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Sample records for preruminant holstein calves

  1. Effects of dietary yeastβ-glucan on nutrient digestibility and serum proifles in pre-ruminant Holstein calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Tao; TU Yan; ZHANG Nai-feng; GUO Jiang-peng; DENG Kai-dong; ZHOU Yi; YUN Qiang; DIAO Qi-yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of yeastβ-glucan on the nutrient digestibility and serum proifles in pre-ruminant Holstein calves. Forty-two neonatal Holstein calves ((39.6±4.2) kg) were randomly al otted to six groups, and each was offered one of the fol owing diets:a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 25, 50, 75, 100 or 200 mg of yeastβ-glucan kg–1 feed (dry matter basis). The basal diet consisted of a milk replacer and a starter feed. The trial lasted for 56 d. Two digestibility trials were conducted from d 14 to 20 and from d 42 to 48. Blood samples were col ected on d 0, 14, 28 and 42 for serum proifle analyses. On d 56, three calves from each group were slaughtered, and intestinal samples were col ected to assess the vil ous height, crypt depth and mucosal thickness. Although feed intake was not affected by dietary treatment (P>0.05), the average daily gain (ADG) and gain-to-feed ratios were higher (P0.05). Compared with the control group, supplementation of yeastβ-glucan decreased (P0.05). The supplementation of yeastβ-glucan stimu-lated the enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The lysozyme (LYZ) concentration increased quadratical y (P<0.05) with increasing yeastβ-glucan levels. The results suggested that dietary supplementation of yeastβ-glucan at 75 mg kg–1 feed improved nutrient digestibility, enhanced immunity by increasing the immunoglobulin concentration and stimulating ALP, and exerted no adverse effects on metabolism in pre-ruminant calves.

  2. A comparative kinetic study of thiamphenicol in pre-ruminant lambs and calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengozzi, G; Intorre, L; Bertini, S; Giorgi, M; Secchiari, P L; Soldani, G

    2002-12-01

    Eight healthy Holstein-Friesian calves and 8 Massese lambs of either sex (10-15-days old) were used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of thiamphenicol after intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration (30 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of thiamphenicol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography on blood samples collected over 24h following treatment. Pharmacokinetic variables of the drug were calculated for both species and after both administration routes. After intravenous administration of thiamphenicol, a rapid distribution phase was followed by a slower elimination phase and, when thiamphenicol was administered p.o., the bioavailability was about 60% in both species. The higher volume of distribution and the longer biological elimination half-lives in pre-ruminant compared with adult animals indicate that thiamphenicol distributes widely into the extravascular compartment of pre-ruminants. Interspecies differences were observed in the kinetic behaviour of thiamphenicol with respect to peak plasma concentration (C(max)), time of peak plasma concentration (T(max)), elimination half-life (T(1/2)) and total clearance (Cl(B)). In conclusion intravenous or oral administration of 30 mg/kg of thiamphenicol provides plasma concentrations higher than minimum effective concentrations inhibiting bacterial growth (MICs) against most pathogens in pre-ruminant lambs and calves.

  3. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of

  4. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of th

  5. Whole body and muscle energy metabolism in preruminant calves: effects of nutrient synchrony and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hocquette, J.F.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of asynchronous availability of amino acids and glucose on muscle composition and enzyme activities in skeletal muscle were studied in preruminant calves. It was hypothesized that decreased oxidative enzyme activities in muscle would explain a decreased whole body heat production with

  6. Pharmacokinetics and distribution in interstitial and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of danofloxacin in ruminant and preruminant calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzyk, D A; Baynes, R E; Messenger, K M; Martinez, M; Smith, G W

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare active drug concentrations in the plasma vs. different effector compartments including interstitial fluid (ISF) and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) of healthy preruminating (3-week-old) and ruminating (6-month-old) calves. Eight calves in each age group were given a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose (8 mg/kg) of danofloxacin. Plasma, ISF, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected over 96 h and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. PELF concentrations were calculated by a urea dilution assay of the BAL fluids. Plasma protein binding was measured using a microcentrifugation system. For most preruminant and ruminant calves, the concentration-time profile of the central compartment was best described by a two-compartment open body model. For some calves, a third compartment was also observed. The time to maximum concentration in the plasma was longer in preruminating calves (3.1 h) vs. ruminating calves (1.4 h). Clearance (CL/F) was 385.15 and 535.11 mL/h/kg in preruminant and ruminant calves, respectively. Ruminant calves maintained higher ISF/plasma concentration ratios throughout the study period compared to that observed in preruminant calves. Potential reasons for age-related differences in plasma concentration-time profiles and partitioning of the drug to lungs and ISF as a function of age are explored.

  7. Effects of milk diets containing beef tallow or coconut oil on the fatty acid metabolism of liver slices from preruminant calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulet, B; Gruffat-Mouty, D; Durand, D; Bauchart, D

    2000-09-01

    Coconut oil (CO) induces a triacylglycerol infiltration in the hepatocytes of preruminant calves when given as the sole source of fat in the milk diet over a long-term period. Metabolic pathways potentially involved in this hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation were studied by in vitro methods on liver slices from preruminant Holstein x Friesian male calves fed a conventional milk diet containing CO (n 5) or beef tallow (BT, n 5) for 19 d. Liver slices were incubated for 12 h in the presence of 0.8 mm-[14C]oleate or -[14C]laurate added to the medium. Fatty acid oxidation was determined by measuring the production of CO2 (total oxidation) and acid-soluble products (partial oxidation). Production of CO2 was 1. 7-3.6-fold lower (P 0.0490) and production of acid-soluble products tended to be lower (P = 0.0625) in liver slices of CO- than BT-fed calves. Fatty acid esterification as neutral lipids was 2.6- to 3. 1-fold higher (P = 0.0088) in liver slices prepared from calves fed the CO diet compared with calves fed the BT diet. By contrast with what occurs in the liver of rats fed CO, the increase in neutral lipid production did not stimulate VLDL secretion by the hepatocytes of calves fed with CO, leading to a triacylglycerol accumulation in the cytosol. It could be explained by the reduction of fatty acid oxidation favouring esterification in the form of triacylglycerols, in association with a limited availability of triacylglycerols and/or apolipoprotein B for VLDL packaging and subsequent secretion.

  8. Effect of protein and protein-free energy intake on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I and thyroid hormones in preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Decuypere, E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Karabinas, V.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted two experiments with preruminant calves weighing 80 to 240 kg to study the long-term nutritional regulation of circulating IGF-I, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). The two experiments were similar in design but were performed with calves of two live weight ranges: 80 to 160 kg

  9. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole

    2001-01-01

    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte...

  10. The marginal efficiency of utilization of all ileal digestible indispensable amino acids for protein gain is lower than 30% in preruminant calves between 80 and 240 kg live weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Tamminga, S.

    1998-01-01

    A previous study showed that the marginal efficiency of utilization of digestible nitrogen for deposition in the body in preruminant calves is only ~30%. The study consisted of two similar experiments that were performed in two live weight ranges: 80-160 and 160-240 kg. In each experiment, 36 calves

  11. Fornecimento de volumoso para bezerros pré-ruminantes Roughage for pre-ruminant calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Scatamburlo Lizieire

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a performance de bezerros mestiços HolandêsxZebu, do nascimento aos 90 dias de idade, desaleitados aos 56 dias, com acesso ou não a volumoso. O ensaio foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Itaguaí da PESAGRO-RIO, em Seropédica, RJ, no período de janeiro a abril de 2000. Foram utilizados 27 bezerros, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, de acordo com o peso ao nascer e com o sexo, nos seguintes tratamentos experimentais: (1 Concentrado; (2 Concentrado+pasto de capim-estrela (Cynodon nhenfluensis, e (3 Concentrado+feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa. Os animais foram separados das mães 24 horas após o nascimento e mantidos em baias individuais. Todos os animais receberam colostro até o 3º dia de vida e, a partir daí, quatro litros de leite integral/animal/dia, além de concentrado comercial (18%PB, até o máximo de 2,0kg/animal/dia, a partir da segunda semana de vida. Os animais do tratamento 2 tiveram acesso aos piquetes, manejados em rodízio, a partir do 15º dia de vida, no período das 8h às 14h, e aqueles do tratamento 3 receberam feno de alfafa (18%PB picado, à vontade, a partir do 8º dia de vida. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos 1 e 3; entretanto, aqueles submetidos ao tratamento 2 consumiram menor (P0,05 para consumo total de matéria seca e eficiência alimentar entre os tratamentos 1 e 3 e para ganho de peso médio diário, perímetros abdominal e torácico, incidência de diarréias e corrimento nasal entre os três tratamentos. O fornecimento de volumoso para bezerros pode ser feito a partir da 8ª semana de idade, sem prejuízos para o seu desenvolvimento, desde que os animais tenham à sua disposição concentrado inicial desde a segunda semana de idade.This experiment aimed to evaluate the growth of Holstein Zebu crossbred calves, from birth to 90 days of age, early weaned, with or without available roughage from the second week of age on. The trial was carried out at the

  12. Source of dietary protein influences kinetics of plasma gut regulatory peptide concentration in response to feeding in preruminant calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Huërou-Luron, I; Gestin, M; Le Dréan, G; Romé, V; Bernard, C; Chayvialle, J A; Guilloteau, P

    1998-03-01

    The kinetics of the peripheral plasma concentrations of eight gut regulatory peptides were examined in response to feeding in preruminant calves. Two experiments were carried out in animals fed milk substitutes either based on milk protein (control diet) or in which casein had been replaced by hydrolyzed fish (fish diet in experiment 1) or whey (whey diet in experiment 2) protein concentrate. In contrast to the control diet, the latter two did not coagulate within the abomasum. No variation was observed in plasma concentrations of gut regulatory peptides during 1-1.4 hr before the morning meal regardless of the nature of the dietary protein. With the control diet, the meal was followed by an increase in cholecystokinin, gastrin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide and a fall in secretin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and motilin, whereas no significant change was observed for somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide. The replacement of casein by protein substitutes did not greatly modify the pattern of plasma responses to feeding, but the prefeeding and postfeeding levels were highly affected. We conclude that the most important characteristic influencing plasma gut peptide concentrations is the ability of dietary protein to clot in the abomasum, consequently determining the pattern of gastric emptying, and that variations appear depending on the origin of protein substitutes in relation to the duodenal content and mainly to the digesta pH.

  13. Electrocardiographic Studies on Neonatal Period of Holstein Dairy Calves

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    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several physiological alterations may occur in cardiovascular system during fetal life to the neonatal period. Electrocardiographic studies in neonatal period may assist veterinarians to evaluate cardiovascular system in this period. Five multiparous high producing Holstein dairy cows were monitored at close-up dry period to calving. Electrocardiograms were recorded from their calves immediately and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days after birth and all electrocardiographic parameters were evaluated. Durations of P, R and T waves were increased significantly from birth to the end of neonatal period (P<0.05. R and T amplitudes were significantly elevated but P amplitude declined significantly. There were significant increasing patterns in PR, RR, QT and ST intervals during neonatal period (P<0.05. Based on these findings, it may be suggested that physiological alterations of the electrocardiographic parameters occur during the neonatal period of the Holstein dairy calves at neonatal period. These data could provide a better understanding of interpretation of the electrocardiographic alterations among neonatal calves.

  14. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Campos, M.M.; Machado, F.S.; Filho, S.C.V.; Castro, M.M.D.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five

  15. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Campos, M.M.; Machado, F.S.; Filho, S.C.V.; Castro, M.M.D.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five

  16. The pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, M D; Van Engen, N K; Gorden, P J; KuKanich, B; Rajewski, S M; Walsh, P; Coetzee, J F

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the pharmacokinetics of topical and intravenous (IV) flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves. Eight male Holsteins calves, aged 6 to 8 weeks, were administered flunixin at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg intravenously. Following a 10-day washout period, calves were dosed with flunixin at 3.33 mg/kg topically (transdermal). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times from 0 to 48 h for the intravenous portions and 0 to 72 h following topical dosing. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy. Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed using noncompartmental methods. The mean bioavailability of topical flunixin was calculated to be 48%. The mean AUC for flunixin was determined to be 13.9 h × ug/mL for IV administration and 10.1 h × ug/mL for topical administration. The mean half-life for topical flunixin was 6.42 h and 4.99 h for the intravenous route. The Cmax following topical application of flunixin was 1.17 μg/mL. The time to maximum concentration was 2.14 h. Mean residence time (MRT) following IV injection was 4.38 h and 8.36 h after topical administration. In conclusion, flunixin when administered as a topical preparation is rapidly absorbed and has longer half-life compared to IV administration.

  17. Genetic Parameters for Milk ,Fat Yield and Age at First Calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genetic parameters for milk,fat yield and age at first calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang were evaluated using multiple-trait restricted maximum likelihood procedures with an animal model. Data consisted of records of 2496 Chinese Holsteins first lactation cows collected from 1989 to 2000. The model included 21herd effects, four calving season effects, nine age at first calving effects, 6697 animal effects. (Co)variance components of milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving were estimated with the software package for variance component estimation(VCE) by an animal model. The heritabilities were 0. 14.0. 21,0. 38 for milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving ,respectively. ihe estimates of genetic correlation between milk yield and fat yield,age at first calving were 0. 96,-0.29.respectively. The estimate of genetic correlation between fat yield and age at first calving was-0.28.

  18. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  19. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees...... that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation....

  20. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

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    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  1. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further

  2. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

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    Changhee Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45 of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively. Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6 from 800,000 Won ($727.3 when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month from (32.8 month. Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present

  3. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (p<0.05) in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo. Water contents of the top round muscle was higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo (p<0.05). Water-holding capacity, protein content and CIE L* (lightness) of both muscles were higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo veal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of both the muscles were lower in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05). PMID:26877632

  4. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees......The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...

  5. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  6. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover...... grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43 ± 3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy...

  7. Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...

  8. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

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    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  9. Effect of crossbreeding with Limousine, Rubia Gallega and Belgium Blue on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Gonzalo; Iglesias, Antonio; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Sanchez, Luciano; Cantalapiedra, Jesus; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The object of this work was to study the effects of crossbreeding on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves. Samples were taken from Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 36 calves of three different groups (Holstein crossed with Rubia Gallega (HF×RG), Holstein crossed with Limousine (HF×LI) and Holstein crossed with Belgian Blue (HF×BB)). Significant differences were observed in carcass weight and killing out percentage (P price-to-sales ratio were the selected variables from discriminant analysis to classify the types of crossbreeding.

  10. Effects of heat stress on metabolism, digestibility, and rumen epithelial characteristics in growing Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, M Hossein; Mirzaei-Alamouti, H R; Amanlou, H; Mahjoubi, E; Nabipour, A; Aghaziarati, N; Baumgard, L H

    2016-01-01

    To distinguish between the direct effects of heat stress (HS) and reduced DMI on metabolic and physiological variables, morphometry, and gene expression of transporters involving in ruminal VFA absorption, 16 Holstein bull calves (178.1 ± 7.55 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete design using 2 experimental periods. In period 1 (P1), all animals were housed in thermoneutral (TN) conditions (20.7 ± 3.0°C and a temperature-humidity index [THI] of 65.2 ± 3.1) and fed ad libitum for 8 d. In period 2 (P2; 9 d), half of the calves ( = 8) were subjected to HS condition (29.9 to 41.0°C and a THI ≥ 85 for 8 h/d) and the other half ( = 8) were maintained in TN conditions but were pair fed (pair-fed thermoneutral [PFTN]) to the HS calves. Heat stress decreased DMI (20%; calves had similar reduced intakes. During P1, ADG was similar between groups (1.7 kg/d), but ADG was reduced similarly for both groups (0.14 kg/d) during P2 ( calves had decreased plasma glucose levels (12.5%; calves (71%; calves. Circulating NEFA concentrations did not differ between periods in the HS calves, but PFTN animals had increased basal NEFA levels (100%; calves had increased blood urea nitrogen concentration in P2 ( calves. Heat stress had no measurable effect on nutrient digestibility. Rumen papillae height increased (51%; calves whereas papillae top width decreased (40%; calves (albeit tissue composition of growth is not unknown).

  11. Effects of mineral and vitamin supplementation to pasteurized whole milk diets on growth and health of preruminant Holstein bull calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine whether supplementation of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM), formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements when added to pasteurized whole milk (PWM), increases challenge resolution and prevents intestinal macromolecular permeability after injection with bacterial lip...

  12. Seasonal effects of supplemental fat or undegradable protein on the growth and metabolism of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, L D; Fernandez, J M; Fornea, R J; White, T W; Froetschel, M A; Stone, J D; Ingawa, K

    1996-09-01

    One summer (heat stress) and one winter (neutral conditions) trial were conducted to assess the effects of varied amounts of RUP and fat on the growth and metabolic responses of calves. In each trial, 190-kg Holstein calves (n = 45) were fed a basal diet of corn and cottonseed hulls supplemented with soybean meal (control) or supplemented with raw or roasted whole soybeans or the basal ration plus prilled hydrogenated tallow either with or without a mixture of feather meal and blood meal. Prilled tallow was more detrimental to fiber digestion and growth performance than were whole soybeans, especially during summer. During winter, calves fed a high (49%) percentage of the dietary CP as RUP had similar BW gain and efficiency of feed usage as did calves fed a moderate percentage (39%), but, during summer, calves fed the high percentage of RUP had greater BW gain and efficiency than did calves fed moderate percentages of RUP. Ruminal concentrations of VFA were parallel to digestibilities of fiber in the total tract. Ruminal concentrations of ammonia or blood concentrations of urea were not consistent with the concentrations of RDP fed. Concentrations of glucose, NEFA, insulin, and thyroid hormones in the blood were primarily affected by season. Data suggested that a higher percentage and AA quality of RUP improved the growth of calves during summer but not during winter.

  13. Nutrient synchrony in preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    In animal nutrition, the nutrient composition of the daily feed supply is composed to match the nutrient requirements for the desired performance. The time of nutrient availability within a day is usually considered not to affect the fate of nutrients. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate effects

  14. Influence of volume and method of administration of colostrum on total protein and eletrophoretic serum fractions in Holstein calves

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Alexandre Secorun [UNESP; Feitosa, Francisco Leydson Formiga [UNESP; F.J. Benesi; E.H. Birgel; Mendes, L. C. N. [UNESP

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the amount of colostrum (two and four liters) and methods of colostrum feeding (direct suckling from the cow, feeding colostrum using nipple bottle, and no feeding colostrum) on different blood traits. Thirty two Holstein calves (four groups of eight animals each) were randomly allotted to four treatments: treatment 1 - calves were hand fed four liters of colostrum; treatment 2 - calves were hand fed two liters of colostrum; treatment 3 - c...

  15. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calving ease (CE is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. Methods A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo, gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE and daughter calving ease (DCE evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving. A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5 and 100% (CE1. A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. Results The estimated direct heritability (h2 from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h2 estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were −0.68±0.09 (SCE and −0.71±0.09 (DCE. The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. Conclusion The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of

  16. Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  17. Composition of growth of Holstein calves fed milk replacer from birth to 105-kilogram body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M C; Van Amburgh, M E; Smith, J M; Kelsey, J M; Hutten, E L

    2001-04-01

    Sixty calves were assigned to a comparative slaughter study to determine the changes in composition of milk replacer-fed Holstein bull calves from birth to 105-kg body weight (BW). Six calves were slaughtered on day of birth and served as a baseline for comparison of compositional changes. Fifty-four calves were assigned to one of three treatments (18 calves per treatment). Calves were fed milk replacer containing 30% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat. Target growth rates for treatments 1, 2, and 3 were 500, 950, and 1400 g/d, respectively. Six calves from each treatment were slaughtered and analyzed for energy, nitrogen, ether extract, and ash when they reached 65, 85 and 105 kg of BW. Actual daily gains from birth to slaughter were 560, 973, and 1100 g, and net deposition of CP and fat were 140 and 44, 204 and 154, and 247 and 161 g/d for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Results were used to develop equations to predict retained energy [retained energy = (empty BW(0.223)) x (empty BW gain(1.32))], and retained protein, [retained protein = (184 x empty BW gain (kilograms/d)) + (17.2 x (retained energy)/empty BW gain] where retained energy is in Mcal/d, retained protein is in g/d, and empty BW and gain are in kilograms. The composition of gain observed was compared to predictions from the 1989 Dairy NRC and 1996 Beef NRC equations and demonstrated the equations do not represent the composition of gain in calves of this weight.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of sodium meclofenamate in pre-ruminant cattle

    OpenAIRE

    E.J. Picco; D.C. Diaz David; Encinas,T.; Rubio,M.R.; J.C. Boggio

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of sodium meclofenamate, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, was determined in six pre-ruminant calves after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a dose of 2.2mg/kg of body weight. Meclofenamate concentrations were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography assay. The pharmacokinetics of sodium meclofenamate after intravenous and intramuscular administration to calves were characterised by a rapid distribution phase (t½alpha ), 15.45&plus...

  19. Effects of short term clinoptilolite supplementation on weight gain in Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Alic Ural

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether short term supplemantation at two levels (1 or 2 g/kg of clinoptilolite (CLNP in the colostrum of dairy calves had any effect on total weight gain (TWG and mean daily gain of weight (mdwg. Materials and methods. A total of 24 clinically healthy calves without diarrhea were assigned in a subset of three major groups of calves were studied: group I (n=8 received colostrum with clnp at the rate of 1/kg started immediately following calving at 12 and 24 hours, for a total of 2 doses. Group II consisted of calves (n=8 receiving colostrum with clnp at the rate of 2/kg within the same interval as the first experimental group. The last group III, which served as control, received solely colostrum. Results. Group had significant effect on weight (kg of Holstein calves [twg (mean±SE- control: 12.66±0.349, group I: 14.73±0.414, group II: 14.19±0.468, p<0.01; mdwg (mean±SE-control: 0.338±0.0155, group I: 0.396±0.0189, group II: 0.397±0.0196, p<0.05]. There was a significant difference observed for twg (p<0.01 and mdwg (p<0.05 among control group and both clnp treatment groups. Conclusions. The results showed that the addition of both levels of clinoptilolite administration via colostrum appeared to enhance twg and mdwg in newborn calves without having any observable adverse effect.

  20. Performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk with or without kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladgar, S; Shahraki, A D Foroozandeh; Ghalamkari, G R; Khani, M; Ahmadi, F; Erickson, P S

    2016-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests health-promoting effects of kefir consumption on different nonruminant species, leading to the speculation that kefir may act as a probiotic and benefit calf performance and health. Our objectives were to determine effects of feeding kefir on performance and health of calves in the first 70d of life. Thirty 3-d-old female Holstein calves (body weight=38.2±3.1kg) were blocked by initial body weight and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (1 calf per pen; 10 pens per treatment). Kefir was added to whole milk (vol/vol) at 0:1 (control; KF0), 1:3 (KF1), or 1:1 (KF2) and fed twice per day (0800 and 1600h) from d3 through 45 and then once per day until weaning, which occurred on d50. Pre- and postweaning intake of starter, daily body weight gain, and gain-to-feed ratio exhibited no difference among treatments. Adding kefir to whole milk fed directly to calves had no effect on concentration of blood metabolites collected on d20, 40, and 70. Body length on d50 (weaning) and 70 was greater in kefir-fed calves. Kefir intake improved fecal scores and reduced days with diarrhea during the first 2wk of life. Apparent digestibility of organic matter, ether extract, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber remained unaffected by treatment. Overall, it appears that directly feeding kefir to calves during the preweaning period did not improve the performance of calves under the conditions of the current study; however, its consumption marginally improved body length and fecal consistency in the first weeks of life, which is an important concern in intensive calf-rearing systems. Feeding kefir to neonatal calves may be a viable approach to improve the health of calves in commercial calf-rearing operations, although to validate its health-promoting effects additional research is needed to investigate its effects under different calf-rearing conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Risk factors for calving assistance and dystocia in pasture-based Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, J F; Berry, D P; Cromie, A R

    2011-02-01

    The incidence of and risk factors associated with calving assistance and dystocia in pasture-based dairy herds were determined from analysis of 152,641 records of full-term calvings from Holstein-Friesian dams served by artificial insemination (AI) sires of seven breeds in herds of 20 calvings or more per year over 4 years. The overall incidence of calving assistance and dystocia was 31.1% and 6.8%, respectively. The incidence in primiparae and pluriparae was 40.0% and 28.2% for assistance, and 9.3% and 5.8% for dystocia, respectively. Association analyses were undertaken using generalised estimating equations using a logit link function. The likelihood of calving assistance or dystocia did not change over time but was greatest in autumn and in spring. The likelihood of calving assistance or dystocia was greater for males in primiparae and males sired by Charolais sires. The odds of calving assistance and dystocia were greater in twin calves (OR 2.0 and 2.4; Pdystocia at the previous calving (OR 1.65 and 2.9; Pdystocia increased linearly per unit increase in sire predicted transmitting ability for direct calving difficulty. The probability of assisted calving, but not dystocia, increased linearly in primiparae as animals calved at a younger age relative to the median age at first calving. Herd size and day of the week of calving were not associated with the odds of dystocia. Stakeholders must focus on identified modifiable risk factors to control the incidence of dystocia in dairy herds.

  2. Reproduction traits, growth traits and age at first calving in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Silva Marestone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the reproductive efficiency expressed by traits, interval from first to second calving (IDP, number of services per conception to the first calving (NSC1, number of services per conception for the second calving (NSC2, service period from the first to the second calving (PS and gestation lenght (PG of Holstein heifers. Data from 377 heifers from two herds, one in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo and another in Rolândia, Paraná were analysed. The statistical model to analyze IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG included the fixed effect of Contemporary Group (CG. To analyze PG, it was also considered the effect of calf sex. To evaluate the growth performance and age at first calving (AFC, data from 360 Holstein heifers belonging to property in Rolândia were analysed. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (CG and average daily gain from birth to 15 months (ADG. A similar model was used to analyze weigth at 458 dias (W458 and ADG, therefore considering only CG. The overall means of IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG, were 14.96 ± 3.94 months; 1.35 ± 0.71 services, 2.86 ± 2.37 services, 178.83 ± 118.73 days; 276.67± 5.65 days, respectively. Correlations were observed between the traits IDP and NSC2 of 72% (P<0.0001, between IDP and PS of 98% (P<0.0001 and between NCS2 and PS of 72% (P<0.0001. The gestation length of males and females showed estimated average of 277.53 ± 0.46 days and 276.33 ± 0.40 days, respectively, and the calf sex was source of variation on PG (P<0.05. Average daily gain was a significant source of variation on AFC and CG affected all traits studied. The estimated average for AFC was 24.18 ± 1.59 months, for W458 was 362.33 ± 36.24 kg and ADG was 0.704 ± 0.08 kg.

  3. The hunt for a functional mutation affecting conformation and calving traits on chromosome 18 in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequence data from 11 US Holstein bulls were analyzed to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. The SNP ARS-BFGL-NGS-109285 at 57,589,121 bp (UMD 3.1 assembly) on BTA18 has large effects on 4 measures of body shape and size, 2 measures of dystocia, longev...

  4. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleeson David E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h, after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds. Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P

  5. Effects of ghrelin injection on plasma concentrations of glucose, pancreatic hormones and cortisol in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Fumiaki; Komatsu, Tokushi; Kushibiki, Shiro; Hodate, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Ghrelin affects not only growth hormone secretion but also nutrient utilization and metabolic hormone secretion in humans and experimental animals. The effects of ghrelin on plasma metabolic hormone and metabolite levels in domestic herbivores remain unclear despite the fact that the physiological characteristics of nutrient digestion and absorption imply specific responses to ghrelin. Therefore, the effects of ghrelin on plasma glucose, pancreatic hormones and cortisol concentrations were investigated in Holstein dairy cattle in various physiological states. Ghrelin (0.3 nmol/kg) or placebo (2% bovine serum albumin in saline) was intravenously injected in pre-ruminant calves (pre-rumen function), adult non-lactating (functional rumen) and lactating cows (functional rumen and lactation), and plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon and cortisol concentrations were then determined. Ghrelin injection increased plasma glucose concentrations in adult cows, especially in lactating cows. No hyperglycemic response was observed in pre-ruminant calves. A transient rise of insulin and glucagon levels was distinctively found in lactating cows in response to the ghrelin administration. Ghrelin injection decreased the insulin level in pre-ruminant calves. Ghrelin increased cortisol secretion independently of the physiological state. The results of the present study suggest that the effects of ghrelin on plasma glucose and pancreatic hormone levels may reflect differences in the physiological states of dairy cattle.

  6. Reproduction, mastitis, and body condition of seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows in confinement or pasture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S P; White, S L; Green, J T; Benson, G A

    2002-01-01

    Dairy cows in confinement and pasture-based feeding systems were compared across four spring-calving and three fall-calving replicates for differences in reproduction, mastitis, body weights, and body condition scores. Feeding systems and replicates included both Jersey and Holstein cows. Cows in confinement were fed a total mixed ration, and cows on pasture were supplemented with concentrates and provided baled hay or haylage when pasture supply was limiting. Breeding periods were for 75 d in spring or fall. Reproductive performance did not differ significantly due to feeding system or season. Jerseys had higher conception rates (59.6 vs. 49.5 +/- 3.3%) and higher percentages of cows pregnant in 75 d (78.1 vs. 57.9 +/- 3.9%) than Holsteins. Cows in confinement had 1.8 times more clinical mastitis and eight times the rate of culling for mastitis than did cows on pasture. Jerseys had half as many clinical cases of mastitis per cow as Holsteins. Only 41 +/- 5% of confinement Holsteins remained for a subsequent lactation, starting within the defined calving season compared with 51 +/- 5% of pastured Holsteins and 71 and 72 +/- 5% of Jerseys, respectively. Body weights and condition scores were generally higher for confinement cows than pastured cows, and Jerseys had higher condition scores and lower body weights than Holsteins. In summary, pastured cows had fewer clinical cases of mastitis, lower body condition scores, and lower body weights than confinement cows. Holsteins were less likely to rebreed, had more mastitis, higher culling rates, and lower body condition scores than Jerseys.

