WorldWideScience

Sample records for preschool child eating

  1. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction.

  2. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  3. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  4. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  5. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices : Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ek; Kimmo Sorjonen; Karin Eli; Louise Lindberg; Jonna Nyman; Claude Marcus; Paulina Nowicka

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Ques...

  6. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ek

    Full Text Available Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ.Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM, adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC. CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators.478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese. A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06 after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30 indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37. Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71.The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children

  7. Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton Susan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating, child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food, and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI. Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term.

  8. Development and preliminary validation of Chinese preschoolers' eating behavior questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for caregivers to assess the eating behavior of Chinese preschoolers. METHODS: To assess children's eating behaviors, 152 items were derived from a broad review of the literature related to epidemiology surveys and the assessment of children's eating behaviors. All of these items were reviewed by 50 caregivers of preschoolers and 10 experienced pediatricians. Seventy-seven items were selected for use in a primary questionnaire. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a variability analysis on the data from 313 preschoolers used to evaluate this primary questionnaire, we deleted 39 of these 77 items. A Chinese Preschoolers' Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CPEBQ was finally established from the remaining 38 items. The structure of this questionnaire was explored by factor analysis, and its reliability, validity and discriminative ability were evaluated with data collected from caregivers of 603 preschoolers. RESULTS: The CPEBQ consisted of 7 dimensions and 38 items. The 7 dimensions were food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habit, satiety responsiveness, exogenous eating, emotional eating and initiative eating. The Cronbach's α coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. There were significant differences between the scores of normal-weight, overweight and obese preschoolers when it was referred to food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habits, satiety responsiveness and emotional eating (p<0.05. Differences in caregiver's education levels also had significant effects on scores for food fussiness, eating habits and exogenous eating (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The CPEBQ satisfies the conditions of reliability and validity, in accordance with psychometric demands. The questionnaire can be employed to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese preschoolers' eating behaviors; therefore, it can be used in child health care

  9. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be patient with your child. Sometimes new foods take time. Give children a taste at first and be patient with them. O er new foods many times. Let your children serve themselves. Teach your children to take small amounts at first. Let them know they ...

  10. Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception.

  11. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  12. Executive functioning, emotion regulation, eating self-regulation, and weight status in low-income preschool children: How do they relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between child eating self-regulation, child non-eating self-regulation, and child BMIz in a low-income sample of Hispanic families with preschoolers. The eating in the absence of hunger task as well as parent-report of child satiety respo...

  13. Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Halley; Power, Thomas G; Nicklas, Theresa; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children's eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationships were mediated through maternal feeding practices. Two hundred and twenty-two low-income mothers and their preschool children participated. About half of the families were African American and half were Latino. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing maternal eating patterns, maternal feeding practices, and children's eating patterns. Maternal external eating (eating in response to outside stimuli, not internal hunger/thirst cues) was positively correlated with two child eating scores: picky eating and desire to eat. Mediational analyses showed that external eating in mothers was related to picky eating in children through high maternal control in feeding; the relationship between mothers' external eating and desire to eat in children was not mediated through maternal control. Picky eating and desire to eat in children were related to emotional eating in mothers as well. The implications of these results for understanding the development of childhood obesity are considered.

  14. Bi-directional associations between child fussy eating and parents' pressure to eat: Who influences whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; de Barse, Lisanne M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Fussy eating is common in young children, often raising concerns among parents. The use of pressuring feeding practices may provoke or worsen child fussiness, but these practices could equally be a parent's response to child fussy eating. In longitudinal analyses, we assessed directionality in the relation between fussy eating and parent's pressure to eat across childhood. Study participants were 4845 mother-child dyads from the population-based Generation R cohort in the Netherlands. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess fussy eating (2 items) at child ages 1½, 3 and 6years. Parents' pressure to eat was assessed with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (4 items) when children were 4years old. All scale scores were standardized. Linear regression analyses indicated that preschoolers' fussy eating prospectively predicted higher levels of parents' pressure to eat at child age 4years, independently of confounders (adjusted B=0.24, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.27). Pressure to eat at 4years also predicted more fussiness in children at age 6years, independently of confounders and of fussy eating at baseline (adjusted B=0.14, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.17). Path analyses indicated that the relation from fussy eating at 3years to parenting one year later was stronger than from pressure at 4years to fussy eating two years later (pparental pressuring feeding strategies being developed in response to children's food avoidant behaviors, but also seemingly having a counterproductive effect on fussiness. Thus, the use of pressure to eat should be reconsidered, while providing parents alternative techniques to deal with their child's fussy eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  16. Effects of children's self-regulation of eating on parental feeding practices and child weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-regulation of eating in minority preschool-aged children mediates the relationship between parent feeding practices and child weight. Participants low-income African American and Hispanic parents and their preschool-aged children who participat...

  17. Are parents' anxiety and depression related to child fussy eating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Jansen, Pauline W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population-based. P......Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population......-based. Participants 4746 4-year-old children and their parents. Exposure Parental internalising problems (ie, symptoms of anxiety and depression) were assessed with the Brief Symptoms Inventory during pregnancy and the preschool period (child age 3 years). Main outcome measure The food fussiness scale of the Children......'s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and during the child's preschool period was related to higher food fussiness sum-scores in children. For instance, per point on the anxiety scale in pregnancy, children had on average a 1.02 higher sum-score (95% CI 0.59 to 1...

  18. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  20. Parental perception of preschool child body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Wright, Dawn

    2011-10-01

    Obesity in preschoolers has risen dramatically in the last decade. Although studies have demonstrated that parents of preschoolers have incorrect perceptions of their child's body weight, little is known about the factors that may be associated with these perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental perceptions of preschool child body weight and parental psychosocial factors. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analyses. More than one third of the children in the sample were at risk for being overweight or were already overweight. However, less than 6% of parents felt that their child had an elevated body weight. Results from univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the parent's health literacy level was a significant predictor of the accuracy of their perceptions regarding their child's body weight (p perceptions. Results from this study indicate that assessing parental perceptions of preschool child body weight can help providers accurately understand how parents view their children and lead to tailored educational interventions. In addition, the results support previous research suggesting that parental health literacy is a key to providing high-quality family-centered care.

  1. Eating Disorders in Child and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Onal Sonmez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescent and pre-adolescent age. The aim of this review is to update new findings related with mostly seen feeding and eating disorders in child and adolescents. The article focuses specifically on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 301-316

  2. Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kelly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating, and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada. Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight, and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight

  3. Executive functioning, emotion regulation, eating self-regulation, and weight status in low-income preschool children: how do they relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between child eating self-regulation, child non-eating self-regulation, and child BMIz in a low-income sample of Hispanic families with preschoolers. The eating in the absence of hunger task as well as parent-report of child satiety responsiveness and food responsiveness were used to assess child eating self-regulation. Two laboratory tasks assessing executive functioning, a parent questionnaire assessing child effortful control (a temperament dimension related to executive functioning), and the delay of gratification and gift delay tasks assessing child emotion regulation were used to assess child non-eating self-regulation. Bivariate correlations were run among all variables in the study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses assessed: (1) child eating self-regulation associations with the demographic, executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation measures; and (2) child BMI z-score associations with executive functioning, effortful control, emotion regulation measures, and eating self-regulation measures. Within child eating self-regulation, only the two parent-report measures were related. Low to moderate positive correlations were found between measures of executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation. Only three relationships were found between child eating self-regulation and other forms of child self-regulation: eating in the absence of hunger was positively associated with delay of gratification, and poor regulation on the gift delay task was associated positively with maternal reports of food responsiveness and negatively with parent-reports of satiety responsiveness. Regression analyses showed that child eating self-regulation was associated with child BMIz but other forms of child self-regulation were not. Implications for understanding the role of self-regulation in the development of child obesity are discussed.

  4. Effects of Peer Models' Food Choices and Eating Behaviors on Preschoolers' Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1980-01-01

    The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)

  5. Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann

    2011-09-01

    Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood.

  6. The mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elisabeth M; Frankel, Leslie A; Hernandez, Daphne C

    2017-06-01

    Emotional eating, or eating in response to negative emotions rather than internal hunger cues, has been related to many maladaptive eating patterns that contribute to weight gain and obesity. The parent feeding practice of use of food as a reward is positively associated with children emotionally overeating, yet, little is known as to the potential behavioral mechanism linking these behaviors. The current study examined the mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 254) completed online questionnaires targeting parent feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and child self-regulation in eating. Mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macros in SPSS. Results demonstrated that the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating was partially mediated by child self-regulation in eating, even after controlling for parent and child gender, household income, and race/ethnicity. In summary, parental use of food as a reward leads to children's diminished ability to regulate intake, which then leads to increased emotional over eating. Results of this study have implications for both the prevention of disordered eating behaviors and childhood obesity prevention programs, suggesting the need to assist children in learning how to self-regulate in the presence of food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlates of parental feeding practices with pre-schoolers: Parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Parental feeding practices have been linked to eating and weight status in young children; however, more research is needed to understand what influences these feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine how parental feeding practices that are linked to unhealthy eating patterns in young children, are related to parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours . Participants were 330 mothers of a 2- to 6-year-old child. Mothers completed measures of knowledge of child body image and eating patterns, overvaluation of weight and shape, internalization of general media and athletic ideals, dieting, and parental feeding practices. Higher maternal knowledge of strategies to promote positive child body image and eating patterns predicted lower weight restriction, instrumental, emotional, and pushing to eat feeding practices. Overvaluation of weight and shape predicted use of fat restriction. Maternal internalization of the athletic ideal predicted instrumental and pushing to eat feeding practices. As these feeding practices have been associated with long-term risk of children's weight gain and/or disordered eating, these findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to target knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents of pre-schoolers.

  8. The Influence of Theatre on a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    KRÁTKÁ, Pavlína

    2009-01-01

    The aim of work is to highlight the impact of theater on the personality development of children preschool age and education elements of theater. The theoretical part is aimed at the preschool age child's personality and the importance of pre-term for shaping the child's own identity. It is aimed at the game and its importance in the lives of children preschool age and the specificities of the performing arts working in the preschool age child. The practical part is devoted to research and to...

  9. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background......Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  10. A systematic review of types of healthy eating interventions in preschools

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Mette V; Husby, Sofie; Skov, Laurits R; Perez-Cueto, Federico JA

    2014-01-01

    Background With the worldwide levels of obesity new venues for promotion of healthy eating habits are necessary. Considering children’s eating habits are founded during their preschool years early educational establishments are a promising place for making health promoting interventions. Methods This systematic review evaluates different types of healthy eating interventions attempting to prevent obesity among 3 to 6 year-olds in preschools, kindergartens and day care facilities. Studies that...

  11. Healthy eating and obesity prevention for preschoolers: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing effective prevention and intervention programs for the formative preschool years is seen as an essential step in combating the obesity epidemic across the lifespan. The overall goal of the current project is to measure the effectiveness of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention, the MEND (Mind Exercise Nutrition Do It! program that is delivered to parents of children aged 2-4 years. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will be conducted with 200 parents and their 2-4 year old children who attend the MEND 2-4 program in metropolitan and regional Victoria. Parent-child dyads will attend ten 90-minute group workshops. These workshops focus on general nutrition, as well as physical activity and behaviours. They are typically held at community or maternal and child health centres and run by a MEND 2-4 trained program leader. Child eating habits, physical activity levels and parental behaviours and cognitions pertaining to nutrition and physical activity will be assessed at baseline, the end of the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months post the intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents, who will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion Our study is the first RCT of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention targeted specifically to Australian parents and their preschool children aged 2-4 years. It responds to the call by experts in the area of childhood obesity and child health that prevention of overweight in the formative preschool years should focus on parents, given that parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to impact significantly on the development of early overweight. This is 'solution-oriented' rather than 'problem-oriented' research, with its focus being on prevention rather than intervention. If this is a positive trial, the MEND2-4 program can be implemented as a

  12. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  13. Remediating Child Poverty via Preschool: Exploring Practitioners' Perspectives in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…

  14. Remediating Child Poverty via Preschool: Exploring Practitioners' Perspectives in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…

  15. SSB taxes and diet quality in US preschoolers: estimated changes in the 2010 Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C N; Poti, J M; Ng, S W; Popkin, B M

    2017-04-01

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed as a strategy to combat child obesity. Yet it is unclear how a tax on SSBs might influence the overall quality of diet in preschool children. Thus, we use simulated price increases and the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) to explore the relationship between SSB taxes and diet quality in preschool children. Price and purchase data from the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel and a two-part marginal effects model were used to estimate relative changes in purchases with a 20% increase in the price of SSBs. Demand elasticities were applied to dietary intake data for children ages 2-5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010 and 2011-2012) to estimate the impact of a 20% SSB tax on dietary intake and quality (HEI-2010). A 20% increase in the price of SSBs was associated with lower total caloric intake (-28 kcal d(-1) , p price (difference: -0.85, p quality as an isolated intervention among US preschool children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Randomized Exposure to Food Advertisements and Eating in the Absence of Hunger Among Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Lansigan, Reina K; Ramanujam, Archana; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2016-12-01

    Preschoolers in the United States are heavily exposed to unhealthy food advertisements. Whether such exposure promotes cued eating has not been documented in this age group. Randomized experiment among 60 children, aged 2 to 5 years, recruited in 2015-2016 from New Hampshire and Vermont. Children completed the experiment at a behavioral laboratory. Children were provided with a healthy snack to consume upon arrival then randomized to view a 14-minute TV program embedded with advertisements for either a food or a department store. Children were provided 2 snack foods to consume ad libitum while viewing the TV program; 1 of those snacks was the food advertised. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) was operationalized as the kilocalories of snack foods consumed. t tests were used to compare EAH by advertisement condition; linear regression models assessed effect modification by the child's age, sex, BMI percentile, and parental feeding restriction. Mean age was 4.1 (SD 0.9) years, 55% of children were male, 80% were non-Hispanic white, and 20% were overweight or obese. There were no differences in child or socioeconomic characteristics by advertisement condition. Child BMI was not related to EAH. Mean kilocalories consumed during the EAH phase was greater among children exposed to the food advertisements (126.8, SD: 58.5) versus those exposed to the nonfood advertisements (97.3, SD: 52.3; P = .04), an effect driven by greater consumption of the advertised food (P advertisement exposure may encourage obesogenic-eating behaviors among the very young. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  18. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  19. Child feeding perceptions among mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Feldman, Talya; Ram, Anca; Gur, Eitan; Zubery, Eynat; Steiner, Evelyne; Latzer, Yael; Lock, James D

    2015-12-01

    Feeding and eating difficulties are documented among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Understanding the perspective of mothers with eating disorders is likely essential to develop parent-based early prevention programs for children of these mothers. In the present study, twenty-nine mothers who were diagnosed with an eating disorder prior to becoming mothers and who currently had toddler age children participated in a semi-structured interview examining maternal functioning and child feeding. The maternal perceptions that emerged from the interviews were sorted into central themes and subcategories using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Data indicate that mothers with eating disorders express preoccupation with their child's eating, shape and weight, and many dilemmas about child feeding. They also reported rarity of family meals and their toddlers' preliminary awareness of maternal symptoms. Maternal concerns regarding child nutrition, feeding and weight were reported as more intense in regards to daughters. These maternal perceptions illuminate the maternal psychological processes that underlie the feeding and eating problems of the children of mothers with lifetime eating disorders. Findings should be addressed in the evaluation, treatment, and research of adult and childhood eating disorders.

  20. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  1. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire among low-income African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Nelson, Timothy D; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Valenzuela, Jessica M; Sherman, Susan N; Johnson, Susan L; Powers, Scott W

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the factor structure for three of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) subscales, a widely used measure of parental feeding practices, among 296 low-income parents of African American preschool children. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an overall poor fit among CFQ subscales; Restriction, Pressure to Eat, and Concern about Child Weight, (chi(2), (df=87=300.249, CFI=1.00, NNFI=1.07, RMSEA=.091). Additionally, Cronbach's Alpha coefficients for 2 of the three subscales were below acceptable recommendations (Restriction=0.69; Pressure to Eat=0.58). These results suggest further psychometric clarification is needed to understand commonly reported feeding practice constructs among low-income African American mothers of preschool aged children.

  3. Teacher-Child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how children's temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher-child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational…

  4. Patterns of maternal feeding and child eating associated with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa),we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms. The sample was comprised of 13 006 women and their children from a prospective populati...

  5. Renovascular hypertension and intrarenal artery aneurysms in a preschool child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, David J.; Barletta, Gina-Marie; Bunchman, Timothy E. [Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Helen DeVos Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Mowry, Jeanne A. [Oregon Health Sciences University, Pediatric Nephrology, Northwest Permanente, P.C. and Doernbecher Children' s Hospital, Portland, OR (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Renovascular hypertension from renal artery aneurysmal formation is a rare complication of fibromuscular dysplasia. Few data exist to direct the management of intrarenal artery aneurysms in pediatric patients. We report the presentation, diagnosis and management of renovascular hypertension and intrarenal aneurysmal disease in a preschool child. (orig.)

  6. Preschool and Early Childhood: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography cites 67 items relating to preschool and early childhood selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts." Bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts are provided for each entry. One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings in the area of handicapped and gifted…

  7. Child, home and institutional predictors of preschool vocabulary growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druten-Frietman, L.J.G.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth and stability over time in 385 young children (two to four years of age) who attended a preschool. The relation between child, family, and institutional factors (i.c gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES), family background (native/non-native), teacher

  8. Teacher-child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel YOLERİ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine how children’s temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher–child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational survey method was used in this study. The sample consisted of 195 preschool children. According to the results, a negative significant relationship was found between the teacher-child relationships scores and the reactivity sub-dimension of temperament. Also, there are positive significant relationships between teacher-child relationship scores and language skills. In addition, both the reactivity sub dimension of temperament and language skills demonstrate a predictor effect on the teacher-child relationships. Reactivity was the most important temperament trait factor affecting relationships.

  9. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  10. Preschool children with lower executive function may be more vulnerable to emotional-based eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-03-01

    Decreased executive function (EF) has been linked to unhealthy eating behaviors and obesity in older children and adults, however little is known about this relationship in young children. One possible reason for this association is that individuals with degraded EF are more vulnerable to emotional-based overeating. Emotional eating may thus be more likely to occur in persons with lower self-control or ability to regulate emotions. A pilot project in a research-based preschool was conducted to examine the relationships between executive function, emotional arousal and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) in 3-6year-old children. Executive function was measured through child-completed tasks, parent questionnaires, and standardized teacher reports. Emotional arousal was measured via skin conductance. Children who had lower cognitive development scores as indicated by teacher reports had higher EAH. Increased emotional arousal was associated with increased EAH, but only in a subgroup of children who had a lower capacity for emotional regulation as suggested by lower delay of gratification scores, lower effortful control (parent questionnaire), and overall lower teacher-reported cognitive development. Further studies are necessary to determine whether interventions to improve executive function and emotional regulation in young children may also have the benefit of improving eating behaviors and decreasing risk of obesity in the long run.

  11. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2015-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ), especially for socially disadvantaged children. The intervention preschools received extra training of the preschool teachers, whereas control preschools did not receive any training. The results show impro...

  12. Parental and Child Characteristics Related to Early-Onset Disordered Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies...

  13. A systematic review of types of healthy eating interventions in preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Vang; Husby, Sofie; Skov, Laurits Rohden

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates different types of healthy eating interventions attempting to prevent obesity among 3 to 6 year-olds in preschools, kindergartens and day care facilities. Studies that included single interventions, educational interventions and/or multicomponent interventions were eligible...

  14. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. © 2013.

  15. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues.

  16. Parents perceptions of preschool children's ability to regulate eating. Feeding style differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent feeding styles have been associated with children's eating behaviors and weight status across multiple studies. However, little is known about the mechanism through which parent feeding styles influence child weight status. Children's ability to self-regulate their eating may be the mechanism...

  17. Munch and Move: evaluation of a preschool healthy eating and movement skill program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Louise

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood services have been identified as a key setting for promoting healthy eating and physical activity as a means of preventing overweight and obesity. However, there is limited evidence on effective nutrition and physical activity programs in this setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Munch and Move, a low-intensity, state-wide, professional development program designed to support early childhood professionals to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children in their care. Methods The evaluation involved 15 intervention and 14 control preschools (n = 430; mean age 4.4 years in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia and was based on a randomised-control design with pre and post evaluation of children's lunchbox contents, fundamental movement skills (FMS, preschool policies and practices and staff attitudes, knowledge and confidence related to physical activity, healthy eating and recreational screen time. Results At follow up, FMS scores for locomotor, object control and total FMS score significantly improved by 3.4, 2.1 and 5.5 points more (respectively in the intervention group compared with the control group (P Conclusion The findings suggest that a low intensity preschool healthy weight intervention program can improve certain weight related behaviours. The findings also suggest that change to food policies are difficult to initiate mid-year and potentially a longer implementation period may be required to determine the efficacy of food policies to influence the contents of preschoolers lunchboxes.

  18. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers’ Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insight into parents’ perceptions of their children’s eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Materials and Methods Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. Results 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). Discussion The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors. Parental

  19. Associations between child emotional eating and general parenting style, feeding practices, and parent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12  years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Teacher-Child Relationships, Behavior Regulation, and Language Gain among At-Risk Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mary Beth; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Many preschoolers from low socioeconomic-status (SES) backgrounds demonstrate lags in their language development, and preschool participation is viewed as an important means for mitigating these lags. In this study, we investigated how teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior regulation within preschool classrooms were associated…

  1. The role of preschool teacher in child structured and unstructured play

    OpenAIRE

    Bajde, Karmen

    2016-01-01

    The thesis entitled The Role of Preschool Teacher in Child Structured and Unstructured Play focuses on play, play materials and the role of preschool teacher in the preschool period. The theoretical part focuses on the meaning of child’s play and play materials as well as the role of the preschool professionals. Various types, factors and characteristics of child’s play were presented and play materials were defined. Toy quality criteria are also briefly described. The chapter dealing with th...

  2. Perceptions of nursery staff and parent views of healthy eating promotion in preschool settings: an exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Lorraine A; Rapley, Tim; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Haighton, Catherine A; Adamson, Ashley J

    2016-08-19

    In the UK just over a fifth of all children start school overweight or obese and overweight 2-5 year olds are at least 4 times more likely to become overweight adults. This can lead to serious future health problems. The WHO have recently highlighted the preschool years as a critical time for obesity prevention, and have recommended preschools as an ideal setting for intervention. However, existing evidence suggests that the preschool environment, including the knowledge, beliefs and practices of preschool staff and parents of young children attending nurseries can be a barrier to the successful implementation of healthy eating interventions in this setting. This study examined the perceptions of preschool centre staff and parents' of preschool children of healthy eating promotion within preschool settings. The participants were preschool staff working in private and local authority preschool centres in the North East of England, and parents of preschool children aged 3-4 years. Preschool staff participated in semi-structured interviews (n = 16 female, 1 male). Parents completed a mapping activity interview (n = 14 mothers, 1 father). Thematic analysis was applied to interpret the findings. Complex communication issues surrounding preschool centre dietary 'rules' were apparent. The staff were keen to promote healthy eating to families and felt that parents needed 'education' and 'help'. The staff emphasised that school policies prohibited providing children with sugary or fatty snacks such as crisps, cakes, sweets and 'fizzy' drinks, however, some preschool centres appeared to have difficulty enforcing such guidelines. Parents were open to the idea of healthy eating promotion in preschool settings but were wary of being 'told what to do' and being thought of as 'bad parents'. There is a need to further explore nursery staff members' personal perceptions of health and how food policies which promote healthier food in preschool settings can be embedded and

  3. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background...... as well as an instrumental variable approach based on wider geographic area aggregates to test whether those correlations reveal unbiased causal effects. The identification of truly effective quality characteristics of day-care centres enhances policymakers' resource allocation to make all children...

  4. Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children

  5. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived

  6. What parents know and want to learn about healthy eating and body image in preschool children: a triangulated qualitative study with parents and Early Childhood Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Damiano, Stephanie R; Cornell, Chelsea; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-07-02

    Interventions for parents to encourage healthy eating in children often do not address parental feeding practices and body image development. The current study investigated what parents (of children aged 1-6 years) understand about child healthy eating and body image, and what they would like in future interventions, by using structured focus groups with parents, and individual interviews with Early Childhood Professionals. Forty three parents (M(age) = 36.95 years, 93% female, 79% university degree) participated across 9 focus groups. Eleven Early Childhood Professionals (M(age) = 51.04, 100% female, 64% university degree, 64% Maternal and Child Health Nurses, 36% Childcare Centre Directors) completed individual telephone interviews. Parents described healthy eating as a variety, balance, and range of foods as well as limiting certain foods, such as the intake of sugar, salt, and processed foods. Most often parents defined child body image as a child's physical appearance and did not mention thoughts and feelings related to appearance or body experiences. Body image was most commonly considered a problem in early adolescence and often not an issue of relevance in early childhood. Parents appeared knowledgeable about nutrition and accessed information about healthy eating across a range of resources though rarely accessed information about child body image. They desired more practical information about how to avoid encouraging negative body image when promoting healthy eating. Professionals' responses confirmed these findings. Results suggest future interventions need to stress the important role positive body image plays in encouraging healthy attitudes to food and weight management, and the benefits positive body image can have on the health and mental health of preschool children.

  7. How do mothers manage their preschool children's eating habits and does this change as children grow older? A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Megan; Ogden, Jane; Inskip, Hazel; Lawrence, Wendy; Baird, Janis; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian; Barker, Mary

    2015-12-01

    The practices mothers adopt in relation to feeding their children have been identified as important predictors of children's quality of diet. However, most studies of the impact of these practices on quality of children's diets have been cross-sectional in design, limiting conclusions about change and causality. Previous research has called for qualitative exploration of the way these practices are used in a real-life setting. This study set out to address these gaps in knowledge. At baseline, mothers recruited to a community-based intervention study and who had a preschool child, completed a questionnaire about their use of covert and overt control practices, child food neophobia and demographics. The quality of children's diets was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Both questionnaires were repeated with the mothers two years later. Complete data at both time points were available for 228 mother-child pairs. Four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 mothers of preschool children to explore their experiences of feeding young children. Mothers who increased their use of overt control had children whose level of food neophobia also increased (P = 0.02). Mothers who used more covert control had children with better quality diets at both time points (P = mothers who increased their use of covert control over the two year follow-up had children whose diet quality improved (P = 0.003). These associations were independent of confounders such as mother's level of education. In the focus groups, mothers suggested that feeding young children was stressful and that control was often relinquished in order to reduce conflict at mealtimes. Supporting parents to adopt more covert techniques to control their children's eating habits may be an effective way of improving the quality of young children's diets.

  8. The 'picky eater': The toddler or preschooler who does not eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander Kc; Marchand, Valérie; Sauve, Reginald S

    2012-10-01

    The majority of children between one and five years of age who are brought in by their parents for refusing to eat are healthy and have an appetite that is appropriate for their age and growth rate. Unrealistic parental expectations may result in unnecessary concern, and inappropriate threats or punishments may aggravate a child's refusal to eat. A detailed history and general physical examination are necessary to rule out acute and chronic illnesses. A food diary and assessment of parental expectations about eating behaviour should be completed. Where the child's 'refusal' to eat is found to be related to unrealistic expectations, parents should be reassured and counselled about the normal growth and development of children at this age.

  9. Maternal Intuitive Eating as a Moderator of the Association between Concern about Child Weight and Restrictive Child Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.

    2015-01-01

    Mothers who are concerned about their young child's weight are more likely to use restrictive feeding, which has been associated with increased food seeking behaviors, emotional eating, and overeating in young children across multiple prospective studies. In the present study, we examined whether mothers' intuitive eating behaviors would moderate the association between their concern about their child's weight and their use of restrictive feeding. In a sample of 180 mothers of young children, two maternal intuitive eating behaviors (i.e., eating for physical reasons, trust in hunger and satiety cues) moderated this association after controlling for maternal age, body mass index, years of education, race/ethnicity, awareness of hunger and satiety cues and perceptions of child weight. More specifically, concern about child weight was unrelated to restrictive feeding for mothers with higher levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. However, concern about child weight was positively related to restrictive feeding among mothers with lower or average levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. These findings indicate that it may be important address maternal intuitive eating within interventions designed to improve self-regulated eating in children, as mothers who attend these interventions tend to be highly concerned about their child's weight and, if also low in intuitive eating, may be at risk for using restrictive feeding behaviors that interfere with children's self-regulated eating. PMID:26145275

  10. Maternal intuitive eating as a moderator of the association between concern about child weight and restrictive child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Lumeng, Julie C; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2015-12-01

    Mothers who are concerned about their young child's weight are more likely to use restrictive feeding, which has been associated with increased food seeking behaviors, emotional eating, and overeating in young children across multiple prospective and experimental studies. In the present study, we examined whether mothers' intuitive eating behaviors would moderate the association between their concern about their child's weight and their use of restrictive feeding. In a sample of 180 mothers of young children, two maternal intuitive eating behaviors (i.e., eating for physical reasons, trust in hunger and satiety cues) moderated this association after controlling for maternal age, body mass index, years of education, race/ethnicity, awareness of hunger and satiety cues and perceptions of child weight. More specifically, concern about child weight was unrelated to restrictive feeding for mothers with higher levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. However, concern about child weight was positively related to restrictive feeding among mothers with lower or average levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. These findings indicate that it may be important address maternal intuitive eating within interventions designed to improve self-regulated eating in children, as mothers who attend these interventions tend to be highly concerned about their child's weight and, if also low in intuitive eating, may be at risk for using restrictive feeding behaviors that interfere with children's self-regulated eating.

  11. Comparison of child interview and parent reports of children’s eating disordered behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires of child eating behavior have demonstrated poor agreement with child interview methods and parent report. However, no study has investigated the relationship between child interview and parent report. Therefore, we compared results from a diagnostic interview, the Eating Disorder Examination adapted for Children (ChEDE) to those from a questionnaire, the Adolescent Version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-parent version (QEWP-P), in a nontreatment ...

  12. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  13. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  14. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ), especi......From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ...

  15. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo P. P. Machado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (i To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI, self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only.

  16. The Relationship Between Parent Perception of Child Weight, Parent Feeding Style, and Child BMI Among Low-Income, African American Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Jhazmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In February 2011, First Lady Michelle Obama revealed her plan to end the childhood obesity epidemic in America. With childhood obesity considered a health crisis, it is crucial to begin serious prevention efforts. Shaping healthy eating habits and the physical activity of children at the preschool age is a great step toward life-long prevention. The U.S. populations most affected by and at-risk for childhood obesity are African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Overweight and obesity rates are also particularly on the rise among preschool children. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight status, parent feeding style and child body mass index (BMI. A total of 82 primary caregivers of preschool-age children participated in the study. Participants were low-income and primarily African American. Primary caregivers completed surveys that included a demographic questionnaire, caregiver feeding style questionnaire and a parent perception measure. The children’s BMI information was gathered from Head Start’s nutrition coordinator. Results showed that 35% of children in the current sample had a BMI at or above the 85th percentile, which is considered overweight. Results suggest that parents perceive their child’s weight status to be at a healthier level than objective BMI estimates suggest. Parent feeding style was not significantly related to child BMI in the current study.

