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Sample records for preschool adhd treatment

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... help find most effective treatment for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. Medications can control ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Publications Donate My Cart About AACAP ADHD - A Guide for Families Skip breadcrumb navigation Getting Treatment Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and ...

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    ... individuals with untreated ADHD have higher rates of divorce and job loss. They also have higher rates ... into the evening. ADHD medications can have side effects. Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will ...

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... individuals with untreated ADHD have higher rates of divorce and job loss. They also have higher rates ... into the evening. ADHD medications can have side effects. Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in ... driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... experiences and concerns. Support groups may also share information and referrals to specialists, and invite experts to speak. Contents What is ADHD? How Common is ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working ...

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD. They know that biological substances in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role ...

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Practice Center Award Opportunities CPT and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... CPT and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for Primary Care Toggle Become ... feel better about themselves. The goal of any type of ADHD treatment is to reduce symptoms and ...

  13. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The ... as organizing schoolwork or dealing with emotional experiences. Social skills training can help children learn more rewarding ...

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ... The goal of any type of ADHD treatment is to reduce symptoms and help the child function ...

  15. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with your child’s doctor ... medication for ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD ...

  16. Predicting ADHD in school age when using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in preschool age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimvall, Martin K; Elberling, Hanne; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka;

    2014-01-01

    Indicated prevention of ADHD may reduce impairment and need of treatment in youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief questionnaire assessing child mental health, reported to be a valid screening instrument for concurrent ADHD. This study aimed to examine the validity...... of using the SDQ in preschool age to predict ADHD in school age in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,315 children from the Copenhagen child cohort 2000 with no prior history of clinically diagnosed ADHD, who were assessed at age 5-7 years by the SDQ completed by parents and preschool...... teachers. Danish National Registers were used to measure the outcome of any first time ICD-10 diagnosis for hyperkinetic disorder or attention-deficit disorder and/or prescription of central stimulants during years 2005-2012. Screening potentials of the SDQ's predictive algorithms were described, and Cox...

  17. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can ... with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A therapist may ...

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can ... with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A therapist may ...

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... help a child with ADHD gain a better self-image. The therapist can help the child identify his or her strengths and build on them. Therapy can also help a child with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A therapist may use one or more ...

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find that medication can be helpful. Therapy ... them. Therapy can also help a child with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better ... systems or charts to reward good behavior. When a child becomes too unruly ...

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a child with ADHD gain a better self-image. The therapist can help the child identify his or her strengths and build on them. Therapy can also help a child with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A therapist may use one ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Untreated ADHD can increase strain between parents and children. Parents often blame themselves when they can’t communicate ... is completed. Family support groups allow groups of parents with ADHD children to share their experiences and concerns. Support groups ...

  3. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention.

  4. Co-Occurrence of ODD and CD in Preschool Children With Symptoms of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Svensson, Elisabeth; Aase, Heidi;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patterns of co-occurrence between ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD) were examined in a sample of non-referred preschool children. ADHD subtypes and sex differences were also explored. METHOD: Children aged 3.5 years (n = 1,048) with high scores on ADHD...... were minor. CONCLUSION: There are important differences in co-occurring patterns of ODD and CD in preschool children with ADHD....

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... communicate with their child. The sense of losing control can be very frustrating. Untreated ADHD can have ... can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical Practice Center Award Opportunities CPT and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources ... untreated ADHD have higher rates of divorce and job loss. They also have higher rates of cigarette ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... CPT and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for Primary Care Toggle Become ... try to help the child understand ways to change or better cope with ADHD symptoms, such as ...

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with your child’s doctor to help find the medication and dosage that will work best for your child. Different medications work for ...

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... communicate with their child. The sense of losing control can be very frustrating. Untreated ADHD can have ... can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them ...

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news ... Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Families and Youth Toggle Family Resources Youth Resources Facts for Families Resource Centers Advocacy Getting Help Support ... continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find that medication ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain between parents and children. Parents often blame themselves when they can’t communicate with their child. The sense of ...

  13. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news ... Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Institute Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Learning on Demand My Profile Store Cart Donate About AACAP Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource ...

  15. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain between parents and children. Parents often blame themselves when they can’t communicate ... plan to improve a child’s behavior. For example, parents can learn to use point systems or charts ...

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain between parents and children. Parents often blame themselves when they can’t communicate with their child. The sense of losing control can be very frustrating. Untreated ...

  17. Comparison between the efficacies of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among preschoolers: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Forough; Tashakori, Ashraf; Abdi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disease with a worldwide pooled prevalence of 5.29%. Objective To compare the efficacy of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among 3- to 6-year-old children. Methods In a 6-week double-blind clinical trial, the efficacy of Risperidone 0.5–2 mg with a dose of maximum Haloperidol 0.075 mg/kg was assessed in 39 children aged 3–6 years. This study was conducted at the Golestan Psychiatric Clinic (Ahvaz, Iran). Measurement tools included the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48), Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Fisher’s exact tests in the SPSS 19. Results During the 6 weeks, the decline in points was seen in Conner’s rating scale and in ADHD-RS score in Risperidone and Haloperidol groups (p0.05). Conclusions Haloperidol and Risperidone possibly can be an acceptable treatment choice in the ADHD treatment of 3- to 6-year-old children. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015082623766N1. Funding This work was financially supported by grant (ref. no.: U-93130) from the vice chancellor for Research Affairs of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27790334

  18. The Incredible Years Basic Parent Training for Portuguese Preschoolers with AD/HD Behaviors: Does It Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Andreia Fernandes; Seabra-Santos, Maria João; Gaspar, Maria Filomena; Homem, Tatiana Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based psychosocial interventions such as parent training programs are strongly recommended as first-line treatment for preschool-age children with or at-risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Basic Parent Training (IY) in hyperactive and…

  19. Executive functions in preschoolers with ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD-ODD: Evidence from ecological and performance-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser

    2015-09-01

    Executive functioning in 3-year-old preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), comorbid ADHD+ODD, and children without any of these conditions (control group) was examined. A community sample including 622 children was diagnosed using a diagnostic interview following DSM-IV criteria, and assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Kiddie-Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The children diagnosed with ADHD showed the poorest executive function (EF) profile in comparison with controls, and were closely followed up in this respect by the comorbid ADHD+ODD children. The ADHD and comorbid groups presented similar executive difficulties. The ODD group obtained mean scores statistically equal to those of controls in EF. These findings suggest that, in preschoolers, executive functioning deficits assessed with a performance-based measure or with behavioural descriptions are specific to children with ADHD, in comparison with those with ODD. This study contributes knowledge about EFs in two prevalent and comorbid disorders in preschool children, ADHD and ODD, knowledge that can help our understanding of specific deficits and the design of specific early intervention initiatives. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Linguistic analysis of the Preschool Five Minute Speech Sample: what the parents of preschool children with early signs of ADHD say and how they say it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Perez

    Full Text Available A linguistic analysis was performed on the Preschool Five Minute Speech Sample (PFMSS of 42 parents. PFMSS is a validated measure for Expressed Emotion (EE to assess parent-child relationship. Half of these parents (n = 21, clinical group had preschool children with early symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, the rest had typically developing children. Early symptoms of ADHD were identified with the Werry-Weiss Peters Rating Scale. The linguistic component of the PFMSS was analysed with keyword and linguistic pattern identification. The results of these two complementary analyses (i.e., EE and linguistic analysis provided relevant recommendations that may improve the efficacy of psychological treatment for ADHD such as parenting interventions. We discuss the practical implications of these findings.

  1. Treatment of ADHD in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive and behavioral problems and effects of treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in 20 children with NF1 and ADHD were compared to 26 control children with NF1, 14 controls with ADHD, and 14 controls with normal development, studied at Klinikum Nord Ochsenzoll. Hamburg, Germany.

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Medical Students and Residents Toggle Medical Student Resources Child Psychiatry Residents (Fellows) Early Career Psychiatrists Member Resources ... Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, ...

  3. Pharmacological treatment of adult ADHD in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Wolfgang; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Thome, Johannes; Rösler, Michael

    2011-09-01

    It is now widely accepted that ADHD is a frequent chronic condition with a lifelong perspective. Adult ADHD is a reliable and valid diagnosis. The disorder and the co-morbid conditions can place a severe burden on the patients, their families and their partners, requiring adequate treatment. A systematic literature search was conducted to review the available pharmacological treatment options for adults with ADHD in European countries. Supported by meta-analyses, stimulant medication is the first-line pharmacological therapy for adult ADHD. However, from a European perspective the pharmacological treatment options are very limited and only a minority of adults with ADHD in European countries receives adequate treatment. With reference to the epidemiological data, it seems very likely that the number of people with ADHD in Europe seeking multimodal treatment including pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, coaching or other therapeutic services will increase profoundly during the coming years.

  4. [Cognitive Profiles of Preschool Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders and ADHD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jascenoka, Julia; Korsch, Franziska; Petermann, Franz; Petermann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Profiles of Preschool Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders and ADHD Studies confirm that developmental coordination disorders (DCD) are often accompanied by ADHD. It is important to know why children with combined disorders show a special profile in a common intelligence test (WPPSI-III). For this purpose, the WPPSI-III results of a total of 125 children aged five to six years with diagnosed isolated DCD, isolated ADHD, combined disorders and a normative sample were compared. Children with isolated ADHD showed the best cognitive profile. Children of all three diagnosis subgroups presented significantly poorer abilities in all WPPSI-III scales than the normative sample. In comparison with preschoolers showing isolated ADHD, children with DCD and ADHD have a significant lower Processing Speed Quotient.

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... can help the child identify his or her strengths and build on them. Therapy can ... Social skills training can help children learn more rewarding ways to ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With ... to use point systems or charts to reward good behavior. When a child becomes too unruly or ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... vary, however, you should work with your child’s doctor to help find most effective treatment for your ... stimulant medications. Scientists have studied psychostimulants extensively, and doctors have been prescribing them for more than 60 ...

  8. Prediction of preschool aggression from DRD4 risk, parental ADHD symptoms, and home chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of a child's DRD4 risk, parental levels of ADHD symptoms, and the interactive influence of these factors on the development of preschool aggression. Additionally, the study investigated the role of home chaos as a mediator between parental ADHD symptoms and child aggression. The sample consisted of 84 4.5-year-old children and their parents. Children were genotyped for the DRD4 polymorphism. ADHD symptoms were self-reported by parents when the child was 2 to 6 months old. Parental reports of home chaos and the child's aggression were collected 4 years later. Child's DRD4 risk and parental ADHD symptoms significantly contributed to the prediction of preschool aggression. However, contrary to our hypotheses, no interactions were found between the child's DRD4 risk and the levels of parental ADHD symptoms. Home chaos played a mediating role in the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression was not significantly mediated through the level of home chaos. The current study emphasizes the importance of longitudinally investigating the contribution of parental ADHD symptoms to child aggression, while also exploring the differential contribution of maternal/paternal inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. Moreover, home chaos was found to be a significant environmental mechanism through which paternal ADHD symptoms affect children's aggression in the preschool years.

  9. Developments and challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana G. Costa Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, often associated with other psychiatric comorbidities, functional impairments, and poor long-term outcomes. The objective of this selected review is to describe current advances and challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. The disorder is associated with neurobiological underpinnings and is highly heterogeneous in various aspects, such as symptom profiles, cognitive impairments, and neurobiological and genetic features. The efficacy and safety of short-term pharmacological treatments across the life cycle is well studied, but further research investigating long-term treatment, impact of treatment in preschoolers, and non-pharmacological interventions is needed. Future research is also needed to better characterize the neurodevelopmental pathways of the disorder, linking clinical and neurobiological information, less investigated populations, and new interventions.

  10. Predictors of Social Skills for Preschool Children at Risk for ADHD: The Relationship between Direct and Indirect Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa B.; Shapiro, Edward S.; DuPaul, George J.; Lutz, J. Gary; Kern, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between direct and indirect measurements of social skills and social problem behaviors for preschool children at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was examined. Participants included 137 preschool children, aged 3 to 5 years, at risk for ADHD, who were participating in a larger study examining the effects of…

  11. Association of ADHD symptoms and social competence with cognitive status in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.

  12. Preschool attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review of prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, and stimulant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F

    2002-02-01

    The clinical use of stimulant medications for 3- to 6-year-old preschool children who meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is becoming more common. A systematic computerized literature search extending back to 1970 identified nine controlled studies of stimulant treatment and two controlled trials of stimulant side effects in preschool ADHD children. Treatment benefits are reported for eight of nine (89%) controlled stimulant trials involving a total of 206 preschool subjects. In comparison with school-aged ADHD youth, there may be a greater variability of stimulant response in ADHD preschoolers. Domains assessing cognition, interpersonal interactions, and hyperactive-impulsive behavior are noted to improve on drugs relative to placebos. Side effects in this age range are generally reported as mild. ADHD preschool children may experience slightly more and different types of stimulant-induced side effects compared with older children. High rates of behavior reported as stimulant side effects are found for children receiving a placebo, necessitating a baseline evaluation for medication side effects before stimulants are initiated. Despite the lack of research assessing stimulant effects on the very young and developing brain and the need for more controlled medication trials in this age range, this review of the extant literature finds stimulants to meet evidence based criteria as beneficial and safe for carefully diagnosed ADHD preschool children aged 3 years and older.

  13. American Preschoolers on Ritalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the controversial use of Ritalin among preschool children, examining research from two studies: "Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" and "Preschool ADHD Treatment Study." Examines issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and concludes by examining the influence of the human…

  14. Executive functions in preschool children with ADHD and DBD: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Deković, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance were assessed three times in 18 months. Across time, poorer inhibition performance in young children was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and poorer working memory performance was associated with ADHD. Inhibition and working memory performance increased over time, especially in the early preschool period. The improvement of inhibition performance was more pronounced in the clinically diagnosed children compared to the TD children.

  15. Clinical usefulness of observational assessment in the diagnosis of DBD and ADHD in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, Tessa L; Laschen, Sarah; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of an observational tool--the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)--in the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschoolers. We hypothesized that the DB-DOS may help support the presumption of a diagnosis generated by the information from parents and teachers (or other caregivers). Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing children (N = 58; 71% male). In view of the clinical validity study each child was given a diagnosis of either DBD (N = 40), or ADHD (N = 54) or comorbid (DBD + ADHD; N = 66) based on best-estimate diagnosis. The DB-DOS demonstrated good interrater and test-retest reliability for DBD and ADHD symptom scores. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the DB-DOS multidomain model of DBD symptom scores and a satisfactory fit of ADHD symptom scores. The DB-DOS demonstrated good convergent validity, moderate divergent validity, and good clinical validity on a diagnostic group level for DBD and ADHD symptom scores. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analyses revealed that for DBD the sensitivity and specificity are moderate and for ADHD good to excellent. The presumption of a diagnosis based on information from parents, teachers, and cognitive assessment was supported by the DB-DOS in 60% for DBD and 75% for ADHD. The DB-DOS can be used to help support a presumption of a DBD and/or ADHD diagnosis in preschool children.

  16. Stability and Change of ODD, CD and ADHD Diagnosis in Referred Preschool Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Tessa L.; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim

  17. Objective Sleep Measurement in Typically and Atypically Developing Preschool Children with ADHD-Like Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Waters, Sara; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between preschool children's sleep patterns measured by actigraphy and parent-reported hyperactivity symptoms. Many previous studies have reported sleep problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms. Methods: This study examined a cross-sectional sample of…

  18. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: the European Network adult ADHD

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooij, Sandra JJ

    2010-09-03

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  19. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooij Sandra JJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1 What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2 How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3 How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  20. Predictors of discrepancies between fathers and mothers in rating behaviors of preschool children with and without ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen-Mulders, van der Lianne; Nauta, Maaike H; Timmerman, Marieke E; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    To examine child factors and parental characteristics as predictors of discrepancies between parents' ratings of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in a sample of preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems and in a nonclinical sample. We investigated correspondence and

  1. Neurofeedback in ADHD/ADD treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Holnthaner

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback, known also as EEG feedback or neurotherapy, is a procedure based on behavioral therapy where subjects learn to modify their brain waves by means of operant conditioning. The procedure is used in treatment of behavioral disorders, learning difficulties, sleep disorders, chronic pain, and epilepsy. It can also be of some help in treating anxiety and depression. The aim of the article is to present the use of neurofeedback in treatment of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD. Research shows that during the procedure subjects improve the core symptoms of ADHD such as the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Neurofeedback could become an important element of multimodal assessment of children with ADHD.

  2. Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Preschool Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Marks, David J.; Bedard, Anne-Claude V.; Chacko, Anil; Curchack, Jocelyn T.; Yoon, Carol A.; Healey, Dione M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether cognitive enhancement can be delivered through play to preschoolers with ADHD and whether it would affect severity of ADHD symptoms. Method: Twenty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children and their parents participated in separate group sessions (3-5 children/group). Child groups were introduced games designed to enhance…

  3. ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  4. Neurofeedback and multimodal treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Kołakowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The attention‑deficit/hyperactivity disorder belongs to the most frequently diagnosed psychological (psychiatric disorders in childhood. It is characterized by the presence of fixed behaviour patterns maintained for at least 6 months and forming a characteristic triad of symptoms, such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, increased to the extent incommensurable to the child’s age and development level. Most of the guidelines on han‑ dling the ADHD suggest using non‑pharmacological methods and only when these appear ineffective, considering inclusion of pharmacological treatment. On the other hand, the studies indicate that most effective in ADHD treat‑ ment is the pharmacological treatment. It is worth emphasizing, however, that none of the presently available treat‑ ment methods solves all problems of the child’s functioning, therefore there is a constant demand for searching new ways of help for the ADHD‑affected children. One of the investigated methods is neurobiofeedback (NF. In this method, teaching the patient to influence the brain activity through instructing her/him on how to change the type of waves in the EEG – is to improve her/his functioning. In the problem described in the article an improvement in the EEG (achieved during exercise is to reduce the ADHD symptoms. But a survey of the existing research does not give an explicit answer whether or not this method is effective in ADHD treatment to the extent which could improve the patient’s functioning in real life. It is worth noting that as for now none of the guidelines has pointed to neurobiofeedback as a method recommended in the treatment of ADHD. Concluding, up to date we have not had any evidence that NF may constitute an independent or leading therapy in ADHD; we need further studies to spec‑ ify whether or not this is a method which could be a part of a comprehensive therapeutic program of the child with ADHD. Presently, it is treated rather

  5. Syndromic analysis of ADHD at preschool age according to A.R. Luria concept

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia Solovieva; Luis Quintanar Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Different authors have studied attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children from different perspectives. Neuropsychological assessment can detect many kinds of cognitive difficulties, but the common syndromic picture has not yet been established. The idea of the existence of a specific neuropsychological syndrome based on A.R. Lurias concept differs from syndromes that are established in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4 th edition. The goa...

  6. Short- and long-term effects of parent training for preschool children with or at risk of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimestad, Marie Louise; Lambek, Rikke; Zacher Christiansen, Helene;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to synthesize the evidence of parent training (PT) as an early intervention for preschool children aged 2.5 to 6 years with ADHD or ADHD symptoms. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Sixteen studies including 1,003 children were......-ups of 3 to 12 months. Program type, intervention modality, and child diagnostic status did not moderate the effect. CONCLUSION: PT was partially supported as an efficacious intervention for preschool children with ADHD or ADHD symptoms with moderate ESs on parent-rated outcomes, but no significant results...... analyzed. Parent-rated outcomes revealed moderate effect sizes (ESs; Hedges' g) of 0.51 for ADHD symptoms, 0.40 for conduct problems, and 0.64 for negative parenting. Based on independent assessment, results were only significant for negative parenting. Parent-rated outcomes were sustained at follow...

  7. Executive Function Deficits in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), that is, oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of children with these disorders are…

  8. AD/HD: POSSIBLE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl REICHELT

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that a more exact diagnosis and dietary intervention in AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Di­sor­der is possible and probable. The clinical symptom based diagnosis we suggest may be supplemented with physiological tests. A ge­netic and environmental inter-action is clearly involved and explainable using phenyl­ke­tonuria as a model.Method: Examining peer reviewed published papers on gut to blood, blood to brain inter­action and effect of interventions in AD/HD and our own studies in the field. The various treatment options are discussed.Results: It can be shown that a gut to brain activity is possible and probable, and dietary intervention is useful and probably safer than drugs. Preliminary data on a small five year follow up of dietary intervention is shown.

  9. Neuropsychological basic deficits in preschoolers at risk for ADHD: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Becker, Katja

    2011-06-01

    Widely accepted neuropsychological theories on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assume that the complex symptoms of the disease arise from developmentally preceding neuropsychological basic deficits. These deficits in executive functions and delay aversion are presumed to emerge in the preschool period. The corresponding normative developmental processes include phases of relative stability and rapid change. These non-linear developmental processes might have implications for concurrent and predictive associations between basic deficits and ADHD symptoms. To derive a description of the nature and strength of these associations, a meta-analysis was conducted. It is assumed that weighted mean effect sizes differ between basic deficits and depend on age. The meta-analysis included 25 articles (n=3005 children) in which associations between assessments of basic deficits (i.e. response inhibition, interference control, delay aversion, working memory, flexibility, and vigilance/arousal) in the preschool period and concurrent or subsequent ADHD symptoms or diagnosis of ADHD had been analyzed. For response inhibition and delay aversion, mean effect sizes were of medium to large magnitude while the mean effect size for working memory was small. Meta-regression analyses revealed that effect sizes of delay aversion tasks significantly decreased with increasing age while effect sizes of interference control tasks and Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) significantly increased. Depending on the normative maturational course of each skill, time windows might exist that allow for a more or less valid assessment of a specific deficit. In future research these time windows might help to describe early developing forms of ADHD and to identify children at risk.

  10. Moderators and mediators of treatments for youth with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oord, S.; Daley, D.; Maric, M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Ollendick, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies assessing moderation and mediation of behavioral treatment and cognitive training outcome in children with ADHD. Only two studies have assessed moderation of treatment outcome. For behavioral treatment outcome, comorbid anxiety, parental self-efficacy, paternal ADHD, and no or

  11. Research Forum on Psychological Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret; Safren, Steven A.; Solanto, Mary V.; Hechtman, Lily; Rostain, Anthony L.; Ramsay, J. Russell; Murray, Candice

    2008-01-01

    Background: A literature search found five empirical studies of psychological treatment for adults with ADHD, out of 1,419 articles on ADHD in adults. Practice guidelines to date all recommend multimodal intervention, given that a significant number of patients cannot tolerate, do not respond to, or fail to reach optimal outcomes with medication…

  12. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

  13. Effect of training focused on executive functions (attention, inhibition, and working memory) in preschoolers exhibiting ADHD symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Anna M.; Capodieci, Agnese; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The development of early intervention strategies for children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is important because it provides an opportunity to prevent severe problems in the future. The main purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a group training for the control of attention, working memory and impulsive behaviors, involving 5-year-old children with ADHD symptoms. Twenty-six children with ADHD symptoms and 26 with typical development were randomly divided in two conditions. Thirteen children in each group were assigned to the training condition and the other to the business as usual condition (normal class activity). Children who participated in the intervention showed an improvement in the tasks measuring their control of attention, impulsive behavior, and working memory. Moreover, children with typical development who attended the training also improved their competencies. The results confirm the importance of an early intervention for preschool-age children with ADHD symptoms. PMID:26300836

  14. Effect of Training Focused on Executive Functions (attention, inhibition and working memory in Preschoolers exhibiting ADHD symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Re

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of early intervention strategies for children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is important because it provides an opportunity to prevent severe problems in the future. The main purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a group training for the control of attention, working memory and impulsive behaviors, involving five-year-old children with ADHD symptoms. Twenty-six children with ADHD symptoms and 26 with typical development were randomly divided in two conditions. 13 children in each group were assigned to the training condition and the other to the business as usual condition (normal class activity. Children who participated in the intervention showed an improvement in the tasks measuring their control of attention, impulsive behavior and working memory. Moreover, children with typical development who attended the training also improved their competencies. The results confirm the importance of an early intervention for preschool-age children with ADHD symptoms.

  15. Clinical usefulness of the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule in the diagnosis of DBD and ADHD in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), in preschool children. For Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), to define symptoms two coding methods were compared, i.e., one based on the threshold "often" and the other based on the frequency of behaviors in combination with the presence of clinical concern. For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), to define symptoms, two coding methods were compared, i.e., one with and one without consideration of pervasiveness across contexts. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71% male). The referred children were given a diagnosis of either ODD/CD (N = 39), or ADHD (N = 58) or comorbid ODD/CD+ADHD (N = 57) or no diagnosis (N = 39) based on best-estimate diagnosis. Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analyses showed that a cutoff score of four ODD symptoms using "often" as the threshold for frequency of behaviors led to a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 93%; the coding method which included the frequency of behaviors yielded a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 100%. For ADHD, a clinical cutoff score of five symptoms without the pervasiveness criterion yielded a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 98%; when the pervasiveness criterion was included sensitivity was 77% and specificity 98%. In the clinical assessment of ODD and ADHD in preschool children, the K-DBDS may be used with ODD symptom definition based on the threshold "often" and ADHD pervasiveness across contexts not included.

  16. 45.2 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENT TRAINING AS A TREATMENT FOR PRESCHOOL ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: A MULTI-CENTER RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF THE NEW FOREST PARENTING PROGRAM IN EVERYDAY CLINICAL PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    , informed by the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), were recruited from three child and adolescent psychiatry departments in Denmark. Randomization was on a 1:1 basis and stratified for age and gender. Results The primary endpoint showed a change in ADHD symptoms as measured by the Preschool......Objectives Parent training is recommended as first-line treatment for ADHD in preschool children. The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is an evidence-based parenting program developed specifically to target preschool ADHD. This talk will present fresh results from a multicenter trial designed...... behaviors during child’s solo play; observation of parent–child interaction; parent sense of competence; and family stress. Conclusions This trial will provide evidence on whether NFPP is a more effective treatment for preschool ADHD than the treatment usually offered in everyday clinical practice....

  17. Predicting Response of ADHD Symptoms to Methylphenidate Treatment Based on Comorbid Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…

  18. Discontinuance of ADHD Treatment in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ADHD drug discontinuance in adolescents and young adults was studied in the UK by using the General Practice Database for patients aged 15-21 years from 1999 to 2006.

  19. Electrophysiology in ADHD Diagnosis, predictions, and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Øgrim, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Study 1: The theta/beta ratio (TBR) study Significantly elevated levels of power in the QEEG theta band or the theta/beta ratio (TBR) were found in 26% of the ADHD patients compared with 2.5% of controls. Excess theta was correlated with inattention and executive problems. Finding excess theta or TBR in a patient strengthens the hypothesis that ADHD is a correct diagnosis, as this pattern is not associated with common comorbid diagnoses in child psychiatry. Our findings were in...

  20. Longitudinal Prediction of the One-Year Course of Preschool ADHD Symptoms: Implications for Models of Temperament-ADHD Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Gremillion, Monica L; Roberts, Bethan A; Zastrow, Brittany L; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2014-07-01

    Despite the fact that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is often conceptualized as an extreme trait, there remains controversy about the best way to understand associations between temperament traits and ADHD. The current study examines longitudinal associations between temperament traits and ADHD during early childhood in order to critically examine vulnerability and spectrum models of trait-ADHD associations. Study participants were 109 children between the ages of 3 and 6 and their primary caregivers and teachers/daycare providers, community-recruited for ADHD-related problems. Primary caregivers completed the Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorders Schedule semi-structured diagnostic interview at the initial appointment and one year later. At the initial appointment, primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Questionnaire as a measure of child temperament traits. Results from the initial time point indicated that high neuroticism and high surgency were associated with inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms, and low effortful control was associated with hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. However, none of these traits predicted the one-year course of ADHD symptoms. Results are more consistent with a spectrum (vs. vulnerability) model of trait-psychopathology associations, suggesting that traits, but may not influence longitudinal course during early childhood.

  1. FTO at rs9939609, food responsiveness, emotional control and symptoms of ADHD in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur P Velders

    Full Text Available The FTO minor allele at rs9939609 has been associated with body mass index (BMI: weight (kg/height (m(2 in children from 5 years onwards, food intake, and eating behaviour. The high expression of FTO in the brain suggests that this gene may also be associated with behavioural phenotypes, such as impulsivity and control. We examined the effect of the FTO minor allele (A at rs9939609 on eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in young children, thus before the BMI effect becomes apparent. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards. 1,718 children of European descent were genotyped for FTO at rs9939609. With logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model, we examined the association between the FTO minor allele and eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in preschool children. There was no relation between FTO at rs9939609 and child BMI at this age. The A allele at rs9939609 was associated with increased food responsiveness (OR 1.21, p = 0.03. Also, children with the A allele were less likely to have symptoms of ADHD (OR 0.74, p = 0.01 and showed more emotional control (OR 0.64, p = 0.01 compared to children without the A allele. Our findings suggest that before the association between FTO and BMI becomes apparent, the FTO minor allele at rs9939609 leads to increased food responsiveness, a decreased risk for symptoms of ADHD and better emotional control. Future studies are needed to investigate whether these findings represent one single mechanism or reflect pleiotropic effects of FTO.

  2. Methylphenidate in Treatment of ADHD and Comorbid Chronic Tic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children (ages 6-12 years with Tourette's syndrome (96% or chronic motor tic disorder (4% were evaluated at State University of New York, Stony Brook.

  3. Nimh Treatment Study of ADHD Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of changes in medication use between 14 and 24 months follow-up on effectiveness (symptom ratings and growth (height and weight measures were analyzed, comparing 4 groups of patients, in the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA reported by the MTA Cooperative Group.

  4. Persistence and Subtype Stability of ADHD Among Substance Use Disorder Treatment Seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaye, Sharlene; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; van de Glind, Geurt; Levin, Frances R; Faraone, Stephen V; Allsop, Steve; Degenhardt, Louisa; Moggi, Franz; Barta, Csaba; Konstenius, Maija; Franck, Johan; Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli-Torild; Koeter, Maarten W J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Schoevers, Robert A; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Crunelle, Cleo L; Young, Jesse T; Carruthers, Susan; Cassar, Joanne; Fatséas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Dunn, Matthew; Slobodin, Ortal; van den Brink, Wim

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine ADHD symptom persistence and subtype stability among substance use disorder (SUD) treatment seekers. METHOD: In all, 1,276 adult SUD treatment seekers were assessed for childhood and adult ADHD using Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

  5. The Associations Between Pre- and Postnatal Maternal Symptoms of Distress and Preschooler's Symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Aase, Heidi; Diep, Lien My

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. METHOD: Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1...... distress significantly increased the average number of child symptoms, ranging between 3.8% for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) and 8.7% for anxiety. The combination of high maternal scores of distress both pre- and postnatally were associated with increased risk of child symptoms of anxiety (relative...

  6. Holistic Treatment Approaches to ADHD: Nutrition, Sleep,and Exercise, Part 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series exploring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this seventh installment, the author discusses three holistic treatments for children and adults with ADHD: diet and nutrition, sleep, and exercise. These approaches focus and improve the overall health of ADHD patients. (For Part 6 of this series, see…

  7. Targeting Functional Impairments in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Tyler; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Stein, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    The diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) require both symptoms and impairment to be present. Impairment in functioning is commonly the primary reason for referral, and is also a better predictor of long-term outcomes than ADHD symptoms. And yet, only recently has research begun to examine the impact of ADHD treatments on functional impairment using efficient and psychometrically sound outcome measures. In this article, we identify several noteworthy multidimensional measures of functional impairment (ADHD FX, Barkley Functional Impairment Scale [BFIS], Impairment Rating Scale [IRS], Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale [WFIRS]) utilized in recent clinical trials for ADHD, and describe their psychometric properties and clinical utility. We also review existing evidence on the impact of pharmacological and behavioral treatments on different domains of functional impairment in ADHD youth as measured by these specific measures. Further research is needed to evaluate longitudinal effects of ADHD treatments on functional impairment, and the use of these measures in adaptive treatment designs.

  8. Comparing treatments for children with ADHD and word reading difficulties: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Denton, Carolyn A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Heather; Arnold, L Eugene; Bukstein, Oscar; Anixt, Julia; Koshy, Anson; Newman, Nicholas C; Maltinsky, Jan; Brinson, Patricia; Loren, Richard E A; Prasad, Mary R; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Vaughn, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    This trial compared attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment alone, intensive reading intervention alone, and their combination for children with ADHD and word reading difficulties and disabilities (RD). Children (n = 216; predominantly African American males) in Grades 2-5 with ADHD and word reading/decoding deficits were randomized to ADHD treatment (medication + parent training), reading treatment (reading instruction), or combined ADHD + reading treatment. Outcomes were parent and teacher ADHD ratings and measures of word reading/decoding. Analyses utilized a mixed models covariate-adjusted gain score approach with posttest regressed onto pretest. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity outcomes were significantly better in the ADHD (parent Hedges's g = .87/.75; teacher g = .67/.50) and combined (parent g = 1.06/.95; teacher g = .36/41) treatment groups than reading treatment alone; the ADHD and Combined groups did not differ significantly (parent g = .19/.20; teacher g = .31/.09). Word reading and decoding outcomes were significantly better in the reading (word reading g = .23; decoding g = .39) and combined (word reading g = .32; decoding g = .39) treatment groups than ADHD treatment alone; reading and combined groups did not differ (word reading g = .09; decoding g = .00). Significant group differences were maintained at the 3- to 5-month follow-up on all outcomes except word reading. Children with ADHD and RD benefit from specific treatment of each disorder. ADHD treatment is associated with more improvement in ADHD symptoms than RD treatment, and reading instruction is associated with better word reading and decoding outcomes than ADHD treatment. The additive value of combining treatments was not significant within disorder, but the combination allows treating both disorders simultaneously. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Validity of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) as a screener for adult ADHD in treatment seeking substance use disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Geurt; van den Brink, Wim; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli-Torild H.; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kapitany-Foeveny, Mate; Fatseas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Schillinger, Arild; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Casas, Miguel; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Bartar, Csaba; Schoevers, Robert A.; Levin, Frances R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To detect attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in treatment seeking substance use disorders (SUD) patients, a valid screening instrument is needed. Objectives: To test the performance of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale V 1.1(ASRS) for adult ADHD in an international sample of

  10. Exploring stimulant treatment in ADHD: narratives of young adolescents and their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Volpe, Tiziana; Goodale, Tara; dosReis, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adolescents’ and their parents’ experiences with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its treatment were explored to investigate beliefs and attitudes regarding use of stimulant medication, and their influence on treatment decisions. Methods Using in-depth qualitative interviews, 12 adolescents with ADHD aged 12 – 15 years, and their parents described their experiences of ADHD and its treatment. Twenty four interviews, 12 with adolescents and 12 with their pare...