  7. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Campos, M M; Machado, F S; Filho, S C Valadares; Castro, M M D; Dijkstra, J

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were slaughtered at 4 d of life to estimate the animals' initial body composition (reference group). The remaining 34 calves were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of life, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces (for 72 h) and urine (for 24 h). At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered, their gastro-intestinal tract was washed to determine the empty body weight (EBW; kg), and their body tissues were sampled for subsequent analyses. The net energy requirement for maintenance was estimated using an exponential regression between metabolizable energy intake and heat production (both in Mcal/EBW(0.75) per d) and was 74.3 ± 5.7 kcal/EBW(0.75) per d, and was not affected by inclusion of starter feed in the diet. The metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance was determined at the point of zero energy retention in the body and was 105.2 ± 5.8 kcal/EBW(0.75) per d. The net energy for gain was estimated using the EBW and the empty body gain (EBG; kg/d) as 0.0882 ± 0.0028 × EBW(0.75) × EBG(0.9050±0.0706). The metabolizable energy efficiency for gain (kg) of the milk was 57.4 ± 3.45%, and the kg of the starter feed was 39.3 ± 2.09%. The metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance was 3.52 ± 0.34 g/BW(0.75) per d. The net protein required for each kilogram gained was estimated as 119.1 ± 32.9 × EBW(0.0663±0.059). The metabolizable protein efficiency for gain was 77 ± 8.5% and was not affected by inclusion of starter feed

  8. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds) silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h), after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h) while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds). Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P < 0.05). Cows with restricted access to silage had a higher percentage of difficult calvings (11 vs 7%, P < 0.001) and stillbirths (7 vs 5%, P < 0.05) compared to cows in the control group. The percentage of calvings at night was lower (13%) when access to silage was restricted for 10 h compared to 2, 4 or 6 h (22, 18, 25%, respectively) (P < 0.001). Calf sire breed, calf gender or cow parity did not influence time of calving. In conclusion, offering silage to pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows in the evening, after a period of restricted access, reduced the incidence of nighttime calvings, but increased the incidence of dystocia and stillbirth. PMID:21851689

  9. FABP4 is a leading candidate gene associated with residual feed intake in growing Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Asher, Aviv; Lipkin, Ehud; Feingersch, Roi; Agmon, Rotem; Karasik, David; Brosh, Arieh; Shabtay, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Ecological and economic concerns drive the need to improve feed utilization by domestic animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is one of the most acceptable measures for feed efficiency (FE). However, phenotyping RFI-related traits is complex and expensive and requires special equipment. Advances in marker technology allow the development of various DNA-based selection tools. To assimilate these technologies for the benefit of RFI-based selection, reliable phenotypic measures are prerequisite. In the current study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RFI phenotypic consistency across different ages and diets (named RFI 1-3), using DNA samples of high or low RFI ranked Holstein calves. Using targeted sequencing of chromosomal regions associated with FE- and RFI-related traits, we identified 48 top SNPs significantly associated with at least one of three defined RFIs. Eleven of these SNPs were harbored by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). While 10 significant SNPs found in FABP4 were common for RFI 1 and RFI 3, one SNP (FABP4_5; AHolstein breed, following a larger-scale validation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Effects of feeding pistachio by-products silage on growth performance, serum metabolites and urine characteristics in Holstein male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M; Fazaeli, H; Ghorbani, G R

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated physiological effects of pistachio by-products silage (PBPS) substituted in Holstein male calves diets and its effects on the growth performance. Twenty-four Holstein male calves (4-5 months of age and 155.6 ± 13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental diets (n = 6); contained 0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of PBPS (DM basis) respectively. During a 6-month experiment, dry matter intake (DMI) and weight gain were recorded and blood and urine samples were collected at different times. Results showed that mean DMI was not affected by different levels of PBPS in diets. But the calves fed 6% PBPS had the highest average daily gain (p  0.05) on pH, specific gravity, the number of white and red blood cells and epithelial cells count in urine. The animals did not show any symptom of illness or toxicity during the experimental period and all of the blood and urine parameters were in a normal range. It was concluded that substitution of PBPS up to 18% of the total diet that provide up to 18.2 g/kg DM total tannin had no adverse effects for Holstein male calves.

  11. Effects of dam parity and pre-weaning average daily gain of Holstein calves on future milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseyni, Fatemeh; Mahjoubi, Ehsan; Zahmatkesh, Davood; Yazdi, Mehdi Hossein

    2016-11-01

    This research communication describes relationships between pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG) and dam parity with future productivity of dairy calves. Higher ADG before weaning has been shown to be related to greater milk production in the first lactation of Holstein calves fed milk replacer. However, data is limited on the relationship between pre-weaning ADG and first lactation performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk. Data of three hundred and thirty-two Holstein calves from 35 primiparous and 297 multiparous cows was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the dam parity and pre-weaning ADG with the first lactation performance. Results indicated that birth (P primiparous or multiparous cows, although milk yield tended to be higher in the former and ADG higher in the latter. Correlations between 305 d milk yield and pre-weaning ADG, dam parity and birth body weight were low and non-significant, although there was a tendency for a positive correlation between ADG and milk yield.

  12. Effect of environmental factors and fetal and maternal genotype on gestation length and birth weight of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, L J; Williams, C J

    1978-10-01

    Records of gestation length and birth weight on 1522 live single births (from 1958 to 1976) of Holstein calves were from 81 sires and 552 dams. Average gestation length was 282.3 days, and average birth weight was 42.9 kg. Male calves were carried 1.7 days longer than female calves and weighed 2.9 kg more at birth. Both gestation length and birth weight increased with parity. Calves born in spring and summer were carried shorter times and weighed less than those born in fall and winter. Heritabilities of gestation length and birth weight as progeny traits were .73 and .51 and as maternal traits were .19 and .26. Genetic correlations between gestation length and birth weight were .46 as a progeny trait and .35 as a maternal trait. Genetic correlations between progeny traits and maternal traits were negative. The phenotypic correlation between gestation length and birth weight was .37, and environmental correlation was .30.

  13. Milk production and economic measures in confinement or pasture systems using seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Benson, G A; Washburn, S P; Green, J T

    2002-01-01

    This 4-yr study examined total lactation performance of dairy cows in two feeding systems: pasture-based and confinement. Spring and fall calving herds were used and each seasonal herd had 36 cows on pasture and 36 cows in confinement with 282 Holstein and 222 Jersey cows included over seven seasonal replicates. Pasture-fed cows received variable amounts of grain and baled haylage depending upon pasture availability. Confinement cows received a total mixed ration with corn silage as the primary forage. Data were collected on milk production, feed costs, and other costs. Pasture-fed cows produced 11.1% less milk than confinement cows. Across treatments, Jerseys produced 23.3% less milk than Holsteins, but calving season and various interactions were not significant. Feed costs averaged $0.95/cow per day lower for pastured cows than confinement cows. Feed costs were lower for Jerseys than Holsteins and for cows calving in spring. Income over feed costs averaged $7.05 +/- 0.34 for confinement Holsteins, $6.89 +/- 0.34 for pastured Holsteins, $5.68 +/- 0.34 for confinement Jerseys, and $5.36 +/- 0.34 for pastured Jerseys; effects of breed were significant but treatment, season, and interactions were not. Economic factors such as labor for animal care, manure handling, forage management, and cow culling rates favored pastured cows. Higher fertility and lower mastitis among Jerseys partially offsets lower income over feed cost compared with Holsteins. Milk production was lower in this study for pasture-based systems but lower feed costs, lower culling costs, and other economic factors indicate that pasture-based systems can be competitive with confinement systems.

  14. Standard electrocardiographic values in Holstein calves Valores eletrocardiográficos normais para bezerros holandeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.N. Mendes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents electrocardiographic values in 25 Holstein calves using the standard bipolar limbs leads (I, II and III, augmented unipolar limb leads (avL, avR and avF and a bipolar chest lead (V10. Two groups with different ages were compared (newborn - 18 to 72 hours and calves - 27 to 33 days old. It was concluded that no differences between age groups in P, Q, R, S and T waves, in the PR, QRS, QT and ST intervals and in axis orientation were observed.Este artigo apresenta valores eletrocardiográficos de 25 bezerros da raça Holandesesa, utilizando-se as derivações bipolares de membro (I, II, III, unipolares aumentadas de membro (avL, avR e avF e uma derivação bipolar de torax (V10. Dois grupos com animais de diferentes idades foram comparados (18 a 72 horas e 27 a 33 dias de idade. Conclui-se que não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos nas ondas P, Q, R, S e T, nos intervalos PR, QRS, QT e ST e no eixo cardíaco.

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of age at first calving in Iranian Holstein dairy cows

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    Atefeh Seyeddokht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Age at first calving (AFC has an important effect on profitability and reproductive management of dairy cattle. Every month increase in AFC beyond 24 months increases the cost of production. The time between birth and first calving represents a period in which replacement heifers are not generating income. Instead this rearing period requires considerable capital expenditures including feed, housing, and veterinary expenses. These expenses constitute 15% to 20% of the total expenses related to milk production. A basic approach to reduce this cost is to decrease the time between birth and her first freshening. Worldwide recommendations for one particular AFC might be an incorrect management goal for all of the cattle on all of the farms, since the recommendation might not represent the management goals and/or capabilities of a particular production system or farm. We realize that each dairy has its own set of unique management and environmental conditions, which makes a universal AFC and BW after first calving, a difficult goal to achieve. The AFC has a profound influence on the total cost of raising dairy replacements in which older calving heifers are more expensive to raise than younger ones. Materials and methods: A total of 19499 calving records belonged to 96 herd from 1996 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic components and genetic trend for age at first calving in Holstein dairy cows of Iran. Data were analyzed using a univariate model and Wombat software. Linear regression of estimated breeding values on calving year was used to estimate genetic trend. Results and Discussion: Estimated genetic trend was positive for some years and was negative for others and showed that reducing age at first calving has not been considered in the selection strategies; however, the phenotypic trend was decreased. The age at first calving for Yazd, Markazi, and southern Khorasan provinces were the highest and for Kermanshah, East Azarbayjan

  16. Characterization of genes and pathways that respond to heat stress in Holstein calves through transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Kwon, Anam; Lee, Eunjin; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the genes and pathways that respond to heat stress in Holstein bull calves exposed to severe ranges of temperature and humidity. A total of ten animals from 4 to 6 months of age were subjected to heat stress at 37 °C and 90 % humidity for 12 h. Skin and rectal temperatures were measured before and after heat stress; while no correlation was found between them before heat stress, a moderate correlation was detected after heat stress, confirming rectal temperature to be a better barometer for monitoring heat stress. RNAseq analysis identified 8567 genes to be differentially regulated, out of which 465 genes were significantly upregulated (≥2-fold, P heat stress. Significant terms and pathways enriched in response to heat stress included chaperones, cochaperones, cellular response to heat stress, phosphorylation, kinase activation, immune response, apoptosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Pi3K/AKT activation, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, interferon signaling, pathways in cancer, estrogen signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. The differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, which confirmed the tendency of the expression. The genes and pathways identified in this analysis extend our understanding of transcriptional response to heat stress and their likely functioning in adapting the animal to hyperthermic stress. The identified genes could be used as candidate genes for association studies to select and breed animals with improved heat tolerance.

  17. Short communication: Effect of calf starter on rumen pH of Holstein dairy calves at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarman, A H; Oba, M

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding calf starter on rumen pH of dairy calves during weaning transition. Twenty Holstein bull calves were paired into 10 blocks by starting date of the study and body weight, and fed either milk replacer and hay (MR) or MR, hay, and a commercial texturized calf starter (MR+S) in a randomized complete block design. All calves were fed 750 g/d of milk replacer as the basal diet. Calves on MR+S treatment were also fed a calf starter ad libitum to maintain similar energy intake between calves within blocks, and MR calves were fed additional milk replacer that was equivalent to energy from calf starter intake. When MR+S calves consumed a calf starter at 680 g/d for 3 consecutive d, rumen pH of a MR+S calf and his MR counterpart was measured continuously for 3 d using a small ruminant rumen pH measurement system. Treatment did not affect minimum pH, mean pH, maximum pH, standard deviation of mean pH, and duration or area under pH 5.8, indicating that calf starter consumption did not appear to affect rumen pH. However, hay intake was negatively correlated to area under pH 5.8, with a breakpoint at 0.080 kg/d intake, suggesting hay intake might play an important role in mitigating ruminal acidosis in dairy calves during weaning transition.

  18. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-09-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value genes were found to be differentially expressed on days 1, 2, and 3 out of which 343, 261 and 256 genes were upregulated and 159, 133, and 120 genes were downregulated. Only 356 genes out of these were expressed on all 3 days, and only they were considered as significantly differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  19. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-09-12

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  20. Morphological characteristics of pelves of estonian holstein and estonian native breed cows from the perspective of calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahkur, E; Ernits, E; Jalakas, M; Järv, E

    2011-10-01

    Dystocia is more common in Holstein-Friesian (HF) breed cows than in other dairy breeds. This is often caused by a disproportion between the birth canal of a female animal and the fetus. It is thought that the main determiners of unsuitability are the birth mass of the calf and the shape of the female pelvis. From the perspective of calving the cranial and caudal pelvic apertures are of great significance. This study focuses on pluriparous pelves of the Estonian Native Breed (EN) and the Estonian Holstein Breed (EHF). The longest measurement of the cranial pelvic aperture of an EHF cow is the conjugate diameter. The cranial pelvic aperture narrows slightly ventrally, being shaped like a trapezium with rounded angles. The longest measurement of the caudal aperture is its caudal transverse measurement. The aperture is flattened dorsoventrally. The cranial pelvic aperture of an EN cow is dorsally angular, but more oval ventrally, and is on the whole narrower and higher. By comparison with the EHF cow, the pelvic cavity of the EN cow widens caudally, and the height of the pelvic apertures contributes to ease of calving. It appears that the configuration of the pelvis of an EN cow is similar to the pelvis of the elk (Alces alces). The pelvis of the EHF cow has become unsuitable for easy calving, especially with regard to the caudal aperture.

  1. Evaluating alternate models to estimate genetic parameters of calving traits in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eaglen Sophie A E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus in dairy cattle breeding is gradually shifting from production to functional traits and genetic parameters of calving traits are estimated more frequently. However, across countries, various statistical models are used to estimate these parameters. This study evaluates different models for calving ease and stillbirth in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian cattle. Methods Data from first and later parity records were used. Genetic parameters for calving ease, stillbirth and gestation length were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method, considering different models i.e. sire (−maternal grandsire, animal, univariate and bivariate models. Gestation length was fitted as a correlated indicator trait and, for all three traits, genetic correlations between first and later parities were estimated. Potential bias in estimates was avoided by acknowledging a possible environmental direct-maternal covariance. The total heritable variance was estimated for each trait to discuss its theoretical importance and practical value. Prediction error variances and accuracies were calculated to compare the models. Results and discussion On average, direct and maternal heritabilities for calving traits were low, except for direct gestation length. Calving ease in first parity had a significant and negative direct-maternal genetic correlation. Gestation length was maternally correlated to stillbirth in first parity and directly correlated to calving ease in later parities. Multi-trait models had a slightly greater predictive ability than univariate models, especially for the lowly heritable traits. The computation time needed for sire (−maternal grandsire models was much smaller than for animal models with only small differences in accuracy. The sire (−maternal grandsire model was robust when additional genetic components were estimated, while the equivalent animal model had difficulties reaching convergence. Conclusions

  2. Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a

  3. Efficacy of tildipirosin metaphylaxis for the prevention of respiratory disease, otitis and mortality in pre-weaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A G V; McArt, J A A; Bicalho, R C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two metaphylactic approaches (long acting antibiotic injected once at 10 days of life or twice at 10 and 35 days of life) on the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), otitis and mortality in high-risk group-housed pre-weaned Holstein heifer calves. The antibiotic of choice for the metaphylactic approach was a long acting macrolide (tildipirosin) administered subcutaneously at the base of the neck at a dose of 1 mL per 45 kg body weight. A clinical trial was carried out on one dairy farm with random allocation of newborn calves to one of three treatments: (1) control (CTR); (2) one injection at 10 days of life (M1); and (3) two injections at 10 and 35 days of life (M2). Study heifers (n = 795) were reared in group pens of 25 calves per pen and fed unrestricted acidified non-saleable milk from day 1 to day 65 of life. Cox proportional hazard and general linear mixed models were used to evaluate the effect of treatment on mortality, BRD and otitis, and average daily weight gain. The birth weights, proportions of calves with inadequate transfer of passive immunity, proportions of calves born from primiparous dams and proportions of calves born from assisted parturitions were not different among CTR, M1 and M2 treatments. A significantly lower hazard of being affected with BRD and/or otitis (but not for BRD or otitis alone) was observed for M1 (hazard ratio, HR = 0.70, P = 0.009) and M2 (HR = 0.72, P = 0.01) when compared to the CTR group. Metaphylactic treatments had no effect on mortality, otitis and average daily weight gain during the pre-weaning period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  5. Determining optimum age of Holstein dairy calves when adding chopped alfalfa hay to meal starter diets based on measures of growth and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the optimum age of Holstein dairy calves for an effective inclusion of alfalfa hay (AH) in starter feed on performance, apparent digestibility and feeding behavior. A total of 40 Holstein dairy calves (20 female and 20 male) were used in a completely randomized design in which calves were randomly assigned to one of four different dietary treatments including control (CON) calves fed starter feed without any forage and three treatments consisting of the same starter feed plus 15% chopped AH fed when calves were at the 2nd (AH2), 4th (AH4) or 6th (AH6) week of age. Calves were individually housed and bedded with sand that was replaced every other day. Feed and water were available ad libitum throughout the experiment. Calves were fed milk at 10% of birth BW twice daily until d 57. The study concluded when calves were 73 days old. Starter intake was recorded daily and BW was measured weekly. Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design by MIXED procedures of SAS. Results demonstrate that calves receiving AH treatments numerically consumed more starter feed (0.62 v. 0.78, 0.71 and 0.65 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (ADG) compared with CON (0.48 v. 0.57, 0.49 and 0.49 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6), although the significant difference was observed only between AH2 and CON. Among AH treatments, calves in AH2 had better performance than AH6 in several cases including starter intake, ADG. No detectable differences were observed, however, in apparent dry matter, organic matter or CP digestibility among treatments. Ruminal pH and NH3 concentrations, measured on weeks 4, 6, 8 and 10, were lower for calves fed CON compared with other treatments, with ammonia concentrations decreasing over time. Calves in the AH treatments spent more time eating and ruminating compared with CON. Calves fed CON, however, spent more time on laying down compared with other treatments

  6. Modelling the growth of preruminant calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The emphasis in meat production has shifted from maximizing production volume to the efficient production of lean meat. Body composition can to a large extent be manipulated by nutritional means. It does, however, require integrated knowledge of protein and energy metabolism. Two experiments were pe

  7. Modelling the growth of preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.

    1996-01-01


    The emphasis in meat production has shifted from maximizing production volume to the efficient production of lean meat. Body composition can to a large extent be manipulated by nutritional means. It does, however, require integrated knowledge of protein and energy metabolism. Two experime

  8. Modelling the growth of preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.

    1996-01-01


    The emphasis in meat production has shifted from maximizing production volume to the efficient production of lean meat. Body composition can to a large extent be manipulated by nutritional means. It does, however, require integrated knowledge of protein and energy metabolism. Two

  9. Effects of feeding a calf starter on molecular adaptations in the ruminal epithelium and liver of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarman, A H; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Sugino, T; Guan, L L; Oba, M

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of feeding a calf starter on the volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile in the rumen and on expression of genes involved in epithelial intracellular pH regulation, butyrate metabolism, and hepatic urea cycle during the weaning transition. Twenty Holstein bull calves were fed either milk replacer and hay (MR) or milk replacer, hay, and a commercial texturized calf starter (MR+S) in a randomized complete block design. All calves were fed 750 g/d of milk replacer as the basal diet. Calves on the MR+S treatment were also fed starter ad libitum, and the energy intake of calves within blocks was maintained by supplementing the MR group with extra milk replacer that was equivalent to the energy intake from calf starter. Calves were killed 3 d after they consumed 680 g/d of calf starter for 3 consecutive days. Calves fed MR+S had higher VFA concentrations in the rumen (99.1±8.1 vs. 64.6±8.6 mM) and a higher molar proportion of butyrate (15.6±1.7 vs. 7.9±1.9%) than calves fed MR. Relative abundance of mRNA for monocarboxylate transporter isoform 1 was higher (1.45 vs. 0.53), and that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (0.37 vs. 0.82) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl synthase isoform 1 (0.40 vs. 0.94) lower for the MR+S treatment compared with the MR treatment. In the liver, relative mRNA abundances of argininosuccinate synthetase isoform 1 (2.67 vs. 1.56), argininosuccinate lyase (1.44 vs. 0.99), and arginase isoform 1 (3.21 vs. 1.74) were greater for MR+S than for MR calves. Calf starter consumption appeared to increase fermentation in the rumen and affected expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and intracellular pH regulation in ruminal epithelium, and those involved in urea cycle in the liver.

  10. Increasing intake of essential fatty acids from milk replacer benefits performance, immune responses, and health of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Shin, J H; Schlaefli, A; Greco, L F; Maunsell, F P; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding increasing amounts of essential fatty acids (FA) in milk replacer (MR) during the first 60 d of life on growth, health, and immunity of Holstein calves. Calves were born from dams fed low concentrations of total and essential FA during the lasT2 mo of pregnancy. Newborn calves were blocked by sex and parity of the dam and assigned randomly to receive 1 of 4 MR treatments (T). Hydrogenated coconut oil and soybean oil were mixed with emulsifier and commercial MR powder to prepare the following 4 MR containing 0.119 and 0.007 (T1), 0.187 and 0.017 (T2), 0.321 and 0.036 (T3), and 0.593 and 0.076 (T4) g of intake per kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. At 30 d of life, concentrations of essential FA (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) in liver increased, whereas concentrations of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, and C20:3n-9 decreased linearly with increasing intake of essential FA. Body weight gain and feed efficiency were optimized when male calves consumed T2, whereas gain by female calves tended to increase linearly with increasing intake of essential FA during the first 30 d of age. However, these responses to treatment were not maintained after initiation of concentrate feeding at 31 d of life. Over the 60-d preweaning period, wither and hip heights were improved in both sexes as intake of essential FA increased up to T3. Some measures of health and immunity were affected by replacing some coconut oil with soybean oil. Severity of diarrhea tended to decrease linearly; plasma concentrations of haptoglobin during diarrhea were lower in T2, T3, and T4; phagocytosis by blood neutrophils tended to peak for calves fed T2; in vitro proliferation of stimulated blood lymphocytes was greater for calves fed T2; in vitro stimulated blood cells produced more IFN-γ (up to T3 for males and T2 for females), concentrations of serum IgG against ovalbumin injections were increased in

  11. Supplementing fresh bovine colostrum with gut-active carbohydrates reduces passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, M P; Godden, S M; Haines, D M

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of coliform bacteria in maternal colostrum (MC) have been associated with reduced IgG absorption in calves. Mannan-oligosaccharide, a gut-active carbohydrate (GAC) derived from yeast cell wall, has been shown to adsorb pathogens expressing type-1-fimbriae, reducing their ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate if addition of a GAC to colostrum would result in increased IgG absorption in newborn calves. Newborn Holstein heifer and bull calves were enrolled in summer 2012 at a commercial transition cow facility in western Wisconsin. Each day, 7.6-L pools of fresh, first milking MC were created, split into 3.8-L aliquots, and refrigerated until feeding. Eligible newborn calves were removed from the dam 30 to 60min after birth, weighed, and randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of the MC pool (control) or 3.8 L of the MC pool with 30 g of GAC mixed in immediately before feeding. Duplicate 10-mL samples of colostrum were collected and frozen at -20°C before feeding (and before addition of GAC) for bacterial culture and IgG determination. A 10-mL venous blood sample was collected from calves before feeding colostrum and 24 h after colostrum feeding, for laboratory determination of serum IgG using radial immunodiffusion analysis. Colostrum and calf characteristics, including colostrum IgG concentration (g/L), colostrum bacteria counts (log10, cfu/mL), calf dystocia scores (1 to 4), birth weights (kg), and age at first feeding (min) were not different between the group fed GAC (n=47) and the control group (n=48). Mixed linear regression analysis showed that calves fed colostrum supplemented with 30 g of GAC had lower mean (standard error) apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG and lower serum IgG concentrations at 24 h [23.9% (1.0); IgG=24.0 (1.1) g/L] than did control calves [30.4% (1.0); IgG=30.8 (1.0) g/L]. Given the negative effect observed in this study, it is not recommended that fresh

  12. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R

    2016-04-01

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk.

  13. The dynamics of biochemical parameters in blood of clinically healthy holstein cows from day 5 before to day 60 after calving

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    Irena Celeska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The peripartal period in Holstein dairy cows is critical, due to the transition from pregnancy to lactation. We have studied the dynamics of biochemical parameters from day 5 before to day 60 after calving. The study included 10 multiparous Holstein cows, examined at days -5, 5, 10, 30 and 60 relative to calving. Blood samples were taken from vena jugularis. Analyzed biochemical parameters were glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin, albumin, total protein, urea, NEFA and BHBA. Milk production and body condition score were also estimated. Obtained results showed that cows were exposed to mild to marked metabolic distress. Energy status was changed due to increased values of NEFA and BHBA and decreased value of glucose after calving. Protein concentrations were increased at day 10 after calving, despite the decrease of the level of albumin. Urea concentrations before and after calving were within physiological range indicating an optimal protein diet. Increased values of total bilirubin at day 5 after calving indicated liver increased activity. Lipid status presented by triglycerides and total cholesterol revealed no differences in blood concentrations. Milk production was highest at day 30 after calving. BCS were highest in dry cows, thereafter they declined and recovered at day 60 after calving. In conclusion, biochemical parameters can be used as relevant indicators of metabolic distress in cows around calving with milk and BCS recording as aside parameters. Changes in some biochemical parameters indicate liver increased activity and metabolic stress, that could lead to decreased milk production, impaired reproductive performance and, finally, to illness.

  14. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program.

  15. Oxyntomodulin increases the concentrations of insulin and glucose in plasma but does not affect ghrelin secretion in Holstein cattle under normal physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ThanThan, S; Zhao, H; Yannaing, S; Ishikawa, T; Kuwayama, H

    2010-10-01

    Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a), has been shown to stimulate growth hormone (GH) secretion. Regulation of ghrelin secretion in ruminants is not well studied. We investigated the effects of oxyntomodulin (OXM) and secretin on the secretions of ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in pre-ruminants (5 wk old) and ruminants (10 wk old) under normal physiological (feeding) conditions. Eight male Holstein calves (pre-ruminants: 52 +/- 1 kg body weight [BW]; and ruminants: 85 +/- 1 kg BW) were injected intravenously with 30 microg of OXM/kg BW, 50 microg of secretin/kg BW, and vehicle (0.1% bovine serum albumin [BSA] in saline as a control) in random order. Blood samples were collected, and plasma hormones and metabolites were analyzed using a double-antibody radioimmunoassay system and commercially available kits, respectively. We found that OXM increased the concentrations of insulin and glucose but did not affect the concentrations of ghrelin in both pre-ruminants and ruminants and that there was no effect of secretin on the concentrations of ghrelin, insulin, and glucose in these calves. We also investigated the dose-response effects of OXM on the secretion of insulin and glucose in 8 Holstein steers (401 +/- 1 d old, 398 +/- 10 kg BW). We found that OXM increased the concentrations of insulin and glucose even at physiological plasma concentrations, with a minimum effective dose of 0.4 microg/kg for the promotion of glucose secretion and 2 microg/kg for the stimulation of insulin secretion. These findings suggest that OXM takes part in glucose metabolism in ruminants.

  16. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

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    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  17. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

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    Gustafsson H

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB and Swedish Holstein (SLB dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26 were observed, while 5% (2/42 were noted for the SRB heifers. One stillborn calf derived from the SRB cows and none was found from the SLB cows. In the heifers and cows delivering a normal living calf with unassisted parturition, the placentome thickness monitored by ultrasonography was constant towards the end of pregnancy. The numbers of foetal cotyledons varied individually between animals but in total, fewer cotyledons were found in the foetal membranes of the SRB animals than in the SLB animals (69 ± 19 vs. (88 ± 29 (p 2α metabolite (PG-metabolite, cortisol, oestrone sulphate (E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs were not different by breeds and parities. In animals carrying stillbirth, higher levels of E1SO4 were found in 3 SRB animals and 1 SLB heifer, whereas lower levels of E1SO4 were recorded in 3 SLB heifers during the last week of pregnancy, compared to the profiles found in animals with unassisted parturition. Additionally, the levels of PAGs remained low and constant in 1 SRB cow (delivering a stillborn calf, 1 SRB heifer (giving birth prematurely, 4 animals (carrying twins and 1 aborting SRB cow. Our results show a very high rate of stillbirth in especially SLB heifers and deviating profiles of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals with impaired parturition were recorded.

  18. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( < 0.01) in calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of dairy calves.

  19. Short communication: Effects of increasing protein and energy in the milk replacer with or without direct-fed microbial supplementation on growth and performance of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Ward, S H; Williams, C C; Rude, B J; Cabrera, C J; Kalestch, K N; Voelz, B E

    2014-11-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves were fed a direct-fed microbial (DFM) and 1 of 2 milk replacers to evaluate calf performance and growth. Treatments were (1) a control milk replacer [22:20; 22% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat], (2) an accelerated milk replacer (27:10; 27% CP and 10% fat), (3) the control milk replacer with added DFM (22:20+D), and (4) the accelerated milk replacer with added DFM (27:10+D). Dry matter intake, rectal temperatures, respiration scores and rates, and fecal scores were collected daily. Body weight, hip and withers height, heart girth, blood, and rumen fluid samples were collected weekly. Effects of treatment, sex, week, and their interactions were analyzed. Calves fed an accelerated milk replacer, regardless of DFM supplementation, consumed more CP and metabolizable energy in the milk replacer. No treatment differences were found for starter intake or intake of neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber in the starter. Calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had greater preweaning and weaning body weight compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Average daily gain was greater during the preweaning period for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but the same pattern did not hold true during the postweaning period. Feed efficiency did not differ among treatments. Hip height tended to be and withers height and heart girth were greater at weaning for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Fecal scores were greatest in calves fed DFM. Overall acetate, propionate, butyrate, and n-valerate concentrations were lower in calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but DFM did not have an effect. Rumen pH was not different. Blood metabolites were unaffected by DFM supplementation, but calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had increased partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate, and total bicarbonate in the blood. Direct-fed microbial supplementation did not appear to benefit the calf

  20. Heterogeneity of genetic parameters for calving difficulty in Holstein heifers in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, J.M.; Keane, M.G.; Kenny, D.A.; Cromie, A.R.; Amer, P.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Calving difficulty is a trait that greatly affects animal welfare, herd profitability, and the amount of labor required by cattle farmers. It is influenced by direct and maternal genetic components. Selection and breeding strategies can optimize the accuracy of genetic evaluations and correctly emph

  1. Pharmacokinetics and effect of intravenous meloxicam in weaned Holstein calves following scoop dehorning without local anesthesia

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    Coetzee Johann F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dehorning is a common practice involving calves on dairy operations in the United States. However, less than 20% of producers report using analgesics or anesthetics during dehorning. Administration of a systemic analgesic drug at the time of dehorning may be attractive to dairy producers since cornual nerve blocks require 10 – 15 min to take effect and only provide pain relief for a few hours. The primary objectives of this trial were to (1 describe the compartmental pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in calves after IV administration at 0.5 mg/kg and (2 to determine the effect of meloxicam (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 treatment on serum cortisol response, plasma substance P (SP concentrations, heart rate (HR, activity and weight gain in calves after scoop dehorning and thermocautery without local anesthesia. Results Plasma meloxicam concentrations were detectable for 50 h post-administration and fit a 2-compartment model with a rapid distribution phase (mean T½α = 0.22 ± 0.087 h and a slower elimination phase (mean T½β = 21.86 ± 3.03 h. Dehorning caused a significant increase in serum cortisol concentrations and HR (P  Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first published report examining the effects of meloxicam without local anesthesia on SP, activity and performance of calves post-dehorning. These findings suggest that administration of meloxicam alone immediately prior to dehorning does not mitigate signs of acute distress but may have long term physiological, behavior and performance effects.

