions predicted the match between the planned or substituted items on the menus and the foods and beverages served. Conclusions In the present study, child-care centre menus included most foods and beverages served to children. Menus planned in advance have potential to be used to inform parents about which child-care centre to send their child or what foods and beverages their enrolled children will be offered throughout the day. PMID:27280341

  7. Quality evaluation of rice bran protein isolate-based weaning food for preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saima H; Butt, Masood S; Anjum, Faqir M; Sameen, Ayesha

    2011-05-01

    Agro-industrial waste 'rice bran' was stabilized and the extracted protein isolates were used as ingredients to make nutritive complimentary food for the growing infants. The formulation processed through drum drying and the starchy ingredients were pregelatinized to reduce bulk in the prepared meal and facilitate spoon-feeding. The formulations had uniform texture, light golden color and good paste consistency. Nutrient composition was good enough to meet standards for supplementary infant foods. Caloric value remained up to 416 kcal/100 g with spoonable viscosity and 80.90-84.45% in vitro digestibility. A single meal could substantially contribute to the daily essential amino acid requirement. The formulation had good acceptability during a short-term infant-feeding trial. The present study can provide practical guideline for manufacturers as well as the nutritionist for the use of an economical and nutritive formulation for young children.

  8. Food intake and nutritional status of preschool from maroon communities of the state Alagoas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Maria de B. Leite; Haroldo da Silva Ferreira; Bezerra, Myrtis Katille de A.; Monica Lopes de Assunção; Bernardo Lessa Horta

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months) from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin) and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a conside...

  9. 挫折-侵犯理论视野下的幼儿教师虐童事件%Preschool Teachers Violated Child Abuse under Frustration-Under Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹艺

    2014-01-01

    近年来,我国幼儿教师虐童事件频发,主要原因有幼儿教师生存压力过大、幼儿教师工作压力过重、幼儿教师队伍整体素质偏低、幼儿教师心理健康现状堪忧、“家园”合作管理不完善、法律及相关监管体系不健全等。%In recent years, China's preschool teachers frequent incidents of child abuse, the main reason there is too much pressure to survive early childhood teachers, preschool teachers working pressure is too low overall quality of early childhood teachers, preschool teachers' mental health status are worrying,"Homeland"co-management is not complete and the legal and regulatory system is not perfect and so on.

  10. Maternal and young child nutrition adversely affected by external shocks such as increasing global food prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Cogill, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Rising food prices, resulting from the ongoing global economic crisis, fuel price volatility, and climate change, have an adverse impact upon the poor, especially those in food-importing, resource-limited countries. The conventional approach by large organizations has been to advocate for increased staple crop yields of mainly cereals. High food prices are predicted to continue to at least 2015. Past shocks and their known impacts upon nutrition were reviewed. Price instability and increases have long been an existing global problem, which has been exacerbated by recent macroeconomic shocks such as acute emergencies due to war and civil strife, acute climatic events, increase in food prices, fuel price volatility, dysfunction of the global financial systems, long-term climate change, and the emergence of failed states. The FAO estimated that there were 815 million "hungry" people in 2006, with a now additional 75-135 million with increased vulnerability, and currently it is estimated that there are one billion people at risk of food insecurity. The shocks initially compromise maternal and child nutrition, mainly through a reduction in dietary quality and an increase in micronutrient deficiencies and concomitant increases in infectious disease morbidity and mortality. A further reduction in the quantity of diet may follow with greater underweight and wasting. Recent macroeconomic shocks have greatly increased the number of people who are vulnerable to hunger in developing countries. Nutritional surveillance systems need to be strengthened and expanded to inform policy decisions.

  11. Unhealthy and healthy food consumption inside and outside of the school by pre-school and elementary school Mexican children in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lilian; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2013-12-01

    Food from lunch packs (LP) or food available inside and outside of school can play an important role in the development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the LP of elementary school (ES) and preschool children (PS) in Tijuana, and the foods available to them inside and outside of school. Eight public schools participated in the study. A random sample of all the groups from a school district was conducted. A questionnaire was administered to children in first through sixth grade (ES) and to the parents of PS. LP and food available inside and outside of the school were classified as healthy, unhealthy, and adequate according to the guidelines set forth by the Secretariat of Health. A total of 2,716 questionnaires were administered and the content of 648 LP was assessed. It was observed that 99% of PS had LP prepared at home, a higher percentage than ES. None of the LP of the ES was classified as healthy, and 1% was classified as adequate. Among PS, 21% of the LP were classified as healthy and 6% as adequate. More than half of the children recognized the brand name of foods high in fat, salt, and added sugar available inside and outside of school grounds. Most of the LP of ES and PS and the foods available inside and outside of school were unhealthy and inadequate. A strategy to prevent the availability of unhealthy and inadequate food in LP and foods available inside and outside schools is recommended.

  12. The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Andrew Z. H.; Lwin, May O.; Shirley S. Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background The family is an important social context where children learn and adopt eating behaviors. Specifically, parents play the role of health promoters, role models, and educators in the lives of children, influencing their food cognitions and choices. This study attempts to systematically review empirical studies examining the influence of parents on child food consumption behavior in two contexts: one promotive in nature (e.g., healthy food), and the other preventive in nature (e.g., ...

  13. Food intake and nutritional status of preschool from maroon communities of the state Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maria de B. Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a considerable prevalence of inadequate intake of zinc (17.0%, folate (18.1%, iron (20.2% and vitamins A (29.7% and C (34.3%. Compared to the other socioeconomic classes, the E class children had lower average consumption (p<0.05 for energy, carbohydrate, vitamins A and C, folate, iron, zinc and phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is a serious Public Health problem. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition and obesity were similar to those observed for the children in the State as a whole, where a nutritional transition process is occuring. There was a high prevalence of inadequate food intake risk for zinc, folate, iron and vitamins A and C, suggesting the need for nutritional education actions.

  14. Parental attachment insecurity predicts child and adult high-caloric food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-05-01

    Eating habits are established early and are difficult to change once formed. This study investigated the role of caregiver-child attachment quality and its associations with high-caloric food consumption in a sample of middle socio-economic status children and adults, respectively. Survey data were collected from an online questionnaire administered separately to 213 (143 girls) children and 216 parents (adult sample; 180 women). Two studies showed that an insecure parental attachment, whether actual (Study 1; children) or recalled (Study 2; adults), significantly and positively predicted high-caloric food consumption in both samples. The present findings highlight the importance of parental attachment and its association with unhealthy eating patterns in children and adults.

  15. The behavioralist as nutritionist: leveraging behavioral economics to improve child food choice and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A; Samek, Anya Savikhin

    2015-01-01

    We leverage behavioral economics to explore new approaches to tackling child food choice and consumption. Using a field experiment with >1500 children, we report several key insights. We find that incentives have large influences: in the control, 17% of children prefer the healthy snack, whereas introduction of small incentives increases take-up of the healthy snack to ∼75%. There is some evidence that the effects continue post-treatment, consistent with a model of habit formation. We find little evidence that the framing of incentives (loss vs. gain) matters. Educational messaging alone has little effect, but we observe a combined effect of messaging and incentives: together they provide an important influence on food choice.

  16. Observations of parent-child co-shoppers in supermarkets: children's involvement in food selections, parental yielding, and refusal strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Stang, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to collect descriptive information on the decision-making processes of adult shoppers around food purchases when young children are present. Anthropological field observations were conducted on adult-child grocery shoppers. Eleven supermarkets in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. A convenience sample (n = 142) of adult-child shoppers at 8 budget and 3 deluxe supermarkets located in diverse urban and suburban areas. Observations registered adult-child interactions over food selections, including parental yielding or refusal strategies and child engagement in shopping. Means and frequencies were calculated for food items considered. In 67 (50.4%) of the total 133 observations, a child initiated a request. Half (55.2%) of the requests were for sweets or snacks. Nearly half (47.8%) of adults yielded to the child's request. Brands and marketing techniques appeared to be a factor in 28.6% of selections. The most frequent adult refusals either provided an explanation or ignored the request. Adults yield to children's requests for sweets and snacks nearly as often as they refuse them. However, effective refusal strategies are used by many adults. Opportunities exist in the grocery store for adults to reinforce young children's interest in food and nutrition.

  17. The perception of low-salt bread among preschool children and the role of educational personnel in creating a positive attitude towards reformulated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Boris; Knific, Maja

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the possibility of unnoticed reduction in salt content of bread as a basic food in the diet of preschool children. The response of children to less salty bread and the role of teachers and teacher assistants in the introduction of novelties into children's nutrition ware studied. Using hedonic sensory evaluation in the case of bread, the perception of salty taste and responses of preschool children to salt reduction were observed. The combination of quantitative and qualitative data analysis obtained from the case study group, composed of 22 preschool children and 66 teachers and teacher assistants, was studied. The results show that a 30% salt reduction was not registered by the children, while a 50% reduction of the salt content, compared to the original recipe, though noted, was not disruptive. The perception of taste and development of good eating habits at an early age could be influenced by teachers and teacher assistants' verbal and non-verbal communication. Salt reduction does not significantly affect the rating of satisfaction with the tested product. Educational personnel must be aware of their decisive influence on children's perception of new and less salty products. Such an approach could represent a basis for creating children's eating habits, which will be of particular importance later in their lives. The findings may possibly result in an update of the national nutrition policy.

  18. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  19. Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study of Factors Associated with the Healthfulness of Parental Responses to Child Food Purchasing Requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, Eric E; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Romo-Palafox, Maria J; McInnis, Katie A; Briley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between various factors (e.g., sociodemographic, child, and parental factors) and the healthfulness of parental responses to child in-store food purchasing requests. Additionally, a secondary objective is to describe "resist strategies" used by parents to respond to child food-purchasing requests and their efficacy in avoiding conflict. Methods Parent-child dyads (children aged 2-6 years) completed an audio-/visual-recoded food shopping trip at their usual grocery store and time. Recordings of trips were coded for behavioral and environmental factors. Parental healthful response rate (i.e., percent of responses that were healthful) was the primary outcome variable. A healthful response occurred when a parent yielded to a healthful child request, or resisted a non-healthful request. Parents also completed a questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the relationship between the main outcome variable and sociodemographic, child, and parent factors. Results Parents (n = 39) responded healthfully to 62.9 % (±26.7 %) of child food purchasing requests. Low- and middle-income parents, and black and white parents, had significantly higher healthful response rates compared to high-income parents (p = 0.03) and Hispanic/Indian-descent parents (p = 0.02), respectively. Using the "ignore" strategy proved an effective resist strategy in this study, leading to no parent-child conflicts. Conclusions Programming that seeks to improve the healthfulness of food purchasing in families with young children should address unhealthful response behaviors in Hispanic/Indian-descent parents and high-income parents; although, the needs of these groups are different. Further research is needed to confirm and expand on these findings.