  17. Associations of Preschool Type and Teacher-Child Relational Quality with Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Moses, Laurence Kimberly; Bolt, Elizabeth N.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined associations of preschool type (i.e., urban and suburban Head Start and university-affiliated center) and teacher-child variables with positive and negative child outcomes among 145 preschoolers (74 boys). Differences emerged across preschools, with urban Head Start children scoring lowest on the emotional…

  18. Comparative Study of Child Assessment Practices in English and Korean Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Kwi-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Child assessment practices in English and Korean preschools were compared by analysing data from interviews with educators, examples of child assessment, and official documents from each country. Child assessment in England was systematically implemented and characterised by several methodological and procedural strengths, whereas assessment in…

  19. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ...

  20. Maternal Socialization and Child Temperament as Predictors of Emotion Regulation in Turkish Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…

  1. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Preschool Teacher Cognitions and Responses to Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural differences as…

  2. Circle of Security in Child Care: Putting Attachment Theory into Practice in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Glen; Hoffman, Kent; Powell, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Circle of Security-Classroom (COS-C) approach to applying attachment theory in preschool settings. Early childhood is an incubator for a wide range of development including the underpinnings of school readiness. Secure teacher-child relationships support this process. However, most preschool staff members lack guidance…

  3. Child-Centred Education: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Self-Reported Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Ramazan; Erden, Feyza Tantekin; Morrison, George S.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the beliefs and self-reported practices of preschool teachers with regard to the concept of child-centred education, as well as the consistency between these beliefs and practices. Data were collected via interviews with 20 female teachers employed in public preschools in Ankara, Turkey. The results indicated that the…

  4. Technology-Enhanced Storytelling Stimulating Parent-Child Interaction and Preschool Children's Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…

  5. Circle of Security in Child Care: Putting Attachment Theory into Practice in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Glen; Hoffman, Kent; Powell, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Circle of Security-Classroom (COS-C) approach to applying attachment theory in preschool settings. Early childhood is an incubator for a wide range of development including the underpinnings of school readiness. Secure teacher-child relationships support this process. However, most preschool staff members lack guidance…

  6. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  7. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay

    2015-03-01

    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect.

  8. Mother and preschool teacher as assessors of the child's language competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja Peklaj

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers include child's parents as assessors of his/her language development as the results of many studies suggest their assessments to be valid and reliable measures of child's language competence. In the longitudinal study, presented in this paper, we examined whether child's mother and his/her preschool teacher can provide a valid estimation of child's language development. The sample included 80 Slovenian children from different preschool institutions, aged 3;1 years at first and 4;1 years at second assessment. Children's language competence was assessed individually, directly by the testators using Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test and indirectly by mothers and preschool teachers using the Child's Language Competence Questionnaire for Parents and Preschool Teachers. The achieved results showed that the estimates given by mothers and preschool teachers represent valid measures of child's language competence but not stable in time. The estimations given by mothers and preschool teachers explain a small share in variability of children's achievements on the Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test.

  9. Preschool-Age Problem Behavior and Teacher-Child Conflict in School: Direct and Moderation Effects by Preschool Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were…

  10. Preschool children with lower executive function may be more vulnerable to emotional-based eating in the absence of hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased executive function has been linked to unhealthy eating behaviors and obesity in older children and adults, however little is known about this relationship in young children. A pilot project in a research-based preschool was conducted to examine the relationships between executive function...

  11. Parenting to prevent body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns in preschool children: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Damiano, Stephanie R; Chittleborough, Philip; Paxton, Susan J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2014-09-01

    Interventions to prevent body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns are needed in early childhood. Identifying effective parenting strategies would be useful for parents and prevention researchers. To develop expert consensus, an online Delphi study was conducted with experts (N=28, Mage=44.34) who rated statements describing potential parenting strategies gleaned from a systematic literature search. If 90-100% rated a statement as either Essential or Important, it was endorsed as a guideline. From a total of 335 statements 153 were endorsed. Despite some areas of disagreement, including whether parents should weigh their child or discourage weighing, experts were able to reach consensus on a wide range of issues, such as how to discuss healthy eating with children. The developed guidelines provide a novel and required resource for parents, and a framework for researchers developing interventions to prevent the onset of body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Amy T; Farrow, Claire V; Martz, Denise M

    2010-07-01

    Research concerning child feeding practices has focused on children and adolescents, and little is known about how feeding practices used in childhood relate to eating behaviors and weight status in early adulthood. We assessed college students' and their parents' retrospective reports of child feeding practices used when the students were in middle childhood. We also assessed the college students' current reports of their eating behaviors using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), and measured their current BMI. Results showed that college students' and their parents' reports about previous parental use of child feeding practices were not correlated. Parent reports of their own use of child feeding practices were more related to students' eating behaviors and BMI than were students' recollections about feeding practices used by their parents. An analysis of gender effects showed that there were positive correlations between parental child feeding practices, BMI, and emotional eating for female students. These relationships did not exist for male students. The results suggest that child feeding practices recollected by parents are linked to the development of emotional eating and weight status of women in early adulthood.

  13. Volunteers as Teachers of Child Management to Parents of Behaviour-Disordered Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.

    1984-01-01

    Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…

  14. Preschoolers' Emotion Regulation Strategy Understanding: Relations with Emotion Socialization and Child Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Pamela M.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Smith-Simon, Kristen E.; Cohen, Laura H.

    2009-01-01

    Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child…

  15. Parent Physical Punishment and Child Aggression in a Singapore Chinese Preschool Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngee Sim, Tick; Ping Ong, Lue

    2005-01-01

    We examine how parental physical punishment (caning and slapping) and child aggression are related, and possible moderation by authoritative control and rejection. A sample of 286 Singapore Chinese preschoolers ages 4-6 reported on rejection; their parents reported on control, caning, and slapping; and their teachers rated child aggression.…

  16. Volunteers as Teachers of Child Management to Parents of Behaviour-Disordered Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.

    1984-01-01

    Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…

  17. Designing Better Preschools: Improving Communication between Designers and Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Cindy V.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examined communications between designers and child development professionals during the preschool design process. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted to investigate the need for communication support between child development professionals, parents, and design professionals (n = 20) during the process of…

  18. How to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to inform and guide ... two to five year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...

  19. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  20. Growth and development in Chinese pre-schoolers with picky eating behaviour: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Zhao, Ai; Cai, Li; Yang, Baoru; Szeto, Ignatius M Y; Ma, Defu; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-01-01

    To explore the associations between picky eating behaviour and pre-schoolers' growth and development. Corresponding potential mechanisms, such as nutrient and food subgroup intake, as well as micronutrients in the blood, will be considered. Picky eating behaviour was present if it was reported by parents. From various areas of China, 937 healthy children of 3-7 years old were recruited using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Children and their mothers' socio-demographic information and children's anthropometry, intelligence, blood samples, one 24-hour dietary intake record and food frequency questionnaire were collected. Z-scores and intelligence tests were used to evaluate growth and development (cognitive development). Multilevel models were employed to verify the associations between picky eating behaviour and growth and development. The prevalence of picky eating as reported by parents was 54% in pre-schoolers. Compared with the non-picky eaters, weight for age in picky eaters was 0.14 z-score (95% CI: -0.25, -0.02; p = 0.017) lower while no significant difference was found in intelligence (p > 0.05). Picky eating behaviour lasting over two years was associated with lower weight for age, as was nit-picking meat (the prevalence from parents' perception was 23% in picky eaters) (p 0.05). Picky eating behaviour is reported by parents in half of the Chinese pre-schoolers, which is negatively associated with growth (weight for age). Lower protein and dietary fibre as well as lower iron and zinc intakes were associated with picky eating as were lower intakes of vegetables, fish and cereals.

  1. Growth and development in Chinese pre-schoolers with picky eating behaviour: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xue

    Full Text Available To explore the associations between picky eating behaviour and pre-schoolers' growth and development. Corresponding potential mechanisms, such as nutrient and food subgroup intake, as well as micronutrients in the blood, will be considered.Picky eating behaviour was present if it was reported by parents. From various areas of China, 937 healthy children of 3-7 years old were recruited using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Children and their mothers' socio-demographic information and children's anthropometry, intelligence, blood samples, one 24-hour dietary intake record and food frequency questionnaire were collected. Z-scores and intelligence tests were used to evaluate growth and development (cognitive development. Multilevel models were employed to verify the associations between picky eating behaviour and growth and development.The prevalence of picky eating as reported by parents was 54% in pre-schoolers. Compared with the non-picky eaters, weight for age in picky eaters was 0.14 z-score (95% CI: -0.25, -0.02; p = 0.017 lower while no significant difference was found in intelligence (p > 0.05. Picky eating behaviour lasting over two years was associated with lower weight for age, as was nit-picking meat (the prevalence from parents' perception was 23% in picky eaters (p 0.05.Picky eating behaviour is reported by parents in half of the Chinese pre-schoolers, which is negatively associated with growth (weight for age. Lower protein and dietary fibre as well as lower iron and zinc intakes were associated with picky eating as were lower intakes of vegetables, fish and cereals.

  2. Do maternal perceptions of child eating and feeding help to explain the disconnect between reported and observed feeding practices?: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Hetherington, Marion M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Campbell, Karen J; Cox, Rachael

    2017-02-08

    Research demonstrates a mismatch between reported and observed maternal feeding practices. This mismatch may be explained by maternal cognitions, attitudes, and motivations relating to dyadic parent-child feeding interactions. These complex constructs may not be apparent during observations nor evidenced in self-report questionnaire. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to gain a more nuanced and contextualized understanding of (a) maternal perceptions of children's food intake control; (b) how parent-child mealtime interactions influence maternal feeding practices; and (c) ways in which mothers may promote healthy child eating and weight outcomes. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 23 mothers (M = 38.4 ± 3.7 years of age) of preschool-aged children (M = 3.8 ± 0.6 years of age, 19 were normal weight, 14 were girls), who had previously completed child feeding questionnaire and participated in two home-based mealtime observations, 12 months apart. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and themes extracted to create the database. Four major themes emerged: (a) Maternal confidence in children's ability to regulate food intake is variable; (b) Implementing strategies for nurturing healthy relationships with food beyond the dining table; (c) Fostering positive mealtime interactions is valued above the content of what children eat; and (d) Situation-specific practices and inconsistencies. Findings indicate that maternal feeding practices are shaped by both parent and child influences, and child feeding is mostly guided by controlling the family food environment, rather than by directly pressuring or restricting their child's eating. Results also highlighted the need for research to consider both parent and child influences on child feeding.

  3. Using Reinforcer Pairing and Fading to Increase the Milk Consumption of a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    Tiger, Jeffrey H; Hanley, Gregory P

    2006-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the chocolate. The procedure and data collection were implemented by preschool teachers and resulted in increased milk drinking at school, which was maintained a...

  4. Predictors of Children's Kindergarten Classroom Engagement: Preschool Adult-Child Relationships, Self-Concept, and Hyperactivity/Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Amelia Kate; Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Baghurst, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to identify preschool factors that are associated with children's classroom engagement during their 1st school year. The study was guided by a social-motivational process model that highlights the importance of parent-child and teacher-child relationships in promoting engagement. In preschool, parents and…

  5. Psychosocial problems in pre-school children : Recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care objective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care Objective. To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among pre-school children in the general populatio

  6. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  7. Comparison of child interview and parent reports of children’s eating disordered behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires of child eating behavior have demonstrated poor agreement with child interview methods and parent report. However, no study has investigated the relationship between child interview and parent report. Therefore, we compared results from a diagnostic interview, the Eating Disorder Examination adapted for Children (ChEDE) to those from a questionnaire, the Adolescent Version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-parent version (QEWP-P), in a nontreatment sample of overweight and normal weight children. Both instruments were administered to 88 overweight (BMI≥85th percentile) and 79 normal weight (BMIQEWP-P were not concordant in terms of the type of eating episodes that occurred in the past month. Using the ChEDE as the criterion method, the QEWP-P had reasonably high specificity, but low sensitivity for the presence of binge episodes (sensitivity 50%, specificity 83%) or objective overeating (sensitivity 30%, specificity 79%) during the past month. ChEDE subscales were, however, significantly related to items assessing eating-related distress on the QEWP-P. While parent report of child eating behaviors may provide some general information regarding eating psychopathology in young nontreatment-seeking children, they do not accurately reflect the results of a structured interview. PMID:15567115

  8. Comparison of child interview and parent reports of children's eating disordered behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2005-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires of child eating behavior have demonstrated poor agreement with child interview methods and parent report. However, no study has investigated the relationship between child interview and parent report. Therefore, we compared results from a diagnostic interview, the Eating Disorder Examination adapted for Children (ChEDE) to those from a questionnaire, the Adolescent Version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-parent version (QEWP-P), in a nontreatment sample of overweight and normal weight children. Both instruments were administered to 88 overweight (BMI >or= 85th percentile) and 79 normal weight (BMIQEWP-P were not concordant in terms of the type of eating episodes that occurred in the past month. Using the ChEDE as the criterion method, the QEWP-P had reasonably high specificity, but low sensitivity for the presence of binge episodes (sensitivity 50%, specificity 83%) or objective overeating (sensitivity 30%, specificity 79%) during the past month. ChEDE subscales were, however, significantly related to items assessing eating-related distress on the QEWP-P. While parent report of child eating behaviors may provide some general information regarding eating psychopathology in young nontreatment-seeking children, they do not accurately reflect the results of a structured interview.

  9. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Independent contribution of parental migrant status and educational level to adiposity and eating habits in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenegger, V; Marques-Vidal, P-M; Nydegger, A; Laimbacher, J; Niederer, I; Bürgi, F; Giusti, V; Bodenmann, P; Kriemler, S; Puder, J J

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the precise role of parental migrant status (MS) and educational level (EL) on adiposity and various eating habits in young children. Therefore, we assessed their independent contribution in preschoolers. Of 655 randomly selected preschoolers, 542 (5.1±0.6 years; 71% of parental MS and 37% of low parental EL) were analysed. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Eating habits were assessed using a semiqualitative food frequency questionnaire and analysed according to five messages developed by the Swiss Society for Nutrition, based on factors implicated in childhood obesity: (1) 'Drinking water and decreasing sweetened drinks', (2) 'Eating fruit and vegetables', (3) 'Decreasing breakfast skipping', (4) 'Reducing fatty and sweet foods' and (5) 'Reducing the intake of meals and snacks in front of television'. Children of migrant and low EL parents had higher body fat, ate more meals and snacks while watching television and had more fruit and fatty foods compared with their respective counterparts (all P≤ 0.04). Children of low EL parents also consumed less water and vegetables compared with their counterparts (all P≤ 0.04). In most instances, we found an independent contribution of parental MS and EL to adiposity and eating habits. A more pronounced effect was found if both parents were migrants or of low EL. Differences in adiposity and eating habits were relatively similar to the joint parental data when assessed individually for maternal and paternal MS and EL. Parental MS and EL are independently related to adiposity and various eating habits in preschoolers.

  11. Efficacy of steroid treatments in the asthmatic preschool child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2002-01-01

    Asthma represents the most common chronic disease in preschool children. Hospital admission for wheezy disorders is the most common paediatric chronic disease causing hospital admission and more common in young children than later in life.......Asthma represents the most common chronic disease in preschool children. Hospital admission for wheezy disorders is the most common paediatric chronic disease causing hospital admission and more common in young children than later in life....

  12. Effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) in a preschool setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Gershenson, Rachel A; Farahmand, Farahnaz K; Thaxter, Peter J; Behling, Steven; Budd, Karen S

    2009-11-01

    This research addressed the need for trained child care staff to support optimal early social-emotional development in urban, low-income, ethnic minority children. We evaluated effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), an approach adapted from Eyberg's Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). TCIT focuses on increasing preschool teachers' positive attention skills and consistent discipline in order to enhance children's psychosocial functioning and prevent mental health problems. A total of 12 teachers participated in small-group workshop sessions with in vivo coaching on their use of skills in the classroom. A multiple-baseline design across four classrooms (3 teachers each) evaluated effects of training on teacher behaviors during weekly classroom observations. Findings indicated systematic increases in trained skills during intervention, and consumer evaluations showed that the training was rated positively. Our results suggest that TCIT is a promising approach for enhancing positive teacher-child interactions in a preschool setting and should receive further investigation.

  13. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy.

  14. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  15. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  16. Parent Perspectives on How a Child-Centered Preschool Experience Shapes Children's Navigation of Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan; Bentley, Dana Frantz

    2013-01-01

    The authors used qualitative case study methodology to explore parents' perceptions of their children's readiness for kindergarten. The authors interviewed parents, focusing on their children's experiences during their transition from a child-centered, play-based preschool setting guided by an emergent curriculum into a range of diverse…

  17. Using Reinforcer Pairing and Fading to Increase the Milk Consumption of a Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the…

  18. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  19. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  20. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  1. Variation in Children's Classroom Engagement Throughout a Day in Preschool: Relations to Classroom and Child Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Williford, Amanda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in preschool children's positive and negative engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks, and how that variability was related to both classroom activity settings (e.g., teacher-structured time, outdoor time, transitions) and child factors (age, gender). Participants were 283 socioeconomically and…

  2. Planning for health promotion in low-income preschool child care settings: focus groups of parents and child care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; LaPelle, Nancy; Gupta, Ruchi S; Finkelstein, Jonathan A

    2006-01-01

    To identify potentially successful strategies, barriers, and facilitators for health promotion in preschool child care settings. We conducted 6 focus groups including each of the following: parents of children attending child care centers and home-based family child care (2 in English, 1 in Spanish) and directors of child care centers and family child care providers (2 in English, 1 in Spanish). Systematic thematic analysis was conducted to generate themes to address study questions. A total of 24 parents and 45 child care providers, serving predominantly urban, low-income children in Boston, participated. Parents and child care providers agreed that in-person group discussions would be the most effective strategy for providing health education information to parents. Several barriers that could affect implementation emerged. First, some providers expressed frustration toward parents' attitudes about child safety and health. Second, there was diversity of opinion among providers on whether conducting health promotion activities was consistent with their training and role. In addition, literacy, language, and cultural barriers were identified as potential barriers to health promotion in child care. In order to be successful, health promotion strategies in child care settings will need to overcome tensions between providers and parents, allow professional growth of child care providers to serve in a health promotion role, and better integrate external health resources and personnel. Group sessions and peer learning opportunities that are culturally and linguistically sensitive are potentially successful strategies for implementation of health promotion interventions for many parents.

  3. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Hansen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (un)healthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1) child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2) child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents' major driving forces behind reducing children's consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents' provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  4. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth L. Melbye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (unhealthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1 child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2 child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents’ major driving forces behind reducing children’s consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents’ provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  5. [Treatment of eating disorders in adolescents--the view of a child and adolescence psychiatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ernst; Hansen, Berit; Korte, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike

    2005-04-01

    The paper presents--in the sense of clinical guidelines--reality of clinical care in a child and adolescence university hospital specialised on eating disorders. Need of a multimodal therapeutic approach is emphasized, including normalisation of weight and eating behaviour, nursing and pedagogical measures, individual, group and family therapy, completed by body therapy, art and music therapy and in case psychopharmacotherapy. Recommendations for overcoming weak spots are made.

  6. Exploring eating and activity behaviors with parent-child dyads using event history calendars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, Cynthia A; Martyn, Kristy K

    2013-08-01

    Despite advances in science, the prevalence of childhood obesity persists and outcomes remain inconsistent. An event history calendar (EHC) is a tool to facilitate understanding of family life dynamics influencing eating and activity choices. This tool uses reflection to assess temporally linked behavior in the context of life events so that choices related to eating and activity are more explicit. Fourteen parent-child (6-14 years) dyads completed an EHC and interview 2 months following a healthy eating/activity intervention. Phenomenological analysis revealed themes including "awareness" of activity/eating behaviors, "healthy lessons," "family time," and "barriers" to change. The EHC facilitated participant communication and understanding by making connections between behaviors, habits, and events in family context, so that eating and activity behaviors could be realistically reviewed. This tool has potential to guide development of individualized interventions through barrier identification and goal establishment in research and clinical settings to help counteract childhood obesity over time.

  7. Content Validity for a Child Care Self-assessment Tool: Creating Healthy Eating Environments Scale (CHEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafave, Lynne; Tyminski, Sheila; Riege, Theresa; Hoy, Diane; Dexter, Bria

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and content validate both a formative and summative self-assessment scale designed to measure the nutrition and physical activity environment in community-based child care programs. The study followed a mixed-method modified Ebel procedure. An expert group with qualifications in nutrition, physical activity, and child care were recruited for content validation. The survey was subjected to expert review through digital communication followed by a face-to-face validation meeting. To establish consensus for content validity beyond the standard error of proportion (P healthy eating program planning, healthy eating environment, physical activity environment, and healthy body image environment. Content validation is an integral step in scale development that is often overlooked or poorly carried out. Initial content validity of this scale has been established and will be of value to researchers and practitioners interested in conducting healthy eating interventions in child care.

  8. Behavioral intervention reduces unhealthy eating behaviors in preschool children via a behavior card approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Pan, Li-Ping; Han, Juan; Li, Li; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; Jin, Run-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Many eating behaviors form in childhood, and some unhealthy behaviors may persist into adulthood and have potential impacts on people's health. This study evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral intervention in reducing consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, fried food in preschool children, and changing parents' rewarding behaviors that encourage the consumption of the unhealthy foods. The research was a cluster randomized trial of seven kindergartens, involving 1138 children aged 3-6 years and their parents in Beijing, China. Parents and children allocated to the intervention group received two lectures and printed resources, including behavior cards, educational sheets. Children's behavior cards, applied with behavior-changing techniques, were used to intervene, and monitor behavior changes over time. Children in the control group just followed their usual health education curriculum in kindergartens. Intervention effects on food consumption behaviors were assessed by examining pre- and post-questionnaires. Of the 1138 children screened at baseline, 880 (77.3%) were measured at the end of the intervention period. The intervention lasted from March to June in 2010. The results showed that consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, and fried food was decreased among the intervention group (Pchildren were decreased (P=0.002). From March to June 2010, the frequency of each target behavior in children tended to decrease over the intervention period (Pchildren and reduces the parents' practice of using unhealthy foods as reward.

  9. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lo

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy

  10. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W S; Keung, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy food intake

  11. More than Teacher Directed or Child Initiated: Preschool Curriculum Type, Parent Involvement, and Children's Outcomes in the Child-Parent Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Clements, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Niles, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American) in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20…

  12. [Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esins, Svenja; Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Wagner, Katharina; Achtergarde, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample The description of child behavior in mother-child-interaction is important in early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders in preschool children. The Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) may serve this diagnostic purpose. We aim to examine interrater-reliability of SIRS and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity to maternal behavior by Play-PAB, and a measure of mother-child-relationsship by Parent-Infant-Global-Assessment-Scale (PIRGAS). Five raters assessed 47 ten-minute video sequences of parent-child-interaction recorded at the Family Day Hospital for Preschool Children with SIRS, Play-PAB, and PIRGAS. We report psychometric properties of SIRS, and present the association with Play-PAB and PIRGAS. SIRS shows a satisfying interrater-reliability for all items. Positive child behavior e. g. the SIRS' "child responsiveness" shows negative correlation to Play-PAB-scales' parental "hostility" and "intrusiveness", but independence of parental "involvement", "positive emotionality", and "discipline". Child and parental behavior show expected associations with the global relationship measure PIRGAS. The assessment of child behavior in parent-child-interaction with SIRS can be quickly learned and reliably applied without extensive training. SIRS shows meaningful relations to parental behavior and a clinical global measure of the caregiver-child-relationship. We recommend SIRS for clinical diagnostics to describe child behavior in mother-child-interaction.

  13. Comparison of the Child and Parent Forms of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns in the Assessment of Children’s Eating-Disordered Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Emily; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Cohen, Marc L.; Elberg, Jane; Freedman, Renee J.; Semega-Janneh, Mariama; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The assessment of eating-disordered behaviors in middle childhood is challenging. Frequently, both child and parents are queried about the child’s eating behavior. However, no direct comparisons between parent and child reports of child eating disturbance have been published. We compared results from the adolescent and parent versions of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP-A and QEWP-P, respectively) in a nontreatment sample of overweight and normal weight children. Method The QEWP-A and QEWP-P were administered to 142 overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 85th percentile) and 121 normal weight (BMI 15th–84th percentile) children, age 9.7 ± 1.9 years, recruited from the community. Results The QEWP-A and QEWP-P showed good agreement for the absence of eating-disordered behavior but were not concordant in terms of the number or type of binge eating, overeating episodes, or compensatory weight control behaviors in the past 6 months. Children categorized by their own reports (QEWP-A) as engaging in no overeating, simple overeating, or binge eating behaviors did not differ significantly in body composition or in eating and general psychopathology. Children categorized according to their parents’ reports (QEWP-P) as engaging in binge eating had significantly greater body adiposity, eating-disordered cognitions, body dissatisfaction, and parent-reported problems (all ps QEWP-P. Discussion Child and parent reports of eating behaviors are not concordant regarding the presence of binge eating or compensatory behaviors. Further investigation of the utility of these questionnaires is needed before either can serve as a surrogate for a clinical interview. PMID:15282688

  14. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  15. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  16. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  17. Acute lymphangitis in a preschool child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Huai Seng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year old preschool boy presented with apruritic red streak at the dorsum of his right foot travelingupward from the affected site which was red and swollen.Insect sting was the more likely trigger which had causedthe cellulitis and subsequently the acute lymphangitis.

  18. Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…

  19. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar.

  20. Evaluation of psychometric properties and factorial structure of the pre-school child behaviour checklist at the Kenyan Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Abubakar, Amina; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R J C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Behavioural/emotional problems may be common in preschool children living in resource-poor settings, but assessment of these problems in preschool children from poor areas is challenging owing to lack of appropriate behavioural screening tools. The child behaviour checklist (CBCL) is wid

  1. Effectiveness of a child's fable on the cognition of preschools when used to address childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Kathleen Bradshaw; Abbot Eng, CaSandra Rene'

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of a child's fable on the cognition of preschoolers when used to address childhood obesity. A single group, pretest/posttest design was used with 57 preschool children. Analysis of variance compared pre-existing differences between the four classes with respect to pre-test scores. A repeated measures t-test analyzed changes in scores as a result of the intervention. Following the fable intervention, students showed a significant difference (0.5) between their pre- and post-test scores, indicating this method to an effective learning strategy in this setting and age population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...

  3. Early Predictors of Eating Problems in Preadolescence-A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The epidemiology of childhood eating problems is far from being fully described. The present study aims to explore early predictors of eating behavior problems in preadolescence. Methods: The study sample comprised 1,939 children from the birth cohort study, the Copenhagen Child Cohort...... (CCC2000). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations among infancy health, developmental and relational factors, maternal mental health problems, socioeconomic factors, parental reported eating behavior patterns in preschool age and eating behavior problems in preadolescence...

  4. Daily Associations of Stress and Eating in Mother-Child Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi; Belcher, Britni R.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; O'Connor, Sydney; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in mother-child dyads to examine the day-level associations of stress and eating. Method. Mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children (N = 167 dyads) completed between three (weekday) and eight (weekend) EMA survey prompts per day at random nonschool times across 8 days.…

  5. Changing Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions to Improve Preschool Children's Externalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; DeCoster, Jamie; Hartz, Karyn A; Carter, Lauren M; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Hatfield, Bridget E

    2016-12-19

    A randomized controlled trial was used to examine the impact of an attachment-based, teacher-child, dyadic intervention (Banking Time) to improve children's externalizing behavior. Participants included 183 teachers and 470 preschool children (3-4 years of age). Classrooms were randomly assigned to Banking Time, child time, or business as usual (BAU). Sparse evidence was found for main effects on child behavior. Teachers in Banking Time demonstrated lower negativity and fewer positive interactions with children compared to BAU teachers at post assessment. The impacts of Banking Time and child time on reductions of parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior were greater when teachers evidenced higher-quality, classroom-level, teacher-child interactions at baseline. An opposite moderating effect was found for children's positive engagement with teachers.

  6. SUPPORT OF PSYCHO-PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed needs, ability and the ways of supporting psychophysical activity of a pre-school child. Primary child’s need for movement, which should be invented by play, boosts impulses for growth and development of the organism and is considered as a main condition of it’s psycho-physical development. In the way of physical development child should be encouraged on many different ways of movement: walking, running, jumping, but also crawling, climbing, throwing, catching… For the development of skill of detection optimal senses stimulation is good way, in point of making communication with nature and social surroundings. Thru play and practical activity it is possible to contribute to acceptable way of showing emotional condition of the child. Thinking and imagination at start are very dependable of emotions, and they develop also thru playing and practical activity. It is also possible to contribute a start of development of the main character line which are made from imitation and identification of child with parents and teachers. Functional contribution of psycho-physical activity of pre-school child is possible to achieve if, with skill and a lot of pedagogy talent, awards and compliment are given to child, and giving to them honor and promises

  7. The relationship between adult attachment orientation and child self-regulation in eating: The mediating role of persuasive-controlling feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elisabeth M; Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Hazen, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that adult attachment orientation, specifically anxious attachment, is related to children's diminished ability to self-regulate their food intake, and that this relationship is mediated by parents' persuasive-controlling feeding practices. Two hundred and sixty five mothers and fathers of preschool children completed online questionnaires that included measures of Adult Attachment Orientation, Parental Persuasive-Controlling Feeding Practices, and Child Self-Regulation of Eating. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant relationship between parental anxious attachment and child self-regulatory abilities, which was fully mediated by parental persuasive-controlling feeding. Also as predicted, parents' avoidant attachment was found to be unrelated to persuasive-controlling feeding and child self-regulated eating. Findings suggest that parents with an anxious attachment orientation may be more likely than other parents to try to use persuasive techniques to control their children's food intake, which may impair children's ability to regulate their food intake, increasing their obesity risk. Implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-Responsive Feeding Practices, Unhealthy Eating Behaviors, and Risk of Child Overweight and Obesity in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Ruengdej, Praewrapee

    2017-04-19

    Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in many Southeast Asian countries, and becoming a significant public health concern. This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2-12 years old. We systematically searched five electronic academic/research (PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Nursing, Medline, and CINAHL) databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2016. Fourteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. Nonetheless, due to the small number of identified studies (n = 14) and because only about half of the Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia) were represented (5/11) in the examined studies, additional research is needed to further understand the factors associated with childhood obesity among children in Southeast Asia to develop interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of Southeast Asian countries and designed to address practices and behaviors that may promote childhood obesity.