  11. One-week temporal stability of hyperactivity in preschoolers with ADHD during psychometric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Motohide; Healey, Dione M; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    To examine the usefulness of temporal measures of motor activity during psychometric assessment on two different assessment days, 1 week apart with a scope to help the early identification of hyperactivity. Actigraph measures at the ankle and the waist were compared on the first and the second days of psychometric assessment in a total of 169 children (93 children in ADHD group; 76 children in Non-ADHD group) aged 3 years and 4 years. There was a significant interaction effect between group and time on the activity level at the waist. Although the activity level of the waist in the children with ADHD did not significantly differ between Day 1 and Day 2, the activity level of the children without ADHD declined significantly from Day 1 to 2. A total of 70% of children were correctly classified into ADHD or Non-ADHD groups based only on Day 2 waist activity data. The temporal consistency of hyperactivity in young children with ADHD during psychometric assessment is confirmed, indicating that objective measures of motor activity at the waist over different days of psychometric assessment can provide additional information for the stability of hyperactivity. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Effects of a Summer Treatment Program on Functional Sports Outcomes in Young Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Briannon C.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Belin, Peter J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Roemmich, James N

    2014-01-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in m...

  13. Preschool children with ODD, CD and ADHD. Psychiatric assessment and stability of diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte - Rosingh, T.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341668273

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned how to differentiate clinical from normative transient disruptive behaviors within the preschool age as most preschoolers exhibit at least some of the behaviors that fall under the rubric of disruptive behavior, for example losing temper and physical aggression. This point of

  14. Usefulness of a Clinician Rating Scale in Identifying Preschool Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopin, Chaya; Healey, Dione; Castelli, Katia; Marks, David; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children (BRIC), a novel clinician inventory for preschoolers. Method: Completion of the BRIC for 214 preschoolers follows 2 evaluation sessions, generally separated by less than 2 weeks. Items are submitted to a Principal Components…

  15. Preschool children with ODD, CD and ADHD. Psychiatric assessment and stability of diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte - Rosingh, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned how to differentiate clinical from normative transient disruptive behaviors within the preschool age as most preschoolers exhibit at least some of the behaviors that fall under the rubric of disruptive behavior, for example losing temper and physical aggression. This point of

  16. Behavioral and drug treatments of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschool children%学龄前注意缺陷多动障碍儿童的行为治疗和药物治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路腾飞; 帅澜; 张劲松

    2015-01-01

    注意缺陷多动障碍(attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD)是儿童期最常见的神经精神疾病,表现为多动、 冲动、 注意力不集中, 学龄前ADHD儿童主要表现为多动. ADHD可影响儿童生活的各个方面, 早期干预极为重要. 学龄前ADHD儿童主要依靠行为治疗. 文章对学龄前ADHD儿童的行为治疗和药物治疗研究进行综述.%Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood, which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention as core symptoms. In preschoolers, the main manifestation of ADHD is hyperactivity. ADHD can affect virtually each area of a child's life, so it is important to interfere in early childhood. Behavioral treatment is the main treatment for preschoolers with ADHD. This paper reviews the research progress of behavioral and drug treatments of ADHD in preschool children.

  17. Assessment and monitoring of treatment response in adult ADHD patients: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J Russell

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome that emerges in childhood or early adolescence and persists into adulthood for a majority of individuals. There are many other adults with ADHD who may not seek out evaluation and treatment until adulthood, having been able to “get by” before struggling with inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity in adulthood, in addition to facing the associated features of disorganization, poor time management, and procrastination among many others. A lifetime diagnosis of ADHD is associated with a wide range of life impairments, which makes a comprehensive and accurate diagnostic assessment essential in order to obtain appropriate treatment. Moreover, while there are effective medical and psychosocial treatments for ADHD, it is important to be able to track treatment response in order to evaluate whether adjustments in specific interventions are needed or referrals for adjunctive treatments and supports are indicated to facilitate optimal therapeutic outcomes. The goal of this article is to provide a clinically useful review of the various measures that practicing clinicians can use to aid in the diagnostic assessment and monitoring of psychosocial and medical treatment of ADHD in adult patients. This review includes various structured interviews, screening scales, adult ADHD symptom inventories, measures of associated features of ADHD, as well as ratings of impairment and functioning which can be adapted to clinicians’ practice needs in order to track treatment progress and optimize treatments for adults with ADHD. PMID:28184164

  18. Personalized medicine in ADHD and depression : a quest for EEG treatment predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arns, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the value of neurophysiological techniques such as EEG and ERPs in predicting treatment outcome in ADHD and depression. The treatment modalities investigated in this thesis were stimulant medication, antidepressants, neurofeedback in ADHD and rTMS

  19. Nine Months of Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for ADHD and Effectiveness of MTA Fading Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Chuang, Shirley; Davies, Mark; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Langworthy-Lam, Kristen S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    We examined 9-month data from the 14-month NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (the MTA) as a further check on the relative effect of medication (MedMgt) and behavioral treatment (Beh) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while Beh was still being delivered at greater intensity than at 14-month endpoint, and…

  20. Ethnicity as a Moderator of Treatment Effects on Parent-Child Interaction for Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heather A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Chi, Terry C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Wells, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine ethnic differences in observed parenting and child behavior and the moderating effects of ethnicity on the relationship between treatment and parent and child behavior. Method: Observations of 508 children with ADHD (ages 7-9) and their caregivers, collected during the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD, were analyzed using…

  1. Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with OROS methylphenidate: the role of baseline ADHD severity and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Edward V; Covey, Lirio S; Brigham, Gregory; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R; Somoza, Eugene C; Winhusen, Theresa M

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate promotes abstinence from smoking among smokers with ADHD who have greater severity of ADHD symptoms at baseline or greater improvement in ADHD during treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind, 11-week trial conducted between December 2005 and January 2008 at 6 clinical sites; the original trial was sponsored by the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Adult cigarette smokers (aged 18-55 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomly assigned to OROS methylphenidate (72 mg/d) (n = 127) or matching placebo (n = 128). All participants received nicotine patches (21 mg/d) and weekly individual smoking cessation counseling. Logistic regression was used to model prolonged abstinence from smoking (ascertained by self-report and breath carbon monoxide testing) as a function of treatment, baseline ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) score, change in ADHD-RS score during treatment, and their interactions. Treatment interacted with both ADHD-RS score at baseline (P = .01) and change in ADHD-RS score during treatment (P = .008). Among patients with higher ADHD-RS scores (> 36) at baseline and the most improvement in ADHD during treatment (ADHD-RS change score ≥ 24), 70.0% of those who took OROS methylphenidate achieved abstinence from smoking compared to 36.8% of those who took placebo (P = .02). In contrast, among patients with the lowest ADHD-RS baseline scores (≤ 30), 30.3% of those who took OROS methylphenidate achieved abstinence from smoking compared to 60.7% of those who took placebo (P = .02). OROS methylphenidate, in combination with nicotine patch, may be an effective treatment for nicotine dependence among smokers with more severe ADHD and more robust response of ADHD symptoms to medication. OROS methylphenidate may be counterproductive among smokers with lower severity of ADHD

  2. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  3. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  4. Executive Functions in Preschool Children With ADHD and DBD : An 18-Month Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance

  5. Executive Functions in Preschool Children With ADHD and DBD : An 18-Month Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance

  6. Assessment and monitoring of treatment response in adult ADHD patients: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsay JR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available J Russell Ramsay Adult ADHD Treatment & Research Program, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental syndrome that emerges in childhood or early adolescence and persists into adulthood for a majority of individuals. There are many other adults with ADHD who may not seek out evaluation and treatment until adulthood, having been able to “get by” before struggling with inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity in adulthood, in addition to facing the associated features of disorganization, poor time management, and procrastination among many others. A lifetime diagnosis of ADHD is associated with a wide range of life impairments, which makes a comprehensive and accurate diagnostic assessment essential in order to obtain appropriate treatment. Moreover, while there are effective medical and psychosocial treatments for ADHD, it is important to be able to track treatment response in order to evaluate whether adjustments in specific interventions are needed or referrals for adjunctive treatments and supports are indicated to facilitate optimal therapeutic outcomes. The goal of this article is to provide a clinically useful review of the various measures that practicing clinicians can use to aid in the diagnostic assessment and monitoring of psychosocial and medical treatment of ADHD in adult patients. This review includes various structured interviews, screening scales, adult ADHD symptom inventories, measures of associated features of ADHD, as well as ratings of impairment and functioning which can be adapted to clinicians’ practice needs in order to track treatment progress and optimize treatments for adults with ADHD. Keywords: adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, adult ADHD, pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment, symptoms, functional impairments, executive functions

  7. Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Biederman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monotherapy for the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. Thirty-one children and adolescents 4–15 years of age (7.2 ± 2.8 years of both sexes (71%, N = 22 male with pediatric bipolar disorder (YMRS score = 32.9 ± 8.8 and ADHD (ADHD-RS score = 37.9 ± 8.9 were included in these analyses.Results: Improvement in ADHD symptoms was contingent on improvement in manic symptoms. Although both hyperactive/impulsive (−7.5 ± 5.5.6, p < 0.05 and inattentive (−6.8 ± 5.0, p < 0.05 ADHD symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone, improvement was modest, and only 29% of subjects (N = 6 showed a 30% reduction in ADHD rating scale scores and had a CGI-I ≤ 2.Conclusions: These results suggest that that treatment with risperidone is associated with tangible but generally modest improvement of symptoms of ADHD in children with bipolar disorder.Keywords: ADHD, bipolar disorder, children, risperidone

  8. Executive Functions in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD: Assessment, Development and Role of Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, K.

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), i.e., oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of chil

  9. Private pediatric neuropsychology practice multimodal treatment of ADHD: an applied approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beljan, Paul; Bree, Kathleen D; Reuter, Alison E F; Reuter, Scott D; Wingers, Laura

    2014-01-01

    As neuropsychologists and psychologists specializing in the assessment and treatment of pediatric mental health concerns, one of the most prominent diagnoses we encounter is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Following a pediatric neuropsychological evaluation, parents often request recommendations for treatment. This article addresses our approach to the treatment of ADHD from the private practice perspective. We will review our primary treatment methodology as well as integrative and alternative treatment approaches.

  10. Literature Review: Update on Amphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advokat, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Objective: A review of amphetamine treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was conducted, to obtain information on the long-term neurological consequences of this therapy. Method: Several databases were accessed for research articles on the effects of amphetamine in the brain of laboratory animals and ADHD diagnosed…

  11. Relapse Among Adolescent Drug Abusers Following Treatment: The Role of Probable ADHD Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, William W.; Ernst, Jenna; Hennessey, Jodi; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Winters, Ken C.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report on a sample of adolescent drug abusers in treatment (N = 220) to estimate the degree to which probable ADHD status increases the odds of posttreatment alcohol, marijuana, and other drug relapse during the initial 6 months following discharge. Drug abusing youth with probable ADHD status exhibited 2.5 times the risk of…

  12. Sleep Hygiene and Melatonin Treatment for Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Initial Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret D.; Wasdell, Michael B.; Bomben, Melissa M.; Rea, Kathleen J.; Freeman, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of sleep hygiene and melatonin treatment for initial insomnia in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-seven stimulant-treated children (6-14 years of age) with ADHD and initial insomnia (greater than 60 minutes) received sleep hygiene intervention. Nonresponders were…

  13. A One Year Trial of Methylphenidate in the Treatment of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Paul H.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Sanford, Mary Eve; Czajkowski, Laura A.; Tomb, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment on symptom severity and social adjustment in adult ADHD. Method: Adults (n = 116) meeting operational diagnostic criteria for ADHD (the "Utah Criteria") entered a randomized double-blind crossover trial of methylphenidate and placebo. Participants who improved on…

  14. Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

  15. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment that...

  16. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  17. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aymamí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2 to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3 to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4 to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  18. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymamí, N; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Granero, R; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Fernández-Aranda, F; Claes, L; Sauvaget, A; Grall-Bronnec, M; Gómez-Peña, M; Savvidou, L G; Fagundo, A B; del Pino-Gutierrez, A; Moragas, L; Casas, M; Penelo, E; Menchón, J M

    2015-01-01

    (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18-35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  19. Teachers' Comfort and Importance Ratings for Interventions for Preschoolers with AD/HD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Melissa; Stebbins, Molly S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores preschool teachers' ratings of both the perceived importance of and their comfort levels implementing interventions for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Participants included 138 teachers from licensed child care facilities. Teachers concluded the majority of interventions were mostly important and believed they…

  20. Relation between Omega 3 Fatty Acid, Iron, Zinc and Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shalileh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some studies, it is suggested that a number of dietary factors including essential fatty acid, iron and zinc deficiency, may be linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD. However, the exact mechanism of this relationship is yet unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and iron in etiopathology and management of ADHD. For the purpose of this study, Science Direct, PubMed, and Medline databases were explored and thirty-four relevant articles in english language were collected. Eighteen out of twenty-two studies confirmed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD. In addition, the role of insufficient store of iron in developing ADHD symptoms and the positive effect of iron supplement in improvement of ADHD behavioral symptoms have been shown. Also, plasma zinc concentration in children with ADHD was lower than the normal population, and the effect of zinc supplement on reducing on attentive-deficit symptoms was contradictory. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and iron supplements are not suggested as main treatment for ADHD, but if future studies confirm the positive results of that, use of these supplements as complementary treatment will affect ADHD symptoms. Considering the little amount of studies on zinc, more research is necessary.

  1. Diet in the treatment of ADHD in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Houmann, Tine

    2015-01-01

    , a systematic review was carried out of all dietary intervention studies in children with ADHD. Methods: Relevant databases were searched in October 2011, with an update search in March 2013. The studies included describe diet interventions in children with ADHD or equivalent diagnoses measuring possible...

  2. Practitioner Review: Current Best Practice in the Management of Adverse Events during Treatment with ADHD Medications in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Holtmann, Martin; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Coghill, David; Danckaerts, Marina; Dittmann, Ralf W.; Graham, John; Taylor, Eric; Sergeant, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medication is an important element of therapeutic strategies for ADHD. While medications for ADHD are generally well-tolerated, there are common, although less severe, as well as rare but severe adverse events AEs during treatment with ADHD drugs. The aim of this review is to provide

  3. Practitioner Review: Current Best Practice in the Management of Adverse Events during Treatment with ADHD Medications in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Holtmann, Martin; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Coghill, David; Danckaerts, Marina; Dittmann, Ralf W.; Graham, John; Taylor, Eric; Sergeant, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medication is an important element of therapeutic strategies for ADHD. While medications for ADHD are generally well-tolerated, there are common, although less severe, as well as rare but severe adverse events AEs during treatment with ADHD drugs. The aim of this review is to provide

  4. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release and neurocognitive function in treatment-naive adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, Mariya V; Faridi, Nazlie; Casey, Kevin F; O'Driscoll, Gillian A; Hechtman, Lily; Joober, Ridha; Baker, Glen B; Palmer, Jennifer; Dagher, Alain; Leyton, Marco; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence from clinical, preclinical, neuroimaging, and genetic research implicates dopamine neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The in vivo neuroreceptor imaging evidence also suggests alterations in the dopamine system in ADHD; however, the nature and behavioral significance of those have not yet been established. Here, we investigated striatal dopaminergic function in ADHD using [(11)C]raclopride PET with a d-amphetamine challenge. We also examined the relationship of striatal dopamine responses to ADHD symptoms and neurocognitive function. A total of 15 treatment-free, noncomorbid adult males with ADHD (age: 29.87 ± 8.65) and 18 healthy male controls (age: 25.44 ± 6.77) underwent two PET scans: one following a lactose placebo and the other following d-amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.), administered double blind and in random order counterbalanced across groups. In a separate session without a drug, participants performed a battery of neurocognitive tests. Relative to the healthy controls, the ADHD patients, as a group, showed greater d-amphetamine-induced decreases in striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding and performed more poorly on measures of response inhibition. Across groups, a greater magnitude of d-amphetamine-induced change in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was associated with poorer performance on measures of response inhibition and ADHD symptoms. Our findings suggest an augmented striatal dopaminergic response in treatment-naive ADHD. Though in contrast to results of a previous study, this finding appears consistent with a model proposing exaggerated phasic dopamine release in ADHD. A susceptibility to increased phasic dopamine responsivity may contribute to such characteristics of ADHD as poor inhibition and impulsivity.

  5. Acute Stimulant Treatment and Reinforcement Increase the Speed of Information Accumulation in Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Whitney D; White, Corey N; Hawk, Larry W

    2016-10-27

    The current studies utilized drift diffusion modeling (DDM) to examine how reinforcement and stimulant medication affect cognitive task performance in children with ADHD. In Study 1, children with (n = 25; 88 % male) and without ADHD (n = 33; 82 % male) completed a 2-choice discrimination task at baseline (100 trials) and again a week later under alternating reinforcement and no-reinforcement contingencies (400 trials total). In Study 2, participants with ADHD (n = 29; 72 % male) completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate and completed the same task utilized in Study 1 at baseline (100 trials). Children with ADHD accumulated information at a much slower rate than controls, as evidenced by a lower drift rate. Groups were similar in nondecision time and boundary separation. Both reinforcement and stimulant medication markedly improved drift rate in children with ADHD (ds = 0.70 and 0.95 for reinforcement and methylphenidate, respectively); both treatments also reduced boundary separation (ds = 0.70 and 0.39). Reinforcement, which emphasized speeded accuracy, reduced nondecision time (d = 0.37), whereas stimulant medication increased nondecision time (d = 0.38). These studies provide initial evidence that frontline treatments for ADHD primarily impact cognitive performance in youth with ADHD by improving the speed/efficiency of information accumulation. Treatment effects on other DDM parameters may vary between treatments or interact with task parameters (number of trials, task difficulty). DDM, in conjunction with other approaches, may be helpful in clarifying the specific cognitive processes that are disrupted in ADHD, as well as the basic mechanisms that underlie the efficacy of ADHD treatments.

  6. Skills Versus Pills: Psychosocial Treatments for ADHD in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Sasser, Tyler

    2016-10-01

    Although side effects and family concerns are common and long-term medication adherence is low, stimulant medications are a front-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychosocial treatments include classroom, family, and child-focused interventions that teach caregivers and teachers how to implement contingencies to shape behavior and provide children with skills to compensate for ADHD deficits. Such programs have a growing evidence-base and can be implemented alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatments. The most efficacious psychosocial treatments for children with ADHD include Behavioral Parent Training, Behavioral Classroom Management, and Behavioral Peer Interventions, which all focus on contingency management by adults. Training interventions are increasingly used to teach organizational and interpersonal skills to children and adolescents. These treatments are found to improve functional outcomes associated with ADHD, including on-task behavior, compliance, academic performance, social relationships, and family functioning. Clinicians play an important role in educating families about psychosocial treatments for ADHD, increasing family motivation and engagement, and including these interventions in multimodal treatment plans for youth with ADHD across development. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(10):e367-e372.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Atomoxetine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in children with ADHD and dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Richard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the effects of atomoxetine on treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, on reading performance, and on neurocognitive function in youth with ADHD and dyslexia (ADHD+D. Methods Patients with ADHD (n = 20 or ADHD+D (n = 36, aged 10-16 years, received open-label atomoxetine for 16 weeks. Data from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV, Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA, Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C, and Life Participation Scale for ADHD-Child Version (LPS-C were assessed. Results Atomoxetine demonstrated significant improvement for both groups on the ADHDRS-IV, LPS-C, and K-TEA reading comprehension standard and composite scores. K-TEA spelling subtest improvement was significant for the ADHD group, whereas the ADHD+D group showed significant reading decoding improvements. Substantial K-TEA reading and spelling subtest age equivalence gains (in months were achieved for both groups. The WMTB-C central executive score change was significantly greater for the ADHD group. Conversely, the ADHD+D group showed significant phonological loop score enhancement by visit over the ADHD group. Atomoxetine was well tolerated, and commonly reported adverse events were similar to those previously reported. Conclusions Atomoxetine reduced ADHD symptoms and improved reading scores in both groups. Conversely, different patterns and magnitude of improvement in working memory component scores existed between ADHD and ADHD+D patients. Though limited by small sample size, group differences in relation to the comparable changes in improvement in ADHD symptoms could suggest that brain systems related to the therapeutic benefit of atomoxetine in reducing ADHD symptoms may be different in individuals with ADHD+D and ADHD without dyslexia. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00191048

  8. Atomoxetine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with ADHD and dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin Richard; Greenbaum Michael; Gathercole Susan; Sumner Calvin R; Williams David; Hollandbeck Millie; Wietecha Linda

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the effects of atomoxetine on treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), on reading performance, and on neurocognitive function in youth with ADHD and dyslexia (ADHD+D). Methods Patients with ADHD (n = 20) or ADHD+D (n = 36), aged 10-16 years, received open-label atomoxetine for 16 weeks. Data from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV), Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA), Working Memory Test Battery for C...

  9. Investigating the efficacy of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for adult treatment seeking substance use disorder patients with comorbid ADHD : study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Vedel, Ellen; Koeter, Maarten W.; de Bruijn, Kim; Dekker, Jack J. M.; van den Brink, Wim; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with substance use disorders (SUD). The combination of ADHD and SUD is associated with a negative prognosis of both SUD and ADHD. Pharmacological treatments of comorbid ADHD in adult patients with SUD have not been very

  10. A compound herbal preparation (CHP) in the treatment of children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M; Levine, A Adar; Kol-Degani, H; Kav-Venaki, L

    2010-11-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. University-affiliated tertiary medical center. 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD, meeting DSM-IV criteria. Random assignment to the herbal treatment group (n = 80) or control group (placebo; n = 40); 73 patients in the treatment group (91%) and 19 in the control group (48%) completed the 4-month trial. Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) administered before and after the treatment period; overall score and 4 subscales. The treatment group showed substantial, statistically significant improvement in the 4 subscales and overall TOVA scores, compared with no improvement in the control group, which persisted in an intention-to-treat analysis. The well-tolerated CHP demonstrated improved attention, cognition, and impulse control in the intervention group, indicating promise for ADHD treatment in children.

  11. Towards an evidence-based taxonomy of nonpharmacologic treatments for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V; Antshel, Kevin M

    2014-10-01

    We have created an evidence-based guide for clinicians to the relative utility of nonpharmacologic treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article uses the term evidence-based in the sense applied by the Oxford Center for Evidenced-Based Medicine to help readers understand the degree to which nonpharmacologic treatments are supported by the scientific literature. This article also reviews the magnitude of the treatment effect expressed as the standardized mean difference effect size (also known as Cohen D). It then describes a meta-algorithm to describe how to integrate pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments for ADHD.

  12. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1996-10-01

    The role of demographic, developmental, and familial mediating factors on treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children was evaluated. Sixty-seven sexually abused preschool children and their parents were evaluated shortly after disclosure of sexual abuse and then were provided with one of two treatment interventions. At the completion of treatment, the parents and their children were reevaluated. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory, and the Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of emotional and behavioral symptoms in children. Parents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III, the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire, the Parental Support Questionnaire, and the Maternal Social Support Index. Children completed the Preschool Symptom Self-Report to assess self-reported affective symptoms and the Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to assess developmental level. Correlational analyses were conducted to analyze the relationships between the hypothesized mediating variables and the outcome measures at posttreatment across the two treatment groups. Multiple regression analyses were also performed. Both parental depression and parental emotional distress correlated significantly with several of the child outcome measures. Battelle scores were significantly negatively correlated with several outcome measures. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire remained a highly significant predictor of treatment outcome. The findings indicate a strong correlation between parental emotional distress related to the abuse and treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children, independent of the type of treatment provided. The findings indicate the importance of addressing parental distress related to the abuse in providing effective treatment to sexually abused

  13. The influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions in Norwegian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Aase, Heidi; Biele, Guido; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Skogan, Annette Holth; Zeiner, Pål; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Knutsen, Helle K

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (dioxins) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with potentially adverse impact on child neurodevelopment. Whether the potential detrimental effects of dioxins and PCBs on neurodevelopment are of specific or unspecific character is not clear. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functioning in preschoolers. We aimed to investigate a range of functions, in particular IQ, expressive language, and executive functions. This study includes n=1024 children enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of ADHD (the ADHD Study), with participants recruited from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Boys and girls aged 3.5years participated in extensive clinical assessments using well-validated tools; The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview (PAPA), Stanford-Binet 5th revision (SB-5), Child Development Inventory (CDI), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Generalized linear and additive models adjusted for confounders were used to examine exposure-outcome associations. Exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compound was not significantly associated with any of the outcome measures when analyses were performed for boys and girls together. After stratifying by sex, adjusted analyses indicated a small inverse association with language in girls. An increase in the exposure variables of 1 SD was associated with a reduction in language score of -0.2 [CI -0.4, -0

  14. The effect of medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on foster care caseloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This article uses administrative data on all Danish municipalities (N = 277) and a 10% randomly drawn sample of all Danish children (N...... = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would...... have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral...

  15. Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment for ADHD on Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To complete an exploratory uncontrolled study of the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on growth of children treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) from 281 children ages 6 to 13 years from longitudinal assessments up to 15 months were compared to norms…

  16. Pharmacological Management of Treatment-Induced Insomnia in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Lake, Marybeth; Pliszka, Steven R.; Walkup, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined subtype, and oppositional defiant disorder presents with a complaint of marked insomnia. Her parents describe 60 to 90 minutes of nightly initial insomnia that began with the initiation of 36 mg OROS methylphenidate (Concerta) 2 months ago. Behavioral interventions…

  17. Stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Faraone, Stephen V; Kollins, Scott H

    2014-06-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a significantly higher risk of cigarette smoking. The nature of the relationship between smoking and psychostimulant medications commonly used to treat ADHD is controversial. Our objective was to examine the relationship between stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking by using meta-analysis, and to identify study and sample characteristics that moderate this relationship. Literature searches on PubMed and PsycInfo databases identified published studies for inclusion. Included studies compared cigarette smoking outcomes for stimulant-treated and untreated ADHD individuals. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, and 14 (total n = 2360) contained sufficient statistical information for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Two authors extracted odds ratios or frequencies of smokers in the treatment or nontreatment groups, and coded study characteristics including sample source, percentage of male participants, follow-up length, treatment consistency, type of smoking measure, prospective study, and controlling for comorbidities. Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between stimulant treatment and lower smoking rates. Meta-regression indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that used clinical samples, included more women, measured smoking in adolescence rather than adulthood, conceptualized stimulant treatment as consistent over time, and accounted for comorbid conduct disorder. Nearly all studies were naturalistic, precluding causal inferences. Available data were insufficient to examine additional influences of patient demographics, treatment effectiveness, or other comorbidities. Consistent stimulant treatment of ADHD may reduce smoking risk; the effect was larger in samples with more severe psychopathology. Implications for further research, treatment of ADHD, and smoking prevention are discussed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Update on optimal use of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaan V

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vishal Madaan, Venkata Kolli, Durga P Bestha, Manan J ShahDepartment of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, Division of Child and Family Psychiatry, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USAAbstract: Lisdexamfetamine (LDX has been a recent addition to the treatment armamentarium for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. It is unique among stimulants as it is a prodrug, and has been found to be safe and well-tolerated medication in children older than 6 years, adolescents and adults. It has a smooth onset of action, exerts its action up to 13 hours and may have less rebound symptoms. LDX has proven to be effective in the treatment of ADHD in placebo controlled trials, and improved performance in simulated academic and work environments have been noticed. Both stimulant naïve and stimulant-exposed patients with ADHD appear to benefit from LDX. It has also shown some promise in improving emotional expression and executive function of patients with ADHD. Adverse effects such as decrease in sleep, loss of appetite and others have been reported with LDX use, just as with other stimulant formulations. Since most such studies exclude subjects with preexisting cardiac morbidity, prescribing precautions should be taken with LDX in such subjects, as with any other stimulant. Study subjects on LDX have been reported to have low scores on drug likability scales, even with intravenous use; as a result, LDX may have somewhat less potential for abuse and diversion. There is a need for future studies comparing other long acting stimulants with LDX in ADHD; in fact clinical trials comparing LDX with OROS (osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system methylphenidate are currently underway. Furthermore, the utility of this medication in other psychiatric disorders and beyond ADHD is being investigated.Keywords: lisdexamfetamine, ADHD, functional impairment, pharmacotherapy

  19. Effective Methylphenidate Treatment of an Adult Aspergers Syndrome and a Comorbid ADHD: A Clinical Investigation with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. Method: A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is…

  20. Effective Methylphenidate Treatment of an Adult Aspergers Syndrome and a Comorbid ADHD: A Clinical Investigation with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. Method: A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is…

  1. Dimorphic association of dopaminergic transporter gene variants with treatment outcome: Pilot study in Indian ADHD probands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Ray

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: This pioneering study on Indian ADHD probands indicates that rs28363170 and rs3785143 could be major modulators for treatment outcome; while MPH may be more beneficial in the presence of rs28363170 10R and rs3785143 T variants, ATX treatment may provide relief in presence of rs28363170 9R and rs3785143 C variants.

  2. Atomoxetine treatment and ADHD-related difficulties as assessed by adolescent patients, their parents and physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann Martin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of ADHD-related difficulties – reflecting overall impairment, social functioning, and quality of life – may be perceived differently by adolescent patients, parents and physicians. The primary aim of this study was to investigate ADHD-related difficulties during atomoxetine treatment, as perceived by the three different raters. Secondary objectives focused on effectiveness and tolerability of atomoxetine treatment in a population of adolescent patients with ADHD. Methods Adolescents with ADHD, aged 12–17 years, received open-label atomoxetine (0.5–1.2 mg/kg/day up to 24 weeks. ADHD-related difficulties at various times of the day were rated using the Global Impression of Perceived Difficulties (GIPD instrument. Inter-rater agreement was analyzed using Cohen's Kappa with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS and Clinical Global Impression Severity (GGI-S scores were assessed by the investigator; and spontaneous adverse events, vital signs and laboratory parameters were collected for tolerability assessments. Results 159 patients received atomoxetine. Patients' baseline mean GIPD total ratings were significantly lower than parents' and physicians' scores (12.5 [95%CI 11.6;13.5] vs. 17.2 [16.2;18.2] and 18.8 [17.8;19.8]. For all raters, GIPD scores significantly improved over time. Changes were greatest within the first two weeks. Kappa coefficients varied between 0.186 [0.112;0.259] and 0.662 [0.529;0.795], with strongest agreements between parent and physician assessments, and significant improvements of patient/physician agreements over time (based on 95% CIs. ADHD-RS and CGI-S scores significantly improved over the course of the study (based on 95% CIs. Tolerability results were consistent with earlier reports. Conclusion ADHD-related difficulties were perceived differently by the raters in this open-label trial, but consistently improved during atomoxetine treatment. The GIPD

  3. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  4. Efficacy of chess training for the treatment of ADHD: A prospective, open label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Gonzalez-Perez, Marisa; Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Poza-Cano, Belen; Perez-Moreno, Maria Rosario; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Otero-Perez, Jose

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of playing chess as a treatment option for children with ADHD. Parents of 44 children ages 6 to 17 with a primary diagnosis of ADHD consented to take part in the study. Parents completed the Spanish version of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale for parents (SNAP-IV) and the Abbreviated Conner's Rating Scales for parents (CPRS-HI) prior to an 11-week chess-training program. We used a paired t-test to compare pre- and post-intervention outcomes, and Cohen-d calculations to measure the magnitude of the effect. The statistical significance was set at P<.05. Children with ADHD improved in both the SNAP-IV (t=6.23; degrees of freedom (df)=41; P<.001) and the CPRS-HI (t=5.39; df=33; P<.001). Our results suggest a large effect in decreasing the severity of ADHD as measured by the SNAP-IV (d=0.85) and the CPRS-HI (d=0.85). Furthermore, we found a correlation between intelligence quotient and SNAP-IV improvement (P<.05). The results of our pilot study should be interpreted with caution. This pilot project highlights the importance of carrying out larger studies with a case-control design. If our results are replicated in better designed studies, playing chess could be included within the multimodal treatment of ADHD. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubiner, Howard; Saules, Karen K; Arfken, Cynthia L; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Schuster, Charles R; Lockhart, Nancy; Edwards, Ann; Donlin, Judy; Pihlgren, Eric

    2002-08-01

    In this 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate (MTP) versus placebo in 48 cocaine-dependent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adults, the authors sought to determine whether MTP would be safe, control ADHD symptoms, and affect cocaine use. Efficacy indexes revealed significantly greater ADHD symptom relief in the MTP group. There were no group differences in self-reported cocaine use, urinalysis results, or cocaine craving. Because of the relatively small sample size, the results are preliminary. However, we found that MTP improved subjective reports of ADHD symptoms and did not worsen cocaine use while participants were in treatment.

  6. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD: Primary school teachers' knowledge of symptoms, treatment and managing classroom behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl Topkin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ADHD is one of the most common chronic conditions of childhood. Teachers are a valuable source of information with regard to referral and diagnosis of the disorder. They also play a major role in creating an environment that is conducive to academic, social and emotional success for children with ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine primary school teachers' knowledge of the symptoms and management of children in their classrooms who were diagnosed with ADHD. The participants were 200 South African primary school teachers (178 female, 22 male; mean age = 43 years of children enrolled in Grades One to Four. A self-administered questionnaire, the Knowledge of Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (KADDS, which measures the misperceptions and understanding of the disorder, was used to collect the data. The results indicated that overall, 45% of the teachers correctly identified the responses to the items asked in the questionnaire. The "don't know responses" accounted for 31% of responses, while 22% of the responses were incorrectly identified. Furthermore, teachers were more knowledgeable of the general associated features of ADHD than of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. A majority of teachers indicated that they had received training. These findings suggest a need to consider improving evidenced-based classroom interventions for ADHD among South African teachers.