  20. The impact of a 20-month physical activity intervention in child care centers on motor performance and weight in overweight and healthy-weight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-12-01

    A child-centered physical activity intervention was administered in child care centers over 20 months to promote motor performance and reduce weight in preschool children. The intervention group (N = 211) received at least one weekly 45-min. session of physical education and sessions of physical activities of at least 20 minutes on the other days. Control children (N = 217) experienced the regular curriculum, which consisted of one session of physical activities of 45 min. per week. At the end of the study, children in the intervention group surpassed children in the control group in motor performance (body coordination, physical fitness, and dexterity, measured by a motor test battery MoTB 3-7). Children in the top 20% by BMI at the beginning of the study ("high weight") had inferior motor performance. Children with higher BMIs in the intervention group had better motor scores than children with higher BMIs in the control group, but the intervention had no effect on body weight, BMI, or skinfold thickness.

  1. Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck

    2016-11-08

    This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.

  2. The Effects of Mother Participation in Relationship Education on Coparenting, Parenting, and Child Social Competence: Modeling Spillover Effects for Low-Income Minority Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Garneau, Chelsea; Vaughn, Brian; McGill, Julianne; Harcourt, Kate Taylor; Ketring, Scott; Smith, Thomas

    2016-11-14

    Although suggestions are that benefits of relationship and marriage education (RME) participation extend from the interparental relationship with parenting and child outcomes, few evaluation studies of RME test these assumptions and the relationship among changes in these areas. This quasi-experimental study focuses on a parallel process growth model that tests a spillover hypothesis of program effects and finds, in a sample of low-income minority mothers with a child attending a Head Start program, that increases in mother reports of coparenting agreement for RME participants predict decreases in their reports of punitive parenting behaviors. Although improvements in parenting behaviors did not predict increases in teacher reports of children's social competence, improvements in coparenting agreement were associated with increases in children's social competence over time. In addition, comparative tests of outcomes between parents in the program and parents in a comparison group reveal that RME program participants (n = 171) demonstrate significant improvements compared to nonparticipants (n = 143) on coparenting agreement, parenting practices, and teachers' reports of preschool children's social competence over a 1 year period. The findings are offered as a step forward in better understanding the experiences of low-resource participants in RME. Implications for future research are discussed.

  3. TABLET DEVICES, SMARTPHONES, GAME CONSOLES INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN’S SOCIALIZATION, PLAY ACTIVITY AND CHILD-PARENT RELATIONSHIPS OF CHILDREN IN TENDER AGE AND PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousova, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of 130 families having children of early and preschool age are given. The contingent of investigated has been divided into 2 groups: group №1 - children without speech and cognitive violations (n=80, group № 2 - are diagnosed manifestations of the general underdevelopment of the speech combined with like-autistic disturbances (n=50. All the children were divided into 2 groups: group №1 (n = 80, children are without speech disorders, group №2 (n = 50: signs of general underdevelopment of children’s speech are diagnosed, combined with like-autistic disturbances. Features of formation of skills of social interaction, development of a subject role-playing game and the child parent relations at against the active use of tablet devices and smartphones by them are studied. In both groups intensive and unfairly early game interaction with gadgets is marked. There is a clear hierarchy transformation of the family system towards the loss of parents dominant influence on children without an ability to use gadget as an obedience and encourage. Patterns of parental behavior in the study families demonstrate the priority of spending time with the gadget to joint leisure time and active integration of the gadget into child's life with delegating him an authority of development and game interaction with him.

  4. Early second language acquisition: a comparison of the linguistic output of a pre-school child acquiring English as a second language with that of a monolingual peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, C A

    1991-08-01

    Two pre-school children were recorded at regular intervals over a 9-month period while playing freely together. One child was acquiring English as a second language, whilst the other was a monolingual English speaker. The sociolinguistic domain was such that the children were likely to be motivated to communicate with each other in English. A variety of quantitative measures were taken from the transcribed data, including measures of utterance type, length, type-token ratios, use of auxiliaries and morphology. The child for whom English was a second language was found to be well able to interact on equal terms with his partner, despite being somewhat less advanced in some aspects of English language development by the end of the sampling period. Whilst he appeared to be consolidating his language skills during this time, his monolingual partner appeared to be developing rapidly. It is hoped that normative longitudinal data of this kind will be of use in the accurate assessment of children from dual language backgrounds, who may be referred for speech and language therapy.

  5. Experimental Impacts of a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile on Preschool Classroom Quality and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…

  6. The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Parental Intelligence and Child Behavior Problems in a Study of Korean Preschool Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Yoon

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…

  7. Sanitation in classroom and food preparation areas in child-care facilities in North Carolina and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgenent, Kelly C; Cates, Sheryl C; Fraser, Angela; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 60% of U.S. children aged five and younger spend time in child-care settings. Such environments increase the risk of diarrheal disease, including diseases caused by enteric pathogens. To describe adherence to sanitation standards in classrooms and food preparation areas in child-care facilities, the authors conducted site visits in 40 North Carolina and South Carolina child-care facilities. Audits in up to two classrooms (rooms providing care for infants and toddlers) and the kitchen were performed using a form similar to a regulatory inspection form. Audit data were used to calculate indices to describe adherence to sanitation standards and were based on state environmental health regulations for child-care centers, the Food and Drug Administration's Food Code 2009, and guidance from food safety experts. Most facilities participating in the authors' study adhered to sanitation standards within the classroom; however, deficiencies with regard to sanitation in food preparation areas and refrigerator operating temperatures were noted. These results provide insight into possible risk factors for enteric disease transmission in child-care facilities.

  8. Obesity determinants in Mexican preschool children: parental perceptions and practices related to feeding and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Oliveros, Guadalupe; Haines, Jess; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris; Power, Elaine; Taveras, Elsie M; González-Unzaga, Marco A; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2011-08-01

    Obesity represents a major public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, overweight and obesity have increased dramatically, affecting 26% of school-aged children. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and practices of key obesity determinants among parents of preschool children attending child care centers. We conducted five focus groups with 38 parents from six Mexico City child care centers. Inquiry topics were 1) childhood obesity causes and consequences; 2) child feeding practices at the child care center and home; 3) healthful and unhealthful foods for young children; 4) significance of physical activity in childhood; and 5) physical activity-promoting factors and barriers. We analyzed these data using content analysis. We identified a number of barriers to healthful eating, including parental time constraints, permissive feeding styles, unhealthful food preparation practices, lack of knowledge about nutrition, food advertisement, and high availability of unhealthful foods in public places. Facilitators to healthful eating included recognition of childhood overweight prevention and consequences, and healthy food choices. Main barriers to childhood physical activity included influence of young family members to play video games, parental time constraints, street safety, low access to sports facilities, and insufficient communication with child care centers. Understanding parental views and perceptions of the main factors influencing preschoolers' weight-related behavior can inform home-based or environmental interventions that support healthful eating and regular physical activity. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life......The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... risk load and environmental stress given the social and cultural context....

  10. The risk of child and adolescent overweight is related to types of food consumed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaté Joan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims To investigate the association between the risk of overweight and the consumption of food groups in children and adolescents. Methods We studied 1764 healthy children and adolescents (age 6-19y attending 16 Seventh-Day Adventist schools and 13 public schools using a 106-item non-quantitative food frequency questionnaire from the late 1980 Child-Adolescent Blood Pressure Study. Logistic regression models were used to compute the risk of overweight according to consumption of grains, nuts, vegetables, fruits, meats/fish/eggs, dairy, and, low nutrient-dense foods (LNDF. Results The frequency of consumption of grains, nuts, vegetables and LNDF were inversely related to the risk of being overweight and dairy increased the risk. Specifically, the odds ratio (95% CI for children in the highest quartile or tertile of consumption compared with the lowest quartile or tertile were as follows: grains 0.59(0.41-0.83; nuts 0.60(0.43-0.85; vegetables 0.67(0.48-0.94; LNDF 0.43(0.29-0.63; and, dairy 1.36(0.97, 1.92. Conclusion The regular intake of specific plant foods may prevent overweight among children and adolescents.

  11. Saving lives, preserving livelihoods: understanding risk, decision-making and child health in a food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Katherine Rebecca; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Kilpatrick, Kate; Casiday, Rachel E

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse household decision-making regarding resource allocation in the aftermath of a food crisis in rural Niger. International attention had resulted in humanitarian agencies launching emergency nutrition programmes to alleviate persistently high levels of acute child malnutrition. We conducted participant observation, 93 in-depth interviews, 15 focus groups, 44 feeding and illness histories for children under 5, and debriefing sessions with local humanitarian staff. The impetus for this study came from observations of marked intra-household differences in child growth and health status, despite the caregivers' ethos of treating children equally. Egalitarian input, however, does not always result in equal outcomes: vulnerable children become "victims of non-discrimination" through a form of benign neglect engendered by pervasive poverty. The ethos and practices of equal investment in children are rooted in a need to balance the perceived risks to children with the preservation of long-term livelihoods. We discuss the mismatch of views between external interventions, which focus on saving individual children's lives, and local priorities, aimed at spreading risk. This mismatch is rooted in the different ways in which humanitarian agencies and local communities weigh up risks and vulnerabilities in matters of child health.

  12. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl O. Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  13. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  14. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  15. School food environment: Quality and advertisement frequency of child-oriented packaged products within walking distance of public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Missbach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as “healthy” foods and 84.2% as “less healthy”; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as “healthy” and 34.3% as “less healthy”. In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.

  16. School food environment: Quality and advertisement frequency of child-oriented packaged products within walking distance of public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Pachschwöll, Caterina; Kuchling, Daniel; König, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM) on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as "healthy" foods and 84.2% as "less healthy"; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as "healthy" and 34.3% as "less healthy". In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.

  17. Factors that determine parents' perception of their child's risk of life-threatening food-induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, Jennifer; Wong, Jayne; Wan, Ming Wai; Davis, Naomi; Arkwright, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Although food allergy is known to be associated with increased disease burden, factors that shape parents' perception of their child's risk of future severe or fatal anaphylaxis are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with parents' perceived risk of food-induced anaphylaxis. A questionnaire-based survey of 202 parents was conducted in a single specialist center outpatient clinic that treats children with food allergies. Parents' perceived risk of their child experiencing further food-induced anaphylaxis was assessed by using a validated food allergy independent measure. Demographic data as well as parents' anxiety and depression scores were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score. Nineteen percent of parents believed that their child had a moderate-to-high chance of dying from food-induced anaphylaxis. A lack of a university education, higher anxiety score, and, particularly, possession of an epinephrine autoinjector (relative risk 9.9 [95% confidence interval, 3.3-30]) were key factors associated with heightened risk perception. Caring for a child with multiple food allergies was the main factor associated with parents feeling less able to manage future reactions (relative risk 9.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.7-53]). Parents' risk perception of fatal anaphylaxis correlated with anxiety and mood scores. Parents' education, affect, and possession of an epinephrine autoinjector were associated with a heightened perceived risk of future anaphylaxis. Clinicians should consider not only the child's needs but should also provide counseling for parents, particularly those who possess autoinjectors. Parents of children with multiple food allergies may need additional education and training to help them cope with future reactions.