  2. The effect of 2 liquid feeds and 2 sources of protein in starter on performance and blood metabolites in Holstein neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, A M; Heidari Jahan Abadi, S; Naserian, A A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 2 liquid feeds and 2 protein sources in starter on the performance and blood metabolite responses of Holstein neonatal calves from birth to 6 wk of age. Calves (20 males and 20 females) based on sex were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, including soybean meal (SBM) and meat and bone meal (MB) with either fermented colostrum (or fresh milk. Although sex and liquid feed had no significant effect on feed intake, calves consumed more feed intake on the diet containing SBM (15 ± 0.2 kg) than MB (13 ± 0.2 kg) during the experimental period; also, weight gain was affected by both liquid feed and starter. Liquid feed and starter had significant effects on calf body size, including pin width, hip width, withers height, hip height, and stomach size, but no significant effects were observed on calf body size between the sexes. Plasma glucose concentration was not affected by sex, liquid feed, or starter. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration decreased in the first 3 wk and then started to increase during the last 3 wk, but it was only affected by starter and calves receiving SBM (10.18 mg/dL) had a higher concentration of plasma urea nitrogen than calves receiving MB (9.6 mg/dL) at the end of the experiment. Plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations decreased in all treatment groups from d 0 to the end of the study. No significant effects were observed on plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations between the 2 sexes, but they were significantly affected by both liquid feed and starter. Results of the present study provide useful information to apply to Holstein neonatal calves during the first 6 wk of life when liquid feed and 2 sources of protein in starter are considered.

  3. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  4. Associations between strain, herd size, age at first calving, culling reason and lifetime performance characteristics in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, K; Makulska, J; Jagusiak, W; Węglarz, A

    2017-02-01

    Cow longevity and lifetime performance traits are good indicators of breeding effectiveness and animal welfare. They are also interrelated with the economics of dairy herd. Unfortunately, a high milk yield is often associated with deteriorated cow health and fertility and, consequently, with an increased culling rate. This situation, observed also in the Polish population of Holstein-Friesian cattle, inspired us to undertake a study on the associations between some factors and lifetime performance characteristics. The data set consisted of the records on 135 496 cows, including 131 526 of the Black and White strain (BW), and 3970 of the Red and White strain (RW) covered by performance recording and culled in 2012. It was found that cows of the BW strain and those from the largest herds (>100 cows) reached higher lifetime and mean daily energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields than cows of the RW strain and those from smaller herds culled at a similar age. Cows youngest at first calving (indicates that heifers can be bred even when they are younger than 15 to 16 months with no significant negative effect on their later performance. Infertility and reproduction problems (39.6%) and udder diseases (15.5%) constituted the most frequent reasons for cow culling. Cow longevity and lifetime productivity were considerably affected by the interactions between the studied factors.

  5. Effects of body condition score at calving on indicators of fat and protein mobilization of periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, J A A; Delavaud, C; Faulconnier, Y; Pomiès, D; Chilliard, Y

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to study the effects of body condition score (BCS) at calving on dairy performance, indicators of fat and protein mobilization, and metabolic and hormonal profiles during the periparturient period of Holstein-Friesian cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows were classed according to their BCS (0 to 5 scale) before calving as low (BCS ≤ 2.5; n=9), medium (2.75 ≤ BCS ≤ 3.5; n=10), and high (BCS ≥ 3.75; n=9), corresponding to a mean of 2.33, 3.13, and 4.17 points of BCS, and preceding calving intervals of 362, 433, and 640 d, respectively. Cows received the same diets based on preserved grass to allow ad libitum feed intake throughout the study, and lactation diet contained 30% of concentrate (dry-matter basis). Measurements and sampling were performed between wk -4 and 7 relative to calving. No significant effects were observed of BCS group on dry matter intake (kg/d), milk yield, BCS loss, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. The high-BCS group had the lowest postpartum energy balance and the greatest plasma concentrations of leptin prepartum, nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum, insulin-like growth factor 1, and milk fat content. Milk fat yield was greater for the high- than the low-BCS group (1,681 vs. 1,417 g/d). Low-BCS cows had the greatest concentration of medium-chain fatty acids (e.g., sum of 10:0 to 15:0, and 16:0), and the lowest concentration and secretion of preformed fatty acids (e.g., cis-9 18:1) in milk fat. Milk protein secretion was lowest in the low-BCS group, averaging 924, 1,051, and 1,009 g/d for low-, medium-, and high-BCS groups, respectively. Plasma 3-methylhistidine was greater in wk 1 and 2 postpartum compared with other time points, indicating mobilization of muscle protein. Plasma creatinine tended to be lower and the 3-methylhistidine: creatinine ratio was greater in low- compared with medium- and high-BCS cows, suggesting less muscle mass but more intense mobilization of muscle

  6. Effect of the mass of immunoglobulin (Ig)G intake and age at first colostrum feeding on serum IgG concentration in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, I; Matsui, Y; Terada, F

    2014-10-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves (19 male and 25 female) were used in this study of the relationships among age at first colostrum feeding, IgG intake, and apparent efficiency of IgG absorption. Time of birth was recorded for each calf and the calves were fed colostrum ad libitum after birth at either 0930 or 1630 h. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 24h after colostrum feeding. Data from calves were then categorized into 4 groups representing time from birth to colostrum feeding: A=fed within 1h (n=5); B=fed from 1 to 6h (n=10); C=fed from 6 to 12 h (n=21); and D=fed from 12 to 18 h (n=8) after birth. Average total intake of colostrum was 3.6 ± 0.1L. Over 80% of the calves consumed ≥3 L of colostrum. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption declined remarkably 12 h after birth. Mean apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG in group D (15.8 ± 3.0%) was lower than that in groups A (30.5 ± 3.9%) and B (27.4 ± 2.8%). Serum IgG concentration in calves was positively correlated with IgG intake in all groups. The relationship between mass of IgG consumed and calf serum IgG at 24 h was different for each time of colostrum feeding, with only limited differences observed between groups A and B. We concluded that failure of transfer of passive immunity in newborn calves may be avoided if calves consume ≥3 L of colostrum with IgG concentration >40 mg/mL within 6 h after birth. These findings help define the opportunity to minimize failure of transfer of passive immunity to newborn calves under management programs similar to those used on commercial dairy farms.

  7. Supplementation of essential fatty acids to Holstein calves during late uterine life and first month of life alters hepatic fatty acid profile and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Lock, A L; Block, E; Santos, J E P; Thatcher, W W; Staples, C R

    2016-09-01

    Linoleic acid is an essential dietary fatty acid (FA). However, how the supplementation of linoleic acid during uterine and early life may modify the FA profile and transcriptome regulation of the liver, and performance of preweaned dairy calves is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of essential FA to Holstein calves during late uterine and early life on their hepatic FA profile and global gene expression at 30 d of age. During the last 8 wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed either no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA supplement enriched with C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched with linoleic acid. Male calves (n=40) born from these dams were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low (LLA) or high linoleic acid (HLA) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30 d. Liver biopsy was performed at 30 d of age, and microarray analysis was performed on 18 liver samples. Total concentration of FA in liver were greater in calves fed LLA compared with those fed HLA MR (8.2 vs. 7.1%), but plasma concentrations of total FA did not differ due to MR diets. The FA profiles of plasma and liver of calves were affected differently by the prepartum diets. Specifically, the FA profile in liver was affected moderately by the feeding of fat prepartum, but the profiles did not differ due to the type of FA fed prepartum. The type of MR fed during the first 30 d of life had major effects on both plasma and liver FA profiles, resembling the type of fat fed. Plasma and liver of calves fed LLA MR had greater percentage of medium-chain FA (C12:0 and C14:0), whereas plasma and liver from calves fed HLA MR had greater percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids. Dams fed fat or a specific type of FA modified the expression of some genes in liver of calves, particularly those genes involved in biological functions and pathways related to upregulation of lipid metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory responses

  8. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  9. Environmental heat effects on growth, plasma T3, and postheat compensatory effects on Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, F; Johnson, H D; Hahn, G L

    1983-07-01

    Five Holstein heifers, 5 months of age, were housed in the Missouri Climatic Laboratory and subjected to an experiment to measure the effects of heat stress on rates of growth, plasma triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and ability to compensate in rate of gain and thyroid function following the stress period. The experiment consisted of 3 weeks at thermoneutral (TN1), followed by 5 weeks of individually controlled heat stress conditions (32.5 to 34 degrees C) dependent on heat tolerance of individual animals. This was followed by a 4-week thermoneutral, postheat compensatory period (TN2). Average daily gains were significantly depressed during the heat stress period (HS). Following heat stress the average body weights attained the projected or expected levels within a 21- to 28-day period following return of animals to thermoneutral conditions. Ratios of feed intake/body weight (w0.75) were reduced during heat stress treatment indicating the thermal inhibition. Ratios or amount of feed intake per unit of gain were greater during HS treatment indicating less weight gain per unit of daily feed intake. Plasma T3 was reduced during heat treatment similarly to daily weight gain. Following the postheat treatment period (TN2) plasma T3 increased markedly as did daily weight gains to demonstrate strong compensatory responses in both measures. In summary, these results demonstrated parallel and positive changes of plasma T3 with daily weight gain during thermoneutral, heat, and postheat compensatory periods, and an inverse relationship of rectal temperature to weight gain and plasma T3.

  10. Genetic analysis of days from calving to first insemination and days open in Danish Holsteins using different models and censoring scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Y; Madsen, P; Labouriau, R;

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate models for genetic evaluation of days from calving to first insemination (ICF) and days open (DO). Data including 509,512 first-parity records of Danish Holstein cows were analyzed using 5 alternative sire models...... without any penalty on censored records; 3) a right-censored linear model (CLM); 4) a Weibull proportional hazard model (SMW); and 5) a Cox proportional hazard model (SMC) constructed with piecewise constant baseline hazard function. The variance components for ICF and DO estimated from LM and TLM were...

  11. Genetic variation of metabolite and hormone concentration in UK Holstein-Frisian calves and the genetic relationship with economically important traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayhurst, C; Flint, A P F; Løvendahl, P

    2009-01-01

    The decline of dairy cattle fertility worldwide remains a major concern, with conception rates to first service commonly below 40%. The length and severity of negative energy balance postpartum are unfavorably correlated with fertility, suggesting that the length and severity of negative energy...... variance seems responsible for a moderate proportion of the phenotypic variation in important metabolites and regulatory hormones in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves, therefore supporting further investigation into their use as juvenile predictors for fertility in the mature female...

  12. Influence of methionine supplementation of growing diets enriched with lysine on feedlot performance and characteristics of digestion in Holstein steer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentera, Noemí; Carrasco, Ramsés; Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Plascencia, Alejandro; Zinn, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Two trials were conducted in order to examine the effects of level of supplemental methionine on productive performance, dietary energetic, plasma amino acid concentration, and digestive function. Methods Dietary treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing urea as the only source of supplemental nitrogen supplemented with no supplemental amino acid (control), or control plus 1.01% lysine and 0.032%, 0.064%, 0.096%, or 0.128% methionine. In Trial 1, 150 Holstein steer calves (127±4.9 kg) were utilized to evaluate the influence of treatments on growth-performance, dietary energetic, plasma amino acid concentration during the first 112 days of growing period. During the initial 56-d period calves received the 5 experimental diets. During the subsequent 56-d period all calves were fed the control diet. Results During the initial 56-d period, methionine supplementation increased (linear effect, p<0.01) plasma methionine. In the presence of supplemental lysine, increases on level of methionine in diet did not affect average daily gain. However, increased gain efficiency (quadratic effect, p = 0.03) and estimated dietary net energy (NE; linear effect, p = 0.05). Estimated metabolizable methionine supply was closely associated (R2 = 0.95) with efficiency NE utilization for maintenance and gain. During the subsequent 56-d period, when all calves received the control diet (no amino acid supplementation), plasma amino acid concentrations and growth performance was not different among groups. However, the effects of methionine supplementation during the initial 56-period carried over, so that following a 56-d withdrawal of supplementation, the overall 112-d effects on gain efficiency (quadratic effect, p = 0.05) dietary NE (linear effect, p≤0.05) remained appreciable. In Trial 2, 5 cannulated Holstein steers were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion and amino acid supply to the small intestine. There were no

  13. Transfer of passive immunity and serum proteinogram in the first six months of life of Criollo Lageano and black and white holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Timboni Teixeira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the transfer of passive immunity and the proteinogram in Criollo Lageano (CL and Black and White Holstein (BWH calves. Two groups were utilized with 13 Criollo Lageano and 10 BWH calves. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of total serum protein, electrophoresis of serum proteins, activity of the gamma glutamyl transferase, and concentration of IgG by the method of the zinc sulfate turbidity in periods between 24 and 36 hours of life, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey test at 5% significance level, and correlations between variables were calculated. Variations of serum proteins followed a pattern of physiological behavior over the first six months of life and production of immunoglobulins was active earlier in BWH calves and slower in the Criollo Lageano, without causing any impact on their health. Gamma globulin in the first days of life (24-36h was correlated with IgG (r=0.87 for CL and r=0.89 for BWH, PTS (r=0.91 for CL and r=0.92 for BWH, Glob (r=0.99 for CL and r=0.98 for BWH and GGT (r=0.14 for CL and r=0.83 for BWH. It was concluded that there was no failure in the transfer of passive immunity in Criollo Lageano calves but this failure occurred in the BWH calves. IgG values estimated by the zinc sulfate turbidity and serum proteins were considered good indicators of the transfer of passive immunity in calves between 24 and 36 hours of life.

  14. Effect of plane of milk replacer intake and age on glucose and insulin kinetics and abomasal emptying in female Holstein Friesian dairy calves fed twice daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, J A R; Berends, H; Leal, L N; Cant, J P; Martín-Tereso, J; Steele, M A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how preweaning plane of milk replacer intake and age can affect insulin and glucose kinetics as well as abomasal emptying rate in dairy calves fed twice a day. A total of 12 female Holstein Friesian calves were blocked by cow parity, paired by colostrum origin, and were randomly assigned to a high plane of milk replacer intake (8 L/d, 1.2kg of milk replacer/d; n=6) or a low plane of nutrition (4 L/d, 0.6kg of milk replacer/d; n=6). All calves received 4 L of colostrum over 2 meals (1 and 6h after birth) and were then directly transferred to their assigned feeding plans until they were stepped-down from milk by 50% during wk 7 and weaned on wk 8. Milk replacer (24% crude protein, 18% crude fat) was fed at 150g/L twice daily (0700 and 1700h) and all calves had ad libitum access to pelleted calf starter, chopped wheat straw, and water. Jugular catheters were placed in all calves at 4, 7, and 10wk of age. Then, postprandial response to plasma glucose, insulin, and acetaminophen (supplied with the meal) were determined to measure abomasal emptying. The next day, a glucose tolerance test was conducted by infusing glucose via the jugular catheter. At 4 and 7wk of age, the rate constant (%/h) for abomasal emptying of the meal was lower in high calves (0.21±0.02 in wk 4; 0.27±0.02 in wk 7) compared with low (0.34±0.02 in wk 4; 0.47±0.02 in wk 7). The postprandial plasma insulin area under the curve over 420min was greater in high calves (18,443±7,329; low=5,834±739 µU/mL) compared with low. We found no differences in glucose tolerance test kinetics between the high and low dairy calves at 4, 7, or 10wk of age. The findings from this study suggest that feeding dairy calves an elevated plane of nutrition in 2 meals of milk replacer per day does not decrease insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Short communication: Reference limits for blood analytes in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows: Effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Lora, I; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F

    2015-11-01

    Reference limits for metabolic profiles in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows were determined considering the effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season. Blood samples were collected from 104 pregnant heifers and 186 dry cows (68 primiparous and 118 pluriparous) from 60 to 10 d before the expected calving date in 31 dairy farms in northeastern Italy. Sampling was performed during summer (182 samples) and the following winter (108 samples). All the animals were judged as clinically healthy at a veterinary visit before sampling. Outliers were removed from data of each blood analyte, and variables that were not normally distributed were log transformed. A mixed model was used to test the fixed effects of parity (late-pregnant heifers, primiparous or pluriparous dry cows), class of days relative to calving (60-41 d, 40-21 d, 20-10 d), season (summer or winter), and the interactions between parity and class of days relative to calving and between parity and season, with farm as random effect. Single general reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for analytes that did not vary according to fixed effects. Whenever a fixed effect included in the model significantly affected a given analyte, specific reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for each of its levels. Albumin, urea, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, conjugated bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, chloride, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were not influenced by any of the fixed effects. Total protein, globulins, creatinine, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium plasma concentrations were affected by parity. The class of days relative to calving had a significant effect on the concentrations of total protein, globulins, fatty acids, cholesterol, total bilirubin, and sodium. Season affected plasma concentrations of

  16. Effects on Milk Production of Calving Months for Holstein Cows%产犊月份对荷斯坦牛产奶量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧林; 刘小林; 朱建华; 茹彩霞; 宋爱龙

    2012-01-01

    以西安草滩第二牛场的荷斯坦牛为研究对象,选择2~4胎产奶量记录完整的健康母牛共587头,其中2胎217头,3胎196头,4胎174头,主要探讨产犊月份对产奶量的影响.将所有产奶数据校正到305 d产奶量,用Excel进行统计分析,做出全年产奶量的整体分布曲线.对12个月份和4个季节的产奶量分别采用单因素方差分析,确定各月份和不同季节的影响效果.结果表明,冬季12、1、2月份和早春的3月份产犊的母牛305 d产奶量最高,显著或极显著高于其他月份,属高产奶量月份;夏季6、7、8月份产犊的母牛305 d产奶量最低,显著或极显著低于其他月份,属低产奶量月份;春季4、5月份和秋季9、10、11月份产犊的母牛305 d产奶量处于中等水平,显著或极显著低于冬季和早春,但显著或极显著高于夏季,属中等产奶量月份.产犊月份对产奶量的影响效果表明,在保证全年牛奶供求基本平衡的前提下,适当调整在高产月份产犊,对提高奶牛群体产奶量具有重要意义.%This research analyzed the effect of calving season on milk production in Holstein cow, so that providing the basis of improving the milk production. The Holstein cows from second ranch in Caotan herd Farm were selected. We recorded 587 milk production data, including 217 cows in the second lactation, 196 cows in the third lactation, 174 cows in the forth lactation. All data were corrected to 305-day milk yield, and then did statistic analysis by Excel as well as drew the curve of whole year's milk yield distribution. This study used single factor variance analysis to investigate the effect of different calving month and season on milk yield in Holstein cows. The results showed that the cows calved in December, January, Feb and March had the highest 305-day milk production, which were significant higher than cows calved in other month. The cows calved in June, July and August had the lowest milk yield

  17. Effects of long period feeding pistachio by-product silage on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters of Holstein male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pistachio by-product silage (PBPS) as a partial replacement for corn silage (CS) on chewing activity, nutrients digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters in Holstein male calves over a 6-month assay. For this purpose, 24 Holstein male calves (4 to 5 months of age and 155.6±13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments (n=6). In these treatments, CS was substituted with different levels of PBPS (0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of dry matter (DM)). Nutrient digestibility was measured at the end of the experimental period (days 168 to 170). Ruminal fermentation parameters were determined on days 90 and 180 and chewing activity was determined on days 15 of the 3rd and 6th month of the experiment. Results showed that calves fed rations containing 6% PBPS spent more time ruminating (P<0.05) than the control group on the 3rd and 6th months. Feeding PBPS was found to have no effects on DM, organic matter (OM), ether extract or ash digestibility, but apparent digestibility of CP, NDFom and ADFom linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing substitutions. On days 90 and 180, ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids and NH3-N linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of PBPS in the diets; however, ruminal pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were similar across the treatments. It was concluded that partial substitution of CS with PBPS (6% or 12%) would have no adverse effects on nutrient digestibility, total chewing activity and ruminal fermentation parameters.

  18. Weaning age affects growth, feed intake, gastrointestinal development, and behavior in Holstein calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and

  19. Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products, SmartCare in milk replacer and Original XPC in calf starter, on the performance and health of preweaned Holstein calves challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementing SmartCare™ (SC) in milk replacer and Original XPC™(XPC) in calf starter on performance and health of preweaned calves following an oral challenge with Salmonella enterica. The study was performed in two 35-d periods with 30 Holstein...

  20. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  1. Assessment of the effect of methionine supplementation and inclusion of hydrolyzed wheat protein in milk protein-based milk replacers on the performance of intensively fed Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J J; Hwang, G H; Saito, A; Vermeire, D A; Drackley, J K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare 2 milk replacers containing only milk proteins with or without supplemental Met, and to compare a milk replacer containing hydrolyzed wheat protein at 4.5% of dry matter (DM) and supplemental Lys and Met against the 2 all-milk-protein formulas, by assessing their effect on the growth performance, efficiency, and plasma urea nitrogen of pre-weaning Holstein calves. Thus, 57 Holstein calves were allotted to the following 3 treatments: (1) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate-based milk replacer (SMWP) containing about 2.6% Lys and 0.6% Met on a DM basis; (2) SMWP + M based on skim milk and whey proteins, containing about 2.6% Lys, and supplemental Met to reach 0.9% on a DM basis; and (3) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate plus 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein based milk replacer (HWP + LM) where the wheat protein replaced 50% of the whey protein concentrate, and also contained supplemental Lys and Met to match the profile of SMWP + M (i.e., Lys 2.6 and Met 0.9% on DM basis). No difference in any of the responses was observed by supplementing the milk protein based formula with Met or when hydrolyzed wheat protein was added to the formula. Results indicate that (1) a milk replacer based on skim milk protein and whey protein with a Lys concentration of ~2.6% does not benefit from Met supplementation, and (2) milk replacer containing 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein and supplemented with Lys and Met can support the same growth performance as milk protein-based formulas.

  2. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vakili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY and cinnamon (CIN essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive, 2-THY (5 g/d/calf and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf. Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  3. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  4. Insulin-like growth factor type-1 receptor down-regulation associated with dwarfism in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J W; Elsasser, T H; Greger, D L; Wittenberg, S; de Vries, F; Distl, O

    2007-10-01

    Perturbations in endocrine functions can impact normal growth. Endocrine traits were studied in three dwarf calves exhibiting retarded but proportionate growth and four phenotypically normal half-siblings, sired by the same bull, and four unrelated control calves. Plasma 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations in dwarfs and half-siblings were in the physiological range and responded normally to injected thyroid-releasing hormone. Plasma glucagon concentrations were different (dwarfs, controls>half-siblings; Pcontrols, Pcontrols, P=0.08). Responses of GH to xylazine and to a GH-releasing-factor analogue were similar in dwarfs and half-siblings. Relative gene expression of IGF-1, IGF-2, GH receptor (GHR), insulin receptor, IGF-1 type-1 and -2 receptors (IGF-1R, IGF-2R), and IGF binding proteins were measured in liver and anconeus muscle. GHR mRNA levels were different in liver (dwarfsdwarfism in studied calves.

  5. Effects of dietary forage and calf starter diet on ruminal pH and bacteria in Holstein calves during weaning transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Han KIM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between ruminal pH and bacteria in calves fed calf starter with and without forage during weaning transition. First, 16 Holstein bull calves were obtained from dairy farms and equipped with rumen cannulas by cannulation surgery. Then, calves (73.5 ± 4.2 kg; mean ± SE were assigned to groups fed calf starter either with forage (HAY, n = 8 or without forage (CON, n = 8, and all calves were weaned at 8 weeks of age. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid samples were collected at 7, 8, 9, and 11 weeks of age, namely 1, 0, 1, and 3 weeks after weaning, respectively, to assess volatile fatty acid concentrations and bacterial DNA. The 24-h mean ruminal pH was significantly (P < 0.05 different between the two groups. Diurnal changes in the 1-h mean ruminal pH were observed throughout the study in the HAY group; however, they were not observed at 0 and 1 weeks after weaning in the CON group. Moreover, the HAY group had significantly (P < 0.05 higher proportions of acetate and butyrate and lower proportion of propionate, and significantly (P < 0.05 lower ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratios were observed in the CON group. The ruminal bacterial diversity indices decreased after -1 week in both groups and increased at 0 and 1 weeks after weaning in the HAY and CON groups, respectively. From the 454 pyrosequencing analysis, significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed in the relative abundance of several phyla (Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes and one genus (Prevotella between the two groups. From quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the HAY group had the higher copy numbers of cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus compared with the CON group. This study demonstrated that feeding of dietary forage alleviates subacute ruminal acidosis due to diurnal changes in ruminal pH. Furthermore, changes in ruminal pH affect the ruminal bacterial diversity and relative

  6. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  7. COMPARISON OF ISOFLURANE AND SEVOFLURANE ANESTHESIA IN HOLSTEIN CALVES FOR PLACEMENT OF PORTAL AND JUGULAR VEIN CANNULAS

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    Glen Sellers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflurane and sevoflurane are the two most commonly used inhalation anesthetics in veterinary medicine today. This study compared the anesthetic effects between isoflurane and sevoflurane in 17 calves undergoing surgery for placement of portal and jugular vein cannulas. Using a randomized control trial, calves were assigned to receive sevoflurane or isoflurane. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine and ketamine then maintained with the assigned inhalation anesthetic. Parameters for heart rate, respiratory rate, indirect blood pressures, oxygen hemoglobin saturation and end-tidal carbon dioxide were monitored and recorded during surgery. The anesthetic concentrations of the vaporizers were adjusted according to the calves’ responses, e.g., blood pressure, eye position, respiratory and heart rate, to surgical stimulation. Upon discontinuation of the inhalation anesthetic, calves were placed in sternal recumbency and recovery variables including time to extubation, time to first movement, attempts to stand and time to standing were observed and recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-sample t-test on the recorded variables. There were no statistical differences between isoflurane and sevoflurane for any of the parameters recorded during anesthetic maintenance or recovery. The results of this study showed a faster time to first movement and extubation, 3.38±1.85 min and 11.75±3.73 min for sevoflurane compared to 7.56±5.34 min and 15.56±8.69 min for isoflurane, respectively. Attempts to stand were 3.00±2.14 for sevoflurane and 3.22±1.79 for isoflurane. Though the time to standing during recovery was not statistically different between anesthetics, the values did indicate a quicker trend of recovery from sevoflurane. Both inhalation anesthetics produced comparable anesthetic qualities and there were no statistical differences between the parameters recorded during maintenance of anesthesia. On the basis of the

  8. Idade ao primeiro parto e intervalo de partos de cinco grupos genéticos Holandês x Gir no Brasil Age at first calving and calving interval of five Holstein x Gir genetic groups in Brazil

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    Olivardo Facó

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista a grande importância dos bovinos mestiços Holandês x Gir (H x G nos sistemas de produção de leite no Brasil e a íntima relação entre a reprodução e a produtividade destes sistemas, foram obtidos registros de partos e datas de nascimento junto à Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Girolando, no intuito de avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de vários grupos genéticos HxG. Os dados, num total de 2.600 registros de idade ao primeiro parto (IPP e 3.763 de intervalos de partos (IDP, foram analisados por meio do procedimento GLM do pacote estatístico SAS (1999. As comparações do desempenho dos grupos genéticos foram feitas por meio de modelos classificatórios incluindo o efeito de grupo genético. Foram feitas estimativas dos efeitos genéticos, isto é, da diferença aditiva entre Holandês e Gir, do efeito de dominância e do efeito epistático aditivo x aditivo, utilizando-se modelos de regressão. O grupo meio-sangue apresentou desempenho superior, ou seja, menores IPP e IDP. Foi observada tendência de elevação do IDP com o aumento da proporção de genes da raça Holandesa. O efeito de dominância influenciou significativamente as duas características estudadas, enquanto o efeito de interação epistática do tipo aditivo x aditivo influenciou significativamente apenas a IPP. Os resultados indicaram que a perda de interações epistáticas favoráveis contribuiu para a alta IPP no grupo 5/8 Holandês.Reproduction efficiency of Holstein x Gir crossbred animals in Brazilian dairy farms were evaluated using data provided by the Brazilian Association of Girolando. A total of 2,600 records of age at first calving (IPP and 3,763 records of calving intervals (IDP were analyzed using the SAS® GLM procedure. Estimates of genetics effects: additive difference between Holstein and Gir breeds, dominance and additive x additive epistatic effects were obtained by regression models including genetic groups to model the

  9. Dietary forage concentration and particle size affect sorting, feeding behaviour, intake and growth of Chinese Holstein male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A U R; Xia, C Q; Cao, B H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration (F:C) and forage particle length (FPL) on sorting, feeding behaviour, intake, growth and body measurements of growing calves. Twenty-eight weaned calves of body weight 156.79 ± 33.44 (mean ± SD) were used in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with the factors FPL of hay grass (full and short) and hay grass concentrations (low, 50% and high, 65%). The treatments were as follows: full length (FL) with low F:C (50:50), FL with high F:C(65:35), short length (SL) with low F:C (50:50) and SL with high F:C (65:35). Increasing F:C and decreasing FPL enhanced sorting for short and fine particle and sorting against long particle (p behaviour, interaction for eating time and eating time per kilogram DM was present. Increasing the F:C increased the eating time in both FL and SL (p behaviour (p behaviour.