  7. Improving outcomes for youth with ADHD: a conceptual framework for combined neurocognitive and skill-based treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Kofler, Michael; Jarrett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and chronic mental health condition that often results in substantial impairments throughout life. Although evidence-based pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist for ADHD, effects of these treatments are acute, do not typically generalize into non-treated settings, rarely sustain over time, and insufficiently affect key areas of functional impairment (i.e., family, social, and academic functioning) and executive functioning. The limitations of current evidence-based treatments may be due to the inability of these treatments to address underlying neurocognitive deficits that are related to the symptoms of ADHD and associated areas of functional impairment. Although efforts have been made to directly target the underlying neurocognitive deficits of ADHD, extant neurocognitive interventions have shown limited efficacy, possibly due to misspecification of training targets and inadequate potency. We argue herein that despite these limitations, next-generation neurocognitive training programs that more precisely and potently target neurocognitive deficits may lead to optimal outcomes when used in combination with specific skill-based psychosocial treatments for ADHD. We discuss the rationale for such a combined treatment approach, prominent examples of this combined treatment approach for other mental health disorders, and potential combined treatment approaches for pediatric ADHD. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research necessary to develop a combined neurocognitive + skill-based treatment for youth with ADHD.

  8. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of MK-0929 and Placebo in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Anna; Alexander, Robert C.; Knighton, Jennifer; Hutson, Pete H.; Wang, Xiaojing J.; Snavely, Duane B.; Rosah, Thomas; Watt, Alan P.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Adler, Lenard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preclinical models, receptor localization, and genetic linkage data support the role of D4 receptors in the etiology of ADHD. This proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate MK-0929, a selective D4 receptor antagonist as treatment for adult ADHD. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted…

  9. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  10. Anterior Cingulate Volumetric Alterations in Treatment-Naive Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.; Valera, Eve M.; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Bush, George; Crum, Katherine; Brown, Ariel B.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine preliminary results of brain alterations in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in treatment-naive adults with ADHD. The ACC is a central brain node for the integration of cognitive control and allocation of attention, affect and drive. Thus its anatomical alteration may give rise to impulsivity, hyperactivity and…

  11. Dose Response Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment in Adults with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Goodman, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore dose-response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) treatment for ADHD. Method: This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose titration study in adult participants, aged 18 to 55 years, meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.)…

  12. The Effects of Single versus Mixed Gender Treatment for Adolescent Girls with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Ross, J. Megan; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the social behavior of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in single and mixed gender treatment settings. We collected ratings of social behavior (i.e., prosocial peer interactions, assertiveness, self-management, compliance, physical aggression, relational aggression) during single and mixed…

  13. The Effects of Single versus Mixed Gender Treatment for Adolescent Girls with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Ross, J. Megan; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the social behavior of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in single and mixed gender treatment settings. We collected ratings of social behavior (i.e., prosocial peer interactions, assertiveness, self-management, compliance, physical aggression, relational aggression) during single and mixed…

  14. Reversible Dopamine Transporter Modifications in Response to Methylphenidate Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to monitor the dopamine transporter activity in 5 males, ages 8 to 10, with ADHD, after cessation of methylphenidate (MPH treatment, in a study at the University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  15. Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, P L P; Baraldi, E; Bisgaard, H

    2008-01-01

    preschool child with recurrent wheeze, but should be discontinued if there is no clear clinical benefit. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials with clear descriptions of patients are needed to improve the present recommendations on the treatment of these common syndromes.......There is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children who wheeze...... is recommended for the treatment of episodic (viral) wheeze and can be started when symptoms of a viral cold develop. Given the large overlap in phenotypes, and the fact that patients can move from one phenotype to another, inhaled corticosteroids and montelukast may be considered on a trial basis in almost any...

  16. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD.

  17. My ADHD and me: Identifying with and distancing from ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I illustrate how individuals diagnosed with ADHD relate to, engage with, and interpret both ADHD and explanations of the diagnosis. Based on my research on adults’ experiences of ADHD, I describe how my informants 1) identify with ADHD as a specific way of being human as well as 2......) distance themselves from ADHD by separating themselves from and disclaiming behavior connected to ADHD. Notions of ADHD as a brain disorder, I argue, form the basis of both ways of relating to ADHD. Lastly, I discuss how neurobiological explanations of ADHD produce specific choices about and hopes...... for treatment. The analysis is based on interviews with 13 adults diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood; on observations made at conferences and seminars about ADHD for professionals, patients and relatives; and lastly on observations from online blogs and forums about ADHD as part of a two-year anthropological...

  18. Factors associated with a positive occupational outcome during long-term central stimulant treatment in adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Terje; Krokstad, Steinar; Vaaler, Arne E

    2014-12-01

    There is a lack of long-term studies of central stimulant (CS) treatment in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and studies on functional outcomes like occupational status are rare. The current study investigated occupational status in adult ADHD patients before and after long-term CS treatment (median duration of treatment 33 months) and aimed to identify variables associated with improvement in occupational status. The collection of data was based on a naturalistic, retrospective approach using the medical records of a sample of all 117 adult ADHD patients consecutively starting treatment with CS in a specific catchment area in Norway in the period 1997 to May 2005. Most patients did not improve in occupational status during long-term CS treatment. The improved group had significantly higher baseline ADHD symptoms as measured by the general adult ADD symptom checklist (83.7 vs. 76.2, p=0.024) and had a significantly shorter period from the first contact with adult psychiatry until they got the ADHD diagnosis (11.7 vs. 50.9 months, p=0.001). The results indicate that long-term CS treatment itself may have limited effect on occupational status in functionally impaired and highly comorbid patients with adult ADHD. A high baseline ADHD symptom level may be related to a superior outcome in occupational status.

  19. Factors affecting treatment adherence to atomoxetine in ADHD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treuer T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tamás Treuer,1 Luis Méndez,2 William Montgomery,3 Shenghu Wu4 1Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 2Eli Lilly de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly Asia, Inc, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature related to research about the factors affecting treatment adherence and discontinuation of atomoxetine in pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Medline was systematically searched using the following prespecified terms: “ADHD”, “Adherence”, “Compliance”, “Discontinuation”, and “Atomoxetine”. We identified 31 articles that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings from this review indicate that persistence and adherence to atomoxetine treatment were generally high. Factors found to influence adherence and nonadherence to atomoxetine treatment in ADHD in this review include age, sex, the definition of response used, length of treatment, initial dose of treatment, comorbid conditions, and reimbursement. Tolerability was cited as an important reason for treatment discontinuation. More research is needed to understand those factors that can help to identify patients at risk for poor adherence and interventions that could improve treatment adherence early in the stage of this illness to secure a better long-term prognosis. Keywords: atomoxetine, treatment discontinuation, adherence, compliance, ADHD medication, relapse

  20. Parenting as a Mechanism of Change in Psychosocial Treatment for Youth with ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2016-09-15

    We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8.6 years, range 7-11 years, 58 % boys). Child and parent/family functioning were assessed prior to treatment, immediately following treatment, and at follow-up into the subsequent school year using parent and teacher reports of inattention, organization, social skills, academic competency (teachers only), parenting daily hassles, and positive and negative parenting behaviors (parents only). Both treatment groups improved on negative parenting and home impairment, but only CLAS families also improved on positive parenting as well as academic impairment. Improvements in positive and negative parenting mediated treatment effects on child impairment independent of improvements in child inattention, implicating parenting as an important mechanism of change in psychosocial treatment for ADHD-I. Further, whereas parent-focused training produces improvements in negative parenting and impairment at home for children with ADHD-I, a multicomponent approach (incorporating child skills training and teacher consultation) more consistently produces improvements at school and in positive parenting, which may contribute to improvements in social skills into the next school year.

  1. Prefrontal cortical and striatal transcriptional responses to the reinforcing effect of repeated methylphenidate treatment in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    dela Peña, Ike; Kim, Hee Jin; Sohn, Aeree; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Noh, Minsoo; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylphenidate is the most commonly used stimulant drug for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research has found that methylphenidate is a “reinforcer” and that individuals with ADHD also abuse this medication. Nevertheless, the molecular consequences of long-term recreational methylphenidate use or abuse in individuals with ADHD are not yet fully known. Methods Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the most validated and widely used ADHD animal mo...

  2. Sequenced neurocognitive and behavioral parent training for the treatment of ADHD in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, A; Bedard, A-C V; Marks, D; Gopalan, G; Feirsen, N; Uderman, J; Chimiklis, A; Heber, E; Cornwell, M; Anderson, L; Zwilling, A; Ramon, M

    2017-02-23

    The present study examines the potential of sequencing a neurocognitive intervention with behavioral parent training (BPT) to improve executive functions (EFs), psychiatric symptoms, and multiple indices of functional impairment in school-age children aged 7 to 11 years who have been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, in a randomized controlled trial design, 85 children were assigned to either Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) followed by an empirically supported, manualized BPT intervention, or to a placebo version of CWMT followed by the same BPT intervention. Working memory maintenance (i.e., attention control/short-term memory), working memory processing and manipulation, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, impairment in parent-child dynamics, familial impairment, and overall functional compromise were evaluated as outcomes. The results suggest specific effects of the combined CWMT and BPT program on verbal and nonverbal working memory storage and nonverbal working memory processing and manipulation but no incremental benefits in regard to ADHD symptoms, ODD symptoms, and functional outcomes. The present findings do not support the hypothesis regarding the complementary and augmentative benefits of sequenced neurocognitive and BPT interventions for the treatment of ADHD. These results, the study's limitations, and future directions for research are further discussed.

  3. Parent Adherence in Two Behavioral Treatment Strategies for the Predominantly Inattentive Presentation of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Mary; Hinshaw, Stephen; McBurnett, Keith; Pfiffner, Linda

    2016-11-03

    We examined the effects of parent adherence on child outcomes in two treatment strategies for the Predominantly Inattentive Presentation of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-I): behavioral parent training adapted for ADHD-I (Parent-Focused Therapy [PFT]) and a multicomponent intervention that combined PFT, a child life skills group, and a classroom intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills Program [CLAS]). In a 2-site randomized controlled trial, 199 children (7-11 years of age) were randomized to PFT (n = 74), CLAS (n = 74), or treatment as usual (n = 51). Parent adherence was rated separately by parents and clinicians. Child outcomes included ADHD-I symptoms and parent- and teacher- rated impairment social, organizational, and home impairment. Results from multiple regression analyses utilizing a composite of parent and clinician ratings showed that parent adherence predicted improvement in all 3 parent-rated child impairment outcomes and no teacher-rated outcomes in the PFT treatment group. Adherence ratings did not predict any parent- or teacher-rated outcomes in the CLAS treatment group and did not predict ADHD symptom change in either treatment condition. These findings suggest that when parents are solely responsible for teaching and reinforcing new child skills and behaviors (as in PFT), their adherence to the assigned intervention may be especially important for improvement at home. It may be less critical in multicomponent interventions, like CLAS, where the responsibility for teaching new child skills is shared among parents, teachers, and child group clinicians. Parent adherence does not appear to impact child improvement in the school setting.

  4. Clinical utility of guanfacine extended release in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello NT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas T Bello Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common psychiatric illness in children and adolescents. Several stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine derivatives, are available to treat ADHD in pediatric patients. Nonstimulant medications are more preferred by some parents, other caregivers, and patients because they lack the abuse potential of stimulant medications. In the US, one available nonstimulant option is guanfacine extended release (XR. As a selective α2A adrenergic receptor, guanfacine acts on the central noradrenergic pathways and cortical noradrenergic targets to improve working memory and attention. The XR formulation of guanfacine, compared with the immediate-release formulation, is more effective for the long-term management of ADHD and is associated with fewer adverse effects. Available data also indicate that guanfacine XR is superior to atomoxetine and is as effective as the nonselective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, clonidine XR. The most common adverse effects associated with guanfacine XR are somnolence, fatigue, bradycardia, and hypotension. Somnolence is the most often cited reason for discontinuation. Guanfacine XR is also labeled for use as an adjuvant to stimulant treatment for ADHD. A similar profile of adverse effects as reported with monotherapy is reported when guanfacine XR is “added on” to stimulant therapy with somnolence as the most commonly reported adverse event. This review discusses the clinical efficacy and patient preference of guanfacine XR based on available published data on the safety, relative effectiveness, and tolerance of this medication to treat ADHD. Keywords: Intuniv, norepinephrine, prefrontal cortex, locus coeruleus, impulsivity, inattentive

  5. ADHD, Substance Use Disorders, and Psychostimulant Treatment: Current Literature and Treatment Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This review explores the relationship between ADHD and substance use disorder (SUD), factors that determine the abuse potential of psychostimulants, and strategies for identifying and treating at-risk ADHD patients. Method: This study uses a Medline review of literature. Results: Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and…

  6. Multimethod psychoeducational intervention for preschool children with disruptive behavior: two-year post-treatment follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, T L; Barkley, R A; Crosswait, C; Moorehouse, M; Fletcher, K; Barrett, S; Jenkins, L; Metevia, L

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the 2-year post-treatment follow-up of preschool children identified as having high levels of disruptive behavior at kindergarten entry. They were assigned to four treatment conditions: A no-treatment group, parent-training only, treatment classroom only, and the combination of parent training with the treatment classroom. Interventions lasted the entire kindergarten academic year. Initial post-treatment results reported previously indicated no effects for the parent-training program but some efficacy for the classroom intervention program. For this report, the disruptive behavior (DB) children were subdivided into those who did (n = 74) and did not (n = 77) receive the treatment classroom. Two-year post-treatment follow-up results indicated no differences between the classroom treated and untreated DB groups. These groups also failed to differ in the percentage of children using available treatments across the follow-up period. The DB children in both groups had significantly more symptoms of ADHD and ODD than a community control group (N = 47) at follow-up. They also received higher ratings of externalizing problems on the parent Child Behavior Checklist, more severe ratings of behavior problems at home, and ratings of more pervasive behavior problems at school, and had poorer academic skills. Results suggested that early intervention classrooms for DB children may not produce enduring effects once treatment is withdrawn, and that better approaches are needed for identifying those DB children at greatest risk for later maladjustment.

  7. Successful treatment of bipolar disorder II and ADHD with a micronutrient formula: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Harrison, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Bipolar disorder with co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a challenge to treat. Ten previous reports have shown potential benefit of a micronutrient treatment (consisting mainly of vitamins and minerals) for various psychiatric symptoms, including mood and ADHD. This case study aimed to investigate the longer term impact of the micronutrients on both psychiatric and neurocognitive functioning in an off-on-off-on (ABAB) design with 1 year follow-up. A 21-year-old female with bipolar II disorder, ADHD, social anxiety, and panic disorder entered an open-label trial using a nutritional treatment following a documented 8 year history of on-going psychiatric symptoms not well managed by medications. After 8 weeks on the formula she showed significant improvements in mood, anxiety, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Blood test results remained normal after 8 weeks on the formula. She did not report any adverse side effects associated with the treatment. She then chose to come off the formula; after 8 weeks her depression scores returned to baseline, and anxiety and ADHD symptoms worsened. The formula was reintroduced, showing gradual improvement in all psychiatric symptoms. This case represents a naturalistic ABAB design showing on-off control of symptoms. After 1 year, the patient is now in remission from all mental illness. Neurocognitive changes mirrored behavioral changes, showing improved processing speed, consistency in response speed, and verbal memory. A placebo response and expectancy effects cannot be ruled out although previous poor response to treatment and the duration of the current positive response decrease the likelihood that other factors better explain change. These consistently positive outcomes alongside an absence of side effects indicate that further research, particularly larger and more controlled trials, is warranted using this multinutrient approach.

  8. Severe Recurrent Pancreatitis in a Child with ADHD after Starting Treatment with Methylphenidate (Ritalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheil Artul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 10-year-old boy, who had severe relapsing pancreatitis, three times in two months within 3 weeks after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Pancreatitis due to the use of (methylphenidate Ritalin was never published before. Attention must be made by the physicians regarding this possible complication, and this complication should be taken into consideration in every patient with abdominal pain who was newly treated with Ritalin.

  9. Severe recurrent pancreatitis in a child with ADHD after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artul, Suheil; Artoul, Faozi; Habib, George; Nseir, William; Bisharat, Bishara; Nijim, Yousif

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 10-year-old boy, who had severe relapsing pancreatitis, three times in two months within 3 weeks after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin) due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pancreatitis due to the use of (methylphenidate) Ritalin was never published before. Attention must be made by the physicians regarding this possible complication, and this complication should be taken into consideration in every patient with abdominal pain who was newly treated with Ritalin.

  10. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy versus treatment as usual in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, L.; Kan, C C; Carpentier, P.J.; Sizoo, B.B.; Hepark, S.; Grutters, J.P.; Donders, R.; Buitelaar, J; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with a lifelong pattern of core symptoms that is associated with impairments of functioning in daily life. This has a substantial personal and economic impact. In clinical practice there is a high need for additional or alternative interventions for existing treatments, usually consisting of pharmacotherapy and/or psycho-education. Although previous studies show preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of ...

  11. A Dose-Ranging Study of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatment for Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Pelham, William E.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Coles, Erika K.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Chacko, Anil; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances; Garefino, Allison; Hoffman, Martin T.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Placebo and 3 doses of methylphenidate (MPH) were crossed with 3 levels of behavioral modification (no behavioral modification, NBM; low-intensity behavioral modification, LBM; and high-intensity behavior modification, HBM) in the context of a summer treatment program (STP). Participants were 48 children with ADHD, aged 5–12. Behavior was examined in a variety of social settings (sports activities, art class, lunch) that are typical of elementary school, neighborhood, and after-school setting...

  12. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eMiranda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EF using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF. The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed. The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of ADHD symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  13. Acute atomoxetine treatment of younger and older children with ADHD: A meta-analysis of tolerability and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Brigette S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atomoxetine is FDA-approved as a treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in patients aged 6 years to adult. Among pediatric clinical trials of atomoxetine to date, six with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design were used in this meta-analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe and compare the treatment response and tolerability of atomoxetine between younger children (6–7 years and older children (8–12 years with ADHD, as reported in these six acute treatment trials. Methods Data from six clinical trials of 6–9 weeks duration were pooled, yielding 280 subjects, ages 6–7 years, and 860 subjects, ages 8–12 years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-diagnosed ADHD. Efficacy was analyzed using the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS, Conners' Parent Rating Scale-revised (CPRS-R:S, and the Clinical Global Impression of ADHD Severity (CGI-ADHD-S. Results Atomoxetine was superior to placebo in both age categories for mean (SD change in ADHD-RS total, total T, and subscale scores; 3 CPRS-R:S subscales; and CGI-ADHD-S from baseline. Although there were no significant treatment differentials between the age groups for these efficacy measures, the age groups themselves, regardless of treatment, were significantly different for ADHD-RS total (younger: ATX = -14.2 [13.8], PBO = -4.6 [10.4]; older: ATX = -15.4 [13.2], PBO = -7.3 [12.0]; p = .001, total T (younger: ATX = -15.2 [14.8], PBO = -4.9 [11.2]; older: ATX = -16.4 [14.6], PBO = -7.9 [13.1]; p = .003, and subscale scores (Inattentive: younger: ATX = -7.2 [7.5], PBO = -2.4 [5.7]; older: ATX = -8.0 [7.4], PBO = -3.9 [6.7]; p = .043; Hyperactive/Impulsive: younger: ATX = -7.0 [7.2], PBO = -2.1 [5.4]; older: ATX = -7.3 [7.0], PBO = -3.4 [6.3]; p Conclusion Atomoxetine is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment of ADHD in both younger and older children as assessed by three

  14. ADHD Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  15. Examining Ethnicity as a Moderator of Treatment Outcome for Children with ADHD Using Parent-Child Interaction (PCI) Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Heather A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hinshaw, Stephen; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Chi, Terry C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Wells, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    The vast parenting literature has shown differences in parenting practices across different ethnicities. However, parenting practices of parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have primarily been studied in Caucasian middle-class families. Given that modifying parenting practices is often a primary target for psychosocial intervention for children with ADHD, ethnic differences in parenting may moderate treatment outcomes. Utilizing observations of 567 childre...

  16. The Effects of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Children’s Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keilow, Maria; Holm, Anders; Fallesen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We use Danish register data to estimate the effect of medical treatment of ADHD on children’s academic achievement. Using a sample of 7,523 children who undergo medical treatment, we exploit plausibly exogenous variation in medical nonresponse to estimate the effect of medical treatment on school......-leaving grades. Heckman two-stage sample selection models allow us to account for selection into the sample of children treated medically for ADHD. We find significant effects of treatment on ninth grade school-leaving grade point average (GPA). Compared to consistent treatment, part or full discontinuation...... of treatment has large significant negative effects on teacher evaluation and exam GPA, reducing grades with .18 to .19 standard deviations. A supplementary identification strategy and placebo regressions support our findings. The results demonstrate that ADHD treatment may mitigate the negative social...

  17. Access to diagnosis, treatment, and supportive services among pharmacotherapy-treated children/adolescents with ADHD in Europe: data from the Caregiver Perspective on Pediatric ADHD survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridman M

    2017-03-01

    , 44% were “very satisfied”/“satisfied” with medical care, and 50% found health care providers “very supportive”/“somewhat supportive”. Mainstream schools were attended by 82% of children/adolescents. Of those, 67% of caregivers thought schools could help more with the child/adolescent’s ADHD and 48% received extra help/special arrangement. Results varied significantly between countries (P<0.001, all parameters.Conclusion: Almost a third of caregivers reported a high degree of difficulty in obtaining an ADHD diagnosis for their child/adolescent, less than half felt that sufficient resources were available, and gaps in support from health care providers/schools were identified. Findings underscore the need to improve access to diagnosis and provision of supportive services to enable better standards of care, and potentially reduce the impact of child/adolescent ADHD on caregivers’ lives. Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, burden of illness, caregivers, diagnosis, treatment

  18. [Diagnosis and treatment of food allergies in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, G; Eng, P

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of food allergies in preschool children has increased in the last few decades. Depending on the triggering allergen, children may outgrow many hypersensitivity reactions to food proteins by the age of 3 - 5 years. Despite improved diagnosis and knowledge, food allergies are still restricting the quality of life in affected subjects and their families. There is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestation from mild cutaneous symptoms to life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. Food proteins are the most frequent cause of anaphylactic reactions in childhood and adolescence. The task of primary care physicians includes identification of at-risk patients, early diagnosis and advice to family members concerning preventive measures and emergency treatment (e. g. adrenaline) in case of accidental ingestion of the culprit food. There is still no causal treatment of food allergy available. Therefore, strict avoidance of the causative food remains the most important measure to date.

  19. Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duric Nezla S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A randomized and controlled clinical study was performed to evaluate the use of neurofeedback (NF to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents. Methods The ADHD population was selected from an outpatient clinic for Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Norway. Ninety-one of the 275 children and adolescents ranging in age from 6 to 18 years (10.5 years participated in 30 sessions of an intensive NF program. The reinforcement contingency was based on the subjects’ production of cortical beta1 activity (15–18 Hz. The ADHD participants were randomized into three groups, with 30 in the NF group, 31 controls in a group that was given methylphenidate, and 30 in a group that received NF and methylphenidate. ADHD core symptoms were reported by parents using the parent form of the Clinician’s Manual for Assessment by Russell A. Barkley. Results Ninety-one children and adolescents were effectively randomized by age, sex, intelligence and distribution of ADHD core symptoms. The parents reported significant effects of the treatments, but no significant differences between the treatment groups were observed. Conclusions NF was as effective as methylphenidate at treating the attentional and hyperactivity symptoms of ADHD, based on parental reports. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NCT01252446

  20. The Effects of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Children’s Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keilow, Maria; Holm, Anders; Fallesen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    -leaving grades. Heckman two-stage sample selection models allow us to account for selection into the sample of children treated medically for ADHD. We find significant effects of treatment on ninth grade school-leaving grade point average (GPA). Compared to consistent treatment, part or full discontinuation...... of treatment has large significant negative effects on teacher evaluation and exam GPA, reducing grades with .18 to .19 standard deviations. A supplementary identification strategy and placebo regressions support our findings. The results demonstrate that ADHD treatment may mitigate the negative social...

  1. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  2. Cost-utility analysis of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Maia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To perform a cost-utility analysis on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with methylphenidate immediate-release (MPH-IR in children and adolescents from Brazil.Method:A Markov model was constructed to compare MPH-IR vs. no treatment. A 24-week naturalistic study was conducted to collect transition probabilities and utility data. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALY, and costs reported in 2014 international dollars (I$. The perspective was the Brazilian Unified Health System as payer, and the time horizon was 6 years.Results:Of 171 patients, 73 provided information at baseline, and 56 at week 24. Considering the MPH-IR monthly cost of I$ 38, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of treatment was I$ 9,103/QALY for children and I$ 11,883/QALY for adolescents. In two-way sensitivity analysis, considering one Gross National Product per capita (I$ 11,530 as willingness-to-pay, a cost of no-treatment lower than I$ 45/month would render MPH-IR a cost-saving strategy.Discussion:MPH-IR treatment of children and adolescents is cost-effective for ADHD patients from the Brazilian public health system perspective. Both patients and the healthcare system might benefit from such a strategy.Trial registration number:NCT01705613.

  3. Sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) before and after 6-month treatment with methylphenidate: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliano, Piernanda; Galloni, Giovanni Battista; Bagnasco, Irene; Delia, Giuliana; Moletto, Alessandra; Mana, Mauro; Cortese, Samuele

    2016-05-01

    Children with ADHD may present with sleep disturbances that add to the impairment of the disorder. The long-term sleep effects of the first-line pharmacological treatment for ADHD, i.e., psychostimulants, are unclear. In this pilot study, we compared polysomnographic variables in children with ADHD (n = 11, aged 6-15 years), before pharmacological treatment, and in children without ADHD (n = 22, aged 5-14 years); we also assessed polysomnographic changes in children with ADHD (n = 7) after a 6-month treatment with methylphenidate immediate-release (once or twice daily). Compared to children without ADHD, those with ADHD at baseline presented with significantly increased duration of awakenings (p = 0.02), reduction in sleep efficiency (p = 0.03), and increase in stage I (N1) (p Methylphenidate treatment did not significantly change any parameter of sleep architecture. Preliminary evidence from this pilot study shows that, compared to children without ADHD, those with ADHD presented a more fragmented and less effective sleep at baseline and that the 6-month methylphenidate treatment did not further negatively impact on sleep architecture. • Children with ADHD may present with subjectively reported and/or objectively confirmed disturbances of sleep. • The long-term effects on sleep of the first-line pharmacological treatment for ADHD, i.e., psychostimulants, are not clear. What is new: • Our study showed that the 6-month continuous treatment with methylphenidate did not further negatively impact on sleep architecture in children with ADHD.

  4. The Effect of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Foster Care Caseloads: Evidence from Danish Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This article uses administrative data on all Danish municipalities (N = 277) and a 10% randomly drawn sample of all Danish children (N = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children's acute behavioral problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  5. Treatment with valproic acid ameliorates ADHD symptoms in fragile X syndrome boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrioli, Mariagiulia; Vernacotola, Silvia; Setini, Chiara; Bevilacqua, Francesca; Martinelli, Diego; Snape, Mike; Hutchison, Julie A; Di Raimo, Francesca Romana; Tabolacci, Elisabetta; Neri, Giovanni

    2010-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited mental retardation, due to expansion and methylation of the CGG sequence at the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene. Around 90% of affected boys present with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), while this percentage is lower in FXS girls (35-47%). Treatment of these behavioral symptoms is critical for many families. In an attempt at identifying drugs capable of restoring the activity of the FMR1 gene, we investigated the use of valproic acid (VPA), a well-known antiepileptic drug, also used as a mood stabilizer and in migraine therapy. It is described as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and, possibly, as a DNA demethylating agent. In an in vitro study we observed that treatment of lymphoblastoid cells from FXS patients with VPA caused a modest reactivation of FMR1 transcription and increased levels of histone acetylation, confirming the histone hyperacetylating effect, but not its putative DNA demethylating activity. On the basis of these findings, we decided to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of VPA on ADHD symptoms in FXS patients. We observed an improvement in the adaptive behavior, defined as the performance of daily activities required for personal and social competence, due to a significant reduction in hyperactivity after VPA treatment. This treatment could be considered as an alternative to that with stimulants, whose efficacy in patients with FXS needs to be confirmed by further studies.

  6. The Experience of Receiving a Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adulthood: A Qualitative Study of Clinically Referred Patients Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Bramham, Jessica; Gray, Katie; Rose, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychological impact of receiving a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood and treatment with medication and to examine how diagnosis and treatment with medication changes an individual's self-perception and view of the future. Method: Participants were eight individuals diagnosed with ADHD at a tertiary service. Semistructured…

  7. Pharmacological interventions for ADHD: how do adolescent and adult patient beliefs and attitudes impact treatment adherence?

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy S

    2014-01-01

    Suzanne McCarthy School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults...

  8. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years, SD = 0.6), medication naive children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis…

  9. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Safavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group. Assessment was performed by Conners′ rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00, with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894, and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671 were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00. Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children.

  10. Meta-analysis of the association between dopamine transporter genotype and response to methylphenidate treatment in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambeitz, J; Romanos, M; Ettinger, U

    2014-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder. Treatment with methylphenidate, which blocks dopamine and noradrenaline transporters, is clinically efficacious in reducing the symptoms of ADHD. However, a considerable proportion of patients show no or only insufficient response to methylphenidate. Following a pharmacogenetic approach, a number of studies have suggested that heterogeneity in treatment response across subjects might to some extent be due to genetic factors. In particular, a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the SLC6A3 gene, which codes for the dopamine transporter, has been considered as a predictor of treatment success. However, the literature has so far been inconsistent. Here we present results of a meta-analysis of studies investigating the moderating effect of the SLC6A3 VNTR on response to methylphenidate treatment in subjects with ADHD. Outcome measures from 16 studies including data from 1572 subjects were entered into a random-effects model. There was no significant summary effect for the SLC6A3 VNTR on the response to methylphenidate treatment (P>0.5) and no effect on specific symptom dimensions of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention (all P>0.2). However, in a subanalysis of naturalistic trials, we observed a significant effect of d=-0.36 (P=0.03), indicating that 10R homozygotes show less improvement in symptoms following treatment than the non-10/10 carriers. This meta-analysis indicates that SLC6A3 VNTR is not a reliable predictor of methylphenidate treatment success in ADHD. Our study leaves unanswered the question of whether other genetic polymorphisms or nongenetic factors may contribute to the observed heterogeneity in treatment response across ADHD subjects.

  11. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Marcos H C; Guimarães, Catarina A; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Neri, Marina L; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners' Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%), seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  12. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  13. Efficacy of steroid treatments in the asthmatic preschool child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2002-01-01

    Asthma represents the most common chronic disease in preschool children. Hospital admission for wheezy disorders is the most common paediatric chronic disease causing hospital admission and more common in young children than later in life.......Asthma represents the most common chronic disease in preschool children. Hospital admission for wheezy disorders is the most common paediatric chronic disease causing hospital admission and more common in young children than later in life....

  14. Treatment of ADHD with Stimulant Medications: Response to Nissen Perspective in the New England Journal of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Prince, Jefferson B.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a response to Dr. Steven E. Nissen's comments (Nissen, 2006) about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its treatment with stimulant medications. In this article, the authors refute his arguments and provide accurate information. Here, they answer the questions, such as: (1) Do stimulants increase the risk for sudden…

  15. Meditation or Medication? Mindfulness training versus medication in the treatment of childhood ADHD : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, R.; de Bruin, E.I.; Bögels, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) is, with a prevalence of 5 %, a highly common childhood disorder, and has severe impact on the lives of youngsters and their families. Medication is often the treatment of choice, as it currently is most effective. However, medication has on

  16. Qualitative Treatment-Subgroup Interactions in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Adolescents with ADHD: Exploring What Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Works for Whom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Prins, Pier J. M.; Van Mechelen, Iven; Van der Oord, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explored qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions within data of a RCT with two cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) for adolescents with ADHD: a planning-focused (PML) and a solution-focused CBT (SFT). Qualitative interactions imply that which treatment is best differs across subgroups of patients, and are therefore most relevant for personalized medicine. Methods Adolescents with ADHD (N = 159) received either PML or SFT. Pre-, post- and three-month follow-up data were gathered on parent-rated ADHD symptoms and planning problems. Pretreatment characteristics were explored as potential qualitative moderators of pretest to follow-up treatment effects, using an innovative analyses technique (QUINT; Dusseldorp & Van Mechelen, 2014). In addition, qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions for the therapeutic changes from pre- to posttest and from post- to follow-up test were investigated. Results For the entire time span from pretest to follow-up only a quantitative interaction was found, while from posttest to follow-up qualitative interactions were found: Adolescents with less depressive symptoms but more anxiety symptoms showed more improvement when receiving PML than SFT, while for other adolescents the effects of PML and SFT were comparable. Discussion Whereas subgroups in both treatments followed different trajectories, no subgroup was found for which SFT outperformed PML in terms of the global change in symptoms from pretest to three months after treatment. This implies that, based on this exploratory study, there is no need for personalized treatment allocation with regard to the CBTs under study for adolescents with ADHD. However, for a subgroup with comorbid anxiety symptoms but low depression PML clearly appears the treatment of preference. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR2142 PMID:26977602

  17. Direct versus indirect treatment for preschool children who stutter: The RESTART randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Sonneville (Caroline); E.A. Stolk (Elly); Rietveld, T. (Toni); M.-C. Franken (Marie-Christine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective Stuttering is a common childhood disorder. There is limited high quality evidence regarding options for best treatment. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of direct treatment with indirect treatment in preschool children who stutter. Methods In this multicent

  18. Direct versus indirect treatment for preschool children who stutter: The RESTART randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Sonneville (Caroline); E.A. Stolk (Elly); T. Rietveld (Toni); M.-C. Franken (Marie-Christine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective Stuttering is a common childhood disorder. There is limited high quality evidence regarding options for best treatment. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of direct treatment with indirect treatment in preschool children who stutter. Methods In this

  19. Self-reported efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in a clinical randomized controlled study of ADHD children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duric NS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nezla S Duric,1–3 Jörg Aßmus,4 Irene B Elgen1,5 1Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 2Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Helse Fonna Haugesund Hospital, Haugesund, Norway; 4Center for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway Background: Many non-pharmacological treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have been attempted, but reports indicate that most are ineffective. Although neurofeedback (NF is a treatment approach for children with ADHD that remains promising, a variety of appropriate measures have been used in reporting and evaluating its effect. Objective: To report the self-evaluations of NF treatment by children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Randomized controlled trial in 91 children and adolescents with ADHD, aged less than 18 years (mean, 11.2 years participated in a 30-session program of intensive NF treatment. Participants were randomized and allocated by sequentially numbered sealed envelopes into three groups: methylphenidate (MPH as an active control group, and two trial groups NF with MPH, and NF alone. ADHD core symptoms and school performance were given on a scale of 1 to 10 using a self-reporting questionnaire, and the changes in these scores after treatment were used as the self-reported evaluation. Basic statistical methods (descriptive, analyses of variance, exact χ2 test, and paired t-test were used to investigate the baseline data. Changes in ADHD core symptoms and treatment effects were investigated using a general linear model for repeated measures. Results: Eighty participants completed the treatment study and 73 (91% responded sufficiently on the self-reporting questionnaires. The treatment groups were

  20. Treating ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Treating ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Currently available treatments aim at reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types ...