  18. A tale of two methods: comparing regression and instrumental variables estimates of the effects of preschool child care type on the subsequent externalizing behavior of children in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Danielle A; Dowsett, Chantelle J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Huston, Aletha C

    2010-09-01

    We apply instrumental variables (IV) techniques to a pooled data set of employment-focused experiments to examine the relation between type of preschool childcare and subsequent externalizing problem behavior for a large sample of low-income children. To assess the potential usefulness of this approach for addressing biases that can confound causal inferences in child care research, we compare instrumental variables results with those obtained using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. We find that our OLS estimates concur with prior studies showing small positive associations between center-based care and later externalizing behavior. By contrast, our IV estimates indicate that preschool-aged children with center care experience are rated by mothers and teachers as having fewer externalizing problems on entering elementary school than their peers who were not in child care as preschoolers. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on associations between different types of community-based child care and children's social behavior, particularly within low-income populations. Moreover, we use this study to highlight the relative strengths and weaknesses of each analytic method for addressing causal questions in developmental research.

  19. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Michelle J; Moore, Carolyn E; Tsai, Cynthia M; Shulman, Robert J; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2014-03-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with functional GI disorders. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11 to 17 years old with functional GI disorders and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using χ2, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Spearman's ρ. Children identified a median of 11 (range=2 to 25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow's milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified, including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range=1 to 20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent's assessment of their child's QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with functional GI disorders. In addition, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms can adversely impact children's QOL in several important areas.

  20. Testing the impact of a social skill training versus waiting list control group for the reduction of disruptive behaviors and stress among preschool children in child care: the study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Larose, Marie-Pier; Geoffroy, Marie Claude; Laurin, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    Most preschoolers growing up in western industrialized countries receive child care services (CCS) during the day, while their parents are at work. Meta-analytic data suggest that CCS represent a stressful experience for preschoolers. This may be because preschoolers have not yet developed the social skills necessary to cope with the new and rapidly fluctuating social contexts of CCS. We tested the effectiveness of a child care-based social skill training program aiming to improve children's social behaviors and reduce the stress they experience. We used a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) to compare children's social behaviors and stress levels in pre- and post-intervention according to whether they received a social skill training intervention or not. Nineteen (n = 19) public CCS (n = 362, 3-years-old preschoolers) of underprivileged neighborhoods (Montreal, Canada) were randomized to one of two conditions: 1) social skills training (n = 10 CCS); or 2) waiting list control group (n = 9 CCS). Educators in the intervention group conducted bi-weekly social skills training sessions over a period of 8 months. The intervention covered four topics: making social contacts, problem solving, emotional self-regulation, as well as emotional expression and recognition. Main outcome measures included preschoolers' disruptive (e.g. aggression, opposition, conflicts) and prosocial behaviors (e.g. sharing toys, helping another child), and stress levels assessed by salivary cortisol sampling at pre and post intervention assessments. Educators' practices will be tested as potential mediators of the expected changes in behaviors and neuroendocrine stress. To our knowledge, this is the first cRCT to test the effectiveness of a child care based social skill training program on the reduction of disruptive behaviors and levels of stress. Significant challenges include the degree of adherence to the intervention protocol as well educators and preschoolers' turnover

  1. Direct and indirect relations between parent-child attachments, peer acceptance, and self-esteem for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alexandra; Veríssimo, Manuela; Gatinho, Ana; Santos, António J; Vaughn, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to test Bowlby's suggestions concerning relations between the child's attachment quality with parents and subsequently constructed models of self-worth during early childhood. In most research on this question, attachment with mothers is considered in relation to self-worth but the child's attachment with fathers is not. Neither has the peer group been studied as an influence on child self-esteem, in the context of attachment research. This study addresses these relatively unstudied influences on child self-esteem. Attachment security to mother and father was measured by the Attachment Behavior Q-Set at two and half years of age. At five years of age social acceptance was measured using two sociometric techniques, and the self-esteem with the California Child Q-Sort. Our analyses indicated that security of the attachment to father and peer acceptance are both unique, significant predictors of the childrens' self-esteem. The security of the attachment to mother was also related to child self-esteem but did not emerge as a uniquely significant predictor. Peer acceptance appeared to moderate of the effect of the security of the attachment to father on the self-esteem of children. Our results extend the relatively sparse literature relating early attachments to self-esteem during early childhood.

  2. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster

    2004-02-01

    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  3. The placemat protocol: Measuring preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas with pretend meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Peralta, Mericarmen; Jacobsohn, Gwen Costa; Grider, David T

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition instruction can lead to more healthful food choices among children, but little is known about preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas because there are few developmentally appropriate measures. This study validated the Placemat Protocol, a novel measure of preschooler healthy-meal schemas using realistic food models to assemble pretend meals. Preschoolers (N = 247, mean age 4 years 8 months) created 2 meals (preferred and healthy), completed measures of verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and were weighed and measured for BMI. Parents reported healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, and family demographics. Children used an average of 5.1 energy-dense (ED) and 3.4 nutrient-dense (ND) foods for their preferred meal, but reversed the ratio to 3.1 ED and 5.1 ND foods for their healthy meal. Healthy meals contained fewer estimated kcal, less fat, less sugar, and more fiber than preferred meals. Meal differences held for younger children, children with lower verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and child subgroups at higher risk for obesity. Placemat Protocol data correlated with parent healthy eating guidance and child obesogenic dietary intake as expected. The Placemat Protocol shows promise for assessing developing healthy-meal schemas before children can fully articulate their knowledge on verbal measures.

  4. Formative research and strategic development of a physical activity component to a social marketing campaign for obesity prevention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Gould, Susan Martin; Auld, Garry

    2008-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight in childhood, including preschoolers, continues to rise. While efforts focusing on school-aged children are encouraging, obesity prevention programs to address nutrition and physical activity in the child care center are lacking. Food Friends is a successfully evaluated nutrition program aimed at enhancing preschoolers' food choices, the addition of a physical activity program would improve the programs overall efforts to establish healthful habits early in life. This study describes the formative research conducted with secondary influencers of preschoolers-teachers and parents-for the development of a physical activity program. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with preschool teachers and parents, respectively, to examine current physical activity practices, as well as attitudes, opinions, and desired wants and needs for physical activity materials. Findings illustrate that teachers provided physical activity; however, most did not use a structured program. Teachers identified time, space and equipment as barriers to providing activity in their classroom. Focus group findings identified activities of preschoolers', parents' perceptions of the adequacy of activity levels, and items to help parents engage their children in more physical activity. Barriers were also identified by parents and included time, safety, inclement weather, and lack of knowledge and self-efficacy. Findings from this formative research were used to develop a marketing strategy to guide the development of a physical activity component, Food Friends Get Movin' with Mighty Moves , as part of a larger social marketing campaign aimed to decrease the risk for obesity in low-income preschoolers.

  5. Child care choices, food intake, and children's obesity status in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N=10,700; years=2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample.

  6. Association of anemia, child and family characteristics with elevated blood lead concentrations in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels lead exposure, and fewer family possessions were also associated with higher BPbs. Pediatric lead exposure is a public health problem in Uruguay, with children experiencing elevated BPbs at a young age.

  7. Child Negative Emotionality and Parental Harsh Discipline in Chinese Preschoolers: The Different Mediating Roles of Maternal and Paternal Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant. The findings provide an important supplement and extension to previous examinations of the factors associated with Chinese parental use of harsh discipline and its mechanisms. PMID:28326056

  8. The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Andrew Z H; Lwin, May O; Ho, Shirley S

    2017-04-11

    The family is an important social context where children learn and adopt eating behaviors. Specifically, parents play the role of health promoters, role models, and educators in the lives of children, influencing their food cognitions and choices. This study attempts to systematically review empirical studies examining the influence of parents on child food consumption behavior in two contexts: one promotive in nature (e.g., healthy food), and the other preventive in nature (e.g., unhealthy food). From a total of 6,448 titles extracted from Web of Science, ERIC, PsycINFO and PubMED, seventy eight studies met the inclusion criteria for a systematic review, while thirty seven articles contained requisite statistical information for meta-analysis. The parental variables extracted include active guidance/education, restrictive guidance/rule-making, availability, accessibility, modeling, pressure to eat, rewarding food consumption, rewarding with verbal praise, and using food as reward. The food consumption behaviors examined include fruits and vegetables consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snack consumption. Results indicate that availability (Healthy: r = .24, p consumption. In addition, the efficacy of some parenting practices might be dependent on the food consumption context and the age of the child. For healthy foods, active guidance/education might be more effective (r = .15, p children 7 and older, restrictive guidance/rule-making could be more effective in preventing unhealthy eating (r = - .20, p children 6 and younger, rewarding with verbal praise can be more effective in promoting healthy eating (r = .26, p consumption behavior. More importantly, this study highlights 3 main areas in parental influence of child food consumption that are understudied: (1) active guidance/education, (2) psychosocial mediators, and (3) moderating influence of general parenting styles.

  9. The Use of Point-of-Sale Machines in School Cafeterias as a Method of Parental Influence over Child Lunch Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrepont, Emmy; Cullen, Karen W.; Taylor, Wendell C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child's school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (e.g., chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study examines the use of parental…

  10. The Use of Point-of-Sale Machines in School Cafeterias as a Method of Parental Influence over Child Lunch Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrepont, Emmy; Cullen, Karen W.; Taylor, Wendell C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child's school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (e.g., chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study examines the use of parental…

  11. Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW): a family-centered, community-based obesity prevention randomized controlled trial for preschool child-parent pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'e, Eli K; Heerman, William J; Mistry, Rishi S; Barkin, Shari L

    2013-11-01

    Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) is a randomized controlled trial that tests the efficacy of a family-centered, community-based, behavioral intervention to prevent childhood obesity among preschool-aged children. Focusing on parent-child pairs, GROW utilizes a multi-level framework, which accounts for macro (i.e., built-environment) and micro (i.e., genetics) level systems that contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. Six hundred parent-child pairs will be randomized to a 3-year healthy lifestyle intervention or a 3-year school readiness program. Eligible children are enrolled between ages 3 and 5, are from minority communities, and are not obese. The principal site for the GROW intervention is local community recreation centers and libraries. The primary outcome is childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectory at the end of the three-year study period. In addition to other anthropometric measurements, mediators and moderators of growth are considered, including genetics, accelerometry, and diet recall. GROW is a staged intensity intervention, consisting of intensive, maintenance, and sustainability phases. Throughout the study, parents build skills in nutrition, physical activity, and parenting, concurrently forming new social networks. Participants are taught goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem solving techniques to facilitate sustainable behavior change. The GROW curriculum uses low health literacy communication and social media to communicate key health messages. The control arm is administered to both control and intervention participants. By conducting this trial in public community centers, and by implementing a family-centered approach to sustainable healthy childhood growth, we aim to develop an exportable community-based intervention to address the expanding public health crisis of pediatric obesity.