  10. The use of crossbreeding with beef bulls in dairy herds: effects on calving difficulty and gestation length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouz, R; Gandoy, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to analyse the evolution in the use of beef bull semen for dairy cattle insemination and, mainly, to assess calving difficulty, gestation length and proportion of stillbirths after breeding pure Holsteins or crossbreeding. Data were collected during 2004 to 2011 for 552 571 Holstein calvings (457 070 Holstein × Holstein, 43 384 Holstein × Limousine, 32 174 Holstein × Belgian Blue and 19 943 Holstein × Galician Blonde). The highest calving difficulty, compared with pure Holsteins was for crosses with Belgian Blue followed by Limousine and Galician Blonde. The Holstein × Limousine and Holstein × Galician Blonde crossbred calves had significantly longer gestation lengths than Holstein × Holstein and Holstein × Belgian Blue calves. Between the latter two, pure Holstein had the shortest gestation length. Calving difficulty and gestation length decreased as the age of the dam advanced. The most difficult calvings were observed in twin calvings, followed by the calvings of male calves and female calves. The gestations leading to the birth of male calves were longer than those leading to female calves and twin calves. Stillbirths were not related to the breed used for mating. Through examining these parameters, sire breed should be considered when selecting a beef breed for the insemination of milk-producing dams.

  11. Effect of adding herbs (Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium in milk on performance, blood metabolites and fecal microbial population on Holstein calves

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    narges ghahhari

    2016-08-01

    chemical composition of plants used for food such as dry matter, crude protein and ether extracts, from conventional laboratory methods AOAC (2005 were used. sixteen Holstein calves with mean of 42.18± 0.71 Kg birth weight, aged 5± 3 day allocated to treats: 1 control (milk without additive, 2 milk contains powder Ziziphora clinipodioides, 3 milk contains powder Mentha spicata, 4 milk contains powder Mentha pulegium. The herbs added to milk in each treatment was 20 g daily. Duration the experimental period was 25 days. Dry matter intake, water intake and fecal score measured daily. Body weight monitored every 5 days, and blood sampling conducted twice, once one day before the start of the period (day zero and once final day. Samples for culture prepared in three phases beginning, middle and end of the period. Results and Discussion The major component in Ziziphora clinopodioies was pulegone (38.34%, major component in Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium was carvone (61.93% and piperitone oxide (43.09%, respectively. The dry matter of three plant, Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium were 92.70, 93.25 and 94.01, crude protein were 8.57, 20.47 and 17.32, and also ether extracts were 3.20, 2.15 and 2.50 percent, respectively. Based on the obtained results, adding of Mentha pulegium to milk reduces dry matter intake during starter period and total dry matter intake in treatment Ziziphora clinopodioides was significantly higher than treatment control. Calves treated with Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha pulegium and Mentha spicata consumed statistically more water than control group. Dry matter digestibility significantly decreased in treatments Ziziphora clinopodioides and Menthe spicata compared to control. Daily gain, feed conversion ratio, blood parameter and immune respones were not affected by treatment trials. There were no significant differences between treatments for fecal score and day of diarrhea. Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and

  12. The effect of dystocia on physiological and behavioral characteristics related to vitality and passive transfer of immunoglobulins in newborn Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine F; Veira, Doug M; Nadalin, Audrey L; Haines, Deborah M; Jackson, Marion L; Pearl, David L; Leslie, Ken E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of calving difficulty or dystocia on the vitality of newborn calves and its association with blood pH, the apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption (AEA), and weight gain. A total of 45 calving events (N = 48 calves) were monitored from the first sight of fetal membranes. All calves were assessed at the time of first attaining sternal recumbency (SR), at 2 and 24 h, and at 7 and 14 d of age. Measurements included time to SR, rectal temperature, respiration and heart rate, analysis of blood gases and other blood measures, suckling response, time to standing, passive transfer of IgG, and weight gain. Calves were separated from their dam 2 h after birth and fed a commercial colostrum replacer containing 180 g of IgG by esophageal tube feeder. Calves born following dystocia had lower venous blood pH and took longer to attain SR and attempt to stand than those born unassisted. Duration of calving interacted with the number of people required to extract the calf by pulling as a significant predictor of pH at SR. No association was found between pH at SR and AEA. However, reduced AEA was found in calves that were female and in calves that did not achieve SR within 15 min of birth. A longer calving duration, being born in July or August rather than June, and a shorter time spent standing in the first 2 d of life were significantly associated with reduced weight gain to 14 d. It was concluded that factors at calving impact the physiology, vitality, and subsequent weight gain of newborn calves.

  13. Produção de vitelos a partir de bezerros leiteiros mestiços e da raça Holandesa Veal production from crossbred and Holstein dairy calves

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    Luiz Carlos Roma Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo de nove animais jovens Zebu × Holandês em comparação a nove animais da raça Holandesa para produção de vitelos. Todos os animais foram mantidos em condições idênticas de ambiente, manejo e alimentação, com acompanhamento individual da ingestão de matéria seca. As medidas de avaliação do desenvolvimento animal, conversão e eficiência alimentar possibilitaram comparações entre os tratamentos, a partir de delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os bezerros Zebu × Holandês apresentaram maior ganho de perímetro torácico (23,3 cm e ganho de peso diário (1,45 kg, além de conversão alimentar (2,77 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal, se comparados aos bezerros da raça Holandesa, com, respectivamente, 18,5 cm de perímetro torácico, 1,16 kg de ganho de peso diário e conversão alimentar de 3,48 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal. Não houve diferença na ingestão de matéria seca entre os animais avaliados. Quanto ao estudo econômico da produção de carne de vitelo, os animais mestiços apresentaram o menor custo de produção por quilo de carne produzida e, conseqüentemente, o melhor potencial de produção de vitelos a partir de animais Zebu × Holandês, como atividade complementar à produção de leite.In this study, it was evaluated the productive performance of nine Zebu × Holstein crossbred calves in comparison with nine Holsteins calves for veal production. All animals were maintained in the similar environmental conditions, management and feeding, with individual measurement of dry matter intake. The evaluation measurements of the development of animal, as feed conversion ratio make possible to compare between the treatments, using a completely randomized design. The Zebu × Holstein calves showed higher values of hearth girth growth (23.3 cm and average weight gain (1.45 kg, and also better feed conversion ratio (2.77 kg DM/kg BW, as compared to Holstein calves with 18

  14. A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves

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    Uchiyama Hirofumi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Findings Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 105/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Conclusions Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be

  15. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  16. Influência da forma de administração e da quantidade fornecida de colostro sobre a concentração de proteína total e de suas frações eletroforéticas no soro sangüíneo de bezerros da raça Holandesa Influence of volume and method of administration of colostrum on total protein and eletrophoretic serum fractions in Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Borges

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the amount of colostrum (two and four liters and methods of colostrum feeding (direct suckling from the cow, feeding colostrum using nipple bottle, and no feeding colostrum on different blood traits. Thirty two Holstein calves (four groups of eight animals each were randomly allotted to four treatments: treatment 1 - calves were hand fed four liters of colostrum; treatment 2 - calves were hand fed two liters of colostrum; treatment 3 - calves were fed colostrum directly from the cow, and treatment 4 - calves were not fed colostrum. Higher values of total serum protein, betaglobulins and gamaglobulins were observed in the calves after 24 hours of colostrum feeding. No differences among animals fed colostrum directly from the cow and hand fed two or four liters of colostrum were observed for total protein and eletrophoretic fractions. However lower values of total and eletrophoretic fractions were observed for calves that were not fed colostrum.

  17. Feeding of waste milk to Holstein calves affects antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida isolated from fecal and nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynou, G; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2017-04-01

    The use of milk containing antimicrobial residues in calf feeding programs has been shown to select for resistant fecal Escherichia coli in dairy calves. However, information is scarce about the effects of feeding calves waste milk (WM) on the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of fecal E. coli and nasal Pasteurella multocida isolates from calves fed either milk replacer (MR) or WM in 8 commercial dairy farms (4 farms per feeding program). Fecal and nasal swabs were collected from 20 ± 5 dairy calves at 42 ± 3.2 d of age, and from 10 of these at approximately 1 yr of age in each study farm to isolate the targeted bacteria. Furthermore, resistance of E. coli isolates from calf-environment and from 5 calves at birth and their dams was also evaluated in each study farm. Resistances were tested against the following antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, colistin, doxycycline (DO), enrofloxacin (ENR), erythromycin, florfenicol, imipenem, and streptomycin. A greater number of fecal E. coli resistant to ENR, florfenicol, and streptomycin and more multidrug-resistant E. coli phenotypes were isolated in feces of calves fed WM than in those fed MR. However, the prevalence of fecal-resistant E. coli was also influenced by calf age, as it increased from birth to 6 wk of age for ENR and DO and decreased from 6 wk to 1 yr of age for DO regardless of the feeding program. From nasal samples, an increase in the prevalence of colistin-resistant P. multocida was observed in calves fed WM compared with those fed MR. The resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from calves and their dams tended to differ, whereas similar resistance profiles among E. coli isolates from farm environment and calves were observed. The findings of this study suggest that feeding calves WM fosters the presence of resistant bacteria in the lower gut and respiratory tracts of dairy calves

  18. Maternal rumen-protected methionine supplementation and its effect on blood and liver biomarkers of energy metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress in neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacometo, C B; Zhou, Z; Luchini, D; Trevisi, E; Corrêa, M N; Loor, J J

    2016-08-01

    In nonruminants, nutrition during pregnancy can program offspring development, metabolism, and health in later life. Rumen-protected Met (RPM) supplementation during the prepartum period improves liver function and immune response in dairy cows. Our aim was to investigate the effects of RPM during late pregnancy on blood biomarkers (23 targets) and the liver transcriptome (24 genes) in neonatal calves from cows fed RPM at 0.08% of diet dry matter/d (MET) for the last 21 d before calving or controls (CON). Blood (n=12 calves per diet) was collected at birth before receiving colostrum (baseline), 24 h after receiving colostrum, 14, 28, and 50 d (post-weaning) of age. Liver was sampled (n=8 calves per diet) via biopsy on d 4, 14, 28, and 50 of age. Growth and health were not affected by maternal diet. The MET calves had greater overall plasma insulin concentration and lower glucose and ratios of glucose-to-insulin and fatty acids-to-insulin, indicating greater systemic insulin sensitivity. Lower concentration of reactive oxygen metabolites at 14 d of age along with a tendency for lower overall concentration of ceruloplasmin in MET calves indicated a lesser degree of stress. Greater expression on d 4 of fructose-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), and the facilitated bidirectional glucose transporter SLC2A2 in MET calves indicated alterations in gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake and release. The data agree with the greater expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Greater expression on d 4 of the insulin receptor (INSR) and insulin-responsive serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT2) in MET calves indicated alterations in insulin signaling. In that context, the similar expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) in CON and MET during the preweaning period followed by the marked upregulation regardless of diet after weaning (d 50) support the idea of changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity during

  19. Proteinograma sérico de bezerros recém-nascidos da raça Holandesa obtido por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida Serum protein concentration in newborn Holstein calves determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

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    J.J. Fagliari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The serum protein concentration of newborn Holstein calves determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE was studied. Blood samples from 40 healthy newborn calves were obtained 48 hours after birth. Calves had been given 3 liters of colostrum within 2 hours after birth, following by dose corresponding by 15% of animal weight each 24 hours. The results showed three different proteinograms: 19 calves had 14 proteins with molecular weights (MW ranging from 28,000 D to 170,000D (proteinogram 1; 11 calves had 14 proteins with MW ranging from 18,000 to 170,000 D (proteinogram 1; and 10 calves had 12 proteins with MW ranging from 28,000 D to 170,000 D (proteinogram 3. The three groups presented similar IgG levels. The highest serum concentration of ceruloplasmin were verified in proteinogram 3, which had the lowest serum level of protein with MW 58,000D. It was verified a1-antitrypsin only in proteinogram 2, which had no proteins with MW of 42,000 D and 37,000D. The highest serum concentrations of IgA and protein with MW 58,000 D, and the lowest serum levels of transferrin, haptoglobin, and acid glycoprotein were verified in proteinogram 3. Measurement of serum protein concentrations by SDS-PAGE may be useful in monitoring the occurrence of hypogammaglobulinemia and the neonatal disease in calves.

  20. Influência do Plano Nutricional sobre o Desempenho de Bezerros Holandeses para Produção de Vitelos Influence of Nutritional Plane on Performance of Holstein Veal Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Regina Ribeiro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com 20 bezerros holandeses, todos machos não castrados, com 75 dias de idade e peso vivo médio de 76 kg, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho e a viabilidade econômica de produzir vitelos. Os animais foram alimentados com dietas contendo 45, 60, 75 e 90% de concentrado. As dietas foram constituídas de feno de capim-coastcross, fubá de milho, farelo de soja e mistura mineral. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e cinco blocos. Antes do início do experimento, todos os animais foram submetidos a um mesmo sistema de aleitamento. O período experimental foi variável para cada tratamento, em que os animais eram abatidos à medida que atingiam o peso médio de 200 kg. As análises de variância para consumo de matéria seca, consumo de proteína bruta e conversão alimentar da matéria seca mostraram não haver efeito significativo dos níveis de concentrado nas dietas. Todavia, as análises de regressão mostraram efeito linear decrescente, com o aumento do nível de concentrado, para o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro, e aumento linear para o ganho de peso diário, proporcionando redução de 35 dias no confinamento para os animais alimentados com dietas contendo 90% de concentrado. Efeitos significativos devido ao nível de concentrado também foram verificados na conversão alimentar da fibra detergente neutro e da proteína bruta, sendo que a melhora da eficiência alimentar ocorreu com o acréscimo de concentrado na dieta. Os custos de produção indicaram a viabilidade de produzir vitelos utilizando bezerros holandeses.The experiment was carried out with 20 intact Holsteins male calves, average live weight of 75 kg and 76 days old, to evaluate the performance and the economical viability to produce veal calves. The calves were fed diets containing 45, 60, 75 and 90% of concentrate. Diets were composed of coastcross hay, ground corn, soybean meal and mineral

  1. Direct and maternal genetic relationships between calving ease, gestation length, milk production, fertility, type, and lifespan of Holstein-Friesian primiparous cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaglen, S A E; Coffey, M P; Woolliams, J A; Wall, E

    2013-06-01

    As the emphasis in cattle breeding is shifting from traits that increase income toward traits that reduce costs, national breeding indices are expanding to include functional traits such as calving ease (CE). However, one issue is the lack of knowledge of genetic relationships between CE and other dairy traits. The same can be said about gestation length (GL), a potential novel selection trait with considerable heritabilities and possible genetic relationships with the calving process. This study aimed to estimate the genetic relationships between CE, GL, and other dairy traits of interest using a national data set of 31,053 primiparous cow performance records, as well as to separate direct and maternal genetic effects. Chosen dairy traits included fertility (calving interval, days to first service, nonreturn rate after 56 d, number of inseminations per conception), milk production (milk yield at d 110 in milk, accumulated 305-d milk yield, accumulated 305-d fat yield, accumulated 305-d protein yield), type (udder depth, chest width, rump width, rump angle, mammary composition, stature, body depth), and lifespan traits (functional days of productive life). To allow the separation of direct and maternal genetic effects, a random sire of the calf effect was included in the multi-trait linear trivariate sire models fitted using ASReml. Significant results showed that easily born individuals were genetically prone to high milk yield and reduced fertility in first lactation. Difficult calving primiparous cows were likely associated with being high-producing, wide and deep animals, with a reduced ability to subsequently conceive. Individuals that were born relatively early were associated with good genetic merit for milk production. Finally, individuals carrying their offspring longer were genetically associated with being wide and large animals that were themselves born relatively early. The study shows that it is feasible and valuable to separate direct and maternal

  2. Improving genetic evaluation using a multitrait single-step genomic model for ability to resume cycling after calving, measured by activity tags in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Fogh, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the improvement of the accuracy of estimated breeding values for ability to recycle after calving by using information of genomic markers and phenotypic information of correlated traits. The traits in this study were the interval from calving to first...... to first high activity, and the genetic correlation between both traits was strong (0.87). Breeding values were obtained using 4 models: conventional single-trait BLUP; conventional multitrait BLUP with pedigree-based relationship matrix; single-trait single-step genomic BLUP; and multitrait single......-step genomic BLUP model with joint relationship matrix combining pedigree and genomic information. The results showed that reliabilities of estimated breeding values (EBV) from single-step genomic BLUP models were about 40% higher than those from conventional BLUP models for both traits. Furthermore, using...

  3. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...... before until 96 h after calving while housed in individual calving pens. Data on behaviour were obtained via video recordings and accelerometers attached to the cows’ legs. Cows spent less time lying, had more lying bouts and were more active the day before calving as compared to 2–4 days before calving...... throughout the 24 h following birth. Cows spent more time lying on the second day after calving than on the first day after calving. The results show marked behavioural changes during the last 6 h prior to calving and suggest that behavioural changes may be useful indicators of imminent calving. Furthermore...

  4. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Reenen, van C.G.; Jensen, M.B.; Schmitt, O.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves.Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests:novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolationwith a novel environmental cue (

  5. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows was a...

  6. Clinical pathology of milking calves digestion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatur Bogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The period from calving until normal dry food feeding is very sensitive for preruminat animals. Normal weaning can be successful at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. Young milking calves are very susceptible to bacterial or viral infection if immunity is not reached through colostrum on time. On the other hand indigestions are very frequent and account for one-third of the most frequent disorders in young calves. Parturition losses (dystocia and respiratory diseases are more frequent. The final result of negative environmental and management influences can be the onset of acute or chronic diarrhea associated with long, expensive and often unsuccessful treatment. Acute dehydration and death are not so rare. Etiological reasons are known, it is possible define them: inadequate feeding of pregnant cows and heifers in late stages of pregnancy; hygiene problems and bad management of neonate calves. Contaminated milk, starters and milk substitutes are the main source of scours. These problems are evident on farms where owners or workers do not have the elementary knowledge about physiology, anatomic differences and management principles for preruminant animals. At weaning time calves can develop serious problems when dry feeding does not begin on time. For does that reason normal micro flora and fauna are not able to accept normal function for ruminal digestion.

  7. Effects of human handling during early rearing on the behaviour of dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, K.E.; Hawke, M.L.; Waas, J.R.; McLeay, L.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Reenen, van C.G.; Webster, J.R.; Stewart, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of daily positive or negative human handling on the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (n = 20 calves per treatment, five calves per group). The response to humans and indicators of positive emotions were examined at four weeks of age. Calves that received positive h

  8. Serum proteins variation in Nelore and Holstein calves from birth to six monthsVariação de proteínas séricas em bezerros das raças nelore e holandesa do nascimento até os seis meses de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Vidotto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that Nelore calves’ active production of immunoglobulins is delayed compared to Canchim and Limousin calves, characterizing a possible physiologic difference between taurine and Zebu calves. In this study we compared serum proteins of Nelore and Holstein calves from birth to six months old. Blood samples were taken from 50 healthy calves (30 Nelore and 20 Holstein in the following ages: 24 to 36 hours of life, and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. Serum total protein concentrations were measured by colorimetry; albumin, alfa, beta and gammaglobulin concentrations were measured by agarose gel electrophoresis; and IgG concentrations were estimated by the zinc sulphate turbidity test. A repeated measure ANOVA was used to test age effect. The passive transfer of immunity was successful in both breeds and the variation of serum proteins followed the normal pattern throughout the first six months of life. There were breed differences in serum gammaglobulin concentrations. The levels of gammaglobulin were higher at the end of the first day of life, and decreased to the lowest levels at 60 days in Nelore calves and 30 days in Holstein calves. The increase due to the active production of antibodies was precocious in Holstein calves (beginning at 60 days and slower in Nelore calves (beginning at 90 days, demonstrating that Zebu calves can, in fact, develop active immunity capability later than taurine calves.Estudos anteriores comprovaram que a produção ativa de imunoglobulinas é mais tardia em bezerros Nelore do que nos das raças Canchim ou Limousin, caracterizando possível diferença fisiológica entre zebuínos e taurinos. Esse trabalho tem o objetivo de comparar o proteinograma sérico de bezerros Nelore e Holandeses até os seis meses de vida. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de 50 bezerros aparentemente sadios, 30 da raça Nelore e 20 da raça Holandesa, entre 24 e 36 horas de vida e aos 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150

  9. Importance of calving diseases and risk factors on milk production of Holsteins cowsImportância das desordens do periparto e seus fatores de risco sobre a produção de leite de vacas Holandesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This correlational study investigated the effects of the peripartum health disorders and your respective risk factors about the milk production, in the peak and to the 305 days in lactation. Holsteins cows (n = 522 of a commercial herd of the State of São Paulo, had your health and nutritional status accompanied since the beginning of the period pre-calving to the end of the lactation. Occurrence of diseases, score of body condition (at the dry off and calving, daily milk productions and milk compositions, were recorded. For statistical analysis of the data, the logistics regression and the analysis of multiple regression were used. The obtained results demonstrated that the diseases of the peripartum and your risk factors affected the milk production with different effects in function of the lactation numbers, demanding this way, larger care with the prophylactic measures to avoid the diseases, and to maximize the production of milk and the reproduction of the animals.Este estudo correlacional investigou os efeitos das ocorrências sanitárias do periparto e seus respectivos fatores de risco sobre a produção de leite, no pico e aos 305 dias em lactação. Vacas Holandesas (n = 522 de um rebanho comercial do Estado de São Paulo tiveram seu desempenho sanitário e nutricional acompanhados desde o início do período pré-parto até o final da lactação. A ocorrência de doenças, os escores de condição corporal (no pré-parto e parto, as produções de leite e as composições do leite foram registradas. Para análise estatística dos dados, foram utilizadas a regressão logística e a análise de regressão múltipla. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as doenças do periparto e seus fatores de risco afetaram a produção de leite com efeitos diferentes em função do número de lactações, exigindo desta maneira maior cuidado com adoção de medidas profiláticas para se evitar as doenças e maximizar a produção de leite dos

  10. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05 between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%.

  11. Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A.;

    2014-01-01

    Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea...... recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW......)] were assigned to 1 of 4 SF levels [0, 9, 18, and 27 g of dry matter (DM) SF · kg BW2-0.75 . d-1] provided in addition to an identical amount of milk replacer. Urea recycling was quantified after a 24-h intravenous infusion of [15N2]urea by analyzing urea isotopomers in 68-h fecal and urinary...

  12. Serosal-to-mucosal urea flux across the isolated ruminal epithelium is mediated via urea transporter-B and aquaporins when Holstein calves are abruptly changed to a moderately fermentable diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, M E; Schurmann, B L; Górka, P; Penner, G B; Loewen, M E; Mutsvangwa, T

    2015-02-01

    Urea transport (UT-B) proteins are known to facilitate urea movement across the ruminal epithelium; however, other mechanisms may be involved as well because inhibiting UT-B does not completely abolish urea transport. Of the aquaporins (AQP), which are a family of membrane-spanning proteins that are predominantly involved in the movement of water, AQP-3, AQP-7, and AQP-10 are also permeable to urea, but it is not clear if they contribute to urea transport across the ruminal epithelium. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the functional roles of AQP and UT-B in the serosal-to-mucosal urea flux (Jsm-urea) across rumen epithelium; and (2) whether functional adaptation occurs in response to increased diet fermentability. Twenty-five Holstein steer calves (n=5) were assigned to a control diet (CON; 91.5% hay and 8.5% vitamin and mineral supplement) or a medium grain diet (MGD; 41.5% barley grain, 50% hay, and 8.5% vitamin and mineral) that was fed for 3, 7, 14, or 21 d. Calves were killed and ruminal epithelium was collected for mounting in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions and for analysis of mRNA abundance of UT-B and AQP-3, AQP-7, and AQP-10. To mimic physiologic conditions, the mucosal buffer (pH 6.2) contained no urea, whereas the serosal buffer (pH 7.4) contained 1 mM urea. The fluxes of (14)C-urea (Jsm-urea; 26 kBq/10 mL) and (3)H-mannitol (Jsm-mannitol; 37 kBq/10 mL) were measured, with Jsm-mannitol being used as an indicator of paracellular or hydrophilic movement. Serosal addition of phloretin (1 mM) was used to inhibit UT-B-mediated urea transport, whereas NiCl2 (1 mM) was used to inhibit AQP-mediated urea transport. Across treatments, the addition of phloretin or NiCl2 reduced the Jsm-urea from 116.5 to 54.0 and 89.5 nmol/(cm(2) × h), respectively. When both inhibitors were added simultaneously, Jsm-urea was further reduced to 36.8 nmol/(cm(2) × h). Phloretin-sensitive and NiCl2-sensitive Jsm-urea were not affected by diet. The

  13. The Regulation of pH Value of Liquid Feed on Blood Gas Parameters in Holstein Bull Calves%液体饲料pH值对荷斯坦公犊血气指标的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠焰; 邱国梁; 周怿; 云强; 齐东; 王家杰; 刁其玉

    2014-01-01

    0.8126、0.8298。血液pH值和pCO2随日龄变化有显著改变(P<0.05);除HCO3-、ABE、SBE外,其他血气指标符合正态分布规律(P>0.05)。代乳品中植物蛋白占总蛋白的比例由50%提高到80%时,犊牛平均日增重和干物质采食量降低,但血气指标并未受到影响(P>0.05)。【结论】随代乳品乳液pH值的降低,21-63 d犊牛血液HCO3-、ABE、TCO2、SBC、SBE显著降低,可作为评价日粮酸度效果的敏感指标。%Objective] Due to the immature gastrointestinal function and low ability digest dietary, diarrhea or other nutritional diseases were easy to arise in suckling calves that bring about low survival rate. Compared with adult cattle, liquid milk replacer is the main feed for the early weaned calves. Thus, acidity of milk replacer emulsions has more important effect on calf health. But the change regulation, the normal value scope of blood gas parameters in calves are not in any systematic manner, so that it is unable to determine whether the appropriate dietary acidity is. To study the change regulations of blood gas parameter in calves, an experiment was carried out to investigate the variations of blood gas parameters in calves which fed liquid feed with different pH.[Method]The pH values of a milk replacer (6.2, 5.5, 5.0 or 4.5) and the ratio of vegetable protein to total protein in the milk replacer (50% or 80%) were used to form an 2 × 4 factorial design in this experiment. Forty-eight neonatal healthy Chinese Holstein male calves were allotted into eight groups and each group was fed with one of the 8 milk replacer emulsions. The experiment lasted 63 d with 21 d for adaptation and 42 d for test. Growth performance was determined fortnightly, the intake of milk replacers and pellet diet were recorded every day. Blood samples were collected on 21 d and 49 d. The pH value, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), oxygen saturation (SO2

  14. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou;

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  15. Exigências nutricionais de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com concentrado e feno de capim-elefante Nutritional requirements of Holstein calves fed concentrate and elephant grass hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Valter Nunes Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 13 bezerros machos da raça Holandesa, com idade média de 14 dias. Três animais foram abatidos no início do experimento (referência e os outros dez foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos (ração farelada ou peletizada e abatidos aos 112 dias de idade para determinação das exigências nutricionais. Foram ajustadas equações de regressão do logaritmo da quantidade corporal de proteína, gordura e energia em função do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ. As exigências líquidas de proteína e energia para ganho de 1 kg de PCVZ foram obtidas por derivação das equações de predição da composição corporal. Os conteúdos de proteína, gordura e energia aumentaram de acordo com o peso corporal. Os requerimentos líquidos de proteína e energia para ganho de peso de corpo vazio (GPCVZ elevaram quando o PCVZ variou de 25,74 até 85,81 kg. Foi obtida a equação para estimar a proteína retida em função do ganho médio diário (GMD e da energia retida (ER: PR = - 0,297083 + 4,19797 ganho de peso corporal em jejum (GPCJ + 0,0926327 ER (R² = 0,92. A equação obtida para descrever a relação entre a energia retida (ER, em Mcal, e o ganho diário de PCVZ (GPCVZ, em kg, para determinado PCVZ a partir dos dados deste trabalho, foi a seguinte: ER = 0,1004 × PCVZ0,75 × GDPCVZ0,5552. Os valores de energia líquida de mantença (ELm variaram de 1,10 para 2,72 Mcal/dia e energia líquida para ganho (ELg de 1,42 para 2,46 Mcal/dia quando o peso corporal aumentou de 30 para 100 kg. Dos 28 aos 112 dias de idade, aumenta a composição de proteína, gordura e energia no corpo vazio de bezerros machos da raça Holandesa.Thirteen male Holstein calves with average age of 14 days were used. Three animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (reference and ten others were randomly distributed in two treatments (ground or pelleted feed, and slaughtered at 112 days of age to determine the nutritional requirements

  16. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross Holstein × Jersey cows and their Holstein contemporaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Coblentz, W K; Halbach, T J

    2011-10-01

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals had Holstein dams; lactating dams were mated to unproven Holstein sires to produce purebred (control) Holsteins or to unproven F(1) Jersey × Holstein crossbred sires to produce backcross animals, whereas nulliparous dams were mated to proven Holstein sires to produce purebred (other) Holsteins. Traits were analyzed using mixed linear models with effects of season of birth, age of dam, sire, birth year of sire, days in milk, lactation, and linear type score evaluator. Control Holsteins had greater 305-d milk yield (12,645 vs. 11,456 kg), 305-d mature equivalent milk yield (13,420 vs. 12,180 kg), peak daily milk yield (49.5 vs. 46.4 kg), total lactation milk yield (11,556 vs. 10,796 kg), and daily fat-corrected milk yield (43 vs. 40 kg) compared with backcrosses. Days open and services per conception as a heifer or cow did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, or backcrosses. The proportion of first-parity births that required assistance was less in control Holsteins than in backcross cows (3.7 vs. 11.2%). The incidence of scours or respiratory problems in calves did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, and backcrosses, nor did the incidence of mastitis, injury, or feet problems. Control Holstein heifers were heavier (629 vs. 557 kg), with greater hip height (145 vs. 139 cm), body length (167 vs. 163 cm), heart girth (205 vs. 198 cm), and hip width (54 vs. 53 cm) at 22 mo of age. On a 50-point scale for linear type traits, Holsteins were larger in stature compared with backcrosses (41 vs. 28), had wider rumps (37 vs. 33), and wider rear udders (34 vs. 32). Results of this study suggest that backcross Holstein × Jersey cattle have

  17. Early inflammation disorder in neonatal calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, 30 Holstein calves were acquired at birth and were randomly subjected to one of six treatments. One treatment group was colostrum deprived (CD) and five other treatment groups were fed colostrum replacer (CR). Of the five CR groups, one group was not further supplemented (CR), ...