  9. Relationship between overall child development and caries severity in Chilean three-year-old preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Mufdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between caries and overall child development in three-year-old children in the cities of Linares and Talca, Chile, 2014-2015. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 170 preschool children attending daycare centers in Linares and Talca. Four dimensions of child development (language, cognition, motor skills and socio-emotional development were qualitatively assessed using the child learning and development test (TADI, for its acronym in Spanish. Nutritional development was calculated with the weight/height index. Caries history was assessed by the dmft index and compromised tissue quantification. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's rho, ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: A negative linear correlation was observed between dmft and total TADI score (r=-0.20, p=0.00, and the dimensions of language (r=-0.19, p=0.01, cognition (r=-0.18, p=0.02 and socio-emotional development (r=-0.21, p=0.01. Preschoolers with a dmft of >6.5 had a lower average TADI score than those with a dmft of <2.6 (p=0.009. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of compromised tissue quantification between preschool children with normal and altered development. No statistically significant association between dmft and nutritional development was found. Conclusion: A relationship between caries severity and overall child development in three-year-old preschool children was observed. Longitudinal studies are required to assess causality.

  10. Investigating the role of parent and child characteristics in healthy eating intervention outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Clare E; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-10-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the efficacy of interventions at increasing children's vegetable consumption, little research has examined the effect of individual characteristics on intervention outcomes. In previous research, interventions consisting of modelling and rewards have been shown to increase children's vegetable intake, but differences were identified in terms of how much children respond to such interventions. With this in mind, the current study investigated the role of parental feeding practices, child temperament, and child eating behaviours as predictors of intervention success. Parents (N = 90) of children aged 2-4 years were recruited from toddler groups across Leicestershire, UK. Parents completed measures of feeding practices, child eating behaviours and child temperament, before participating in one of four conditions of a home-based, parent led 14 day intervention aimed at increasing their child's consumption of a disliked vegetable. Correlations and logistic regressions were performed to investigate the role of these factors in predicting intervention success. Parental feeding practices were not significantly associated with intervention success. However, child sociability and food fussiness significantly predicted intervention success, producing a regression model which could predict intervention success in 61% of cases. These findings suggest that future interventions could benefit from being tailored according to child temperament. Furthermore, interventions for children high in food fussiness may be better targeted at reducing fussiness in addition to increasing vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD AT PRESCHOOL AGE AND FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOSKOVSKA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ in their exposure likes to point the most complicated problems, which appeared when the mentally retarded child was born in a family that is followed by dramatic changes of their wishes and aspirations. In this contexts the authors elaborated many questions as well as:· relation between the parents;· mentally retarded child in the setting and living ambient;· social problems of mentally retarded children and their families;· the rule of the treats in the work with parents of mentally retarded child.

  12. Estimation of the level of cognitive development of a preschool child using the system of situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Gorev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a model of reliable estimation of cognitive development of a preschool child by means of the system of situations. Thus the leading technology is modeling the systems of open-type tasks of mathematical contents and the system analysis of big selections of experimental data based on the two-point scale of four parameters: optimality of the ideas offered by children; efficiency of the reasoning given by them; originality of their answer and level of decision development. As a result of the pilot study conducted in 2015 on selection of 3,800 preschool children, it was succeeded to approve the offered technology of estimation and to generalize results in the form of the integrated assessment of relative character – coefficient of cognitive development level. Mathematical-statistical processing of the results of the research allows to prove uniformity of experimental selection and to specify the level of cognitive development with a reliable accuracy of normal distribution for each age group of the preschool child basing on calculation of samples quartiles that in turn can define the further program of individual development of a child providing his transition to higher level of the general education and consequently, higher quality of education.

  13. Making children laugh: parent-child dyadic synchrony and preschool attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Jean-FrançOis; Yurkowski, Kim; Schmiedel, Sabrina; Martin, Jodi; Moss, Ellen; Pallanca, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether dyadic synchrony of father-child and mother-child interactions in a playful context were associated with attachment organization in preschool children. One hundred seven children (48 boys, Mage = 46.67 months, SD = 8.57) and their mothers and fathers (counterbalanced order of lab visits) participated in a playful interaction without toys (Laughing Task procedure). Playful interactions were coded based on the degree to which the dyads demonstrated a variety of behavior representing dyadic synchrony and task management. Children's attachment behavior toward fathers and mothers was observed in a modified separation-reunion procedure adapted for the preschool period. Results demonstrate that mothers and fathers are similar in their effort to arouse and engage their child in a playful context, but mothers achieved a greater synchrony with their child. Disorganized attachment to either mother or father is linked with a lack of synchrony in dyadic interaction. Findings are in contrast with prevailing theory, suggesting that despite gender-related differences in parental playful behaviors, dyadic synchrony is equally important in both mother- and father-child relationships for the development of organized social and affectional bonds.

  14. Stability and continuity of parentally reported child eating behaviours and feeding practices from 2 to 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, C; Blissett, J

    2012-02-01

    Previous research suggests that many eating behaviours are stable in children but that obesigenic eating behaviours tend to increase with age. This research explores the stability (consistency in individual levels over time) and continuity (consistency in group levels over time) of child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices in children between 2 and 5 years of age. Thirty one participants completed measures of child eating behaviours, parental feeding practices and child weight at 2 and 5 years of age. Child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices remained stable between 2 and 5 years of age. There was also good continuity in measures of parental restriction and monitoring of food intake, as well as in mean levels of children's eating behaviours and BMI over time. Mean levels of maternal pressure to eat significantly increased, whilst mean levels of desire to drink significantly decreased, between 2 and 5 years of age. These findings suggest that children's eating behaviours are stable and continuous in the period prior to 5 years of age. Further research is necessary to replicate these findings and to explore why later developmental increases are seen in children's obesigenic eating behaviours.

  15. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Preschooler Too Active? Sleep and Your Preschooler Games for Preschoolers Motivating Preschoolers to Be Active Should Your Preschooler Play Sports? Safe Exploring for Preschoolers Your Child's Weight Kids and Exercise Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: ...

  16. Child personality measures as contemporaneous and longitudinal predictors of social behaviour in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Predictive relations from personality measures to children's social behaviour in pre-school were examined for 3 year old children (at Time 1; T1 who were reassessed one year later (at Time 2; T2. At both times, mothers and fathers separately rated children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003, while the pre-school teachers assessed the same children on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Three general predictive models were examined, contemporaneous (at T1 and T2, longitudinal, and cumulative. Mother- and father-rated child personality was contemporaneously predictive of children's social behaviour as assessed by their pre-school teachers. The most consistent predictions across the spouses and at both times of measurement were obtained for child externalizing behaviour. More disagreeable and emotionally stable children, as opposed to their less disagreeable and more in stable counterparts, were concurrently observed to exhibit more externalizing tendencies during the time spent in pre-school. Maternal reports were longitudinally predictive of children's social competence and internalizing behaviour and the father reports predicted internalizing and externalizing behaviour one year later. Neuroticism at age 3 was consistently linked to internalizing tendencies at age 4 across parents both longitudinally and cumulatively. Father-rated Disagreeableness at age 3 was predictive of externalizing behaviour one year later in both longitudinal and cumulative models, while the contemporaneous information on child Disagreeableness and Neuroticism (reversed at T2, independent of the respective child traits at T1, significantly improved the cumulative predictions of externalizing behaviour from maternal reports. In general, child personality scores derived from maternal data sets were more powerful predictors of children's social behaviour across

  17. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  18. Individuating "Sparks" and "Flickers" of "A Life" in Dance Practices with Preschoolers: The "Monstrous Child" of Colebrook's Queer Vitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz; Palmer, Anna; Gustafsson, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    What are the dominant images of the Child in contemporary Western societies? In order to challenge some dominant images of the Child, this essay explores the possibilities of analyzing an experimental dance practice with preschoolers aged 1-2 years with Claire Colebrook's theorizing on "the war on norms". Colebrook suggests a "Queer…

  19. Individuating "Sparks" and "Flickers" of "A Life" in Dance Practices with Preschoolers: The "Monstrous Child" of Colebrook's Queer Vitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz; Palmer, Anna; Gustafsson, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    What are the dominant images of the Child in contemporary Western societies? In order to challenge some dominant images of the Child, this essay explores the possibilities of analyzing an experimental dance practice with preschoolers aged 1-2 years with Claire Colebrook's theorizing on "the war on norms". Colebrook suggests a "Queer…

  20. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  1. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Schiffer, Linda A; Campbell, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: 'perceived responsibility', 'concern about child's weight', 'restriction', 'pressure to eat', and 'monitoring' and the 6-factor model also tested 'food as a reward'. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from 'restriction' and one low-variance item from 'perceived responsibility' were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that 'food as a reward' is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups.

  3. Parent-Reported Eating and Leisure-Time Activity Selection Patterns Related to Energy Balance in Preschool- and School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children's eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design: Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well visit. Setting: Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants: One hundred…

  4. Child food neophobia is heritable, associated with less compliant eating, and moderates familial resemblance for BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Myles S; Heo, Moonseong; Keller, Kathleen L; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2013-08-01

    The heritability of food neophobia, the tendency to avoid new foods, was tested in 4-7-year-old twins. We also examined whether food neophobia is associated with parent-child feeding relations or child body fat. 66 same-sex twin pairs, including 37 monozygotic (MZ) and 29 dizygotic (DZ) pairs were studied. Food neophobia was assessed by parent questionnaire (Child Food Neophobia Scale, CFNS), as were child-feeding practices and "division of responsibility" feeding relations. Child anthropometry and percent body fat were directly measured. MZ and DZ twin pair correlations for food neophobia were r = 0.71 and r = -0.01, respectively: heritability= 72%. Greater food neophobia was associated with reduced child eating compliance of prompted foods (P foods (P food demands (P = 0.01). Interestingly, the correlation between maternal BMI and child BMI z-score was significant only for children high (P = 0.03), but not low (P = 0.55), in food neophobia. Child food neophobia, a highly heritable trait previously linked to emotionality, was associated with less compliant parent-child feeding relations. Strategies to combat food neophobia and foster more harmonious feeding relationships may have a role in obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.

  6. Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Language Development in the Pre-School Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenskyj, Helen

    This brief overview of child language acquisition begins with a discussion of the affective and cognitive dimensions of the transition period from babbling to speech. Three theories of language acquisition--reinforcement theory, social learning theory, and "innate mechanism" theory--are reviewed. Several theories of the function of language,…

  8. Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: Recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care objective. Abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care Objective. To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among pre-school children in the general

  9. Through the eyes of a child: preschoolers' identification of emotional expressions from the child affective facial expression (CAFE) set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; Baker, Lewis; Thrasher, Cat

    2017-08-10

    Researchers have been interested in the perception of human emotional expressions for decades. Importantly, most empirical work in this domain has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing for various emotional expressions. Recently, the Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set was introduced to the scientific community, featuring a large validated set of photographs of preschool aged children posing for seven different emotional expressions. Although the CAFE set was extensively validated using adult participants, the set was designed for use with children. It is therefore necessary to verify that adult validation applies to child performance. In the current study, we examined 3- to 4-year-olds' identification of a subset of children's faces in the CAFE set, and compared it to adult ratings cited in previous research. Our results demonstrate an exceptionally strong relationship between adult ratings of the CAFE photos and children's ratings, suggesting that the adult validation of the set can be applied to preschool-aged participants. The results are discussed in terms of methodological implications for the use of the CAFE set with children, and theoretical implications for using the set to study the development of emotion perception in early childhood.

  10. Relationships between weight status and child, parent and community characteristics in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Gregory, Parriel; Cliff, Dylan P

    2009-01-01

    To examine, using an Ecological Systems Theoretical framework, relationships between weight status and child, parent and community characteristics and risk factors among preschool children. Cross-sectional data was collected from 140 children and their parents from 11 randomly selected preschools. Outcome variables included: motor development; perceived competence; objectively measured physical activity; time spent in active and quiet play; location and number of televisions; parental rules around physical activity and time spent watching television; availability of sport and physical activity programs; and parks and open spaces and access to footpaths. Overweight children spent more time in quiet play and watching television and less time in active play and physical activity. Perceived competence and motor development were similar for both overweight and non-overweight children. Associations between weight status and several parent and community characteristics were not evident, except for access to footpaths. Overweight children had greater access to footpaths compared with non-overweight children (p=0.046). The results reported here showed little difference between overweight and non-overweight children in relation to a variety of child, parent and community variables. However, for some characteristics, differences in older children have been reported. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm when these characteristics begin to differ, what effects these differences have on behaviour and weight-status, and therefore when targeted treatment should be provided during a child's development.

  11. Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Under Control Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Healthy Food Shopping What Should Preschoolers Drink? Healthy Drinks for Kids ... to Eating Right Learning About Calories Smart Supermarket Shopping Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Quick Guide to ...

  12. Social behaviour in pre-school children: a child-centred follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Vidmar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years, their personality type (resilient, average, willful and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004, 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self-report data sets. The styles differed mainly by authoritative parenting and stimulation, and appeared structurally similar between the spouses. Parental agreement on individual style membership significantly exceeded chance levels, but was relatively low. Therefore further analyses considered maternal parenting style only. The mothers also filled in The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 and the teachers (concurrently and one year later filled in The Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation scales (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Child personality type membership was based on classifications derived in a previous study. Relatively, the personality type exerted the strongest and the most consistent effects on child social behavior in pre-school. Social functioning of the resilient and the willful children was somewhat more efficient in comparison to their counterparts with the average profile, even though the latter showed the most improvement in these domains between ages 3 and 4. With the willful children only, less-than-optimal parenting had an adverse effect on the development of externalizing behavior, while the development of social adjustment was negatively affected by the children's late entry to pre-school.

  13. Combining child social skills training with a parent early intervention program for inhibited preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children.

  15. Eating disorders, pregnancy, and the postpartum period:Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunna J. Watson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and largesample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 eating disorder studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  16. Consequences of child emotional abuse, emotional neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence for eating disorders: a systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Melissa; McTavish, Jill R; Couturier, Jennifer; Boven, Alison; Gill, Sana; Dimitropoulos, Gina; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2017-09-22

    Child maltreatment and eating disorders are significant public health problems. Yet, to date, research has focused on the role of child physical and sexual abuse in eating-related pathology. This is despite the fact that globally, exposure to emotional abuse, emotional neglect and intimate partner violence are the three of the most common forms of child maltreatment. The objective of the present study is to systematically identify and critically review the literature examining the association between child emotional abuse (EA), emotional neglect (EN), and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and adult eating-disordered behavior and eating disorders. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ERIC up to October 2015 to identify original research studies that investigated the association between EA, EN and children's exposure to IPV, with adult eating disorders or eating-disordered behavior using a quantitative research design. Database searches were complemented with forward and backward citation chaining. Studies were critically appraised using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. A total of 5556 publications were screened for this review resulting in twenty-three articles included in the present synthesis. These studies focused predominantly on EA and EN, with a minority examining the role of child exposure to IPV in adult eating-related pathology. Prevalence of EA and EN ranged from 21.0% to 66.0%, respectively. No prevalence information was provided in relation to child exposure to IPV. Samples included predominantly White women. The methodological quality of the available literature is generally low. Currently, the available literature precludes the possibility of determining the extent to which EA, EN or child exposure to IPV have independent explanatory influence in adult eating-related pathology above what has been identified for physical and sexual abuse. While a large proportion

  17. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Hodges, Eric A; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L; Zipkin, Elana C; Bentley, Margaret E; Ward, Dianne S; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders.

  18. Latino Parents' Insight on Optimal Sleep for Their Preschool-Age Child: Does Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Thompson-Lastad, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is a risk factor for pediatric obesity. Latino children are among those groups in which both short sleep duration and obesity are prevalent. Therefore, this study sought to explore Latino parents' views about ideal sleep duration and sleep-related practices for their preschool-age children in an urban setting. Between October 2013 and January 2014, Latino parents of 2- to 5-year-old children were interviewed at 3 pediatric clinics (San Francisco, Calif). Using a semistructured interview guide, parents were asked to describe bedtime routines and sleep practices of their preschool-age children, including behavioral, parental, social, and contextual factors that may affect children's sleep. Interviews were conducted in Spanish and English. Parents also completed a brief survey on demographic information. Interviews were analyzed on the basis of a priori and emergent themes. Latino parents (n = 18) were mostly female, with a mean age of 31 years; most were foreign born; and more than half had a monthly household income of $2000 or less. The following themes emerged: parents' ideas about optimal sleep duration for their preschool-age child, consistent bedtime routines, room sharing and bed sharing, parent work and child school schedules that affect children's sleep, and crowded housing and neighborhood noise that disrupt children's sleep. These findings increase our understanding of the factors related to achieving optimal sleep duration among Latino children living in urban and often crowded housing. Findings could be used to inform future research on how to increase parental knowledge of healthy sleep practices and adequate sleep among Latino parents of young children. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  1. Reliability and validity of the Norwegian translation of the Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Ian; Wisting, Line; Øverås, Maria; Midtsund, Marie; Lask, Bryan

    2011-04-01

    The Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE) is a valid and reliable semi-structured interview, which measures eating-disorder specific psychopathology in children and young adolescents. The instrument is an adaptation of version 12.0D of the original Eating Disorder Examination (EDE 12.0) for adults. The Norwegian translation of the ChEDE is currently the only instrument for assessing eating disorder psychopathology in Norwegian children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translation of the ChEDE 12.0. The Norwegian version of ChEDE 12.0 was administered to 15 Norwegian children with anorexia nervosa (AN), 15 children with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM) and two groups of 15 age-matched controls. The groups were compared using a matched pairs design. The results showed that the subscale scores of the AN group were significantly higher than those of the other groups, and the DM comparison group did not differ from its control group. The current AN group scored significantly higher on the Shape Concern subscale than the previous UK sample, with implications for construct validity or cross-cultural effects worthy of further study. Inter-rater reliability was generally high (r=0.91 to 1.00), although there were significant differences between raters on specific items for individual participants. Alpha coefficients for each of the ChEDE subscales indicated a high degree of internal consistency. It was concluded that the Norwegian version of the ChEDE 12 has adequate psychometric properties and can be recommended for clinical and research use with young people with eating disorders in Norway.

  2. The Age of Entry into High-Quality Preschool, Child and Family Factors, and Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Three blocks of factors were considered as predictors of four year old children's (N = 286) personality, non-verbal intelligence and social behaviour in preschool: (a) personality characteristics at time 1 (T1) when the participants were three years old; (b) parental education and parenting practices measured at T1; and (c) age of child's entry to…

  3. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  4. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  5. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  6. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotion socialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotion socialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotion socialization processes throughout the preschool period.

  7. The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile in Preschool Children: A Broad Dysregulation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, Sanne Barbara; Deutz, Marike Hester Francisca; Deković, Maja; Bunte, Tessa; Schoemaker, Kim; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Prinzie, Peter; van Baar, Anneloes; Matthys, Walter

    2015-07-01

    Children with concurrent impairments in regulating affect, behavior, and cognition can be identified with the Anxious/Depressed, Aggressive Behavior, and Attention Problems scales (or AAA scales) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Jointly, these scales form the Dysregulation Profile (DP). Despite persuasive evidence that DP is a marker for severe developmental problems, no consensus exists on the preferred conceptualization and operationalization of DP in preschool years. We addressed this concern by testing and validating the factor structure of DP in a group of predominantly clinically referred preschool children. Participants were 247 children (195 boys and 52 girls), aged 3.5 to 5.5 years. Children were assessed at baseline and 18 months later, using parent and teacher reports, a clinical interview with parents, behavioral observations, and neuropsychological tasks. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a bifactor model, with a general DP factor and 3 specific factors representing the AAA scales, fitted the data better than a second-order model and a one-factor model for both parent-reported and teacher-reported child problem behavior. Criterion validity analyses showed that the DP factor was concurrently and longitudinally associated with markers of dysregulation and clinically relevant criteria, whereas the specific factors representing the AAA scales were more differentially related to those criteria. DP is best conceptualized as a broad syndrome of dysregulation that exists in addition to the specific syndromes as represented by the AAA scales. Implications for researchers and clinicians are discussed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reach Out and Eat: Food and Beverages Depicted in Books for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jessica L.; Linchey, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.; Patel, Anisha I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine food and beverage depictions in books for preschoolers. Methods Books for preschoolers from Reach Out and Read (ROR; n = 42), public library (n = 27), and Publisher's Weekly booklists (n = 31) were examined for nutritive and empty-calorie food and beverage depictions. Results It was found that 66% of books depicted at least I food or beverage. More books depicted nutritive items than empty-calorie items (87.5% vs 54.7%, P branding. With regard to messaging, approximately a third of books with the most empty-calorie depictions promoted unhealthy foods. Conclusions When selecting books for ROR, it may be important to consider food and beverage depictions and messages. PMID:25715825

  9. Biocultural construction of obesogenic ecologies of childhood: parent-feeding versus child-eating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewis, Alexandra; Gartin, Meredith

    2006-01-01

    Human biologists recognize the centrality of parental feeding beliefs and related practices in structuring children's under-nutrition risk in food-insecure settings. By contrast, how they might similarly structure children's nutrition-related health risks in calorically rich ecologies has barely been considered. Using the case of 3- to 6-year-old children in a rural Southeastern U.S. community with very high obesity rates, we use cognitive methods such as consensus analysis to determine how parental cultural models of child eating and feeding are linked to high calorie, obesogenic child diets. We find that parental models are very consistent with biomedical understandings (reduce fat, reduce sugar, portion control, etc.). Regardless, children's diets are extremely high in calories overall as well as in high sugar and fat food items. We suggest three likely and mutually reinforcing contributing factors to persistent and increasing early childhood overweight and obesity: parents' ambivalence about modeling healthy eating, children's active resistance, and the balance of parents' social against nutritive goals at meal times. The active role of children as social architects of their own biology has been little explored in human biological studies, and should provide novel and important understandings of the biocultural construction of childhood over-nutrition.

  10. Styles of parent-child interactions in families with preschool-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to cultural-historical and activity approaches, collaborative activity with an adult, including communication as a type of meta-activity, is considered to be the necessary mechanism of child development. A child is considered to be an active partner, possessing his/her own motives, and is guided by mental representations of the parent and interactions with him/her. Russian psychologists have developed a range of parenting style classifications; however, these styles primarily emphasize a parent’s position, contrary to methodological perspectives, with inadequate consideration of a child’s own agency. The aims of the current research were to investigate actual goal-oriented interactions between preschoolers and their parents and to outline certain patterns (types of interactions, considering both partners and analyzing interac- tions according to the activity model. A total of 75 parent-child dyads (children aged from 4.6 years to 6.11 years participated in “collaborative activity trials” in which the observational method was based on the activity approach. Cluster analysis (k-means clusterization revealed five different groups of parent-child dyads: conflictual, harmonious, distant and two-fold dominant (with dominant parent or dominant child. Between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in a range of parameters of activity and emotional components of interactions. The harmonious type of interactions is not prevalent, although subgroups with different types of domination are the most common, which may be attributed to cultural peculiarities. Domination-subordination misbalance does not seem to seriously distort the normal developmental trajectory; however, in cases of conflictual and distant dyads, interactional issues might hinder the course of goal-oriented activity, which might serve as a predictor for potential difficulties in further learning.

  11. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for…

  12. Teacher-and child-managed academic activities in preschool and kindergarten and their influence on children's gains in emergent academic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Annika K E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313715726; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool (n = 8) and kindergarten (n = 8) classrooms revealed that

  13. Teacher-and Child-Managed Academic Activities in Preschool and Kindergarten and Their Influence on Children's Gains in Emergent Academic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed in…

  14. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…

  15. Barriers and facilitators for establishing eating habits, "Póngale Vida®" model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Gómez-Alpízar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Preschool Cycle is a period of changes in nutritional status and eating behavior, constituting a fundamental stage for the development of healthy eating habits, where the family plays a major role. Objective: Identify the main barriers and facilitators for healthy eating in preschool age, with the purpose of designing strategies to prevent childhood overweight and obesity. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted under a mixed approach, with a descriptive and transversal type. Sixty parents or caregivers of preschool children who were part of the model during 2014 at the Mariano Cortés School (urban and Canada School (rural, completed the questionnaire and twenty-five participated in the focus groups (one focus group in each school. Results: The barriers that the parents and caregivers faced daily included: food rejection by the child, the influence of peers and even the attitudes of adults who share with the child while eating. The facilitators that encourage healthy eating in this stage of life were: establish clear rules when eating, offer a variety of foods and explain to the child the importance of eating fruits and vegetables in a simple way. Conclusion: The barriers and facilitators to promote healthy eating in this stage of the lifetime, must be include as part of future strategies for the prevention of childhood obesity.

  16. Childhood Anxiety Trajectories and Adolescent Disordered Eating: Findings from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Von Holle, Ann; Watson, Hunna; Gottfredson, Nisha; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present paper was to examine whether childhood anxiety trajectories predict eating psychopathology. We predicted that girls with trajectories of increasing anxiety across childhood would have significantly greater risk of disordered eating in adolescence in comparison to girls with stable or decreasing trajectories of anxiety over childhood. Method Data were collected as part of the prospective longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=450 girls). Childhood anxiety was assessed yearly (54 months through 6th grade) via maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Disordered eating behaviors were assessed at age 15 via adolescent self-report on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). We conducted latent growth mixture modeling to define girls’ childhood anxiety trajectories. Maternal sensitivity, maternal postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and child temperament were included as predictors of trajectory membership. Results The best fitting model included three trajectories of childhood anxiety, the low-decreasing class (22.9% of girls), the high-increasing class (35.4%), and the high-decreasing class (41.6%). Mothers with more symptoms of depression and separation anxiety had girls who were significantly more likely to belong to the high-increasing anxiety trajectory. There were no significant differences in adolescent disordered eating for girls across the three childhood anxiety trajectories. Conclusions Childhood anxiety, as captured by maternal report, may not be the most robust predictor of adolescent disordered eating and may be of limited utility for prevention programs that aim to identify children in the community at greatest risk for disordered eating. PMID:24938214

  17. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes...

  18. 学龄前儿童饮食行为量表的编制与评价%Development and Evaluation of Preschooler's Eating Behaviour Scale.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨显君; 江逊; 张玉海; 孙丽君; 王长军; 尚磊

    2012-01-01

    [目的]编制学龄前儿童饮食行为评价量表,为我国儿童饮食行为评价和相关研究提供基本工具.[方法]广泛查阅国内、外有关文献形成152问题的条目库,结合5名儿科临床和25名儿童家长意见,经2次测试和分析后形成“学龄前儿童饮食行为试用问卷”.通过对325名学龄前儿童的调查,采用因子分析和条目分析方法对试用问卷的条目进行了筛选,最终形成了包括56个条目的学龄前儿童饮食行为评价量表.在西安市5所幼儿园随机抽取603名3~6岁儿童家长进行调查,采用因子分析、相关分析等对量表的信度、效度、反应度进行检验.[结果]量表由56个条目组成,包括不良进食习惯、偏食、食物喜好、情绪性进食、过饱响应、食物响应、外因性进食、主动进食8个维度,累计方差贡献率达50.9%;验证性因子分析各指标均达到统计学要求.量表Cronbach's α系数为0.92,分半信度系数为0.86,重测信度系数为0.72.不良进食习惯、挑食、情绪性进食、过饱响应和食物响应5个维度得分在不同体重组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);不良进食习惯、挑食、食物喜好、外因性进食4个维度得分在不同文化程度家长间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]学龄前儿童饮食行为量表具有良好信度和效度,8个维度能较为全面地反映学龄前儿童饮食行为特点.%[Objective] To develop a Preschooler's Eating Behaviour Scale, which is used to assess Chinese children's eating behaviour and do some other related research. [Methods] Preliminary questionnaire of preschooler's eating behaviour derived based on the existing literature on eating behaviour in children,and recommendation of some children's parents, pediatrician,and was tested and analyzed repeated. The number of items was successively culled through analysis of responses from 325 parents of 3 - 6 years children in Xi'an. Factor analysis

  19. Feasibility and Acceptability of Adapting the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Assessment for Preschoolers in the Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-12-01

    Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) represents a failure to self-regulate intake leading to overconsumption. Existing research on EAH has come from the clinical setting, limiting our understanding of this behavior. The purpose of this study was to describe the adaptation of the clinical EAH paradigm for preschoolers to the classroom setting and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of measuring EAH in the classroom. The adapted protocol was implemented in childcare centers in Houston, Texas (N=4) and Phoenix, Arizona (N=2). The protocol was feasible, economical, and time efficient, eliminating previously identified barriers to administering the EAH assessment such as limited resources and the time constraint of delivering the assessment to participants individually. Implementation challenges included difficulty in choosing palatable test snacks that were in compliance with childcare center food regulations and the limited control over the meal that was administered prior to the assessment. The adapted protocol will allow for broader use of the EAH assessment and encourage researchers to incorporate the assessment into longitudinal studies in order to further our understanding of the causes and emergence of EAH. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. More than teacher directed or child initiated: Preschool curriculum type, parent involvement, and children's outcomes in the child-parent centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20 Child-Parent Centers in 1983-1985 and kindergarten in 1985-1986. We found that implementation of an instructional approach rated high by Head Teachers in teacher-directed and child-initiated activities was most consistently associated with children’s outcomes, including school readiness at kindergarten entry, reading achievement in third and eighth grades, and avoidance of grade retention. Parent involvement in school activities, as rated by teachers and by parents, was independently associated with child outcomes from school readiness at kindergarten entry to eighth grade reading achievement and grade retention above and beyond the influence of curriculum approach. Findings indicate that instructional approaches that blend a teacher-directed focus with child-initiated activities and parental school involvement are origins of the long-term effects of participation in the Child-Parent Centers.

  1. Parent and child perspectives on family out-of-home eating: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffin, Lynn E; Price, Ruth K; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Hall, Glenn; Lobo, Alan; Wallace, Julie M W; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    To (i) explore the factors influencing family out-of-home (OH) eating events and (ii) identify possible opportunities for food businesses to support families in making healthier OH choices. Focus group discussions were conducted with parents (six to eight participants per group) and friendship pair discussions (informal interviews with two children who are friends) were conducted with children (5-12 years) throughout the island of Ireland. Both discussions were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic content analysis. Eight focus groups and sixteen friendship pairs were conducted in Northern Ireland and sixteen focus groups and thirty-two friendship pairs were conducted in the Republic of Ireland. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a sample of non-related parents and children that represented equal numbers of gender, age, socio-economic status and demographic backgrounds. The main, overarching theme was that families perceived OH eating to be a treat, while health was not currently a key priority for many parents and children. Children were reported to have most responsibility for their own food choice decisions in this environment, with taste and food neophobia having the greatest influences. Parents believed that if food businesses could meet parent and child priorities in addition to health influences, e.g. change cooking methods, and increase flexibility, then families would be more likely to patronise these establishments. The entire family OH eating experience needs to be considered when developing public health interventions and this research has highlighted key opportunities that caterers could employ to support healthier family OH food choices.