  12. Assessing the Impact of U.S. Food Assistance Delivery Policies on Child Mortality in Northern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulkov, Alex; Barrett, Christopher B.; Mude, Andrew G.; Wein, Lawrence M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is the main country in the world that delivers its food assistance primarily via transoceanic shipments of commodity-based in-kind food. This approach is costlier and less timely than cash-based assistance, which includes cash transfers, food vouchers, and local and regional procurement, where food is bought in or nearby the recipient country. The U.S.’s approach is exacerbated by a requirement that half of its transoceanic food shipments need to be sent on U.S.-flag vessels. We estimate the effect of these U.S. food assistance distribution policies on child mortality in northern Kenya by formulating and optimizing a supply chain model. In our model, monthly orders of transoceanic shipments and cash-based interventions are chosen to minimize child mortality subject to an annual budget constraint and to policy constraints on the allowable proportions of cash-based interventions and non-US-flag shipments. By varying the restrictiveness of these policy constraints, we assess the impact of possible changes in U.S. food aid policies on child mortality. The model includes an existing regression model that uses household survey data and geospatial data to forecast the mean mid-upper-arm circumference Z scores among children in a community, and allows food assistance to increase Z scores, and Z scores to influence mortality rates. We find that cash-based interventions are a much more powerful policy lever than the U.S.-flag vessel requirement: switching to cash-based interventions reduces child mortality from 4.4% to 3.7% (a 16.2% relative reduction) in our model, whereas eliminating the U.S.-flag vessel restriction without increasing the use of cash-based interventions generates a relative reduction in child mortality of only 1.1%. The great majority of the gains achieved by cash-based interventions are due to their reduced cost, not their reduced delivery lead times; i.e., the reduction of shipping expenses allows for more food to be delivered, which reduces

  13. Development and reliability of an observation method to assess food intake of young children in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Sarah C; Benjamin, Sara E; Ward, Dianne S

    2007-04-01

    To our knowledge, a direct observation protocol for assessing dietary intake among young children in child care has not been published. This article reviews the development and testing of a diet observation system for child care facilities that occurred during a larger intervention trial. Development of this system was divided into five phases, done in conjunction with a larger intervention study; (a) protocol development, (b) training of field staff, (c) certification of field staff in a laboratory setting, (d) implementation in a child-care setting, and (e) certification of field staff in a child-care setting. During the certification phases, methods were used to assess the accuracy and reliability of all observers at estimating types and amounts of food and beverages commonly served in child care. Tests of agreement show strong agreement among five observers, as well as strong accuracy between the observers and 20 measured portions of foods and beverages with a mean intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.99. This structured observation system shows promise as a valid and reliable approach for assessing dietary intake of children in child care and makes a valuable contribution to the growing body of literature on the dietary assessment of young children.

  14. Evaluation of the Color Me Healthy Program in Influencing Nutrition and Physical Activity in Mississippi Preschool Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huye, Holly F.; Bankston, Sarah; Speed, Donna; Molaison, Elaine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the level of implementation and perceived value in creating knowledge and behavior change from the Color Me Healthy (CMH) training program in child care centers, family day carehomes, or Head Start facilities throughout Mississippi. Methods: A two-phase survey was used to initially…

  15. Difference in mother–child interaction between preterm- and term-born preschoolers with and without disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Schuengel, C.; Last, B.F.; Wassenaer, van A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Houtzager, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    1000 g, and term children (n = 84) were assessed at corrected age of 5 using a mother–child interaction observation. Disabilities were assessed using an intelligence test, behaviour questionnaires for parents and teachers, and motor and neurological examinations. Results: Mothers of preterm-born chi

  16. A Comparison of Differential Reinforcement and Noncontingent Reinforcement to Treat Food Selectivity in a Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Janelle; Wilder, David A.; Chong, Ivy; Lugo, Ashley; Pike, Jessica; Rudy, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    We compared differential reinforcement plus escape extinction to noncontingent reinforcement plus escape extinction to treat food selectivity exhibited by a young child with autism. The interventions were equally effective for increasing bite acceptance and decreasing problem behaviors. However, a social validity measure suggested that…

  17. The Effect of Food Guide Pyramid Education on the Knowledge of 5 to 6 Year Old Pre-School Children in one of the Districts of Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahmadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of food guide pyramid education on the knowledge of 5 to 6 year-old children in kindergarten in Shiraz, Iran, using play and show methods. Materials & Methods: 62 children, 5 to 6 years old, were selected from one of the districts of Shiraz pre-schools by random cluster sampling. Subjects were divided into two groups. One group was educated by show and the other group by play and drawings. However, in both groups, they were educated using the same subjects about the food guide pyramid. The results were recorded by some tests before and after the intervention and were analyzed by the SPSS software using two sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: In both groups, after being taught about food guide pyramids, their knowledge about the number of food groups and recognizing them were improved (P<0.001. In both groups, their knowledge about the priority of any good and bad snack improved after the intervention, but this increase was significant only in the drawing and playing group (P<0.05. Conclusion: In a happy environment, children can gain good capacities for nutrition education and also playing and drawing can provide good interactions. Therefore, this method can be a useful choice for informing the children.

  18. Demographic and socio-economic factors related to food intake and adherence to nutritional recommendations in a cohort of pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Burnier, Daniel; Porcherie, Marion

    2011-06-01

    To examine: (i) children's food intake and adherence to both Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating and Dietary Reference Intakes; and (ii) the social and demographic factors related to children's food intake. A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010, a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in 1998 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Information on energy, macronutrient and food consumption was derived from responses to a 24 h dietary recall interview addressed to children's mothers and day-care staff when the children were 4 years old. A total of 1549 children aged 4 years who participated in a nutritional sub-study. The mean daily total energy intake was 6360 kJ (1520 kcal) for girls and 6916 kJ (1653 kcal) for boys. For boys and girls alike, energy intake was comprised of approximately 54 % carbohydrates, 31 % fats and 15 % proteins. The mean number of servings consumed from each of the four essential food groups closely approached the dietary recommendations made by Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating; however, socio-economic and demographic factors, most notably mother's level of education, mother's immigrant status and sex of the child. Diet-related disparities associated with socio-economic and demographic factors exist from as early as 4 years of age.

  19. Exploring implementation of the 2010 Institute of Medicine's Child and Adult Food Care Program recommendations for after-school snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Glatt, Carissa

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the implementation of nutrition recommendations made in the 2010 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Child and Adult Care Food Program: Aligning Dietary Guidance for All, in school-based after-school snack programmes. A descriptive study. One large suburban school district in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. None. Major challenges to implementation included limited access to product labelling and specifications inconsistent with the IOM's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) recommendations, limited access to healthier foods due to current school district buying consortium agreement, and increased costs of wholegrain and lower-sodium foods and pre-packaged fruits and vegetables. Opportunities for government and industry policy development and partnerships to support schools in their efforts to promote healthy after-school food environments remain. Several federal, state and industry leadership opportunities are proposed: provide product labelling that makes identifying snacks which comply with the 2010 IOM CACFP recommended standards easy; encourage compliance with recommendations by providing incentives to programmes; prioritize the implementation of paperwork and technology that simplifies enrollment and accountability systems; and provide support for food safety training and/or certification for non-food service personnel.

  20. Influence of agricultural biodiversity on dietary diversity of preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of agricultural biodiversity on dietary diversity of preschool children in Matungu ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... preschool children was drawn from Matungu division using multistage, proportional

  1. Lupine-induced anaphylaxis in a child without known food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Hofer, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Lupine allergy is caused by ingestion of the flour of a plant called Lupinus albus, a member of the Leguminosae family. Lupine allergy has been described in adult patients previously known to have peanut allergy (cross-reactivity). To describe the first case of an anaphylactic reaction caused by ingestion of lupine flour in a pediatric patient without a known peanut allergy. Symptom assessment, nutritional history, and skin and blood tests. An otherwise healthy 8-year-old boy had nose and eye discharge followed by facial edema and difficulty breathing 30 minutes after eating an industrially prepared waffle containing eggs, sugar, and lupine flour. He had no history of food allergy and was eating a normal diet, including peanuts and other legumes. Results of skin prick tests using commercial extracts were positive to peanuts and negative to eggs, soy, and nuts; results of a prick-to-prick test using lupine flour were strongly positive (+ + + +). His total IgE level was 1,237 UI/mL. Specific IgE antibodies were positive to lupine seeds (20.8 kU/L) and peanuts (> 100 kU/L). To our knowledge, we describe the first case of an anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of lupine flour in a child without known allergy. In the case of peanut allergy or any anaphylactic reaction without evident cause, especially after industrially prepared food ingestion, lupine should be considered in the list of allergens tested. Lupine is increasingly used in industrially prepared food but is not regularly declared in the composition, leading to difficulties in allergen avoidance.

  2. [Effectiveness of iron amino acid chelate versus ferrous sulfate as part of a food complement in preschool children with iron deficiency, Medellín, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maylen Liseth; Sánchez, Juliana; Villada, Óscar; Montoya, Liliana; Díaz, Alejandro; Vargas, Cristian; Chica, Javier; Herrera, Ana Milena

    2013-01-01

    Iron depleted deposits are the first link in the chain of events leading to iron deficiency which is the most prevalent nutritional shortage and main cause of anemia worldwide. This situation can be prevented through food fortification. To compare the efficacy of amino acid chelate iron with ferrous sulfate as fortifier of a dietary complement in preschoolers with iron deficiency. This study was a blinded clinical trial with randomized groups. We analyzed 56 preschoolers with iron deficiency (ferritin ferrous sulfate form. After two months, hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum ferritin concentrations were measured. In the ferrous sulfate group, ferritin concentration increased from 18.8 ng/ml to 24.1 ng/ml, while the variation was of 18.4 ng/ml to 29.7 ng/ml in the amino acid chelate group, with statistically differences in both cases. Serum ferritin was different between groups, being higher in iron amino acid chelate group (p=0.022). Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels did not change after the intervention. Adverse reactions in the ferrous sulfate group were 35.7%, compared with 42.9% in the iron amino acid chelate group; 5 children had respiratory tract infection, without statistical differences. Both compounds increased serum ferritin concentration, with a higher increase in those who were given milk with iron amino acid chelate. There were no differences in the adverse reactions and infections incidences between the groups.

  3. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  4. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  5. Yup'ik identity and socioeconomic status are associated with child consumption of traditional food and weight in rural Yup'ik communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Anne-Claire; Philip, Jacques; Bersamin, Andrea

    2017-05-25

    In remote, Alaska Native communities, traditional foods remain a significant source of essential nutrients and appear to protect against the development of chronic diseases. Relatively low intake of traditional foods among Alaska Native children is therefore of concern. The aim of this study was to identify household and parental predictors of child traditional food (TF) consumption and weight in remote Yup'ik communities of Alaska. Children (10-18 years old) and parents in two communities (populations traditional foods among children and parents was estimated from two-24 h recalls using NDS-R. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. Sociodemographic factors, including income and education, were collected from parents. A partial least square path modeling analysis and bootstrapping were performed to identify predictors of child TF consumption and weight. Parental intake of traditional foods, Yup'ik identity and income were positively associated with child intake of traditional foods. Further, parental intake of traditional foods predicted lower child BMI. Parental education was negatively associated with child traditional food intake and positively associated with child BMI. Findings suggest that interventions targeting parents may be an effective strategy to increase intake of traditional foods and improve diet quality among Alaska Native youth.