  18. Effects of Different Calving Seasons and Parities on Milk Production for Holstein Cows in the Huining Region of Gansu%产犊季节及胎次对甘肃会宁地区荷斯坦牛产奶量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐菊; 郭全奎; 张勇

    2015-01-01

    The Holstein cows from dairy farm in Huining region were used as the research subjects, there were totally 200 healthy cows selected from 2011 to 2013 of different calving seasons and different parities, the milk production was recorded, the impact on milk production of calving seasons and parities was discussed. All data of milk production will be shifted to 305d, with Excel format for statistics and analysis, and the overall distribution curve of different calving seasons and different parities of 305d milk production were drawn respectively. Milk production of four seasons and ifve parities were multiple compared by using one factor analysis of variance and SSR method. The results demonstrated that the effects on 305d milk production of Holstein cow in different calving seasons and different parities are extremely obvious. The cows to calve in Autumn (From September to November) that 305d milk production is the highest, signiifcantly or very signiifcantly higher than in other seasons, is the high milk production season. The cows to calve in Summer (From June to August) that 305d milk production is the lowest, signiifcantly or very signiifcantly lower than in other seasons, is the low milk production season. Cows are calving of the subsequent parities that 305d milk production is better, with the parity increases, especially from the three parities and after calving cow’s 305d milk production gradually decreased. Calving seasons and parities had effects on Holstein cows in the Huining region of Gansu province. On the promise of guarantee balance of whole year milk supply and demand, during high calving season to calve to be appropriately adjusted and high parities cows breeding management to be enhanced, which is of great signiifcance to improve milk production of cow’s group.%以会宁地区某奶牛场的荷斯坦牛为研究对象,选择2011~2013年不同产犊季节及不同胎次的健康母牛共200头,主要探讨产犊季节及胎次对产奶

  19. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  20. Fermentação ruminal e eficiência microbiana em bezerros holandeses alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Ruminal fermentation and microbial efficiency in Holstein calves fed diets with different concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johann Bürger

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de concentrado sobre os parâmetros da fermentação ruminal, as digestibilidades aparente, total, ruminal e intestinal de N, a eficiência microbiana e o balanço de N. Cinco bezerros holandeses, inteiros, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com idade média inicial de 5,8±0,7 meses e 107,4±11,0 kg PV médio inicial, foram distribuídos em quadrado latino 5x5 (tratamento x período. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e alimentados à vontade com dietas contendo 30,0; 45,0; 60;0; 75,0; e 90,0% de concentrado, com base na MS, em rações contendo como volumoso, o feno de capim coast-cross e no concentrado, o farelo de soja, fubá de milho. Os valores de pH foram influenciados pelos níveis de concentrado das rações, e , 11,3 horas após a alimentação, foram estimandos os valores mínimos de 6,10; 5,89; 5,67; 5,46; e 5,24, para as rações com níveis de 30,0; 45,0; 60,0; 75,0; e 90,0%de concentrado nas rações, respectivamente. A concentração de amônia ruminal reduziu linearmente, em função dos tempos pós-alimentação, apresentando comportamento quadrático, com valores mínimos de 6,84; 7,14; 7,63; 7,82; 8,09; e 8,00 mg/dL, para 86,31; 84,86; 83,41; 81,95; 77,59; e 68,86% de concentrado nas rações. O numero de protozoários ruminais reduziu linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado nas rações. A eficiência de síntese de compostos nitrogenados microbianos aumentou linearmente com os níveis de concentrado nas rações.ABSTRACT - This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrate levels on the parameters of at ruminal fermentation, the apparent, total, ruminal and intestinal N digestibilities, the microbial efficiency and the N balance. Five rumen and abomasum fistulated bull Holstein calves, with an initial average age of 5.8±0.7 months and initial average of 107.4±11.0 kg LW were allotted to a 5x5

  1. Evaluation of the transfer of passive immunity by the analysis of immunoglobulin and serum proteins of Holstein calvesAvaliação da transferência de imunidade passiva através da análise de imunoglobulinas e proteínas séricas em bezerras da raça holandês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This present study evaluated the serum concentrations of the fractional and total proteins, the immunoglobulin concentrations, and the dynamics of passive immune transfer in 25 female Holstein calves. All calves were maintained with their respective dams for 24 hours during which the ingestion of colostrum was done ad libitum. The determinations were done within 24 hours after suckling and at 30 days of age. The gamma fraction of proteins was the predominant immunoglobulin observed 24 hrs after the suckling of colostrum, followed by beta, alpha 2, and alpha1. 30 days later, the beta fraction was more elevated, followed by gamma, and the alpha fractions. The concentrations of serum albumin increased proportionally with age, but the concentrations of total proteins remained unaltered. Most calves (56%; 14/25 demonstrated effective passive immune transfer of immunoglobulins; transfer was within acceptable limits for 36% (9/25 but was inadequate in 8% (2/25 of the calves evaluated. Este presente estudo avaliou as concentrações séricas da proteína total, suas frações, as concentrações de imunoglobulinas e a dinâmica de transferência da imunidade passiva em 25 bezerras da raça Holandês variedade preto e branco. Todas as bezerras permaneceram com suas respectivas mães até 24 horas após o nascimento, durante este período a ingestão de colostro foi realizada ad libitum. As determinações foram feitas após a ingestão do colostro às 24 horas após o nascimento e aos 30 dias de idade. As gamaglobulinas foram predominantes às 24 horas após a ingestão de colostro, seguida pelas frações beta e alfa. Aos 30 dias a fração beta foi a mais elevada, seguida pela gama e as frações alfa. A concentração de albumina sérica aumentou proporcionalmente com a idade, mas a concentração de proteína total manteve-se inalterada. A maior parte das bezerras (56%; 14/25 demonstrou transferência passiva imune eficaz de imunoglobulinas; a

  2. Effects of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation on Body Weight, Serum Immune and Antioxidant Levels of Holstein Bull Calves%移植脐带间充质干细胞对荷斯坦公犊体重及血清免疫和抗氧化水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳坤; 王立文; 彭国亮; 邵伟; 余雄

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed to explore the effects of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells ( UC-MSCs ) transplantation on body weight ( BW) , serum immune and antioxidant levels of Holstein bull calves. Twenty eight 1-month-old Holstein bull calves with similar body weight were selected and randomly divided into control and experimental groups with 14 calves per group. Fresh fetal umbilical cord tissue was collected from healthy new born Holstein calves. UC-MSCs were purified and cultivated in vitro by the method of pancreatic enzyme digestion. Calves of experimental group were injected in jugular vein with 3×105 cells/kg BW UC-MSCs (dilu-ted to 8 mL) , while those of control group were injected with normal saline at equal dose. The injection was carried out at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months of age, respectively. The test lasted for 150 d. The results showed as follows: compared with control group, the transplantation of UC-MSCs in bull calves, 1 ) significantly in-creased BW at 4, 5 and 6 months of age ( P<0. 05); significantly increased average daily gain at 3 ( P<0.05), 4 (P<0.05) and 6 months of age (P<0.01); 2) significantly increased serum immunoglobulin A ( IgA) content at 4 ( P<0.01) and 6 months of age ( P<0.05); significantly increased serum immunoglobulin G ( IgG) at 2 ( P<0.01) , 5 ( P<0.01) and 6 months of age ( P<0.05); significantly decreased serum inter-leukin-2 ( IL-2) content at 3 ( P<0.01) and 4 months of age ( P<0.05);3) significantly decreased serum ma-londialdehyde (MDA) content at 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months of age (P<0.01); significantly increased serum superoxide dismutase ( SOD) activity at 5 ( P<0.05) and 6 months of age ( P<0.01) . Thus, the transplanta-tion of UC-MSCs can increase serum IgA and IgG contents, decrease serum MDA content, increase serum SOD activity, enhance the body’ s ability to clear free radicals, reduced serum IL-2 content, and reduced inter-nal inflammation, thereby enhance immunity, and stimulate the growth and development of bull

  3. The benzodiazepine brotizolam reduces fear in calves exposed to a novel object test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Hopster, H.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Korte, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the intravenous administration of the anxiolytic drug brotizolam on the behavioral and physiological responsiveness of calves to novelty in a dose response fashion. Holstein Friesian heifer calves (39¿41 weeks of age; body weight 200¿300 kg) received an intr

  4. The early behaviour of cow and calf in an individual calving pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the early behaviour in dairy cows and their calves. Thirty-eight multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows and their calves were housed in individual calving pens during the first twelve days post-partum and their behaviour was observed during 24 h on days 3, 7 and 11...... studied (P pens during 3 h and subsequently reintroducing them. Behavioural observations during 3 h after reintroduction showed...

  5. Desempenho pós-desaleitamento de bezerros holandeses que receberam sucedâneo ou leite integral e milho floculado no concentrado inicial Postweaning performance of Holstein calves fed milk replacer or whole milk and steam flaked corn in starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Bagaldo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de 72 bezerros (machos e fêmeas da raça Holandesa alimentados com sucedâneo de leite ou leite integral e ração inicial contendo milho floculado em três densidades: 283, 360 ou 437 g/L. Os animais foram distribuídos em blocos de acordo com o nascimento e o sexo, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 3. A taxa de hidrólise in vitro do amido de milho floculado diminuiu com o aumento da densidade dos grãos. No período da desmama até os 120 dias de vida, não foi observado efeito da densidade do milho floculado e do tipo de dieta líquida sobre o consumo de matéria seca, o ganho de peso médio diário, a conversão alimentar e a idade ao início do consumo de silagem (quando consumo de concentrado atingia 2.500 g/dia. Entretanto, os animais que receberam sucedâneo durante a fase de aleitamento apresentaram menor peso aos 120 dias de idade (108,9 vs 118,5 kg.Growth performance was evaluated in 72 Holstein calves fed milk replacer or whole milk diet and a starter containing steam-flaked corn at: 283, 360 or 437 g/L. The animals were blocked by birth and sex in a 2 x 3 factorial design. Enzymatic in vitro starch availability of the steam-flaked corn decreased as grain densities increased. During the post-weaning period, there was no effect of the processed corn at the different densities and type of the liquid diet on dry matter intake, daily body gain, feed conversion and age when calves started eating corn silage (when the starter intake reached 2500 g/day. Calves fed milk replacer during pre-weaning period showed the lowest body weight at 120 days old (108.9 vs. 118.5 kg.

  6. Consequences of Selection for Yield Traits on Calving Ease Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez de Maturana, E.; Ugarte, E.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the c

  7. Study on performance analysis of Holstein Fresien cattle under intensive management at government dairy farm, Pishin, Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf H. Barozai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to analyze the productive and reproductive performance ofHolstein Friesian cattle under intensive management at Government Dairy Farm, Pishin (Balochistanexploring the ten years performance records from 1997-2007. Parameters were productive traits(birth weight, lactation length, lactation milk yield, reproductive traits (age at first conception, age atfirst calving, service period, dry period, calving interval and effect of calving season on (milk yield,calving interval, birth weight, dry period on the Holstein Fresein cattle. Analysis of data revealedsignificant difference in all the productive traits (P0.05 in higher birth weight of calves, dry period,calving interval and milk yield of cows, respectively.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of sodium meclofenamate in pre-ruminant cattle Farmacocinética do meclofenamato sódico em bezerros pré-ruminantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Picco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetic profile of sodium meclofenamate, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, was determined in six pre-ruminant calves after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a dose of 2.2mg/kg of body weight. Meclofenamate concentrations were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography assay. The pharmacokinetics of sodium meclofenamate after intravenous and intramuscular administration to calves were characterised by a rapid distribution phase (t½alpha , 15.45± 4.85min and 23.14± 7.24min for the intravenous and intramuscular administration, respectively, followed by a longer elimination phase (t½beta after intramuscular treatment (17.55± 6.52h.. The apparent volume of distribution (Vd of the drug after intravenous administration was moderate (0.72± 0.12l/kg, and high (3.51± 1.05l/kg after intramuscular administration. This can be explained by the flip-flop effect or by enterohepatic shunting. The bioavailability achieved after intramuscular administration was 61%.O perfil do meclofenamato sódico, uma droga antiinflamatória não-esteroidal, foi determinado em seis bezerros pré-ruminantes após administração intravenosa e intramuscular na dose de 2,2mg/kg de peso vivo. As concentrações de meclofenamato foram medidas empregando-se cromatografía líquida de alta performance. A farmacocinética do meclofenamato sódico, após as administrações intravenosa e intramuscular, caracterizou-se por rápida fase de distribuição (t½alfa , 15,45±4,85min e 23,14± 7,24min para a administração intravenosa e intramuscular, respectivamente, seguida por longa fase de eliminação (t½beta , após a aplicação intramuscular (17,55±6,52h.. O volume aparente de distribuição (Vd da administração intravenosa da droga foi moderado (0,72±0,12l/kg, e após um lapso da aplicação intramuscular, foi alta (3,51±1,05l/kg. Isso pode ser explicado pelo efeito flip-flop ou por evitar a via enteroépatica. A

  9. Fatores de ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura na raça Holandesa para idade e núcleo de controle leiteiro Age of calving and region adjustment factors for milk and fat yields for graded and purebred Holstein in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Durães

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados fatores de ajustamento para produção de leite e de gordura em rebanhos da raça Holandesa do Estado de Minas Gerais, segundo a idade da vaca ao parto, a composição racial e o núcleo de controle leiteiro onde ocorreu o parto. Utilizou-se a metodologia dos modelos mistos, usando-se a máxima verossimilhança restrita em um modelo animal com os efeitos fixos de rebanho-ano, época do parto e classes idade-composição racial-núcleo de controle leiteiro, e os efeitos aleatórios de animal e resíduo. Utilizaram-se 46.971 lactações de 26.822 vacas, sendo 17.354 vacas puras por cruzamento (PC e 9.468 puras de origem (PO. Nos cinco núcleos regionais, denominados 1545, 2585, 5565, 35 e 75, formaram-se 21 classes de idade, sendo a menor constituída de vacas que pariram com menos de 24 meses e a maior pelas vacas com mais de 99 meses de idade. Para as vacas PO, os fatores para ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura tenderam a ser menores do que os correspondentes valores estimados para as vacas PC; todavia, a variabilidade foi maior nas vacas PO em relação às PC nos núcleos 75, 2585 e 5565. Os fatores para vacas jovens foram maiores do que para vacas de maior idade. Os fatores de ajustamento para produção de gordura foram maiores que os correspondentes para produção de leite. É recomendável utilizar fatores específicos para o ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura em cada núcleo e grupo racial.Adjustment factors were estimated for milk and fat yields for Holstein herds according to age of cow at calving, genetic group (purebred or graded cows and region of recorded milk yield (nucleus in Minas Gerais State. Statistical analyses used mixed model methodologies by restricted maximum likelihood using animal model. Herd-year, season of calving, age of cow classes, genetic group, and region of recorded milk records were used as fixed effects, and cows and residuals as random effects. Analyses used 46

  10. Desempenho de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com proteína de soja sólida ou líquida Performance of Holstein calves fed soybean meal protein in solid or liquid form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição de metade do total de proteína da dieta na forma sólida (farelo de soja por proteína na forma líquida (leite de soja, com relações sólidos:líquidos de 100,0:0%; 87,5:12,5%; e 75,0:25,0%. Utilizaram-se 24 bezerros machos da raça Holandesa com 60 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três dietas à base de concentrado (80% e feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (20%, balanceadas para nitrogênio e energia. Nas dietas com partes líquidas, o intuito foi manter o reflexo de formação da goteira esofagiana no período experimental de 10 meses, no qual os animais foram mantidos em confinamento, sendo abatidos ao atingirem pesos corporais superiores a 400 kg. Em alguns dos animais, dotados de cânulas de rúmen, foi possível detectar neste órgão apenas pequenas quantidades do leite de soja ingerido, confirmando sucesso na formação da goteira esofagiana. Os ganhos de peso diários apresentaram redução linear (1,399; 1,341; e 1,191 kg à medida que foram fornecidas maiores quantidades de leite de soja. As conversões de matéria seca e proteína bruta em ganhos de peso, durante os últimos 60 dias experimentais, pioraram conforme aumentaram as quantidades de proteína na forma líquida. O fornecimento de proteína na forma líquida na dieta não altera os rendimentos de carcaça em bezerros holandeses.The effects were assessed of substituting half the total diet protein in solid form (soybean meal with liquid form (soybean milk at solid:liquid ratios of: 100.0:0% L; 87.5:12.5% L; 75.0:25.0% L. Twenty-four Holstein breed 60-d male calf steers were assigned to a randomized block design, with three concentrate (80% diets and 20% coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon hay, balanced for nitrogen and energy. In the diets with liquid parts, the intention was to keep the functional reflex of the esophageal groove throughout the 10 months of the experimental period, in which

  11. Effect of calving process on the outcomes of delivery and postpartum health of dairy cows with unassisted and assisted calvings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Szenci, O

    2016-09-01

    Welfare aspects of obstetrical assistance were studied in multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=176) with (1) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCIP; n=42), (2) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; n=48), (3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACAP; n=50), and (4) assisted calving with inappropriately timed (premature) obstetrical assistance (ACIN; n=36). Duration of the stages of calving, the prevalence and the degree of dystocia, stillbirth ratio, newborn calf vitality, and the occurrence of postpartum health problems (i.e., retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration) were recorded. The time from amniotic sac and hooves appearance to birth and the total duration of calving (from the onset of calving restlessness to delivery) were shorter for UCG cows than for any other groups. The overall incidence of dystocia was 31.3% in the calvings studied. The prevalence of dystocia was below 10% in cases of unassisted calvings. The proportion of severe dystocia was higher in ACIN cows than in ACAP cows (47.2 vs. 12.0%, respectively). The prevalence of stillbirths was the highest in ACIN calvings (22.2%), followed by ACAP, UCI, and UCG cows (8.0, 4.8, and 0.0%, respectively). The ACIN calves had lower vitality scores than calves born from ACAP, UCG, and UCIP dams immediately after delivery and 24h after birth. Although ACAP calves had lower vitality scores than UCG and UCIP calves at birth, a delayed recovery of vitality was mirrored by satisfactory vitality scores 24h after birth. Retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration occurred more often with assisted dams (i.e., ACAP and ACIN animals) compared with UCIP cows with the highest prevalence in ACIN cows. In UCG cows, no injuries occurred in the vulva or vagina, and we noted only 4 cases of retained placenta (8.3%), proportions lower than in cows with unassisted calving in the maternity pen. Our results suggest that calving in a group might have benefits over calving in an

  12. Desenvolvimento alométrico do trato gastrintestinal de bezerros da raça holandesa alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas durante o aleitamento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1729 Alometric growth of gastrointestinal tract of holstein calves fed with diferent liquid diets during milking period - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1729

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Martines Baraldi Artoni

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram utilizados 12 bezerros da raça Holandesa distribuídos em três tratamentos, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos leite integral e dois tipos de sucedâneos comerciais Lactal® e Destetor®, avaliaram o desenvolvimento alométrico do sistema digestório, altura da papila do rúmen e do retículo, e altura e comprimento das cristas do omaso. O aleitamento dos animais transcorreu por um período de 60 dias, e, ao serem abatidos, todos os órgãos do trato digestório foram pesados e comparados, com destaque para o estômago (rúmen, retículo, omaso e abomaso. Não foram observadas diferenças (p>0,05 nas proporções dos diferentes compartimentos do estômago dos bezerros submetidos aos tratamentos. No entanto, verificou-se diferença (pIn this work 12 Holstein calves were used distributed in three treatment, on a completely randomized desing with four replicatin. The treatments were used, integral milk and two types of comercial milk replacer Lactal® and Destetor® to evaluate the digestive system alometric growthof the including, rumen and reticulum papillae heigth and omasum rigde growth. The animals were milking for 60 days and after slaughtring, their digest system organs were weighed and stomach complex compared (rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. No difference (P>0.05 due to treatments were obseved for the proportions among the diferent stomach compartiments of the calves. However, differences (P<0.05 for the papillae height of rumen and for the rigde lenght of omasum were observed. The milk replacers in this work resulted in a good calve growth being an alternative source of feed during mlking period.

  13. Desempenho de bezerros holandeses alimentados até o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo Performance of Holstein calves fed until weaning time with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de bezerros alimentados até o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo para posterior produção de vitelos de carne rosa. Trinta bezerros holandeses foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco blocos e seis tratamentos, e alimentados com seis rações concentradas com teores similares de proteína (22,5% PB e de energia (3,2 Mcal EM/kg MS, formuladas com: milho seco moído (MM; silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM; sorgo seco com tanino moído (SCTM; silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo com tanino (SGUSCT; sorgo seco sem tanino moído (SSTM; e silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo sem tanino (SGUSST. Os animais receberam sucedâneo de leite até atingirem o peso pré-estabelecido para desaleitamento (60 ± 5 kg. Não houve efeito das rações concentradas sobre a altura de cernelha, a idade ao desaleitamento, os consumos diários de MS diários e totais das rações concentradas, os ganhos de peso diários e totais e a conversão alimentar. Os custos por kg de ganho de peso das rações concentradas contendo sorgo foram mais baixos que o das rações concentradas formuladas com milho. Todos os alimentos avaliados podem ser usados em rações concentradas para bezerros em fase de aleitamento, pois não comprometem o desempenho e conferem resultados similares.The performance of calves fed until weaning time with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum was evaluated, for posterior production of pink meat veal. Thirty Holstein calves were allotted to a complete randomized blocks experimental design with five blocks and six treatments, fed with six concentrate rations with similar contents of protein (22.5% CP and energy (3.2 Mcal ME/kg DM formulated with: dry ground corn (GC, high moisture corn silage (HMCS, dry ground sorghum with tannin (GSWT, high moisture sorghum with tannin silage (HMSWTS, dry ground sorghum without tannin (GSWTT

  14. Desempenho de bezerros holandeses alimentados após o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo Performance of Holstein calves fed after weaning with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de bezerros alimentados após desaleitamento e até o abate com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo para a produção de vitelos de carne rosa. Trinta bezerros holandeses foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco blocos e seis tratamentos, e alimentados com seis rações concentradas com teores similares de proteína (18,5% PB e energia (3,2 Mcal EM/kg de MS, formuladas com: milho seco moído (MM; silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM; sorgo seco com tanino moído, (SCTM; silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo com tanino (SGUISCT; sorgo seco sem tanino moído (SSTM; e silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo sem tanino (SGUISST. Os animais foram recriados em piquetes coletivos até atingirem o peso pré-estabelecido para o abate (170 ± 10 kg PC. Não houve efeito das rações concentradas sobre a altura de cernelha, a idade ao abate, os dias no experimento e os ganhos de peso diários e totais. Os custos por kg de ganho de peso das rações contendo sorgo foram mais baixos que o das rações formuladas com milho. Todos os alimentos avaliados podem ser usados em rações concentradas para bezerros após o aleitamento, pois não comprometem o desempenho e conferem resultados similares.The performance of calves fed after weaning until slaughter with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum was evaluated, for production of pink meat veal. Thirty Holstein calves were allotted to a complete randomized blocks experimental design with five blocks and six concentrate rations with similar contents of protein (18.5% CP and energy (3.2 Mcal ME/kg DM, formulated with dry ground corn (GC, high moisture corn silage (HMCS, dry ground sorghum with tannin (GSWT, high moisture whole sorghum with tannin silage (HMWSWTS, dry ground sorghum without tannin (GSWTT or high moisture whole sorghum without tannin silage (HMWSWTTS. The animals were raised in

  15. Effects of dystocia on milk production and reproduction in subsequent lactation in a Turkish Holstein herd

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim KAYA; UZMAY, Can; AYYILMAZ, Tarık

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated effects of dystocia on milk production, reproduction, calf loss, and cow culling in a Turkish Holstein herd at the Agricultural Faculty, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey. Data were from 653 single calvings between 2006 and 2010. Considering a greater dystocia incidence in primiparous cows, data was divided in two; 223 primiparous and 430 multiparous calvings scored on a 1-to-5 scale. Scores were categorized into no dystocia and dystocia. With few related observations, all ...

  16. Genetic and phenotypic trends of fertility traits for Holstein dairy population in warm and temperate climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Rahbar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate genetic and phenotypic trends for fertility traits in Holstein dairy population under warm and temperate climate. Fertility traits were: success in first service, gestation length, number of inseminations, insemination outcome, calving interval, calving birth weight and days open. The edited data set included up to 23,402 records from 9,486 cows. The mean and standard deviation for fertility traits were 0.32 ± 0.003, 278.2 ± 5.58, 2.73 ± 1.94,0.31 ± 0.001, 415.99 ± 79.62, 40.4 ± 6.08 and 140.36 ± 76.16 for success in first service, gestation length, number of inseminations, insemination outcome, calving interval, calving birth weight and days open, respectively. In general, there were decreasing genetic trends for all traits over the years. On the other hand, there were decreasing phenotypic trend for days open, calving interval, gestation length, number of inseminations and calving birth weight, but estimates of phenotypic trends were positive for success in first service and insemination outcome over the years. It was concluded decreased trend for days open, calving interval, gestation length, number of inseminations and calving birth weight and increased trend for success in first service and insemination outcome traits over time indicated that Holstein dairy producers in warm and temperate climate were successful in managing and improving in nutrition during 1999 to 2013.

  17. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  18. Adição de probiótico ao leite integral ou sucedâneo e desempenho de bezerros da raça holandesa Addition of probiotic to whole milk or milk replacer and holstein calves performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marques Meyer

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de proibição do uso de antibióticos como promotores de crescimento para animais de produção tem feito com que consumidores e produtores procurem por alternativas. Os probióticos têm se mostrado promissores em cumprir este papel e por esta razão, setenta e nove bezerros da raça Holandesa foram utilizados para avaliar a adição de probiótico constituído por Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium e Saccharomyces cerevisiae ao aleitamento. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com arranjo fatorial de tratamentos 3x2, correspondendo ao tipo de dieta líquida (leite integral, sucedâneo ao 3° dia ou sucedâneo ao 15° dia de idade, com adição ou não de probiótico. O período experimental foi do nascimento até 15 dias após a desmama. O fornecimento de probiótico a bezerros(as aleitados(as com sucedâneo a partir dos 3 dias de idade melhorou o ganho de peso (com probiótico=0,22 vs. sem probiótico=0,16 kg dia-1 e conversão alimentar (2,62 vs. 3,85 até a desmama, e conversão alimentar (1,66 vs. 2,03 pós-desmama. Os bezerros aleitados com sucedâneo consumiram mais concentrado em relação aos que receberam leite integral (sucedâneo=0,22 vs. leite=0,19 kg dia-1, mas consumiram menos matéria seca total (0,61 vs. 0,67 kg dia-1 e apresentaram menor peso à desmama (49 vs. 59 kg. Quando o uso de sucedâneo foi iniciado aos 3 dias, os bezerros apresentaram maior consumo de concentrado (sucedâneo aos 3 dias=0,25 vs. sucedâneo aos 15 dias=0,20 kg dia-1 e menor peso à desmama (47,3 vs. 51 kg em relação aos bezerros aleitados com sucedâneo aos 15 dias.The possibility of limiting antibiotics as growth stimulants for farm animals has produced a climate in which both consumers and manufacturers are looking for alternatives. Probiotics are being considered to exercise this role, and for this reason, 79 newborn Holstein calves were used to evaluate the effects of

  19. PERFORMANCE OF PRE-WEANED FEMALE CALVES CONFINED IN HOUSING AND OPEN ENVIRONMENT HUTCHES IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, S. ABBAS, T. AL-MUTAWA AND M. BEDAIR

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to compare the responses of Holstein Friesian pre-weaned female calves confined in elevated metallic crates in closed-type of housing and polyvinyl hutches in an open environment of Kuwait. A total of 176 newborn Holstein Friesian female calves were randomly distributed to conventional confinement in closed-type calf houses (control and individual calf hutch in open environment (treatment. These calves were monitored upto the weaning age of 90 days. The average daily live weight gain was significantly higher in calves housed in hutches than conventional housing system (413 versus 113 g/h/d; P≤0.0001. Mean risk rates (RR for mortality in hutch and conventional housing were 0.017 and 0.23, respectively. The results showed a significant positive impact of hutch housing with respect to growth, mortality and incidence of diseases in Kuwait’s intensive dairy farming system

  20. Immune response and disease resistance of calves fed chromium nicotinic acid complex or chromium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, E B; Spears, J W; Brown, T T

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-one Holstein bull calves (skinfold thickness after an intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin were measured to evaluate cell-mediated immune response. Calves supplemented with Cr-nicotinic acid complex had a greater response than did controls at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after injection. Calves supplemented with CrCl3 had a greater response than did controls at 24 and 48 h after injection. In vitro blastogenic responses of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen and antibody response to porcine red blood cells were not affected by treatment. Following a disease challenge with an intranasal dose of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis on d 75, body temperature tended to be lower for calves supplemented with Cr-nicotinic acid complex than for control calves. Calves supplemented with either Cr source had lower serum cortisol concentrations at 5 d after challenge. Chromium supplementation enhanced cell-mediated immune function.

  1. Serum immunoglobulins in newborn calves before and after colostrum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, M J

    1971-10-01

    Pre-colostral and post-colostral sera of seven Holstein calves and colostral whey were analyzed immunoelectrophoretically. IgM, IgG(1) (fast), and IgG(2) (slow) were demonstrated while IgA was not detected in serum of new-born calves before colostrum feeding. In post-colostral serum IgG, IgM, in relatively higher levels, and IgA were present which corresponded with the classes of immunoglobulins found in whey. These observations suggest that the developing bovine fetus may be capable of independent immune response.

  2. Efeito de sementes oleaginosas inteiras e óleo de soja sobre a digestibilidade in vitro e os padrões ruminais de bezerros holandeses Effect of oleaginous whole seeds and soybean oil on the in vitro digestibility and ruminal pattern in holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Villaça

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para comparar os efeitos da adição de sementes inteiras de soja e algodão e de óleo de soja sobre os padrões ruminais e a digestibilidade in vitro, em bezerros Holandeses fistulados. Dois bezerros fistulados no rúmen foram alimentados com dieta basal com 2,5% de extrato etéreo (EE, o qual foi comparado com dietas com 5,0% de EE, em que as sementes de soja e algodão inteira ou o óleo de soja foram fontes de EE adicional. A adição de sementes de soja e de algodão resultou em decréscimo na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, porém não houve alterações na digestibilidade in vitro da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA em relação à dieta controle. A adição de semente algodão provocou decréscimo na digestibilidade in vitro da proteína bruta em comparação à dieta controle. A concentração de ácido propiônico nas dietas com adição de óleo de soja foi 16% mais elevada que a proporcionada pelas demais dietas. O uso de óleo de soja pareceu ser a mais adequada em relação à digestibilidade da matéria seca, FDA e FDN e à manutenção de pH, quando comparado a outros tipos de adição lipídica, porém menos eficiente que a semente de soja em relação à digestibilidade in vitro da proteína bruta. O número de protozoários apresentou grande variação entre dietas, mas nenhum efeito com adição de óleo foi observado. A maior concentração de N-NH3 ruminal foi obtida na dieta com óleo de soja, quando comparada às outras dietas.This work was conducted to compare the effects of whole soybean and cotton seeds and soybean oil on the ruminal pattern and in vitro disappearance, in fistulated Holstein calves. Two calves fitted with rumen cannula were fed a basal diet with 2.5% of ether extract (EE, which was compared with 5.0% EE, where whole soybean, whole cotton seeds or soybean oil were the source of additional EE. The addition of whole soybean and

  3. Large-scale study on effects of metritis on reproduction in Danish Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Ancker, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    A total of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows were studied with the main objective to investigate the effects of metritis on 2 fertility variables: interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and nonreturn rate at 56d after first insemination (NR56), adjusting for milk product...