  1. Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence and its Implications for Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, David W; Mitchell, Sara; Rhodewalt, Lauren; Surman, Craig B H

    2016-01-01

    Although previously considered a disorder of childhood, studies in the last decade have demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues to impair function into adulthood and responds to pharmacotherapy. Due to age-specific changes in roles and challenges, it is possible that presentation and response to intervention may differ between older and younger adults. A literature search for papers that identified older adults with ADHD, including papers describing its epidemiology, manifestation, and treatment, was the basis for this paper. There is a paucity of data on ADHD in older adults; however, small observational studies have characterized the presence, impact, and treatment of ADHD in adults over the age of 50 years, and larger epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ADHD symptoms exist in older adulthood. Optimal criteria for diagnosis of ADHD and methods of treating ADHD in older individuals have not been systematically explored. In light of the limited data, this review discusses considerations for differential diagnosis and safe pharmacotherapy of ADHD in older adults.

  2. The Reliability and Validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior Rating Scales in a Preschool Sample: Continuum Measures of Hyperactivity and Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Swanson, James M.; Riggs, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. Method Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3 months; instruments were in the primary language of the family (English or Spanish). Results Psychometric properties for the English and Spanish versions of the SWAN were adequate, with high internal consistency and moderate test–retest reliability. Skewness and kurtosis statistics for the SWAN were within the range expected for a normally distributed population. The SWAN also demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity in correlations with the various subscales of the SDQ. Conclusion Psychometric properties of both the English and Spanish versions of the SWAN indicate that it is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring child attention and hyperactivity. The stability of ratings over time in this preschool sample was moderate, which may reflect the relative instability of these characteristics in preschool children. PMID:21807955

  3. Effectiveness of methylphenidate and PUFA for the treatment of patients with ADHD: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahbobeh Firouzkouhi; Shamekhi, Maryam; Rakhshani, Tayebeh

    2017-05-01

    In some children with ADHD, sub-optimal levels of various nutrients including PUFA especially omega-3 has been observed, and contradictory reports exist on the results of studies conducted on the positive therapeutic effects of PUFA in patients with ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of methylphenidate and PUFA on treatment of patients with ADHD in Zahedan, Iran. In this clinical trial, 40 children between 6 and 12 years of age with ADHD were investigated in Zahedan in 2014. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of methylphenidate plus PUFA and methylphenidate plus placebo. ADHD rating scale was filled before and after the study for patients of both groups. Finally, data were analyzed using SPSS18, paired-samples t-test and chi-square. Mean age of patients was 2.9±1.8 years. Thirty-three children (82.5%) were boys and seven children (17.5%) were girls. Mean severity of signs in the group under methylphenidate plus PUFA treatment was 39.9±4.9 before treatment and 20.1±6.0 after 8 weeks of treatment (p<0.001). Mean severity of signs in the group under methylphenidate plus placebo treatment was 41.2±2.7 before treatment and 26.1±9.0 after 8 weeks of treatment (p<0.001). Mean reduction in the severity of symptoms in the group under methylphenidate therapy was 19.7±5.9 and in PUFA and placebo group it was 15.1±9.3 (p<0.067). Response to treatment (a reduction of at least 25% in the signs) in the group taking methylphenidate plus PUFA was 90% (18 patients) and in methylphenidate plus placebo group, it was 60% (12 patients) (p=0.028). This study shows that PUFA is an efficient nutrient to treat ADHD and it can be used to treat patients. However, definitive conclusion requires repeating the study with a larger sample and longer study period. The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015092724209N2. The authors received no financial support for the research

  4. A Compound Herbal Preparation (CHP) in the Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M.; Adar Levine, A.; Kol-Degani, H.; Kav-Venaki, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. Method: Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. Participants: 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD,…

  5. Classification and pharmacological treatment of preschool wheezing : changes since 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Paul L. P.; Caudri, Daan; Eber, Ernst; Gaillard, Erol A.; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Hedlin, Gunilla; Henderson, John; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Merkus, Peter J. F. M.; Pedersen, Soren; Valiuis, Arunas; Wennergren, Goeran; Bush, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the European Respiratory Society Task Force report in 2008, significant new evidence has become available on the classification and management of preschool wheezing disorders. In this report, an international consensus group reviews this new evidence and proposes some modifi

  6. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Noncompliance by Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, David A; Harris, Carelle; Reagan, Renee; Rasey, Amy

    2007-01-01

    A functional analysis showed that noncompliance occurred most often for 2 preschoolers when it resulted in termination of a preferred activity, suggesting that noncompliance was maintained by positive reinforcement. A differential reinforcement procedure, which involved contingent access to coupons that could be exchanged for uninterrupted access to the activity maintaining noncompliance, was successful in increasing compliance for both children.

  7. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Noncompliance by Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, David A.; Harris, Carelle; Reagan, Renee; Rasey, Amy

    2007-01-01

    A functional analysis showed that noncompliance occurred most often for 2 preschoolers when it resulted in termination of a preferred activity, suggesting that noncompliance was maintained by positive reinforcement. A differential reinforcement procedure, which involved contingent access to coupons that could be exchanged for uninterrupted access…

  8. Classification and pharmacological treatment of preschool wheezing: changes since 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, P. L. P.; Caudri, D.; Eber, E.;

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the European Respiratory Society Task Force report in 2008, significant new evidence has become available on the classification and management of preschool wheezing disorders. In this report, an international consensus group reviews this new evidence and proposes some...

  9. Classwide Functional Analysis and Treatment of Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Veena Y.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling, Heather E.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Hardy, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively few functional assessment and intervention studies have been conducted in preschool classrooms with children of typical development who engage in high incidence problem behaviors. Moreover, limited studies have used functional assessment procedures with the class as the unit of analysis. This study included functional analyses and a…

  10. Preferences for treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Rudolph, Ina; Lincke, Hans-Joachim; Nübling, Matthias

    2009-08-13

    While there is an increasing emphasis on patient empowerment and shared decision-making, subjective values for attributes associated with their treatment still need to be measured and considered. This contribution seeks to define properties of an ideal drug treatment of individuals concerned with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Because of the lack of information on patient needs in the decision-makers assessment of health services, the individuals' preferences often play a subordinate role at present. Discrete Choice Experiments offer strategies for eliciting subjective values and making them accessible for physicians and other health care professionals. The evidence comes from a Discrete Choice Experiments (DCE) performed in 2007. After reviewing the literature about preferences of ADHS we conducted a qualitative study with four focus groups consisting of five to eleven ADHS-patients each. In order to achieve content validity, we aimed at collecting all relevant factors for an ideal ADHS treatment. In a subsequent quantitative study phase (n = 219), data was collected in an online or paper-pencil self-completed questionnaire. It included sociodemographic data, health status and patients' preferences of therapy characteristics using direct measurement (23 items on a five-point Likert-scale) as well as a Discrete-Choice-Experiment (DCE, six factors in a fold-over design). Those concerned were capable of clearly defining success criteria and expectations. In the direct assessment and the DCE, respondents attached special significance to the improvement of their social situation and emotional state (relative importance 40%). Another essential factor was the desire for drugs with a long-lasting effect over the day (relative importance 18%). Other criteria, such as flexibility and discretion, were less important to the respondents (6% and 9%, respectively). Results point out that ADHD patients and their family members have clear ideas of their needs

  11. Comparative Cardiac Risks of Methylphenidate and Amphetamines in Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The risk for adverse cardiac events in subjects between 3 and 20 years of age treated with methylphenidate or amphetamine salts for ADHD was determined in a retrospective study at University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

  12. Comparative Cardiac Risks of Methylphenidate and Amphetamines in Treatment of ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    The risk for adverse cardiac events in subjects between 3 and 20 years of age treated with methylphenidate or amphetamine salts for ADHD was determined in a retrospective study at University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

  13. Social-skills and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment for children with ADHD--the randomised SOSTRA trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Jakob Storebø

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of social-skills training and parental training programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHODS: We conducted a randomized two-armed, parallel group, assessor-blinded superiority trial consisting of social-skills training plus parental training and standard treatment versus standard treatment alone. A sample size calculation showed at least 52 children should be included for the trial with follow up three and six months after randomization. The primary outcome measure was ADHD symptoms and secondary outcomes were social skills and emotional competences. RESULTS 56: children (39 boys, 17 girls, mean age 10.4 years, SD 1.31 with ADHD were randomized, 28 to the experimental group and 27 to the control group. Mixed-model analyses with repeated measures showed that the time course (y  =  a + bt + ct(2 of ADHD symptoms (p = 0.40, social skills (p = 0.80, and emotional competences (p = 0.14 were not significantly influenced by the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Social skills training plus parental training did not show any significant benefit for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when compared with standard treatment. More and larger randomized trials are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937469.

  14. Evaluation of Two Treatments for Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Regina Navonne

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that preschoolers identified for aggressive behavior would benefit from family, group, or individual therapy. However, there remains an important gap in the current literature regarding treatments for aggressive behavior based on the subtype of aggression. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if 2…

  15. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  16. Social-Skills and Parental Training plus Standard Treatment versus Standard Treatment for Children with ADHD - The Randomised SOSTRA Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of social-skills training and parental training programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).......To investigate the effects of social-skills training and parental training programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)....

  17. Medical treatment of children and youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a Norwegian Prescription Registry Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Olsen, Aina Iren; Nohr, Frank Ivar; Heyd, Anca; Totth, Arpad

    2014-04-14

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a lifelong neurological condition with a profound effect on quality of life. Prescription databases may document pattern of use. In this study we aimed to explore the use in Norway employing such a database. All prescriptions on drugs for the treatment of ADHD between 2004 and 2011, as registered in the Norwegian Prescription Database (NPD) were analyzed. The following drugs were included: Amphetamine, dexamphetamine, methylphenidate and atomoxetine. In-hospital drug administration was excluded. Numbers of users per 1,000 inhabitants were calculated according to gender, age and residence. A sub-analysis compared users born in January-June with those born in July-December. Drug costs were calculated and converted into Euros (€ 1 = N.kr 7.4540). Drugs for the treatment of ADHD was significantly more often prescribed in northern Norway than in any other Norwegian health region (P prescription rate was significantly higher in northern Norway and Nordland County was the culprit. A prescription database may be a tool for monitoring the national use of these drugs.

  18. Long-term follow-up of melatonin treatment in children with ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebert, Michel; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M; Smits, Marcel G

    2009-08-01

    We conducted this study to assess long-term melatonin treatment course, effectiveness and safety in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia (CSOI). This was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire for the parents. The subjects of this study consisted of participants who previously participated in a randomised clinical trial on melatonin efficacy. The response rate was 93% (94/101). The mean time to follow up was 3.7 yr. No serious adverse events or treatment related co-morbidities were reported. Sixty-five percent of the children still used melatonin daily and 12% occasionally. Temporal discontinuation of treatment resulted in a delay of sleep onset in 92% of the children. Nine percent of the children could discontinue melatonin completely because of improvement of sleep onset insomnia. Long-term melatonin treatment was judged to be effective against sleep onset problems in 88% of the cases. Improvement of behaviour and mood was reported in 71% and 61% respectively. We conclude that melatonin remains an effective therapy on the long term for the treatment of CSOI in children with ADHD and has no safety concerns regarding serious adverse events or treatment related co-morbidity. Discontinuation of melatonin treatment usually leads to a relapse of sleep onset insomnia and in resuming melatonin treatment, even after several years of treatment.

  19. New and extended-action treatments in the management of ADHD: a critical appraisal of lisdexamfetamine in adults and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Domnitei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Diana Domnitei, Vishal MadaanDepartment of Psychiatry, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Treatment guidelines from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and the American Academy of Pediatrics state that stimulant medications have the most evidence for safety and efficacy in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Longer-acting stimulants are thus considered as first-line for management of ADHD symptoms. Over the years, concerns about the abuse potential of stimulants have led to the development of alternative formulations of these agents. One such recent development, lisdexamfetamine (LDX was FDA approved for treating ADHD in children in early 2007 and in adults in early 2008. LDX is a prodrug, which when orally ingested, is converted to l-lysine and active d-amphetamine, which is responsible for its therapeutic activity. This unique formulation may lead to a possible reduction of the abuse potential, by bypassing the first-pass metabolism. In fact, a statistically significant difference for the ‘liking’ effects on the Drug Questionnaire Response has been reported with intravenous LDX compared to d-amphetamine. LDX appears to have an efficacy and tolerability profile comparable to other extended-release stimulant formulations used to treat ADHD, but reduced potential for abuse-related liking effects when compared to equivalent amounts of immediate-release d-amphetamine. The most common adverse events include decreased appetite, insomnia, upper abdominal pain, headache, irritability, weight loss, and nausea.Keywords: lisdexamfetamine, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, adults, children

  20. Expert recommendation: contributions to clinical practice of the new prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, José A; Soutullo, César; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Quintero, Javier; Hervás, Amaia; Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Sans-Fitó, Anna; Cardo-Jalón, Esther Cardo-Jalón; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Fernández-Pérez, Maximino; Hidalgo-Vicario, M Inés; Eddy-Ives, Lefa S; Sánchez, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobiological disorders in childhood, and is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsiveness, with an estimated prevalence of 5.29%. ADHD can have a negative impact upon all areas of the life of the patient. The main clinical guides accept multimodal treatment, involving both pharmacological and psychological measures, as the best management approach in ADHD (psychoeducational, behavioural and academic). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a new drug for the treatment of ADHD. A multidiscipline expert document has been developed, compiling the scientific evidence referred to this new molecule. The study also addresses the existing shortcomings in current drug therapy for ADHD and the contributions of LDX to routine clinical practice, in an attempt to help and guide physicians in the use of this new treatment. This document is endorsed by the ADHD and Psychoeducational Development task Group of the Spanish Society of Primary Care Pediatrics (Grupo de TDAH y Desarrollo Psicoeducativo de la Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria, AEPap), the Spanish Society of Pediatric Neurology (Sociedad Española de Neurología Pediátrica, SENEP) and the Spanish Society of Out-hospital Pediatrics and Primary Care (Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria, SEPEAP).

  1. Computer Enabled Neuroplasticity Treatment: A Clinical Trial of a Novel Design for Neurofeedback Therapy in Adult ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Benjamin; Holmström, Édua; Juurmaa, Kristiina; Kovarskis, Levas; Krause, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We report a randomized controlled clinical trial of neurofeedback therapy intervention for ADHD/ADD in adults. We focus on internal mechanics of neurofeedback learning, to elucidate the primary role of cortical self-regulation in neurofeedback. We report initial results; more extensive analysis will follow. Methods: Trial has two phases: intervention and follow-up. The intervention consisted of neurofeedback treatment, including intake and outtake measurements, using a waiting-list control group. Treatment involved ~40 h-long sessions 2–5 times per week. Training involved either theta/beta or sensorimotor-rhythm regimes, adapted by adding a novel “inverse-training” condition to promote self-regulation. Follow-up (ongoing) will consist of self-report and executive function tests. Setting: Intake and outtake measurements were conducted at University of Helsinki. Treatment was administered at partner clinic Mental Capital Care, Helsinki. Randomization: We randomly allocated half the sample then adaptively allocated the remainder to minimize baseline differences in prognostic variables. Blinding: Waiting-list control design meant trial was not blinded. Participants: Fifty-four adult Finnish participants (mean age 36 years; 29 females) were recruited after screening by psychiatric review. Forty-four had ADHD diagnoses, 10 had ADD. Measurements: Symptoms were assessed by computerized attention test (T.O.V.A.) and self-report scales, at intake and outtake. Performance during neurofeedback trials was recorded. Results: Participants were recruited and completed intake measurements during summer 2012, before assignment to treatment and control, September 2012. Outtake measurements ran April-August 2013. After dropouts, 23 treatment and 21 waiting-list participants remained for analysis. Initial analysis showed that, compared to waiting-list control, neurofeedback promoted improvement of self-reported ADHD symptoms, but did not show transfer of learning to T

  2. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability.

  3. THE ARTICULATION STATUS IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH IMPARED HEARING ECOMPRASSED BY REHABILITATION TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneta TRAJKOVSKA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is evaluation of the progress of articulation towards the particular group of voices of the preschool aged children with hearing impairment, which are included in rehabilitation treatment. The research explores the impact of the general factors (degree of the hearing impairment, age of the examinees, etiological factor of the hearing impairment, and duration of the treatment, which contributes in the progress of articulation.

  4. EEG Neurofeedback treatments in children with ADHD: An updated meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Arthur eMicoulaud Franchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective We undertook a meta-analysis of published Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT with semi-active control and sham-NF groups to determine whether EEG-NF significantly improves the overall symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity dimensions for probably unblinded assessment (parent assessment and probably blinded assessment (teacher assessment in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD.Data Sources A systematic review identified independent studies that were eligible for inclusion in a random effects meta-analysis.Data Extraction Effect sizes for ADHD symptoms were expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD with 95% confidence intervals.ResultsFive identified studies met eligibility criteria, 263 patients with ADHD were included, 146 patients were trained with EEG-NF. On parent assessment (probably unblinded assessment, the overall ADHD score (SMD=-0.49 [-0.74, -0.24], the inattention score (SMD=-0.46 [-0.76, -0.15] and the hyperactivity/impulsivity score (SMD=-0.34 [-0.59, -0.09] were significantly improved in patients receiving EEG-NF compared to controls. On teacher assessment (probably blinded assessment, only the inattention score was significantly improved in patients receiving EEG-NF compared to controls (SMD=-0.30 [-0.58, -0.03]. ConclusionsThis meta-analysis of EEG-NF in children with ADHD highlights improvement in the inattention dimension of ADHD symptoms. Future investigations should pay greater attention to adequately blinded studies and EEG-NF protocols that carefully control the implementation and embedding of training.

  5. The association between methylphenidate treatment and the risk for fracture among young ADHD patients: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Liao, Yin-To; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Kuo-You; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S.

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with higher risk for fracture. Whether the medical treatment for ADHD would mitigate the risk remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of methylphenidate treatment on risk for fracture, as well the moderational role of treatment duration on the risk of fracture, in a large national sample. Cases less than 18 years old were identified from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database with a new primary diagnosis of ADHD (ICD-9:314) between 1996 and 2013. A total of 6201 cases with ADHD were included as the study cohort. The cases were divided into 3 groups according to the duration of methylphenidate treatment (0, 1–180, and more than 180 days). All groups were followed until the end of 2013 for first diagnoses of fracture (ICD-9 codes 800 to 829). Cox proportional hazards models were applied. Compared to the group without methylphenidate treatment, the risk for fracture was lower among the group treated for more than 180 days. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.77 (95% Confidence interval: 0.63–0.94). The groups treated for 180 days or fewer had no significant difference in the risk for fracture. In conclusion, methylphenidate treatment was associated with lower risk for fracture among ADHD patients. The association was evident only in the cohort treated for more than 180 days. PMID:28296941

  6. ADHD and genetic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Castro, Adriana; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    A high rate of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like characteristics has been reported in a wide variety of disorders including syndromes with known genetic causes. In this article, we review the genetic and the neurobiological links between ADHD symptoms and some genetic syndromes such as: Fragile X Syndrome, Neurofibromatosis 1, DiGeorge Syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Turner Syndrome, Williams Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome. Although each syndrome may arise from different genetic abnormalities with multiple molecular functions, the effects of these abnormalities may give rise to common effects downstream in the biological pathways or neural circuits, resulting in the presentation of ADHD symptoms. Early diagnosis of ADHD allows for earlier treatment, and has the potential for a better outcome in children with genetic syndromes.

  7. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2017-09-13

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD (ASD/ASD + ADHD) showed reduced theta and alpha power compared to children without ASD (controls/ADHD). Children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD + ADHD) displayed decreased delta power compared to children without ADHD (ASD/controls). Children with ASD + ADHD largely presented as an additive co-occurrence with deficits of both disorders, although reduced theta compared to ADHD-only and reduced delta compared to controls suggested some unique markers. Identifying specific neurophysiological profiles in ASD and ADHD may assist in characterising more homogeneous subgroups to inform treatment approaches and aetiological investigations.

  8. Atomoxetine and Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD: The Efficacy, Tolerability and Effects on Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozlem; Sismanlar, Sahika G.; Memik, Nursu Cakin; Karakaya, Isik; Agaoglu, Belma

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the safety, efficacy, tolerability, and the effects of atomoxetine and OROS-MPH on executive functions in children with ADHD. This study was an open-label study that only included two medication groups. Children were randomized to open-label atomoxetine or OROS-MPH for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were…

  9. A Study on the System for Treatment of ADHD Using Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    symptoms[3]. One method having been used to treat ADHD is stimulant medications making use of Ritalin , Dexedrin, Cylert. The other is behavior...following disadvantages; side-effects ( Ritalin can cause a cancer of liver[4]), needs of much time and efforts from many persons concerned. To

  10. Is Neurofeedback an Efficacious Treatment for ADHD? A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevensleben, Holger; Holl, Birgit; Albrecht, Bjorn; Vogel, Claudia; Schlamp, Dieter; Kratz, Oliver; Studer, Petra; Rothenberger, Aribert; Moll, Gunther H.; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    Background: For children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a reduction of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity by neurofeedback (NF) has been reported in several studies. But so far, unspecific training effects have not been adequately controlled for andor studies do not provide sufficient statistical power. To overcome…

  11. Treatment-Continuity of ADHD Compared Using Immediate-Release and Extended-Release MPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of methylphenidate (MPH therapy for ADHD in young Medicaid beneficiaries (ages 6 to 17 years treated with immediate-release (IR or extended-release (ER MPH formulations was compared in an analysis of statewide California Medicaid claims (2000-2003 conducted at Columbia University, New York; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA.

  12. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood and they are ty......ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood...... and they are typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment...

  13. Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children: an evidence-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, P.L.; Baraldi, E.; Bisgaard, H.

    2008-01-01

    preschool child with recurrent wheeze, but should be discontinued if there is no clear clinical benefit. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials with clear descriptions of patients are needed to improve the present recommendations on the treatment of these common syndromes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10......There is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children who wheeze...... is recommended for the treatment of episodic (viral) wheeze and can be started when symptoms of a viral cold develop. Given the large overlap in phenotypes, and the fact that patients can move from one phenotype to another, inhaled corticosteroids and montelukast may be considered on a trial basis in almost any...

  14. Psychiatric treatment outcomes of preschool children in a family day hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jörg Michael; Averbeck-Holocher, Marlies; Romer, Georg; Fürniss, Tilman; Achtergarde, Sandra; Postert, Christian

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the treatment outcomes of preschoolers with severe mental health problems who were treated at the child psychiatric family day hospital for preschool children in Münster, Germany. The eclectic multi-modal treatment combines behavioral and psychodynamic techniques for both parents and children in various settings within an intermittent attendance structure provided by a multi-disciplinary team. This study evaluated 185 children with the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF/1.5-5), which was completed by therapists, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5), which was completed by mothers, at admission and discharge. The mothers' ratings of their children were statistically adjusted for the distortion caused by their own psychopathology. After treatment, the patients showed significant improvement on the C-TRF/CBCL Total Problem score with an average Cohen's d = -0.50 based on therapists' ratings, d = -0.97 for the non-adjusted maternal ratings, and d = -0.68 for the adjusted maternal ratings. We conclude that specialized family day hospitals may successfully treat preschool psychiatric patients.

  15. The Effect of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Foster Care Caseloads: Evidence from Danish Registry Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This paper uses administrative data from one country that experienced a sharp decline in foster care caseloads, Denmark, to show that inc...... rate all shape foster care caseloads, future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads.......Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This paper uses administrative data from one country that experienced a sharp decline in foster care caseloads, Denmark, to show...... that increasing medical treatment of ADHD (primarily through the use of Ritalin) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads over this period would have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD...

  16. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  17. Clinical trials of fatty acid treatment in ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J

    2004-04-01

    Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Definitive evidence of a causal contribution, however, can only come from intervention studies in the form of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Published studies of this kind are still fairly few in number, and mainly involve the diagnostic categories of ADHD and dyslexia, although other trials involving individuals with dyspraxia or ASD are in progress. The main findings to date from such studies are reviewed and evaluated here with the primary aim of guiding future research, although given that fatty acid supplementation for these conditions is already being adopted in many quarters, it is hoped that some of the information provided may also help to inform clinical practice.

  18. An Evaluation of a Treatment Package Consisting of Discrimination Training and Differential Reinforcement with Response Cost and a Social Story on Vocal Stereotypy for a Preschooler with Autism in a Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprime, Amanda P.; Dittrich, Gretchen A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of a treatment package comprised of a social story, discrimination training, and differential reinforcement with response cost on the vocal stereotypy of one preschooler diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The study took place in a preschool classroom of a public school and was implemented…

  19. An Evaluation of a Treatment Package Consisting of Discrimination Training and Differential Reinforcement with Response Cost and a Social Story on Vocal Stereotypy for a Preschooler with Autism in a Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprime, Amanda P.; Dittrich, Gretchen A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of a treatment package comprised of a social story, discrimination training, and differential reinforcement with response cost on the vocal stereotypy of one preschooler diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The study took place in a preschool classroom of a public school and was implemented…

  20. Chronic caffeine treatment during prepubertal period confers long-term cognitive benefits in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Vanessa A; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Pandolfo, Pablo; Prediger, Rui D S; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2010-12-20

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is frequently used as an experimental model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since it displays behavioural and neurochemical features of ADHD. Increasing evidence suggests that caffeine might represent an important therapeutic tool for the treatment of ADHD and we recently demonstrated that the acute administration of caffeine improves several learning and memory impairments in adult SHR rats. Here we further evaluated the potential of caffeine in ADHD therapy. Female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats were treated with caffeine (3mg/kg, i.p.) or methylphenidate (MPD, 2mg/kg, i.p.) for 14 consecutive days during the prepubertal period (post-natal days 25-38) and they were tested later in adulthood in the object-recognition task. WIS rats discriminated all the objects used, whereas SHR were not able to discriminate pairs of objects with subtle structural differences. Chronic treatment with caffeine or MPD improved the object-recognition deficits in SHR rats. Surprisingly, these treatments impaired the short-term object-recognition ability in adult WIS rats. The present drug effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity, arterial blood pressure and body weight in both rat strains. These findings suggest that chronic caffeine treatment during prepubertal period confers long-term cognitive benefits in discriminative learning impairments of SHR, suggesting caffeine as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the early management of ADHD symptoms. Nevertheless, our results also emphasize the importance of a correct diagnosis and the caution in the use of stimulant drugs such as caffeine and MPD during neurodevelopment since they can disrupt discriminative learning in non-ADHD phenotypes.

  1. Computer Enabled Neuroplasticity Treatment: a Clinical Trial of a Novel Design for Neurofeedback Therapy in Adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eCowley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe report a randomised controlled clinical trial of neurofeedback therapy intervention for ADHD/ADD in adults. We focus on internal mechanics of neurofeedback learning, to elucidate the primary role of cortical self-regulation in neurofeedback. We report initial results; more extensive analysis will follow.MethodsTrial has two phases: intervention and follow-up. The intervention consisted of neurofeedback treatment, including intake and outtake measurements, using a waiting-list control group. Treatment involved $sim$40 hour-long sessions 2-5 times per week. Training involved either theta/beta or sensorimotor-rhythm regimes, adapted by adding a novel 'inverse-training' condition to promote self-regulation. Follow-up (ongoing will consist of self-report and executive function tests.SettingIntake and outtake measurements were conducted at University of Helsinki. Treatment was administered at partner clinic Mental Capital Care, Helsinki.RandomisationWe randomly allocated half the sample then adaptively allocated the remainder to minimise baseline differences in prognostic variables.BlindingWaiting-list control design meant trial was not blinded.Participants54 adult Finnish participants (mean age 36 years; 29 females were recruited after screening by psychiatric review. 44 had ADHD diagnoses, 10 had ADD.MeasurementsSymptoms were assessed by computerised attention test (T.O.V.A. and self-report scales, at intake and outtake. Performance during neurofeedback trials was recorded.ResultsParticipants were recruited and completed intake measurements during summer 2012, before assignment to treatment and control, September 2012. Outtake measurements ran April-August 2013. After dropouts, 23 treatment and 21 waiting-list participants remained for analysis.Initial analysis showed that, compared to waiting-list control, neurofeedback promoted improvement of self-reported ADHD symptoms, but did not show transfer of learning to T.O.V.A. Comprehensive

  2. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Care » Associated Conditions » ADHD & Down Syndrome ADHD & Down Syndrome Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is a ... age. How Common Is ADD in Children With Down Syndrome? The frequency of ADHD in children with Down ...

  3. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only.

  4. Evidence, Interpretation, and Qualification from Multiple Reports of Long-Term Outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA): Part II--Supporting Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, James; Arnold, L. Eugene; Kraemer, Helena; Hechtman, Lily; Molina, Brooke; Hinshaw, Stephen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter; Steinhoff, Ken; Lerner, Marc; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Wells, Karen; Epstein, Jeffery; Elliott, Glen; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Hoza, Betsy; Wigal, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To review and provide details about the primary and secondary findings from the Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA) published during the past decade as three sets of articles. Method: In the second of a two part article, we provide additional background and detail required by the complexity of the MTA to address confusion and…

  5. Evidence, Interpretation, and Qualification from Multiple Reports of Long-Term Outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA): Part I--Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, James; Arnold, L. Eugene; Kraemer, Helena; Hechtman, Lily; Molina, Brooke; Hinshaw, Stephen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter; Steinhoff, Ken; Lerner, Marc; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Wells, Karen; Epstein, Jeffery; Elliott, Glen; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Hoza, Betsy; Wigal, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To review the primary and secondary findings from the Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA) published over the past decade as three sets of articles. Method: In a two-part article--Part I: Executive Summary (without distracting details) and Part II: Supporting Details (with additional background and detail required by the complexity…

  6. Association between societal costs and treatment response in children and adolescents with ADHD and their parents. A cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A. van der; Bouwmans, C.A.; Schawo, S.J.; Buitelaar, J.; Agthoven, M. van; Hakkart-van Roijen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with considerable burden of illness at a patient, family and societal level. Although pharmacological treatment is recommended by authoritative guidelines, evidence on its influence on the broader burden of illness is limited. As treatmen

  7. International consensus statement on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs): clinical implications and treatment practice suggestions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutcher, S.; Aman, M.; Brooks, S.J.; Daalen, E. van; Fegert, J.; Findling, R.L.; Fisman, S.; Greenhill, L.L.; Huss, M.; Kusumakar, V.; Pine, D.; Taylor, E.; Tyano, S.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians worldwide share concerns that many youngsters with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) do not receive appropriate treatment despite availability of effective therapies. At the request of Johnson and Johnson (sponsor)

  8. Evidence, Interpretation, and Qualification from Multiple Reports of Long-Term Outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA): Part I--Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, James; Arnold, L. Eugene; Kraemer, Helena; Hechtman, Lily; Molina, Brooke; Hinshaw, Stephen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter; Steinhoff, Ken; Lerner, Marc; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Wells, Karen; Epstein, Jeffery; Elliott, Glen; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Hoza, Betsy; Wigal, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To review the primary and secondary findings from the Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA) published over the past decade as three sets of articles. Method: In a two-part article--Part I: Executive Summary (without distracting details) and Part II: Supporting Details (with additional background and detail required by the complexity…

  9. Evidence, Interpretation, and Qualification from Multiple Reports of Long-Term Outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA): Part II--Supporting Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, James; Arnold, L. Eugene; Kraemer, Helena; Hechtman, Lily; Molina, Brooke; Hinshaw, Stephen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter; Steinhoff, Ken; Lerner, Marc; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Wells, Karen; Epstein, Jeffery; Elliott, Glen; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Hoza, Betsy; Wigal, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To review and provide details about the primary and secondary findings from the Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA) published during the past decade as three sets of articles. Method: In the second of a two part article, we provide additional background and detail required by the complexity of the MTA to address confusion and…

  10. ADHD in college: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Elizabeth K; Sacchetti, Gina M; Del Carlo, Dawn I

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects many adults and is particularly impairing for emerging adults enrolled in college. Research has shown substantial academic impairment for these individuals. However, research on ADHD impairment has largely been quantitative and focused on children. Therefore, the current study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the lived experience of college students with ADHD with the following two research questions: (1) What is it like to be a college student with ADHD? and (2) What resources are utilized by college students with ADHD? Thirty-six college students with ADHD were interviewed in focus group settings. Our participants reported a complex and mixed experience living with ADHD in college and varied use of treatments and other accommodations. Specifically, three Constructs emerged in the current study: Consequences of Diagnosis, Impairment, and Treatment Management. Implications for professionals working with these students and future directions for researchers are discussed.

  11. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood...... and they are typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment....... ASRS is now available in Danish and is recommended as a screener for adult ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-19...

  12. Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P L P; Baraldi, E; Bisgaard, H; Boner, A L; Castro-Rodriguez, J A; Custovic, A; de Blic, J; de Jongste, J C; Eber, E; Everard, M L; Frey, U; Gappa, M; Garcia-Marcos, L; Grigg, J; Lenney, W; Le Souëf, P; McKenzie, S; Merkus, P J F M; Midulla, F; Paton, J Y; Piacentini, G; Pohunek, P; Rossi, G A; Seddon, P; Silverman, M; Sly, P D; Stick, S; Valiulis, A; van Aalderen, W M C; Wildhaber, J H; Wennergren, G; Wilson, N; Zivkovic, Z; Bush, A

    2008-10-01

    There is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children who wheeze both during and outside discrete episodes. Investigations are only needed when in doubt about the diagnosis. Based on the limited evidence available, inhaled short-acting beta(2)-agonists by metered-dose inhaler/spacer combination are recommended for symptomatic relief. Educating parents regarding causative factors and treatment is useful. Exposure to tobacco smoke should be avoided; allergen avoidance may be considered when sensitisation has been established. Maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is recommended for multiple-trigger wheeze; benefits are often small. Montelukast is recommended for the treatment of episodic (viral) wheeze and can be started when symptoms of a viral cold develop. Given the large overlap in phenotypes, and the fact that patients can move from one phenotype to another, inhaled corticosteroids and montelukast may be considered on a trial basis in almost any preschool child with recurrent wheeze, but should be discontinued if there is no clear clinical benefit. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials with clear descriptions of patients are needed to improve the present recommendations on the treatment of these common syndromes.