  6. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  7. Now You See It, Now You Don't: The Preschool Child's Conception of Invisible Particles in the Context of Dissolving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Aynn B.; Rozin, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Preschoolers made judgments about solutions in which substances were dissolved. Preschoolers (1) distinguished visual appearance from underlying reality; (2) recognized the conservation of taste, smell, and dangerous properties; and (3) by age five recognized that matter can be decomposed into pieces too tiny to be seen by the naked eye. (BC)

  8. Preschool Teachers' Professional Training, Observational Feedback, Child-Centered Beliefs and Motivation: Direct and Indirect Associations with Social and Emotional Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah N.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Hur, Eunhye

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young children's social and emotional competence is a key predictor of their current and future academic and social success. Although preschool teachers are critical socializing agent of children's social and emotional development, we know little about factors associated with preschool teachers' social and emotional responsiveness.…

  9. Preschool Teachers' Professional Training, Observational Feedback, Child-Centered Beliefs and Motivation: Direct and Indirect Associations with Social and Emotional Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah N.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Hur, Eunhye

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young children's social and emotional competence is a key predictor of their current and future academic and social success. Although preschool teachers are critical socializing agent of children's social and emotional development, we know little about factors associated with preschool teachers' social and emotional responsiveness.…

  10. Being Healthy and Safe with McGruff and Scruff: Activity Book for Preschool, Head Start, and Other Child Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    This activity booklet is designed to help preschool teachers and caregivers prepare preschoolers to deal with issues of self-esteem, problem solving, health and safety awareness, and crime, drug, and violence prevention on developmentally appropriate levels. It provides background information on drug and violence prevention for 4- and 5-year-olds,…

  11. A qualitative study of parents' perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children's snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-05-01

    Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children's snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents' conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children's snacking. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n = 60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents' child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Parents' commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children's snacks with phrases like "something small." Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ethnic groups and by household food security status. Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  13. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Sheryl O.; Power, Thomas G.; O’Connor, Teresia M; Jennifer Orlet Fisher; Tzu-An Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (...

  14. 北京市51名幼儿教师对预防儿童性侵犯问题认识的调查研究%Awareness of child sexual abuse preventionamong 5 1 preschool teachers in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶琦; 于卜一; 李景壹; 张文静; 冯亚男; 赵晓霞; 刘成凤; 邱辰

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解幼儿教师预防儿童性侵犯知识、态度和教育活动,为做好幼儿教师预防儿童性侵犯教育培训提供参考。方法:在3所幼儿园对同意参加这项调查的51名教师进行不记名自填式问卷调查。调查内容涉及相关知识态度和开展的教育活动,以及接受相关培训情况和参加培训的意愿。结果:在被调查的51名幼儿教师中,很少有人知道性侵犯者多为儿童熟悉的人(29.4%)和受到性侵犯的儿童通常身体上不会留下明显的痕迹(17.6%)。尽管多数教师赞成在幼儿园开展预防性侵犯教育(74.5%),但也担心这种教育可能会使幼儿对“性”知道得太多,对孩子产生不好的影响(56.9%)。大多数(86.3%)的教师表示愿意参加预防儿童性侵犯教育培训。结论:幼儿教师预防儿童性侵犯知识有限,急需对幼儿教师进行培训。%Objectives:To understand preschool teachers’knowledge,attitudes and practice of child sexu-al abuse (CSA)prevention education in Beijing,and the results will be used as a reference for the CSA prevention education training of preschool teachers in Beijing.Method:Fifty-one preschool teachers were surveyed by the self-administered questionnaires anonymously in 3 preschools of Beijing.The survey included relative knowledge, attitudes and education practice,as well as willingness of training participation.Result:Among the 5 1 preschool teachers,a few teachers knew that children were most likely to be sexually abused by people familiar to them (29.4%)and usually no obvious physical evidence could be found in a sexually abused child (17.6%).Most pre-school teachers (74.5%)approved of CSA prevention education in preschools.However,at the same time,56.9%of them expressed concern that this education might induce children to learn too much about‘sex’.86.3%of pre-school teachers expressed that they were willing to participate in the

  15. Pets, pica, pathogens and pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, R W; Stack, Tom; Blair, R. E.; Keel, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of pica in pre-school children was investigated by studying 192 children attending a general paediatric hospital clinic and 69 attending a general practice surgery. The incidence of pica was twice as common in those who kept pets in both study groups. Half of the pet-keeping children with pica had eaten their pet's food. Imitative behaviour is suggested as a probable cause. Pet-keeping compounds a child's risk of infestation not only by providing close contact with a reservoir o...

  16. Strategies Low-Income Parents Use to Overcome Their Children's Food Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Antono, Amanda C; Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Parents play a key role in the development of eating habits in preschool children, as they are the food "gatekeepers." Repeated exposure to new foods can improve child food preferences and consumption. The objective of this study was to determine parent feeding strategies used to influence child acceptance of previously rejected foods (PRF). Methods We conducted eighteen focus groups (total participants = 111) with low-income African American and Hispanic parents of preschool children (3- to 5-year-olds) in Texas, Colorado, and Washington. Through thematic analysis, we coded transcripts and analyzed coded quotes to develop dominant emergent themes related to strategies used to overcome children's food refusal. Results We found three major themes in the data: parents most often do not serve PRF; parents value their child eating over liking a food; and parents rarely use the same feeding strategy more than once for a PRF. Desiring to reduce waste and save time, parents said they most often intentionally decided not to purchase or serve PRF to their children. Discussion Because parents' primary goal in child feeding is getting children to eat (over acceptance of a variety of foods), strategies to help parents promote consumption of less easily accepted foods could help parents with child feeding struggles and improve children's dietary quality.

  17. Food taboos in maternal and child health: the views of traditional healers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebiyi, A I

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the interviews with 82 randomly selected healers in Ile-Ife about food taboos in relation to maternal and child health. The healers were asked to list the childhood ailments they treat most often and the food proscriptions and prescriptions associated with these ailments. Of particular interest in the study was the fact that these food proscriptions and prescriptions form an integral part of traditional medical procedures in that relapses or slow rate of recovery are sometimes attributed to a break of these food norms. Moreover, these proscriptions and prescriptions reflect: (i) the healers' concept of the various childhood diseases and (ii) the healers' belief in the respect for the traditional Yoruba gods in health matters. It was further noted that although these taboos reinforce the beliefs in traditional medicine, their relevance from the point of view of the health of the clientele needs further investigation.

  18. Mainstream Preschool Program: Working Model in Rural Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James Mackin

    1987-01-01

    The Richmond preschool is an innovative partnership between regular and special education. High school students taking a child care course act as aides to the preschool special education teacher and learn to apply and observe classroom-based theory and knowledge of child growth and development in a meaningful and concrete manner. (JHZ)

  19. [Food allergy in the child: an exploratory study on the impact of the elimination diet on food neophobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigal, N; Reiter, F; Morice, C; De Boissieu, D; Dupont, C

    2005-12-01

    This study was designed to analyse the impact of an elimination diet in children with food allergy, and its perception by their parents on the later reticence of children to test unknown foods, food neophobia. The degree of food neophobia of children having outgrown their allergy (mean age, 7 years 2 months) was compared to that of a sibling (9 years 5 months) using a standardized scale and a questionnaire of food friendliness. Parents were also asked to fill in a questionnaire on the disease and its burden on the family. Children having outgrown their allergy are more reluctant to test new foods than their non-allergic brother or sister, as shown by their scoring on the food neophobia scale and the number of unknown foods following the cure of the disease. Two factors increase the level of food neophobia, the distressing effect and the duration of the period elapsed until the diagnosis was made, as well as the distressing effect and the lack of variety in the meal preparation. Food neophobia, a normal phase between 2 and 10 years, is worsened by the elimination diet required by food allergy, especially in case of late diagnosis and when the time elapsed before diagnosis and the preparation of meals were perceived as difficult to bear.

  20. Impacts of community-based natural resource management on wealth, food security and child health in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil David;

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-indifferences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child...... health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared...

  1. Environmental and individual determinants of core and non-core food and drink intake in preschool-aged children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, L; Croker, H; Wardle, J; Cooke, L J

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to achieve healthier diets for children are likely to benefit from an understanding of the determinants. We examined environmental and individual predictors of children's intake of 'core' foods (fruit and vegetables) and 'non-core' foods (snacks and sweetened beverages). Predictors included parental intake, home availability, parental feeding styles (Encouragement and Monitoring) and children's food preferences. Based on research with older children, we expected intake of both food types to be associated with maternal intake, core foods to be more associated with children's preferences and non-core food intake more with the home environment. Primary caregivers (n=434) of children (2-5 years) from preschools and Children's Centres in London, UK, completed a self-report survey in 2008. Multiple regression analyses indicated children's fruit intake was associated with maternal fruit intake (B=0.29; P=0.000), children's liking for fruit (B=0.81; P=0.000) and a Monitoring style of parental feeding (B=0.13; P=0.021). Children's vegetable intake was similarly associated with maternal intake (B=0.39; P=0.000), children's liking for vegetables (B=0.77; P=0.000), Encouragement (B=0.19; P=0.021) and Monitoring (B=0.11; P=0.029). Non-core snack intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.25; P=0.029), Monitoring (B=-0.16; P=0.010), home availability (B=0.10; P=0.022) and television viewing (TV) (B=0.28; P=0.012). Non-core drink intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.32; P=0.000) and TV (B=0.20; P=0.019). Results indicate commonalities and differences in the predictors of core and non-core food intake, with only maternal intake being important across all types. Effective interventions to improve young children's diets may need to call on different strategies for different foods.

  2. 'Treats', 'sometimes foods', 'junk': a qualitative study exploring 'extra foods' with parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunoff, Nicholas A; Wilkenfeld, Rachel L; King, Lesley A; Flood, Victoria M

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated parents' understanding and approaches to providing energy-dense and nutrient-poor 'extra foods' to pre-school children and explored variation between parents of low and high socio-economic status in relation to these issues. We conducted thirteen focus groups. Data were subject to framework analysis. Child-care centres in distinctly socially disadvantaged and socially advantaged areas. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 3-5 years. The three most common terms parents identified to describe foods that are not 'everyday foods' were 'treats', 'sometimes foods' and 'junk'. Parents' perceptions regarding what influences them in providing food to their children included seven sub-themes: (i) the influence of the child; (ii) food-related parenting practices; (iii) health considerations; (iv) food costs and convenience; (v) external factors perceived as influencing their child; (vi) factors related to child care; and (vii) social influences and occasions. Parents' decision-making processes regarding provision of 'extra foods' related to moderation and balance. Parents generally expressed the position that as long as a child is eating healthy foods, then treats are appropriate; and for many parents, this might apply frequently. All groups described the health of their child as an influence, but parents in low socio-economic groups were more likely to describe immediate concerns (dental health, behaviour) in relation to avoiding sugar-dense food or drink. The belief that provision of 'extra foods' can be frequent as long as children are eating a healthy balance of foods is factored into parents' decision making. Challenging this belief may be important for reducing the consumption of 'extra foods' by young children.