  2. Picky eating in preschool children: Associations with dietary fibre intakes and stool hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Northstone, Kate; Wernimont, Susan M; Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-05-01

    It has been suggested that constipation may be associated with picky eating. Constipation is a common condition in childhood and a low intake of dietary fibre may be a risk factor. Differences in fibre intake between picky and non-picky children and its relation to stool consistency is currently not well-understood. Children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children identified as picky eaters (PE) were compared with non-picky eaters (NPE): (1) to determine dietary fibre intake at 38 months; (2) to investigate whether any difference in dietary fibre intake was predictive of usual stool hardness at 42 months. PE was identified from questionnaires at 24 and 38 months. Usual stool hardness was identified from a questionnaire at 42 months. Dietary intake was assessed at 38 months with a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fibre intake was lower in PE than NPE (mean difference -1.4 (95% CI -1.6, -1.2) g/day, p hard stools (adjusted multinomial model; OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07, 1.61; p = 0.010). This was attenuated when dietary fibre was included in the model, suggesting that fibre intake mediated the association (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94, 1.43, p = 0.180). Picky eating in 3-year-old children was associated with an increased prevalence of usually having hard stools. This association was mediated by low dietary fibre intake, particularly from vegetables, in PE. For children with PE, dietary advice aimed at increasing fibre intake may help avoid hard stools.

  3. Preschool Science Environment: What Is Available in a Preschool Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tsunghui

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated preschool science environments in 20 preschool classrooms (N=20) in 13 midwestern child care centers. By operationalizing Neuman's concept of "sciencing," this study used The Preschool Classroom Science Materials/Equipment Checklist, the Preschool Classroom Science Activities Checklist, and the Preschool Teacher…

  4. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  5. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  6. Child Effortful Control as a Mediator of Parenting Practices on Externalizing Behavior: Evidence for a Sex-Differentiated Pathway across the Transition from Preschool to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.

    2011-01-01

    An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…

  7. Maternal stress and family quality of life in response to raising a child with autism: from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Rebecca L; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-11-01

    While the impact of raising a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is well documented, with mothers reporting higher levels of stress than mothers of children with other disabilities, positive maternal outcomes have also been identified. What remains unclear, however, is the role of child age on maternal outcomes. We sought to clarify the role of child age in maternal stress and family quality of life (FQoL) in mothers raising a child with ASD. Participants included 140 mothers of children aged 3-16 years grouped to represent four key stages of childhood (preschool, early school years, middle school, early high school). Using a cross-sectional design, mothers completed questionnaires assessing potential risk (e.g., child problem behaviour, symptom severity) and protective (e.g., family characteristics) factors attributed to maternal outcomes. The results revealed significant age related group differences in child internalising behaviour and ASD symptomatology between the early and middle school years. Lower levels of adaptive social behaviour in older age groups were also found. Although mothers of older children reported significantly less support from professionals than mothers of younger children, no significant age effects were found to contribute to maternal reports of stress or FQoL. The current findings support the view that mothers appear to demonstrate stable levels of stress and FQoL despite fluctuations in key child variables and a reduction in supports, across age, highlighting the ongoing nature of maternal needs and heightened levels of child symptomatology during adolescence.

  8. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamse Mariëlle E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI, obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5% dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59. Results The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively, which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an

  9. Preschool and School Phases of Postmaxillectomy Prosthetic Rehabilitation in a Child: A Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashti, Mahmoud E; Sumita, Yuka I; Aswehlee, Amel M; Haraguchi, Mihoko; Otomaru, Takafumi; Hattori, Mariko; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2016-10-03

    This report describes the postmaxillectomy prosthetic rehabilitation of a child with maxillary chondrosarcoma over an 8-year period. Specifically, it (1) describes the planning and rehabilitation procedures carried out during the period from before the operation to the time when the patient started elementary school and (2) reports the results of evaluations of the patient's oral and psychosocial function conducted during the school phase. The prosthetic treatment plan was separated into two phases (the preschool and school phases) and was started prior to surgery, when an immediate surgical obturator was designed by the surgeons. After the operation, it was considered important to provide the patient and her mother with training regarding how the defect should be cleaned, trismus prevention, and how the prosthesis should be fitted. In addition, esthetic improvements and the ability to speak clearly were also targeted during treatment planning. After surgery, obturators were fabricated in a conventional manner and fitted at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years. The patient's oral function during the use of the obturators was evaluated objectively. Marked improvements in oral function were seen during both treatment phases. The patient's ability to perform psychosocial functions at school also improved during the use of the obturators. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Relations of mother's sense of coherence and childrearing style with child's social skills in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki; Shizawa, Miho

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationships between mothers' sense of coherence (SOC) and their child's social skills development among preschool children, and how this relationship is mediated by mother's childrearing style. Mothers of 1341 Japanese children, aged 4-5 years, completed a self-report questionnaire on their SOC and childrearing style. The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the social skills scale (SSS), which comprises three factors: cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Path analyses revealed that the mother's childrearing mediated the positive relationship between mother's SOC and the cooperation, self-control, and assertiveness aspects of children's social skills. Additionally, there was a significant direct path from mother's SOC to the self-control component of social skills. These findings suggest that mother's SOC may directly as well as indirectly influence children's social skills development through the mediating effect of childrearing. The results offer preliminary evidence that focusing on support to improve mothers' SOC may be an efficient and effective strategy for improving children's social skills development.

  11. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ, and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Factor analysis of the 63 items reliably recovered a four-component solution in both, maternal and paternal self-reports indicating the following broad-band parenting practices: Authoritative Parenting, Ineffective Control, Power Assertion, and Stimulation. Variables loading high on more than one component and those that did not load on the same factor obtained from maternal and paternal data were excluded from further analyses. The 51 items that were retained and corresponded to the four factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency for both samples of respondents. In addition, parental stimulation was positively linked to authoritative parenting, while it was negatively related to ineffective control and power assertion. The mothers perceived themselves to be more authoritative and stimulative than did fathers, who described themselves as more power assertive and ineffective in control. The parent-pairs were also found to share, at least to some extent, similar parenting practices, whereas their self-perceived expression of these practices was not dependent on their child's gender.

  12. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong; Cheng, Halina; Leung,Patrick W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically derived taxonomy of preschool psychopathology. However, the utility of the measures and their taxonomy of preschool psychopathology to the Chinese is lar...

  13. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  14. Parental child abuse potential and subsequent coping competence in disadvantaged preschool children: moderating effects of sex and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Cristina M; Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E; de Arellano, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of abuse potential in parents on subsequent coping competence domains in their children, using a model empirically supported in a high-risk community sample by Moreland and Dumas (2007). Data from an ethnically diverse sample of 579 parents enrolled in the PACE (Parenting Our Children to Excellence) program was used to evaluate whether parental child abuse potential assessed at pre-intervention negatively contributed to child affective, achievement, and social coping competence in preschoolers one year later, and whether these associations were moderated by sex or ethnicity. Cross-sectional results indicated that parental child abuse potential was negatively related to child affective and achievement coping competence, after accounting for variance associated with child behavior problems. However, child abuse potential was not predictive of subsequent coping competence in any domain after controlling for previous levels of child coping competence. No moderating effects were found for sex and ethnicity, but results showed main effects of sex and ethnicity in cross-sectional analyses. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental impacts of a teacher professional development program in Chile on preschool classroom quality and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-03-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found moderate to large positive impacts on observed emotional and instructional support as well as classroom organization in prekindergarten classrooms after 1 year of the program. After 2 years of the program, moderate positive impacts were observed on emotional support and classroom organization. No significant program impacts on child outcomes were detected at posttest (1 marginal effect, an increase in a composite of self-regulation and low problem behaviors, was observed). Professional development for preschool teachers in Chile can improve classroom quality. More intensive curricular approaches are needed for these improvements to translate into effects on children.

  16. The Attitude of Parents to Pre-School Inclusive Education for Normal Children and a Child with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Gubina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of the researchis pre-school inclusive education, this kind of organization of the learning process, in which all children are included in a single system of education and training in educational institutions of General type, regardless of mental, physical and other characteristics, where they receive the necessary support and takes into account their special educational needs (children with Down syndrome. The main source of empirical data quantitative and qualitative methods of the survey of parents and teachers in inclusive groups of kindergartens of Moscow, conducted by the authors in April 2016. The subject of research is the attitude of parents of normal children to preschool inclusive education a child with Down syndrome based on their socio-demographic characteristics, level of education and awareness in the field of inclusion.

  17. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, K; Waters, E; Green, J; Salmon, L; Williams, J

    2005-03-01

    Preventative health strategies incorporating the views of target participants have improved the likelihood of success. This qualitative study aimed to elicit child and parent views regarding social and environmental barriers to healthy eating, physical activity and child obesity prevention programmes, acceptable foci, and appropriate modes of delivery. To obtain views across a range of social circumstances three demographically diverse primary schools in Victoria, Australia were selected. Children in Grades 2 (aged 7-8 years) and 5 (aged 10-11 years) participated in focus groups of three to six children. Groups were semi-structured using photo-based activities to initiate discussion. Focus groups with established parent groups were also conducted. Comments were recorded, collated, and themes extracted using grounded theory. 119 children and 17 parents participated. Nine themes emerged: information and awareness, contradiction between knowledge and behaviour, lifestyle balance, local environment, barriers to a healthy lifestyle, contradictory messages, myths, roles of the school and family, and timing and content of prevention strategies for childhood obesity. In conclusion, awareness of food 'healthiness' was high however perceptions of the 'healthiness' of some sedentary activities that are otherwise of benefit (e.g. reading) were uncertain. The contradictions in messages children receive were reported to be a barrier to a healthy lifestyle. Parent recommendations regarding the timing and content of childhood obesity prevention strategies were consistent with quantitative research. Contradictions in the explicit and implicit messages children receive around diet and physical activity need to be prevented. Consistent promotion of healthy food and activity choices across settings is core to population prevention programmes for childhood obesity.

  18. Interacting with the Child in Preschool: A Crossroad in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    How can preschool teachers approach multiplicity and complexity in the preschool? The aim of this article is to discuss two approaches to education, one based on design and the other on open reflection, and to propose "situational sensitivity" as a concept connected within the latter approach. Special attention is paid to the ethical…

  19. Links between Preschoolers' Behavioral Regulation and School Readiness Skills: The Role of Child Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Hee; Lee, Kangyi; Sung, Miyoung

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined relations among preschoolers' behavioral regulation, gender, and school readiness outcomes in preacademic and classroom skills using a sample of South Korean preschoolers aged 3-5 ("N" = 229). Behavioral regulation was assessed using a direct measure, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which requires…

  20. The neuromotor examination of the preschool child and its prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reviews the methods available for neurological or neuromotor evaluation at preschool age. General textbooks on pediatric neurology describe the neurological examination at preschool age in terms of the assessment of the evaluation of cranial nerves, muscle tone, muscle power, refle

  1. The neuromotor examination of the preschool child and its prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reviews the methods available for neurological or neuromotor evaluation at preschool age. General textbooks on pediatric neurology describe the neurological examination at preschool age in terms of the assessment of the evaluation of cranial nerves, muscle tone, muscle power, refle

  2. Confident body, confident child: A randomized controlled trial evaluation of a parenting resource for promoting healthy body image and eating patterns in 2- to 6-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-05-01

    Body image and eating patterns develop in early childhood and are influenced by the family environment. This research evaluated Confident Body, Confident Child (CBCC), an intervention for parents of 2- to 6-year-old children, designed to promote body satisfaction, healthy eating, and weight management in early childhood. A randomized controlled trial compared four groups: (A) received the CBCC resource pack and a workshop, (B) received the CBCC resource pack only, (C) received a nutrition-only resource and (D) received no interventions until all questionnaires were completed (i.e., functioned as waitlist control). Measures of parenting variables relevant to child body image and eating patterns, parent-report of child weight, and evaluation questions about the resource, were implemented pre- and post-intervention. At 6-weeks post-intervention, the CBCC resource was associated with significant reductions in parents' intentions to use behaviors that increase the risk of negative body attitudes or unhealthy eating in their children, in parents' use of feeding practices associated with childhood overweight, and in television watching during family meals. Significant increases in parents' intentions to use positive behaviors and knowledge of child body image and healthy eating patterns were also found. Superior results were found for the CBCC resource + workshop condition, suggesting it is the preferred delivery method. CBCC positively impacts parenting variables associated with childhood risk for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy eating and weight. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:458-472). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The stories of adoptive gay parents about acceptance and discrimination in the pre-school of their child or children

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. Gay adoption in South Africa is a most recent equal right bestowed on the Gay Lesbian Bisexual and Transgender (GLBT) community. To date little research has been done in South Africa and globally on this phenomenon, and even less in relation to the schools children from gay headed families attend. The purpose of the inquiry was to explore the stories of adoptive gay parents about acceptance and discrimination in the pre-school of their child or children. The inquiry draws on Queer Th...

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2008-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity in preschool children has increased dramatically in recent years. The preschool years (age 3-6 years) have been regarded as critical for the programming of energy balance, via the concept of early 'adiposity rebound'. Children who undergo early adiposity rebound are at increased risk of later obesity. Recent evidence suggests that associations between timing of adiposity rebound and later obesity may not reflect programming, but might denote that 'obesogenic' growth trajectories are often established by the preschool period. Studies of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children show that levels of physical activity are typically low and sedentary behaviour high. The review of evidence presented here is supportive of the hypothesis that physical activity is protective against obesity in the preschool period, and that sedentary behaviour, particularly television viewing, is obesogenic. Definitive evidence on dose-response relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity remain unclear. Dose-response evidence could be obtained fairly readily by intervention and longitudinal observational studies that use accelerometry in preschool children. The generalisability of much of the evidence base is limited and there is a need for research on the influence of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the preschool years in the aetiology of obesity in the developing world.

  5. Conflict Competence of Preschool Children and its Relationship with the Sociometric Status of the Child in the Peer Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisenkova N.S.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the conflict competence of children of preschool age and identification of its relationship with the child's sociometric status in the peer group. The hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the sociometric status of preschoolers in the peer group and the strategy of their behavior in a conflict situation, a conflict of competence. The study involved children (41 children: 22 boys and 19 girls aged 5-7 years, attending preparatory groups in kindergartens in Moscow (in 2011-2013. The study was conducted using an experimental technique "Desk of cooperation" (M. Madsen, aimed at the study of conflict competence, the sociometric technique "Two Houses" (modification by R.I. Govorova, and a survey of educators aimed at identifying the status position in the preschool group peers. According to the survey, we can say that there are qualitative differences in the strategies of behavior in the conflict that children with different sociometric status choose.

  6. Development and preliminary evaluation of the Child Feeding Guide website and app: A tool to support caregivers with promoting healthy eating in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Haycraft

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fussy eating in young children is very common, with at least 50% of parents reporting having a fussy child. Eating behaviours established early in life tend to remain throughout childhood and into adulthood, so ensuring that children develop healthy eating behaviours from their earliest years is vital. Fussy children often refuse to eat healthy foods, like fruit and vegetables, but favour high-calorie foods instead. Diets low in fruit and vegetables have been linked to a number of preventable health conditions, such as diabetes and cancers, as well as to overweight and obesity. Fussy child eating behaviours can also cause anxiety and stress in caregivers, which can perpetuate the problem. Despite an abundance of available support for introducing complementary foods, practical advice about child feeding once weaning has occurred is lacking. Moreover, caregivers find available resources about feeding young children and promoting healthy eating to be “too basic” and have called for evidence-based, credible resources to help them manage children’s difficult or fussy eating behaviours. Empowering caregivers to effectively manage fussy eating behaviours and improve health in their children will likely prevent these eating behaviours from becoming engrained and reduce the number of children eating unhealthy or limited diets. Aim: To address the lack of child feeding support for caregivers by developing an evidence-based, credible and accessible support resource to promote healthy eating habits in young children and healthy feeding practices in caregivers. Method: Following a review of the literature and consultation with caregivers, the Child Feeding Guide was developed. The Child Feeding Guide is a website and free mobile app which offers information, advice and tools to help caregivers manage fussy eating behaviours. An online format was used to ensure the Child Feeding Guide is accessible and that a diverse range of caregivers can

  7. One Year of Preschool or Two - Is It Important for Adult Outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Humpage, Sarah; Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A

    2014-05-01

    Until the last year, public funding for preschool education had been growing rapidly over a decade with most state programs providing one year of preschool for four year olds. Fewer three year olds are enrolled in preschool. To investigate the importance of enrollment duration, this study is the first to estimate long-term dosage effects of years of preschool. We use data from a cohort of 1,500 students in the Chicago Longitudinal Study who enrolled in the Chicago Public Schools in the mid-1980s. Many of these students participated in a high-quality preschool program called Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for one or two years. To address selection with multiple treatments, we employ inverse propensity score weighting. Relative to children who attended one year of CPC preschool, the two-year group is significantly less likely to receive special education or be abused or neglected or to commit crimes. The findings provide support for the long-term benefits of greater exposure to preschool.

  8. Childhood overweight and obesity among Kenyan pre-school children: association with maternal and early child nutritional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A

    2010-04-01

    To report on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in Kenya and examine the associations between childhood overweight and selected maternal and child-related factors. Demographic Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1495 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years in Kenya. Over 30 % of the children were stunted, approximately 16 % were underweight, 4 % were wasted, approximately 18 % were overweight and 4 % were obese; 8 % were both overweight/obese and stunted. Maternal overweight and obesity, higher levels of maternal education, being a large or very large child at birth, and being stunted were each associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. Older children and large household size were each associated with lower odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. The analysis demonstrates the presence of under- and overnutrition among Kenyan pre-school children and the importance of focusing on expanding efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition within this population. It also identifies some of the modifiable factors that can be targeted in these efforts.

  9. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  10. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life.

  11. La preparacion del maestro y la interaccion entre maestro y nino en programas preescolares (Teacher Preparation and Teacher-Child Interaction in Preschools). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Susan; Wilcox-Herzog, Amanda

    It is generally agreed that because so much basic early learning occurs through interactive experiences when children are very young, the quality of teacher-child interactions contributes substantially to effects of group care and preschool education on children. Thus it is important to know if specialized teacher education in early childhood…

  12. INVESTIGATION OF DIETARY INTAKE AND BODY WEIGHT DURING EATING OUTSIDE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN%学龄前儿童在外就餐摄食量与体重的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓明; 段卫华; 杨贵芬; 关玲; 李春玲; 刘英华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the correlation between dietary intake of eating- out and the incidence of overweight and obesity in preschool child.MethodCluster randomly sampling method was applied in preschool children aged 3 to 6 in Beijing public kindergarten. Follow-up of investigation for four months in preschool children eating-out was carried out. The energy and protein, fat, carbohydrate of intake were calculated. The correlation between energy intake and incidence of overweight and obesity was analyzed.Results Energy of dietary intake of one meal eating-out is lower than RNI, (53.36±12.68)% and (64.81±16.28) of RNI for boys and girls respectively. There is a negative correlation between the intake of dietary grain, vegetables, protein and BMI, a positive correlation between the intake of fat, energy from of fat and carbohydrate and BMI.For boys significant correlation between BMI and the intake of dietary grain, energy from of fat, carbohydrate for 3-4 years old and significant correlation between BMI and the intake of dietary grain, vegetables for 5-6 years old and for 6-7 years old (P< 0.05). while for girls,there is significant correlation between BMI and the intake of dietary fat for 3-4 years old, the intake of dietary fat and energy from fat for 4-5 years old, the intake of dietary meat, egg, fat and the ratio of fat, carbohydrate for 5-6 years old, the energy from fat and carbohydrate for 6-7 years old (P< 0.05) . ConclusionThe intake of eating-out is closely related to the incidence of overweight and obesity for the preschool children.Therefore, it is very imporatant to implement scientific dietary guidance in preschool children for their normal growth and development.%目的了解学龄前儿童在外就餐摄食量与体重的关系。方法整群随机抽样调查选取北京市公立一级一类全日制幼儿园3~6岁儿童1550名,采用封闭式问卷调查的形式,追踪调查4个月在外就餐情况,计算在外就餐能

  13. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  14. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Lee Jones

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs, and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥ 7 hours/night and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score. The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥ 10 hours/night, family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤ 2 hours/day of TV, video, DVD, and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  15. Parental perception of child weight in the first two years-of-life: a potential link between infant feeding and preschoolers' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaad, Salma M A; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 23% of preschoolers are overweight or obese. Establishing a healthy dietary lifestyle at an early age can improve later child diet and body weight. This study examined the determinants of past infant feeding practices that do not follow standard feeding recommendations (breastfeeding for less than 6 months duration, cow's milk prior to the first year of age and solid foods at or before 4 months of age). It also examined the role of parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life on past infant feeding practices as well as current child diet and body weight. Families of 497 preschoolers aged 22-63 months (39.0 ± 8.2) were recruited from 30 child care centers in East-Central Illinois. Main findings indicate that past infant feeding practices were common and varied by socio-demographic factors including race/ethnicity, parental education and child gender. Children perceived as overweight in the first 2 years-of-life tended to breastfeed for lesser duration. Additionally, the majority (79.8%) of preschoolers who were classified as overweight using BMI percentile were perceived as non-overweight by the parent in the first 2 years-of-life. Mean daily total fatty/sugary food intake was higher among those perceived to be non-overweight in the first 2 years-of-life. These findings have identified parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life as a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy child diet and obesity among preschoolers.

  16. Reliability of Questionnaires to Assess the Healthy Eating and Activity Environment of a Child's Home and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarey, Anthea; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data from both questionnaires were classified into outcomes relevant to healthy eating and activity, and target outcomes, based on the goals of the ewba Community Programs, were identified. Fourteen and 12 outcomes were developed from the parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Sixty parents and 28 teachers participated in the reliability study. Intraclass correlation coefficients for outcomes ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 (parent) (P questionnaire. The parent and teacher questionnaires are moderately reliable tools for simultaneously assessing child intakes, environments, attitudes, and knowledge associated with healthy eating and physical activity in the home and school and may be useful for evaluation of similar programs. PMID:23936636

  17. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  18. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  19. Preschoolers' Social Interest toward a Child with ASD and Their Theory of Mind Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai-Mashiach, Mati; Ziv, Margalit; Dromi, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities of typically developing preschoolers in three age groups: three- to four-, four- to five- and five- to six-years-old (n = 110), who differed in their spontaneous social interest toward included children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social interest was assessed by administering a…

  20. The Relationship of Parenting Stress and Child Temperament to Language Development among Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah

    2008-01-01

    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to…

  1. Independence and Interplay between Maternal and Child Risk Factors for Preschool Problem Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the independence and interplay between cognitive risk factors (poor executive function/emotion understanding) and maternal risk factors (low education/high depression) for preschool problem behaviors, indexed by multi-measure, multi-informant (mother/teacher/ researcher) ratings. A socio-economically diverse sample of 235…

  2. Age, Sex, Intelligence and Parents' Occupation and the Moral Development of the Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    1984-01-01

    Results indicate that preschool children are capable of making moral judgments in both apology-restitution and guilt-innocence test contexts. Age and sex are significantly related to both moral judgment measures, while intelligence and parent occupation are unrelated to both measures. (Author/RH)

  3. Relations among Home Literacy Environment, Child Characteristics and Print Knowledge for Preschool Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…

  4. Feasibility and Benefit of Parent Participation in a Program Emphasizing Preschool Child Language Development while Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the feasibility of homeless parents' participation in an intervention to increase use of facilitating language strategies during interactions with their preschool children while residing in family homeless shelters. This study also examined the intervention's impact on the parents' use of facilitating…

  5. The Relationship of Parenting Stress and Child Temperament to Language Development among Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah

    2008-01-01

    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to…

  6. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  7. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Cheng, Halina; Leung, Patrick W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically…

  8. Family Therapy for Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Tom; Blessitt, Esther; Stewart, Catherine; Simic, Mima; Eisler, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Eating disorder-focused family therapy has emerged as the strongest evidence-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa, supported by evidence from nine RCTs, and there is increasing evidence of its efficacy in treating adolescent bulimia nervosa (three RCTs). There is also emerging evidence for the efficacy of multifamily therapy formats of this treatment, with a recent RCT demonstrating the benefits of this approach in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa. In this article, we critically review the evidence for eating disorder-focused family therapy through the lens of a moderate common factors paradigm. From this perspective, this treatment is likely to be effective as it provides a supportive and nonblaming context that: one, creates a safe, predictable environment that helps to contain anxiety generated by the eating disorder; two, promotes specific change early on in treatment in eating disorder-related behaviors; and three, provides a vehicle for the mobilization of common factors such as hope and expectancy reinforced by the eating disorder expertise of the multidisciplinary team. In order to improve outcomes for young people, there is a need to develop an improved understanding of the moderators and mediators involved in this treatment approach. Such an understanding could lead to the refining of the therapy, and inform adaptations for those families who do not currently benefit from treatment. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  9. Association Between Maternal Stress, Work Status, Concern About Child Weight, and Restrictive Feeding Practices in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyden, Katheryn; Sisson, Susan B; Morris, Amanda S; Lora, Karina; Weedn, Ashley E; Copeland, Kristen A; DeGrace, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home. Results Mothers were 32.6 ± 5.2 years of age and spent 39.7 ± 12.0 h/week at work. Seventy-one percent worked full time. Children were 3.4 ± 1.0 years of age and 51% male. Stress (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.001) and concern about child weight (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.00) were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Mothers with severe/extremely severe stress used restriction more than mothers with normal stress, respectively (3.63 ± 0.80, 3.30 ± 0.81, p = 0.03). No difference was found among mothers with mild/moderate stress (3.50 ± 0.63, p = 0.06). There was no association between work hours (p = 0.50) or work status (p = 0.91) and the use of restrictive feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal stress and concern about child weight were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Considering the current rates of childhood obesity in the United States, understanding factors that influence a child's food environment is advantageous and can help improve maternal and child health.

  10. Detecting symptoms, early intervention, and preventative education: eating disorders & the school-age child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Margaret

    2013-05-01

    The health of America's youth is a national priority. With obesity increasing dramatically in adolescents and young children, school lunches have experienced makeovers, and "dieting" and "weight loss" messages have permeated parental concern. Eating disorders among our youth, however, have largely been overlooked despite evidence of its steady increase over the past few decades among younger and younger children. The school nurse can become a resource for parents, students, and teachers in regard to eating disorders and serve in a leadership role advocating for students to live healthy, meaningful lives.

  11. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Halina

    2010-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically derived taxonomy of preschool psychopathology. However, the utility of the measures and their taxonomy of preschool psychopathology to the Chinese is largely unknown and has not been studied. The present study aimed at testing the cross-cultural factorial validity of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF, as well as the applicability of the taxonomy of preschool psychopathology they embody, to Mainland Chinese preschoolers. Country effects between our Chinese sample and the original U.S. sample, gender differences, and cross-informant agreement between teachers and parents were also to be examined. A Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF was completed by parents and teachers respectively on 876 preschoolers in Mainland China. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the original, U.S.-derived second order, multi-factor model best fit the Chinese preschool data of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. Rates of total behavior problems in Chinese preschoolers were largely similar to those in American preschoolers. Specifically, Chinese preschoolers scored higher on internalizing problems while American preschoolers scored higher on externalizing problems. Chinese preschool boys had significantly higher rates of externalizing problems than Chinese preschool girls. Cross-informant agreement between Chinese teachers and parents was relatively low compared to agreement in the original U.S. sample. Results support the generalizability of the taxonomic structure of preschool psychopathology derived in the U.S. to the Chinese, as well as the applicability of the Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. PMID:20821258

  12. Acculturation, weight status, and eating habits among Chinese-American preschool children and their primary caregivers: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated acculturation, eating habits, and weight status among 53 Chinese-American children and their primary caregivers. Caregivers’ mean acculturation score was 2.1, indicating low acculturation. Caregivers’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.3; 21% were overweight (BMI is greater ...

  13. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Jordan M.; Galloway, Amy T.; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M.; Farrow, Claire V.

    2016-01-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. W...

  14. Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

  15. Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

  16. The Parent-Child Relationship as Predictor of Eating Pathology and Weight Gain in Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim; Decaluwe, Veerle; Bosmans, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attachment toward mother and father as a predictor of eating pathology and weight gain among preadolescent boys and girls. Self-report questionnaires and adjusted body mass index (BMI) were administered from a community sample of 601 preadolescents (8-11 years; 48% female) at baseline and once again 1 year…

  17. Policy at play: The implementation of Healthy Eating and Active Living Guidelines in municipal child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Kelly; Nigro, Sherry

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, Ottawa Public Health (OPH) partnered with the City of Ottawa Municipal Child Care (MCC) Services to develop Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) Guidelines. The Guidelines aim to promote consistent standards of practice in child care settings related to healthy environments and food, physical activity, physical literacy, decreased sedentary behaviours, and positive role modeling by staff. The Guidelines targeted 498 children aged 18 months to 5 years, attending MCC centres. Resources and training were provided to 10 supervisors, 63 child care educators and 9 cooks. Components of the Guidelines were piloted in 5 MCC sites prior to being launched in 10 MCC sites across Ottawa, Ontario. Two project Advisory Groups supported the development of the Guidelines. Staff training, resources, recipes and menus were provided. An evaluation was conducted and has informed the Guidelines' subsequent community implementation. In 2015, accompanying web-based resources and e-modules were developed. The evaluation demonstrated environmental and programming changes. Parent satisfaction was high and preliminary findings showed no real changes in food costs. Following implementation, the cooks reported high compliance to the 6-week menu plans provided, and the number of sites offering 120 minutes or more of daily physical activity increased. Through novel intersectoral partnerships, OPH was able to implement and evaluate HEAL Guidelines in tandem. The interdisciplinary project Advisory Groups, training of cooks, and engagement of the Ontario Coaches Association were all innovative elements of this project and may influence future public health activity in this area.