  13. 学龄前注意缺陷多动障碍的研究进展%Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschool children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2013-01-01

    注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)多起病于7岁前,但针对7岁前,即处于学龄前期存在ADHD症状的儿童是否应进行诊断,如何进行干预和治疗,存在一定的争议.该文就近年来国内外学者对学龄前期ADHD的研究动态、诊断及干预治疗方法进行综述.%Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) usually occurs before the age of 7.But it still remains controversy in the diagnosis,intervention and treatment of ADHD among preschool children with symptoms,who are younger than age 7.This paper systematically describes the diagnosis and intervention on the basis of the recent researches of ADHD home and abroad.

  14. Comparison of the effects of methylphenidate and the combination of methylphenidate and risperidone in preschool children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Safavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder among preschool children but the number of controlled clinical trials regarding psychopharmacological treatment in this age group is limited. The aim of this study was to compare methylphenidate with the combination of methylphenidate and risperidone in preschool children with ADHD. Forty-two preschool children, aged 3-6 years, diagnosed with ADHD by a child and adolescent psychiatrist according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition-Text Revision criteria, were enrolled in a 6-week, single-blind clinical trial and administered with methylphenidate (5-30 mg/dl or the combination of methylphenidate and risperidone (0.25-2 mg/dl in Iran. Treatment outcomes were assessed using the Conners′ Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression (CGI Scale at baseline and 3 and 6 weeks after starting the drugs administration. Side effects were rated by a checklist and body weight was measured at each visit. There were no significant differences between the two protocols in Parent Conners′ Rating Scale scores (P > 0.05 and CGI scores (P > 0.05. Both groups showed a significant improvement in ADHD symptoms over the 6 weeks of treatment for Parent Conners′ Rating Scale (P < 0.001. The combination group used significantly lower doses of methylphenidate compared to the other group (P = 0.002. The most common adverse effects were anorexia (21.7% and daytime drowsiness (17.4% in combination treatment group and insomnia (33.3% and anorexia (25% in methylphenidate group. Risperidone and methylphenidate may be effective and well tolerated in preschool children with ADHD, and adding risperidone to methylphenidate may decrease the occurrence of some side effects of methylphenidate such as insomnia and anorexia and lower the dose of methylphenidate may be needed to control symptoms.

  15. Comparison of the effects of methylphenidate and the combination of methylphenidate and risperidone in preschool children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Parvin; Dehkordi, Ali Hasanpour; Ghasemi, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder among preschool children but the number of controlled clinical trials regarding psychopharmacological treatment in this age group is limited. The aim of this study was to compare methylphenidate with the combination of methylphenidate and risperidone in preschool children with ADHD. Forty-two preschool children, aged 3–6 years, diagnosed with ADHD by a child and adolescent psychiatrist according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition-Text Revision criteria, were enrolled in a 6-week, single-blind clinical trial and administered with methylphenidate (5–30 mg/dl) or the combination of methylphenidate and risperidone (0.25–2 mg/dl) in Iran. Treatment outcomes were assessed using the Conners' Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale at baseline and 3 and 6 weeks after starting the drugs administration. Side effects were rated by a checklist and body weight was measured at each visit. There were no significant differences between the two protocols in Parent Conners' Rating Scale scores (P > 0.05) and CGI scores (P > 0.05). Both groups showed a significant improvement in ADHD symptoms over the 6 weeks of treatment for Parent Conners' Rating Scale (P < 0.001). The combination group used significantly lower doses of methylphenidate compared to the other group (P = 0.002). The most common adverse effects were anorexia (21.7%) and daytime drowsiness (17.4%) in combination treatment group and insomnia (33.3%) and anorexia (25%) in methylphenidate group. Risperidone and methylphenidate may be effective and well tolerated in preschool children with ADHD, and adding risperidone to methylphenidate may decrease the occurrence of some side effects of methylphenidate such as insomnia and anorexia and lower the dose of methylphenidate may be needed to control symptoms. PMID:27833894

  16. Direct versus Indirect Treatment for Preschool Children who Stutter: The RESTART Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Sonneville-Koedoot

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a common childhood disorder. There is limited high quality evidence regarding options for best treatment. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of direct treatment with indirect treatment in preschool children who stutter.In this multicenter randomized controlled trial with an 18 month follow-up, preschool children who stutter who were referred for treatment were randomized to direct treatment (Lidcombe Program; n = 99 or indirect treatment (RESTART-DCM treatment; n = 100. Main inclusion criteria were age 3-6 years, ≥3% syllables stuttered (%SS, and time since onset ≥6 months. The primary outcome was the percentage of non-stuttering children at 18 months. Secondary outcomes included stuttering frequency (%SS, stuttering severity ratings by the parents and therapist, severity rating by the child, health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral problems, and speech attitude.Percentage of non-stuttering children for direct treatment was 76.5% (65/85 versus 71.4% (65/91 for indirect treatment (Odds Ratio (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-2.4, p = .42. At 3 months, children treated by direct treatment showed a greater decline in %SS (significant interaction time x therapy: β = -1.89; t(282.82 = -2.807, p = .005. At 18 months, stuttering frequency was 1.2% (SD 2.1 for direct treatment and 1.5% (SD 2.1 for indirect treatment. Direct treatment had slightly better scores on most other secondary outcome measures, but no differences between treatment approaches were significant.Direct treatment decreased stuttering more quickly during the first three months of treatment. At 18 months, however, clinical outcomes for direct and indirect treatment were comparable. These results imply that at 18 months post treatment onset, both treatments are roughly equal in treating developmental stuttering in ways that surpass expectations of natural recovery. Follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings in the longer term

  17. Coaching for College Students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that ADHD can impair academic achievement in college students and throughout the life span. College students with ADHD are an at-risk population who might benefit from interventions. An offshoot of CBT-oriented therapy that has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years is ADHD coaching. ADHD coaching is a psychosocial intervention that helps individuals develop skills, strategies, and behaviors to cope with the core impairments associated with ADHD. Most coaching programs are primarily based on a CBT approach and target planning, time management, goal setting, organization, and problem solving. This paper describes ADHD coaching for college students and discusses how coaching is different from standard CBT treatment. This is followed by a review of empirical studies of the effectiveness of ADHD coaching for college students. Finally, some specific considerations and procedures used in coaching are described.

  18. 上海市闸北区学龄前儿童注意缺陷多动障碍患病率及影响因素研究%Study on Prevalence and Influential Factors of ADHD among Children in Preschool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依奴尔吾买尔; 金文岚; 杜亚松; 钟向阳; David Coghill

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查上海市闸北区学龄前儿童注意缺陷多动障碍(Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,ADHD)患病率及影响因素.方法 采用一般情况调查表和注意缺陷多动症状调查表对上海市闸北区9所幼儿园儿童进行整群-分层抽样调查.并运用SPSS16.0进行因素分析和Logistic回归分析.结果 学龄前儿童ADHD患病率为3.9%,父母和老师筛选出的可疑ADHD儿童有38.75%被诊断为ADHD者,男女比例为2∶1;多元回归分析显示女性(OR=0.357)是罹患ADHD的保护因素,母孕期营养状况差(OR=3.323)是罹患ADHD的危险因素.结论 学龄前儿童罹患ADHD的比例较高,不容忽视;性别是罹患ADHD的保护因素,母孕期营养状况和儿童期的营养状况是值得重视的危险因素.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of prevalence and influential factors of ADHD (attention deficit byperactivity disorder) among preschool-aged children in Zhabei district of Shanghai. Methods We used General Information Questionnaire and ADHDRS to carry on die whole study in 9 kindergartens in Zhabei district, the sampling is luster-stratified. We analyzed the data by factors analysis and logistic regression analysis with SPSS version 16.0.Results Gender (female) is a protective factor of ADHD(OR=0.357), poor nutrition conditions of mothers when they were pregnant (OR=3.323) is a risk factor of ADHD. Conclusion Gender (female) is a protective factor of ADHD. Girls have less possibilities of having ADHD than boys (OR=0.357). Nutrition conditions of pregnant motheis are risk factors of ADHD. That means if a mother had poorer nutrition conditions when they were pregnant, their children would gain more possibilities of being ADHD.

  19. Pivotal response treatment for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder: Defining a predictor profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Kristin-Lee; Williams, Loriann; Garon, Nancy; Bryson, Susan E; Smith, Isabel M

    2017-08-31

    Behavioral characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who respond positively to Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) have been described previously, based on single-subject design research. The present study examined several such characteristics, as well as positive affect, as predictors of expressive language (EL) gains in a representative sample of preschoolers with ASD (n = 57) enrolled in a PRT-based community early intervention program. Children's cognitive ability, positive affect, and levels of appropriate toy contact measured at the start of intervention each contributed significantly to the prediction of EL outcomes. Together these variables accounted for 40% of the total outcome variance. In addition, a profile of increased EL ability, positive affect and appropriate toy contact, and decreased social avoidance and stereotyped and repetitive vocalizations was associated with greater gains during intervention. Results are discussed in relation to their implications for understanding both the variable treatment response documented in children with ASD and how to tailor treatment to optimize individual benefit. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The study examined behavior of 57 preschoolers who made the greatest and least gains from 1 year of a community Pivotal Response Treatment program. Using pre-treatment videos, we saw that children who made the most progress showed more language, positive affect, and appropriate interactions with toys, also less avoidance of people and fewer repetitive vocalizations. Behavior profiles can be used to match treatment to individual children's needs. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Developing ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…

  1. Do parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD receive adequate information about the disorder and its treatments? A qualitative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rana Ahmed,1 Jacqueline M Borst,2 Cheng Wei Yong,3 Parisa Aslani1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3School of Pharmacy, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most prevalent pediatric neurodevelopmental condition, commonly treated using pharmacological agents such as stimulant medicines. The use of these agents remains contentious, placing parents in a difficult position when deciding to initiate and/or continue their child's treatment. Parents refer to a range of information sources to assist with their treatment decision-making. This qualitative study aimed to investigate 1 parents' ADHD-related knowledge pre- and post-diagnosis, 2 the information sources accessed by parents, 3 whether parents' information needs were met post-diagnosis, and 4 parents' views about strategies to meet their information needs. Methods: Three focus groups (n=16 parents, each lasting 1.0–1.5 hours were conducted. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method, coded, and categorized into themes. Results: Generally, parents had limited ADHD-related knowledge prior to their child's diagnosis and perceived prescription medicines indicated for ADHD in a negative context. Parents reported improved knowledge after their child's diagnosis; however, they expressed dissatisfaction with information that they accessed, which was often technical and not tailored to their child's needs. Verbal information sought from health care professionals was viewed to be reliable but generally medicine-focused and not necessarily comprehensive. Parents identified a need for concise, tailored information about ADHD, the medicines used for its treatment, and changes to their child's medication needs with age. They also expressed a

  2. Multidimensional treatment foster care for preschoolers: early findings of an implementation in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonkman Caroline S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC has been shown to be an evidence based alternative to residential rearing and an effective method to improve behavior and attachment of foster children in the US. This preliminary study investigated an application of MTFC for preschoolers (MTFC-P in the Netherlands focusing on behavioral outcomes in course of the intervention. To examine the following hypothesis: “the time in the MTFC-P intervention predicts a decline in problem behavior”, as this is the desired outcome for children assigned to MTFC-P, we assessed the daily occurrence of 38 problem behaviors via telephone interviews. Repeated measures revealed significant reduced problem behavior in course of the program. MTFC-P promises to be a treatment model suitable for high-risk foster children, that is transferable across centres and countries. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register: 1747.

  3. A treatment study for sexually abused preschool children: outcome during a one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1997-09-01

    Treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children was evaluated 6 and 12 months after treatment. Forty-three sexually abused preschool children and their parents were evaluated 6 and 12 months after completion of either Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Sexually Abused Preschoolers (CBT-SAP) or nondirective supportive therapy (NST). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Child Sexual Behavior inventory, and Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of symptoms in their children. Repeated-measures analyses indicated that there were significant group by time interactions on several outcome measures from the beginning of the study to the end of the 12-month follow-up period, with the CBT-SAP group exhibiting significantly more improvement over time than the NST group. Clinical findings also indicated the superior effectiveness of CBT-SAP over NST in reducing sexually inappropriate behavior. Findings support the superior efficacy of CBT-SAP over NST in maintaining symptom reduction in the year after treatment completion. The importance of using cognitive-behavioral interventions for sexually inappropriate behaviors and including nonoffending parents in the treatment of sexually abused preschool children is discussed.

  4. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you ...

  5. Immunological Consequences of Antihelminthic Treatment in Preschool Children Exposed to Urogenital Schistosome Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis, due to Schistosoma haematobium, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Control is by targeted treatment with praziquantel but preschool age children are excluded from control programs. Immunological studies on the effect of treatment at this young age are scarce. In light of studies in older individuals showing that praziquantel alters antischistosome immune responses and responses to bystander antigens, this study aims to investigate how these responses would be affected by treatment at this young age. Antibody responses directed against schistosome antigens, Plasmodium falciparum crude and recombinant antigens, and the allergen house dust mite were measured in children aged 3 to 5 years before and 6 weeks after treatment. The change in serological recognition of schistosome proteins was also investigated. Treatment augmented antischistosome IgM and IgE responses. The increase in IgE responses directed against adult worm antigens was accompanied by enhanced antigen recognition by sera from the children. Antibody responses directed against Plasmodium antigens were not significantly affected by praziquantel treatment nor were levels of allergen specific responses. Overall, praziquantel treatment enhanced, quantitatively and qualitatively, the antiworm responses associated with protective immunity but did not alter Plasmodium-specific responses or allergen-specific responses which mediate pathology in allergic disease.

  6. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Help en español Medicamentos para el TDAH About ADHD Have you ever been so bored that you ...

  7. College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Facts for Families Guide College Students with ADHD No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...

  8. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children: six- and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1998-01-01

    The role of familial, demographic, developmental, and treatment-mediating factors on treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children was evaluated 6 and 12 months after treatment. Forty-three sexually abused preschool children and their parents who were evaluated shortly after disclosure of sexual abuse and then were provided with one of two treatment interventions were reevaluated at the completion of treatment and 6 and 12 months after treatment. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory, and the Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of emotional and behavioral symptoms in children. Parents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III, the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire, the Parental Support Questionnaire, and the Maternal Social Support Index. Children completed the Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at pretreatment to assess developmental levels. Correlational and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the role of the hypothesized mediating variables in predicting scores on outcome measures across the two treatment groups. While the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire was the strongest familial predictor of treatment outcome at posttreatment, parental support became a stronger predictor of outcome at the 6- and 12-month follow-up points. Treatment group was the strongest overall predictor of outcome at posttreatment and at 12-month follow-up. Demographic and developmental factors did not strongly predict outcome. Findings indicate the strong impact of parental support on treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children over the course of a 12-month follow-up and emphasize the importance of including parental interventions in treating sexually abused preschool children. They also support the superior effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy over supportive

  9. Professionally successful adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: Compensation strategies and subjective effects of pharmacological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Palmini

    Full Text Available Abstract Although as a group, adult patients with ADHD have difficulties in social functioning due to inattention and executive dysfunction, some strive and succeed in living a productive, independent life. Purpose: To report on professionally successful adults with ADHD and analyze their main symptoms, compensation strategies and the subjective effect of methylphenidate on their functioning. Methods: The main symptoms of five patients with ADHD who are University educated and financially independent are reported. These patients were selected from a personally followed cohort of adults with ADHD. All were diagnosed according to DSM-IV adapted criteria (K-SADS E, version 6.0 and completed the Portuguese translated version of the ADHD adult self-reporting scale (ASRS. Results: Main reported symptoms included difficulties with attention, tendency to procrastinate and to 'shuffle' priorities, excessive daytime somnolence, memory difficulties and impulsiveness. Compensation strategies revolve around conscious, 'energy demanding' and time consuming efforts to control and circumvent symptomatic behavioral tendencies. They feel methylphenidate helps by alleviating the need to constantly apply compensation strategies for socially disabling symptoms. In sum, they achieve the same results in a more natural, less effortful fashion. Conclusions: Adults with ADHD may succeed professionally despite significant symptoms of inattention and executive dysfunction. They do so by appropriately using effortful strategies of compensation, the need for which is alleviated by the use of methylphenidate. These subjective reports require confirmation in prospective studies on larger series of patients.

  10. Previous antibacterial treatment due to concomitant infections in preschool children is associated with a lower Helicobacter pylori positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugule, Ilva; Rumba, Ingrida; Ejderhamn, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial agents has been proposed as 1 of the factors that contribute to the loss of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a previous treatment with antibiotics on the prevalence of H. pylori infection in preschool children. Parents of 146 asymptomatic children (aged 0.5-5 y; no antibiotic treatment during the previous 4 weeks) completed a questionnaire about previous treatment with antibiotics and socioeconomic status. Infection with H. pylori was assessed by the monoclonal stool antigen test. H. pylori positivity was 18% (27/146). It was significantly lower in children who had been treated with antibiotics previously compared to those who had been never treated (12.5% (12/96) vs 30% (15/50), p=0.01). It is concluded that previous antibiotic treatment for concomitant infections is associated with a lower prevalence of H. pylori infection in preschool children.

  11. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505

  12. Neuropsychologically informed strategic psychotherapy in teenagers and adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J

    2014-10-01

    Stimulants are the primary treatment for ADHD. Psychotherapy may augment pharmacologic treatment. In this article, we discuss strategies psychotherapists may use in working with teenagers and adults, including individuals who reject medications or take them suboptimally. Individuals with ADHD often have other psychiatric issues, including affective or cognitive comorbidities. Having ADHD does not protect people from the difficulties of life, and psychotherapy can help to disentangle "ADHD" from other issues. A psychotherapist knowledgeable about ADHD assessment can improve diagnostic precision. Psychotherapy can integrate forms of treatment in which the central goal is increasing mastery and competence of the individual.

  13. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  14. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Neuroscience, Medicine, and Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron; Sidlik, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is revealing how the brains of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) function, and advances in medicine are leading to treatments. This study investigated preservice teachers' knowledge and beliefs about students with ADHD. The majority of preservice teachers knew someone with ADHD, which, along with courses…

  15. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  16. Long-Term Improvements in Sleep and Respiratory Parameters in Preschool Children Following Treatment of Sleep Disordered Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lisa M.; Biggs, Sarah N.; Nisbet, Lauren C.; Weichard, Aidan J.; Hollis, Samantha L.; Davey, Margot J.; Anderson, Vicki; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in preschool-aged children is common, but long-term outcomes have not been investigated. We aimed to compare sleep and respiratory parameters in preschool children to examine the effects of treatment or non-treatment after 3 years. Methods: Children (3–5 years) diagnosed with SDB (n = 45) and non-snoring controls (n = 30) returned for repeat overnight polysomnography (39% of original cohort), 3 years following baseline polysomnography. Children with SDB were grouped according to whether they had received treatment or not. SDB resolution was defined as an obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) ≤ 1 event/h, no snoring detected on polysomnography and habitual snoring not indicated by parents on questionnaire. Results: Fifty-one percent (n = 23) of the children with SDB were treated. Overall, SDB resolved in 49% (n = 22), either spontaneously (n = 8) or with treatment (n = 14). SDB remained unresolved in 39% (n = 9) of those treated and 64% (n = 14) of the children who were untreated. Two of the non-snoring controls developed SDB at follow-up. The treated group had significantly lower OAHI (p Anderson V, Nixon GM, Horne RS. Long-term improvements in sleep and respiratory parameters in preschool children following treatment of sleep disordered breathing. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1143–1151. PMID:26094933

  17. Diet and ADHD, reviewing the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, Lidy M.; Frankena, Klaas; Toorman, Jan; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a debilitating mental health problem hampering the child's development. The underlying causes include both genetic and environmental factors and may differ between individuals. The efficacy of diet treatments in ADHD was recently ev

  18. The effects of general anesthesia legislation on operating room visits by preschool children undergoing dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Halley R; Lee, Jessica Y; Rozier, R Gary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of state-level general anesthesia (GA) legislation on operating room visits for the treatment of dental caries on preschool-aged children. The North Carolina Ambulatory Surgery Discharge Database was used to observe GA visits for fiscal years (FY) 1997 to 2001. A pretest/post-test design with concurrent comparison groups was used for 2 analyses: (1) all children treated for dental caries were compared to those treated for otitis media; and (2) those whose treatment for dental caries was reimbursed by Medicaid were compared to those whose treatment for dental caries was not reimbursed by Medicaid. In the prelegislation period (FY 1997 and 1998), there were 3,857 GA visits for dental core and 21,038 for otitis media. Postlegislation (FY 2000 and 2001) dental visits increased to 5,511(43%), and otitis media visits increased to 22,279 (6%)-a statistically significant difference (Pdental visits and 2,487 Medicaid dental visits. Non-Medicaid and Medicaid dental visits postlegislation increased to 2,195 (60%) and 3,316 (33%), respectively. This difference was significant (Panesthesia legislation resulted in an increase in access to care for children needing dental care in North Carolina.

  19. Psychoterapia ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Kołakowski

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Zespół nadpobudliwości psychoruchowej jest jedną z najczęstszych pediatrycznych, neurologicznych i psychiatrycznych przypadłości u dzieci. Większość wytycznych dotyczących postępowania w ADHD sugeruje zastosowanie metod niefarmakologicznych, a dopiero gdy te okażą się nieskuteczne, rozważenie dołączenia leczenia farmakologicznego. Jednak badania pokazują, że w przypadku zarówno skrajnie nasilonego obrazu klinicznego ADHD, jak i towarzyszących zaburzeń zachowania (zaburzenie opozycyjno-buntownicze i poważne zaburzenia zachowania według DSM-IV-TR leczenie farmakologiczne powinno być włączane równocześnie z innymi metodami terapeutycznymi. W ostatnich dwudziestu latach w leczeniu ADHD stosowano wiele metod niefarmakologicznych: terapię indywidualną, grupową, diety restrykcyjne lub suplementacyjne, EEG biofeedback, treningi uwagi, jednak tylko jedna z nich – samodzielnie lub w połączeniu z farmakoterapią – ma potwierdzoną krótkoterminową skuteczność w leczeniu ADHD: behawioralna modyfikacja zachowań. Podobne interwencje powinny być również przeprowadzane w środowisku szkolnym. W chwili obecnej w Polsce – tak jak i w europejskich wytycznych – zaleca się kompleksowe leczenie ADHD, w którym jednym z elementów może być leczenie farmakologiczne. W artykule omówiono kolejne metody, które powinny znaleźć się w takim programie terapeutycznym, poczynając od psychoedukacji pacjenta i rodziny (pacjent oraz rodzice powinni usłyszeć, jaka jest specyfika ADHD, w szczególności uzyskać informacje o trzech osiowych grupach objawów, etiologii, przebiegu, rokowaniu i planowanym leczeniu; wiedza rodziców, opiekunów, członków rodzin i nauczycieli na temat zaburzenia pozwala wdrażać odpowiednie elementy pomocy nadpobudliwemu dziecku, ale także bardzo często zdejmuje z niego „winę za objawy”, edukacji i motywowaniu nastolatka do leczenia, a kończąc na dołączaniu specyficznych rodzaj

  20. Toepasbaarheid en effectiviteit van mindfulnesstraining bij volwassenen met AD(H)D; een open pilotonderzoek [Feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness training in adults with ADHD: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hepark, S.; Kan, C C; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that often continues into adulthood. Stimulant medication is the common treatment for ADHD. However, there is a need for psychosocial interventions in addition to medication. AIM: To conduct a pilot study which examines the feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness training for adults with ADHD. METHOD: Eleven adults with ADHD participated in a mindfulness training scheme lasting 10 weeks. ADHD symptoms...

  1. Dopamine Agonist in Treatment of ADHD with Restless Legs Syndrome and ODD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old male with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who responded poorly to methylphenidate (MPH was benefited following treatment with the dopamine agonist ropinirole, in a report from the Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France.

  2. A population-based study of stimulant drug treatment of ADHD and academic progress in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Rothman, Kenneth J; Huybrechts, Krista F

    2012-01-01

    between their fourth- and seventh-grade tests were more likely to decline in test performance. The crude probability of academic decline was 72.9% in mathematics and 42.9% in language arts for children with a treatment start 25 to 36 months after the fourth-grade test. Compared with those starting......OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the hypothesis that later start of stimulant treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder adversely affects academic progress in mathematics and language arts among 9- to 12-year-old children. METHODS: We linked nationwide data from the Icelandic Medicines Registry...... and the Database of National Scholastic Examinations. The study population comprised 11,872 children born in 1994-1996 who took standardized tests in both fourth and seventh grade. We estimated the probability of academic decline (drop of ≥ 5.0 percentile points) according to drug exposure and timing of treatment...

  3. The relationship between ADHD and obesity: implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. While most available research focused on determining the extent of the association between ADHD and obesity, a few studies have examined the clinical implications of diagnosing/treating ADHD in individuals with obesity. Here, we provide a narrative review of studies addressing the impact of ADHD, or its treatment, in individuals with obesity. Reviewed studies suggest that ADHD impedes the successful treatment of obesity in individuals with comorbid ADHD and obesity. Preliminary evidence also suggests that ADHD treatment might significantly increase the effectiveness of weight management strategies. We discuss the limitations of the reviewed studies and provide suggestions for future research in the field.

  4. Performance and safety of praziquantel for treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in infants and preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012 the WHO formally recognised that infants and preschool children are at significant risk of schistosomiasis and qualify for treatment with praziquantel (PZQ. Targeted surveys determining both the performance and safety of this drug are now needed in endemic areas. We have formally assessed parasitological cure and putative side-effects in a prospective cohort of Schistosoma mansoni-infected children (aged 5 months-7 years old in lakeshore settings of Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From a total of 369 children found to be egg-patent for intestinal schistosomiasis, 305 were followed-up three to four weeks after PZQ treatment and infection status re-assessed. Separately, a previously tested side-effect questionnaire was employed before and 24 hours after PZQ treatment to assess incidence and amelioration of symptoms in young children and their mothers. While the overall observed parasitological cure was 56.4%, a significant difference was found between a sub-set of children who had a history of multiple PZQ treatments (between one and four in an 18 month period, where cure rate was 41.7%, and those who had never received treatment (cure rate was 77·6%. PZQ proved to be safe, with only mild reported side effects which cleared within a month after treatment. Prevalence of reported symptoms was significantly lower in children than in mothers, and fewer side-effects were reported upon subsequent rounds of PZQ treatment. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that PZQ treatment of young children resulted in satisfactory cure rates, and marked reduction in egg-output, with only mild and transient reported side-effects. However, the cure rate is clearly lower in younger children and those with history of previous treatment. Cure rate, but not egg reduction rate, was also lower in children with heavier pre-intervention infection intensity. With chemotherapy now recommended as a long-term strategy for disease control in

  5. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Girls ADHD Medication and Pregnancy Women and Girls Knowledge of ADHD in women at this time ... Impact of ADHD in women ADHD in young girls is often overlooked, the reasons for which remain ...

  6. Prefrontal cortical and striatal transcriptional responses to the reinforcing effect of repeated methylphenidate treatment in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Peña, Ike; Kim, Hee Jin; Sohn, Aeree; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Noh, Minsoo; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-05-06

    Methylphenidate is the most commonly used stimulant drug for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research has found that methylphenidate is a "reinforcer" and that individuals with ADHD also abuse this medication. Nevertheless, the molecular consequences of long-term recreational methylphenidate use or abuse in individuals with ADHD are not yet fully known. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the most validated and widely used ADHD animal model, were pretreated with methylphenidate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) during their adolescence (post-natal day [PND] 42-48) and tested for subsequent methylphenidate-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration. Thereafter, the differentially expressed genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum of representative methylphenidate-treated SHRs, which showed CPP to and self-administration of methylphenidate, were analyzed. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling analyses revealed 30 differentially expressed genes in the PFC, which include transcripts involved in apoptosis (e.g. S100a9, Angptl4, Nfkbia), transcription (Cebpb, Per3), and neuronal plasticity (Homer1, Jam2, Asap1). In contrast, 306 genes were differentially expressed in the striatum and among them, 252 were downregulated. The main functional categories overrepresented among the downregulated genes include those involved in cell adhesion (e.g. Pcdh10, Ctbbd1, Itgb6), positive regulation of apoptosis (Perp, Taf1, Api5), (Notch3, Nsbp1, Sik1), mitochondrion organization (Prps18c, Letm1, Uqcrc2), and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis (Nedd4, Usp27x, Ube2d2). Together, these changes indicate methylphenidate-induced neurotoxicity, altered synaptic and neuronal plasticity, energy metabolism and ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation in the brains of methylphenidate-treated SHRs, which showed methylphenidate CPP and self-administration. In addition, these findings may also reflect cognitive impairment associated with chronic

  7. Behavioral parent training as an adjunct to routine care in children with ADHD: moderators of treatment response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Nauta, M.H.; van der Veen-Mulders, L.; Sytema, S.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate predictors and moderators of outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT) as adjunct to ongoing routine clinical care (RCC), versus RCC alone. Methods We randomly assigned 94 referred children (4-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to BPT plus RCC o

  8. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Children with ADHD, with and without Aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, Maria Jesus

    2000-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral self-control therapy on children with ADHD Explores whether the combination of training in self-control with training in anger management has better outcomes on two subgroups of hyperactive children, aggressive (n=16) and nonaggressive (n=16). Overall improvements were found, however improvements of…

  9. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starck M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Martina Starck,1 Julia Grünwald,1 Angelika A Schlarb1,21Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty for Psychology and Sport Science, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, GermanyBackground: Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated.Method: In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested.Results: ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed.Conclusion: As nearly half of the parents

  10. [Differential personality features in adult ADHD subtypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ortega, Yolanda; Bosch Munsó, Rosa; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Valero Ventura, Sergi; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Nogueira, Mariana; Casas Brugué, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and personality traits are relatively stable from childhood and across life span. The purpose of this study was to identify differential and discriminative personality traits between clinical subtypes of ADHD in adults. The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) and the Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory-II (MCMI-II) were administered to a sample of 146 adults with ADHD. Activity and Aggression-Hostility dimensions from the ZKPQ allowed us to properly classify 75.8% of the inattentive and combined subtypes. Data indicates that ADHD is not a homogeneous entity, but rather, there are significant differences in personality characteristics among clinical subtypes. The results have theoretical implications about the connection between ADHD and personality, and clinical implications regarding diagnosis and treatment designs better tailored to the characteristics of each subtype.

  11. Current issues around the pharmacotherapy of ADHD in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, W.M.; Faber, A.; Ban, van den, A.W.; Tobi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background New drugs and new formulations enter the growing market for ADHD medication. The growing awareness of possible persistence of ADHD impairment beyond childhood and adolescence resulting in increased pharmacotherapy of ADHD in adults, is also a good reason for making an inventory of the what is generally known about pharmacotherapy in ADHD. Aim To discuss current issues in the possible pharmacotherapy treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults with respect to the position ...

  12. A retrospective claims analysis of combination therapy in the treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohl Gerhardt M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combination therapy in managing psychiatric disorders is not uncommon. While combination therapy has been documented for depression and schizophrenia, little is known about combination therapy practices in managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This study seeks to quantify the combination use of ADHD medications and to understand predictors of combination therapy. Methods Prescription dispensing events were drawn from a U.S. national claims database including over 80 managed-care plans. Patients studied were age 18 or over with at least 1 medical claim with a diagnosis of ADHD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 314.0, a pharmacy claim for ADHD medication during the study period July2003 to June2004, and continuous enrollment 6 months prior to and throughout the study period. Dispensing events were grouped into 6 categories: atomoxetine (ATX, long-acting stimulants (LAS, intermediate-acting stimulants (IAS, short-acting stimulants (SAS, bupropion (BUP, and Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonists (A2A. Events were assigned to calendar months, and months with combined use from multiple categories within patient were identified. Predictors of combination therapy for LAS and for ATX were modeled for patients covered by commercial plans using logistic regression in a generalized estimating equations framework to adjust for within-patient correlation between months of observation. Factors included age, gender, presence of the hyperactive component of ADHD, prior diagnoses for psychiatric disorders, claims history of recent psychiatric visit, insurance plan type, and geographic region. Results There were 18,609 patients identified representing a total of 11,886 months of therapy with ATX; 40,949 months with LAS; 13,622 months with IAS; 38,141 months with SAS; 22,087 months with BUP; and 1,916 months with A2A. Combination therapy was present in 19.7% of continuing

  13. Central stimulants in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. A naturalistic study of the prescription in Sweden, 1977-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janols, Lars-Olof; Liliemark, Jan; Klintberg, Karin; von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2009-11-01

    An increased prescription of central stimulants (CS) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents has been reported in Sweden. To follow-up the treatment with CS as concerns total as well as regional differences in prescription rate. Efficacy and side-effects reported and gender differences in prescription over time also have been summarized. Data from the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) of individual licences, annual reports about patients on individual or clinic licences from the MPA and sales statistics from the National Pharmacy (Apoteket AB) have been used. The number of new licences and prescriptions increased dramatically from 1992 to 2007 and a change of preparations was seen. Great differences (fivefold) between the 21 counties of Sweden were noticed. In the follow-up reports to the MPA, a good/moderate treatment effect was reported in 92% and adverse effects were reported in 4% leading to discontinuation of medication in 46% of them. Abuse/misuse of the preparation was suspected in 0.2% of the reports. A tendency of a reduction of the proportion of boys to girls treated through individual licences has been seen. The study, although observational, supports good efficacy, limited adverse effects and a low degree of misuse in clinical use of CS for children and adolescents with ADHD.

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  15. Risk of Tics with Psychostimulants for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Investigators at Yale University, New Haven, CT, conducted a meta-analysis to examine the risk of new onset or worsening of tics caused by psychostimulants used in the treatment of children with ADHD.