  3. Are parents' anxiety and depression related to child fussy eating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Jansen, Pauline W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population-based. P......Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population......-based. Participants 4746 4-year-old children and their parents. Exposure Parental internalising problems (ie, symptoms of anxiety and depression) were assessed with the Brief Symptoms Inventory during pregnancy and the preschool period (child age 3 years). Main outcome measure The food fussiness scale of the Children......'s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and during the child's preschool period was related to higher food fussiness sum-scores in children. For instance, per point on the anxiety scale in pregnancy, children had on average a 1.02 higher sum-score (95% CI 0.59 to 1...

  4. Low Family Income and Behavior Problems in Norwegian Preschoolers: Is Child Emotionality a Marker for Sensitivity of Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

    2016-04-01

    Poor children have higher rates of mental health problems than more affluent peers, also in progressive welfare states such as Norway. Temperamental characteristics may render some children more sensitive to the adverse influence of poor economy. This study examined the direct associations between family income-to-needs and mental health and assessed moderation by early temperamental characteristics (i.e., emotionality). Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, associations between income-to-needs across children's first 3 years and internalizing and externalizing problems when children were 5 years old were examined. Differential sensitivity to family income-to-needs was assessed by investigating how emotionality, when children were one-and-a-half and 3 years old, moderated these associations. Significant main effects of income-to-needs and emotionality and a significant interaction effect between income-to-needs and emotionality were found for externalizing problems, but not for internalizing problems. Children in poor families with an emotionally reactive temperament had higher scores on externalizing problems when they were 5 compared with their less emotionally reactive peers.

  5. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  6. The effect of adding ready-to-use supplementary food to a general food distribution on child nutritional status and morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Huybregts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, operational organizations active in child nutrition in developing countries have suggested that blanket feeding strategies be adopted to enable the prevention of child wasting. A new range of nutritional supplements is now available, with claims that they can prevent wasting in populations at risk of periodic food shortages. Evidence is lacking as to the effectiveness of such preventive interventions. This study examined the effect of a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF on the prevention of wasting in 6- to 36-mo-old children within the framework of a general food distribution program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled pragmatic intervention study in a sample of 1,038 children aged 6 to 36 mo in the city of Abeche, Chad. Both arms were included in a general food distribution program providing staple foods. The intervention group was given a daily 46 g of RUSF for 4 mo. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded monthly. Adding RUSF to a package of monthly household food rations for households containing a child assigned to the intervention group did not result in a reduction in cumulative incidence of wasting (incidence risk ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.11; p = 0.25. However, the intervention group had a modestly higher gain in height-for-age (+0.03 Z-score/mo; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04; p<0.001. In addition, children in the intervention group had a significantly higher hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study than children in the control group (+3.8 g/l; 95% CI: 0.6, 7.0; p = 0.02, thereby reducing the odds of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.82; p = 0.004. Adding RUSF also resulted in a significantly lower risk of self-reported diarrhea (-29.3%; 95% CI: 20.5, 37.2; p<0.001 and fever episodes (-22.5%; 95% CI: 14.0, 30.2; p<0.001. Limitations of this study include that the projected sample size was not fully attained and that significantly fewer

  7. Relationship between institutional food service in Nursery Schools and Household feeding with the nutritional status of preschool children attending two Nursery Schools in Valparaiso, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Crovetto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity in children under 6 years of age, who attend Nursery Schools belonging to INTEGRA Foundation (Chile, may be associated with the diet received at school, their home or both. Objectives: To determine if there is a relationship between children’s dietary patterns and their nutritional status. Material and Methods: A descriptive, associative, cross-sectional method was used. Sample (n=33 was children 4 and 5 years old from two Nursery Schools from Valparaiso. It was assessed: i energy intake provided by nursery school and household’s diets, according to the recommendations of the Chilean dietary guidelines and ii nutritional status, W/A; W/H; H/A; body mass index, growth charts for children under 6 years of age, World Health Organization (Standards of the National Chilean Health Program for Children. Fisher’s exact test was used in order to associate food consumption patterns with nutritional status. Results: Nursery school provided the expected caloric contribution, while household provided 67% over the expected percentage (354 additional kcal per capita/day. From 21.2% to 27% of the children were overweight (W/H and BMI. Children with food consumption pattern 1 had normal nutritional status. Those with pattern 2 presented a 50% of malnutrition related to overconsumption. Fisher’s exact test was p=0.001. Conclusions: There is an association between dietary pattern and nutritional status of preschool children attending two INTEGRA Nursery Schools. This study is limited due to sample size.

  8. Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

    2014-03-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p < .05). A trend towards significance was demonstrated for co-owned/female-owned livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests

  9. Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA. The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are

  10. The role of parental control and modelling in predicting a child's diet and relationship with food after they leave home. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Emma; Ogden, Jane

    2014-05-01

    Research indicates that parental control and parental modelling are key factors in shaping a child's eating behaviour. To date, however, little is known about how these factors influence a child's diet once they have left home. This prospective study evaluated the extent to which a parent's own behaviour and their use of control over food whilst their child was still living at home predicted their child's relationship with food once they had begun to live independently. Parent/child dyads (n=93) took part in the study. Parents completed baseline measures of parental control practices (overt control, covert control and pressure to eat), their own diet (unhealthy snacks, unhealthy meals, healthy foods) and eating behaviours (emotional, uncontrolled and restrained eating). At one year follow up, once their child had left home, the child completed measures of their own diet and eating behaviours. The results showed a clear role for modelling with concordance between a child's intake of unhealthy snacks and emotional eating and their parents' own reports of these behaviours. Furthermore, the child's intake of healthy foods was also predicted by their parent's behaviour although there was both concordance and discordance between parents and their children. No role for parental control was found for any measure of diet or eating behaviour. It is concluded that a parent's own behaviour rather than parental control has a stronger longer lasting influence once a child has left home and that although this mostly involves a child copying their parent's behaviour (action) at times it also involves the opposite (reaction). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of an Urban Farm-to-Preschool and Families Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elena T; DiFulvio, Gloria T; Susi, Toni; Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha; Lowbridge-Sisley, Joan; Collins, Jessica

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, the rate of childhood obesity has risen dramatically. Despite recent declines in prevalence among preschool-aged children, child obesity is still a significant public health concern. Healthy People 2020 objectives include increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among children over 2 years of age and increasing the number of schools that offer access to fresh fruits and vegetables. To reach these objectives, farm-to-school programs are being implemented across the United States. The purpose of this evaluation was to: (a) identify factors that facilitate adoption of the Farm-to-Preschool and Families program in Springfield, MA, specifically; and (b) provide recommendations and guidelines for successful implementation of Farm-to-Preschool and Families programs generally. Using a combination of classroom observations of preschoolers, teacher and food service interviews, and administrator surveys, the findings suggest that having a strong programmatic infrastructure, administrative support, and external support from families is important to sustain a Farm-to-Preschool and Families program.

  12. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  13. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived

  14. Validation of the comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire in parents of preschool children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Sarah; Mais, Laís Amaral; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Carnell, Susan; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2016-07-19

    Recent national surveys in Brazil have demonstrated a decrease in the consumption of traditional food and a parallel increase in the consumption of ultra-processed food, which has contributed to a rise in obesity prevalence in all age groups. Environmental factors, especially familial factors, have a strong influence on the food intake of preschool children, and this has led to the development of psychometric scales to measure parents' feeding practices. The aim of this study was to test the validity of a translated and adapted Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire in a sample of Brazilian preschool-aged children enrolled in private schools. A transcultural adaptation process was performed in order to develop a modified questionnaire (43 items). After piloting, the questionnaire was sent to parents, along with additional questions about family characteristics. Test-retest reliability was assessed in one of the schools. Factor analysis with oblique rotation was performed. Internal reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha and correlations between factors, discriminant validity using marker variables of child's food intake, and convergent validity via correlations with parental perceptions of perceived responsibility for feeding and concern about the child's weight were also performed. The final sample consisted of 402 preschool children. Factor analysis resulted in a final questionnaire of 43 items distributed over 6 factors. Cronbach alpha values were adequate (0.74 to 0.88), between-factor correlations were low, and discriminant validity and convergent validity were acceptable. The modified CFPQ demonstrated significant internal reliability in this urban Brazilian sample. Scale validation within different cultures is essential for a more comprehensive understanding of parental feeding practices for preschoolers.

  15. A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children’s snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E.; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children’s snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents’ conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children’s snacking. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n=60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents’ child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Results Parents’ commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children’s snacks with phrases like “something small.” Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ ethnic groups and by household food security status. Conclusions Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. PMID:25447008

  16. Preschool Affects Longer Term Literacy and Numeracy: Results from a General Population Longitudinal Study in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Edward; Quinn, Louise; Sylva, Kathy; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The Effective Pre-school Provision in Northern Ireland (EPPNI) project is a longitudinal study of child development from 3 to 11 years. It is one of the first large-scale UK projects to investigate the effects of different kinds of preschool provision, and to relate experience in preschool to child development. In EPPNI, 683 children were randomly…

  17. The use of point-of-sale machines in school cafeterias as a method of parental influence over child lunch food choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child’s school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (eg, chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study...

  18. Associations between Participation in the National School Lunch Program, Food Insecurity, and Child Well-Being. Discussion Paper No. 1249-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between food insecurity, participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and children's well-being. We address problems of selection by restricting our sample to children in families in which at least one child participates in the NSLP. Results suggest that food insecurity is associated with…

  19. Ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil and BMI in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Cardinal, Tiffany M; Sitto, Jacinta R; Kannan, Srimathi

    2008-07-01

    Sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is genetically mediated. Sensitivity to PROP has been associated with weight status in both adults and children. To determine whether there is an association between PROP sensitivity and BMI in low-income children of diverse race/ethnicity, among whom there is a high prevalence of obesity. Eighty-one preschool-aged children attending Head Start tasted a solution of 560 micromol/l PROP and reported whether it tasted "like water" or "like something else". Mothers reported child's race, age, maternal education, maternal weight and height, child's reluctance to sample new foods via the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and child's dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured. BMI was calculated and for children, expressed in z-scores. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between child's PROP taster status and BMI z-score, testing covariates child's age, gender, race, maternal education and BMI, and child's FNS score. Children's dietary intake was compared by PROP taster status. PROP tasters, compared with nontasters, had significantly higher BMI z-scores (0.99 (s.d. 1.24) vs. 0.03 (1.12), P=0.004) and had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (31.8% vs. 5.6%, P=0.025), but demonstrated no differences in reported dietary intake. The most parsimonious model predicting the child's BMI z-score included only maternal BMI and the child's PROP taster status (R(2)=22.3%). A genetically mediated ability to taste bitter may contribute to obesity risk in low-income, preschool-aged children.