  18. The Legal Regulations of the Preschool Teachers Child Abuse Behavior%我国幼儿教师虐待儿童行为的法律干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美锟

    2012-01-01

    幼儿教师以暴力、体罚、冷漠和忽视等方式对幼儿进行虐待的现象已经引起了社会的广泛重视。幼儿阶段的身心发展非常重要,幼儿教师残忍的虐待行为不仅会伤害到幼儿的身体健康,更加会影响幼儿的心理发展,给童年记忆造成了无法磨灭的阴影,影响深远。针对幼儿教师的虐待行为,《教师法》、《刑法》、《行政处罚法》都存在可以干预的方式,建立幼儿教师准入机制,增设"虐待儿童罪",设立监管幼儿教师教学行为的专门机构等,都是约束幼儿教师虐待行为的可行手段。%Preschool teachers use the violence,corporal punishment,indifference and neglect for child abuse has such as the phenomenon has aroused widely attention of society.Preschool teachers cruel abusive behavior will not only harm children's health,but also will affect children's psychological development.According to preschool teacher's abusive behavior,the "Pedagogic law","Criminal law","The law on administrative punishments",establish the way can intervention preschool teachers access system,set up the "child abuse sin" and set up supervision of preschool teachers' teaching behaviors,are the abusive behavior of preschool teachers constraints viable method.

  19. Supervisors' perceptions of productivity of employees with preschool children in workplace on-site child care

    OpenAIRE

    Marickovich, Patricia Pesut

    1989-01-01

    Corporate leaders at Dominion Bankshares Corporation established an on-site child care facility at its operations center for its Roanoke, Virginia employees. The immediate supervisors of parents of children enrolled in the Dominion Child Development Center were surveyed to determine the factors they believed affected worker productivity and their perceptions of how employees' work habits had changed as a result of the opening of the child care center. A description of ...

  20. Child Care Providers' Strategies for Supporting Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan; Batal, Malek

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has revealed child care settings and providers to be important influences on children's developing behaviors. Yet most research on children's nutritional development has focused on home settings and parents. Thus, through semistructured interviews with child care providers, this study aimed to develop a better understanding of the…

  1. Child Care Providers' Strategies for Supporting Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan; Batal, Malek

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has revealed child care settings and providers to be important influences on children's developing behaviors. Yet most research on children's nutritional development has focused on home settings and parents. Thus, through semistructured interviews with child care providers, this study aimed to develop a better understanding of the…

  2. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  3. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ...

  4. Simple Justice: A Case for Mainstreaming the Severely Emotionally Handicapped Bilingual Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Stephania; Levy, Linda

    The paper deals with a mental health program designed to treat the 2 1/2 to 5 year old Mexican American child with severe emotional or behavioral problems. Components of the program included a mutual agreement with Parent Child Centers (Headstart) in the community; staff who had expertise to evaluate, diagnose, design, and implement an individual…

  5. Preschoolers' Aggression and Parent-Child Conflict: A Multiinformant and Multimethod Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Bishop, Christa M.

    2008-01-01

    This multiinformant and multimethod study (N = 47) investigated the link between the parent-child relationship system and the display of physical and relational aggression with peers at school during early childhood. Children (mean age = 43.54 months, SD = 8.02) were observed (80 min/child) during free play, and parents and teachers were asked to…

  6. Child Routines and Self-Regulation Serially Mediate Parenting Practices and Externalizing Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bater, Lovina Rose; Jordan, Sara Sytsma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies clearly indicate that parenting practices relate to child externalizing behaviors, although the mechanisms underlying this relation are less well understood. There has been limited evaluation of child routines and self-regulation in relation to these variables, and no known studies have evaluated all of these variables…

  7. Do maternal ratings of appetite in infants predict later Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire scores and body mass index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2010-02-01

    In a longitudinal birth cohort maternal ratings of children's appetite made at 6 weeks, 12 months and 5-6 years were correlated with one another and with subscales from the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) at 5-6 years, and body mass index (BMI) at 6-8 years. Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's appetite ratings. Appetite ratings in infancy were also correlated with the CEBQ subscale scores at 5-6 years to a limited extent, but not with the BMI at 6-8 years. The appetite rating at 5-6 years and three of the CEBQ subscales were independently associated with BMI. Children with higher levels of Emotional Over-Eating and Desire to Drink had higher BMIs, and children with higher levels of Satiety Responsiveness had lower BMIs. These results provide further evidence that there are concurrent associations between appetite ratings in childhood and BMI but suggest that appetite ratings in infancy are related only weakly to later appetite measures and do not predict later BMI.

  8. The role of eating disorders for pregnancy, neonatal outcome and the child's early development

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Saloua

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of eating disorders (ED) on pregnancy, infant growth and cognitive development. Preliminary reports indicate increased complications during pregnancy and lower birth weight in children of mothers with ED. There is need of prospective long-term follow-up of growth and cognitive development of the children of these mothers. Aims: To study the impact of ED on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, maternal adjustment, and infant growth and cognitive development c...

  9. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  10. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  11. Crossover Effects Among Parental Hostility and Parent-Child Relationships During the Preschool Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    Parental hostility may have widespread effects across members of the family, whereby one parent's hostility might disrupt the other parent's ability to maintain a positive relationship with his or her children. The present study prospectively examined crossover effects of parental hostility on parent-child relationship quality in a sample of 210 families. At child ages 3, 4, and 5, mothers and fathers completed questionnaires assessing feelings of hostility. In addition, mother-child and father-child dyadic relationship quality were coded at each age during naturalistic home observations. Results from structural equation analyses indicated that mother and father hostility were relatively stable over the two year period. Further, results were consistent with notions of fathering vulnerability, such that the father-child relationship might be especially susceptible to parental hostility. Possible compensatory processes, wherein mothers may compensate for father hostility, were also explored. Child and parent gender add further complexity to the results, as the father-son relationship appears most susceptible to crossover effects of parental hostility, whereas the father-daughter relationship might be somewhat protected in the early childhood period. Findings from the current investigation highlight the need for broader perspectives on family functioning, considering influences across family subsystems and the effects of both parent and child gender.

  12. Estimation of the Level of Cognitive Development of a Preschool Child Using the System of Situations with Mathematical Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorev, Pavel M.; Bichurina, Svetlana Y.; Yakupova, Rufiya M.; Khairova, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development of personality can be considered as one of the key directions of preschool education presented in the world practice, where preschool programs are educational ones, and preschool education is the first level of the general education. Thereby the purpose of the research is to create a model of reliable estimation of cognitive…

  13. ANXIETY AND ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER IN PRESCHOOLERS RECEIVING PSYCHIATRIC CARE: THE FATHER-CHILD ACTIVATION RELATIONSHIP AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account.

  14. Differences and Agreement in Perception of Child Picky Eating Among Center- and Home-Based Childcare Providers and Parents and Its Impact on Utilized Mealtime Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Luchini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Picky eating is a problematic eating behavior caregivers may encounter with children under their care. A picky eater (PE is typically characterized as consuming a narrow range of food, as well as rejecting several food items. Much of the literature regarding PEs involves parents, although use of nonparental childcare arrangements in the United States has increased in the past several decades. Although data on parental mealtime strategies exist, little is known about how parent and childcare provider pickiness perceptions differ between types of childcare, such as center-based childcare (CBCC and home-based childcare (HBCC, or how these perceptions influence the mealtime strategies utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1 compare perceptions of child pickiness between parents and childcare providers, (2 compare percent agreement in pickiness perception between the dyads of CBCC parents and providers and HBCC parents and providers, and (3 identify mealtime strategy utilization based on pickiness perception. A total of 52 child, parent, and childcare provider triads participated in the study and completed the Mealtime Assessment Survey and the Parent/Teacher Mealtime Strategy Survey regarding the same child. Results showed that parents are 1.4 times more likely than childcare providers to perceive a child as being picky, HBCC parents and providers are 1.4 times more likely to perceive a child as being picky than CBCC parents and providers, CBCC parents and providers disagree more in their perception of child pickiness than HBCC parents and providers (41% vs 26%, and finally, perception of child pickiness has a greater influence on mealtime strategies utilized by parents. These results can be used to focus intervention efforts aimed at improving child eating habits across the home and childcare location.

  15. Differences and Agreement in Perception of Child Picky Eating Among Center- and Home-Based Childcare Providers and Parents and Its Impact on Utilized Mealtime Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Virginia; Musaad, Salma M; Donovan, Sharon M; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2017-01-01

    Picky eating is a problematic eating behavior caregivers may encounter with children under their care. A picky eater (PE) is typically characterized as consuming a narrow range of food, as well as rejecting several food items. Much of the literature regarding PEs involves parents, although use of nonparental childcare arrangements in the United States has increased in the past several decades. Although data on parental mealtime strategies exist, little is known about how parent and childcare provider pickiness perceptions differ between types of childcare, such as center-based childcare (CBCC) and home-based childcare (HBCC), or how these perceptions influence the mealtime strategies utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare perceptions of child pickiness between parents and childcare providers, (2) compare percent agreement in pickiness perception between the dyads of CBCC parents and providers and HBCC parents and providers, and (3) identify mealtime strategy utilization based on pickiness perception. A total of 52 child, parent, and childcare provider triads participated in the study and completed the Mealtime Assessment Survey and the Parent/Teacher Mealtime Strategy Survey regarding the same child. Results showed that parents are 1.4 times more likely than childcare providers to perceive a child as being picky, HBCC parents and providers are 1.4 times more likely to perceive a child as being picky than CBCC parents and providers, CBCC parents and providers disagree more in their perception of child pickiness than HBCC parents and providers (41% vs 26%), and finally, perception of child pickiness has a greater influence on mealtime strategies utilized by parents. These results can be used to focus intervention efforts aimed at improving child eating habits across the home and childcare location.

  16. Preschoolers' influence on and help with beverage selection at the grocery store is linked to maternal responsiveness and child beverage intake: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Guzman, Melissa; Wakefield, Dorothy; Sisson, Susan B; Mayeux, Lara

    2016-12-01

    Children's involvement in beverage selection or purchase has seldom been investigated. The responsiveness dimension of parental feeding styles has been related to healthy maternal feeding practices. Assessing mothers' reports of responsiveness and demandingness in grocery stores may shed light on influences on purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fruit juice (FJ). Study objectives were to explore whether (1) maternal responsiveness and demandingness were associated with preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases during grocery shopping and whether (2) preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases were associated with child intake of these beverages. Mothers of 3-to-5-year-old children (n=185) who co-shopped with the child completed the Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire, reported frequency of child help with selection and influence on beverage purchase via questionnaire, and provided a one-day weekend food recall for the child. In adjusted logistic regressions, responsiveness was associated with child help selecting FJ (OR=6.50, 95% CI[1.04, 40.75], pparenting behaviors associated with grocery shopping should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [The use of therapeutic play in the intensive care of a preschool child with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Hua; Feng, Jui-Ying

    2015-04-01

    Hospitalization is a stressful experience for children that increases their anxiety and fears, generates resistance and noncompliance, and, as a result, delays necessary treatments. Developing an age-appropriate intervention to reduce the hospitalization-related stress perceived by children is an important component of pediatric nursing. This case study used therapeutic play and drawing to care for a virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome preschooler who stayed in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between 11/13/2012 and 11/19/2012. Stressors faced by the patient included separation from primary caregiver, unfamiliarity with the medical environment and equipment, non-comprehension of the treatment and medication regimens, and loss of control. The patient displayed incorporative behaviors such as crying, screaming, refusing to be touched, and requesting parental accompaniment. Painting and picture books were used as developmentally appropriate interventions to understand the patient's feelings and to provide a means for him to project and release emotions. This strategy successfully assisted the child to overcome the perceived stress of hospitalization and to cooperate with healthcare providers on his treatment.

  18. Child-Robot Interactions for Second Language Tutoring to Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Paul; de Haas, Mirjam; de Jong, Chiara; Baxter, Peta; Krahmer, Emiel

    2017-01-01

    In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner. We also believe that the first impressions children have about robots are crucial for them to build trust and common ground, which would support child-robot interactions in the long term. We therefore propose a strategy to introduce the robot in a safe way to toddlers. Other features relate to the ability to adapt to individual children's language proficiency, respond contingently, both temporally and semantically, establish joint attention, use meaningful gestures, provide effective feedback and monitor children's learning progress. Technical challenges we observe include automatic speech recognition (ASR) for children, reliable object recognition to facilitate semantic contingency and establishing joint attention, and developing human-like gestures with a robot that does not have the same morphology humans have. We briefly discuss an experiment in which we investigate how children respond to different forms of feedback the robot can give.

  19. Child-Robot Interactions for Second Language Tutoring to Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner. We also believe that the first impressions children have about robots are crucial for them to build trust and common ground, which would support child-robot interactions in the long term. We therefore propose a strategy to introduce the robot in a safe way to toddlers. Other features relate to the ability to adapt to individual children’s language proficiency, respond contingently, both temporally and semantically, establish joint attention, use meaningful gestures, provide effective feedback and monitor children’s learning progress. Technical challenges we observe include automatic speech recognition (ASR for children, reliable object recognition to facilitate semantic contingency and establishing joint attention, and developing human-like gestures with a robot that does not have the same morphology humans have. We briefly discuss an experiment in which we investigate how children respond to different forms of feedback the robot can give.

  20. Socioeconomic Status and Parent-Child Relationships Predict Metacognitive Questions to Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Foster, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of metacognitive language exposure to early educational achievement is widely recognized in the development literature. However, few studies have explored parents' metacognitive language, while accounting for family SES and stress within the parent-child relationship. This is a preliminary descriptive study to explore…

  1. Preschool psychopathology reported by parents in 23 societies: testing the seven-syndrome model of the child behavior checklist for ages 1.5-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas M; Rescorla, Leslie A; Harder, Valerie S; Ang, Rebecca P; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Gudmundsson, Halldor S; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W L; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G; Woo, Bernardine S C; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R; Verhulst, Frank C

    2010-12-01

    To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the seven-syndrome model separately for each society. The primary model fit index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), indicated acceptable to good fit for each society. Although a six-syndrome model combining the Emotionally Reactive and Anxious/Depressed syndromes also fit the data for nine societies, it fit less well than the seven-syndrome model for seven of the nine societies. Other fit indices yielded less consistent results than the RMSEA. The seven-syndrome model provides one way to capture patterns of children's problems that are manifested in ratings by parents from many societies. Clinicians working with preschoolers from these societies can thus assess and describe parents' ratings of behavioral, emotional, and social problems in terms of the seven syndromes. The results illustrate possibilities for culture-general taxonomic constructs of preschool psychopathology. Problems not captured by the CBCL/1.5-5 may form additional syndromes, and other syndrome models may also fit the data. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity determinants in Mexican preschool children: parental perceptions and practices related to feeding and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Oliveros, Guadalupe; Haines, Jess; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris; Power, Elaine; Taveras, Elsie M; González-Unzaga, Marco A; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2011-08-01

    Obesity represents a major public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, overweight and obesity have increased dramatically, affecting 26% of school-aged children. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and practices of key obesity determinants among parents of preschool children attending child care centers. We conducted five focus groups with 38 parents from six Mexico City child care centers. Inquiry topics were 1) childhood obesity causes and consequences; 2) child feeding practices at the child care center and home; 3) healthful and unhealthful foods for young children; 4) significance of physical activity in childhood; and 5) physical activity-promoting factors and barriers. We analyzed these data using content analysis. We identified a number of barriers to healthful eating, including parental time constraints, permissive feeding styles, unhealthful food preparation practices, lack of knowledge about nutrition, food advertisement, and high availability of unhealthful foods in public places. Facilitators to healthful eating included recognition of childhood overweight prevention and consequences, and healthy food choices. Main barriers to childhood physical activity included influence of young family members to play video games, parental time constraints, street safety, low access to sports facilities, and insufficient communication with child care centers. Understanding parental views and perceptions of the main factors influencing preschoolers' weight-related behavior can inform home-based or environmental interventions that support healthful eating and regular physical activity. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  4. Use of computer access technology as an alternative to writing for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, Brightlin Nithis; Samuel, Preethy Sarah; Manigandan, C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of an outcome-driven model of decision-making in the implementation of computer access technology (CAT) for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy. The child did not have the fine motor skills required to hold a pencil but had the cognitive abilities to learn to write; therefore, we explored the use of a CAT device to enable written communication. Case study methodology was used to describe the selection process, child-level outcomes, and clinical challenges faced by the therapist in the use of a consortium model that was designed for an outcome-driven model of decision-making. The critical role of an occupational therapist in this process using a family-centered approach is discussed.

  5. Parents of preschool fire setters: perceptions of the child-play fire hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Faranda, Donna M; Porth, Don; Lim, Nicholas K

    2006-09-01

    The present study sought to learn about risk perceptions held by parents of preschool fire-setters. A 41-item survey was distributed to 60 parents whose children, aged 6 years and younger, had previously set fires and who were involved in intervention programmes throughout the US. Most parents did not think their children would play with matches/lighters, or knew how to use these items, although some had witnessed their children playing with matches/lighters previously. Most parents reported having taken precautions to keep matches/lighters out of reach and also educating their children about fire. Regardless, children not only set fires, but in 40% of cases climbed to access the match/lighter. Parents' perceptions of their children's proclivity for fire play were not consistent with their actual fire-play behaviour. Parents underestimated the likelihood that their children would play with matches/lighters. Although most reportedly undertook preventative measures aimed at thwarting fire play, these strategies were ineffective. Traditionally relied upon precautionary techniques, such as storing lighters out of reach and discussing the dangers of fire, were not sufficient to stem interest and resultant fire play.

  6. Mothers' parenting and child sex differences in behavior problems among African American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V

    2013-10-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. In this study, we examined whether associations between observations of mothers' positive and negative parenting and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consisted of 137 African American low-income families with one sibling approximately 2 years old and the closest-aged older sibling who was approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, whereas lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors.

  7. Objective measurement of posture and posture transitions in the pre-school child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gwyneth; Reilly, John J; Paton, James Y

    2012-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that between-individual variation in posture and posture transitions may have important health consequences in adults. The early life development of between-individual variation in posture and posture transitions has not been studied, and the physiological consequences of such variations in childhood are unknown, largely because of the absence of objective methods for measuring posture and posture transitions in young children. This study aimed to examine the objective measurement of posture transitions in pre-school children with the activPAL™ monitor (PAL Technologies, Glasgow). Single-unit activity monitors such as the activPAL™ have a limited output, with data categorized as 'sit/lie', 'stand' or 'walk' and the consequences of this for measurement of posture transitions in young children are unknown. Thirty children (mean age 4.1 years) were videoed for 1 h in nursery while wearing an activPAL™. Video was analysed on a second-by-second basis, with all postures categorized. From direct observation, time spent was sit/lie 46%; stand 35%; walk/run 16%; 3% was spent in heterogeneous non-sit/lie/upright postures (crawl, crouch, and kneel up). Despite these 'non-standard' postures being responsible for a low proportion of time, posture transitions involving them contributed to 34% of total transitions. There was a significant rank-order correlation (r = 0.79, p posture transitions measured by activPAL™ and by direct observation. 'Non-standard' postures in young children are probably not a problem if the aim is to measure total time sedentary or active, and the activPAL™ may measure between-individual variation in transitions adequately in young children. However, non-standard postures may present problems for the detailed characterization of posture transitions in early childhood.

  8. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  9. Parasite and maternal risk factors for malnutrition in preschool-age children in Belen, Peru using the new WHO Child Growth Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Núñez, Carmen; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2007-12-01

    Child malnutrition, including wasting, underweight and stunting, is associated with infections, poor nutrient intake, and environmental and socio-demographic factors. Preschool-age children are especially vulnerable due to their high growth requirements. To target interventions for preschool-age children in a community of extreme poverty in Peru, we conducted a household survey between October 2005 and January 2006 to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its risk factors. Of 252 children Child Growth Standards. Risk factors for wasting were: (1) moderate-high intensity Trichuris infection (OR 2.50; 95 % CI 1.06, 5.93); (2) hookworm infection (OR 6.67; 95 % CI 1.08, 41.05); (3) age (OR6-month 1.27; 95 % CI 1.11, 1.46); (4) maternal education (secondary incomplete) (OR 5.77; 95 % CI 2.38, 13.99); and (5) decreasing maternal BMI (OR1 kg/m2 1.12; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.23). Risk factors for underweight were: (1) moderate-high intensity Trichuris infection (OR 4.74; 95 % CI 1.99, 11.32); (2) age (OR6-month 1.22; 95 % CI 1.07, 1.38); (3) maternal education (secondary incomplete) (OR 2.92; 95 % CI 1.40, 6.12); and (4) decreasing maternal BMI (OR1 kg/m2 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21). Risk factors for stunting were: (1) age (OR6-month 1.14; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.27) and (2) decreasing maternal height (OR1 cm 1.12; 95 % CI 1.06, 1.20). Overall, risk factors for malnutrition included both child and maternal determinants. Based on these data, locally appropriate and cost-effective dietary, de-worming and educational programmes should be targeted to mothers and preschool-age children.

  10. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  11. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  12. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  13. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the

  14. Childhood caries as influenced by maternal and child characteristics in pre-school children of Kerala-an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Retnakumari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The most common chronic disease of childhood is early childhood caries which is five times more prevalent than asthma and seven times higher than that of allergic rhinitis. Most children do not receive dental care until they are three years old, yet by the time more than thirty percent of children from lower socioeconomic groups already have caries. To determine the prevalence and severity of early childhood caries among pre-school children, to describe the child characteristics associated with the development of early childhood caries and to find the association of early childhood caries and maternal risk factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among children attending the immunization clinic of Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, Medical College, Trivandrum and children attending the randomly selected Anganwadies and Day care centres in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala, wherein there are migrants from all over the State. A total of 350 children aged 12-36 months and their mothers were studied. The mother was first interviewed by a structured questionnaire; then the child′s and mothers clinical examination was carried out covering caries experience and oral hygiene status. Results: Among 350 children studied the prevalence of dental caries in this study population was found to be 50.6 %( 177. Statistically significant associations were found between the severity of decay and the child′s age(P<0.001, female gender(P<0.05,low socioeconomic status (P<0.05, feeding frequency (P<0.05, type of feeding(P<0.01, fell asleep with nipple in mouth (P<0.05, duration of breast feeding(P<0.001, consumption of cariogenic type of snacks(P<0.01, age of commencement of tooth brushing(P<0.05, brushing frequency(P<0.05, oral hygiene status of child(P<0.001, DMFS scores of mothers (P<0.001, and oral hygiene status of mother (P<0.001.

  15. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component.

  16. Degree of malnutrition and its relationship with major structural and eating factors in Honduran preschool population. Prevalence of breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Palacios, Lorena; Barrientos Augustinus, Elsa; Raudales Urquía, Carolina; Frontela Saseta, Carmen; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar

    2017-06-05

    Introduction: Child malnutrition remains a serious public health problem in Honduras, with a national prevalence according to the World Health Organization (WHO) reference values of 29% in children under fi ve. In addition, the average chronic malnutrition in the region amounts to 80% in poor and indigenous communities, making Honduras the second country in Central America with the highest incidence of chronic malnutrition. Another problem of the region is the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: only 29.7% of children were exclusively breastfed until they were six months. Therefore, the study seeks to understand, identify and quantify the situation determinants and provide information for the design of public policies. Material and method:: The study consisted of a cross-sectional descriptive anthropometric assessment in which the nutritional status and the prevalence of undernourishment, malnutrition and malnutrition in 141 children aged between six months and fi ve years, belonging to urban and rural regions of the country, were analyzed, as well as assessing the prevalence of breastfeeding in fi ve Honduran departments (Intibucá, Lempira, Atlántida, Olancho and Francisco Morazán). Results and conclusion: When making the analysis by departments, differences regarding nutritional status and breastfeeding were observed between urban and rural areas, the latter being doubled in the case of chronic malnutrition and underweight, with percentages of 14.6% in urban areas versus28.8% in rural areas, and 4.6% in urban areas compared to 9% in rural areas, respectively. However, with respect to acute malnutrition and overweight in both regions, similar values were observed, above 1.1% for acute and 14% for overweight malnutrition. In relation to exclusive breastfeeding for six months, the departments of Olancho and Lempira maintained it for two years, with a percentage distribution of 80% and 48%, respectively. It must be noted that 36% of mothers did not provide

  17. Child fear reactivity and sex as moderators of links between parenting and preschool behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V

    2015-11-01

    Reduced supportive parenting and elevated negative parenting behaviors increase risks for maladaptive social adjustment during early childhood (e.g., Campbell, Shaw, & Gilliom, 2000). However, the magnitude of these risks may vary according to children's individual characteristics, such as sex and temperament. The current study examines whether children's sex and fear reactivity moderate the associations between mothers' observed parenting and children's behavior problems 1 year later. The sample consists of 151 predominantly African American, low-income families with one sibling who is approximately 2 years old and the closest aged older sibling who is approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate that fear distress (i.e., fearfulness) moderated associations between mothers' observed negative parenting and children's increased behavior problems, such that only those children with mean or higher observed fear distress scores showed increased behavior problems when exposed to mother's negative parenting. Child sex moderated associations between fear approach reactivity (i.e., fearlessness) and mothers' observed supportive parenting. Specifically, low fear approach combined with supportive parenting was associated with fewer behavior problems for boys only. Implications of these findings for preventive intervention are discussed.

  18. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: Results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case–control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n = 198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n = 253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference −21.4, 95% CI: −24.0, −18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference −5.1, 95% CI: −9.5, −0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born

  19. How is this child feeling? Preschool-aged children’s ability to recognize emotion in faces and body poses

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined children’s recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children (N = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills, which included five tasks (three with faces and two with bodies). Parents and teachers reported on children’s aggressive behaviors and social skills. Children’s emotion accuracy o...

  20. Medication Use before, during, and after Pregnancy among Women with Eating Disorders: A Study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lupattelli

    Full Text Available Little is known about medication use among women with eating disorders in relation to pregnancy.To explore patterns of and associations between use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal and analgesic medications and eating disorders in the period before, during and after pregnancy.This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A total of 62,019 women, enrolled at approximately 17 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and completed three MoBa questionnaires. The questionnaires provided diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN, binge eating disorder (BED and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P, along with self-reported use of medication six months before, during, and 0-6 months after pregnancy.The prevalence of eating disorder subtypes before and/or during pregnancy was: 0.09% AN (n = 54, 0.94% BN (n = 585, 0.10% EDNOS-P (n = 61 and 5.00% BED (n = 3104. The highest over-time prevalence of psychotropic use was within the AN (3.7-22.2% and EDNOS-P (3.3-9.8% groups. Compared to controls, BN was directly associated with incident use of psychotropics in pregnancy (adjusted RR: 2.25, 99% CI: 1.17-4.32. Having AN (adjusted RR: 5.11, 99% CI: 1.53-17.01 or EDNOS-P (adjusted RR: 6.77, 99% CI: 1.41-32.53 was directly associated with use of anxiolytics/sedatives postpartum. The estimates of use of analgesics (BED and laxatives (all eating disorders subtypes were high at all time periods investigated.Use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal, and analgesic medications is extensive among women with eating disorders in the period around pregnancy. Female patients with eating disorders should receive evidence-based counseling about the risk of medication exposure versus the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and postpartum.

  1. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V

    2016-02-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior.

  2. Children's eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: results from the population-based Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight problems that arise in the first years of life tend to persist. Behavioral research in this period can provide information on the modifiable etiology of unhealthy weight. The present study aimed to replicate findings from previous small-scale studies by examining whether different aspects of preschooler’s eating behavior and parental feeding practices are associated with body mass index (BMI and weight status -including underweight, overweight and obesity- in a population sample of preschool children. Methods Cross-sectional data on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, Child Feeding Questionnaire and objectively measured BMI was available for 4987 four-year-olds participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Results Thirteen percent of the preschoolers had underweight, 8% overweight, and 2% obesity. Higher levels of children’s Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food and parental Restriction were associated with a higher mean BMI independent of measured confounders. Emotional Undereating, Satiety Responsiveness and Fussiness of children as well as parents’ Pressure to Eat were negatively related with children’s BMI. Similar trends were found with BMI categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Part of the association between children’s eating behaviors and BMI was accounted for by parental feeding practices (changes in effect estimates: 20-43%, while children’s eating behaviors in turn explained part of the relation between parental feeding and child BMI (changes in effect estimates: 33-47%. Conclusions This study provides important information by showing how young children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding patterns differ between children with normal weight, underweight and overweight. The high prevalence of under- and overweight among preschoolers suggest prevention interventions targeting unhealthy weights should start early in life. Although

  3. Learning to eat vegetables in early life: the role of timing, age and individual eating traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Caton

    Full Text Available Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n = 332 aged 4-38 m (18.9±9.9 m were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy. Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40% who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23% since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children.

  4. Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/Con Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use.

  5. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  6. The placemat protocol: Measuring preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas with pretend meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Peralta, Mericarmen; Jacobsohn, Gwen Costa; Grider, David T

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition instruction can lead to more healthful food choices among children, but little is known about preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas because there are few developmentally appropriate measures. This study validated the Placemat Protocol, a novel measure of preschooler healthy-meal schemas using realistic food models to assemble pretend meals. Preschoolers (N = 247, mean age 4 years 8 months) created 2 meals (preferred and healthy), completed measures of verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and were weighed and measured for BMI. Parents reported healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, and family demographics. Children used an average of 5.1 energy-dense (ED) and 3.4 nutrient-dense (ND) foods for their preferred meal, but reversed the ratio to 3.1 ED and 5.1 ND foods for their healthy meal. Healthy meals contained fewer estimated kcal, less fat, less sugar, and more fiber than preferred meals. Meal differences held for younger children, children with lower verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and child subgroups at higher risk for obesity. Placemat Protocol data correlated with parent healthy eating guidance and child obesogenic dietary intake as expected. The Placemat Protocol shows promise for assessing developing healthy-meal schemas before children can fully articulate their knowledge on verbal measures.

  7. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  8. Do children and their parents eat a similar diet? Resemblance in child and parental dietary intake: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Beydoun, M A; Li, J; Liu, Y; Moreno, L A

    2011-02-01

    Parents are believed to have a strong influence on children's eating behaviours. However, previous findings on child-parent resemblance in dietary intakes are mixed. We systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the association (correlations) based on published studies. We searched related studies published since 1980 and found 24 studies meeting inclusion criteria for review and 15 for meta-regression analysis. We compared the associations between parent-child pairs, nutrients, over time and by dietary assessment method. Most studies were based on small samples. Overall, they suggest a moderate or weak association, but findings varied remarkably. Our meta-analysis showed that average Fisher's transformed correlations were 0.20 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.28) for fat (% energy); for energy, 0.21 (0.18 to 0.24). The correlations varied by parent-child pairs, dietary assessment and countries. Food frequency questionnaires or mixed approaches yielded lower correlation than 24-h recalls or food records. Child self-reported intakes showed weaker correlation and better methodology quality showed stronger correlation in fat intake (% energy), which also became weaker over time. Overall, the resemblance is weak, and it varied considerably across studies, nutrients, foods and parent-child pairs.