  16. Risperidone for Aggressive Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD were evaluated in a placebo-controlled pilot study at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

  17. A Randomized Trial of Comparing the Efficacy of Two Neurofeedback Protocols for Treatment of Clinical and Cognitive Symptoms of ADHD: Theta Suppression/Beta Enhancement and Theta Suppression/Alpha Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mohagheghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurofeedback (NF is an adjuvant or alternative therapy for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. This study intended to compare the efficacy of two different NF protocols on clinical and cognitive symptoms of ADHD. Materials and Methods. In this clinical trial, sixty children with ADHD aged 7 to 10 years old were randomly grouped to receive two different NF treatments (theta suppression/beta enhancement protocol and theta suppression/alpha enhancement protocol. Clinical and cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and following the treatment and also after an eight-week follow-up. Results. Both protocols alleviated the symptoms of ADHD in general (p<0.001, hyperactivity (p<0.001, inattention (p<0.001, and omission errors (p<0.001; however, they did not affect the oppositional and impulsive scales nor commission errors. These effects were maintained after an eight-week intervention-free period. The only significant difference between the two NF protocols was that high-frequency alpha enhancement protocol performed better in suppressing omission errors (p<0.001. Conclusion. The two NF protocols with theta suppression/beta enhancement and theta suppression/alpha enhancement have considerable and comparable effect on clinical symptoms of ADHD. Alpha enhancement protocol was more effective in suppressing omission errors.

  18. ADHD: Tips to Try

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  19. Understanding ADHD through entification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    with adults diagnosed with ADHD, I illustrate how the process of entification (transforming a trait, temperament, emotion, or some other psychological phenomenon into a thing or agent) can be a way to understand, accept and handle the symptoms of ADHD. In this context, ADHD is perceived on the one hand...

  20. Psychomotor development and learning difficulties in preschool children with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An epidemiological study in Navarre and La Rioja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Méndez, J J; Borra-Ruiz, M C; Álvarez-Gómez, M J; Soutullo Esperón, C

    2017-10-01

    ADHD symptoms begin to appear at preschool age. ADHD may have a significant negative impact on academic performance. In Spain, there are no standardized tools for detecting ADHD at preschool age, nor is there data about the incidence of this disorder. To evaluate developmental factors and learning difficulties associated with probable ADHD and to assess the impact of ADHD in school performance. We conducted a population-based study with a stratified multistage proportional cluster sample design. We found significant differences between probable ADHD and parents' perception of difficulties in expressive language, comprehension, and fine motor skills, as well as in emotions, concentration, behaviour, and relationships. Around 34% of preschool children with probable ADHD showed global learning difficulties, mainly in patients with the inattentive type. According to the multivariate analysis, learning difficulties were significantly associated with both delayed psychomotor development during the first 3 years of life (OR: 5.57) as assessed by parents, and probable ADHD (OR: 2.34) CONCLUSIONS: There is a connection between probable ADHD in preschool children and parents' perception of difficulties in several dimensions of development and learning. Early detection of ADHD at preschool ages is necessary to start prompt and effective clinical and educational interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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  7. Preschool Teachers' Knowledge, Opinions, and Educational Experiences with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Melissa; Stebbins, Molly S.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate preschool teachers? past educational experiences, knowledge, and opinions related to ADHD. A second purpose was to determine if specific teacher variables (e.g., years of experience) were associated with higher knowledge of ADHD as measured by a criterion-referenced test. One hundred…

  8. Sustained Attention and Social Competence in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Laura M. Bennett; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Brinkman, Tara M.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between sustained attention and social competence in preschool children. While studies demonstrate that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit poor social competence, less is known about typically developing children. Since children with ADHD have associated behavior…

  9. Efficacy of Chistonos for Children in the Treatment and Prevention of Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Dahaieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex of treatment of acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI, acute rhinitis in 43 preschool children was supplemented by endonasal irrigations of Chistonos for children, which is a dosing gel spray containing sea salt, β-carotene, aloe and calendula extracts. A marked local symptomatic relief was registered, as well as an acceleration of the regression of inflammatory changes in the nasal cavity and a significant decrease in the number of complications after acute respiratory disease. Prophylactic use of the product in the preseason allowed to decrease the ARVI (including influenza morbidity rate and to reduce the incidence of the severe form of the disease.

  10. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...

  11. Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children: an evidence-based approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, P.L.; Baraldi, E.; Bisgaard, H.; Boner, A.L.; Castro-Rodriguez, J.A.; Custovic, A.; Blic, J. de; Jongste, J.C. de; Eber, E.; Everard, M.L.; Frey, U.; Gappa, M.; Garcia-Marcos, L.; Grigg, J.; Lenney, W.; Souef, P. le; McKenzie, S.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Midulla, F.; Paton, J.Y.; Piacentini, G.; Pohunek, P.; Rossi, G.A.; Seddon, P.; Silverman, M.; Sly, P.D.; Stick, S.; Valiulis, A.; Aalderen, W.M. van; Wildhaber, J.H.; Wennergren, G.; Wilson, N.; Zivkovic, Z.; Bush, A.

    2008-01-01

    There is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children who wheeze b

  12. Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children: An evidence-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.P. Brand (Paul L.P.); E. Baraldi (Eugenio); H. Bisgaard; A.L. Boner; J.A. Castro-Rodriguez; A. Custovic; J. de Blic; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); E. Eber (Ernst); M.L. Everard; U. Frey (Urs); M. Gappa (Monika); L. Garcia-Marcos; J. Grigg; W. Lenney; P. Le Souëf; S.A. McKenzie; P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); F. Midulla; J.H. Paton; G.L. Piacentini (G. L.); P. Pohunek (Petr); G.A. Rossi; P. Seddon; M. Silverman; P.D. Sly; S. Stick; A. Valiulis (Arunas); W.M.C. van Aalderen (Willem); J.H. Wildhaber (Johannes); G. Wennergren (Goran); N. Wilson; Z. Zivkovic; A. Bush (Andrew)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThere is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children

  13. Sociodemographics, Comorbidities, Healthcare Utilization and Work Productivity in Japanese Patients with Adult ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kirino

    Full Text Available This study compared the sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, healthcare resource utilization, and work productivity among Japanese adults who reported being diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD to those of a non-ADHD control population.Data for this study were captured from an online survey of adults in Japan conducted by Kantar Health using consumer panels. A total of 84 survey participants reported they had received a diagnosis of ADHD from a physician. Survey responses pertaining to functional status and resource utilization from this ADHD group were compared to those from a non-ADHD control group of 100 participants. Comparisons between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups were made using chi-square tests for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables.Participants in the ADHD group were on average slightly younger with a higher proportion of males. ADHD respondents reported significantly more comorbid depression, sleep difficulties, headaches, and anxiety than non-ADHD controls. Over the previous 6 months, the ADHD group made more visits to healthcare providers and the emergency room, and had more hospitalizations than non-ADHD controls. The ADHD group also rated their overall health status lower than the non-ADHD control group. Respondents with ADHD reported a significantly higher degree of health-related work impairment compared to non-ADHD, with greater absenteeism and decreased work productivity. The ADHD group indicated their symptoms negatively impacted relationships, self-esteem, and regular daily activities.Japanese adults with ADHD face a substantial burden of illness, including lower overall health status, increased number of comorbidities, greater healthcare utilization, and significant health-related occupational impairment compared to those without ADHD. Additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of both the consequences and treatment approaches for Japanese

  14. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  15. Factors that Affect the Adherence to ADHD Medications during a Treatment Continuation Period in Children and Adolescents: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study Using Korean Health Insurance Data from 2007 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhang, Soo-Young; Kwack, Young Sook; Joung, Yoo-Sook; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Kim, Bongseog; Sohn, Seok Han; Chung, Un-Sun; Yang, Jaewon; Hong, Minha; Bahn, Geon Ho; Choi, Hyung-yun; Oh, In Hwan; Lee, Yeon Jung

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several factors, such as male gender, older age, type of insurance, comorbid conditions, and medication type, have been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication adherence rates, but the results have been inconsistent. We analyzed data to answer several questions: 1) How old were patients who first refilled their treatment medications used primarily for ADHD, regardless of the medication type? 2) What socio-demographic factors are associated with medication adherence? 3) What medical conditions, such as medication type and comorbid diagnosis, influence adherence? Methods We analyzed National Health Insurance data, which comprised continuously enrolled Korean National Medical Insurance children (6–18 years) with at least 2 ADHD prescription claims (January 2008–December 2011). The persistence of use regarding the days of continuous therapy without a 30-day gap were measured continuously and dichotomously. Adherence, using a medication possession ratio (MPR), was measured dichotomously (80% cut-off). Results The cumulative incidence of index cases that initiated medication refills for ADHD treatment during the 4 year period was 0.85%. The patients who exhibited a MPR greater than 80 comprised approximately 66%. The medication type, high school age groups, physician speciality, treatment at a private clinic, and comorbid conditions were associated with medication adherence during continuous treatment using a multivariate analysis. Conclusion A better understanding of ADHD treatment patterns may lead to initiatives targeted at the improvement of treatment adherence and persistence. Other factors, including the severity, family history, costs, type of comorbidities, and switching patterns, will be analyzed in future studies.

  16. Cognitive-behavioural physical activity treatment in African-American pre-schoolers: effects of age, sex, and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Tennant, Gisèle

    2013-02-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children of 5 years and younger has greatly increased in countries including Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA, with African-Americans most affected in the USA. Low amounts of physical activity may be a primary cause. Interventions intended to increase physical activity during pre-school have had minimal effects. A physical activity intervention derived from self-efficacy and social cognitive theory administered by pre-school teachers in the USA (Start For Life) was contrasted with typical care over 8 weeks. The 30-min-per-day treatment incorporated structured gross motor skill physical activities and training in self-management and self-regulation skills. The African-American children in the treatment (n = 154, 21 classrooms) and control (n = 121, 11 classrooms) groups ranged in age from 3.5 to 5.6 years. Mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variances indicated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in the treatment group when both the children and classrooms were the unit of analysis. Time in sedentary activities was not affected. Together, age, sex and body mass index (BMI) percentile significantly predicted treatment-related changes in MVPA (R(2) = 0.11) and VPA (R(2) = 0.11), with age (β = -0.22 and β = -0.23, respectively) and BMI percentile (β = -0.24 and β = -0.23, respectively) contributing uniquely to the explained variances indicating greater treatment effects for participants who were younger and had a lower BMI percentile. The Start For Life treatment was associated with increased MVPA by approximately 1 h per week, with most of that change being in VPA. After sufficient replication, adjustments may be made to maximise treatment effects. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman;

    2015-01-01

    . The current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... study of 1546 children. Enrolled children were randomized to receive either repeated treatment with praziquantel and albendazole four times a year (intervention group, 394 children) or single dose treatment with praziquantel and albendazole once a year (control group, 371 children). Follow up...... concentrations. Monitoring of clinical malaria attacks was performed at each school during the two years of the intervention. RESULTS: Out of 1546 children screened for P. falciparum, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, hookworm and T. Trichiura at baseline, 1079 (69.8%) were infected with at least one of the four...

  18. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I.L.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurofeedback has been proposed as a potentially effective intervention for reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether neurofeedback is of additional value to treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with clinical ADHD symptoms. Using a

  19. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  20. Living SMART : an Internet course for adults with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Moëll, Birger

    2013-01-01

    ADHD affects executive functions and pharmacological treatment is the most common intervention. Medication is ineffective for some and psychosocial interventions are scarcely available. CBT that teaches organizational skills for managing ADHD-symptoms has shown promising results. Smartphones can help individuals perform executive tasks such as planning and organization and they could be efficacious as a support tool for ADHD patients. The current study is a RCT that compares an online course ...

  1. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  2. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  3. Dental status and dental treatment demands in preschoolers from urban and underprivileged urban areas in Mendoza city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Claudia N; Squassi, Aldo; Bordoni, Noemí

    2015-04-01

    +DMFT categories (x2 = 2.781; p = 0.427), although there was direct correlation between frequency of visits during the past year and dmft+DMFT (Pearson's r coefficient = 0.486, p = 0.000). Preschoolers at UnU schools had higher caries indicators than preschoolers at U schools. For UnU the demand for care was related to the severity of dental status and situations of urgency, while U preschoolers demanded dental care in both health and disease, with a tendency to greater adherence to treatment. Actions to promote oral health in preschoolers should take into account both internal and external barriers to access to and use of oral health services.

  4. Use of drugs for ADHD among adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlstad, Øystein; Zoëga, Helga; Furu, Kari

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The use of ADHD drugs among adults is controversial and has until recently not been approved for use in adults in most countries. The aim was to investigate use of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) among the entire adult population in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We conducted...... a multinational population-based prescription register study based on the entire adult population in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). All users of ADHD drugs aged 18-64 years during 2008-2012 were included, which for 2012 comprised 76,896 drug users among 15.8 million...... period. Methylphenidate was used by 88 % of drug users. Treatment was discontinued within the first year by 21 % of new drug users. Among all users of ADHD drugs, 53 % of men and 64 % of women concurrently used other psychotropic drugs, most frequently antidepressants and hypnotics. Psychotropic co...

  5. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that helminth infections increase the risk of malaria infection and are associated with increased number of malaria attacks and anaemia. Thus interventions to control helminth infections may have an impact on incidence of clinical malaria and anaemia....... The current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... parasites. There was no significant difference in malaria infection (prevalence, parasite density and frequency of malaria attacks) and in the prevalence of anaemia between the repeated and single dose anthelmintic treatment groups at 12 and 24 months follow up (p>0.05). However, overall...

  6. ADHD and Sleep Quality: Longitudinal Analyses From Childhood to Early Adulthood in a Twin Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Matthews, Timothy; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor sleep quality, but there is more to learn about the longitudinal association and aetiology of this association. We investigated the following: (a) Is there an association between childhood ADHD and poor sleep quality in young adulthood? (b) Is this driven by the long-term effects of childhood ADHD or concurrent associations with ADHD in young adulthood? (c) To what extent do genetic and environmental influences explain the overlap between symptoms of ADHD and poor sleep quality? Participants were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study of 2,232 twin children born in the United Kingdom in 1994-1995. We ascertained ADHD diagnoses at ages 5, 7, 10, 12, and 18. We assessed sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at age 18. We used regression models to examine longitudinal associations and bivariate twin modelling to test genetic and environmental influences. Children with ADHD had poorer sleep quality in young adulthood, but only if their ADHD persisted. Adults with ADHD had more sleep problems than those without ADHD, over and above psychiatric comorbidity and maternal insomnia. ADHD and sleep problems in young adulthood were associated because of genetic (55%) and nonshared environmental influences (45%). Should ADHD remit, children with ADHD do not appear to have an increased risk of later sleep problems. Good quality sleep is important for multiple areas of functioning, and a better understanding of why adults with ADHD have poorer sleep quality will further the goal of improving treatments.

  7. Multi-method psycho-educational intervention for preschool children with disruptive behavior: preliminary results at post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, R A; Shelton, T L; Crosswait, C; Moorehouse, M; Fletcher, K; Barrett, S; Jenkins, L; Metevia, L

    2000-03-01

    Annual screenings of preschool children at kindergarten registration identified 158 children having high levels of aggressive, hyperactive, impulsive, and inattentive behavior. These "disruptive" children were randomly assigned to four treatment conditions lasting the kindergarten school year: no treatment, parent training only, full-day treatment classroom only, and the combination of parent training with the classroom treatment. Results showed that parent training produced no significant treatment effects, probably owing largely to poor attendance. The classroom treatment produced improvement in multiple domains: parent ratings of adaptive behavior, teacher ratings of attention, aggression, self-control, and social skills, as well as direct observations of externalizing behavior in the classroom. Neither treatment improved academic achievement skills or parent ratings of home behavior problems, nor were effects evident on any lab measures of attention, impulse control, or mother-child interactions. It is concluded that when parent training is offered at school registration to parents of disruptive children identified through a brief school registration screening, it may not be a useful approach to treating the home and community behavioral problems of such children. The kindergarten classroom intervention was far more effective in reducing the perceived behavioral problems and impaired social skills of these children. Even so, most treatment effects were specific to the school environment and did not affect achievement skills. These findings must be viewed as tentative until follow-up evaluations can be done to determine the long-term outcomes of these interventions.

  8. Comparison of symptomatic versus functional changes in children and adolescents with ADHD during randomized, double-blind treatment with psychostimulants, atomoxetine, or placebo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Wilens, T.E.; Zhang, S.; Ning, Y.; Feldman, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was designed to determine the relationship between reduction of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and improvement in functioning by examining short-term changes in functional and symptomatic scores in children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS:

  9. A Clinician's Guide to Co-Occurring ADHD among Adolescent Substance Users: Comorbidity, Neurodevelopmental Risk, and Evidence-Based Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Evans, Steven W.; Levin, Frances R.

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces neurodevelopmental and clinical considerations for treating adolescents with co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescent substance use (ASU) in outpatient settings. We first describe neurobiological impairments common to ADHD and ASU, including comorbidity with conduct disorder, that evoke a…

  10. Childhood and persistent ADHD symptoms associated with educational failure and long-term occupational disability in adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Mats; Dahl, Alv A; Martinsen, Egil W; Klungsoyr, Ole; Faraone, Stephen V; Peleikis, Dawn E

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on adult ADHD functional outcomes. To address this issue dimensionally, ADHD symptoms in childhood and adulthood and their relation to educational deficits and work disability are studied in a clinical sample of adult patients with previously untreated ADHD. About 250 adults diagnosed systematically with ADHD according to DSM-IV were prospectively recruited. Primary outcomes were high school dropout and being out of the work last year. Childhood ADHD symptoms, sex differences, comorbidities of other mental disorders, and adult ADHD symptoms were examined by historical data, clinician interviews, and questionnaires. High levels of ADHD symptom severity in childhood were related to dropping out of high school [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0], as were higher numbers of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms in childhood. Significantly, more women than men were long-term work disabled (OR = 2.0). After adjusting for age and gender, persisting high levels of ADHD inattention symptoms in adulthood (OR = 2.5), number of comorbid disorders, and particularly anxiety disorders were significantly related to long-term work disability. Childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and overall severity of childhood ADHD symptoms were associated with high school dropout rates; however, persisting ADHD inattention symptoms and comorbid mental disorders in adulthood were more correlated to occupational impairment. These findings underline proposals for studies on early recognition and interventions for ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity. They further suggest that inattentive symptoms be a focus of adult ADHD treatment and that workplace interventions be considered to prevent long-term work disability.

  11. 脑电生物反馈治疗儿童注意缺陷多动障碍疗效评价及护理指导%Effect of EEG biofeedback treatment in children with ADHD and nursing guidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤姿英; 陆新容

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of EEG biofeedback treatment on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Methods EEG biofeedback treatment was applied to 30 children with ADHD as the initial treatment for 20 times.SNAP-Ⅳ scale was adopted to evaluate the effect before and after treatment.Results After treatment,the scores of SNAP-Ⅳ scale,attention factor and hyperactivity factor were significantly decreased (P < 0.01;P < 0.05; P < 0.01).Conclusion EEG biofeedback training is an effective treatment for the ADHD children as the initial treatment,with high satisfaction of parents,it' s definite guidence significance in clinic treatment.%目的 探讨脑电生物反馈治疗儿童注意缺陷多动障碍(Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder,ADHD)疗效及护理指导.方法 30例注意缺陷与多动障碍患儿脑电生物反馈治疗1个疗程共20次,采用SNAP-Ⅳ量表评价治疗效果.结果 治疗后,SNAP-Ⅳ量表总分以及注意力因子、多动/冲动因子较治疗前均下降显著(P<0.01;P<0.05;P<0.01).结论 脑电生物反馈治疗疗效确切,家长满意度高,对临床治疗具有一定的指导意义.

  12. EARLY DETECTION, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH SIGHT DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DIKIC

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight damages can appear in every period of the human life, from birth till very old age. The disorders of the sight function retard and hinder the possibility of learning, proper informing as well as recognizing the objects in reality. The possibility for rehabilitation and adaptation is bigger and the psychical consequences in the person development are smaller, if the person with damaged sight is younger and rehabilitation and correction of the incorrect sight function start at proper time, i.e., immediately after the detection of the damage.The developmental deviation with children with damaged sight can be recognized in the general physical development, in poorer fund of real ideas in the sensomotor development, in the space notion and space relations, in reduced motivation for certain activities and so on. However, these children have the same needs as the children with normal sight, such as: love, sympathies, care, discipline, learning, understanding, patience and so on. It should be taken into consideration that each child is an individual which means a special approach to the rehabilitation. In fact, more often we find children who, besides the sight damages, have other damages such as: cerebral paralysis, hearing damages, mental retardation, emotional disorders and so on.The preventive measures contribute to the decreasing number of children with more difficult psycho-physical anomalies and they mean obligation of the community to organize: Advisory Institutions for pregnant women, quick and prompt intervention of the ophthalmologists and other experts, increasing of the general culture of the population and so on, and the systematic sight check-ups of every child should be performed in the first, third and sixth year of their lives.The expert treatment of sight handicapped children should start from the very detection of the sight damage (blindness and low vision. For small blind and low vision children the Developmental Advisory

  13. Dental caries and their treatment needs in 3-5 year old preschool children in a Rural District of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01. Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers.

  14. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  15. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  16. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms.

  17. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  18. Mathematical Difficulties and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucangeli, Daniela; Cabrele, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Most of the research on academics and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused on reading disorders in children with ADHD rather than difficulties in mathematics. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of studies focusing on students with attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity and 1 area of…

  19. Voeding en ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchner FL; Ezendam J; Tijhuis MJ; Mennes W; van Loveren H; van den Berg SW; CVG; GBO; SIR

    2010-01-01

    Uit een literatuurstudie van het RIVM kunnen op dit moment geen concrete voedingsadviezen afgeleid worden om symptomen van ADHD te verminderen. Een relevant effect van voeding op ADHD kan onvoldoende wetenschappelijk onderbouwd worden. Er zijn daarvoor te weinig grote en kwalitatief goede studies

  20. ADHD er ikke hysteri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Anne-Mette; Sørensen, Anders; Tranæs, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Livsværdi. Mennesker med ADHD bør kunne få et bedre liv, men man ved endnu ikke præcis hvordan.......Livsværdi. Mennesker med ADHD bør kunne få et bedre liv, men man ved endnu ikke præcis hvordan....

  1. Kinderen met ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    An ever increasing number of hyperactive and impulsive children receive the diagnosis Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The relatively high prevalence, negative prognosis, and assumed inheritable nature of this behavioral disorder make ADHD one of the most prominent child diagnoses to

  2. Working memory training in young children with ADHD: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen-Boomsma, M. van; Vollebregt, M.A.; Buitelaar, J.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the

  3. The Reliability and Validity of Self- and Investigator Ratings of ADHD in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Michelson, David; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Little information is available comparing self- versus investigator ratings of symptoms in adult ADHD. The authors compared the reliability, validity, and utility in a sample of adults with ADHD and also as an index of clinical improvement during treatment of self- and investigator ratings of ADHD symptoms via the Conners Adult ADHD…

  4. Working memory training in young children with ADHD: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen-Boomsma, M. van; Vollebregt, M.A.; Buitelaar, J.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the

  5. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  6. Adults with ADHD Benefit from Cognitive-Behaviorally Oriented Group Rehabilitation: A Study of 29 Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…

  7. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Neuroscience, Medicine, and Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron; Sidlik, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is revealing how the brains of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) function, and advances in medicine are leading to treatments. This study investigated preservice teachers' knowledge and beliefs about students with ADHD. The majority of preservice teachers knew someone with ADHD, which, along with…

  8. Severe osteogenesis imperfecta Type-III and its challenging treatment in newborn and preschool children. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Ojaniemi, Marja; Lehenkari, Petri; Serlo, Willy

    2015-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders, of which Type III is the most severe among survivors. The disease is characterised in particular by bone fragility, decreased bone mass and increased incidence of fractures. Other usual findings are muscle hypotonia, joint hypermobility and short stature. Fractures and weak bones may consequently cause limb and spinal deformity and chronic physical disability. Bisphosphonates have revolutionised the treatment of newborn children with severe OI type III. Surgery is still needed in most patients due to high frequency of the fractures. In this systematic review we describe the present state-of-art in treating the most severe type of OI in newborn and preschool children with their bone fractures.

  9. Shooting the Messenger: The Case of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gretchen Lefever; Arcona, Andrea Powell; Antonuccio, David O; Healy, David

    2014-01-01

    Medicating ADHD is a controversial subject that was acutely inflamed in 1995 when high rates of ADHD diagnosis and treatment were documented in southeastern Virginia. Psychologists in southeastern Virginia formed a regional school health coalition to implement and evaluate interventions to address the problem. Other professionals with strong ties to the pharmaceutical industry launched ad hominem attacks on the coalition's research and work. These attacks contributed to the work being terminated in 2005. In the ensuing years, ADHD drug treatment continued to escalate. Today, the national rate of ADHD diagnosis exceeds all reasonable estimates of the disorder's true prevalence, with 14 % of American children being diagnosed before reaching young adulthood. Notable key opinion leaders continue to claim that there is no cause for concern, but with a message shift from "the prevalence is not too high" to "high prevalence is not too concerning." This paper provides an object lesson about how innovative research can be derailed to the detriment of sound medical and mental health care of children when industry interests are threatened. Tenure may be the only option for protecting innovative research from specious attacks. The authors offer a summary of the data on ADHD drug treatments, suggest judicious use of such treatments, and add their voices to others who are once again sounding a cautionary alarm.

  10. Social skills training for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social...... skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We examined the effects of social skills training on children's social competences, general behaviour, ADHD symptoms, and performance in school....

  11. Treatment of renal stones with flexible ureteroscopy in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkurt, Bulent; Caskurlu, Turhan; Atis, Gokhan; Gurbuz, Cenk; Arikan, Ozgur; Pelit, Eyup Sabri; Altay, Bulent; Erdogan, Firat; Yildirim, Asif

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) to treat renal stones in preschool age (4 mm, a second-stage RIRS was performed. The pre-operative, operative and post-operative data of the patients were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 65 patients with a mean age of 4.31 ± 1.99 years (6 months-7 years) were included in the present study. The mean stone size was 14.66 ± 6.12 mm (7-30 mm). The mean operative time was 46.47 ± 18.27 min. In 5 (7.69%) patients, the initial procedure failed to reach the renal collecting system and ended with the insertion of a pigtail stent. The stone-free rates were 83.07 and 92.3% after the first and second procedures, respectively. Complications were observed in 18 (27.7%) patients and classified according to the Clavien system. Post-operative hematuria (Clavien I) occurred in 6 (9.2%) patients, post-operative urinary tract infection with fever (Clavien II) was observed in 10 (15.4%) patients, and ureteral wall injury (Clavien III) was noted in 2 (3%) patients. RIRS is an effective and safe procedure that can be used to manage renal stones in preschool age children.

  12. ADHD and temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    According to the official diagnostic manual, ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and patterns of behaviour are characterized as failure to pay attention to details, excessive talking, fidgeting, or inability to remain seated in appropriate situations (DSM-5......). In this paper, however, I will ask if we can understand what we call ADHD in a different way than through the symptom descriptions and will advocate for a complementary, phenomenological understanding of ADHD as a certain being in the world – more specifically as a matter of a phenomenological difference...... in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological experience...

  13. The comorbidity of ADHD and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Zhang-James, Yanli; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-10-01

    ADHD and autism spectrum disorder are common psychiatric comorbidities to each another. In addition, there is behavioral, biological and neuropsychological overlap between the two disorders. There are also several important differences between autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Treatment strategies for the comorbid condition will also be reviewed. Future areas of research and clinical need will be discussed.

  14. Medication Adherence in Psychopharmacologically Treated Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A.; Duran, Petra; Yovel, Iftah; Perlman, Carol A.; Sprich, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: One of the potential causes of residual symptoms of ADHD in adults can be difficulties with consistent adherence to medications. Method: This formative study examined self-reported medication adherence in adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms despite medication treatment. Results: Mean adherence for the two-week period…

  15. Advances in understanding and treating ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendricks Kaitlin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurocognitive behavioral developmental disorder most commonly seen in childhood and adolescence, which often extends to the adult years. Relative to a decade ago, there has been extensive research into understanding the factors underlying ADHD, leading to far more treatment options available for both adolescents and adults with this disorder. Novel stimulant formulations have made it possible to tailor treatment to the duration of efficacy required by patients, and to help mitigate the potential for abuse, misuse and diversion. Several new non-stimulant options have also emerged in the past few years. Among these, cognitive behavioral interventions have proven popular in the treatment of adult ADHD, especially within the adult population who cannot or will not use medications, along with the many medication-treated patients who continue to show residual disability.

  16. An update on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recommendations in the assessment and treatment of ADHD across the age range. .... incorporating cognitive behavioural therapy, behavioural approaches and social .... Medication treatment is simple and effective, but the added advantages ...

  17. 注意缺陷/多动障碍治疗中的药物假日合理吗?%Are drug holidays in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) justified?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜亚松; 王民洁

    2011-01-01

    Drug holidays are temporary physicianmonitored breaks in the course of continuous drug therapy that usually have the goal of reversing the receptor desensitization and adverse effects of chronic drug treatment.Initially used to describe intermittent breaks in long-term treatment with antipsychotic medication,in child psychiatry drug holidays in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) typically involve stopping medication when the child is not at school-weekends,holidays and,summer or winter vacations.However,there are conflicting views about the benefits of drug holidays in the treatment of ADHD.药物假日是医生根据病情需要有意识地、暂时性停止用药的过程,目的是逆转抗精神病药物慢性治疗过程中的受体不敏感和不良反应.最初用于描述长期抗精神病药治疗中的间歇性停药,在儿童精神科,当注意缺陷多动障碍( Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,ADHD)患者不上学时——周末、节假日、寒暑假,会采用药物假日的治疗方式.然而,对ADHD治疗中药物假日的利弊存在争议.

  18. ADHD and comorbid conduct problems among adolescents: associations with self-esteem and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2011-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.

  19. EXPANDING INFANT MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT SERVICES TO AT-RISK PRESCHOOLERS AND THEIR FAMILIES THROUGH THE INTEGRATION OF RELATIONAL PLAY THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jennifer L; Whipple, Ellen E

    2017-09-01

    The expansion of infant mental health (IMH) to at-risk preschoolers and their families has contributed to the integration of relational play therapy (RPT) into IMH treatment services for this population. Integrating RPT allows access to specialized play and expressive techniques specific to preschool and family development, which improves the clinical ability to meet the multiple and complex needs of at-risk parent-child dyads and their families. This article will examine the RPT literature and explore the similarities and differences between IMH and RPT. In addition, two case studies will highlight a five-phase, integrative clinical-treatment process and provide insight into how IMH clinicians are integrating RPT models and maintaining adherence to the IMH treatment approach. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Early Intervention for Preschoolers at Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Preschool First Step to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Edward G.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Golly, Annemieke; Forness, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the Preschool First Step (PFS) to Success early intervention for children at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PFS is a targeted intervention for children 3-5 years old with externalizing behavior problems and addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. As part of a larger…

  1. Insecure maternal attachment is associated with depression in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Seco, F; Mundo-Cid, P; Aguado-Gracia, J; Gaviria-Gómez, A M; Acosta-García, S; Martí-Serrano, S; Vilella, E; Masana-Marín, A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the possible association between maternal attachment style and comorbidity associated with childhood ADHD. We evaluated a total of 103 children with ADHD treated at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre and their mothers. Comorbidity was evaluated using the MINI-KID interview. Maternal attachment was evaluated using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. We considered child variables that could be associated with the clinical course of ADHD, such as symptom severity, age, gender, evolution time, academic level, and current pharmacological treatment; parental variables, such as the mother's psychiatric history, current psychopathology, marital status, academic level, income, and employment, were also considered. We found an association between maternal insecure attachment and comorbid depressive disorder in childhood ADHD. An insecure maternal attachment style must be considered in the assessment and treatment of childhood ADHD with comorbid depression.

  2. Patterns and predictors of ADHD persistence into adulthood: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Adler, Lenard A.; Barkley, Russell; Biederman, Joseph; Conners, C. Keith; Faraone, Stephen V.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jaeger, Savina; Secnik, Kristina; Spencer, Thomas; Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite growing interest in adult ADHD, little is known about predictors of persistence of childhood cases into adulthood. METHODS A retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD, childhood risk factors, and a screen for adult ADHD were included in a sample of 3197 18–44 year old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Blinded adult ADHD clinical reappraisal interviews were administered to a sub-sample of respondents. Multiple imputation (MI) was used to estimate adult persistence of childhood ADHD. Logistic regression was used to study retrospectively reported childhood predictors of persistence. Potential predictors included socio-demographics, childhood ADHD severity, childhood adversity, traumatic life experiences, and comorbid DSM-IV child-adolescent disorders (anxiety, mood, impulse-control, and substance disorders). RESULTS 36.3% of respondents with retrospectively assessed childhood ADHD were classified by blinded clinical interviews as meeting DSM-IV criteria for current ADHD. Childhood ADHD severity and childhood treatment significantly predicted persistence. Controlling for severity and excluding treatment, none of the other variables significantly predicted persistence even though they were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. CONCLUSIONS No modifiable risk factors were found for adult persistence of ADHD. Further research, ideally based on prospective general population samples, is needed to search for modifiable determinants of adult persistence of ADHD. PMID:15950019

  3. Family Functioning and Maternal Anxiety Among Cases Diagnosed With Adhd: A Comparison Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca OZYURT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. Factors related with parents affect family functioning and make changes in ADHD symptoms. We aimed to evaluate maternal anxiety and family functioning in children with ADHD comparing with controls and their mothers. Method: The study group consisted of 62 children (6-12 years old diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The control group (62 children comprised patients of other clinics at hospital and was matched for gender and age to the ADHD patients. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children- Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL was used to diagnose ADHD and allowed comorbidities. All patients were treatment-naive. DuPaul Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder-Rating Scale -IV Inventory for ADHD symptoms, Family Assessment Device (FAD for family functioning, State Trait Anxiety Inventory for maternal anxiety were used. Results: There was no significant difference between sociodemographic data of two groups. The families of children with ADHD had more family dysfunction in roles, behavioral control, affective involvement subscales. Mothers of children with ADHD had higher scores than controls in State and Trait Anxiety Inventory forms. Conclusion: ADHD generally continues into adolescence and adulthood, and multiple functional impairments can occur due to ADHD. If the relationship between maternal anxiety; family functioning, and ADHD is understood well, treatment of ADHD will be provided more effectively.