  20. Socio-Cultural Matrix of Raising a Child with Food Allergies: Experiences of a Migrant Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2004-01-01

    Children with life-threatening food allergies are increasing in number in Australia. A variety of foods such as dairy milk, peanut and tree nuts, fish and egg can cause severe allergic reactions in some children. The foods that cause allergies could trigger severe breathing difficulties (anaphylaxis) for these children and, if not treated…

  1. Perceived parental food controlling practices are related to obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Niekerk, R.E. van; Ouwens, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogeni

  2. Perceived parental food controlling practices are related to obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Niekerk, R.E. van; Ouwens, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or

  3. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  4. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  5. “Do You Wanna Breathe or Eat?”: Parent Perspectives on Child Health Consequences of Food Insecurity, Trade-Offs, and Toxic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Molly; Rabinowich, Jenny; Ettinger de Cuba, Stephanie; Cutts, Diana Becker; Chilton, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study among 51 parents of young children under age four investigated how parents that report marginal, low and very low food security characterize how trade-offs associated with food insecurity affect parents’ mental health and child well-being. Methods We carried out 51 semi-structured audio-recorded interviews after participants responded to a survey regarding food security status and maternal depressive symptoms. Each interview was transcribed. Through a content analysis, w...

  6. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motadi, Selekane A; Mbhatsani, Vanessa; Shilote, Kulani O

    2016-07-29

    Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to determine the women's knowledge on food fortification. The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women's knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0%) of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0%) of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%]) of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  7. Local Food Prices: Effects on Child Eating Patterns, Food Insecurity, and Overweight. Fast Focus. No. 16-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Jacknowitz, Alison; Vinopal, Katie

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this research brief were co-principal investigators on a grant awarded by the IRP RIDGE Center for National Food and Nutrition Assistance Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in partnership with the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Their project, summarized here, was one of five proposals…

  8. Impacts of community-based natural resource management on wealth, food security and child health in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil David;

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-indifferences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child...... health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared...... with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits...

  9. Parental food involvement predicts parent and child intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohly, Heather; Pealing, Juliet; Hayter, Arabella K M; Pettinger, Clare; Pikhart, Hynek; Watt, Richard G; Rees, Gail

    2013-10-01

    In order to develop successful interventions to improve children's diets, the factors influencing food choice need to be understood. Parental food involvement - the level of importance of food in a person's life - may be one of many important factors. The aim of this study was to determine whether parental food involvement is associated with parents' and children's diet quality. As part of an intervention study, 394 parents with children aged between 18 months and 5 years were recruited from children's centres in Cornwall and Islington, UK. Questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, parents' diets, and attitudes towards food including food involvement. Children's diets were assessed using the multiple pass 24 h recall method. Parents reported low intakes of fruits and vegetables and high intakes of sugary items for themselves and their young children. Parental food involvement was strongly correlated with consumption of fruits and vegetables (amount and diversity) for both parents and children. Correlations with consumption of sugary drinks and snacks/foods were not significant. These findings indicate that parental food involvement may influence consumption of fruits and vegetables, more so than sugary items. Further research is needed to investigate how parental food involvement could mediate dietary changes.

  10. A Pilot Survey of Food Frequencies, Meal Frequencies and Meal Patterns of Preschool Children in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    The food frequency, meal frequency, and meal patterns of a group of Mexican American children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles and their siblings were studied. Fifty dietary questionnaires in English and in Spanish with written instructions were distributed to parents. Parents were asked to record for a 3 day period the eating time, type…

  11. Fantasy Orientation Constructs and Related Executive Function Development in Preschool: Developmental Benefits to Executive Functions by Being a Fantasy-Oriented Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, Jillian M.; O'Brien, Christopher T.; McInnis, Melissa A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Barber, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored unique constructs of fantasy orientation and whether there are developmental benefits for fantasy-oriented children. By age 3, children begin developing executive functions, with some children exhibiting high fantasy orientation in their cognitions and behaviors. Preschoolers ("n" = 106) completed fantasy orientation…

  12. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  13. Evaluacion de la Interaccion Adulto-Nino en Aulas Pre-escolares de Concepcion, Chile. [Evaluation Adult-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms of Concepcion, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen De G., Maria Elena; Herrera G., Maria Olivia; Villalon B., Malva; Suzuky S., Emy

    2000-01-01

    Presents findings from investigation of the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, CIS (1989), in preschools in Concepcion, Chile. Demonstrates the reliability and validity of the scale to evaluate the interaction of the childhood educator with young children, suggesting changes to the scale. Notes differences found for school type.…

  14. Fantasy Orientation Constructs and Related Executive Function Development in Preschool: Developmental Benefits to Executive Functions by Being a Fantasy-Oriented Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, Jillian M.; O'Brien, Christopher T.; McInnis, Melissa A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Barber, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored unique constructs of fantasy orientation and whether there are developmental benefits for fantasy-oriented children. By age 3, children begin developing executive functions, with some children exhibiting high fantasy orientation in their cognitions and behaviors. Preschoolers ("n" = 106) completed fantasy orientation…

  15. Evaluacion de la Interaccion Adulto-Nino en Aulas Pre-escolares de Concepcion, Chile. [Evaluation Adult-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms of Concepcion, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen De G., Maria Elena; Herrera G., Maria Olivia; Villalon B., Malva; Suzuky S., Emy

    2000-01-01

    Presents findings from investigation of the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, CIS (1989), in preschools in Concepcion, Chile. Demonstrates the reliability and validity of the scale to evaluate the interaction of the childhood educator with young children, suggesting changes to the scale. Notes differences found for school type.…

  16. Enjoyment of Learning and Learning Effort in Primary School: The Significance of Child Individual Characteristics and Stimulation at Home and at Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, David; Lehrl, Simone; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The present paper was written under the auspices of the interdisciplinary research group "Educational Processes, Competence Development, and Selection Decisions at Preschool and Primary School Age (BiKS)" (FOR 543), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The surveys were conceptualised and supervised as part of the developmental…

  17. CURRICULUM GUIDE, CHILD CARE CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    CALIFORNIA CHILD CARE CENTERS WERE ESTABLISHED IN 1943 TO SUPPLY SERVICES TO CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS. THE CHILD CARE PROGRAM PROVIDES, WITHIN NURSERY AND SCHOOLAGE CENTERS, CARE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION FOR PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CHILD CENTER PROGRAM IS BASED UPON THE BELIEF THAT EACH CHILD…

  18. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income African-American and Hispanic families of pre...

  19. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of pre...

  20. Snack food advertising in stores around public schools in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Villamor, Eduardo; Barnoya, Joaquin

    Obesity in school-age children is emerging as a public heath concern. Food marketing influences preferences and increases children's requests for food. This study sought to describe the type of snack foods advertised to children in stores in and around public schools and assess if there is an association between child-oriented snack food advertising and proximity to schools. All food stores located inside and within a 200 square meter radius from two preschools and two primary schools were surveyed. We assessed store type, number and type of snack food advertisements including those child-oriented inside and outside stores. We surveyed 55 stores and found 321 snack food advertisements. Most were on sweetened beverages (37%) and soft drinks (30%). Ninety-two (29%) were child-oriented. Atoles (100.0%), cereals (94.1%), and ice cream and frozen desserts (71.4%) had the greatest proportion of child-oriented advertising. We found more child-oriented advertisements in stores that were closer (stores within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to an obesogenic environment.

  1. A method for eliciting beliefs about food and child feeding in Papua New Guinea: the MACHIK Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C; Heywood, P

    1984-03-01

    A large proportion of Papua New Guinean children exhibit growth retardation early in the first year of life despite continued breastfeeding. Numerous investigators have suggested that traditional concepts and practices concerned with the introduction of solid foods are responsible for the observed poor growth. While there is recently some evidence to support this idea in one coastal population, the hypothesis warrants empirical testing. It is suggested that food taboos and other concepts and behaviours related to feeding children be carefully described and, if possible, quantified as a function of age, thereby linking behaviour to growth curves in a testable manner. A directed interview, derived from extended ethnographic research in community foodways and known as the Maternal and Child Health Indigenous Knowledge, or MACHIK Interview has been developed for use in Papua New Guinea societies. In this paper a short form designed specifically for gathering information on beliefs about child feeding is presented. Annotations to the questions are included to enable use by those having little experience or training in ethnographic methods.

  2. Household Food Insecurity: Serious Concerns for Child Development. Social Policy Report. Volume 25, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Gundersen, Craig; Koester, Brenda; Washington, LaTesha

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, 14.7% of households were food insecure at some time during the year. In other words, members of those households did not have access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. This is arguably the most serious nutrition-related public health problem facing the U.S. today. The serious developmental consequences of food…

  3. Mean F0 values obtained through standard phrase pronunciation compared with values obtained from the normal work environment: a study on teacher and child voices performed in a preschool environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Fredric; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Sjöholm, Jonas; Waye, Kerstin Persson

    2010-05-01

    Mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) values are often used in research on vocal load. In this study, we examine how the mean F(0) differs when evaluated through pronouncing a standard phrase as compared to the mean F(0) obtained in a real work/play environment. We also examine how the F(0) values change throughout the day. The study was performed in a preschool, nine adult female preschool teachers and 11 children participated. The participants wore a digital recorder equipped with an accelerometer, which was attached to the neck. In the study, the participant first pronounced a standard phrase in a controlled environment; thereafter, the voice was recorded in the environment where both children and adults normally reside throughout the day, denoted by the work/play environment. For each participant, the procedure was repeated four times throughout the day. Analyses showed that the F(0) values of the children's and adult's voices were significantly higher when recorded in the work/play environment as compared to the controlled environment. The average difference was 36 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. Previous studies have shown an increase of F(0) over the day for teachers. In this study, an increase between morning and afternoon values was found amounting to 8 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. For the child population, this increase was statistically significant. However, the total changes over the day revealed a somewhat more complex scheme, with an increase of F(0) in the morning, a decrease during lunch, and finally an increase in the afternoon. This pattern was verified statistically for the joint child-adult population.