  9. Association between maternal lifestyle and preschool nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Bezerra Nobre

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Many of the health behaviors involved in the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD are originated in childhood under parental influence. Mothers are the ones most involved in the education and health care of children. Lifestyle (LS is a social determinant of health. Very few studies tried to understand the influence of maternal LS on child nutrition. Objective: To verify the association between maternal behavioral and non-behavioral LS and nutritional aspects in preschool children. Method: From January 2010 to December 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study with 255 mothers of preschool children who were residents of five different sub-districts in southwestern São Paulo. A proportional stratified random sample was selected using two layers (“schools” and “children”. From the mother, sociodemographic and LS information were collected. From the child, data on anthropometry, sedentary behavior and food intake were collected. The association was calculated using chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: Children who ate minimally processed food were born from mothers with more socially aware non-behavioral LS, while children that ate more processed food were born from mothers with more consumerist non-behavioral LS. No association was found between nutritional characteristics of preschoolers and types of maternal behavioral LS. Children presenting “sedentary behavior” and the habit of eating “ultra-processed foods” had 113% and 84% higher chances, respectively, of being born to mothers that belonged to the “consumerist” cluster. Conclusion: Mothers living a consumerist lifestyle can promote negative influences on child nutrition.

  10. A five-year prospective follow-up of longstanding eating disorders : influence from personality disorders and child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Vrabel, KariAnne R.

    2010-01-01

    Papers number 1 and 2 of the thesis are not available in Munin due to publisher's restrictions: 1. Vrabel, K. R., Ro, O., Martinsen, E. W., Hoffart, A., & Rosenvinge, J. H.: «The course of illness following inpatient treatment of adults with longstanding eating disorders: A 5-year follow-up», International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41(2008), 224-232 (Wiley). Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.20485 2. Vrabel, K. R., Ro, O., Martinsen, E. W., Hoffart, A., & Rosenvinge, J. H.: ...

  11. Cultural differences in parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours and their relationships with child BMI: a comparison of Black Afro-Caribbean, White British and White German samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, J; Bennett, C

    2013-02-01

    Childhood obesity rates differ between cultural groups in Europe. Parents influence their children's weight status and eating behaviours through feeding practices. We investigated cultural differences in feeding practices and eating behaviours and their relation to child weight in three groups that differed in cultural background and geographical location. Fifty-two White German (WG) families, in Germany (44 mothers, mean age 33.8 years), 79 White British (WB) families, in the UK (74 mothers, mean age 37.8) and 40 Black Afro-Caribbean (BAC) families, in the UK (34 mothers, mean age 31.8) participated in this study of 2-12-year-old children. Parents completed questionnaires assessing feeding practices and eating behaviours; children were measured and weighed by experimenters. MANCOVAs indicated that BAC parents used the highest levels of restrictive feeding practices and the lowest levels of monitoring, and their children showed the highest levels of food-approach behaviours. WG parents used the lowest levels of pressure to eat. Partial correlations showed that food-approach behaviours were correlated with child BMI in BAC and WG families but not in WB families. Parental restriction was associated with child Body Mass Index (BMI) in BAC families only. There are both similarities and differences in feeding practices and eating behaviours and their relationships with child weight in different cultural groups. Findings highlight the importance of being aware of cultural differences when carrying out research with multi-cultural samples in Europe.

  12. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  13. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  14. Friendships in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Holds Them Back, Child Characteristics or Teacher Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Shih, Wendy; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Children begin to show preferences for specific playmates as early as the first 2?years of life. Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty making friends, even in elementary and middle school. However, very little is known about earlier friendships in children with autism such as preschool friendships. This study examined friendships…

  15. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  16. Transitioning to new child-care nutrition policies: nutrient content of preschool menus differs by presence of vegetarian main entrée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Baum, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Children who attend child care outside the home may be at increased risk for developing obesity. In 2012, the South Carolina ABC Child Care program issued new standards for food and nutrition. The goal of our study (conducted June to December 2012) was to examine changes that occurred at a large, Columbia, SC, preschool during the implementation of the South Carolina ABC Child Care program standards using an observational design, including a survey of parents and nutrient analysis of menus. The nutrition content of menu items before (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) and after (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) implementation of the new standards was compared. In addition, parents (N=75) were surveyed to examine opinions and support for the changes. Independent samples t tests were used to compare nutrient values before and after menu changes and analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-change vegetarian menus and pre- and post-change nonvegetarian menus. There were no significant differences between before and after menus with the exception of a 0.3 cup/day increase in vegetables (PVegetarian menus after the revisions were significantly higher in fiber (13 ± 3 g) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (11 ± 3 g; Pvegetarian menu items has the potential to improve the nutrient content of menus while keeping energy intake, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol levels at a more optimum level.

  17. Impact of requiring influenza vaccination for children in licensed child care or preschool programs--Connecticut, 2012-13 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Kudish, Kathy; Kennedy, Erin D; Sacco, Vincent; Cartter, Matthew L

    2014-03-07

    Preschool-aged children are at increased risk for severe influenza-related illness and complications. Congregate child care settings facilitate influenza transmission among susceptible children. To protect against influenza transmission in these settings, in September 2010, Connecticut became the second U.S. state (after New Jersey) to implement regulations requiring that all children aged 6-59 months receive at least 1 dose of influenza vaccine each year to attend a licensed child care program. To evaluate the impact of this regulation on vaccination levels and influenza-associated hospitalizations during the 2012-13 influenza season, vaccination data from U.S. and Connecticut surveys and the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) were analyzed. After the regulation took effect, vaccination rates among Connecticut children aged 6-59 months increased from 67.8% during the 2009-10 influenza season to 84.1% during the 2012-13 season. During the 2012-13 influenza season, among all 11 EIP surveillance sites, Connecticut had the greatest percentage decrease (12%) in the influenza-associated hospitalization rate from 2007-08 among children aged ≤4 years. Additionally, the ratio of the influenza-associated hospitalization rates among children aged ≤4 years to the overall population rate (0.53) was lower than for any other EIP site. Requiring vaccination for child care admission might have helped to increase vaccination rates in Connecticut and reduced serious morbidity from influenza.

  18. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10). The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy). Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  19. Parent-Child Interaction and the Development of Racial Group Identity and Self Concepts of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Harriette; McAdoo, John L.

    This study focuses on three areas: (1) mother-child and father-child verbal and nonverbal interactions; (2) racial differences in parent-child interactions, children's self esteem and children's racial attitudes; and (3) relationships between parenting style and children's feelings of self-worth and racial preferences. Subjects were 40 black and…

  20. Psychometric Assessment of the Achenbach & Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist in Pre-schoolers between 4,0 and 5,5 years old of lower Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Zambrano Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Achenbach and Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist was assessed psychometrically in a group of 100 preschool students between 4,0 and 5,5 years old who attend a public school at Bogota city. It was done by applying formats to parents and teachers. These formats were previously translated, linguistically adapted and piloted. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the total scale was 0,94 -0,94 for parents and 0,95 for teachers-. The analysis of factors by main components saturated the variance in 87%, although it did not correspond to the factors proposed by the original model. This measure gives diagnostic information about the children’s behavioral structure from a multiaxial perspective. Moreover, it identifies profiles of the internalizing and externalizing dimensions of behavior.

  1. 挫折-侵犯理论视野下的幼儿教师虐童事件%Preschool Teachers Violated Child Abuse under Frustration-Under Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹艺

    2014-01-01

    近年来,我国幼儿教师虐童事件频发,主要原因有幼儿教师生存压力过大、幼儿教师工作压力过重、幼儿教师队伍整体素质偏低、幼儿教师心理健康现状堪忧、“家园”合作管理不完善、法律及相关监管体系不健全等。%In recent years, China's preschool teachers frequent incidents of child abuse, the main reason there is too much pressure to survive early childhood teachers, preschool teachers working pressure is too low overall quality of early childhood teachers, preschool teachers' mental health status are worrying,"Homeland"co-management is not complete and the legal and regulatory system is not perfect and so on.

  2. Unintentional role models : links between maternal eating psychopathology and the modelling of eating behaviours\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between maternal modelling of eating behaviours with reported symptoms of maternal eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Mothers (N = 264) with a child aged 1.5 to 8 years completed three self-report measures designed to assess modelling of eating behaviours, eating psychopathology and levels of anxiety and depression. The study found that higher levels of maternal eating psychopathology were positively associated with eating behaviours that wer...

  3. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  4. The impact of a 20-month physical activity intervention in child care centers on motor performance and weight in overweight and healthy-weight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-12-01

    A child-centered physical activity intervention was administered in child care centers over 20 months to promote motor performance and reduce weight in preschool children. The intervention group (N = 211) received at least one weekly 45-min. session of physical education and sessions of physical activities of at least 20 minutes on the other days. Control children (N = 217) experienced the regular curriculum, which consisted of one session of physical activities of 45 min. per week. At the end of the study, children in the intervention group surpassed children in the control group in motor performance (body coordination, physical fitness, and dexterity, measured by a motor test battery MoTB 3-7). Children in the top 20% by BMI at the beginning of the study ("high weight") had inferior motor performance. Children with higher BMIs in the intervention group had better motor scores than children with higher BMIs in the control group, but the intervention had no effect on body weight, BMI, or skinfold thickness.

  5. Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck

    2016-11-08

    This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.

  6. The Effects of Mother Participation in Relationship Education on Coparenting, Parenting, and Child Social Competence: Modeling Spillover Effects for Low-Income Minority Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Garneau, Chelsea; Vaughn, Brian; McGill, Julianne; Harcourt, Kate Taylor; Ketring, Scott; Smith, Thomas

    2016-11-14

    Although suggestions are that benefits of relationship and marriage education (RME) participation extend from the interparental relationship with parenting and child outcomes, few evaluation studies of RME test these assumptions and the relationship among changes in these areas. This quasi-experimental study focuses on a parallel process growth model that tests a spillover hypothesis of program effects and finds, in a sample of low-income minority mothers with a child attending a Head Start program, that increases in mother reports of coparenting agreement for RME participants predict decreases in their reports of punitive parenting behaviors. Although improvements in parenting behaviors did not predict increases in teacher reports of children's social competence, improvements in coparenting agreement were associated with increases in children's social competence over time. In addition, comparative tests of outcomes between parents in the program and parents in a comparison group reveal that RME program participants (n = 171) demonstrate significant improvements compared to nonparticipants (n = 143) on coparenting agreement, parenting practices, and teachers' reports of preschool children's social competence over a 1 year period. The findings are offered as a step forward in better understanding the experiences of low-resource participants in RME. Implications for future research are discussed.

  7. TABLET DEVICES, SMARTPHONES, GAME CONSOLES INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN’S SOCIALIZATION, PLAY ACTIVITY AND CHILD-PARENT RELATIONSHIPS OF CHILDREN IN TENDER AGE AND PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousova, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of 130 families having children of early and preschool age are given. The contingent of investigated has been divided into 2 groups: group №1 - children without speech and cognitive violations (n=80, group № 2 - are diagnosed manifestations of the general underdevelopment of the speech combined with like-autistic disturbances (n=50. All the children were divided into 2 groups: group №1 (n = 80, children are without speech disorders, group №2 (n = 50: signs of general underdevelopment of children’s speech are diagnosed, combined with like-autistic disturbances. Features of formation of skills of social interaction, development of a subject role-playing game and the child parent relations at against the active use of tablet devices and smartphones by them are studied. In both groups intensive and unfairly early game interaction with gadgets is marked. There is a clear hierarchy transformation of the family system towards the loss of parents dominant influence on children without an ability to use gadget as an obedience and encourage. Patterns of parental behavior in the study families demonstrate the priority of spending time with the gadget to joint leisure time and active integration of the gadget into child's life with delegating him an authority of development and game interaction with him.

  8. Early second language acquisition: a comparison of the linguistic output of a pre-school child acquiring English as a second language with that of a monolingual peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, C A

    1991-08-01

    Two pre-school children were recorded at regular intervals over a 9-month period while playing freely together. One child was acquiring English as a second language, whilst the other was a monolingual English speaker. The sociolinguistic domain was such that the children were likely to be motivated to communicate with each other in English. A variety of quantitative measures were taken from the transcribed data, including measures of utterance type, length, type-token ratios, use of auxiliaries and morphology. The child for whom English was a second language was found to be well able to interact on equal terms with his partner, despite being somewhat less advanced in some aspects of English language development by the end of the sampling period. Whilst he appeared to be consolidating his language skills during this time, his monolingual partner appeared to be developing rapidly. It is hoped that normative longitudinal data of this kind will be of use in the accurate assessment of children from dual language backgrounds, who may be referred for speech and language therapy.

  9. Reciprocal relationship between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence: 10-year follow-up of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chi; Luh, Dih-Lin; Lin, Ching-I; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Hung, Chao-Chia; Wang, Sabrina; Wu, Chi-Chen; Hurng, Baai-Shyun; Chang, Yi-Han; Yen, Lee-Lan; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the reciprocal relationship between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence. Unhealthy eating behaviours were measured by the frequencies of eating foods with excess salt, sugar or fat in the past week. Depressive symptoms in the past two weeks were measured using a seven-item scale. Hierarchical linear growth models were used to analyse longitudinal associations between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms. Time-fixed variables (sex, parents' education level and household monthly income) and time-varying variables (parents' marital status, family activities, body weight, vegetable or fruit consumption, exercising and smoking) were controlled for. The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution study, which commenced in 2001 and has annual follow-up. Students (n 2630) followed from 2nd grade (8 years old in 2002) to 11th grade. The frequency of unhealthy eating behaviours in the previous year and the difference between the frequency in the previous and successive year were positively associated with the initiation and growth rate of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in the previous year and the difference in depressive symptoms between the previous and successive year were positively associated with the initial state and growth rate of unhealthy eating behaviours. Our results suggest a reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and unhealthy eating behaviours. This relationship should be considered when developing programmes targeting depressive symptoms and unhealthy diet in children and adolescents.

  10. Experimental Impacts of a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile on Preschool Classroom Quality and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…

  11. The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Parental Intelligence and Child Behavior Problems in a Study of Korean Preschool Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Yoon

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…

  12. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life......The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... risk load and environmental stress given the social and cultural context....

  13. When Your Toddler Doesn't Want to Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not like it anymore. And how much your child eats may be very different from how much another child eats. But don’t worry. Your toddler’s strange ... he or she is no longer hungry, your child should be allowed to stop eating. ... help their self-esteem and can make the picky behavior worse. Allowing ...

  14. FEATURES OF INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONAL STRESS DURING PREGNANCY ON THE FORMATION OF EATING BEHAVIOR IN THE CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the problem of high level of anxiety and the development of psycho-emotional disorders in women during pregnancy currently occupy a leading place in clinical practice. Pregnant "seize" the problem by using a non-adaptive coping and thereby form a similar pattern of behavior in stressful situation and in the fetus, perinatal-formed a similar pattern.Materials and methods. Clinical-descriptive, formulated the concept of the influence psycho-emotional stress and characteristics of the current pregnancy on the background of the formation of patterns of eating behavior in the fetus, followed by implementation after birth under the provisions of the dominant by A. A. Ukhtomsky, the theory of functional systems P. K. Anokhin, the endogeneity of the regularities of pathological processes, the pyramid of needs of A. Maslow.Results. As a result of the establishment of the concept, doctors will be able to identify the maladaptive pattern of eating behavior in pregnant women and to make timely prevention of the formation of this pattern in the fetus.Conclusion. The use of the developed concept could help doctors to identify the maladaptive pattern of eating behavior in pregnant women and make timely prevention of the formation of this pattern in the fetus.

  15. Reliability of questionnaires to assess the healthy eating and activity environment of a child's home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle; Magarey, Anthea; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data from both questionnaires were classified into outcomes relevant to healthy eating and activity, and target outcomes, based on the goals of the ewba Community Programs, were identified. Fourteen and 12 outcomes were developed from the parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Sixty parents and 28 teachers participated in the reliability study. Intraclass correlation coefficients for outcomes ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 (parent) (P environments, attitudes, and knowledge associated with healthy eating and physical activity in the home and school and may be useful for evaluation of similar programs.

  16. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  17. A tale of two methods: comparing regression and instrumental variables estimates of the effects of preschool child care type on the subsequent externalizing behavior of children in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Danielle A; Dowsett, Chantelle J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Huston, Aletha C

    2010-09-01

    We apply instrumental variables (IV) techniques to a pooled data set of employment-focused experiments to examine the relation between type of preschool childcare and subsequent externalizing problem behavior for a large sample of low-income children. To assess the potential usefulness of this approach for addressing biases that can confound causal inferences in child care research, we compare instrumental variables results with those obtained using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. We find that our OLS estimates concur with prior studies showing small positive associations between center-based care and later externalizing behavior. By contrast, our IV estimates indicate that preschool-aged children with center care experience are rated by mothers and teachers as having fewer externalizing problems on entering elementary school than their peers who were not in child care as preschoolers. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on associations between different types of community-based child care and children's social behavior, particularly within low-income populations. Moreover, we use this study to highlight the relative strengths and weaknesses of each analytic method for addressing causal questions in developmental research.

  18. Testing the impact of a social skill training versus waiting list control group for the reduction of disruptive behaviors and stress among preschool children in child care: the study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Larose, Marie-Pier; Geoffroy, Marie Claude; Laurin, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    Most preschoolers growing up in western industrialized countries receive child care services (CCS) during the day, while their parents are at work. Meta-analytic data suggest that CCS represent a stressful experience for preschoolers. This may be because preschoolers have not yet developed the social skills necessary to cope with the new and rapidly fluctuating social contexts of CCS. We tested the effectiveness of a child care-based social skill training program aiming to improve children's social behaviors and reduce the stress they experience. We used a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) to compare children's social behaviors and stress levels in pre- and post-intervention according to whether they received a social skill training intervention or not. Nineteen (n = 19) public CCS (n = 362, 3-years-old preschoolers) of underprivileged neighborhoods (Montreal, Canada) were randomized to one of two conditions: 1) social skills training (n = 10 CCS); or 2) waiting list control group (n = 9 CCS). Educators in the intervention group conducted bi-weekly social skills training sessions over a period of 8 months. The intervention covered four topics: making social contacts, problem solving, emotional self-regulation, as well as emotional expression and recognition. Main outcome measures included preschoolers' disruptive (e.g. aggression, opposition, conflicts) and prosocial behaviors (e.g. sharing toys, helping another child), and stress levels assessed by salivary cortisol sampling at pre and post intervention assessments. Educators' practices will be tested as potential mediators of the expected changes in behaviors and neuroendocrine stress. To our knowledge, this is the first cRCT to test the effectiveness of a child care based social skill training program on the reduction of disruptive behaviors and levels of stress. Significant challenges include the degree of adherence to the intervention protocol as well educators and preschoolers' turnover

  19. Direct and indirect relations between parent-child attachments, peer acceptance, and self-esteem for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alexandra; Veríssimo, Manuela; Gatinho, Ana; Santos, António J; Vaughn, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to test Bowlby's suggestions concerning relations between the child's attachment quality with parents and subsequently constructed models of self-worth during early childhood. In most research on this question, attachment with mothers is considered in relation to self-worth but the child's attachment with fathers is not. Neither has the peer group been studied as an influence on child self-esteem, in the context of attachment research. This study addresses these relatively unstudied influences on child self-esteem. Attachment security to mother and father was measured by the Attachment Behavior Q-Set at two and half years of age. At five years of age social acceptance was measured using two sociometric techniques, and the self-esteem with the California Child Q-Sort. Our analyses indicated that security of the attachment to father and peer acceptance are both unique, significant predictors of the childrens' self-esteem. The security of the attachment to mother was also related to child self-esteem but did not emerge as a uniquely significant predictor. Peer acceptance appeared to moderate of the effect of the security of the attachment to father on the self-esteem of children. Our results extend the relatively sparse literature relating early attachments to self-esteem during early childhood.

  20. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster

    2004-02-01

    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  1. A review of methods to assess parental feeding practices and preschool children's eating behavior: the need for further development of tools

    OpenAIRE

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Oliveira, Andreia; Charles, Marie; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Jones, Louise; Rigal, Natalie; Lopes, Carla; Manios, Yannis; Moreira, Pedro; Emmett, Pauline; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We reviewed tools developed to measure parental feeding practices and eating behavior and food intake or preferences of children aged 0 to 5 years. Two electronic literature databases (Medline and Psycinfo) were used to search for both observational and experimental studies in human beings. The articles selected for review were those presenting tools with data on internal consistency and/or test-retest reliability and/or construct validity. A total of 3,445 articles we...

  2. Association of anemia, child and family characteristics with elevated blood lead concentrations in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels lead exposure, and fewer family possessions were also associated with higher BPbs. Pediatric lead exposure is a public health problem in Uruguay, with children experiencing elevated BPbs at a young age.

  3. Child Negative Emotionality and Parental Harsh Discipline in Chinese Preschoolers: The Different Mediating Roles of Maternal and Paternal Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant. The findings provide an important supplement and extension to previous examinations of the factors associated with Chinese parental use of harsh discipline and its mechanisms. PMID:28326056

  4. Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW): a family-centered, community-based obesity prevention randomized controlled trial for preschool child-parent pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'e, Eli K; Heerman, William J; Mistry, Rishi S; Barkin, Shari L

    2013-11-01

    Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) is a randomized controlled trial that tests the efficacy of a family-centered, community-based, behavioral intervention to prevent childhood obesity among preschool-aged children. Focusing on parent-child pairs, GROW utilizes a multi-level framework, which accounts for macro (i.e., built-environment) and micro (i.e., genetics) level systems that contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. Six hundred parent-child pairs will be randomized to a 3-year healthy lifestyle intervention or a 3-year school readiness program. Eligible children are enrolled between ages 3 and 5, are from minority communities, and are not obese. The principal site for the GROW intervention is local community recreation centers and libraries. The primary outcome is childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectory at the end of the three-year study period. In addition to other anthropometric measurements, mediators and moderators of growth are considered, including genetics, accelerometry, and diet recall. GROW is a staged intensity intervention, consisting of intensive, maintenance, and sustainability phases. Throughout the study, parents build skills in nutrition, physical activity, and parenting, concurrently forming new social networks. Participants are taught goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem solving techniques to facilitate sustainable behavior change. The GROW curriculum uses low health literacy communication and social media to communicate key health messages. The control arm is administered to both control and intervention participants. By conducting this trial in public community centers, and by implementing a family-centered approach to sustainable healthy childhood growth, we aim to develop an exportable community-based intervention to address the expanding public health crisis of pediatric obesity.

  5. Evaluation of the Color Me Healthy Program in Influencing Nutrition and Physical Activity in Mississippi Preschool Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huye, Holly F.; Bankston, Sarah; Speed, Donna; Molaison, Elaine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the level of implementation and perceived value in creating knowledge and behavior change from the Color Me Healthy (CMH) training program in child care centers, family day carehomes, or Head Start facilities throughout Mississippi. Methods: A two-phase survey was used to initially…

  6. Difference in mother–child interaction between preterm- and term-born preschoolers with and without disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Schuengel, C.; Last, B.F.; Wassenaer, van A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Houtzager, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    1000 g, and term children (n = 84) were assessed at corrected age of 5 using a mother–child interaction observation. Disabilities were assessed using an intelligence test, behaviour questionnaires for parents and teachers, and motor and neurological examinations. Results: Mothers of preterm-born chi

  7. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  8. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  9. An explanatory framework of teachers' perceptions of a positive mealtime environment in a preschool setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Satoko C; Gray, Samuel A; Goodell, L Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    Attending a preschool center may help preschoolers with growth and development that encourage a healthy lifestyle, including sound eating behaviors. Providing a positive mealtime environment (PME) may be one of the keys to fostering a child's healthy eating habits in the classroom. However, a specific definition of a PME, the components of a PME, or directions on how to create one have not been established. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore Head Start teachers' perceptions related to a PME and create a conceptual framework representing these perceptions. To achieve this purpose, researchers conducted 65 in-depth phone interviews with Head Start teachers around the US. Applying principles of grounded theory, researchers developed a conceptual framework depicting teachers' perceptions of PME, consisting of five key components: (1) the people (i.e., teachers, kitchen staff, parent volunteers, and children), (2) positive emotional tone (e.g., relaxed and happy), (3) rules, expectations, and routines (e.g., family-style mealtime), (4) operations of a PME (i.e., eating, socialization, and learning), and (5) both short- and long-term outcomes of a PME. With this PME framework, researchers may be able to enhance the effectiveness of nutrition interventions related to a PME, focusing on the factors in the conceptual framework as well as barriers associated with achieving these factors.

  10. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Binge-eating, which is out-of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can lead ...

  11. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibbritt David W

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. Methods The data comes from the baseline measurement of a one year follow-up study on obesity in 670 children attending kindergartens in HCMC. Dietary information for each child at the school and home settings was collected using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs, by interviewing teachers and parents or main caregivers. The average energy and nutrient intake in a day was calculated. The proportion of children with energy intake from macronutrients meeting or exceeding the recommendations was estimated based on the 2006 recommended daily allowance (RDA for Vietnamese children in this age group. Results The dietary intake of the participants contained more energy from protein and fat, particularly animal protein and fat, and less energy from carbohydrates, than the RDA. Most children (98.1% had mean energy intake from protein greater than the recommended level of 15%, and no child obtained energy from animal fat that was in accordance with the recommendation of less than 30% of the total fat intake. Nearly one half of children (46.5% consumed less than the advised range of mean energy intake from carbohydrate (60%–70%. Conclusion In this preschool child population in HCMC, in which obesity is emerging as major public health problem, there is an imbalance in dietary intake. Healthy eating programs need to be developed as a part of an obesity prevention program for young children in HCMC.

  12. A review of methods to assess parental feeding practices and preschool children's eating behavior: the need for further development of tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Oliveira, Andreia; Charles, Marie A; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Jones, Louise; Rigal, Natalie; Lopes, Carla; Manios, Yannis; Moreira, Pedro; Emmett, Pauline; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2012-10-01

    We reviewed tools developed to measure parental feeding practices and eating behavior and food intake or preferences of children aged 0 to 5 years. Two electronic literature databases (Medline and Psycinfo) were used to search for both observational and experimental studies in human beings. The articles selected for review were those presenting tools with data on internal consistency and/or test-retest reliability and/or construct validity. A total of 3,445 articles were retrieved, and further searching of reference lists and contact with experts produced an additional 18 articles. We identified three tools on the qualitative dimension of children's eating behavior, two tools on food intake or preferences, and one tool on parental feeding practices with rigorous testing of internal consistency, construct validity, and test-retest reliability. All other tools presented in this review need further evaluation of their validity or reliability. Because major gaps exist, we highlight the need for more tools on parental attention to children's hunger and satiety cues, and the need to evaluate the degree of control allowed to children younger than age 2 years in feeding events. Food avoidance (ie, behaviors or strategies to take away and to reject food) and food approach (ie, attractiveness for food stimuli) have not been assessed in children aged 12 to 24 months. Food preference tests based on sensory aspects rather than nutritional quality may be worth investigating. We identified a need for further evaluation of quality, especially test-retest reliability and construct validity, for most tools developed for use in studying children aged 0 to 5 years. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Now You See It, Now You Don't: The Preschool Child's Conception of Invisible Particles in the Context of Dissolving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Aynn B.; Rozin, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Preschoolers made judgments about solutions in which substances were dissolved. Preschoolers (1) distinguished visual appearance from underlying reality; (2) recognized the conservation of taste, smell, and dangerous properties; and (3) by age five recognized that matter can be decomposed into pieces too tiny to be seen by the naked eye. (BC)

  14. Preschool Teachers' Professional Training, Observational Feedback, Child-Centered Beliefs and Motivation: Direct and Indirect Associations with Social and Emotional Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah N.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Hur, Eunhye

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young children's social and emotional competence is a key predictor of their current and future academic and social success. Although preschool teachers are critical socializing agent of children's social and emotional development, we know little about factors associated with preschool teachers' social and emotional responsiveness.…

  15. Preschool Teachers' Professional Training, Observational Feedback, Child-Centered Beliefs and Motivation: Direct and Indirect Associations with Social and Emotional Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah N.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Hur, Eunhye

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young children's social and emotional competence is a key predictor of their current and future academic and social success. Although preschool teachers are critical socializing agent of children's social and emotional development, we know little about factors associated with preschool teachers' social and emotional responsiveness.…

  16. Being Healthy and Safe with McGruff and Scruff: Activity Book for Preschool, Head Start, and Other Child Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    This activity booklet is designed to help preschool teachers and caregivers prepare preschoolers to deal with issues of self-esteem, problem solving, health and safety awareness, and crime, drug, and violence prevention on developmentally appropriate levels. It provides background information on drug and violence prevention for 4- and 5-year-olds,…

  17. 北京市51名幼儿教师对预防儿童性侵犯问题认识的调查研究%Awareness of child sexual abuse preventionamong 5 1 preschool teachers in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶琦; 于卜一; 李景壹; 张文静; 冯亚男; 赵晓霞; 刘成凤; 邱辰

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解幼儿教师预防儿童性侵犯知识、态度和教育活动,为做好幼儿教师预防儿童性侵犯教育培训提供参考。方法:在3所幼儿园对同意参加这项调查的51名教师进行不记名自填式问卷调查。调查内容涉及相关知识态度和开展的教育活动,以及接受相关培训情况和参加培训的意愿。结果:在被调查的51名幼儿教师中,很少有人知道性侵犯者多为儿童熟悉的人(29.4%)和受到性侵犯的儿童通常身体上不会留下明显的痕迹(17.6%)。尽管多数教师赞成在幼儿园开展预防性侵犯教育(74.5%),但也担心这种教育可能会使幼儿对“性”知道得太多,对孩子产生不好的影响(56.9%)。大多数(86.3%)的教师表示愿意参加预防儿童性侵犯教育培训。结论:幼儿教师预防儿童性侵犯知识有限,急需对幼儿教师进行培训。%Objectives:To understand preschool teachers’knowledge,attitudes and practice of child sexu-al abuse (CSA)prevention education in Beijing,and the results will be used as a reference for the CSA prevention education training of preschool teachers in Beijing.Method:Fifty-one preschool teachers were surveyed by the self-administered questionnaires anonymously in 3 preschools of Beijing.The survey included relative knowledge, attitudes and education practice,as well as willingness of training participation.Result:Among the 5 1 preschool teachers,a few teachers knew that children were most likely to be sexually abused by people familiar to them (29.4%)and usually no obvious physical evidence could be found in a sexually abused child (17.6%).Most pre-school teachers (74.5%)approved of CSA prevention education in preschools.However,at the same time,56.9%of them expressed concern that this education might induce children to learn too much about‘sex’.86.3%of pre-school teachers expressed that they were willing to participate in the

  18. Mainstream Preschool Program: Working Model in Rural Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James Mackin

    1987-01-01

    The Richmond preschool is an innovative partnership between regular and special education. High school students taking a child care course act as aides to the preschool special education teacher and learn to apply and observe classroom-based theory and knowledge of child growth and development in a meaningful and concrete manner. (JHZ)

  19. What role can child-care settings play in obesity prevention? A review of the evidence and call for research efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne S; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    Given the widespread use of out-of-home child care and an all-time high prevalence of obesity among US preschool-aged children, it is imperative to consider the opportunities that child-care facilities may provide to reduce childhood obesity. This review examines the scientific literature on state regulations, practices and policies, and interventions for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, and for preventing obesity in preschool-aged children attending child care. Research published between January 2000 and July 2010 was identified by searching PubMed and MEDLINE databases, and by examining the bibliographies of relevant studies. Although the review focused on US child-care settings, interventions implemented in international settings were also included. In total, 42 studies were identified for inclusion in this review: four reviews of state regulations, 18 studies of child-care practices and policies that may influence eating or physical activity behaviors, two studies of parental perceptions and practices relevant to obesity prevention, and 18 evaluated interventions. Findings from this review reveal that most states lack strong regulations for child-care settings related to healthy eating and physical activity. Recent assessments of child-care settings suggest opportunities for improving the nutritional quality of food provided to children, the time children are engaged in physical activity, and caregivers' promotion of children's health behaviors and use of health education resources. A limited number of interventions have been designed to address these concerns, and only two interventions have successfully demonstrated an effect on child weight status. Recommendations are provided for future research addressing opportunities to prevent obesity in child-care settings.