  4. ADHD - En ustabil konstruktion

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Malte Hertz; Pedersen, Mette; Morsing, Christian; Nielsen, Martin Friis

    2010-01-01

    Projektet tager udgangspunkt i en undersøgelse af konstruktionen af viden om ADHD, i relation til Thomas Kuhn og Bruno Latour. Ved brug af Thomas Kuhn’s paradigmeteori, identificerer projektet psykiatriske paradigmatiske tilstande inden for forståelsen af ADHD. Indeværende opgave søger således svar på, hvilke aktører der indgår i den gældende viden om ADHD. Herunder vil aktørernes betydninger blive diskuteret i kraft af begreber som medieringer, formidlere og alliancer. Det vil samtid...

  5. Handwriting in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmaid, Rebecca A; Papadopoulos, Nicole; Johnson, Beth P; Phillips, James G; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT) display fine and gross motor problems, often expressed as handwriting difficulties. This study aimed to kinematically characterize the handwriting of children with ADHD using a cursive letter l's task. In all, 28 boys (7-12 years), 14 ADHD-CT and 14 typically developing (TD), without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) or comorbid autism, wrote a series of four cursive letter l's using a graphics tablet and stylus. Children with ADHD-CT had more inconsistent writing size than did TD controls. In addition, ADHD-CT symptom severity, specifically inattention, predicted poorer handwriting outcomes. In a sample of children with ADHD-CT who do not have DCD or autism, subtle handwriting differences were evident. It was concluded that handwriting might be impaired in children with ADHD in a manner dependent on symptom severity. This may reflect reports of underlying motor impairment in ADHD. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

  6. Kids' Quest: ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bureau of Investigation Set of internet-based games ideal for kids with ADHD. Each game is designed ... is living his life. Ask your parents or teachers if you can watch this video from YouTube. ...

  7. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  8. Adults with ADHD: use and misuse of stimulant medication as reported by patients and their primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensing, Michael B; Zeiner, Pål; Sandvik, Leiv; Opjordsmoen, Stein

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the agreement on treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between adults with ADHD and the primary care physicians responsible for their treatment. Adults with ADHD and the primary care physicians responsible for their ADHD treatment completed a survey. The κ-statistic assessed physician-patient agreement on ADHD treatment variables. The eligible sample consisted of 274 patients with confirmed current or previous psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD and the physicians responsible for their treatment. We received 159 questionnaires (58.0 %) with sufficient information from both sources. There were no significant differences between participants and nonparticipants (N = 115) on ADHD sample characteristics. Participants' mean age was 37.6 years, and 75 (47.2 %) were females. There was high agreement for current pharmacological treatment for ADHD, current and last ADHD drug prescription, treatment for substance use, and misuse of stimulant medication. Agreement for nonpharmacological treatment for ADHD and treatment termination because of the side effects was low. A minority of participants from both sources reported misuse of stimulant medication. There was a moderate correlation between the physicians' clinical judgment and patients' self-report on current functioning. The study showed that primary care physicians and their patients agreed on the pharmacological but not the nonpharmacological, treatments given. They also agreed on patients' current functioning. Physicians and patients reported low levels of misuse of stimulant medication. The results show that pharmacological treatment for adults with ADHD can be safely undertaken by primary care physicians.

  9. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Preschooler Too Active? Sleep and Your Preschooler Games for Preschoolers Motivating Preschoolers to Be Active Should Your Preschooler Play Sports? Safe Exploring for Preschoolers Your Child's Weight Kids and Exercise Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: ...

  10. A critical appraisal of atomoxetine in the management of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childress AC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ann C ChildressCenter for Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Inc., Las Vegas, NV, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurobehavioral disorder beginning in childhood and often continuing into adulthood. A wealth of data shows that ADHD symptoms respond well to pharmacological treatment. Stimulant medications, including amphetamine and methylphenidate, are most commonly used to treat ADHD. However, with the approval of atomoxetine (Strattera®, [ATX] by the US Food and Drug Administration in late 2002, an effective non-stimulant option became available. The US Food and Drug Administration approved ATX for the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. Although the effect size of ATX is generally lower than that of stimulants, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Practice Parameter for the treatment of ADHD lists ATX as a first-line treatment option. ATX is widely prescribed and accounted for 6% of the prescriptions of ADHD visits in the US in 2010. Numerous trials have found that ATX improves quality of life and emotional lability in addition to core ADHD symptoms. Although some improvement may be seen in a patient as early as one week after the initiation of treatment, ATX generally takes longer to have a full effect. The median time to response using 25% improvement in ADHD symptoms in pooled trials was 3.7 weeks. Data from these trials indicate that the probability of symptom improvement may continue to increase up to 52 weeks after treatment is initiated. ATX has been shown to be safe and effective in combination with stimulants. It has also been studied systematically in subjects with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. The mechanism of action of ATX, its efficacy, and adverse events reported in trials is reviewed.Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Strattera, non-stimulants, pharmacotherapy

  11. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI, arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD.

  12. The use of compensatory strategies in adults with ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysow, Kate; Park, Joanne; Johnston, Charlotte

    2016-09-10

    This study examined the use of compensatory strategies reported by adults with ADHD symptoms and their relation to measures of functioning. Forty-nine adults (55.1 % female) completed a structured diagnostic interview to assess ADHD, and responses were coded for compensatory strategies: Adaptation, Paying Attention, Organization, External Support, and Avoidance. The majority of adults with ADHD symptoms reported using compensatory strategies, and their reported strategy use in childhood was related to their use in adulthood. No gender differences were found in the use of strategies, although Organization and External Support were used more often for inattention than for hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Use of the compensatory strategy, Adaptation, was significantly related to measures of functioning, and the use of strategies reduced the negative relationship between ADHD symptoms and parenting difficulties. Results encourage the development of compensatory strategies among adults with ADHD symptoms, as well as provide recommendations for treatment programs.

  13. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative…

  14. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative…

  15. Parent-Reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptomatology in Preschool-Aged Children: Factor Structure, Developmental Change, and Early Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory…

  16. Treating ADHD with Hypnosis and Neurotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    Traditional diagnosis procedures for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may lead to over-diagnosis and are fraught with complications because the target behavioral symptoms are found in a variety of other disorders. Traditional treatments consisting of powerful side effect laden psychostimulant drugs…

  17. Parent-Reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptomatology in Preschool-Aged Children: Factor Structure, Developmental Change, and Early Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory factor analyses to test for longitudinal measurement invariance of ADHD symptoms and semi-parametric finite mixture models to identify prototypic pattern...

  18. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  19. Effects of Methylphenidate on Memory Functions of Adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychological research on adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revealed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. However, only limited evidence exists supporting the effects of pharmacological treatment using methylphenidate (MPH) on memo

  20. Effects of Methylphenidate on Memory Functions of Adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological research on adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revealed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. However, only limited evidence exists supporting the effects of pharmacological treatment using methylphenidate (MPH) on memo

  1. Management of ADHD in children and adolescents: clinical audit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of ADHD in children and adolescents: clinical audit in a South African setting. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Journal Home ... The central group received more treatment options and relatively safer monitoring.

  2. Spontaneous ejaculation with the use of ADHD drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, I.; Heijting, L.W.; Van Puijenbroek, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are indicated for treatment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received two reports of spontaneous ejaculation associated with the use of these drugs. Objective: To describe two case reports o

  3. Effects of Methylphenidate on Memory Functions of Adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-04-18

    Neuropsychological research on adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revealed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. However, only limited evidence exists supporting the effects of pharmacological treatment using methylphenidate (MPH) on memory functions. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the impact of MPH on various memory functions of adults with ADHD. Thirty-one adults with ADHD treated with MPH, 36 adults with ADHD not-treated with MPH, and 36 healthy individuals were assessed on several aspects of memory, including short-term memory, working memory, retrospective memory, prospective memory, and source memory. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied to compare memory functions between groups. Nonmedicated adults with ADHD showed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. Adults with ADHD treated with MPH showed improved memory functions when compared to nonmedicated patients, but were still impaired when compared to healthy controls. The present study emphasized the severity of memory impairments of adults with ADHD. A pharmacological treatment with MPH appeared to improve memory, but does not normalize functioning. Additional treatment intervention (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy) is therefore necessary.

  4. Detecting Symptom Exaggeration in College Students Seeking ADHD Treatment: Performance Validity Assessment Using the NV-MSVT and IVA-Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppma, Monica; Long, Daniel; Smith, Megan; Lassiter, Candace

    2017-01-27

    The symptoms of ADHD are highly subjective, and there is ample empirical evidence that demonstrates the ease with which impairments in attention can be feigned on many commonly used subjective and objective measures of attention. We examined the combination of two assessment measures, NV-MSVT and IVA+, to screen for performance validity and ADHD symptoms in college students. Results indicated that the NV-MSVT was effective in differentiating between students with potential high impairment, such as ADHD, and possible malingerers. In addition, in vivo clinical data (N = 350) resulted in lower validity cut-off scores on the IVA+ than had been previously suggested. Clinical implications and future research are also discussed.

  5. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgersen T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terje Torgersen,1,2 Bjorn Gjervan,2,3 Michael B Lensing,4 Kirsten Rasmussen5,6 1Department of Østmarka, St Olav’s Hospital, 2Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 3Department of Psychiatry, Helse Nord-Trondelag Hospital Trust, Kirkegata, Levanger, 4NevSom, Norwegian Center of Expertise for Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Hypersomnias, Women and Children’s Division, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 5St Olav’s Hospital, Broset Center for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Trondheim, 6Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background: The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed.Method: A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years.Results: ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70–80 years than the group 50–60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should

  6. Prevalence of ADHD among the Students Residing in Dormitory of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Sadeghi Movahed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a heredity and psychological disorder that often continues to adulthood and causes great number of emotional, social, educational and occupational problem for college students. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of ADHD among students residing in the dormitory of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences.   Methods: In this cross sectional study, all students in the dormitory of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences were included. They filled the Self reporting Conner’s ADHD questionnaires. Data were extracted and analyzed with SPSS.   Results: During this study, the prevalence of ADHD was 8.6 percent. The males show more involvement rate than females. The students with ADHD showed more incidences of smoking and psychotropic drug consumption.   Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of ADHD among the college students, early diagnosis and treatment of ADHD seems to be necessary.

  7. Life Span Studies of ADHD-Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caye, Arthur; Swanson, James; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    . Evidence indicates that ADHD severity, comorbid conduct disorder and major depressive disorder, and treatment for ADHD are the main predictors of ADHD persistence from childhood to adulthood. Comorbid conduct disorder and ADHD severity in childhood are the most important predictors of adverse outcomes......There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses...... the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative...

  8. The effectiveness of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) for young children with severe behavioral disturbances: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Caroline S; Schuengel, Carlo; Lindeboom, Robert; Oosterman, Mirjam; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramon J L

    2013-07-05

    Among children placed out of home, behavioral and relationship functioning is often problematic. When placed in foster care, problems tend to persist or even worsen and increase the risk of placement breakdown. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers is an intensive behavior-focused program for young foster children (3 to 7 years) aiming to provide children with a positive and stimulating foster family setting and individually tailored behavioral interventions. This study will be the first to examine the effectiveness of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers outside the US and to examine the effectiveness across a broader range of problems related to foster care. This is a randomized controlled trial, wherein we expect to include 80 child-foster carer dyads. Forty dyads will be assigned to Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers and 40 to treatment as usual, following pre-randomization. Data to be gathered concern problem behavior, symptoms of attachment disorder, post-traumatic stress symptoms, quality of life, hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis functioning, parental stress and autonomic reactivity, to be collected via questionnaires, observations, interviews, saliva and recording at six time-points over 24 months. To compare treatment outcomes, Fisher's exact tests and repeated measures (mixed models) and independent t-tests will be used. All analyses will be performed following the intention-to-treat principle. Examining the generalizability of previous findings in the US and extending these previous findings is a step towards improving knowledge about treatment of young foster children with severe behavioral, emotional and attachment problems. NTR1747.

  9. Comorbid ADHD and anxiety affect social skills group intervention treatment efficacy in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Polacek, Carol; McMahon, Michele; Dygert, Karen; Spenceley, Laura; Dygert, Lindsay; Miller, Laura; Faisal, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    To assess the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on social skill treatment outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A community sample of 83 children (74 males, 9 females) with an ASD (mean age = 9.5 yr; SD = 1.2) and common comorbid disorders participated in 10-week social skills training groups. The first 5 weeks of the group focused on conversation skills and the second 5 weeks focused on social problem solving skills. A concurrent parent group was also included in the treatment. Social skills were assessed using the Social Skills Rating System. Ratings were completed by parents at pre- and posttreatment time periods. Children with ASD and children with an ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder improved in their parent reported social skills. Children with ASD and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder failed to improve. Psychiatric comorbidity affects social skill treatment gains in the ASD population.

  10. Protocol investigating the clinical utility of an objective measure of activity and attention (QbTest) on diagnostic and treatment decision-making in children and young people with ADHD-'Assessing QbTest Utility in ADHD' (AQUA): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charlotte L; Walker, Gemma M; Valentine, Althea Z; Guo, Boliang; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; James, Marilyn; Daley, David; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2014-12-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) state that young people need to have access to the best evidence-based care to improve outcome. The current 'gold standard' ADHD diagnostic assessment combines clinical observation with subjective parent, teacher and self-reports. In routine practice, reports from multiple informants may be unavailable or contradictory, leading to diagnostic uncertainty and delay. The addition of objective tests of attention and activity may help reduce diagnostic uncertainty and delays in initiating treatment leading to improved outcomes. This trial investigates whether providing clinicians with an objective report of levels of attention, impulsivity and activity can lead to an earlier, and more accurate, clinical diagnosis and improved patient outcome. This multisite randomised controlled trial will recruit young people (aged 6-17 years old) who have been referred for an ADHD diagnostic assessment at Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) and Community Paediatric clinics across England. Routine clinical assessment will be augmented by the QbTest, incorporating a continuous performance test (CPT) and infrared motion tracking of activity. The participant will be randomised into one of two study arms: QbOpen (clinician has immediate access to a QbTest report): QbBlind (report is withheld until the study end). Primary outcomes are time to diagnosis and diagnostic accuracy. Secondary outcomes include clinician's diagnostic confidence and routine clinical outcome measures. Cost-effective analysis will be conducted, alongside a qualitative assessment of the feasibility and acceptability of incorporating QbTest in routine practice. The findings from the study will inform commissioners, clinicians and managers about the feasibility, acceptability, clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of incorporating QbTest into routine diagnostic assessment of young

  11. Globalization and cognitive enhancement: emerging social and ethical challenges for ADHD clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ilina; Filipe, Angela M; Bard, Imre; Bergey, Meredith; Baker, Lauren

    2013-09-01

    Globalization of ADHD and the rise of cognitive enhancement have raised fresh concerns about the validity of ADHD diagnosis and the ethics of stimulant drug treatment. We review the literature on these two emerging phenomena, with a focus on the corresponding social, scientific and ethical debates over the universality of ADHD and the use of stimulant drug treatments in a global population of children and adolescents. Drawing on this literature, we reflect on the importance of ethically informed, ecologically sensitive clinical practices in relation to ADHD diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Delta Plots in the study of individual differences: New tools reveal response inhibition deficits in AD/HD That are eliminated by methylphenidate treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Ridderinkhof; A. Scheres; J. Oosterlaan; J.A. Sergeant

    2005-01-01

    The authors highlight the utility of distribution-analytical techniques in the study of individual differences and clinical disorders. Cognitive deficits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) were examined by using delta-plot analyses of performance data (reaction time and

  13. Delta Plots in the Study of Individual Differences : New Tools Reveal Response Inhibition Deficits in AD-HD That Are Eliminated by Methylphenidate Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors highlight the utility of distribution-analytical techniques in the study of individual differences and clinical disorders. Cognitive deficits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) were examined by using delta-plot analyses of performance data (reaction time and

  14. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found between…

  15. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found between…

  16. Does Childhood Use of Stimulant Medication as a Treatment for ADHD Affect the Likelihood of Future Drug Abuse and Dependence? A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shawn M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the disparate research findings regarding the effects of stimulant medication in subsequent substance abuse and dependence. A minimum of 4 to 5% of children in the United States will be diagnosed with ADHD; thus it is important for parents to be informed when making decisions about the use of stimulant medication to treat…

  17. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and the Adult ADHD Brain: A Neuropsychotherapeutic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD. It is assumed that medication ameliorates ADHD symptoms by improving the functioning of the brain areas affected in the condition. However, side effects, contraindications, or non-response can limit the effectiveness of a psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD. It is therefore necessary to develop non-pharmacological interventions that target neuronal mechanisms associated with the condition in the same way as pharmacological treatment. We think that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention could help patients with ADHD to regulate impaired brain functioning and thereby reduce ADHD symptoms. In this paper, we highlight the mechanisms of such mindfulness meditation, and thus provide a rationale for further research and treatment development from a neuropsychotherapeutic perspective. We conclude that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention in therapy is a promising treatment approach in ADHD.

  18. Variability in ADHD care in community-based pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N; Kelleher, Kelly J; Baum, Rebecca; Brinkman, William B; Peugh, James; Gardner, William; Lichtenstein, Phil; Langberg, Joshua

    2014-12-01

    Although many efforts have been made to improve the quality of care delivered to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community-based pediatric settings, little is known about typical ADHD care in these settings other than rates garnered through pediatrician self-report. Rates of evidence-based ADHD care and sources of variability (practice-level, pediatrician-level, patient-level) were determined by chart reviews of a random sample of 1594 patient charts across 188 pediatricians at 50 different practices. In addition, the associations of Medicaid-status and practice setting (ie, urban, suburban, and rural) with the quality of ADHD care were examined. Parent- and teacher-rating scales were used during ADHD assessment with approximately half of patients. The use of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria was documented in 70.4% of patients. The vast majority (93.4%) of patients with ADHD were receiving medication and only 13.0% were receiving psychosocial treatment. Parent- and teacher-ratings were rarely collected to monitor treatment response or side effects. Further, fewer than half (47.4%) of children prescribed medication had contact with their pediatrician within the first month of prescribing. Most variability in pediatrician-delivered ADHD care was accounted for at the patient level; however, pediatricians and practices also accounted for significant variability on specific ADHD care behaviors. There is great need to improve the quality of ADHD care received by children in community-based pediatric settings. Improvements will likely require systematic interventions at the practice and policy levels to promote change. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Asherson, Philip; Belsky, Daniel W; Corcoran, David L; Hammerle, Maggie; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Meier, Madeline; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Caspi, Avshalom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite a prevailing assumption that adult ADHD is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, no prospective-longitudinal study has described the childhoods of the adult-ADHD population. We report follow-back analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in adulthood, alongside follow-forward analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in childhood, in one cohort. Method Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-73 and followed to age 38, with 95% retention. Symptoms of ADHD, associated clinical features, comorbid disorders, neuropsychological deficits, GWAS-derived polygenic risk, and life impairment indicators were assessed. Data sources were participants, parents, teachers, informants, neuropsychological testing, and administrative records. Adult ADHD diagnoses used DSM5 criteria, apart from onset-age and cross-setting corroboration, which were study outcomes. Results As expected, the childhood-ADHD group showed 6% prevalence, male excess, childhood comorbid disorders, neurocognitive deficits, polygenic risk, and, despite having outgrown their ADHD diagnosis, residual adult life impairment. As expected, the adult-ADHD group showed 3% prevalence, gender balance, adult substance dependence, adult life impairment, and treatment contact. Unexpectedly, the childhood-ADHD and adult-ADHD groups comprised virtually non-overlapping sets; 90% of adult-ADHD cases lacked a history of childhood ADHD. Also unexpectedly, the adult-ADHD group did not show tested neuropsychological deficits in childhood or adulthood, nor did they show polygenic risk for childhood ADHD. Conclusion Findings raise the possibility that adults presenting with the ADHD symptom picture may not have a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. If this finding is replicated, then the disorder's place in the classification system must be reconsidered, and research must investigate the etiology of adult ADHD. PMID:25998281

  20. ADHD, circadian rhythms and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynchank, Dora S; Bijlenga, Denise; Lamers, Femke; Bron, Tannetje I; Winthorst, Wim H; Vogel, Suzan W; Penninx, Brenda W; Beekman, Aartjan T; Kooij, J Sandra

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated whether the association between Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) was mediated by the circadian rhythm. Data of 2239 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. Two groups were compared: with clinically significant ADHD symptoms (N = 175) and with No ADHD symptoms (N = 2064). Sleep parameters were sleep-onset and offset times, mid sleep and sleep duration from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. We identified the prevalence of probable SAD and subsyndromal SAD using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Clinically significant ADHD symptoms were identified by using a T score>65 on the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale. The prevalence of probable SAD was estimated at 9.9% in the ADHD group (vs. 3.3% in the No ADHD group) and of probable s-SAD at 12.5% in the ADHD group (vs 4.6% in the No ADHD group). Regression analyses showed consistently significant associations between ADHD symptoms and probable SAD, even after adjustment for current depression and anxiety, age, sex, education, use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines (B = 1.81, p < 0.001). Late self-reported sleep onset was an important mediator in the significant relationship between ADHD symptoms and probable SAD, even after correction for confounders (total model effects: B = 0.14, p ≤ 0.001). Both seasonal and circadian rhythm disturbances are significantly associated with ADHD symptoms. Delayed sleep onset time in ADHD may explain the increase in SAD symptoms. Treating patients with SAD for possible ADHD and delayed sleep onset time may reduce symptom severity in these complex patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Een twee-trajectenmodel voor de ontwikkeling van anti-sociaal gedrag bij kinderen met ADHD. / A two-track model for the development of antisocial behavior in children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.M. Prins; E. Gebhardt

    1997-01-01

    Describes a model based on 2 developmental pathways which both result in the comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). It is suggested that disruptive behavior in preschool children can be differentiated according to aggressive and non-aggressive probl

  2. A review of the economic burden of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramore Clark

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common disorder that is associated with broad functional impairment among both children and adults. The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize available literature on the economic costs of ADHD, as well as potential economic benefits of treating this condition. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE to identify all published articles on the economic implications of ADHD, and authors were contacted to locate conference abstracts and articles in press that were not yet indexed. In total, 22 relevant items were located including published original studies, economic review articles, conference presentations, and reports available on the Internet. All costs were updated and presented in terms of year 2004 US dollars. A growing body of literature, primarily published in the United States, has demonstrated that ADHD places a substantial economic burden on patients, families, and third-party payers. Results of the medical cost studies consistently indicated that children with ADHD had higher annual medical costs than either matched controls (difference ranged from $503 to $1,343 or non-matched controls (difference ranged from $207 to $1,560 without ADHD. Two studies of adult samples found similar results, with significantly higher annual medical costs among adults with ADHD (ranging from $4,929 to $5,651 than among matched controls (ranging from $1,473 to $2,771. A limited number of studies have examined other economic implications of ADHD including costs to families; costs of criminality among individuals with ADHD; costs related to common psychiatric and medical comorbidities of ADHD; indirect costs associated with work loss among adults with ADHD; and costs of accidents among individuals with ADHD. Treatment cost-effectiveness studies have primarily focused on methylphenidate, which is a cost-effective treatment option with cost-effectiveness ratios ranging from $15

  3. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

  4. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  5. Adult ADHD: Risk Factor for Dementia or Phenotypic Mimic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy L. Callahan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has historically been considered a disorder of childhood and adolescence. However, it is now recognized that ADHD symptoms persist into adulthood in up to 60% of individuals. Some of the cognitive symptoms that characterize ADHD (inability to provide sustained attention or mental effort, difficulty organizing or multi-tasking, forgetfulness may closely resemble symptoms of prodromal dementia, also often referred to as mild cognitive impairment (MCI, particularly in patients over age 50. In addition to the overlap in cognitive symptoms, adults with ADHD and those with MCI may also share a number of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms, including sleep disturbances, depression, and anxiety. As a result, both syndromes may be difficult to distinguish clinically in older patients, particularly those who present to memory clinics with subjective cognitive complaints and fear the onset of a neurodegenerative process: is it ADHD, MCI, or both? Currently, it is unclear whether ADHD is associated with incipient dementia or is being misdiagnosed as MCI due to symptom overlap, as there exist data supporting either possibility. Here, we aim to elucidate this issue by outlining three hypothetical ways in which ADHD and MCI might relate to each other, providing an overview of the evidence relevant to each hypothesis, and delineating areas for future research. This is a question of considerable importance, with implications for improved diagnostic specificity of early dementia, improved accuracy of disease prevalence estimates, and better identification of individuals for targeted treatment.

  6. Prevalence of dental caries among preschool children in Shanghe County of Shandong Province and relevant prevention and treatment strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Xiao-hong; LI Da-lu; HUANG Yi; CHEN Hui; SUN Ruo-peng

    2008-01-01

    Background Decayed teeth are harmful to children's growth and development and can severely jeopardize their health.This study was set out to investigate and analyze the prevalence of dental caries in preschool children in Shanghe County in Shandong Province,China,and provide new insights into potential prevention and treatment strategies.Methods Based on the random sampling method,we performed dental examinations of children aged 2 to 6 years in kindergartens of Shanghe County.The prevalence of caries,the average number of decayed teeth per capita as well as the constituent rates of decayed,missing and filled teeth were determined retrospectively.SPSS software was used for data analysis.Results Dental caries were found in 1088 out of 2052 children from 56 kindergartens.The total number of decayed teeth was 4487 with a prevalence of 53.02%.The average number of decayed teeth per capita was 2.187,and the filling rate was 0.29%.There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of caries between boys and girls though there were significant differences between different age groups.The prevalence of decayed teeth as well as the mean number of decayed teeth infected per capita increased with age.In addition,urban children had a higher prevalence than those from rural areas (P <0.01).Conclusions The prevalence of decayed caries among kindergarten children in Shanghe County was high,suggesting that more emphasis should be put on improving oral health education with priority given to prevention.Further efforts should be made to increase the decayed caries filling rate.

  7. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many uncertainties remain in the diagnosis and treatment of preschool children with asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the subgroups of preschool children (aged 12-47 months) with recurrent asthma symptoms most likely to respond to inhaled fluticasone propionate (200...... the management of preschool children with recurrent asthma symptoms....

  8. Developmental aspects of ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J. van

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder, both in its clinical presentation (phenotype) and the underlying aetiology. This heterogeneity makes it difficult to identify causal pathways that link the phenotype to brain structure and functioning. In an attempt to go beyond th

  9. Cognitive endophenotypes of ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine Ida Elise

    2003-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is an impairing childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder, highly influenced by (multi)genetic factors. The precise genetic constellation of ADHD is still unknown. Since it is increasingly recognized that the traditional nosological categories described in th

  10. Cortical Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Grey-matter abnormalities at the cortical surface and regional brain size were mapped by high-resolution MRI and surface-based, computational image analytical techniques in a group of 27 children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and 46 controls, matched by age and sex, at the University of California at Los Angeles.

  11. ADHD & Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH and clonidine (CLON, alone and in combination, in 136 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and chronic tic disorder, was evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, and reported by the Tourette Syndrome Study Group from the University of Rochester, NY.

  12. The presence of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses high quality register-data to study the spillover effects on firstborns from having a younger sibling suffering from ADHD. Using OLS and cousin fixed effects analyses it is found that the educational outcomes of healthy firstborn children are significantly reduced by the presence...

  13. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

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    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  14. Cognitive behaviour therapy in medication-treated adults with ADHD and persistent Symptoms: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarsson Emil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adulthood is not fully treated by psychopharmacological treatment alone. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate a newly developed cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT based group programme, the Reasoning and Rehabilitation for ADHD Youths and Adults (R&R2ADHD, using a randomized controlled trial. Methods 54 adults with ADHD already receiving psychopharmacological treatment were randomly allocated to an experimental (CBT/MED treatment condition (n = 27 and a 'treatment as usual' (TAU/MED control condition (n = 27 that did not receive the CBT intervention. The outcome measures were obtained before treatment (baseline, after treatment and at three month follow-up and included ADHD symptoms and impairments rated by independent assessors, self-reported current ADHD symptoms, and comorbid problems. Results The findings suggested medium to large treatment effects for ADHD symptoms, which increased further at three month follow-up. Additionally, comorbid problems also improved at follow-up with large effect sizes. Conclusions The findings give support for the effectiveness of R&R2ADHD in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid problems, an improving functions associated with impairment. The implications are that the benefits of R&R2ADHD are multifaceted and that combined psychopharmacological and CBT based treatments may add to and improve pharmacological interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000533998 (http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12611000533998.aspx

  15. Changes in body water distribution during treatment with inhaled steroid in pre-school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Anhøj, Jacob; Bisgaard, A M

    2004-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine the changes in water distribution in the soft tissue during systemic steroid activity. RESEARCH DESIGN: A three-way cross-over, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was used, including 4 weeks of fluticasone propionate pMDI 200 microg b....... At the end of each treatment period body impedance and skin ultrasonography were measured. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We measured changes in water content of the soft tissues by two methods. Skin ultrasonography was used to detect small changes in dermal water content, and bioelectrical impedance was used...... to assess body water content and distribution. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: We found an increase in skin density of the shin from fluticasone as measured by ultrasonography (p = 0.01). There was a tendency for a consistent elevation of impedance parameters from active treatments compared to placebo although...

  16. Current Approach to Treatment and Follow-Up of Pre-School Children with Wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Uysal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbations of wheezing or airway hyperreactivity in early years of life might be the first sign of developing asthma. Therefore, management of these children is important. The first and the most important step of the management is the primary prevention against asthma with education of the patient and his caregivers. In acute exacerbation of wheezing the most preferred treatment should be β2-agonists for both of the episodic and multi-trigger wheezing. Bronchodilators provide symptomatic relief in acute wheezy episodes but the evidence for oral steroid usage is contraversial for children. Parent initiated oral steroid courses cannot be recommended. Although maintenance treatment with low to moderate continuous inhaled corticosteroids (ICS in pure episodic (viral wheeze is ineffective, it has beneficial effects in multi-trigger wheezing.High dose ICS used intermittently are effective in children with both of the wheezing types, but this is associated with short term effects on growth and cannot be recommended as a routine. Leucotrien receptor antagonists (LTRA might be recommended as continuous treatment for children with multi-trigger wheezing. Antihistamines, ketotifen and cromolyns do not have a role in management of wheezing in children. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2012; 10: 98-102

  17. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  18. ECOLOGICAL THERAPY AS CORRECTIONAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ELEMENT OF INTEGRATED APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF LOGONEUROSIS AMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kalashnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available . The aims of the publication are: to analyse domestic experience of education and training of preschool children with logoneurosis; to designate the causes and displays of this disease; to define the problems arising through organization of correctional work in preschool institution taking into account modern requirements of the Russian legislation and climatic features of regions; to present a possible version of the solution of these problems.Methods. The methods of theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific, methodical publications, and legislative base on a problem of correctional work on stuttering among preschool children are used.Results and scientific novelty. The authors’ program of additional education with the correctional elements «Ecotherapy for Children at the age of 5–7 years with Logoneurosis» developed by the staff of the Ecotherapy Laboratory of the Polar Alpine Botanical Garden – Institute named after N. A. Avrorin is described in the publication. The program complies with the modern requirements of Federal State Educational Standard of preschool education and is focused on tutors and speech language therapists of correctional groups and logocentres. In the course of mastering the program, a child by means of a game at once joins in search-investigative activity in the field of biology and ecology with visualization of an ultimate goal and obligatory practical material realization of results of work. From the point of view of medical expediency, the program has included the special breathing and relaxation exercises which are picked up for the lesson topic. The efficiency of a combination in correctional pedagogics of standard logopedic methods and the practise with nonconventional methods of art-, garden-, and animal-assisted therapy is confirmed. Special relevance of the proposed techniques and methods in the conditions of the Polar region (the region, wherein during the period of an exit from polar night

  19. Effects of Once-Daily Oral and Transdermal Methylphenidate on Sleep Behavior of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Lopez, Frank A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Findling, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is a leading first-line treatment for ADHD (AD/HD). This stimulant has long been suspected to adversely affect sleeping patterns of treated individuals, especially children. There are few studies on the effects of recently developed longer-acting methylphenidate treatments, such as once-daily oral or transdermal…

  20. Are GPs adequately equipped with the knowledge for educating and counseling of families with ADHD children?

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei Nabi; Ghanizadeh Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common child psychiatry disorders. General physicians (GP), as primary care providers, can have an important role in screening and treatment of ADHD. This study aimed to survey GPs' knowledge, attitude, and their views of their role in the screening, diagnosing and managing children with ADHD. Methods Six hundred and sixty five general physicians in Shiraz, Iran, answered a self-reported questionnaire on ADHD. The...

  1. Toepasbaarheid en effectiviteit van mindfulnesstraining bij volwassenen met AD(H)D; een open pilotonderzoek [Feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness training in adults with ADHD: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hepark, S.; Kan, C.C.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that often continues into adulthood. Stimulant medication is the common treatment for ADHD. However, there is a need for psychosocial interventions in addition to medication. AIM: To conduct a pilot study which e

  2. Are GPs adequately equipped with the knowledge for educating and counseling of families with ADHD children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei Nabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common child psychiatry disorders. General physicians (GP, as primary care providers, can have an important role in screening and treatment of ADHD. This study aimed to survey GPs' knowledge, attitude, and their views of their role in the screening, diagnosing and managing children with ADHD. Methods Six hundred and sixty five general physicians in Shiraz, Iran, answered a self-reported questionnaire on ADHD. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding socio-demographic characteristics such as age, the duration of practice as a GP, marital status, general knowledge about ADHD, and the management of ADHD. Results Less than half of them believed that they have adequate knowledge and information about this disorder. They usually do not like to be the primary care providers for children with ADHD. The majority of them prefer to refer the children to related specialists, mostly psychiatrists or psychologists. More than one third of them believed that sugar is a cause of ADHD. Only 6.6% of them reported that ADHD persists for the whole life. Their knowledge about methylphenidate is reasonable. Conclusions As many other countries worldwide, the knowledge of GPs about ADHD should be improved. They do not asses and manage children with probable ADHD by themselves without referring to related professionals. They do not opt for the use of methylphenidate.