  4. The mother – child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz García Gisella

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food plant use, in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India. Wild food plants in this biodiversity hotspot form an important part of local diets and are used as famine foods and medicines. In general, the collection and consumption of these foods are increasingly stigmatized as symbols of poverty and 'tribalness' (equivalent to 'backwardness'. The study, which falls within the discipline of ethnobotany, involves three socio-cultural groups – the Paniya and Kuruma tribes and non-tribals. Further, it examines the impact in the enculturation process of an unusual educational programme sponsored by the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation that is oriented towards creating awareness among children of cultural identity and local biological resources – the study compares children having participated in the programme with those who have not, with their mothers. The process of enculturation is assessed by comparing wild food plant knowledge and values between mothers and their children, and by examining events where knowledge transmission occurs, including collection and consumption. For that, quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis tools were used, and methods included semi-structured interviews, photo identification and informal interviews of key informants. Results ratify that women are the knowledge holders and are the primary means of knowledge transmission to their children. Nevertheless, fewer children are collecting wild food plants with mothers and learning about them, apparently because of children's lack of time. On the other hand, older people acknowledge that a "change in taste" is occurring among younger generations. In general, there is

  5. Executive functioning, emotion regulation, eating self-regulation, and weight status in low-income preschool children: how do they relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between child eating self-regulation, child non-eating self-regulation, and child BMIz in a low-income sample of Hispanic families with preschoolers. The eating in the absence of hunger task as well as parent-report of child satiety responsiveness and food responsiveness were used to assess child eating self-regulation. Two laboratory tasks assessing executive functioning, a parent questionnaire assessing child effortful control (a temperament dimension related to executive functioning), and the delay of gratification and gift delay tasks assessing child emotion regulation were used to assess child non-eating self-regulation. Bivariate correlations were run among all variables in the study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses assessed: (1) child eating self-regulation associations with the demographic, executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation measures; and (2) child BMI z-score associations with executive functioning, effortful control, emotion regulation measures, and eating self-regulation measures. Within child eating self-regulation, only the two parent-report measures were related. Low to moderate positive correlations were found between measures of executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation. Only three relationships were found between child eating self-regulation and other forms of child self-regulation: eating in the absence of hunger was positively associated with delay of gratification, and poor regulation on the gift delay task was associated positively with maternal reports of food responsiveness and negatively with parent-reports of satiety responsiveness. Regression analyses showed that child eating self-regulation was associated with child BMIz but other forms of child self-regulation were not. Implications for understanding the role of self-regulation in the development of child obesity are discussed.

  6. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be patient with your child. Sometimes new foods take time. Give children a taste at first and be patient with them. O er new foods many times. Let your children serve themselves. Teach your children to take small amounts at first. Let them know they ...

  7. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  8. Work of the Psychologist on Correction of Senior Preschool Children Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Marina V.; Bykova, Svetlana S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is due to the need of self-correction of senior preschoolers. Adequate self-esteem of preschoolers will give us an opportunity to prepare them for school more effectively, as well as to create some positive character traits. The preschool age is the initial period of development of a child's self-esteem. This is the most…

  9. Problems of computerization in the brunch of preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolyaka А.Е.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of computer technologies was probed in preschool education. 27 pedagogical workers of child's preschool establishments took part in research. The differentiated approach is rotined in the selection of facilities of physical education of children of preschool age. The basic requirements are selected to the computer programs. Found out disparity between enhanceable demand on the computer programs and their introduction in an educational educate process. Multilevel classification and sequence is set in the selection of mobile games.

  10. The impact of child care providers' feeding on chidren's food consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    In young children, the eating environment is an important social context within which eating behaviors develop. Among many low-income young children, the responsibility for feeding may have shifted from family members to child care providers because these children spend the majority of their day in...

  11. Child and Adult Care Food Program: Meal Pattern Revisions Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-25

    This final rule updates the meal pattern requirements for the Child and Adult Care Food Program to better align them with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. This rule requires centers and day care homes participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program to serve more whole grains and a greater variety of vegetables and fruit, and reduces the amount of added sugars and solid fats in meals. In addition, this final rule supports mothers who breastfeed and improves consistency with the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and with other Child Nutrition Programs. Several of the changes are extended to the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, and Special Milk Program. These changes are based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, science-based recommendations made by the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies), cost and practical considerations, and stakeholder's input. This is the first major revision of the Child and Adult Care Food Program meal patterns since the Program's inception in 1968. These improvements to the meals served in the Child and Adult Care Food Program are expected to safeguard the health of young children by ensuring healthy eating habits are developed early, and improve the wellness of adult participants.

  12. Seasonality of Food Supply, Coping Strategies and Child Nutritional Outcome in Sabatia-Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A. Ayieko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Kenya. Samples of children and caregivers were selected using the EPI method. Food vendors and procurement strategy, demographic and socio-economic indicators of household were analyzed. A social economic index was derived. To understand the association between D ietary D iversity Score and mean anthropometric indices, confounding factors were identified on the basis of the UNICEF conceptual model of causes of malnutrition. A stepwise testing of confounders was done systematically resulting in a final m ultivariate model of regression on the mean nutritional indices. Only 32.8% were able to produce enough to last a year, most households did not meet their dietary needs. 48% of the households received food remittance as supplementary. Coping strategies within households were identified based on their frequency of occurrence. The observed poor breastfeeding beyond infancy underscores the need to stress on the contribution and benefits of breastfeeding to children, communities, and health system s. Dietary diversity positively correlated to household food availability. Increased consumption of common staples negatively correlated to food availability and dietary diversity. Stepw ise regression identified access to roots and tubers, legumes and pulses, and carbonated drinks as the main determinants of food procurement and availability. Study shows that food production in households cannot meet food needs of even an area w ith adequate rainfall patterns. Low levels of education, employment and income observed among female caregivers constrain household purchasing power and knowledge required to select nutritious foods. Thus, empowering the women has far reaching benefits for nutritional outcomes of children.

  13. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  14. Child as change agent. The potential of children to increase healthy food purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingert, Katherine; Zachary, Drew A; Fox, Monica; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2014-10-01

    Shoppers make many food choices while buying groceries. Children frequently accompany caregivers, giving them the potential to influence these choices. We aimed to understand low-income shoppers' perceptions of how children influence caregivers' purchasing decisions and how the supermarket environment could be manipulated to allow children to serve as change agents for healthy food purchasing in a primarily African-American community. We conducted thirty in-depth interviews, five follow-up interviews, one supermarket walk-through interview, and four focus groups with adult supermarket shoppers who were regular caregivers for children under age 16. We conducted one focus group with supermarket employees and one in-depth interview with a supermarket manager. Qualitative data were analyzed using iterative thematic coding and memo writing. Caregivers approached grocery shopping with efforts to save money, prevent waste and purchase healthy food for their families, but described children as promoting unplanned, unhealthy food purchases. This influence was exacerbated by the supermarket environment, which participants found to promote unhealthy options and provide limited opportunities for children to interact with healthier foods. Caregivers' suggestions for promoting healthy purchasing for shoppers with children included manipulating the placement of healthy and unhealthy foods and offering opportunities for children to taste and interact with healthy options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  16. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  17. Research of the Influence of Pregnant Women’s Food Nutrition on Maternal and Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the influence of targeted dietary modification and nutrition for pregnant women on maternal and child health. Through taking 200 pregnant women who had health files and accepted dietary guidance at Mary Maternity Hospital from March 2013 to June 2014 as the experimental group, we take 200 pregnant women who don’t accept the conventional filing of targeted dietary modification and nutrition as the control group. For the experimental group, we formulated targeted diet programs according to pregnant women’s weight and fetal growth and development so as to keep calories in a reasonable range. Compare the incidence rate of complication and delivery outcome of the two groups’ mothers and infants. The experiments show that both the incidence rate of complications and the cesarean section rate of the experimental group are lower than those of the control group and targeted dietary modification and nutrition for pregnant women has obvious positive significance on maternal and child health.

  18. Shining Stars: Preschoolers Get Ready to Read--How Parents Can Help Their Preschoolers Get Ready to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Elizabeth; Adler, C. Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Parents are their child's first and most important teacher. This booklet introduces parents to techniques for helping their preschoolers learn to read. Included is a story about how one mother and father encourage their children to read, a sample reading activity, and a checklist for parents of preschoolers. This brochure is based on "A Child…

  19. Impact of nutrition education through Child-to-Child approach on diet behaviors among preschool children%“儿童与儿童”模式对学龄前儿童营养教育饮食行为改变效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董媛; 王佳蕾; 吴玲玲; 蔡美琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of nutrition education through Child-to-Child (CTC)approach on the diet behaviors among preschool children.Methods Two kindergartens in Shanghai were selected as intervention kindergarten and control kindergarten respectively.One hundred and twelve children in higher grade in the intervention kindergarten were served as experiment group,who received nutrition education from kindergarten teachers,and disseminated nutrition knowledge to the other 195 children in lower grade in intervention kindergarten (affected group) through CTC approach.Children in control kindergarten in the same grade were served as experiment group controls (n =74) and affected group controls (n =207) respectively,and no nutrition education intervention was conducted.Self-designed Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP) questionnaire was adopted to evaluate the changes in nutrition and healthy diet knowledge,attitude towards food and nutrition and diet behaviors before and after intervention.Results After intervention,the KAP scores in experiment group and affected group increased to some extent,the pass rates of score of nutrition and healthy diet knowledge significantly increased (P < 0.01),and the attitude towards food and nutrition and diet behaviors improved.After intervention,the incidences of picky eating in experiment group and affected group were significantly lower than those in the corresponding controls (P < 0.05 for both),the incidences of milk consumption every day in both groups were significantly higher than those in the corresponding controls (P < 0.05,P < 0.01),and the incidence of having balanced breakfast in affected group was significantly higher than that in affected group controls (P < 0.05).Conclusion Application of CTC approach in nutrition education may yield favorable effect and advantage in promoting diet behaviors among preschool children.%目的 评价“儿童与儿童”(CTC)营养教育模式对学龄前儿童饮

  20. Impact of long-term use of oral nutritional supplement on nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and growth of Filipino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Dieu T T; Estorninos, Elvira; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Oliver, Jeffery S; Low, Yen Ling; Rosales, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies during childhood have adverse effects on child growth and health. In a single-arm 48-week long-term intervention, we previously reported the efficacy of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) and dietary counselling on catch-up growth and growth maintenance in nutritionally at-risk Filipino children. The present analysis was done to assess the contributing effects of ONS to nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and longitudinal growth. ONS (450 ml) was consumed daily providing 450 kcal (1880 kJ) and at least 50 % of micronutrient requirements among 200 children aged 3-4 years with weight-for-height percentiles between 5th and 25th (WHO Growth Standards). Weight, height and dietary intakes using 24-h food recalls were measured at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48. Nutrient adequacy and dietary diversity score (DDS) were calculated. Generalised estimating equations were used to assess the effects of total nutrient intakes, DDS, ONS compliance and sociodemographic factors on longitudinal growth. The percentages of children with adequate intake of energy, protein, Fe, Ca and some vitamins at each post-baseline visit were improved from baseline, reaching 100 % for most nutrients. DDS was also increased from baseline and reached significance from week 16 onwards (P Male children, total energy intake and parental employment status were associated with weight-for-height percentile gain (P nutritional adequacy and growth of Filipino children.