  20. Relationship between parental perception and concern for child weight and influence on obesogenic parenting practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katheryn Swyden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents’ perception of whether children are overweight can influence parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to examine parental perception of and concern for child weight in relation to parenting practices. Methods: A cross-sectional study of parents (n=75 with pre-school age children. Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and Parenting Strategies for Obesogenic Behaviors Questionnaire. Perception (overweight vs. not overweight and concern (concerned vs. not concerned of child weight were examined in relation to individual strategies (Chi-square and feeding practices (independent t-tests. Findings were confirmed in analyses adjusted for child race, sex, and weight status. Results: Five percent of parents perceived their child as overweight; 61.3% of parents were concerned about their child becoming overweight; 36% of children were overweight. Parents who perceived their child as overweight agreed their child should always eat all of the food on his/her plate (75%, p=0.031. Concerned parents made sure their child did not eat too many sweets (89%, p=0.005, high fat foods (78%, p=0.001, or favorite foods (59%, p=0.009; kept some foods out of reach (76%, p=0.014; kept track of sweets eaten (87%, p=0.012 and television watched (83%, p=0.046. Parents with concern used restrictive feeding practices (3.6% vs. 2.9%, p=0.003 and had children with a higher BMI percentile (75.0 vs. 51.0, p=0.001. Adjustment for multiple analyses was more conservative (p≤0.003. Conclusions: Parents’ concern as to whether their child is overweight was associated with overall restrictive feeding practices and children with higher body mass. Individual strategies employed by parents with a perception of or concern for overweightness included restriction, monitoring, and pressure to eat.

  1. Low Family Income and Behavior Problems in Norwegian Preschoolers: Is Child Emotionality a Marker for Sensitivity of Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

    2016-04-01

    Poor children have higher rates of mental health problems than more affluent peers, also in progressive welfare states such as Norway. Temperamental characteristics may render some children more sensitive to the adverse influence of poor economy. This study examined the direct associations between family income-to-needs and mental health and assessed moderation by early temperamental characteristics (i.e., emotionality). Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, associations between income-to-needs across children's first 3 years and internalizing and externalizing problems when children were 5 years old were examined. Differential sensitivity to family income-to-needs was assessed by investigating how emotionality, when children were one-and-a-half and 3 years old, moderated these associations. Significant main effects of income-to-needs and emotionality and a significant interaction effect between income-to-needs and emotionality were found for externalizing problems, but not for internalizing problems. Children in poor families with an emotionally reactive temperament had higher scores on externalizing problems when they were 5 compared with their less emotionally reactive peers.

  2. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  3. Development and cognitive functions in Saudi pre-school children with feeding problems without underlying medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Moustafa A; Sehlo, Mohammad G; Al-Jasir, Albandari; El-Deek, Basem S

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess development and cognitive functions in relation to growth in Saudi pre-school children with feeding problems (FPs) without underlying medical disorders. Three hundred fifteen pre-school children with FPs (221 with normal growth (FP-N), 62 with failure to thrive (FTT) (FP-FTT), 32 with overweight (FP-OW)) and 100 healthy children (Ref group) underwent in-depth assessment by anthropometric measurements, dietetic history, Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale, Denver Developmental Screening test (DDST) and Stanford Binet fifth edition intelligence scales (SB-5). The main FPs detected in Saudi children were picky eating in 85.5% of FP-N group, infantile anorexia and poor eating in more than 90% of FP-FTT group and overeating in 53% of FP-OW group. FPs were not due to evident psychosocial factors but were mostly related to unhealthy feeding behaviours. FP-N children were still having normal growth parameters, but they had significantly lower growth parameters than healthy children. Failed screening with DDST was only more significantly recorded in FP-FTT children than in Ref children (P = 0.04). The overall IQ value by SB-5 was significantly lower in FP-FTT group compared with FP-N group (P = 0.01), in FP-FTT group compared with Ref group (P cognitive functions of pre-school children. Healthy feeding habits are mandatory to prevent serious consequences of FPs on growth and development of Saudi pre-school children. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. [Eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  5. Predicting successful introduction of novel fruit to preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jacqueline; Bennett, Carmel; Donohoe, Jessica; Rogers, Samantha; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-12-01

    Few children eat sufficient fruits and vegetables despite their established health benefits. The feeding practices used by parents when introducing novel foods to their children, and their efficacy, require further investigation. We aimed to establish which feeding strategies parents commonly use when introducing a novel fruit to their preschool-aged children and assess the effectiveness of these feeding strategies on children's willingness to try a novel fruit. Correlational design. Twenty-five parents and their children aged 2 to 4 years attended our laboratory and consumed a standardized lunch, including a novel fruit. Interactions between parent and child were recorded and coded. Pearson's correlations and multiple linear regression analyses. The frequency with which children swallowed and enjoyed the novel fruit, and the frequency of taste exposures to the novel fruit during the meal, were positively correlated with parental use of physical prompting and rewarding/bargaining. Earlier introduction of solids was related to higher frequency of child acceptance behaviors. The child's age at introduction of solids and the number of physical prompts displayed by parents significantly predicted the frequency of swallowing and enjoying the novel fruit. Age of introduction to solids and parental use of rewards/bargaining significantly predicted the frequency of taste exposures. Prompting a child to eat and using rewards or bargains during a positive mealtime interaction can help to overcome barriers to novel fruit consumption. Early introduction of solids is also associated with greater willingness to consume a novel fruit. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The association of television and video viewing with fast food intake by preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Sandora, Thomas J; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Goldmann, Donald A; Gillman, Matthew W

    2006-11-01

    To examine the extent to which television (TV) and video viewing is associated with consumption of fast food by preschool-age children. In a cross-sectional study of 240 parents of children ages 2.0 to 5.9 years, parents reported the number of hours their child watched TV/videos on an average weekday and weekend day in the past month; a daily, weighted average of TV/video viewing was then calculated. The main outcome was parents' report of their children's fast food intake, using the question, "How many times a week does your child eat at fast food restaurants such as McDonald's, Burger King, or Kentucky Fried Chicken?" dichotomized to (never/ or =1 time/wk). The association of TV/video viewing with fast food intake was evaluated by multiple logistic regression before and after adjusting for several potential confounders. Twenty-two percent of parents reported that their child ate at fast food restaurants at least once per week. After adjusting for parents' age, race/ethnicity, and household income as well as child's age and sex, for each 1-hour increase of TV/video watched per day, the odds ratio (OR) for consuming fast food > or =1 time per week was 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 2.49). After further adjustment for socio-environmental factors that might serve as proxies for the availability of healthy food options, such as parental time constraints and the availability and high cost of fresh fruits and vegetables in their neighborhoods, the OR for consuming fast food > or =1 time per week was minimally attenuated (OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 2.31). TV/video viewing was correlated with fast food consumption among preschool children in this study. Our findings raise the possibility that greater exposure to TV and videos may influence preschool children's consumption of unhealthful foods.

  7. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  8. Preschool Affects Longer Term Literacy and Numeracy: Results from a General Population Longitudinal Study in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Edward; Quinn, Louise; Sylva, Kathy; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The Effective Pre-school Provision in Northern Ireland (EPPNI) project is a longitudinal study of child development from 3 to 11 years. It is one of the first large-scale UK projects to investigate the effects of different kinds of preschool provision, and to relate experience in preschool to child development. In EPPNI, 683 children were randomly…

  9. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and eating behaviours in preadolescents: the mediating role of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Previous research suggests that parental controlling feeding practices are associated with children's overeating and undereating behaviours. However, there is limited research addressing the link between children's mental health symptoms (specifically anxiety and depression) and their reports of eating behaviours, despite knowledge that these psychopathologies often co-exist. The current study aimed to identify the relationships between preadolescents' perceptions of their parents' feeding practices with reports of their own anxiety, depression and eating behaviours. Three hundred and fifty-six children (mean age 8.75 years) completed questionnaires measuring their dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating, as well as their perceptions of their parents' use of pressure to eat and restriction of food. Children also completed measures of general anxiety, social anxiety and depression symptomology. Results indicated that preadolescents' eating behaviours were associated with their perceptions of the controlling feeding practices their parents used with them. Preadolescents' dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating behaviours were positively associated with their reports of general and social anxiety, and depression symptomology. In addition, perceptions of parental pressure to eat were positively related to preadolescents' anxiety and depression levels. Child anxiety (general and social) was found to mediate the relationship between perceptions of parental pressure to eat and preadolescents' eating behaviours (dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating). The results suggest that greater anxiety in preadolescents may explain why children who perceive greater pressure to eat by their parents are more likely to exhibit maladaptive eating behaviours.

  10. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  11. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  12. Enhancing self-regulation as a strategy for obesity prevention in Head Start preschoolers: the growing healthy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Alison L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly one in five 4-year-old children in the United States are obese, with low-income children almost twice as likely to be obese as their middle/upper-income peers. Few obesity prevention programs for low-income preschoolers and their parents have been rigorously tested, and effects are modest. We are testing a novel obesity prevention program for low-income preschoolers built on the premise that children who are better able to self-regulate in the face of psychosocial stressors may be less likely to eat impulsively in response to stress. Enhancing behavioral self-regulation skills in low-income children may be a unique and important intervention approach to prevent childhood obesity. Methods/design The Growing Healthy study is a randomized controlled trial evaluating two obesity prevention interventions in 600 low-income preschoolers attending Head Start, a federally-funded preschool program for low-income children. Interventions are delivered by community-based, nutrition-education staff partnering with Head Start. The first intervention (n = 200, Preschool Obesity Prevention Series (POPS, addresses evidence-based obesity prevention behaviors for preschool-aged children and their parents. The second intervention (n = 200 comprises POPS in combination with the Incredible Years Series (IYS, an evidence-based approach to improving self-regulation among preschool-aged children. The comparison condition (n = 200 is Usual Head Start Exposure. We hypothesize that POPS will yield positive effects compared to Usual Head Start, and that the combined intervention (POPS + IYS addressing behaviors well-known to be associated with obesity risk, as well as self-regulatory capacity, will be most effective in preventing excessive increases in child adiposity indices (body mass index, skinfold thickness. We will evaluate additional child outcomes using parent and teacher reports and direct assessments of food-related self

  13. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group.

  14. Impact of nutrition education through Child-to-Child approach on diet behaviors among preschool children%“儿童与儿童”模式对学龄前儿童营养教育饮食行为改变效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董媛; 王佳蕾; 吴玲玲; 蔡美琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of nutrition education through Child-to-Child (CTC)approach on the diet behaviors among preschool children.Methods Two kindergartens in Shanghai were selected as intervention kindergarten and control kindergarten respectively.One hundred and twelve children in higher grade in the intervention kindergarten were served as experiment group,who received nutrition education from kindergarten teachers,and disseminated nutrition knowledge to the other 195 children in lower grade in intervention kindergarten (affected group) through CTC approach.Children in control kindergarten in the same grade were served as experiment group controls (n =74) and affected group controls (n =207) respectively,and no nutrition education intervention was conducted.Self-designed Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP) questionnaire was adopted to evaluate the changes in nutrition and healthy diet knowledge,attitude towards food and nutrition and diet behaviors before and after intervention.Results After intervention,the KAP scores in experiment group and affected group increased to some extent,the pass rates of score of nutrition and healthy diet knowledge significantly increased (P < 0.01),and the attitude towards food and nutrition and diet behaviors improved.After intervention,the incidences of picky eating in experiment group and affected group were significantly lower than those in the corresponding controls (P < 0.05 for both),the incidences of milk consumption every day in both groups were significantly higher than those in the corresponding controls (P < 0.05,P < 0.01),and the incidence of having balanced breakfast in affected group was significantly higher than that in affected group controls (P < 0.05).Conclusion Application of CTC approach in nutrition education may yield favorable effect and advantage in promoting diet behaviors among preschool children.%目的 评价“儿童与儿童”(CTC)营养教育模式对学龄前儿童饮

  15. Fantasy Orientation Constructs and Related Executive Function Development in Preschool: Developmental Benefits to Executive Functions by Being a Fantasy-Oriented Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, Jillian M.; O'Brien, Christopher T.; McInnis, Melissa A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Barber, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored unique constructs of fantasy orientation and whether there are developmental benefits for fantasy-oriented children. By age 3, children begin developing executive functions, with some children exhibiting high fantasy orientation in their cognitions and behaviors. Preschoolers ("n" = 106) completed fantasy orientation…

  16. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  17. Evaluacion de la Interaccion Adulto-Nino en Aulas Pre-escolares de Concepcion, Chile. [Evaluation Adult-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms of Concepcion, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen De G., Maria Elena; Herrera G., Maria Olivia; Villalon B., Malva; Suzuky S., Emy

    2000-01-01

    Presents findings from investigation of the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, CIS (1989), in preschools in Concepcion, Chile. Demonstrates the reliability and validity of the scale to evaluate the interaction of the childhood educator with young children, suggesting changes to the scale. Notes differences found for school type.…

  18. Fantasy Orientation Constructs and Related Executive Function Development in Preschool: Developmental Benefits to Executive Functions by Being a Fantasy-Oriented Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, Jillian M.; O'Brien, Christopher T.; McInnis, Melissa A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Barber, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored unique constructs of fantasy orientation and whether there are developmental benefits for fantasy-oriented children. By age 3, children begin developing executive functions, with some children exhibiting high fantasy orientation in their cognitions and behaviors. Preschoolers ("n" = 106) completed fantasy orientation…

  19. Evaluacion de la Interaccion Adulto-Nino en Aulas Pre-escolares de Concepcion, Chile. [Evaluation Adult-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms of Concepcion, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen De G., Maria Elena; Herrera G., Maria Olivia; Villalon B., Malva; Suzuky S., Emy

    2000-01-01

    Presents findings from investigation of the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, CIS (1989), in preschools in Concepcion, Chile. Demonstrates the reliability and validity of the scale to evaluate the interaction of the childhood educator with young children, suggesting changes to the scale. Notes differences found for school type.…

  20. Enjoyment of Learning and Learning Effort in Primary School: The Significance of Child Individual Characteristics and Stimulation at Home and at Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, David; Lehrl, Simone; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The present paper was written under the auspices of the interdisciplinary research group "Educational Processes, Competence Development, and Selection Decisions at Preschool and Primary School Age (BiKS)" (FOR 543), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The surveys were conceptualised and supervised as part of the developmental…

  1. Remission of eating disorder during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder during pregnancy is associated with a diversity of adverse outcomes and is of potential danger to both mother and child. There is, however, a tendency for remission of the eating disorder during pregnancy with improvement of symptoms such as restrictive dieting, binging and purgin...

  2. CURRICULUM GUIDE, CHILD CARE CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    CALIFORNIA CHILD CARE CENTERS WERE ESTABLISHED IN 1943 TO SUPPLY SERVICES TO CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS. THE CHILD CARE PROGRAM PROVIDES, WITHIN NURSERY AND SCHOOLAGE CENTERS, CARE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION FOR PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CHILD CENTER PROGRAM IS BASED UPON THE BELIEF THAT EACH CHILD…

  3. Associations between characteristics of the home food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyse Rebecca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood is critical to the development of lifelong food habits. Given the high proportion of children with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, identification of modifiable factors associated with higher consumption may be useful in developing interventions to address this public health issue. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the home food environment that are associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of Australian preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with 396 parents of 3 to 5 year-old children attending 30 preschools within the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Children's fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using a valid and reliable subscale from the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Associations were investigated between children's fruit and vegetable intake and characteristics of the home food environment including parental role-modeling, parental providing behaviour, fruit and vegetable availability, fruit and vegetable accessibility, pressure to eat, family eating policies and family mealtime practices. Characteristics of the home food environment that showed evidence of an association with children's fruit and vegetable consumption in simple regression models were entered into a backwards stepwise multiple regression analysis. The multiple regression analysis used generalised linear mixed models, controlled for parental education, household income and child gender, and was adjusted for the correlation between children's fruit and vegetable consumption within a preschool. Results The multiple regression analysis found positive associations between children's fruit and vegetable consumption and parental fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.005, fruit and vegetable availability (p = 0.006 and accessibility (p = 0.012, the number of occasions each day that parents provided their child with fruit and vegetables

  4. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as little as possible. Others with anorexia may start binge eating and purging — eating a lot of food and then trying to get rid of the calories by making themselves throw up, using some type of medication or laxatives, or exercising excessively, or ...

  5. Mean F0 values obtained through standard phrase pronunciation compared with values obtained from the normal work environment: a study on teacher and child voices performed in a preschool environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Fredric; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Sjöholm, Jonas; Waye, Kerstin Persson

    2010-05-01

    Mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) values are often used in research on vocal load. In this study, we examine how the mean F(0) differs when evaluated through pronouncing a standard phrase as compared to the mean F(0) obtained in a real work/play environment. We also examine how the F(0) values change throughout the day. The study was performed in a preschool, nine adult female preschool teachers and 11 children participated. The participants wore a digital recorder equipped with an accelerometer, which was attached to the neck. In the study, the participant first pronounced a standard phrase in a controlled environment; thereafter, the voice was recorded in the environment where both children and adults normally reside throughout the day, denoted by the work/play environment. For each participant, the procedure was repeated four times throughout the day. Analyses showed that the F(0) values of the children's and adult's voices were significantly higher when recorded in the work/play environment as compared to the controlled environment. The average difference was 36 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. Previous studies have shown an increase of F(0) over the day for teachers. In this study, an increase between morning and afternoon values was found amounting to 8 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. For the child population, this increase was statistically significant. However, the total changes over the day revealed a somewhat more complex scheme, with an increase of F(0) in the morning, a decrease during lunch, and finally an increase in the afternoon. This pattern was verified statistically for the joint child-adult population.

  6. Intervention effect comparison of lecture, parent-child education and network on family unintentional injury among pre-school children' s parents%成都市三种形式健康教育对儿童家庭意外伤害干预效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕; 刘熹; 夏劲节; 田红梅; 邱孟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare intervention effect of lecture, parent-child education and network on family un-intentional injury among pre-school children' s parents, and provide suggestions for reducing family unintentional injury inci-dence. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 1747 pre-school children' s parents in 9 kindergar-tens to join the intervention. Effectiveness evaluation was carried out after 1 week. Results Lecture, parent-child educa-tion and network interventions showed different effect on knowledge and behavior changes. The awareness rates of furniture supplies safety and macrobiotic knowledge in network intervention group were 15. 37% and 34. 63% , higher than that of oth-er two groups. The rate of correct drug select in lecture group (12. 63% ) was highest. The prevalence of eating behavior in parent-child education group (33. 28% ) and network group (32. 43% ) were higher than that in lecture group (30. 62% ). The rates of correct behaviors of using scissors and eating habit in network were 34. 29% and 86. 66% , respectively. The rate of no playing in kitchen in lecture group (29. 07% ) was highest in three groups (P <0. 05). Conclusion Internet in-tervention in health education plays an important role in reducing family unintentional injury. Various methods should be car-ried out among pre-school children to help them establish safety habit,and then reduce the rate of unintentional injury in fu-ture.%目的 比较授课、亲子教育及网络干预方式对儿童家庭意外伤害的干预效果,为降低儿童家庭意外伤害发生率提供建议.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,选取成都市9所幼儿园的幼儿家长1747名参加干预活动,在干预后1周采用问卷进行效果评价.结果 在安全知识中,家居用品安全检查最重要的五方面和抗生素治疗的病原类型,网络干预组知晓率最高,分别为15.37%和34.63%;药物的正确选择上,教师讲解组知晓率最高(12.63

  7. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  8. Work of the Psychologist on Correction of Senior Preschool Children Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Marina V.; Bykova, Svetlana S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is due to the need of self-correction of senior preschoolers. Adequate self-esteem of preschoolers will give us an opportunity to prepare them for school more effectively, as well as to create some positive character traits. The preschool age is the initial period of development of a child's self-esteem. This is the most…

  9. Problems of computerization in the brunch of preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolyaka А.Е.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of computer technologies was probed in preschool education. 27 pedagogical workers of child's preschool establishments took part in research. The differentiated approach is rotined in the selection of facilities of physical education of children of preschool age. The basic requirements are selected to the computer programs. Found out disparity between enhanceable demand on the computer programs and their introduction in an educational educate process. Multilevel classification and sequence is set in the selection of mobile games.

  10. "What do you think of when I say the word 'snack'?" Towards a cohesive definition among low-income caregivers of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younginer, Nicholas A; Blake, Christine E; Davison, Kirsten K; Blaine, Rachel E; Ganter, Claudia; Orloski, Alexandria; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2016-03-01

    Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3-5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60-90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks.

  11. Effects of health education on improvement of eating behavior among pre-school children in Shenzheng City%深圳市学龄前儿童饮食行为问题的健康教育效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏欣; 王春丽; 吴维超; 王涛; 庄小宣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluation of the effect of health education to improve diet behaviors among preschool children and their parents’cognitive attitudes towards diet behaviors.Methods Using a stratified cluster sampling method, the parents were investigated by questionnaire to find the children with diet behaviors problems.Six-months of health educa-tion for the children and their parents were carried out.After intervention,the parents were investigated by questionnaire a-gain,the changes with the diet behaviors of preschool children and their parents’cognitive attitudes were analyzed.Results Through health education,the diet behaviors of preschool children were improved.After the intervention,the proportions of picky eaters,eating slowly,snacking before meals,playing while eating,no-fixed eating place,refusing to try new foods and no swallowing eating were decreased from 67.2%,24.0%,13.6%,26.8%,13.2%,28.4% and 19.6% to 48.3%,17.0%,6.0%,17.7%,4.7%,21.5% and 13.6%,the difference had statistically significance.Improved the nutritional knowledge of parents,and changed their cognitive attitudes,the difference had statistically signification.Conclusion Carrying out the health education for the children and their parents can improved diet behaviors in pre-school children,the diet-related health education should be strengthened in more ways to cultivate children’s good diet behaviors.%目的:评价健康教育对改善学龄前儿童饮食行为和家长对饮食行为认知态度的效果。方法采用分层整群抽样的方法,对学龄前儿童家长进行问卷调查,找出存在饮食行为问题儿童,对其及其家长进行6个月的健康教育,再次问卷调查,分析干预前后儿童饮食行为和家长认知态度的改变。结果共317人,其中男童176人,女童141人通过健康教育,学龄前儿童饮食行为问题得到改善,干预前的挑食(67.2%)、吃饭慢(24.0%)、饭前吃零食(13.6

  12. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effective strategy is to prevent disordered eating attitudes in early childhood. Restriction and pressure are not effective strategies in developing healthy eating.

  13. Eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, Janet; Claudino, Angélica M; Zucker, Nancy

    2010-02-13

    This Seminar adds to the previous Lancet Seminar about eating disorders, published in 2003, with an emphasis on the biological contributions to illness onset and maintenance. The diagnostic criteria are in the process of review, and the probable four new categories are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. These categories will also be broader than they were previously, which will affect the population prevalence; the present lifetime prevalence of all eating disorders is about 5%. Eating disorders can be associated with profound and protracted physical and psychosocial morbidity. The causal factors underpinning eating disorders have been clarified by understanding about the central control of appetite. Cultural, social, and interpersonal elements can trigger onset, and changes in neural networks can sustain the illness. Overall, apart from studies reporting pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder, advances in treatment for adults have been scarce, other than interest in new forms of treatment delivery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  15. The interactions of mothers with eating disorders with their toddlers: identifying broader risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Arnow, Katherine D; Lock, James D

    2016-08-01

    The connection between maternal eating disorders and feeding and eating problems among their children has been substantially demonstrated. This pilot study focused on the interactions between mothers with eating disorders and their toddlers in non-feeding situations. Twenty-eight dyads of mothers with prenatal eating disorders and their toddlers were compared to a case-matched control group with no eating disorder. Maternal current eating and co-occurring psychopathology, children's symptoms and mother-child interactions were measured. Mothers with eating disorders were less sensitive to their children, tried to control their children's behaviors more, and were less happy during mother-child interactions. The children in the maternal eating disorder group were rated as less responsive to their mothers and their mothers also reported more behavioral problems than those in the control group. Findings imply that maternal eating disorders may be linked with a wide range of adverse maternal and child behaviors beyond those associated with eating.

  16. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  17. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  18. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be Active, Eat Right" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-06-06

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health.

  19. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydian Veldhuis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582 and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82, and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55. Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood health.

  20. Shining Stars: Preschoolers Get Ready to Read--How Parents Can Help Their Preschoolers Get Ready to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Elizabeth; Adler, C. Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Parents are their child's first and most important teacher. This booklet introduces parents to techniques for helping their preschoolers learn to read. Included is a story about how one mother and father encourage their children to read, a sample reading activity, and a checklist for parents of preschoolers. This brochure is based on "A Child…

  1. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This kind of research can help guide the development of new means of diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. Treatments and Therapies Adequate nutrition, reducing excessive exercise, and stopping purging behaviors are the foundations of treatment. Treatment plans are ...

  2. EATING EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Rudakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating epilepsy (EE is one of the types of reflex epilepsy. The authors give the definition, classification position, possible pathogenic mechanisms and etiological factors associated with EE, as well as the semiology of seizures, the data of neuroimaging and electroencephalography and approaches to patient management and drug treatment. They also describe their observation of an 11-month-old girl with symptomatic focal temporal lobe epilepsy with focal dialeptic seizures provoked by eating.

  3. Eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  4. An Immediate and Long-Term Study of a Temperament and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Based Community Program for Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pade, Hadas; Taube, Daniel O.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Reiser, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The immediate and long-term effects of a Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) derived program offered at a Kaiser Permanente facility were evaluated. There were 73 participants in the initial sample and 23 in the 5-6 year follow-up sample. Child behaviors improved significantly immediately following treatment and some improvements were…

  5. [The structure of the nourishment of preschoolers during the weekend (short report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapeshkina, N V

    2014-01-01

    To study the feeding of 190 children aged 3-7 years attending 4 preschool educational institutions in the city Mezhdurechensk, Kemerovo region, at home on weekends questionnaires were conducted by the parents. Studies have shown that multiple meals in 57% of children was 5 times a day, 43% of children--4 times a day, including snacks; 97% of children have at breakfast main dish, drinks and sandwiches and only 3% of children have breakfast that did not meet standards for structure and was insufficient and inadequate to cover subsistence expenses of energy, because consisted of a sandwich and a drink. Only 7% of preschooler's lunch met recommendations on its structure and included the first, main dish, salad and drink, lunch of 93% of children included only one hot dish (first course, or the second). Dinner in volume, compared with the recommended standards, was redundant on average 57% of preschoolers since consisted of sandwiches, salad, meat dish and side, drink. Children's snacking during the day included the following suite of products: sandwiches (with sausage, cheese, butter), tea with sweets (candies, chocolate), fermented milk drink, fruits. When examining the frequency of meals during the day on weekends, there is a tendency to use the same dishes (what children ate for lunch, they eat at dinner on the same day, and then for breakfast on Sunday). The study of the structure of meals in pre-school children at home during the days of the week (evening meal) found that in most cases (67.8%) their dinner was irrational, the structure was identical to the structure of the adults of the family (fried dishes: fried pies, fried potatoes, sodas). Irrationally organized meals for children at the weekend showed inadequate knowledge of parents on the healthy diet for their child at home.

  6. Beyond the dinner table: who's having breakfast, lunch and dinner family meals and which meals are associated with better diet quality and BMI in pre-school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Sherwood, Nancy E; Mitchell, Nathan; Heerman, William J; Barkin, Shari; Matheson, Donna; Levers-Landis, Carolyn E; French, Simone A

    2017-09-14

    Having frequent family dinners is associated with better diet quality in children; however, it is unknown whether the frequency of certain family meal types (i.e. dinner) is more strongly associated with better child weight and diet quality compared with other meal types (i.e. breakfast, lunch). Thus, the current study examined the frequency of eating breakfast, lunch or dinner family meals and associations with pre-school children's overall diet quality (HEI-2010) and BMI percentile. Cross-sectional baseline data (2012-2014) from two randomized controlled childhood obesity prevention trials, NET-Works and GROW, were analysed together. Studies were carried out in community and in-home settings in urban areas of Minnesota and Tennessee, USA. Parent-child (ages 2-5 years) pairs from Minnesota (n 222 non-Hispanics; n 312 Hispanics) and Tennessee (n 545 Hispanics; n 55 non-Hispanics) participated in the study. Over 80 % of families ate breakfast or lunch family meals at least once per week. Over 65 % of families ate dinner family meals ≥5 times/week. Frequency of breakfast family meals and total weekly family meals were significantly associated with healthier diet quality for non-Hispanic pre-school children (PFamily meal frequency by meal type was not associated with BMI percentile for non-Hispanic or Hispanic pre-school children. Breakfast family meal frequency and total weekly family meal frequency were associated with healthier diet quality in non-Hispanic pre-school children but not in Hispanic children. Longitudinal research is needed to clarify the association between family meal type and child diet quality and BMI percentile.

  7. The Intergenerational Congruence of Mothers' and Preschoolers' Narrative Affective Content and Narrative Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Grey, Izabela; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    Intergenerational congruence of mothers' and preschoolers' narratives about the mother-child relationship was examined in a sample of 198 Hispanic (59.1%), Black (19.2%), and White (21.7%) mothers and their preschool child. Mothers' narratives were obtained with the Five Minute Speech Sample and were coded for negative and positive affective…

  8. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  9. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  10. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...... universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... poorer child outcomes....

  11. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  12. DASH Eating Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Description of the DASH Eating Plan DASH is a flexible and balanced eating plan that helps create a heart-healthy eating style for life. The DASH eating plan requires no special foods and instead provides daily ...