  4. Monitoring inbreeding trends and inbreeding depression for economically important traits of Holstein cattle in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokouei, M; Torshizi, R Vaez; Shahrbabak, M Moradi

    2010-01-01

    Pedigree information of 852,443 registered Holstein cows and bulls, collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran from 1971 to 2007, was used to calculate inbreeding coefficients and their effect on production, reproduction, somatic cell count, calving ease, and longevity traits. The average in...

  5. Giardiasis in dairy calves: effects of fenbendazole treatment on intestinal structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, R M; Buret, A G; McAllister, T A; Jelinski, M; Olson, M E

    2001-01-01

    Twelve Giardia duodenalis-infected Holstein dairy calves were allocated into a treatment (n=6) and placebo group (n=6) according to pre-study faecal cyst counts. Calves in the treatment group received an oral dose of 5 mg/kg fenbendazole once daily for 3 days, while placebo calves received a sterile saline solution. Calves were euthanised 7 days following the initiation of treatment and intestinal were collected and prepared for trophozoite quantitation, histology, electron microscopy, and disaccharidase assays. In all calves treated with fenbendazole, intestinal trophozoites were below detection limits, while in saline-treated calves, trophozoites were observed in all intestinal segments. Histologically, no significant difference was observed between treatment groups with respect to intestinal villus height or crypt depth. However, a significant decline in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was observed in fenbendazole-treated calves when compared with placebo-treated calves in the duodenum (13.9+/-1.2 vs. 17.0+/-1.1 IEL/100 enterocytes) and jejunum (21.6+/-0.8 vs. 30.7+/-1.0 IEL/100 enterocytes). In addition, measurements from TEM micrographs demonstrated a significant increase in microvillus surface area in the jejunum of fenbendazole-treated calves compared with saline-treated calves (31.2+/-10.2 vs. 22.8+/-7.6 microm(2)). This increase in microvillus surface area was also associated with an increase in jejunal maltase activity in fenbendazole-treated calves compared with calves treated with saline. These results demonstrate that fenbendazole is an effective treatment for giardiasis in calves. fenbendazole treatment eliminated Giardia trophozoites from the small intestine of calves resulting in increased microvillus surface area and greater intestinal enzyme activity. This study also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of giardiasis in calves is similar to that observed in humans and laboratory animals, and provides further evidence that Giardia is

  6. High Prevalence of Natural Chlamydophila Species Infection in Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Jee, JunBae; DeGraves, Fred J.; Kim, TeaYoun; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the acquisition and prevalence of Chlamydophila sp. infection in calves. Specimens were collected at weekly intervals from birth to week 12 postpartum from 40 female Holstein calf-dam pairs in a dairy herd. Real-time PCR detected, quantified, and differentiated Chlamydophila 23S rRNA gene DNA from vaginal cytobrush swabs and milk samples. Chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with lysed Chlamydophila abortus or Chlamydophila pecorum elementary body antigens quant...

  7. Complex social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Daros, R R; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2014-12-01

    Animals are often reluctant to consume novel feeds. Research suggests that social housing can reduce fearfulness in animals. The aim of this study was to test the prediction that social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves. Beginning immediately at birth, Holstein bull calves were either reared individually (n=18) or in a complex social group with other calves and cows (n=18). In food neophobia tests, calves were exposed to 2 identical buckets, one empty and the other filled with a novel food (chopped hay in trial 1 and chopped carrots in trial 2). Calves were tested for 30 min/d on 3 consecutive days starting at 70 d of age. Regardless of the type of food, socially housed calves consumed more of the novel feed compared with individually housed calves. In trial 1, intake of hay as fed averaged 35 ± 6 versus 18 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves. In trial 2, intake of chopped carrots as fed averaged 27 ± 6 versus 6 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves, respectively. Social rearing decreased the latency to eat the novel feed. Calves housed in a complex social group began eating the hay after 1:23 ± 1:13 versus 3:58 ± 1:10 min:s for individually housed calves. Latency to begin eating the chopped carrots averaged 3:09 ± 1:17 versus 6:38 ± 1:13 min:s for socially versus individually housed calves. Treatment had no effect on time spent eating, latency to approach the food bucket or the empty bucket in either trial, or on time spent manipulating the empty bucket. These results indicate that housing dairy calves in a complex social group reduces food neophobia. More generally, this study contributes to a series of studies showing that calves raised in more complex social environments may be better able to transition to other changes in their environment.

  8. Effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani calves

    OpenAIRE

    Showkat A. Bhat; Bharat Bhushan; Sajad A. Sheikh; Chandrasekar, T.; Asu Singh Godara; Pranay Bharti; K. Puhle Japheth

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani (Holstein Friesian × Brown Swiss × Jersey × Hariana) calves. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, ten newborn Vrindavani calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2) of five each. The experiment was conducted from 2nd November to 8th February when the environmental temperature was at the lowest. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protec...

  9. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  10. Productive and reproductive performance of crossbred Holstein x Gir cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Balancin Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of Holtein-Frisian x Gir crossbred cows. The traits evaluated were: milk production up to 305 days (P305, total milk production (PTL, production per day of calving interval (PIP, age at first calving (IPP, calving interval (IDP, service period (PS and gestation length (PG, which were analyzed using mixed linear models. The Incomplete gamma function was used to estimate the parameters of lactation curves for each genetic group. The animals of genetic groups (GG 3/4H, 7/8H and pure by crosses (PC achieved higher performances for productive traits, and animals from the GG 1/2H achieved better performance for reproductive traits. The Holstein-Frisian PC animals presented the lactation curves with higher production levels and higher productions at the peak of the lactation but with less persistence. The 1/2H animals had slightly lower persistence in comparison to genetic groups 3/4H and 7/8H. Milk production in function of gestation length varied according to each group and Holstein-Frisian (PC presented greater decrease in milk yield after conception.

  11. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole

    2001-01-01

    was characterized by shortening of the cervical and thoracic parts of the vertebral column due to multiple hemivertebrae, fused and misshaped vertebrae, and scoliosis. Symmetrical flexures of the carpal joints and the metacarpophalangeal joint in combination with a slight lateral rotation of the phalanges also were...

  12. Enterotoxemia in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S

    1985-11-01

    The incidence, bacterial characteristics, disease syndromes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of enterotoxemia of neonatal calves caused by Clostridium perfringens (Types A, B, C, D, and E) are reviewed.

  13. Parâmetros bioquímicos para avaliação da função hepática em bezerras sadias, da raça holandesa, no primeiro mês de vida Biochemical parameters to evaluate liver function of healthy female holstein calves during the first month of live

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Benesi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Para o estabelecimento de valores bioquímicos de referência utilizados para avaliar a função hepática de bezerras sadias, da raça Holandesa, utilizaram-se amostras de soro sangüíneo de 300 animais, distribuídos por 15 grupos experimentais, de acordo com a idade, no primeiro mês de vida. Os constituintes bioquímicos estudados foram as bilirrubinas (total ,conjugada e livre e as enzimas gama glutamiltransferase (GGT, aspartato aminotransferase (AST e creatina quinase (CK. Considerou-se na análise dos resultados a influência do fator etário. As taxas séricas das bilirrubinas demonstraram maiores valores no primeiro dia de vida (BT-1,360mg/dl; BC-0,150mg/dl e BL-1,175mg/dl, apresentando a seguir diminuições significativas até os trinta dias de vida (BT-0,350mg/dl; BC-0,050mg/dl e BL-0,300mg/dl. A atividade sérica da GGT foi máxima entre 16 e 24 horas de idade (945,00UI/L, sendo seguida por diminuições dos valores, de forma significativa a partir do 11º dia de vida (86,00UI/, atingindo valores descritos para animais adultos aos 30 dias de idade (24,00UI/. As enzimas AST e CK apresentaram taxas máximas no primeiro dia de vida (AST- 27,50UI/L e CK- 73,00UI/L, seguidas por diminuições e pequenas oscilações até o final do período analisado (AST- 19,00UI/L e CK-41,50UI/L. A influência do fator etário provou-se significativa para todos os constituintes bioquímicos estudados.Three hundred healthy female Holstein calves were used for assess the liver function throughout the first month of life. The following serum biochemical variables were analysed: bilirrubin (total, direct and indirect and the activities of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatine kinase (CK. The influence of age on the biochemical values was also studied. The bilirrubin values had highest levels on the 1st d of life (BT-1.360mg/dl; BC-0.150mg/dl e BL-1.175mg/dl and then showed a continuing decrease until the 30th d of

  14. Características da Carcaça de Bezerros Holandeses para Produção de Vitelos Recebendo Dietas com Diferentes Níveis de Concentrado Carcass Characteristics of Holstein Veal Calves Fed Diets with Different Levels of Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Regina Ribeiro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado utilizando 20 bezerros da raça Holandesa, machos não castrados, com o objetivo de avaliar as características das carcaças desses animais alimentados com dietas contendo 45, 60, 75 e 90% de concentrado. As dietas foram constituídas de feno de capim-coastcross, fubá de milho, farelo de soja e mistura mineral, fornecidas à vontade. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Antes do início do experimento, todos os animais foram submetidos a um mesmo sistema de aleitamento. O período experimental foi variável para cada tratamento, em que os animais eram abatidos, após jejum de 16 horas, à medida que atingiam o peso vivo médio de 200 kg. Nas meias carcaças esquerdas foram medidas a área de olho de lombo, o comprimento da carcaça e a sua composição física, enquanto nas meias carcaças direitas foram feitos os cortes básicos da carcaça. O rendimento das carcaças quente e fria com base no peso vivo dos animais, o rendimento da carcaça quente com base no peso corporal vazio e a área de olho de lombo dos animais apresentaram diferenças significativas com o acréscimo de concentrado nas dietas. Não houve diferenças significativas para peso vivo final, peso da carcaça quente, pesoda carcaça fria e rendimento da carcaça fria com base no peso corporal vazio, assim como nas perdas de peso nas carcaças ocasionadas pelo tempo de jejum ao qual os animais foram submetidos antes do abate, nos cortes básicos e no rendimento do dianteiro e traseiro nas carcaças.The experiment was carried out with 20 Holstein intact male calves to study the carcass characteristics of these animals fed with diets containing 45, 60, 75 and 90% of concentrate. Diets were composed of coastcross hay, ground corn grain, soybean meal and mineral mixture fed ad libitum. A completely randomized blocks experimental design, with four treatments and five replications, was used

  15. Composição física da carcaça de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Carcass physical composition of Holstein calves fed diets with different levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Signoretti

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito dos diferentes níveis de concentrado nas dietas sobre a composição física da carcaça. Trinta e dois bezerros da raça Holandesa, PC, variedade preto e branco, divididos em dois grupos de abate (grupo 1: 16 animais abatidos com 190 ± 10 kg PV e grupo 2: 16 animais abatidos com 300 ± 10 kg, com, em média, 75 dias de idade e 78 kg PV inicial, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições para ambos os grupos. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade com dietas contendo 45,0; 60,0; 75,0; e 90,0% de concentrado na base da ração (% MS, usando-se feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, fubá de milho e farelo de soja, os quais constituíram dietas com aproximadamente 16% PB. A cada período de 28 dias, os animais foram pesados e abatidos quando se aproximavam do peso de abate preestabelecido para os grupos 1 e 2. A proporção de ossos na carcaça dos animais do grupo 1 não foi influenciada, porém a de músculos diminuiu e a de gordura e as relações tecido adiposo:ósseo e tecido adiposo:muscular aumentaram linearmente, em função dos níveis de concentrado nas rações. O aumento do nível de concentrado nas rações influenciou somente a relação tecido muscular:ósseo na carcaça dos animais do grupo 2.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dietary levels of concentrate on the carcass physical composition. Thirty two pure Holstein black and white type bull calves, into two slaughter groups (group 1: 16 animals slaughtered with 190 ± 10 kg PV and group 2: 16 animals slaughtered with 300 ± 10 kg with average of 75 days of age and initial 75 kg LW were allotted to a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four replicates for both groups. The animals were full fed diets containing 45.0, 60.0, 75.0, and 90.0% concentrate in the diet (% DM, using coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon grass hay

  16. Effect of restricted feed intake of dams and heat stress on mineral status of newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, S; Toharmat, T; Kobayashi, N

    1998-06-01

    To clarify the effects of restricted feed intake, heat stress, and parity on the mineral status of cows and heifers around parturition and on the mineral status of their calves during 1 wk of age, data were collected from 66 Holstein cows and heifers and their calves. In Experiment 1, 36 heifers and mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet requirements for total digestible nutrients (TDN), protein, and minerals. In Experiment 2, 15 mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet maintenance requirements for TDN plus requirements for TDN for the last 2 mo of gestation, and 15 heifers were fed to meet TDN requirements. Heat stress increased rectal temperatures of newborn calves. Blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of heifers around parturition were higher than those of mature cows, but blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of calves born from heifers were lower. The restricted feed intake of dams decreased blood hematocrit and hemoglobin as well as plasma Fe of calves in hot and cool weather. Plasma Ca, inorganic P, and alkaline phosphatase as well as colostral Ca, P, Mg, and Zn of heifers were higher than those of mature cows, but plasma Mg of heifers was lower. Plasma Mg of calves and their dams was lower in hot weather than in cool weather, and restricted feed intake accelerated the reduction in plasma Mg of calves and their dams during hot weather. Plasma Na of calves and their dams was higher in hot weather than in cool weather. Heat stress increased plasma K of heifers and their calves. Heat stress increased Ca concentration in meconium of calves born from cows, and the restricted feed intake increased P concentrations in meconium. These results suggest that the maintenance of optimum erythropoiesis and mineral status in heatstressed periparturient cows and heifers and their calves must be met by dietary energy and minerals that are fed at maintenance concentrations plus excess requirements necessary during the gestation

  17. Effect of enhanced whole-milk feeding in calves on subsequent first-lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiezebrink, D J; Edwards, A M; Wright, T C; Cant, J P; Osborne, V R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of enhanced whole-milk (WM) feeding systems in calves from birth to 8wk of age on subsequent first-lactation performance. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatment groups. At birth, 152 Holstein heifer calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (i) 4L of WM/d or (ii) 8L of WM/d. The calves were bucket fed 2 or 4L of WM twice daily at 0700 and 1600h. Each calf was housed individually in temperature-controlled nurseries and had ad libitum access to water and textured calf starter daily. Calves consumed greater volumes of textured calf starter when fed 4 versus 8L of WM/d. Water intakes mirrored starter intakes, leading to greater water consumption at weaning. Calves reared on 8L of WM/d were heavier at d 56 than calves reared on 4L of WM/d. The average daily gain of the calves offered 8L of WM/d from d 0 to 56 was greater than that of calves offered 4L of WM/d. Structural measurements were significantly greater for calves that consumed 8L of WM/d. The differences observed in withers height and live BW due to WM feeding level were not apparent by 3 and 12mo of age, respectively. Rumen pH was higher in calves that consumed 8L of WM/d than in calves that consumed 4L of WM/d. Whole-milk feeding level did not affect age at first calving or milk-production parameters. These results suggest that enhanced WM feeding improved growth performance until 3mo of age. However, first-lactation results indicated no lactation-performance benefits of increased nutrition and growth performance during the milk-fed period in dairy calves.

  18. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Klarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were divided into three equal groups (10 calves in each group. Experiment was carried out in the period from calving up to the 60th day of calf ’s age. All groups were given whole milk, however, duration of whole milk feeding differed among groups. Group 1 consumed whole milk from birth up to the 30th day of age, group 2 from birth up to the 20th day of age and group 3 from birth up to the 10th day of age. Afterwards, all groups were fed with milk replacement formula up to the 60th day of age. Suggested technological solutions in calves feeding within this experiment were analyzed through evaluation of basic fattening characteristics, monitoring of diarrhea occurrences and calculating costs per kg of weight gain per each group. Statistical analysis referring to calves body weight, daily gain and liquid feed conversion during the 1st month of experiment proved the best values for group 1, which were statistically highly significant (P<0.01 if compared to other groups. Examination of health status of calves determined that diarrhea occurred less frequently in group 1, which led to conclusion that feeding whole milk to calves should be given priority with respect to its nutritive and health benefits. By analyzing economic aspect of feeding whole milk to calves in their 1st month of age, the lowest costs were obtained for group 1, which supports the fact that feeding calves with whole milk is cost effective.

  19. Association between birth conditions and glucose and cortisol profiles of periparturient dairy cows and neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L; Furtado, P V; Oliveira, C A; Nichi, M

    2015-04-04

    Parturition in cattle is a stressful event for both the dam and the offspring. Stress and pain can alter the energy profile of calves and calving cows, producing a metabolic imbalance at birth. This study aimed to assess the effects of dystocia and oxytocin and calcium infusion on metabolic homeostasis in dairy cows and calves. Thirty Holstein cows and their calves were divided into three groups: an eutocia group (n=10), in which no calving assistance was needed; a dystocia group, which required mild-to-severe obstetric assistance (n=10); and a uterine inertia group, which was treated with oxytocin and calcium (n=10). To assess serum cortisol and blood glucose levels, blood samples were collected during the peripartum period from cows and during the first hour since birth from calves. All groups were hyperglycaemic following parturition. Infusion of oxytocin and calcium resulted in lower maternal glucose concentrations and lower levels of stress than in cows in the dystocia group. Birth condition was significantly associated with blood glucose and cortisol concentrations in calves. Glucose concentration was lower in calves born with oxytocin and calcium infusion than those born with fetal extraction. In conclusion, assisted calving with fetal extraction causes important metabolic changes for the dam and calf. Conversely, the practice of oxytocin and calcium infusion for hypotonic cows has no harmful effects on metabolic balance and can be safely employed as a medical treatment.

  20. Effects of supplemental shade on thermoregulatory response of calves to heat challenge in a hutch environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, J N; Spiers, D E

    1996-04-01

    Holstein (n = 12) and Guernsey (n = 6) calves, housed in hutches, were used to evaluate the complex relationships among external environment, housing microclimate, and thermal status of calves. The study was conducted during the summer; 9 calves were housed in hutches under supplemental shade, and 9 calves were maintained in hutches under direct sunlight. Environmental and calf temperatures were measured twice daily at 0700 and 1500 h, which included determinations of air temperature, inner and outer surface temperatures of the hutch, rectal and skin temperatures of the calf, and respiration rate. Outer and inner surface temperatures of the hutch were lower under supplemental shade. Hutch air temperature was highly correlated with inner surface temperature and therefore was lower in the shaded environment. During the p.m. period, when heat stress was highest, calves housed in a shaded hutch environment had lower skin temperatures and respiration rates than did unshaded calves. Body temperature and respiration rates increased less for calves in shade than for calves in sun. These data define the relationship between the calf and the environment. Supplemental shade diminished the severity of heat stress experienced by calves that were housed in hutches during the summer.

  1. Phenotypic association between energy balance indicators and reproductive performance in primiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valergakis, G E; Oikonomou, G; Arsenos, G; Banos, G

    2011-02-19

    Energy balance was assessed during the first 13 weeks postpartum in 497 primiparous Holstein cows and the relationship with reproductive performance was investigated. A significant association was observed between body condition score (BCS) and a number of reproductive traits, including conception at first artificial insemination (AI), number of inseminations per conception, calving to conception and calving intervals, percentage pregnant by the end of a 305-day lactation and incidence of metritis. The BCS from calving to week 9 (before the first AI) appeared to adequately predict future reproductive performance as it was correlated with calving interval, conception at first AI, metritis and percentage pregnant by the end of a 305-day lactation. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were correlated with the latter trait only, whereas non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were not associated with reproductive performance.

  2. Effectiveness of genetic predictions of Holstein gestation length and relationship to lactation yield for the subsequent lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if genetic evaluations of gestation length (GL) were reliable and repeatable, Holstein bulls used to develop those evaluations were stratified into 7 groups according to predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for service-sire GL based on calvings from 1998 through 2004: <=-3.00, -3.00 to ...

  3. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam Christian; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly...

  4. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  5. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on performance and immune function of preweaning calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Zhang, H T

    2010-12-01

    The effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on performance and immune function of dairy calves during the preweaning phase were investigated in this study. Twelve Holstein male calves 7 ± 1 d of age were randomly allotted to 2 treatments of 6 calves. The Bacillus subtilis natto was mixed with milk and fed directly to the calves. The calves were weaned when their starter intake reached 2% of their weight. Blood was collected and IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and cytokine levels in the serum of all the calves were determined. The results showed that Bacillus subtilis natto increased general performance by improving the average daily gain and feed efficiency and advanced the weaning age of the calves. No difference was observed in serum IgE, IgA, and IgM, whereas serum IgG was higher in the Bacillus subtilis natto-supplemented calves than in the control calves. Furthermore, calves fed with Bacillus subtilis natto were found to secrete more IFN-γ, but tended to produce less IL-4 than did the control calves, although serum IL-6 and IL-10 were not affected. This study demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis natto did not stimulate IgE-mediated allergic reactions, but increased serum IgG and IFN-γ levels in the probiotic-fed calves. We propose that the viable probiotic characteristics of Bacillus subtilis natto benefit calf immune function. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly distributed diurnal feeding patterns. However, differences in feeding patterns resulting from feed presentation did not persist after 8 wk of age, when all calves were fed a mixed ration. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 不同组合益生菌对0~8周龄犊牛生长性能及血清生化指标的影响%Effects of Different Combinations of Probiotics on Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Dairy Calves Aged from 0 to 8 Weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符运勤; 刁其玉; 屠焰; 王建红; 许先查

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of different combinations of probiotics on growth performance and serum biochemical parameters in preruminant Chinese Holstein calves. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 males and 3 females in each group. Calves were offered a basal diet including milk replacer, starter diet and Chinese wildrye (control diet, group A) , a basal diet supplemented with Bacillus licheniformis (group B) , a basal diet supplemented with Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subti-lis (group C) , and a basal diet supplemented with Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum (group D) , respectively. The ratio of each microbial strain for group C and group D was 1:1 and 1:1:1 in the bacterial counts, respectively. Each calf was offered 2 ?1010 CFU of probiotics per day. The total trial period was 8 weeks, and divided into 0-2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 weeks for each period. Body weight and body measurement were recorded and blood samples were collected fortnightly, feed intake and fecal score were recorded every day. The results showed that in the trial of 0-8 weeks, average daily gain of calves in the group B was significantly higher than that in the group A (P 0. 05 ). At the end of the trial, body structure index in groups B and D was higher than that in the group A (P 0. 05). It is concluded that adding Bacillus licheniformis into the diet for calves can increase average daily gain of calves in the trial of 0-8 weeks and body structure index at the end of the trial, and adding Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum into the diet for calves can increase body structure index at the end of the trial. However, adding probiotics into the diet for calves has no effect on serum biochemical parameters of animals.%本试验旨在研究益生菌对犊牛生长性能和血清生化指标的影响.选取24头新生荷斯坦犊牛,随机分为4组,每组公母各1/2,分别饲

  8. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( feed conversion. These results suggest that calves exposed to repeated transport may decrease feed intake compared to nontransported calves as an initial response to transport; however, overall feed conversion was not affected and these Holstein calves may have

  9. Effects of repeat fenbendazole treatment in dairy calves with giardiosis on cyst excretion, clinical signs and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, R M; Cockwill, C; Jelinski, M; McAllister, T A; Olson, M E

    2000-04-28

    In this 90-day study, 60 male Holstein dairy calves were experimentally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Calves were randomly blocked by weight into treatment (N=30) and placebo (N=30) groups. Beginning on study Day 0, calves in the treatment group were administered an oral dose of 5mg/kg of fenbendazole once daily for three consecutive days. Calves in the placebo group received a daily oral treatment of 5 ml of saline for 3 days. These treatments were repeated on Days 30 and 60 of the study. Fecal samples were collected from calves once per week and examined for the presence of Giardia cysts. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of intestinal disease and all episodes of diarrhea recorded. Calves were weighed once per week and total feed intake, on a dry matter basis, was calculated daily. Following each treatment, the number of calves shedding Giardia cysts in the fenbendazole group was reduced (pfenbendazole group had fewer cysts (pfenbendazole had fewer total days with diarrhea (pfenbendazole is an effective treatment for giardiosis, resulting in a clinical benefit and reducing the number of infective cysts shed by calves. However, this treatment regime had no impact on production parameters and reinfection occurred rapidly in these calves.

  10. PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN COWS IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sattar, R. H. Mirza, A. A. K. Niazi and M. Latif

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Productive and reproductive performance parameters of Holstein-Friesian cows kept at the Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki, District Kasur for the period from 1991 to 2000 were studied. The average values for age at maturity, age at first conception and age at first calving were 652.70 ± 6.98, 714.74 ± 9.72 and 987.87 ± 9.81 days, respectively and the differences of these parameters during different seasons of birth were statistically non-significant. The average calving to first insemination interval, service period and calving interval in these cows were 113.34 ± 3.45, 222.22 ± 6.87 and 505.02 ± 8.28 days, respectively. Effect of parity on these parameters was statistically non-significant. On the other hand, the effect of calving season on calving to first insemination interval, service period and calving interval was statistically significant (P<0.05. The cows calving during humid hot season showed significantly (P<0.05 lower calving to first insemination and calving interval as compared to those calving during winter and spring seasons. The cows calving during autumn and humid hot seasons showed significantly (P<0.05 lower service period as compared to those calving during winter and spring seasons. The average number of services per conception was 3.07 ± 0.10. The differences of the number of services per conception during 6th lactation with those of 1st and 8th lactation were statistically significant (P<0.05. The average gestation period was 278.61 ± 0.29 days. Higher gestation period was observed in cows carrying male calves than cows carrying female calves and this difference was statistically non-significant. The average lactation length and dry period were 291.86 ± 6.55 and 224.99 ± 10.00 days, respectively, while the average lactation milk yield was 2772.76 ± 65.00 liters. The differences of lactation milk yield between 7th and 3rd lactation were statistically significant (P<0.05. Similarly, the lactation

  11. Características de carcaças e dos componentes não-carcaça de bezerros holandeses alimentados após o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo Characteristics of carcasses and non carcass components of Holstein calves fed post weaning with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características de carcaças e dos componentes não-carcaça de bezerros alimentados após desaleitamento até o abate com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo para a produção de vitelos de carne rosa. Trinta bezerros holandeses foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco blocos e seis tratamentos, e alimentados com seis rações com teores similares de proteína (18,5% PB e de energia (3,2 Mcal EM/kg de MS, formuladas com: milho seco moído (MM; silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM; sorgo seco com tanino moído, (SCTM; silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo com tanino (SGUISCT; sorgo seco sem tanino moído (SSTM; e silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo sem tanino (SGUISST. Os animais foram recriados em piquetes coletivos até atingirem o peso pré-estabelecido para o abate (170 ± 10 kg PV. Não houve efeito da composição das rações concentradas sobre os pesos de carcaça, de cortes e dos componentes não-carcaça nem sobre os rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria, de traseiro e dos outros cortes. Identificou-se efeito das rações concentradas apenas sobre o rendimento de dianteiro, que foi maior nos animais alimentados com SGUISST em comparação àqueles alimentados com MSM e SCTM. Todos os alimentos avaliados podem ser usados em rações concentradas para bezerros após o aleitamento, pois não comprometem as características de carcaça e dos componentes não-carcaça e conferem resultados similares.The characteristics of carcasses and non carcass components of calves fed after weaning until slaughter with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum was evaluated, for production of pink meat veal. Thirty Holstein calves were allotted to a complete randomized blocks experimental design with five blocks and six concentrate rations with similar contents of protein (18.5% CP and energy (3.2 Mcal ME/kg DM, formulated with dry ground

  12. Differential thermal sensitivity between the recipient ooplasm and the donor nucleus in Holstein and Taiwan native yellow cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, P C; Lee, J W; Cheng, W T K; Su, H Y; Lee, S N; Liu, B T; Wang, C H; Chen, L R; Ju, J C

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare thermal sensitivity of recipient ooplasm and donor nucleus from Holstein and Taiwan native yellow (TY) cows. Oocytes and cumulus cells from each breed were incubated at 43 °C (heat shock) or 38.5 °C (control) for 1 h prior to nucleus transplantation. Reconstructed embryos cloned by transfer of non-heated Holstein donor cells to heat-shocked Holstein ooplasm (Ho(+)-Hd⁻) had a lower (P heated Holstein ooplasm receiving heated (Ho⁻-Hd(+)) or non-heated (Ho⁻-Hd⁻) Holstein donor cells (11.3 vs. 34.3 or 36.8%). Heat-shocked donor cells from either Holstein or TY cows did not significantly affect blastocyst rates of reconstructed embryos produced from Holstein ooplasm (30.6-32.9%). In contrast, blastocyst rates of reconstructed embryos generated with heat-shocked Holstein ooplasm were lower (P heat-shocked TY ooplasm (11.2 vs 45.2%). Without heat shock, embryos reconstructed by transferring donor cells to ooplasm of Holstein or TY cows had similar (P > 0.05) blastocyst rates (28.9-33.3%). Transplantation of reconstructed embryos (n = 30) to recipients (n = 23) resulted in three live calves, derived from embryos cloned with TY ooplasm and donor nuclei from either Holstein (n = 2) or TY cows (n = 1). In conclusion, ooplasm of TY cattle was more resistant to heat stress than that derived from Holsteins; therefore, ooplasm may be a major determinant for thermal sensitivity in bovine oocytes and embryos.