  3. The beneficial effect of methylphenidate in ADHD with comorbid separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Golubchik, Lilya; Sever, Jonathan M; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the response of subsyndromal separation anxiety (SSSA) symptoms to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A group of patients with ADHD and SSSA (n=42), aged 8-17 years, received 12 weeks of MPH treatment. The severity of SSSA symptoms was assessed using appropriate scales including the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and the specially designed Child and Adolescent Separation Anxiety Scale (CASAS). The severity of ADHD symptoms was assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale. The severity of ADHD and separation anxiety reduced significantly and significant positive correlations were found between the changes in ADHD Rating Scale and the total CASAS scores (P=0.012), as well as other relevant subscales of Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and CASAS. The MPH-related attenuation in the severity of ADHD was associated with a corresponding improvement in separation anxiety related to school. SSSA symptomatology may be secondary to ADHD and thus the alleviation in ADHD symptoms achieved by MPH treatment results in corresponding relief in separation anxiety.

  4. The role of maternal and child ADHD symptoms in shaping interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-04-01

    The current study investigated the influence of maternal ADHD symptoms on: (a) mothers' own social functioning; (b) their child's social functioning; and (c) parent-child interactions following a lab-based playgroup involving children and their peers. Participants were 103 biological mothers of children ages 6-10. Approximately half of the children had ADHD, and the remainder were comparison youth. After statistical control of children's ADHD diagnostic status and mothers' educational attainment, mothers' own inattentive ADHD symptoms predicted poorer self-reported social skills. Children with ADHD were reported to have more social problems by parents and teachers, as well as received fewer positive sociometric nominations from playgroup peers relative to children without ADHD. After control of child ADHD status, higher maternal inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity each predicted children having more parent-reported social problems; maternal inattention predicted children receiving more negative sociometric nominations from playgroup peers. There were interactions between maternal ADHD symptoms and children's ADHD diagnostic status in predicting some child behaviors and parent-child relationship measures. Specifically, maternal inattention was associated with decreased prosocial behavior for children without ADHD, but did not influence the prosocial behavior of children with ADHD. Maternal inattention was associated with mothers' decreased corrective feedback and, at a trend level, decreased irritability toward their children with ADHD, but there was no relationship between maternal inattention and maternal behaviors for children without ADHD. A similar pattern was observed for maternal hyperactivity/impulsivity and mothers' observed irritability towards their children. Treatment implications of findings are discussed.

  5. Validity and clinical feasibility of the ADHD rating scale (ADHD-RS) A Danish Nationwide Multicenter Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szomlaiski, N; Dyrborg, J; Rasmussen, H

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To establish the validity of a Danish version of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), secondly to present national norm scores compared to that of United States and other European data and thirdly to evaluate ADHD-RS when used for monitoring treatment...... clinical standards. The HKD children were rated by parents and teachers at baseline and at follow-up 3 months later. Results: Internal validity of ADHD-RS was high and the factor structure supported the diagnostic classification system ICD-10. The questionnaire discriminated HKD patients in a mixed...... effectiveness. Methods: A Danish translation of the ADHD-RS was used on a normative sample of 837 children. Two clinical samples, 138 hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) cases and 110 clinical controls were recruited from eleven Danish Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH) centres and assessed according to usual...

  6. Is ADHD an early stage in the development of borderline personality disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies report associations between adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. Aims: To explore the association between BPD and a history of ADHD in childhood. Method: A comprehensive search...... seems to give a synergic effect, reinforce the other or complicate the disorders. In one prospective study, the risk factor for children with ADHD to develop BPD was as high as odds ratio 13.16. No studies have looked at treatment of ADHD as a mediator of the risk for BPD. Conclusions: Many studies......: Most of the 15 articles showed a statistical association between ADHD and BPD. The data, most strongly provided a basis for the hypotheses that ADHD is either an early developmental stage of BPD, or that the two disorders share an environmental and genetic aetiology. Furthermore, one of the disorders...

  7. The severity of ADHD and eating disorder symptoms: a correlational study

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    Stulz Niklaus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD and eating disorders (ED share several clinical features. Research on the association between ADHD and ED is still quite sparse and findings are ambiguous. Methods Correlations between the severity of ADHD key features (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Self-Rating questionnaire and the severity of specific ED symptoms (Structured Interview for Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa were examined in 32 female patients diagnosed with ED. Results Most correlations between the severity of ADHD features and the severity of ED symptoms were low (r Conclusions The findings in this small sample suggest a weak link between the severity of ADHD key features and the severity of single ED symptoms in female patients with ED. The role of ADHD features for the development, maintenance, and treatment of EDs seems to be intricate and requires further study.

  8. [Mindfulness-based intervention in attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedeler, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mindfulness means paying attention and being aware of the experiences occurring in the present moment, and it is usually developed by the practice of meditation. Research shows that mindfulness training is associated with improved attention systems and self-regulation, and that it therefore fosters those skills that are underdeveloped in individuals with ADHD. Although only few studies have investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness training in ADHD (many of which showing methodological limitations), the findings do suggest that mindfulness may be useful in ADHD interventions.

  9. Efficacy of ADHD Coaching for Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Joyce A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This is perhaps the first outcome study on the efficacy of ADHD coaching for adults with ADHD and its long-term effect. Method: Forty-five adults (30 women, 15 men) rated 22 areas of concern before and after the coaching experience. Factor analysis of the 22 areas of concern revealed five factors. Descriptive statistics and…

  10. The Cheshire Cat Enigma: Emotion Recognition Abilities of Preschool Boys with and without Hyperactivity and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the emotion recognition abilities of preschoolers with and without hyperactivity and aggression. Previous research identified that school age children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have more difficulty understanding facial expressions associated with emotions, take longer than their age-matched peers…

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirvikoski Tatja

    2010-12-01

    and coexisting disorders, such as SUD, ASD, personality disorders, mood- and anxiety disorders, severely affected prison inmates with ADHD. Besides, inmates showed poorer executive functions also when controlling for estimated IQ compared with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and controls. Our findings imply the need for considering these severities when designing treatment programmes for prison inmates with ADHD.

  12. Maternal Responsiveness as a Predictor of Self-Regulation Development and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms Across Preschool Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Schloß, Susan; Becker, Katja

    2017-04-12

    Preschool-age "hot" executive function capacity (i.e. reward-related effortful control) represents an early kind of self-regulation that is involved in social adjustment development as well as the development of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early self-regulation development might be malleable by responsive parenting. We analyzed whether maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicts reward-related control (RRC) development within the preschool period, and whether RRC mediates a negative link between maternal responsiveness and ADHD symptoms. A sample of 125 preschoolers and their families were seen at the ages of 4 and 5 years. Maternal responsiveness/sensitivity was assessed via home observations, RRC by neuropsychological tasks, and ADHD symptoms by a structured clinical parent interview. Maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicted RRC development. The negative link between maternal responsiveness/sensitivity at 4 years and ADHD symptoms at 5 years was mediated by RRC performance at 5 years. Preschoolers showing ADHD symptoms combined with low RRC capacity in particular might benefit from responsive/sensitive parenting.

  13. [The epidemiology of ADHD in first-year university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, P; Demyttenaere, K; Nock, M K; Green, J G; Kessler, R C; Bruffaerts, R

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in university students. To investigate the prevalence of adult ADHD and comorbid psychiatric symptoms and their effect on the academic performance of first-year university students, and to find out to what extent these students make use of the mental health services of the university. All first-year students at the University of Leuven in Belgium were asked to complete a computer-assisted survey with a weighted cross-sectional design (n=4,921, response rate=65.4%). The ADHD of these students was measured with the help of the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-6). On the basis of the threshold used, we found that between 1.4 and 8.3% of the entire population of first-year students met the criteria for ADHD. Even after controlling for sociodemographic variables, we found that ADHD was associated with a wide range of emotional problems including suicide attempts (OR=9.10; Cohen's d=0.53), binge eating (OR=5.87; Cohen's d=0.42), or psychotic symptoms (ORS 4.44-4.69; Cohen's d=0.36-0.37). Students with ADHD were 2.46-3.84 times more likely to have a total grading percentage below 50 at the end of the academic year. Current use and lifetime use of the professional mental health services were estimated in the 7.6-15.5% and 26.5-41.5% range, respectively. Adult ADHD is common among first-year university students and is associated with comorbid psychiatric symptoms and poor academic performance. It is therefore surprising that so few students actually receive treatment for their psychiatric and emotional problems.

  14. Premarket safety and efficacy studies for ADHD medications in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence T Bourgeois

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing.We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug's clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials.A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419. Eleven drugs (55% were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70% after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9, with 5 (38% drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77% after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed.Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved.

  15. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth.

  16. Sociomoral Reasoning in Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Thomason

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is frequently linked with antisocial behaviour, yet less is known about its relationship with sociomoral reasoning, and the possible mediating effect of intelligence. A pilot study was designed to investigate the relationship between antisocial personality traits, intelligence and sociomoral reasoning in adults with ADHD. Twenty two adults with ADHD and 21 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and IQ completed a battery of measures including the National Adult Reading Test, Gough Socialisation Scale and Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form. There was no difference between the groups and levels of sociomoral reasoning, despite the ADHD group reporting greater antisocial personality traits. Sociomoral reasoning was positively correlated with intelligence. Results from a hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that both antisocial traits and IQ were significant predictors of sociomoral reasoning, with IQ proving the most powerful predictor. Whilst antisocial personality traits may explain some of the variance in levels of sociomoral reasoning, a diagnosis of ADHD does not appear to hinder the development of mature moral reasoning. Intellectual functioning appears to facilitate the development of sociomoral reasoning. A further analysis showed that both ADHD and low sociomoral reasoning were significant predictors of antisocial traits. The current findings have important treatment implications.

  17. ADHD: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscome, Jennifer; Cunningham, Teddi; Kelley, Heather; Brown, Caitlyn

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of ADHD and to provide evidence-based training interventions for school counselors. An overview of basic information about ADHD will be provided, including diagnosis, presentation, causes, prevalence, and common misconceptions. Evidence-based training…

  18. Experiences of ADHD in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    an ADHD diagnosis” examines the formative process of getting an ADHD diagnosis and how individuals diagnosed with ADHD use the diagnosis as a part of a self-evaluative and self-constitutive project. The article illustrates how a diagnosis offers a certain narrative, into which the individual’s life......, of maintaining friendships, and of being accepted. The thesis is organized into ten parts: six chapters that set the introductory frame, three articles about adults’ experiences of ADHD, and finally a conclusion. In the first six chapters, the thesis presents different sociological, historical, and psychiatric...... diagnosed with ADHD involves changes on the individual’s self-understandings as well as ambivalence towards the diagnosis. Finally, a description of the theoretical, methodological and methodical background of the study is presented. The first article ”Structuring the self: moral implications of getting...

  19. Psychiatric disorders in preschoolers: the structure of DSM-IV symptoms and profiles of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders have been increasingly recognized in preschool children; at present, however, we know comparatively less about how well current diagnostic manuals capture the symptoms described in this age group and how comorbidity is patterned. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether the symptoms defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) load on their respective disorders, examine whether individual symptoms exist that load particularly high or low on the disorder they allegedly define, and analyze how comorbidity clusters in individual children. Parents of a community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds (N = 995) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a latent profile analysis (LPA) were performed on the symptoms of seven DSM disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, and separation anxiety disorder. The results showed that the CFA solution that closely resembled the disorders delineated in the DSM-IV fitted the data best. However, vegetative symptoms did not define preschool depression. The LPA identified nine symptom profiles among preschoolers, of which four showed evidence of psychopathology: comorbid MDD/GAD ? ADHD combined type, comorbid MDD/GAD ? ADHD hyperactive/impulsive type, separation anxiety only, and social phobia only. In conclusion, the symptoms observed in preschoolers fit the DSM-IV well, and comorbidity followed specific patterns.

  20. Effects of a Psychosocial Intervention on the Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, M. Jesus; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Jara, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an intensive psychosocial intervention on the executive functioning (EF) in children with ADHD. The treatment was carried out in a coordinated manner over a period of 10 weeks with 27 children with ADHD aged 7 to 10, their parents, and their teachers. A battery of neuropsychological tasks was…

  1. Research on atomoxetine in Dutch ASD/ADHD children : The RADAR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harfterkamp, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequently present in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In her study Myriam Harfterkamp showed that atomoxetine appears to be a promising treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents with ASD. Atomoxetine was superior to

  2. The Importance of ADHD Subtype Classification for Educational Applications of "DSM-V"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Lucy; Stevens, Tara; To, Yen M.; Lan, William Y.; Mulsow, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Objective: An examination of the academic achievement of children with ADHD by stimulant treatment status must consider this heterogeneity of the disorder. With the dissemination of the final wave of data, the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study presents an opportunity to examine the academic achievement of students with ADHD using a…

  3. ADHD and Attention Problems in Children With and Without Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Alison M.; Stern, Alexa; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify differences in the diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between typically developing children and children with spina bifida. Method: Sixty-eight children with spina bifida and 68 demographically matched, typically developing children participated in a larger, longitudinal study. Rates of maternal, paternal, and teacher reports of attention problems, as well as rates of maternal reports of ADHD diagnosis, diagnosing provider, pharmaceutical treatment, mental health treatment, and academic accommodations were obtained at 5 time points over a period of 8 years and were compared across groups. Results: Children with spina bifida were more likely to have an ADHD diagnosis and attention problems. Attention problems and ADHD diagnoses were first reported at earlier time points for children with spina bifida than typically developing children. Among children with ADHD or attention problems, children with spina bifida were more likely to be treated with medication, but they were just as likely to use mental health services and receive resource services at school. Conclusions: Children with spina bifida were diagnosed with ADHD and identified as having attention problems more frequently and at an earlier age. This finding could be due to earlier symptom development, greater parental awareness, or more contact with providers. Among those with ADHD or attention problems, stimulant medication was more likely to be prescribed to children with spina bifida, despite research that suggests it may not be as beneficial for them. Further research on the effectiveness of ADHD pharmacological treatment for children with spina bifida is recommended.

  4. Once-daily medications for the pharmacological management of ADHD in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg v Tcheremissine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Oleg v Tcheremissine1, Lori M Lieving21Department of Psychiatry, Behavioral Health Center – Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA; 2Carolinas College of Health Sciences, Charlotte, NC, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Symptoms of ADHD often persist beyond childhood and present significant challenges to adults. Pharmacotherapy is a first-line treatment option for ADHD across all age groups. The current review’s goals are (a to critically examine the current state of knowledge regarding once-daily formulations of pharmacotherapies for treatment of adults with ADHD and (b to provide clinicians with evidence-based information regarding the safety, efficacy and tolerability of once-daily medications for adult ADHD. The reviewed body of evidence strongly supports the use of pharmacotherapy as a first-line therapeutic option for the treatment of adults with ADHD. The once-daily pharmacological agents are effective therapeutic options for the treatment of adults with ADHD. In the US, based on the available evidence, once-daily medications are currently underutilized in adults with ADHD compared to pediatric population.Keywords: adults, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, once-daily pharmacotherapies

  5. Is ADHD Diagnosed in Accord with Diagnostic Criteria? Overdiagnosis and Influence of Client Gender on Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchmuller, Katrin; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Unresolved questions exist concerning diagnosis of ADHD. First, some studies suggest a potential overdiagnosis. Second, compared with the male-female ratio in the general population (3:1), many more boys receive ADHD treatment compared with girls (6-9:1). We hypothesized that this occurs because therapists do not adhere to "Diagnostic…

  6. Personalized Medicine in ADHD and Depression: Use of Pharmaco-EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arns, M.W.; Olbrich, S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter summarises recent developments on personalised medicine in psychiatry with a focus on ADHD and depression and their associated biomarkers and phenotypes. Several neurophysiological subtypes in ADHD and depression and their relation to treatment outcome are reviewed. The first important

  7. Research on atomoxetine in Dutch ASD/ADHD children : The RADAR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harfterkamp, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequently present in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In her study Myriam Harfterkamp showed that atomoxetine appears to be a promising treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents with ASD. Atomoxetine was superior to

  8. Educational Practitioners' Beliefs and Conceptualisation about the Cause of ADHD: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Moore, Darren A.; Ford, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Educational practitioners play an important role in the referral and treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to explore how educational practitioners conceptualise their beliefs about the causes of symptoms of ADHD. Method: Forty-one educational practitioners from schools in the…

  9. Methylphenidate and Play Skills in Children with Intellectual Disability and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Sagady, Amie E.; McAuliffe-Bellin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 9-12% of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Although psychostimulant medication is often the primary treatment modality, little is known regarding the effects of such agents on social interactions and play in this population. Additionally, the role of ADHD symptoms in social and…

  10. Methylphenidate significantly reduces lapses of attention during on-road highway driving in patients with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lapses of attention are characteristic for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as such may impair performance of daily activities. Data from an on-road driving study were reanalyzed to determine lapses in patients with ADHD after treatment with methylphenidate and placebo.A total of

  11. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep, Behavior, and Cognition in ADHD and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Smits, Marcel G.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on sleep, behavior, cognition, and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia. Method: A total of 105 medication-free children, ages 6 to 12 years, with rigorously diagnosed ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia…

  12. Enhancing Traditional Behavioral Parent Training for Single Mothers of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Pelham, William E.; Swanger-Gagne, Michelle S.; Girio, Erin; Pirvics, Lauma; Herbst, Laura; Guzzo, Jamie; Phillips, Carlie; O'Connor, Briannon

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral parent training is an efficacious treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, single-mother households are at high risk for poor outcomes during and following behavioral parent training. This study randomly assigned cohorts of 120 single mothers of children (ages 5-12 years) with ADHD to a waitlist control…

  13. Enhancing Traditional Behavioral Parent Training for Single Mothers of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Pelham, William E.; Swanger-Gagne, Michelle S.; Girio, Erin; Pirvics, Lauma; Herbst, Laura; Guzzo, Jamie; Phillips, Carlie; O'Connor, Briannon

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral parent training is an efficacious treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, single-mother households are at high risk for poor outcomes during and following behavioral parent training. This study randomly assigned cohorts of 120 single mothers of children (ages 5-12 years) with ADHD to a waitlist control…

  14. Is ADHD Diagnosed in Accord with Diagnostic Criteria? Overdiagnosis and Influence of Client Gender on Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchmuller, Katrin; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Unresolved questions exist concerning diagnosis of ADHD. First, some studies suggest a potential overdiagnosis. Second, compared with the male-female ratio in the general population (3:1), many more boys receive ADHD treatment compared with girls (6-9:1). We hypothesized that this occurs because therapists do not adhere to "Diagnostic…

  15. Differential associations of early callous-unemotional, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors: multiple domains within early-starting conduct problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W; Grabell, Adam S; Alves, Martha L; Olson, Sheryl L

    2015-06-01

    Early-starting child conduct problems (CP) are linked to the development of persistent antisocial behavior. Researchers have theorized multiple pathways to CP and that CP comprise separable domains, marked by callous-unemotional (CU) behavior, oppositional behavior, or ADHD symptoms. However, a lack of empirical evidence exists from studies that have examined whether there are unique correlates of these domains. We examined differential correlates of CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors during the preschool years to test their potentially distinct nomological networks. Multimethod data, including parent and teacher reports and observations of child behavior, were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of children assessed at age 3 and age 6 (N = 240; 48% female). Dimensions of CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors were separable within Confirmatory Factor Analyses across mother and father reports. There were differential associations between CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors and socioemotional, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes: CU behavior was uniquely related to lower moral regulation, guilt, and empathy. ADHD was uniquely related to lower attentional focusing and observed effortful control. Finally, CU behavior uniquely predicted increases in teacher-reported externalizing from ages 3-6 over and above covariates, and ADHD and oppositional behavior. Consistent with theory, dimensions of CU, ADHD, and oppositional behavior demonstrated separable nomological networks representing separable facets within early-starting CP. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  17. ADHD in childhood epilepsy: Clinical determinants of severity and of the response to methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheims, Sylvain; Herbillon, Vania; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Auvin, Stéphane; Napuri, Silvia; Cances, Claude; Berquin, Patrick; Castelneau, Pierre; Nguyen The Tich, Sylvie; Villega, Frédéric; Isnard, Hervé; Nabbout, Rima; Gaillard, Ségolène; Mercier, Catherine; Kassai, Behrouz; Arzimanoglou, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly observed in children with epilepsy. However, factors associated with the development of ADHD and which might help to guide its therapeutic management, remain an issue of debate. We conducted a multicenter prospective observational study that included children, aged 6-16 years, with both epilepsy and ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. After inclusion, patients entered a 12-16 week follow-up period during which they were either treated with methylphenidate or they did not receive specific ADHD treatment. ADHD was evaluated with the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. One hundred sixty-seven patients were included, of which 91 were seizure-free during the preinclusion baseline period. At inclusion, the ADHD Rating Scale-IV total score was 30.4 ± (standard deviation) 9.2, the inattentive subscore was 17.3 ± 4.4, and the hyperactive subscore was 13.2 ± 6.6. We did not detect any difference of ADHD Rating Scale-IV scores across patients' age or gender, age at epilepsy onset, epilepsy syndrome, seizure frequency, or number of ongoing antiepileptic drugs. Methylphenidate was initiated in 61 patients, including 55 in whom a follow-up evaluation was available. At the last follow-up, 41 patients (75%) treated with methylphenidate and 39 (42%) of those who did not received ADHD therapy demonstrated ≥25% decrease of ADHD Rating Scale-IV total score (p < 0.001). Response to methylphenidate was greater in girls but was not influenced by any epilepsy-related variables. We did not detect any epilepsy-related factor associated with the severity of ADHD. Twenty-five percent of patients did not respond to methylphenidate. A better understanding of the pathologic process that underlies ADHD development in childhood epilepsy might be required to improve therapeutic strategies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Self-esteem evaluation in children and adolescents suffering from ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Luigi; Postorino, Valentina; Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mannino, Valeria; Armando, Marco; Fatta, Laura; De Peppo, Lavinia; Vicari, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies investigated the relationship between self-esteem and ADHD, however, the results are still controversial. In the present study we analyze the characteristics of self-esteem in a sample of children and adolescents suffering from ADHD, with a particular focus on the relationship between ADHD symptoms severity and treatment strategies. A total of 85 patients with ADHD (44 drug-free and 41 drug-treated, 23 of which atomoxetine-treated and 18 Methylphenidate-treated) and 26 healthy controls were enrolled in the study in order to evaluate self-esteem using the Self-esteem Multidimensional Test (TMA). ADHD subjects revealed lower scores on all self-esteem domains compared to controls. Both ADHD drug-free (47.1%) and ADHD drug-treated (44.1%) groups showed significantly higher rates of subjects in the pathological range as compared to normal control group (8.8%) (p self-esteem scores as compared to the atomoxetine group. A lower self-esteem profile is more common in subjects suffering from ADHD than in healthy controls, suggesting the importance of an early detection of psychological well-being in these children in order to reduce the ADHD symptoms long-term impacts.

  19. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. METHODOLOGY: A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering 'trace' as negative (t-, and single CCA with 'trace' as positive (t+, was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t- as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t- or CCA(t+ was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t- and CCA(t+ was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are warranted

  20. Accuracy of Urine Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in Preschool-Aged Children before and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; N'Gbesso, Yves K.; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Guessan, Nicaise A.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; van Dam, Govert J.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. Methodology A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years) submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. Principal Findings Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering ‘trace’ as negative (t−), and single CCA with ‘trace’ as positive (t+), was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t−)) as diagnostic ‘gold’ standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t−) or CCA(t+) was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t−) and CCA(t+) was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04). Conclusions/Significance A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are

  1. The quality of life of children and adolescents with ADHD undergoing outpatient psychiatric treatment: simple disorders of activity and attention and hyperkinetic conduct disorders in comparison with each other and with other diagnostic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remschmidt, Helmut; Mattejat, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    (1) How does the quality of life of patients with ADHD treated in an ambulatory care setting compare to that of other patient groups in child and adolescent psychiatry? (2) Can differences in the quality of life be demonstrated between patients with simple disorders of activity and attention and those with hyperkinetic conduct disorders? (3) How does the quality of life in these patient groups change over one year of treatment? The Inventory for the Assessment of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents (Inventar zur Untersuchung der Lebensqualität von Kindern und Jugendlichen, ILK) was applied to a sample of 726 patients derived from nine different outpatient practices for child and adolescent psychiatry. Among them were 196 patients with a simple disorder of activity and attention and 64 with a hyperkinetic conduct disorder. A comparison between these two groups was the main aim of the study. The mean age of the patients in the sample (all diagnoses) was 8.7 ± 3 years. The two groups of hyperkinetic patients made up 35% of the overall sample, and both of them showed a marked male predominance. The hyperkinetic patients tended to have lower quality-of-life scores than patients in the other diagnostic groups. Longitudinal observation revealed improvements in the quality of life across all patient groups, but the patients with hyperkinetic disorders (both groups) improved the least. The parents of the hyperkinetic patients, too, reported suffering greater stress because of their children's condition than the parents of children with other types of disorders. The ILK instrument has test-metrical qualities that render it usable and capable of holding its own among other, comparable instruments. It can be used to assess the quality of life of children with various diagnoses. Children with ADHD tend to have the least favorable quality-of-life scores, yet they do show some degree of improvement in their quality of life after a year of treatment.

  2. Cognitive behavioural therapy for ADHD in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Amdisen, Birgitte Lind; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Systematically review and analyse the efficacy of CBT versus treatment as usual in adults with ADHD. The literature was systematically searched ending the 28 March 2014. Standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. CBT was efficacious in reducing symptoms...... of ADHD (SDM -1.0, 95% CI -1.5 to -0.5) when evaluated by the patients, but not when evaluated by a clinician. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were significantly reduced when self-reported (SMD -1.0, 95% CI -1.6 to -0.5 and -1.0, 95% CI -1.3 to -0.3, respectively) and evaluated by a clinician (SMD -0.......9, 95% CI -1.7 to -0.2 and -0.9, 95% CI -1.6 to -0.1). The clinical global impression scores improved more in the group randomised to CBT (-1.0; 95% CI -1.6 to -0.4). CBT seems efficacious in some domains affecting adult patients with ADHD, but needs further evaluation....

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE EDUCATIONAL STAFF TOWARDS CHILDREN WITH DEVE LOPMENTAL DISORDERS-AN IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR THEIR QUALITY TREATMENT IN THE PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana MATOVSKA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction· The purpose for the integration in the preschool institution· The need for the integration in the preschool institution· The results of the integration in the preschool institutionPersonal experience from the integration in the preschool institution· The relationship of the educational and upbringing staff towards the child· The relationship of the child towards the preschool institution· (the relationship towards the other children and the relationship towards the staff Proposal and suggestions for solving the present situation· The completion of legislative and its carrying out in practice· The creation of space and staff possibilities for active integration of the children with developmental disorders in the preschool institutions· The preparation of didactic material and the devices for carrying out the working program.

  4. Predictors of Boys' ADHD Symptoms from Early to Middle Childhood: The Role of Father-Child and Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise J.

    2012-01-01

    This prospective 3-year longitudinal study investigated preschool paternal and maternal parenting predictors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) in a community sample of 93 school-age boys. Participants were recruited on the basis of inattention-hyperactivity at age 4 and fathers and mothers were observed interacting with their sons.…

  5. ADHD - en risikofaktor i trafikken?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Tidligere undersøgelser tyder på, at personer med ADHD har større risiko for at blive involveret i et færdselsuheld, når de kører bil, end personer, der ikke har ADHD. Tidligere undersøgelsesresultater har dog været meget forskellige, ikke mindst fordi man har benyttet forskellige metoder og...... inddraget forskellige aspekter. En ny metaanalyse viser, at personer med ADHD har øget uheldsrisiko, men at risikoen er mindre end hidtil antaget....

  6. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Maria P; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  7. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Maria P.; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  8. Is atomoxetine effective in some comorbid mental disorders in ADHD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesneková D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is connected with high level of psychiatric comorbidity in paediatric population. Depressive disorder is common comorbid disorder co-existing with ADHD. Atomoxetine is worldwide approved for treatment of ADHD in paediatric population; in addition atomoxetine is effective and safe in treatment of some comorbid disorders in ADHD. Pharmacotherapy of depression is limited and residual symptoms are common. Fluoxetine is currently considered to be the gold standard of treatment of depression, but effectiveness of acute phase of treatment is not sufficient. Atomoxetine as a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor or olanzapine as a multi receptors antagonist drug in combination with fluoxetine could be perspective augmented treatment strategy of depression just for their antidepressant effect. The aim of our following study is to evaluate and compare effectiveness and safety of monotherapy and combined/augmented therapy in acute phase of depression treatment in adolescence, as well as introduce complex modern research methodology of effectiveness and safety of treatment.

  9. Do stimulants improve functioning in adults with ADHD? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, Craig B H; Hammerness, Paul G; Pion, Katie; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-06-01

    ADHD is prevalent in adulthood and stimulant pharmacotherapy is the primary treatment for uncomplicated presentations. ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in major life roles. Measurement of the efficacy of stimulant treatment for adult ADHD therefore should include assessment of improvement in role function. A literature search was conducted to identify studies that measured change in function with stimulant treatment in adult ADHD using measures other than global clinical impression or global assessment of function ratings. Five studies were identified that met our search criteria. Evidence of functional improvement with stimulant treatment was found with the following validated self-report measures of functional wellbeing employed across these studies: the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey; ADHD Impact Module for Adults; Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction scale-Short Form; Sheehan Disability Scale, and Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. We conclude that investigations using self-report scales provide evidence that stimulant treatment translates into measurable improvement in daily function for adults with ADHD. Further investigation could better characterize the mediators and moderators of individual improvement, an important step towards the personalization of treatment for ADHD in adulthood.

  10. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments.

  11. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-02-18

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  12. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitts Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD within the National Health Service (NHS. UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD. This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH, Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs, whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards

  13. Dopamine transporter (DAT1/SLC6A3) polymorphism and the association between being born small for gestational age and symptoms of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, K E; Cornforth, C M; Webb, R E; Thompson, J M D; Murphy, R; Moreau, D; Slykerman, R; Morgan, A R; Ferguson, L R; Mitchell, E A

    2017-08-30

    Being small for gestational age (SGA) has been established as a risk factor for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Likewise, several molecular genetic studies have found a link between DAT1 and ADHD. This study investigated whether SGA moderates the effect of dopamine transporter gene variants on the risk of ADHD. A total of 546 children of European descent were genotyped at age 11 for seven DAT1 SNPs (rs6347, rs11564774, rs40184, rs1042098, rs2702, rs8179029 and rs3863145). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure symptoms of ADHD at ages 3.5, 7 and 11. We found significant gene-environment interactions between birth weight and DAT1 SNPs (rs6347, rs40184, rs1042098, rs3863145) on ADHD symptoms at 3.5 years only. Results suggest that genotypic variation of DAT1 may confer a relative protective effect against ADHD in SGA individuals. This study supports the idea that being born SGA moderates the effect of the DAT1 gene on ADHD symptoms in the preschool years and may help to explain some of the heterogeneity in ADHD outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jill L; Loveman, Emma; O'Malley, Claire; Azevedo, Liane B; Mead, Emma; Al-Khudairy, Lena; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen

    2016-03-10

    Child overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with short- and long-term health consequences. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years. We performed a systematic literature search in the databases Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and LILACS, as well as in the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP Search Portal. We also checked references of identified trials and systematic reviews. We applied no language restrictions. The date of the last search was March 2015 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for treating overweight or obesity in preschool children aged 0 to 6 years. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias, evaluated the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument, and extracted data following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We included 7 RCTs with a total of 923 participants: 529 randomised to an intervention and 394 to a comparator. The number of participants per trial ranged from 18 to 475. Six trials were parallel RCTs, and one was a cluster RCT. Two trials were three-arm trials, each comparing two interventions with a control group. The interventions and comparators in the trials varied. We categorised the comparisons into two groups: multicomponent interventions and dietary interventions. The overall quality of the evidence was low or very low, and six trials had a high risk of bias on individual 'Risk of bias' criteria. The children in the included trials were followed up for between six months and three years.In trials comparing a multicomponent intervention with usual care, enhanced usual care, or information control, we found a greater reduction in body mass index (BMI

  15. ADHD and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-01-01

    The outcome of 131 children with ADHD (101 males, 30 females; mean age 5 years, range 3 to 7 years) with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was determined in a prospective study at the University of Goteborg, Sweden.

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  17. Magnetic Brain Stimulation in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation was performed in 27 children and adolescents, aged 4 to 18 years, with ADHD in the Services of Pediatric Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Miguel Servet Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain.

  18. Sleep and Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential relationships between objectively measured sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral function in a community cohort of 5- to 7-year old children with parentally reported symptoms of ADHD were investigated at the University of Louisville, KY.

  19. Public attitudes towards the acceptability of using drugs to treat depression and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Brad; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne

    2012-10-01

    This paper examines public attitudes towards the acceptability of using prescription drugs to treat depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and whether attitudes are influenced by familiarity with the use of pharmacological treatments for these disorders. Participants were 1265 members of the general public aged 18-101 years (50% female) participating in the Queensland Social Survey (QSS), an omnibus state-wide survey of households in the state of Queensland. The survey was administered through a CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviewing) system. Most members of the public thought that the drug treatment of depression was acceptable (55%) but attitudes were much less positive towards the use of drugs to treat ADHD (35.6% acceptable). Regression analyses showed that respondents who knew someone who had received pharmacological treatment for depression were more likely to find it acceptable. However, participants were divided about the acceptability of drug treatment for ADHD regardless of whether they knew someone who had received drug treatment for ADHD or not. Participants with a higher level of education were more likely to find drug treatment for depression and ADHD acceptable. Participants who did not know anyone who had received drug treatment were less likely to have a definite opinion on whether it was acceptable or unacceptable. Attitudes towards the acceptability of the use of prescription drugs are more positive for depression than for ADHD. This may broadly reflect ongoing controversies in the public sphere about the potential over-diagnosis of ADHD or overmedication of children with ADHD. Members of the public who do not know anyone with depression or ADHD may need particular information from prescribers in the event that they (or their child) are diagnosed.

  20. Designing Assistive Technologies for the ADHD Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj

    (ADHD). In this paper, we identify a set of challenges that children with ADHD typically experience, which provides an empirical foundation for pervasive health researchers to address the ADHD domain. The work is grounded in extensive empirical studies and it is contextualized using literature on ADHD....... Based on these studies, we also present lessons learned that are relevant to consider when designing assistive technology to support children with ADHD. Finally, we provide an example (CASTT) of our own work to illustrate how the presented findings can frame research activities and be used to develop...... novel assistive technology to empower children with ADHD and improve their wellbeing....