  13. Connections Among Parental Mental Health, Stress, Child Routines, and Early Emotional Behavioral Regulation of Preschool Children in Low-Income Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michaela L. Zajicek-Farber; Lynn M. Mayer; Laura G. Daughtery

    2012-01-01

    Reducing parenting stress and enhancing parental engagement in child routines are theorized as two important factors for ameliorating effects that maternal depression exerts on young children’s development...

  14. Child Day Care Centers, Day_care_preschool_providers, Published in 2008, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as...

  15. Child Day Care Centers, Day Care Center point layer, combined with pre-school points., Published in 2005, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Reno County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. It is...

  16. Eating as the "Means" Activity in a Contingency: Effects on Young Children's Food Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps; And Others

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the effects of instrumental eating on food preferences, 45 preschool children were assigned to either instrumental eating or control conditions. Preference data obtained before and after a series of snack sessions (consisting of milk beverages) demonstrated a significant negative shift in preference for the instrumental groups.…

  17. Gendering in one Icelandic preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Alda Hardardottir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed light on gendering in preschool. It analyzes the opinions and beliefs of preschool teachers with regard to boys and girls in one Icelandic preschool, and how gender performative acts are manifested in the preschool’s children. The preschool, which was observed for one school year, comprised 60 children, aged 18 months to five years, and 20 employees, of which eight were qualified teachers. The research material is analyzed in terms of Judith Butler’s gender constructivism. Butler contends that gender is constituted by, and is a product of, society, and that the individual’s empowerment is therefore limited in relation to society, with individuals typically seeking to identify themselves with the dominant norms concerning gender. The main conclusions suggest that “gendering” is prominent within the preschool. There is a strong tendency among the preschool teachers to classify the children into categories of boys/masculine and girls/feminine, and specific norms direct the children into the dominant feminine and masculine categories, thus maintaining and reinforcing their gender stereotypes. The children used symbols such as colors, locations and types of play as means to instantiate the “girling” and the “boying”. These findings are consistent with previous Nordic research and indicate a prevailing essentialist perspective towards both girls and boys. The originality of the research, however, lies in focusing on children’s gender from the individual’s perspective and how the individual child generally enacts gender performatively within the confines of society’s norms.

  18. Incidence of eating disorder beheviors in child and adolescent´s mental health unit H.G. Cuidad Real year 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tejeda Serrano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Children´s Mental Health Unit is the ambulatory reference device for the evaluation and treatment of mental disorders in children (0-18 years. One role of nursing is to collect and analyze epidemiological data on the unit. Within the social upheavals that have aroused more interest in the recent past are the eating disorders (ED, which often pose a challenge in the care capacity of the devices of Mental Health that may be overwhelmed, not only the greater number of patients in recent years, but above all for the welfare needs of these patients.

  19. Parent-Child Interactions and Obesity Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Aksan, Nazan; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity research has generally not examined multiple layers of parent-child relationships during weight-related activities such as feeding, eating and play. A literature review was conducted to locate empirical studies that measured parent-child interactions and child eating and child weight variables; five papers met the inclusion criteria…

  20. Emotional eating: eating when emotional or emotional about eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D; Evers, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which self-reported emotional eating is a predictor of unhealthy snack consumption or, alternatively, an expression of beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating derived from concerns about eating behaviour. Three studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 151) and Study 2 (N = 184) investigated the predictive validity of emotional eating compared to habit strength in snack consumption, employing 7-day snack diaries. Both studies demonstrated that snack consumption was not predicted by emotional eating but depended on the habit of unhealthy snacking and on restraint eating. As emotional eating was not a significant predictor of snack intake, Study 3 addressed the alternative hypothesis of emotional eating being an expression of concerns about eating behaviour. Results from this cross-sectional survey (N = 134) showed that emotional eating was significantly associated with several concerns. Together, these studies show that snack intake is better predicted by habit strength and restraint eating than by emotional eating. Additionally, the results suggest that in normal-weight women the concept of emotional eating may not capture the tendency to eat under emotional conditions, but rather reflects beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating.

  1. Eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  2. Eating insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards eating

  3. Eating Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hi, my friends! How do you like Chinese food? When you eat out in a restaurant in China, have you ever had any problems because of the language barrier? If so, do not worry. The following words, phrases and dialogues can be of help to you.

  4. Your Child's Development: 1 Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 1 Month KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: ...

  5. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 3 Years KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: ...

  6. Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farah

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5% or bulimia (15.4 % was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 % among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis.

  7. Southeast Kansas Demonstration Child Development Center. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, Joan I.

    The development of 10 preschool children who attended the Southeast Kansas Demonstration Child Development Center was compared with the development of 10 preschool children who did not attend a child care center to ascertain the value of the center's program. Both groups were tested with the Denver Developmental Screening Test at the beginning and…

  8. Aiding Cognitive Growth in Disadvantaged Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis; Sunley, Robert M.

    Progress during the first two years (1967-1968 and 1968-1969) of a three-year home-based, mother-child intervention program called the Verbal Interaction Project is described. The project was planned for the cognitive enrichment of preschoolers 2 to 4 years old, from lower income families. The program utilized specially trained home visitors,…

  9. Correlates of Attraction Among Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael B.

    The generalizability of several variables which have been related to attraction among adults to preschool children was investigated. It was found that perceived physical attractiveness, perceived proximity, and familiarity are all significantly positively correlated with how popular a child is in his nursery school class. (Author)

  10. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  11. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers Rachel F; Paxton Susan J; Massey Robin; Campbell Karen J; Wertheim Eleanor H; Skouteris Helen; Gibbons Kay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors ...

  12. Child Care Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  13. Verbal Interaction Project: Aiding Cognitive Growth in Disadvantaged Preschoolers through the Mother-Child Home Program; July 1, 1967 - August 31, 1970. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The design, procedure, and results of research conducted for three years in the Verbal Interaction Project are discussed. The major hypothesis tested was that the general and verbal intelligence of low-income subjects exposed to stimulation of verbal interaction in mother-child dyads would rise significantly. A second hypothesis tested was that…

  14. Prognosis and Continuity of Child Mental Health Problems from Preschool to Primary School: Results of a Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Muller, Jorg M.; Furniss, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    In a four-year longitudinal study, changes in and continuity of behavioral and emotional problems were examined in 814 subjects from kindergarten to primary school. Mental health problems were assessed by means of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The distribution of the CBCL broadband groups revealed a high level of continuity of internalizing…

  15. Parent-Child Interactions among Low-Income Mexican American Parents and Preschoolers: Do Clinic-Referred Families Differ from Nonreferred Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June

    2010-01-01

    This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive…

  16. Effects of an Obesity Prevention Intervention on Physical Activity Among Preschool Children: The CHILE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Theresa H; Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; O'Donald, Elena R; Sanders, Sarah G; Sheche, Judith N

    2016-09-01

    Background Limited research addresses interventions to increase physical activity among American Indian and Hispanic preschool-aged children living in rural areas. We examined the impact of a Head Start-based intervention (Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise [CHILE]) on physical activity at home. Method Sixteen Head Start centers in predominantly Hispanic or American Indian communities were group randomized to the six-component intervention or a comparison group for 2 years. Structured surveys were administered at four assessment times to a convenience sample of caregivers of 655 children in the study. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effects of the intervention on physical activity. Results The relative change in physical activity in the intervention group compared with the comparison group over the 2-year period was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [1.02, 2.38]; p = .04). Among specific promoted activities (ball playing, dancing, active games, jumping, and walking), dancing increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison group (2.9; 95% confidence interval [1.2, 7.1]; p = .02). Conclusions The CHILE intervention was effective at increasing physical activity at home in preschool children in priority populations. Future research should focus on increasing family involvement and strengthening messaging about physical activity in these populations.

  17. Parenting Practices and Obesity in Low-Income African-American Preschoolers. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott W.

    2005-01-01

    This study developed and administered a questionnaire to identify feeding practices among low-income African-American mothers and eating behaviors in their preschool children that are associated with childhood obesity. The findings do not appear to implicate feeding practices to childhood obesity in this sample of preschoolers. However, before…

  18. “Do You Wanna Breathe or Eat?”: Parent Perspectives on Child Health Consequences of Food Insecurity, Trade-Offs, and Toxic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Molly; Rabinowich, Jenny; Ettinger de Cuba, Stephanie; Cutts, Diana Becker; Chilton, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study among 51 parents of young children under age four investigated how parents that report marginal, low and very low food security characterize how trade-offs associated with food insecurity affect parents’ mental health and child well-being. Methods We carried out 51 semi-structured audio-recorded interviews after participants responded to a survey regarding food security status and maternal depressive symptoms. Each interview was transcribed. Through a content analysis, w...

  19. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.

  20. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  1. Social Skills Development for Preschool Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrenkopf, Carol; And Others

    Social skills development of preschool children with visual impairments is discussed. A review of the literature considers the field of child development and social cognition, the effect of blindness on child development, and the effects of blindness on social cognition. Three areas concerning the development of social skills for children with…

  2. Parents and Schools as Partners in Preschool Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Describes a successful, cost-effective program for at-risk preschoolers designed to improve youngsters' test scores and social habits and develop parents' skills. The Mascoutah, Illinois, program involves guided child observation by parents, individually designed home activities for kindergarten readiness, parent-child cooperation, and a high…

  3. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other…

  4. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  5. The Long Arm of Childhood: Preschool Associations with Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, Terri J.; Hoyt, Lindsay Till

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines the extent to which participation in preschool at age 4 is associated with blood pressure, body mass index, and awakening cortisol at age 15. We capitalize on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to examine differences in adolescent health…

  6. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  7. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  8. Predicting Preschool Effortful Control from Toddler Temperament and Parenting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed whether maternal behavior and emotional tone moderated the relationship between toddler temperament and preschooler's effortful control. Maternal behavior and emotional tone were observed during a parent-child competing demands task when children were 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at 2 years…

  9. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  10. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. A Little Bit of the Blues: Low-Level Symptoms of Maternal Depression and Classroom Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of child…

  12. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  13. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Minh Do

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3 in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2 in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  14. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T K; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9-23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  15. Relationship of intake of plant-based foods with 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity and food neophobia in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, M; Nakamura, K; Tamai, Y; Wada, K; Sahashi, Y; Watanabe, K; Ohtsuchi, S; Ando, K; Nagata, C

    2012-01-01

    Diets rich in plant-based foods such as vegetables, fruits and soy foods have been suggested to have beneficial effects on health. However, phytochemicals contained in plant-based foods are generally bitter and acrid. We investigated whether intake of vegetables, fruits and soy foods is associated with sensitivity to bitterness and reluctance to eat new foods (food neophobia) in Japanese preschool children. Subjects of this cross-sectional study were healthy Japanese, 167 boys and 156 girls, aged 4-6 years. Intake of vegetables, fruits and soy foods was estimated from 3-day dietary records. Subjects were classified as either tasters or non-tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) based on their ability to taste 0.56 mmol/l PROP. Information on each child's age, height, weight, food neophobia status and food variety, as well as maternal diet and parental control over the child's eating, was obtained by a parent-administered questionnaire. Food neophobia was assessed using the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). A high intake of vegetables was significantly associated with a low CFNS score in boys after controlling for covariates (P=0.0008). Among the boys, soy food intake was significantly higher in PROP non-tasters than in tasters, except those with low CFNS scores (P=0.0019). High intake of soy foods was significantly associated with a low neophobia score in PROP tasters but not in non-tasters (P=0.0024). These data suggest that sensitivity to bitter taste and food neophobia may influence the consumption of vegetables and soy foods among Japanese preschool boys.

  16. Kids and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  17. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Healthy Dining Hall Eating KidsHealth > For Teens > Healthy Dining Hall Eating ... likely to eat. previous continue Overcoming Common Dining Hall Mistakes Even the most attentive diners can still ...

  18. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  19. Laboratory-Based Studies of Eating among Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Haynos, Ann F.; Kotler, Lisa A.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits are often inconsistent and limited by recall and other biases,...

  20. Night Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...

  1. Children's Cortisol and the Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisonbee, Jared A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Payne, Amie Lapp; Granger, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships were examined as predictors of cortisol change in preschool children. Saliva for assays was collected from one hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds (101 boys) in the mornings and afternoons on 2 days at child care, and before and after a series of challenging tasks and a teacher-child interaction session outside the…

  2. Caregiver-Child Relationships as a Context for Continuity in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on one aspect of continuity--the caregiver-child relationship--within a larger global study of continuity in child care based at a university-affiliated child care center. Case studies are presented of two toddler boys, followed as they transitioned from their infant classroom to the preschool classroom at the age of…

  3. Child-Care Subsidies and Child-Care Choices over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    The evidence to date on the federal child-care subsidy program's effect on preschool child-care quality is mixed. However, an as-yet untested outcome of subsidy receipt is subsequent child-care choice. Specifically, it is possible that subsidy receipt in toddlerhood increases the likelihood of attending other publicly funded preschool…

  4. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  5. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  6. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappmann, Jessica L; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C; Cohen, Deborah A; Davis, Sally M

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Head Start centers. No significant relationships emerged between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity, certain feeding behaviors, or public food assistance utilization. Additional research is necessary to understand relationships between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity status, use of public assistance benefits, and certain feeding behaviors among rural preschool-aged children in predominantly Hispanic and American Indian communities.

  7. Perceived parental control of food intake is related to external, restrained and emotional eating in 7-12-year-old boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Bazelier, Francien G

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence of external, restrained and emotional eating and the relationship of these disturbed types of eating behaviours with perceived parental control of food intake (pressure to eat and restriction) in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys and girls (n = 596). External eating turned out to be the most prevalent disturbed eating behaviour for boys and girls, followed by restrained eating and emotional eating. Sex differences were found in external and restrained eating. For the boys, perceived pressure to eat was positively related to emotional and external eating. For both sexes, perceived restriction to eat was negatively related to emotional and external eating and positively related to restrained eating. This led to the conclusion that perceived pressure to eat has a disruptive effect on a child's self-regulating mechanism of food intake, particularly so for boys, whereas perceived restriction can also have a positive effect.

  8. Australian Cerebral Palsy Child Study: protocol of a prospective population based study of motor and brain development of preschool aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Jordan, Rachel; Pareezer, Laura; Moodie, Anne; Finn, Christine; Luther, Belinda; Arnfield, Evyn; Pym, Aaron; Craven, Alex; Beall, Paula; Weir, Kelly; Kentish, Megan; Wynter, Meredith; Ware, Robert; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; McKinlay, Lynne; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2013-06-11

    describes a large population-based study of early motor development and brain structure in a representative sample of preschool aged children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. The results of this study will be published in peer reviewed journals and presented at relevant international conferences. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN1261200169820).

  9. Promoting Lifelong Healthy Eating: An Overview. CDC's Guidelines for School Health Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.

    This publication describes the importance of promoting healthy eating habits among school-age children, discussing the benefits of healthy eating (e.g., prevents child and adolescent health problems and health problems later in life) and noting the consequences of unhealthy eating (e.g., hungry childen are more likely to have behavioral,…

  10. Societal Burden and Correlates of Acute Gastroenteritis in Families with Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lapo Mughini-Gras; Roan Pijnacker; Moniek Heusinkveld; Remko Enserink; Rody Zuidema; Erwin Duizer; Titia Kortbeek; Wilfrid van Pelt

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infection morbidity remains high amongst preschool children in developed countries. We investigated the societal burden (incidence, healthcare utilization, and productivity loss) and correlates of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in families with preschoolers. Monthly for 25 months, 2000 families reported AGE symptoms and related care, productivity loss, and risk exposures for one preschooler and one parent. Amongst 8768 child-parent pairs enrolled, 7.3% parents and 17.4% children...

  11. INFLUENCE OF PROGRAMMED EXERCISE ON THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Stanojević

    2016-01-01

    The research was conducted on a sample of 36 examinees consisting of male children of preschool institutions in Niš, aged five and six ± 6 months. The main objective of the research was to determine the adaptive processes influenced by programmed exercise on the development of motor skills of preschool children. The aim was to provide the conditions for the establishment of rational procedures for optimal planning, programming and control of the motor exercise of preschool child...

  12. The development of communicative competence of preschool children in the multicultural space of kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the problem of communicative competence development of preschool children in conditions of multicultural educational organization is presented in article. The characteristic of competence-based approach in preschool education is given. The relevance of formation of key competencies at preschool age is shown. The role of multicultural space of kindergarten for formation the modern child identity, disclosure of his individual world, accumulation of experience of communication an...

  13. Early prediction of psychosocial risks and their prevention in preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mirimanova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We review approaches to creation of safe learning environment in preschools: protecting, training, personally developing, creative. We explore the possibilities of this environment examination. We reveal child development risks and threats to educational environment security of preschool institutions. A special emphasis is on personal developmental and constructive approaches. Tolerance development in children is seen as a means of prevention and creation conditions for psychological security of educational environment, and indirect control of children social development process. At the same time, the aim is development of interactional culture in preschool educational institution, built on important tolerance principles: non-violence, voluntary choice, personal responsibility, accepting the Other.

  14. [Problematic eating behavior in childhood: do maternal feeding patterns play a role?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröller, Katja; Warschburger, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Past research indicates an association in adults and young people of emotional and contextual factors with a higher risk for the development of eating disorders or obesity. Few studies focus on problematic eating patterns in childhood, especially in association with parental feeding strategies. 482 mothers completed a questionnaire about eating behaviors and the weight status of their 1- to 10-year-old child as well as their own feeding strategies. A classification of the child's eating behavior (food responsiveness, emotional eating, external eating, eating time and meal structure) using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a conspicuous eating pattern (10%) showing above-average values in all eating behaviors. Controlling for weight and demographic variables mothers of children with conspicuous eating patterns were characterized by restrictive strategies and were less likely to encourage or facilitate their child to control his or her eating. Similar problematic eating patterns were also identified in early childhood. The association of maternal feeding strategies--beyond weight control issues--with conspicuous eating patterns in children might indicate a possibility of early prevention through parent training.

  15. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler Print A A A What's ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  16. Dietary determinants of dental caries and dietary recommendations for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinanoff, Norman; Palmer, Carol A

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this review, commissioned by the Administration for Children and Families, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Health Care Financing Administration, and the Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service, was to update the evidence of the dietary factors that affect dental caries, and subsequently formulate dietary recommendations for preschool children based on principles of cariology. Literature on the dental caries process, dietary factors affecting dental caries initiation and progression, nutrition education and counseling were reviewed and synthesized. Dietary guidelines for children at various ages were then constructed based on the review. Dental caries in preschool children is due to a combination of factors, including colonization of teeth with cariogenic bacteria, type of foods and frequency of exposure of these foods to the cariogenic bacteria, and susceptible teeth. Caries risk is greatest if sugars are consumed at high frequency and are in a form that is retained in the mouth for long periods. Sucrose is the most cariogenic sugar because it can form glucan that enables firm bacterial adhesion to teeth and limits diffusion of acid and buffers in the plaque. There is emerging interest in the effects of tooth development and its role in the future dental caries risk of the child. Nutrition education and counseling for the purposes of reducing caries in children is aimed at teaching parents the importance of reducing high frequency exposures to obvious and hidden sugars. Guidelines include: avoiding frequent consumption of juice or other sugar containing drinks in bottle or sippy cup; discouraging the behavior of a child sleeping with a bottle; promoting non-cariogenic foods for snacks; fostering eating patterns consistent with Food Guide Pyramid; limiting cariogenic foods to mealtimes; rapidly clearing cariogenic foods from the child's oral cavity either by tooth brushing or by consumption of protective foods; and

  17. Korelace sportovní aktivity a stravovacích návyků u dětí předškolního věku a jejich rodičů The correlation of sports activity and eating habits in preschool children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jera Zajec

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cílem výzkumu bylo analyzovat sportovní aktivitu a stravovací návyky u dětí předškolního věku a jejich rodičů. Zajímala nás korelace mezi stravovacími návyky rodičů a dětí předškolního věku a sportovní aktivitou. Pro dotazování 93 rodičů tří až pětiletých dětí ze tří slovinských školek byl použit dotazník obsahující 32 otázek. Údaje byly zpracovány programem SPSS, který počítá frekvenci a kontingenční tabulky. Zjistili jsme, že výživa většiny dětí předškolního věku je pravidelná a vhodná, přestože některé pětileté dívky a tříletí chlapci mají zvýšený BMI (index tělesné hmotnosti. Stravovací návyky rodičů však nejsou ani zdaleka vzorné – přes 50 % má pouze 2 až 3 jídla denně. Přestože nebyla potvrzena žádná statisticky charakteristická korelace, výsledky ukazují, že děti, jejichž rodiče jsou sportovně aktivní, mají vhodnější výživu než děti, jejichž rodiče sportovně aktivní nejsou. Statisticky charakteristické je, že rodiče, kteří jsou sportovně aktivnější, zapojují své děti do sportu ve větší míře. Většina z nich rovněž tráví aktivně prázdniny. Domníváme se, že v době, kdy ještě podléhají vlivu rodičů a učitelů, by děti měly přijmout pozitivní přístup ke sportovně aktivnímu způsobu života a zdravé výživě, které představují základní podmínku normálního způsobu života bez zbytečných problémů způsobených škodlivými návyky a civilizačními chorobami. The aim of this research was to analyze sports activity and eating habits in preschool children and their parents. We were interested in the correlation between parents' and preschool childrens' eating habits and sports activity. A questionnaire consisting of 32 questions was used to interview 93 parents of three to five year old children from 3 Slovene kindergartens. The data was processed by the SPSS program

  18. Preschool Staff's View of Emergent Literacy Approaches in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norling, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate preschool staff's view of emergent literacy approaches in Swedish preschools with the following research question: How do preschool staff describe and explain the approaches they use in the emergent literacy environment of preschool? Focus-group interviews were conducted with 52 participating preschool units.…

  19. Nurturing Healthy Eating Habits from the Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Daniel B. Kessler, MD, a developmental and behavioral pediatrician, provides guidance on establishing healthy eating patterns in the early years. He emphasizes the importance of the feeding relationship as an important part of a child's social and emotional development. How parents approach feeding and mealtime is about so much more than physical…

  20. Nurturing Healthy Eating Habits from the Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Daniel B. Kessler, MD, a developmental and behavioral pediatrician, provides guidance on establishing healthy eating patterns in the early years. He emphasizes the importance of the feeding relationship as an important part of a child's social and emotional development. How parents approach feeding and mealtime is about so much more than physical…

  1. The Traditional in Contemporary Curricula of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary curricula of preschool education are the result of the improvement of pedagogical and didactic theories. They imply a technical plan with which it is possible to achieve measurable objectives of preschool education. The curriculum is also defined as a tool for quality and equal education for all. It represents a reflection of the time, society and culture in which it exists, but also a model for future society and education. Thus an important research question arises as to what extent we recognize traditional ideas about learning and the development of a preschool child in contemporary preschool programs. Are traditional ideas about educating young children unjustly neglected or do we recognize them in contemporary pedagogical theory even today, at the same time forgetting about the past and declaring them innovations? This paper deals with the starting points for the development of a curriculum. The goal of the research was to determine to what extent can the starting points for the development of preschool children, which have existed in the first preschool programs in Serbia in the late 19th century, be recognized in contemporary preschool programs. A descriptive method was applied as well as a procedure for content analysis of program documents. Research results confirm that the elements of the first preschool programs, which remain relevant until today, can be recognized in contemporary preschool programs. They are related to target orientations, principles and functions of preschool education. However, these ideas are defined as contemporary tendencies, and the fact that they existed in preschool programs that were developed a long time ago is unjustly ignored.

  2. Questioning as a Component of Scaffolding in Predicting Emotion Knowledge in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    The following study expands Denham and Auerbach's (1995, "Mother-child dialogue about emotions and preschoolers' emotional competence." "Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs," 121, 313-337) findings, demonstrating a link between mothers' talk about emotions and preschoolers' knowledge of emotions. We investigate the maternal language…

  3. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  4. An Exploratory Study of Mothers' Perceptions of Acculturation within the Preschool Context. Working Paper. WR-523

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Thomas, Audrey Alforque

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the mother's perceptions of her preschooler's acculturation process, using qualitative methods to collect data from six Latino immigrant mothers about their own acculturation and that of their preschool child. Three patterns emerged: parallel dyadic acculturation, vertex dyadic acculturation, and intersegmented…

  5. Preschool Integration: Recommendations for School Administrators. Policy and Practice in Early Childhood Special Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rose, Deborah F.

    This paper offers recommendations for establishing meaningful integration opportunities for preschool children with disabilities, derived from the work of the Research Institute on Preschool Mainstreaming, a 5-year federally funded project of St. Peter's Child Development Centers, Inc., in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The knowledge base on preschool…

  6. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  7. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  8. Universal Preschool: Much To Gain But Who Will Pay? Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivner, Scott; Wolfe, Barbara

    Beginning with the assumption that children across the full spectrum of family income, family composition, and prior experience with child care would benefit from being in a well-implemented preschool at 3 and 4 years of age, this working paper focuses on finding a feasible way to finance universal preschool for 4-year-olds. The paper begins with…

  9. "Then What Happened?" Studying Emergent Literacy in the Narrative Play of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Denise H.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research was on examining a play-based, child-centered instructional technique known as story telling/story acting (ST/SA) within a Canadian preschool setting. The goal was to examine the changes that occurred in the narrative features of preschool children's stories, and to investigate whether ST/SA fostered emerging literacy…

  10. Dynamic and Static Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Preschool: A Behavior-Genetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current…

  11. Why Screening Canadian Preschoolers for Language Delays Is More Difficult than It Should Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Virginia; Montgomery, Lorna; Boychyn, Ellen; Young, Roxanne; vanRyn, Elizabeth; McLachlan, Dorothy; Neufeld, Judi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the ability of four American screening tests to identify preschool-age Canadian children with language delays. At 54 months, 110 children from five Ontario infant and child development programs completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, Brigance Preschool Screen, and Early Screening…

  12. Community Voices: California Preschool Directors Speak on Policy Options. Working Paper 07-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Gesicki, Kathryn; Sweo, Thea; Jung, Sunyoung

    2007-01-01

    California continues to widen access to local child care and preschool programs--albeit in fits and starts--for a variety of families. About 65% of all four year-olds statewide now attend a preschool center. Government spends $3.6 billion on early care and education programs statewide, including a three-fold increase in state spending since 1996.…

  13. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Universal Preschool Education: Evidence from a Spanish Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huizen, T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314130799; Dumhs, E.; Plantenga, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071772944

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a cost-benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education. We focus on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. We extrapolate the benefits in terms of maternal employment and child

  14. Basic Factors that Affect General Academic Motivation Levels of Candidate Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikoz, Nadir

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the…

  15. "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD" as an Innovative Approach to Training and Education of Children at Preschool Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Larisa; Shkolyar, Luidmila; Savenkova, Luibov

    2016-01-01

    The authors reveal an innovative approach to training and education of preschool children. This approach is called "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD". It is based on the idea that the development of the preschool child's personality should be joyous and free "cultural self-creation" in terms of the collective co-creation, where adults and…

  16. The Relationship between the Duration of Preschool Education and Primary School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Özgül; Yavuz, Ezgi Aksin

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood experiences have a great effect on the course of a child's life. Preschool education can offer benefits for children, particularly those who do not have advantages at home, including benefits related to academic skills, social-emotional development, and communication. Thus, preschool experiences are a potential key to improving…

  17. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher possibility of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations.

  18. 沙盘游戏治疗儿童进食恐惧症的个案研究%Study of Sandplay Therapy on children with eating Phobia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄林娟; 薛漳; 陈敏榕; 陈玲

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨沙盘游戏治疗对儿童恐惧症的治疗效果及儿童的心理治疗特点。方法通过个案研究法,对一个学龄前期儿童的进食恐惧症进行沙盘游戏治疗,结果患儿的沙盘作品经历了问题呈现、矛盾转化、整合治愈的过程,来访者症状明显好转,进食恢复正常,社会适应良好。%  Objective] To explore the effect of sandplay therapy on children with eating Phobia, and to monitor any change in the children's psychological characteristics during treatment. [Methods]: Using a case study method, to treat the eating Phobia of preschool children through sandplay therapy. [Conclusion]: The child' Sand works revealed the process from the existing problems and then a transformation to take place, resulting in a curing process. The children's symptoms improved significantly, resulting in their eating patterns returning to normal and a successful social realignment folowing the treatment.

  19. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sharon Henry

    In the United States, a current initiative, Advancing Active STEM Education for Our Youngest Learners, aims to advance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to understand preschool teachers' proficiency with science and address the problem of whether or not science learning opportunities are provided to young children based on teachers' attitudes and beliefs. A theoretical framework for establishing teachers' attitudes toward science developed by van Aalderen-Smeets, van der Molen, and Asma, along with Bandura's theory of self-efficacy were the foundations for this research. Research questions explored preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science in general and how they differed based on education level and years of preschool teaching experience. Descriptive comparative data were collected from 48 preschool teacher participants using an online format with a self-reported measure and were analyzed using nonparametric tests to describe differences between groups based on identified factors of teacher comfort, child benefit, and challenges. Results indicated that the participants believed that early childhood science is developmentally appropriate and that young children benefit from science instruction through improved school-readiness skills. Preschool teachers with a state credential or an associate's degree and more teaching experience had more teacher comfort toward science based on attitudes and beliefs surveyed. The data indicated participating preschool teachers experienced few challenges in teaching science. The study may support positive social change through increased awareness of strengths and weaknesses of preschool teachers for the development of effective science professional development. Science is a crucial component of school-readiness skills, laying a foundation for success in later grades.

  20. FTO at rs9939609, food responsiveness, emotional control and symptoms of ADHD in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur P Velders

    Full Text Available The FTO minor allele at rs9939609 has been associated with body mass index (BMI: weight (kg/height (m(2 in children from 5 years onwards, food intake, and eating behaviour. The high expression of FTO in the brain suggests that this gene may also be associated with behavioural phenotypes, such as impulsivity and control. We examined the effect of the FTO minor allele (A at rs9939609 on eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in young children, thus before the BMI effect becomes apparent. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards. 1,718 children of European descent were genotyped for FTO at rs9939609. With logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model, we examined the association between the FTO minor allele and eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in preschool children. There was no relation between FTO at rs9939609 and child BMI at this age. The A allele at rs9939609 was associated with increased food responsiveness (OR 1.21, p = 0.03. Also, children with the A allele were less likely to have symptoms of ADHD (OR 0.74, p = 0.01 and showed more emotional control (OR 0.64, p = 0.01 compared to children without the A allele. Our findings suggest that before the association between FTO and BMI becomes apparent, the FTO minor allele at rs9939609 leads to increased food responsiveness, a decreased risk for symptoms of ADHD and better emotional control. Future studies are needed to investigate whether these findings represent one single mechanism or reflect pleiotropic effects of FTO.