  13. Effect of Roughage Source and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Animal Performance and Rumen Development in Veal Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four male Holstein-Friesian x Dutch Friesian veal calves (46 ± 3.0 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels and sources of dietary roughage on animal performance and rumen development. Treatments consisted of 1) C100 = concentrate only; 2) C70-S30 = concentrate

  14. Effect of Roughage Source and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Animal Performance and Rumen Development in Veal Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four male Holstein-Friesian x Dutch Friesian veal calves (46 ± 3.0 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels and sources of dietary roughage on animal performance and rumen development. Treatments consisted of 1) C100 = concentrate only; 2) C70-S30 = concentrate

  15. Taxas de passagem e cinética da degradação ruminal em bezerros holandeses alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Passage rates and ruminal degradation kinetics in Holstein calves fed diets with different concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johann Bürger

    2000-02-01

    rumen and abomasum fistulated bull Holstein calves, with an initial average age of 5.8±0.7 months and initial average of 107.4±11.0 kg LW were allotted to a 5x5 Latin square design (treatment x period. The animals were housed in individual stalls and full fed diets (DM basis containing 30.0, 45.0, 60.0, 75,0 and 90.0% of concentrate. The diets were based on coast-cross grass hay as forage and soybean meal an corn ground grain in the concentrate. The passage rate of fluids showed a quadratic behavior, with the maximum value of 9.73%/h, with the 61.69% of concentrate in the diet. The particulate passage rate of the soybean meal in the reticulum-rumen linearly decreased, while the concentrate levels in the diets did not affect the passage rate in proximal cecum-colon. The concentrate levels in the diet did not affect the passage rates of the coast-cross grass hay in the reticulum-rumen and in the proximal cecum-colon. The effective degradation of the DM of the soybean meal was not affected, while those of the corn ground grain increased and coast-cross grass hay linearly decreased, respectively. The effective degradation of the CP of the soybean meal and coast-cross grass hay did not vary, however, that of the corn ground grain linearly increased as the dietary concentrate levels increased.

  16. Effects of human visitation on calf growth and performance of calves fed different milk replacer feeding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, N E; Antaya, N T; Cabral, R G; Whitehouse, N L; Earleywine, T J; Erickson, P S

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-eight newborn Holstein heifer calves from the university herd and 8 newborn Holstein heifer calves from a commercial herd were blocked by birth and herd into 1 of 4 treatments: conventional [20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat] milk replacer (MR; treatment C) with (1) or without (0) human visitation, or a higher plane of MR nutrition (28% CP, 20% fat) regimen (treatment A) with (1) or (0) without human visitation. Calves on C MR treatments received 454g of MR from d 2 to 41. Calves on A MR received 916g of MR from d 2 to 8 and 1134g of MR from d 9 to 41. Visitation with calves occurred at 1030 and 1430h daily from d 1 to 56 and comprised verbal stimulation and stirring of starter grain. An opaque curtain divided the calf nursery, with calves in the front half assigned to visitation treatments and those in the rear half not assigned to visitation treatments. Calves were fed their MR treatment until d 43 (preweaning), after which all calves received half of their allotment of MR until d 49 (weaning). Calves were tracked for the next week until d 56 (postweaning). Starter grain and MR intakes were measured daily along with weekly body weight and skeletal measurements. One half of the calves on each treatment had blood samples taken via jugular venipuncture on d 41 (preweaning), 43, 45, 47, 49, and 51 (postweaning) to evaluate blood glucose, urea, nonesterified fatty acids, and cortisol concentrations. During the preweaning and weaning phases, calves on A0 and A1 treatments consumed more MR, less starter, and weighed more than the C0 and C1 calves. Calves on A0 and A1 had greater average daily gain (ADG), hip and withers gain, were taller at the hip, and had larger girths during the preweaning phase. Overall, body weight, withers and hip heights, and heart girths were greater in A0 andA1 calves during the weaning week. Efficiency of utilization of estimated metabolizable energy (ME) intake (ADG/ME) were similar. Glucose and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations

  17. Breeding objectives for Holstein dairy cattle in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Moradi-Shahrbabak, M; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Amer, P R

    2012-06-01

    Trait-by-trait and multiple trait bioeconomic modeling were used to derive farm-specific economic weights (EW) for a wide range of traits under different production and economic circumstances to define breeding objectives for Holstein dairy cattle in Iran. Production parameters and economic data were gathered on 10 dairy farms from March 2008 to February 2010. The EW (economic values multiplied by gene expressions, in US dollars per unit of trait per calf born from sires of self-replacing females in planning horizon of 20 yr) were estimated to be $0.15 per kilogram of milk yield; $1.36 per kilogram of fat yield; -$1.02 per kilogram of protein yield; $4.59 per month of longevity; -$1.22 per kilogram of mature cow weight; -$105.67 for combined somatic cell score and clinical mastitis; -$1.35 and -$0.28 for percentage direct and maternal calving difficulties, respectively; -$3.98 for percentage direct stillbirth; -$0.76 per day of age at first calving; -$0.72 per calving interval day; and $0.91 for percentage 56-d nonreturn rate on averages across investigated farms. The coefficient of variation of economic weights across the 10 farms was lowest for direct calving difficulty and highest for calving interval. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of major countries exporting semen to Iran. Average relative emphasis for production, durability, and health and reproduction, across all exporter countries, was 41, 37.5, and 21.5%, respectively, whereas the respective values were 50, 14, and 36% for the Iranian index. Significant differences in selection indices may potentially decrease the utility of importation of semen as a means of achieving sustainable genetic progress in Iran. Results obtained in this study provide important information about economic values of traits that can be used to improve the Iranian national progeny testing program as well as importation rules for semen to Iran.

  18. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  19. Evaluation of milk yield traits of Holstein x Jersey crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Corrêa da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The crossbreeding practice between specialized dairy breeds is an usual method for dairy producers and recently the Holstein x Jersey crosses has continuously increased in some regions of Brazil. Motivating factors of this practice include an interest in improving the milk solids content, somatic cell count (SCC, fertility, longevity and calving ease, in addition to reduce the problems of consanguinity. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the milk components and milk yield of Holstein x Jersey crosses. Data set comprised 59,331 monthly records of 6,429 pure Holstein (H and Jersey (J and ½ H x ½ J crossed cows calving from 1992 to 2010. The traits analyzed were test-day milk yields (MT, somatic cell score (SCS and percentages of fat (%F and protein (%P. Since the SCC is not normal distributed it was converted to a logarithmic scale in SCS, using the following equation, SCS = log2 (SCC/100 + 3. The variables MT, SCS, %F and %P were analyzed as dependent variables by least square method using GLM procedure. There were considered linear models containing the effects of breed (H, J and ½ H x ½ J or F1, herd, year and month of test as classificatory variables. Age at calving (AC and days in milk (DM were included as covariates (linear and quadratic effects for all traits. The test-day milk yield was included as covariate for SCS model, %F and %P. All variables included in the model showed significant effects for MT, SCS, %F and %P. The estimated least square means for milk yield (19.13 H; 16.27 JH and 13.39 J showed statistically significant differences for the different genetic groups. The Holstein breed had higher test-day milk yields in comparison to Jersey breed that was an expected result since the frame of Holstein breed is greater and the selection has been practiced more intensively for production in this breed. When compared to F1 cows and Jersey, the mean of crossbreed animals was higher due to heterosis and due to difference of

  20. Intravenous immunoglobulin transfusion in colostrum-deprived dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, A; Belloli, A; Biffani, S; Locatelli, V; Dall'Ara, P; Filipe, J; Restelli, I; Proverbio, D; Pravettoni, D

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin transfusion is employed in the management of the failure of passive transfer (FPT). The aim of this study was to investigate the dose of immunoglobulin G (IgG) needed to reach a protective concentration (>10 g/L) in colostrum-deprived dairy calves. Twenty-eight Holstein Friesian newborn male calves were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) or a treatment group (PG). Calves in the CG received 4 L of high quality colostrum within 12 h of birth. Calves in the PG received 62.7 ± 3.1 g of IgG IV in 2.6 ± 0.3 L of plasma within 6 h after birth. Serum immunoglobulin G (sIgG) and serum total protein (sTP) concentrations were assayed before and after (24 h, 72 h and 1 week after birth) plasma transfusion or colostrum ingestion. Serum (s) IgG and sTP concentrations increased in both groups throughout the period of observation. Mean sIgG and sTP concentrations after colostrum ingestion or plasma transfusion were higher in the CG than in the PG (P colostrum-deprived calves (>10 g/L). Calves in the CG had significantly lower morbidity and mortality rates compared to those in the PG, suggesting that plasma transfusion alone is ineffective in providing complete protection against neonatal disease.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug.

  2. Electronic feeding behavioural data as indicators of health status in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (i to characterise clinical health in dairy calves on an Irish research farm during the artificial calf-rearing period and (ii to determine whether calves’ pre-weaning intakes and feeding behaviour, recorded by electronic calf feeders, changes in response to incidents of bovine respiratory disease (BRD. Holstein-Friesian (H-F and Jersey (J calves were fed by automatic milk replacer (MR and concentrate feeders. Feeding behaviour, including MR consumption, drinking speed, number of rewarded and unrewarded visits to the feeder as well as concentrate consumption, was recorded by the feeders. A modified version of the Wisconsin calf health scoring criteria chart was used to score calves’ clinical measurements and identify incidences of BRD. Thus, 40% of calves were found to have at least one incident of BRD. Feeding behaviour was altered during incidents of BRD. The number of unrewarded visits to the feeder was reduced, by approximately four visits, for calves with BRD during the 3 d prior to the identification of BRD (P < 0.05 and tended to be reduced during the 7 d following the identification of BRD (P = 0.05, compared with healthy calves. Additionally, calves with BRD had a tendency for reduced net energy intake (approximately 8% during the 3 d prior to the identification of BRD, compared with healthy calves. Therefore, calf feeding behavioural data, recorded by electronic feeders during the pre-weaning period, can indicate cases of BRD.

  3. Effect of Topically Applied Anaesthetic Formulation on the Sensitivity of Scoop Dehorning Wounds in Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Dominique; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Harris, Charissa; Lomax, Sabrina; White, Peter John

    2016-01-01

    The post-operative effects of three formulations of topical anaesthetic and a cornual nerve block on the sensitivity of scoop dehorning wounds in calves were compared in two trials. In Trial 1, 21 female Holstein dairy calves aged 8 to 24 weeks were randomly allocated to two groups: (1) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a novel topical anaesthetic powder (DTAP, n = 10); and (2) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a novel topical anaesthetic ethanol liquid (DTAE, n = 11). In Trial 2, 18 castrated male and 18 female Hereford beef calves aged 16 to 20 weeks were randomly allocated to four groups: (1) scoop dehorning with a pre-operative cornual nerve block of lignocaine (DCB, n = 9); (2) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of the novel topical anaesthetic ethanol liquid from Trial 1 (DTAE, n = 9); (3) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a topical anaesthetic gel (DTAG, n = 9); and (4) sham dehorning (CON, n = 9). Sensitivity was assessed by scoring the behavioural response of calves to stimulation of the wound or skin at time points before and after treatment. In Trial 1, DTAP calves had a greater probability of displaying more severe responses than DTAE calves at 90 and 180 min (P wound following scoop dehorning in calves and may provide a practical option for pain relief on-farm. PMID:27648948

  4. Diarrhea in Pre-Weaned Calves: Relative Risk Rates for Morbidity and Mortality in 13 Commercial Farms of Hot Arid Zone

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Razzaque; Al-Mutawa, T; S.A. MOHAMMED

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In many hot arid countries, pregnant Holstein Friesian heifers are imported for herd replacement. The calves obtained from exotic cows are exposed to adverse climate in feedlot system resulting in very high morbidity and mortality rates. Diarrhea, dehydration and deaths are causing a major loss to the producers. This study examines the Risk Rates (RR) for morbidity and mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Thirteen commercial dairy farms of small, me...

  5. Composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros holandeses alimentados após o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo Physical and chemical carcasses composition of Holstein calves fed after weaning with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2008-01-01

    was evaluated, for production of pink meat veal. Thirty Holstein calves were alloted to a complete randomized blocks experimental design with five blocks and six concentrate rations with similar contents of protein (18.5% CP and energy (3.2 Mcal ME/kg DM, formulated with dry ground corn (GC, high moisture corn silage (HMCS, dry ground sorghum with tannin (GSWT, high moisture whole sorghum with tannin silage (HMWSWTS, dry ground sorghum without tannin (GSWTT or high moisture whole sorghum without tannin silage (HMWSWTTS. After cooling, the H&H sections of left half-carcasses were selected to estimate the tissue of carcass composition and the cuts in the Longissimus dorsi at 12th and 13th ribs to determine the rib eye area (REA, subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT, shear force (SF and chemical composition. No treatment effects were observed on physical composition and relation among the tissues of H&H section and as for REA, SFT and SF. The concentrate ration HMCS showed higher content of EE in the Longissimus dorsi, but did not differ from GSWT and GSWTT. The concentrate ration HMCS promoted higher muscular fat deposition as compared to GC, but the concentrate rations HMWSWTS and HMWSWTTS did not show the same result as compared to the dry ground grains fed. All diets can be used in veal feedlot calves without effect on their carcasses tissue composition and meat tenderness. All evaluated feeds could be used in the concentrate rations for calves after weaning, because they do not impair physical and chemical carcass composition and confer similar results.

  6. Influence of a Saccharomyces cerevisia fermentation product on the pathophysiological response to a combined intranasal bovine herpesvirus-1 and intratracheal Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in Holstein steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product prototype (Prototype) on the pathophysiological response during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge. Holstein steer calves (126.5±6.11kg; N=16) were completely rando...

  7. Effect of glucagon infusion on plasma magnesium, glucose, and insulin in bull calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Miller, J.K.; Hansard, S.L.

    1976-09-01

    Two Holstein bull calves each were infused intravenously with 1 mg glucagon in .9% sodium chloride, and two were given saline alone; 1 wk later treatments were reversed. Glucagon increased concentrations of insulin and glucose but decreased potassium in blood plasma and moderately increased urinary magnesium and calcium losses. When only saline was used, there was no effect. A hypothesis relating elevated glucagon to grass tetany is proposed.

  8. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  9. Influence of factors during superovulation on embryo production in Korean Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Songjeon; Lee, Byeongchun; Jang, Goo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of key parameters (donor parity, milk production, post-parturient day, season and milk recording data) associated with efficiency of embryo recovery (ER) in Holstein cattle. Elite Holstein cows and heifers were selected for ER, while Holstein heifers were used as recipients. The numbers of transferable embryos (TEs) produced were not significantly different when analyzed in terms of donor parity, milk production, postparturient day and season. However, the numbers of TEs were significantly increased when the milk protein (%; P)/fat (%; F) ratio was over 0.95 and/or the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was between 12 and 18 dl/ml. The results from ET showed no differences in pregnancy rates among Holstein heifers receiving other types, developmental stage codes and quality grades of embryos. The mean interval from ER to artificial insemination was 60.6 days. Moreover, 19 offspring that had milk recording data showed a similar milk yield performance to that of the donor cows. In conclusion, this study showed that in Holstein cows, embryos were recovered and transferred and resulted in production of viable calves. Furthermore, P/F ratio and MUN could be candidate indicators for selection of high-efficiency donor cows.

  10. EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL LYSINE ON PERFORMANCE, ANTIBODY TITER AND RECTAL TEMPERATURE IN RESPONSE TO A MODIFIED-LIVE VIRAL VACCINE IN NEONATAL CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR, caused by bovine herpesvirus-1, contributes significantly to economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industry. Lysine has been shown reduce virulence of herpesviruses in felids and humans. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplemental lysine on serum IBR antibody titer and rectal temperature in response to a modified-live Intranasal (IN or Intramuscular (IM respiratory-virus vaccination. Sixty-four neonatal Holstein bull calves (7±2 d of age; BW = 37±4.2 kg were used in a completely randomized design. Calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with either 17 g/d L-lysine monohydrochloride (LYS; 28 calves or an equivalent amount of casein (CAS; 28 calves for 42 d. Calves were then vaccinated with either an IN IBR-Parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3 or an IM (IBR-PI3-bovine viral diarrhea type I and II, bovine respiratory syncytial virus modified-live vaccine on d 36. A control group (8 calves received no supplement or vaccination. All calves were housed in individual calf pens (1.2×2.1 m. Daily feed intakes were monitored and BW measured weekly. Calves were bled on d 0, 35, 36, 37 and 42. Temperature data loggers were attached to rectal probes and temperatures were recorded every 5 min from d 28 to d 42. No significant differences were determined for average performance, rectal temperature, or IBR antibody titers with either IN or IM vaccinations between LYS and CAS treated calves (p>0.10. However, serum urea nitrogen and the ratio of serum lysine: Arginine increased (p<0.05 for LYS compared to CAS calves. These results suggest that supplementing lysine impacts nitrogen metabolism but does not alter the response to IBR vaccination or animal performance in neonatal Holstein calves.

  11. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  12. Effects of hydrolyzed yeast supplementation in calf starter on immune responses to vaccine challenge in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M H; Seo, J K; Yun, C H; Kang, S J; Ko, J Y; Ha, J K

    2011-05-01

    The effects of hydrolyzed yeast supplementation on growth performance, health and immune-physiological parameters in neonatal calves challenged with vaccine were investigated. Twelve Holstein calves were started in the experiment at 2 ± 1 days of age and were studied for 35 days. Calves were randomly assigned to each of two dietary treatments, a control (CON) and hydrolyzed yeast (HY) group. The calves in the HY group received control calf starter supplemented with 0.2% HY. All calves were given calf starter ad libitum for 5 weeks starting in week 1. Calves were also given whole milk according to a step-down milking protocol. In order to induce immune responses, all calves were challenged with Hog cholera and Erysipelothrix insidiossa live vaccines by intramuscular injection at 3 weeks of age. Growth performance and feed intake were not affected by dietary treatment throughout the experimental period, except that the HY group had significantly higher (P Feeding HY supplemented calf starter resulted in a higher (P calf starter can improve the health status and immune-related serum protein production and affect blood cell composition in neonatal calves after vaccine challenge.

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases net amino acid utilization by the portal-drained viscera of ruminating calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Burrin, D G; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal mass and blood flow in ruminant calves, but its impact on nutrient metabolism across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver is unknown. Eight Holstein calves with catheters in the carotid artery, mesenteric vein, portal vein and hepatic...... on days 0 and 10. Arterial concentrations and net fluxes of all amino acids and glucose metabolism using continuous intravenous infusion of [U13-C]glucose were measured on day 10 only. A 1-h infusion of GLP-2 increased blood flow in the portal and hepatic veins when administered to calves not previously...

  14. The effect of timing of oral meloxicam administration on physiological responses in calves after cautery dehorning with local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K A; Coetzee, J F; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Glynn, H; Dockweiler, J; KuKanich, B; Lin, H; Wang, C; Fraccaro, E; Jones, M; Bergamasco, L

    2013-08-01

    Dehorning is a painful husbandry procedure that is commonly performed in dairy calves. Parenteral meloxicam combined with local anesthesia mitigates the physiological and behavioral effects of dehorning in calves. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of timing of oral meloxicam administration on physiological responses in calves after dehorning. Thirty Holstein bull calves, 8 to 10 wk of age (28-70 kg), were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: placebo-treated control group (n=10), calves receiving meloxicam administered orally (1 mg/kg) in powdered milk replacer 12h before cautery dehorning (MEL-PRE; n=10), and calves receiving meloxicam administered as an oral bolus (1 mg/kg) at the time of dehorning (MEL-POST; n=10). Following cautery dehorning, blood samples were collected to measure cortisol, substance P (SP), haptoglobin, ex vivo prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) production after lipopolysaccharide stimulation and meloxicam concentrations. Maximum ocular temperature and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were also assessed. Data were analyzed using noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis and repeated measures ANOVA models. Mean peak meloxicam concentrations were 3.61±0 0.21 and 3.27±0.14 μg/mL with average elimination half-lives of 38.62±5.87 and 35.81±6.26 h for MEL-PRE and MEL-POST, respectively. Serum cortisol concentrations were lower in meloxicam-treated calves compared with control calves at 4 h postdehorning. Substance P concentrations were significantly higher in control calves compared with meloxicam-treated calves at 120 h after dehorning. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations were lower in meloxicam-treated calves compared with control calves. Mechanical nociceptive threshold was higher in control calves at 1h after dehorning, but meloxicam-treated calves tended to have a higher MNT at 6h after dehorning. No effect of timing of meloxicam administration on serum cortisol concentrations, SP concentrations, haptoglobin

  15. Comparison of the insulin reaction of peripheral blood T cells between healthy Holstein dairy cows and JB during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kitagawa, Madoka; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Tanami, Erika; Masui, Machiko; Hayashi, Tomohito; Ando, Takaaki; Watanabe, Daisaku; Koiwa, Masateru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-11-01

    To compare the changes in the insulin reaction of Holstein dairy cows and Japanese Black cows (JB) during the periparturient period, the insulin resistance test in vivo and lymphocytes proliferation with insulin in vitro were performed. Ten healthy Holstein dairy cows (Holstein group) and 10 healthy JB cows (JB group) used in this study were observed on days 60, 40, and 20 before calving and days 7 and 20 after calving. In insulin resistance reaction in vivo and in vitro, a low insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate and lymphocyte proliferation with insulin were observed in the Holstein group compared with the JB group during the experimental period. An analysis of the lymphocytes cultured with insulin showed that the percentage of CD4+CD45R- T cells in the Holstein group was significantly lower than that of the JB group before day 20. These findings indicate that T cells reaction to insulin in healthy periparturient Holstein cows is lower than that in Japanese Black.

  16. Economic evaluation and efficacy of strategic-selective treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuly Andrea Caicedo Blanco

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (EF-UFLA, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on their day of birth, female Holstein calves were randomly selected and placed into two groups containing fifteen animals each: Strategic-Selective Treatment (S-ST or Conventional Treatment (CT. In the S-ST, calves were treated after coproparasitological examinations according to criteria established previously by the researchers. Calves in the CT were treated according to the opinion of the veterinarian of EF-UFLA. For statistical analysis, the frequency (% of fecal samples with count of eggs per gram of feces (EPG ≥300, count of oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG ≥500 and fecal samples with count of cysts of Giardia spp. ≥1 were conducted. The overall average frequency of fecal samples with EPG ≥300, OoPG ≥500 and Giardia spp. cysts ≥1, respectively, was similar (p >0.05 between S-ST (20.3%; 17.3%; and 31.5% and CT (26.4%; 23.9%; and 37.3%. The effective operational cost, per animal, in 12 months, was of R$ 784.58 (US$ 241.41 and R$ 83.90 (US$ 25.81 in S-ST and CT, respectively. The S-ST requires adjustments to be used as a technically efficient and economically viable alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasitosis in female Holstein calves.

  17. Efeito da composição genética e de fatores de meio sobre a produção de leite, a duração da lactação e a produção de leite por dia de intervalo de partos de vacas mestiças Holandês-Gir Effects of genetic composition and environmental factors on milk production, lactation length and milk production per day of calving interval in crossbred Holstein-Gyr cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Glória

    2006-12-01

    environmental factors on milk production (MP, lactation length (LL and milk yield per day of calving intervals (P/I (n=2,016 of 822 crossbred (1/2, 3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Gyr cows, raised in the West of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were evaluated using least squares methodology. The effect of predicted transmitting ability (PTA of the Holstein sires on MP of their daughters was also evaluated. The effect of genetic composition on the three traits was an important source of variation. MP, LL and P/I increased with the increase of Holstein contribution. Season of calving was an important source of variation for MP of 3/4 cows and for LL of 3/4 and 1/2 cows. The highest MP and LL were observed for lactations starting at the end of the rainy season. The effect of age at calving on MP was linear for 1//2 and 3/4 cows and curvilinear for 7/8 cows. For LL the effect of age at calving was curvilinear for 1/2 and 3/4 cows and linear for 7/8 cows. On P/I was linear for 3/4 and 7/8 cows and curvilinear for 1/2 cows. The effect of PTA on MP was not different from zero. Estimated repeatability for MP were .72, .69 and .63, respectively, for the 1/2, 3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Gyr cows.

  18. Use of flavored drinking water in calves and lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L C; Wright, T C; Formusiak, A; Cant, J P; Osborne, V R

    2007-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the use of added flavor in drinking water of Holstein calves and lactating dairy cattle to determine effects on dry feed intake. Nine calves were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design, and water offered was unflavored or flavored with orange or vanilla. All calves were offered commercial starter. Feed intake of the dry starter was increased in calves offered the orange flavor treatment compared with the control or the vanilla treatment. The increased dry feed intake agreed with the significant increase in weight gain measured in calves on the orange treatment. Further experiments were performed with 4 second-lactation cows using the addition of another orange flavor to the water compared with unflavored water under conditions of free access or time-restricted water access. No significant changes were found for dry matter intake, water consumption, or milk yield. These findings demonstrate an important finding that flavoring agents need not be added only to the starter feed for calves, but flavor can stimulate dry feed intake and BW gain when used in drinking water.

  19. Factors affecting days open, gestation length, and calving interval in Florida dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H M; Wilcox, C J; Thatcher, W W; Becker, R B; Morse, D

    1992-01-01

    Effects of several factors on reproductive performance were evaluated. Mean performance and number of observations were for days from parturition to first service, 93 and 7730; days from first to successful service, 35 and 11,751; days open, 123 and 8571; gestation length, 280 and 13,612; and calving interval, 400 and 8524. Data covered 52 yr during which no detectable trends in calving interval occurred; other variables changed slightly. Jerseys had 8 fewer d from parturition to first service, 16 fewer d from first service to conception, 8 fewer d open, and 8-d shorter calving intervals than did Guernseys and Holsteins, which did not differ. Cows freshening in warm rather than cool weather suffered by 7, 7, 12, and 13 d for these variables. Repeatabilities ranged from .05 to .12; heritabilities were .05 and .06. Nonmaternal estimate of heritability of gestation length was .22. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between days from parturition to first service and calving interval were .48 and .87; for days open and calving interval, they were .97 and .96. Although days from first to successful service were essentially uncorrelated with days open and calving interval phenotypically (.05), genetic correlations were greater than 1.0 and estimated as unity. Results show no discrepancy between estimates for measures of reproductive performance in a subtropical environment and numerous studies in temperate areas. Large studies from subtropical areas are sparse; essentially none concerns long-term trends.

  20. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (±1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than...... observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (±40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an animal welfare benefit of this feeding method. Enhanced-fed calves consumed less concentrate, but pair housing stimulated concentrate intake......To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance...

  1. Separation from the Dam Causes Negative Judgement Bias in Dairy Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daros, Rolnei R.; Costa, João H. C.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Hötzel, Maria J.; Weary, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Negative emotional states in humans are associated with a negative (pessimistic) response bias towards ambiguous cues in judgement tasks. Every mammalian young is eventually weaned; this period of increasing nutritional and social independence from the dam is associated with a pronounced behavioural response, especially when weaning is abrupt as commonly occurs in farm animals. The aim of the current study was to test the effect of separation from the cow on the responses of dairy calves in a judgement task. Thirteen Holstein calves were reared with their dams and trained to discriminate between red and white colours displayed on a computer monitor. These colours predicted reward or punishment outcomes using a go/no-go task. A reward was provided when calves approached the white screen and calves were punished with a timeout when they approached the red screen. Calves were then tested with non-reinforced ambiguous probes (screen colours intermediate to the two training colours). “GO” responses to these probes averaged (± SE) 72±3.6 % before separation but declined to 62±3.6 % after separation from the dam. This bias was similar to that shown by calves experiencing pain in the hours after hot-iron dehorning. These results provide the first evidence of a pessimistic judgement bias in animals following maternal separation and are indicative of low mood. PMID:24848635

  2. Whole-milk feeding duration, calf growth, and profitability of group-fed calves in an organic production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of early-life feeding duration on growth and economics of group-fed organic dairy calves. Heifer calves born during the spring of 2011 (n = 67) and the spring of 2012 (n = 57) were used to evaluate the effect of weaning age, growth, and profitability of group-fed calves fed once per day in an organic dairy production system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in super hutches by birth order, and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris organic dairy. Breed groups were Holsteins (n = 15) selected for high production, Holsteins (n = 23) maintained at 1964 breed-average level, crossbreds (n = 54) including combinations of Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red, and crossbreds (n = 32) including combinations of Holstein, New Zealand Friesian, Jersey, and Swedish Red. Groups of calves were weaned at 30 (EW, early weaning), 60 (MW, mid weaning), or 90 (LW, late weaning) d of age, and groups were fed 1.5% of birth weight of 13% total solids organic whole milk once daily and weaned when the group of 10 calves consumed an average of 0.91 kg of organic calf starter per calf per day for 4 consecutive days. Body measurements were recorded at birth, weekly during the preweaning period, at weaning, and monthly thereafter. Profitability was estimated as a function of the total cost for organic milk and organic calf starter for weaning groups to weaning and to the first 90 d of age. Preweaning group performance was weaning age, EW: 47.6d, MW: 64.5d, LW: 93.7d; weaning weight, EW: 61.8 kg, MW: 79.2 kg, LW: 108.1 kg; and gain per day, EW: 0.51 kg/d, MW: 0.63 kg/d, LW: 0.75 kg/d. Body weight (BW) did not differ among weaning groups at 90 d of age; however, MW calves had lower 120-d BW than did LW calves. The EW calves did not differ from either MW or LW calves for 120-d BW. Total feed costs to weaning for groups were $1,092.97 for EW calves, $1,871.24 for MW

  3. Genetic parameters for type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits.

  4. Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic change for stillbirth in Iranian Holstein cows: a comparison between linear and threshold models

    OpenAIRE

    N.G. HOSSEIN-ZADEH

    2008-01-01

    Data on stillbirth from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran collected from January 1990 to December 2007 and comprising 668810 Holstein calving events from 2506 herds were analyzed. Linear and threshold animal and sire models were used to estimate genetic parameters and genetic trends for stillbirth in the first, second, and third parities. Mean incidence of stillbirth decreased from first to third parities: 23.7%, 22.1%, and 21.8%, respectively. Phenotypic rates of stillbirth decreased from 1...

  5. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynski, David T.; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P.

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual’s associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  6. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  7. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral meloxicam in ruminant calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Johann F; KuKanich, Butch; Mosher, Ruby; Allen, Portia S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of meloxicam in ruminant calves. Six Holstein calves (145 to 170 kg) received meloxicam at 0.5 mg/kg IV or 1 mg/kg PO in a randomized crossover design with a 10-day washout period. Plasma samples collected up to 96 hours after administration were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry followed by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. A mean peak plasma concentration of 3.10 microg/ml (range, 2.64 to 3.79 microg/ml) was recorded at 11.64 hours (range, 10 to 12 hours) with a half-life of 27.54 hours (range, 19.97 to 43.29 hours) after oral meloxicam administration. The bioavailability of oral meloxicam corrected for dose was 1.00 (range, 0.64 to 1.66). These findings indicate that oral meloxicam administration might be an effective and convenient means of providing long-lasting analgesia to ruminant calves.

  8. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Melanie K.; Hess, Andrew S.; Garrick, Dorian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1–3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33–1.1% (p≤0.05) higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01) and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01). Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002). The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood’s lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle. PMID:26974166

  9. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie K Hess

    Full Text Available Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1-3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33-1.1% (p≤0.05 higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01 and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01. Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002. The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood's lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle.

  10. Dystocia, stillbirth, gestation length, and birth weight in Holstein, Jersey, and reciprocal crosses from a planned experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, K M; Cassell, B G; McAllister, A J; Washburn, S P

    2009-12-01

    Holstein and Jersey cows were mated to 4 Holstein (H) bulls and 4 Jersey (J) bulls to create HH, HJ, JH, and JJ genetic groups (sire breed listed first) in a diallele crossbreeding scheme. Calvings (n = 756) occurred in research herds in Virginia, Kentucky, and North Carolina with 243, 166, 194, and 153 calvings in the HH, HJ, JH, and JJ groups, respectively. Birth weights (BW), dystocia scores (0 for unassisted and 1 for assisted), and stillbirth (0 for alive or 1 for dead within 48 h) were recorded at calving. Gestation lengths (GL) were determined from breeding dates. An animal model was used to analyze BW and GL, and an animal model with logistic regression was used for dystocia and stillbirth. Fixed effects considered for model inclusion were genetic group, herd-year-season, sex, parity (primiparous or multiparous), twin status, and gestation length. Genetic group and effects significant in the model building process were kept in the final model for each trait. Heifer calves had lower BW, shorter GL, and had a lower odds ratio (0.53) for dystocia than bull calves. Twins had lower BW, shorter GL, were 3.86 times more likely to experience dystocia, and 7.80 times more likely to be stillborn than single births. Primiparous cows had calves with lower BW, shorter GL, were 2.50 times more likely to require assistance at birth, and were 2.35 times more likely to produce stillborns than calves from multiparous cows. Genetic group did not affect GL. Least squares means (kg) for BW were 37.7 +/- 1.1, 29.1 +/- 1.1, 30.3 +/- 1.0, and 22.5 +/- 1.3 for HH, HJ, JH, and JJ, respectively. Animals in HH weighed more than animals of other genetic groups; the JJ group had the smallest BW, with no differences for BW between HJ and JH. Probability of dystocia in JJ and JH were 5.73% and 18.98% of HH. Calves in HJ and HH were not different for dystocia. Calves in HJ were 3.38 times more likely to be stillborn than calves in JH, but no other genetic group differences were significant

  11. A genome-wide association study of direct gestation length in US Holstein and Italian Brown populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Weigel, K A; Cassady, J P; Ashwell, M

    2011-12-01

    Direct gestation length influences economically important traits in dairy cattle that are related to birth and peri-natal survival of the calf. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with direct gestation length through a genome-wide association study. Data used in the analysis included 7,308,194 cow gestation lengths from daughters of 4743 United States Holstein sires in the Cooperative Dairy DNA Repository population and 580,157 gestation lengths from 749 sires in the Italian Brown population. Association analysis included 36,768 and 35,082 SNPs spanning all autosomes for Holstein and Brown Swiss, respectively. Multiple shrinkage Bayesian was employed. Estimates of heritability for both populations were moderate, with values of 0.32 (±0.03) and 0.29 (±0.02) for Holstein and Brown Swiss, respectively. A panel of SNPs was identified, which included SNPs that have significant effects on direct gestation length, of which the strongest candidate region is located on chromosome 18. Two regions not previously linked to direct calving ease and calf survival were identified on chromosome 7 and 28, corresponding to regions that contain genes related to embryonic development and foetal development. SNPs were also identified in regions that have been previously mapped for calving difficulty and longevity. This study identifies target regions for the investigation of direct foetal effects, which are a significant factor in determining the ease of calving.

  12. Survey of management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, W J; Lehenbauer, T W; Karle, B M; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Anderson, Randall J; Van Eenennaam, A L; Farver, T B; Aly, S S

    2016-02-01

    In the spring of 2013, a survey of California (CA) dairies was performed to characterize management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves, compare these practices across geographic regions of the state, and determine the principal components that explain the variability in management between herds. The questionnaire consisted of 53 questions divided into 6 sections to assess management practices affecting dairy calves from precalving to weaning. The questionnaire was mailed to 1,523 grade A licensed dairies in CA and 224 responses (14.7%) were collected. Survey response rates were similar over the 3 defined regions of CA: northern CA, northern San Joaquin Valley, and the greater southern CA region. The mean size of respondent herds was 1,423 milking cows. Most dairies reported raising preweaned calves on-site (59.7%). In 93.3% of dairies, preweaned calves were raised in some form of individual housing. Nonsaleable milk was the most frequent liquid diet fed to preweaned heifers (75.2%). Several important differences were identified between calf-raising practices in CA and practices reported in recent nationwide studies, including herd sizes, housing practices, and sources of milk fed to heifers. The differences between the CA and nationwide studies may be explained by differences in herd size. Regional differences within CA were also identified. Compared with the 2 other regions, northern CA dairies were found to have smaller herds, less Holstein cattle, calves remained with dams for longer periods of time after calving, were more likely to be certified organic dairies, and raised their own calves more often. Principal component analysis was performed and identified 11 components composed of 28 variables (questions) that explained 66.5% of the variability in the data. The identified components and questions will contribute to developing a risk assessment tool for bovine respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves.

  13. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

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    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  14. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

    1980-11-01

    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health.

  15. Contribution to knowledge of colostral immunoglobulin absorption in intensively bred calves

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    Jonić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A whole series of factors affect the degree of absorption of colostral immunolobulins. One of the most important factors is the time of feeding of newborn calves with colostrums in the first hours following birth. The objective of these investigations was to determine the effect of immunoglobulin concentration in colostrum on the process of immunoglobulin absorption during the first day of life of calves. A farm of Holstein-Friesian cows was selected for these investigations. The examinations covered 35 cows. For the examination of total immunoglobulin concentration, colostrum was taken two hours after calving. The immunoglobulin concentration was determined using the method of paper electrophoresis and RID-partigen immunodiffusion plates (INEP, Zemun. The amount of immunoglobulin in blood serum of calves was determined using the method of the zinc sulphate turbidity test (ZST. The average concentration of immunoglobulin in colostrum two hours after calving was 65.95±15.80 g/l. The biggest reached average concentration of immunoglobulin in blood serum of calves was determined following the absorption of immunoglobulin during the first day, and it amounted to 27.18±10.2 g/l, which presents 1.91± 0.72 g/kg of the body mass of calves. The straight-line linear equation is _ =0.595+0.25xi. The correlation coefficient between taken and resorbed immunoglobulins amounts to r=0.80. It can be concluded on the grounds of the obtained results that the amount of immunoglobulin in colostrum in the first drinking is of primary importance for the health status of the calves and that resorption is increased by 0.25 grams with every gram of immunoglobulin taken with colostrum.

  16. Effects of additional milk replacer feeding on calf health, growth, and selected blood metabolites in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, J D; Wolfe, T A; Elsasser, T H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate effects of increased milk replacer feeding on growth, intake, feed efficiency, and health parameters in stressed calves. Holstein bull calves (n = 120; approximately 3 to 8 d of age) were purchased from sale barns and dairy farms and housed in fiberglass hutches. In addition, wood shavings contaminated with coronavirus were mixed with clean shavings and added to each hutch before the start of the experiment. Calves were fed either a fixed amount (454 g/d) of a 20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat milk replacer to weaning at 28 d or a variable amount (454, 681, 908, and 454 g/d on d 0 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 31, and 32 to 41, respectively) of a milk replacer containing 28% CP and 17% fat without or with added dietary supplement containing bovine serum. Calves were also fed commercial calf starter and water ad libitum. Plasma IgG concentration in most calves on arrival at the facility was feed efficiency, morbidity and mortality, and selected plasma metabolites were determined. Body weight at 28 d, 56 d, daily body weight gain, intake of milk replacer, fecal scores, days with diarrhea, and days treated with antibiotics were increased with feeding variable amount of milk replacer over the 56-d study. Starter intake from d 1 to 56 was reduced from 919 to 717 g/d in calves fed fixed and variable amounts of milk replacer, respectively. Morbidity, measured as the number of days that calves had diarrhea, was increased by 53% when a variable amount of milk replacer was fed. Calves fed variable milk replacer were treated with antibiotics for 3.1 d compared with 1.9 d for calves fed 454 g of milk replacer/d. Concentrations of plasma glucose, urea N, and insulin-like growth factor-I were increased when calves were fed variable amount of milk replacer. Dietary supplement containing bovine serum had no effect on any parameter measured. There was no effect of milk replacer feeding on concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, total

  17. Heart rate and heart rate variability in multiparous dairy cows with unassisted calvings in the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Tőzsér, J; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Aubin-Wodala, M; Albert, E; Choukeir, A; Szelényi, Z; Szenci, O

    2015-02-01

    Behavioural changes before calving can be monitored on farms; however, predicting the onset of calving is sometimes difficult based only on clinical signs. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) as non-invasive measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were investigated in Holstein-Friesian cows (N=20) with unassisted calvings in the periparturient period to predict the onset of calving and assess the stress associated with calving. R-R-intervals were analysed in 5-min time windows during the following three main periods of measurement: 1) between 0 and 96 h before the onset of calving restlessness (prepartum period); 2) during four stages of calving: (I) early first stage; between the onset of calving restlessness and the first abdominal contractions; (II) late first stage (between the first abdominal contractions and the appearance of the amniotic sac); (III) early second stage (between the appearance of the amniotic sac and the appearance of the foetal hooves); (IV) late second stage (between the appearance of the foetal hooves and delivery of the calf), and 3) over 48 h following calving (postpartum period). Data collected between 72 and 96 h before calving restlessness was used as baseline. Besides HR, Poincaré measures [standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2) and SD2/SD1 ratio], the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in R-R intervals, the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low-frequency (LF) and the HF components (LF/HF ratio) were calculated. Heart rate increased only following the onset of the behavioural signs, peaked before delivery of the calf, then decreased immediately after calving. Parasympathetic indices of HRV (RMSSD, HFnorm and SD1) decreased, whereas sympathovagal indices (LF/HF ratio and SD2/SD1 ratio) increased significantly from baseline between 12 and 24 before the onset of calving restlessness. The same pattern was observed between 0 and 1h before calving restlessness. Following

  18. Performance of Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves under Hot Arid Environment: Effects of Immunoglobulins and Age on Diseases and Mortality

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    M. A. Razzaque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A high mortality rate (crude mortality 43.6% of pre-weaned dairy calves resulted in unavailability of replacement heifers in Kuwait. Dairy producers resorted to import pregnant heifers for herd replacement. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dam vaccination and age, serum Immunoglobulin (Ig on disease syndromes and mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Late pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows and heifers of five commercial dairy operations were divided into two herds: Treatment (T vaccinated using Lactovac against Rotavirus, Coronavirus and Escherichia coli and Control (C unvaccinated herds. Total of 1,088 newborn calves of above herds were also divided as T and C for studies from their birth to weaning at 90 days. Calves weighed at birth, fed colostrum, serum proteins and Ig (IgG, IgM and IgA were determined; disease syndromes, morbidity and mortality rates were investigated. Results: Mean birth weight (34.25±SE 0.21 kg of calves did not differ significantly (pConclusion: Inadequate levels of passive immunity of young calves were commonly found in Kuwait's farms. This study demonstrated the importance of passive immunity of calves by ensuring adequate levels of serum Ig and protein levels.

  19. Accidental salinomycin intoxication in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Aslani, Mohammad R; Movassaghi, Ahmad R; Mohri, Mehrdad; Dadfar, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    Twenty-four 10- to 16-week-old calves in a dairy herd in Birjand, Iran, inadvertently received an excessive dose of salinomycin mixed with barley grain. There was 58% mortality within 10 d. The calves had high serum AST, LDH, and CK activities; histopathologic lesions in myocardium, liver, and kidneys; and clinical signs associated with acute and congestive heart failure.

  20. Milk production and percentages of fat and protein in Holstein breed cows raised in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Giovani Luis Feltes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify a nonlinear regression model that better describes the milk production and the percentages of fat and protein curves, and to identify the season and age of calving that result in higher productions. For the analysis, 8,047 records of milk production and percentages of fat and protein obtained from 1,330 Holstein breed cows raised in Rio Grande do Sul, born from 1989 to 2011, were used. After determining the most appropriate nonlinear regression model, the identity of models and the equality of parameter tests for the different classes of season and age of calving were performed. Residual mean square, mean absolute deviation, mean squared prediction error and percentage of estimated curves per animal, indicated the Linear Hyperbolic Function (LHF as the most appropriate to describe the milk production and the levels of fat and protein curves. Cows calving in the autumn and winter seasons yield higher quantities of milk and lower fat and protein content than those calved in the spring and summer seasons. Cows aged between 46 and 93 months at calving yield higher milk quantities, and those with calving age between 94 and 118 months produced more fat.

  1. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  2. Platelet aggregation responses and virus isolation from platelets in calves experimentally infected with type I or type II bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, P H; Bell, T G; Grooms, D L; Kaiser, L; Maes, R K; Baker, J C

    2001-10-01

    Altered platelet function has been reported in calves experimentally infected with type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the ability of BVDV isolates to alter platelet function and to examine for the presence of a virus-platelet interaction during BVDV infection. Colostrum-deprived Holstein calves were obtained immediately after birth, housed in isolation, and assigned to 1 of 4 groups (1 control and 3 treatment groups). Control calves (n = 4) were sham inoculated, while calves in the infected groups (n = 4 for each group) were inoculated by intranasal instillation with 10(7) TCID50 of either BVDV 890 (type II), BVDV 7937 (type II), or BVDV TGAN (type I). Whole blood was collected prior to inoculation (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after inoculation for platelet function testing by optical aggregometry by using adenosine diphosphate and platelet activating factor. The maximum percentage aggregation and the slope of the aggregation curve decreased over time in BVDV-infected calves; however, statistically significant differences (Freidman repeated measures ANOVA on ranks, P infected with the type II BVDV isolates. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was not isolated from control calves, but was isolated from all calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates from days 4 through 12 after inoculation. In calves infected with type I BVDV, virus was isolated from 1 of 4 calves on days 4 and 12 after inoculation and from all calves on days 6 and 8 after inoculation. Altered platelet function was observed in calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates, but was not observed in calves infected with type I BVDV. Altered platelet function may be important as a difference in virulence between type I and type II BVDV infection.

  3. Environmental and animal factors associated with gestation length in Holstein cows and heifers in two herds in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, R; Rezac, P; Havlicek, Z

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of the month of conception, month of calving, sex of the calf, and twins on gestation length (GL) in Holstein cows and heifers in two dairy herds with different milk yields. The study was performed in northeast Czech Republic over a 6-year period on two commercial dairy herds with a mean annual milk production of 11,060 kg per cow in the higher milk-producing herd and 8854 kg per cow in the lower milk-producing herd. Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer in the higher milk-producing herd than that in the lower milk-producing herd throughout the year (P Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer than that in heifers through the whole year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that conceived in the first months of the year was longer than in those that conceived in the last months of the year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that calved in late fall and throughout winter was longer than in those that calved in spring and summer in both herds (P Gestation length in females carrying male calves was longer than in those carrying female calves (P Gestation length in cows (P < 0.0001) and heifers (P < 0.05) carrying singles was longer than in those carrying twins in both herds. In conclusion, results indicate that GL in Holstein cattle is associated with the month of conception, month of calving, herd, parity, sex of the calf, and twins.

  4. Early-life patterns of plasma gut regulatory peptide levels in calves. Effects of age, weaning and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullec, R; Chayvialle, J A; Guilloteau, P; Bernard, C

    1992-05-01

    1. The effects of age, weaning and feeding on the release of seven gut regulatory peptides [gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), motilin and somatostatin] were studied in calves either exclusively milk-fed between birth and 91 days (P group) or weaned between 22-56 days of age (R group). 2. During the first 3 weeks, the basal plasma immunoreactive levels increased with age for secretin, CCK and PP, decreased for gastrin, motilin and somatostatin and were unaffected for VIP. The changes were particularly rapid for somatostatin and gastrin. After 3 weeks, no significant trend was observed with age in the P group. 3. Weaning resulted in an increase of basal gastrin, CCK, PP and VIP and in a decrease of basal secretin and somatostatin. 4. In the P group, the morning meal was followed 1 hr later by an increase of gastrin and CCK, and by a fall of secretin, PP, motilin and somatostatin, but no significant effect was observed in VIP. Weaning resulted in a reduction of the differences between the fasting and the post-feeding values. 5. These changes suggest a large involvement of endocrine cells in the adaptation of gut tissues, secretions and motility at birth, during the maintenance at the pre-ruminant stage and at weaning.

  5. Colostrum quality affects immune system establishment and intestinal development of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Zou, Y; Wu, Z H; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of colostrum quality on IgG passive transfer, immune and antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology and histology in neonatal calves. Twenty-eight Holstein neonatal male calves were used in the current study, 24 of which were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those that received colostrum (GrC), transitional milk (GrT, which was obtained after the first milking on 2-3 d after calving), and bulk tank milk (GrB) only at birth. The 4 extra neonatal calves who were not fed any milk were assigned to the control group and were killed immediately after birth to be a negative control to small intestinal morphology and histology detection. Calves in GrC gained more body weight than in GrT, whereas GrB calves lost 0.4 kg compared with the birth weight. Serum total protein, IgG, and superoxide dismutase concentrations were highest in GrC, GrT was intermediate, whereas GrB was the lowest on d 2, 3, and 7. Apparent efficiency of absorption at 48 h, serum complement 3 (C3), and complement 4 (C4) on d 2, 3, and 7 in GrB was low compared with GrC and GrT. On the contrary, malondialdehyde on d 7 increased in GrB. Calves in GrC had better villus length and width, crypt depth, villus height/crypt depth (V/C) value, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas GrT calves had lower villus length and width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness than those fed colostrum. Villi of calves in GrB were nonuniform, sparse, severely atrophied, and apically abscised, and Peyer's patches and hydroncus were detected. Overall, colostrum is the best source for calves in IgG absorption, antioxidant activities, and serum growth metabolites, and promoting intestinal development. The higher quality of colostrum calves ingested, the faster immune defense mechanism and the more healthy intestinal circumstances they established.

  6. Effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani calves

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    Showkat A. Bhat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani (Holstein Friesian × Brown Swiss × Jersey × Hariana calves. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, ten newborn Vrindavani calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2 of five each. The experiment was conducted from 2nd November to 8th February when the environmental temperature was at the lowest. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protection while the calves of G2 were protected against the cold weather by providing heat using the infrared lamps. The body weight (kg of the calves was recorded at weekly interval. The blood samples collected within 6 h of birth and then at fortnightly interval were analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV, %, hemoglobin (Hb, g/dl. Besides, the serum biochemical parameters, viz., Total serum protein (TSP, g/l, albumin (g/l, globulin (g/l, albumin globulin ratio (A:G and important stress parameters, viz., triiodothyronine (T3, ng/ml, thyroxine (T4, ng/ml and cortisol (ng/ml were also estimated. Results: The calves of G2 showed higher body weight gain as compared to G1. The differences were found to be highly significant (p<0.01. The calves in G1 showed comparatively higher values of PCV and Hb and the differences were found to be significant (p<0.05 on 45th day for PCV and highly significant (p<0.01 on 60th day for PCV and on 45th day for Hb. The values of TSP and albumin were comparatively higher in calves of G1 as compared to G2 and the differences were highly significant (p<0.01 on 45th day for both TSP and albumin and significant (p<0.05 on 60th day for albumin. Significantly (p<0.01 higher values of cortisol and T4 were observed on 15 and 45th day in calves of G1 as compared to G2. The T3 levels were also found higher in calves of G1 than G2 and the differences were significant (p<0.05 on 15 and 30th day and highly significant (p<0.01 on 45th day of the study

  7. Digestive development in neonatal dairy calves with either whole or ground oats in the calf starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2015-05-01

    A series of 3 trials was conducted to determine effects of whole or ground oats in starter grain on reticulorumen fermentation and digestive system development of preweaned calves. Male Holstein calves (43.1±2.3kg at birth; n=8, 9, and 7 for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were housed in individual pens in a heated facility; bedding was covered with landscape fabric to prevent consumption of bedding by the calves. In trials 1 and 2 only, calves were fitted with rumen cannulas by wk 2 of life. In all trials, a fixed amount of starter (containing 25% oats either ground and in the pellet or whole) was offered daily; orts were fed through the cannula in trials 1 and 2. Calves were randomly assigned to an all-pelleted starter or pellets plus whole oats. Rumen contents (trials 1 and 2) were sampled weekly at -8, -4, 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after grain feeding for determination of pH and volatile fatty acids. Calves were killed 3 wk (trial 1) or 4 wk (trials 2 and 3) after grain was offered; organs were harvested, emptied, rinsed, and weighed to gauge digestive organ development. Starter intake was not different between treatments. Weekly measurements of rumen digesta pH did not change and only subtle changes were observed in molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Molar proportion of butyrate and pH linearly decreased with age, whereas acetate proportion increased. Reticulorumen weight and papillae length tended to be greater for calves fed pelleted starter, whereas abomasum weight was greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Fecal particle size and starch content were greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Under the conditions of this study, physical form of oats in starter grain did not affect rumen fermentation measurements; greater rumen weight and papillae length in calves fed pelleted starter may be the result of greater nutrient availability of ground oats. Under the conditions of this study with young calves on treatments for

  8. Growth, behavior, and economics of group-fed dairy calves fed once or twice daily in an organic production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M J; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H

    2017-04-01

    Heifer calves (n = 102) were used to evaluate the effect of once- or twice-daily feeding on growth, behavior, and economics of calves in an organic group management system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in superhutches by birth order, during 2 seasons from September to December 2013 and March to May 2014 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris. Calves in groups were the experimental unit. Breed groups of calves were Holsteins (n = 26), crossbreds (n = 45) including combinations Holsteins, Montbéliarde, and Viking Red (selected for high production), and crossbreds (n = 31) including combinations of Holsteins, Jersey, Normande, and Viking Red (selected for robustness). Treatment groups were once-daily feeding (1×) or twice-daily feeding (2×). Calves in both groups were fed 6 L per calf/daily of organic milk with 13% total solids and then weaned at 60 d when the group consumption averaged 0.91 kg/d of starter per calf. Body weight and hip height were recorded at birth, once a week, at weaning, and at 90 and 120 d of age. Hobo Pendant G loggers (Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA) were applied to the right rear leg of calves to measure total lying and standing time. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Independent variables for analyses were the fixed effects of birth weight (co-variable), season of birth, and treatment group, along with replicate as a random effect. No significant differences were found between feeding groups for body weight, weight gain, average daily gain, hip height, or heart girth. For calves in 1× and 2× groups, respectively, weaning group performance was as follows: gain per day was 0.79 and 0.81 kg, weaning weight was 92.7 and 93.3 kg, and weaning hip height was 95.2 and 95.3 cm. Daily gain to 90 d was 0.85 and 0.85 kg, and daily gain to 120 d was 0.85 and 0.83 kg for 1× and 2× calves, respectively. For lying time, calves in groups 1

  9. [Cases of nacrobacillosis in calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simov, I; Pavlov, N

    1978-01-01

    Necrobacillosis was established in 48 out of a total of 90 calves aged from 1 to 6 months, raised on a common premise. The disease affected only calves under the age of 3 months, running a more severe course with high mortality in the younger animals. Along with the clinical manifestations associated with the organs involved there was also bradicardia in most of the diseased calves. Nonreactive necroses were observed in the digestive organs, liver, spleen, lungs, and lymph nodes with adjacent resorptive foci of histiocytes, fibroblasts, and giant cells.

  10. Comportamiento productivo y reproductivo del ganado holstein rojo, holstein negro y pardo suizo en Palmira, Valle del Cauca

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    Zapata Oscar

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Three breeds of dairy cattle (26 Red Holstein RH, 97 Black Holstein BH and 29 Brown Swiss BS, were evaluated for reproductive eficiency, and milk production for the years 1979 - 1987 a t the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira. Days of milking, milk and fat production were for BH (324.0days, 2545.9 kg, 91.1 kg for the RH (300.0 days, 2243.7 kg, 81.0 kg for the BS (298.2 days, 1886.6 kg, 66.9 kg. % fat average were 3.6% in RH, 3.7 % in BH and BS. The lactation curves for the three breeds were best ajusted with the model: Y=A+B(lnt + C(lnt2. Larger persistaency was observed on BS followed by RH. The BS presented better reproductive efficiency than RH and BH with a mean of 169.0,177.4 and 195.6 days, calving data-conception and 2.0, 22 and 22 for number of services per conception. The HR breed had a calving age of 3.4 years and 470.5 kg of calving weight larger than 3.5 years and 440.0 kg for the BH and 3.8 years and 458.1 kg for the BS. Average weight at birth for males and females together BS showed grater weights (37.02 kq, BH and RH showed similar results (36.0 and 362 kg. The incidence of problem at birth was higher for RH (10.90/0 and puerperium problems in BS(21.60,b. Not significal effect of calving weight and rainfall on milk yield and calving date-conception. In most cases there was no correlation between milk yield and calving date-conception. There was a very narow relation between calving date- conception and number of services per conception.En el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-Palmira, se evaluó el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de 152 vacas; 26 Holstein Rojo (HR, 97 Holstein Negro (HN y 29 vacas Pardo Suizo (PS, durante el período 1979-1987. La mayor duración de la lactancia, producción de leche y grasa (kg la presentó la raza HN (324 días, 2545.9 ka, 91.1 kg, seguido de la HR (300 días, 2243.7,81.0 kg y de la PS (298.2 días, 1886.6 kg, 66.9 kg. los porcentajes de grasa fueron 3.6 (HR y 3.7010 (HN y PSI

  11. Calving rates from crevasse calving in PISMv0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldtoft, Iben; Rodehacke, Christian; Hvidberg, Christine; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Calving of icebergs is an important mechanism for rapidly transferring mass from the ice sheets into the adjacent ocean. In Greenland icebergs contributes up to 44% of the Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss every year, while melting counts for the rest (57%). A crevasses-depth calving criteria based on structural damage of the ice by penetration of surface and basal crevasses are implemented into the thermodynamically ice sheet model Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). The calving rate is estimated, by running modified setups of the standard experiment from the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (MISMIP). In the presentation we discuss the influence of the special model resolution, bed slope inclination, accumulation rate, ice softness (magnitude of basal friction), and the water depth in the surface crevasses on the calving rate.

  12. Performance of dairy calves fed milk, milk replacer or post-weaning concentrate with acidifiers Desempenho de bezerros leiteiros alimentados com leite, sucedâneo do leite ou concentrado pós-desmame com acidificantes

    OpenAIRE

    Marinaldo Divino Ribeiro; José Carlos Pereira; Augusto César de Queiroz; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Edenio Detmann; José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of acidifiers to milk, milk replacer or post-weaning concentrate on the performance and health status of weaning and post-weaning calves. Three experiments were carried out, in the first experiment 62 Holstein × Zebu crossbred calves (males and females), reared from birth to 60 days of age, were distributed and fed milk with or without acidifier. From the third day, the calves were suckled (5L of milk/d) for 56 days, ...

  13. Hsp72 is present in plasma from Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, and the concentration level is repeatable across days and age classes

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten; Løvendahl, Peter; Berg, Peer; Loeschcke, Volker

    2004-01-01

    Although heat shock proteins (Hsps) are primarily considered as being intracellular, this study identified the presence of Hsp72 in plasma from female Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Plasma samples were collected from the same animals at different ages and on different days after calving and accordingly divided into 5 age classes. The age classes were calves less than 235 days of age, young heifers between 235 and 305 days of age, older heifers between 305 and 560 days of age, cows early in l...

  14. Bayesian estimation of the accuracy of the calf respiratory scoring chart and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, Sébastien; L Ollivett, Terri; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2015-05-01

    There is currently no gold standard method for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex in Holstein pre-weaned dairy calves. Systematic thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) has been used as a proxy for BRD, but cannot be directly used by producers. The Wisconsin calf respiratory scoring chart (CRSC) is a simpler alternative, but with unknown accuracy. Our objective was to estimate the accuracy of CRSC, while adjusting for the lack of a gold standard. Two cross sectional study populations with a high BRD prevalence (n=106 pre-weaned Holstein calves) and an average BRD prevalence (n=85 pre-weaned Holstein calves) from North America were studied. All calves were simultaneously assessed using CRSC (cutoff used ≥ 5) and TUS (cutoff used ≥ 1cm of lung consolidation). Bayesian latent class models allowing for conditional dependence were used with informative priors for BRD prevalence and TUS accuracy (sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)) and non-informative priors for CRSC accuracies. Robustness of the model was tested by relaxing priors for prevalence or TUS accuracy. The SeCRSC (95% credible interval (CI)) and SpCRSC were 62.4% (47.9-75.8) and 74.1% (64.9-82.8) respectively. The SeTUS was 79.4% (66.4-90.9) and SpTUS was 93.9% (88.0-97.6). The imperfect accuracy of CRSC and TUS should be taken into account when using those tools to assess BRD status.

  15. Twinning in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle: A Study of Risk Factors and Production and Reproduction Consequences

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    abolfazl mahnani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal

  16. Effect of time of day and type of shading on the physiological responses of crossbred calves in tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Oliveira Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies report adverse environmental conditions, damage yield, especially in dairy cows. However, studies on the effects of environment on young animals, especially calves of mixed race, are rare. Study effects of time, day and type of shading on the physiological responses of crossbred calves in tropical environment. Twenty-four ½ Holstein and SPRD (without defined breed calves were identified in two nursery facilities, one provided with natural shading and the other provided with artificial shading by means of cement tile. In both facilities, environmental data including air temperature, wind speed, and black globe temperature were recorded between7 a.m. to 4 p.m. to calculate the radiant thermal load. Physiological responses, rectal temperature and respiratory rates were measured in the morning and in the afternoon. The natural shading provided less thermal comfort because of higher radiant thermal load, especially in the afternoon. The crossbred calves showed higher rectal temperature and respiratory frequency as compared with SPRD calves in both periods and in both nursery facilities, with the highest values reported under natural shading. Calves of different genotypes respond differently in hot environments, should be to test in future research another types of trees to verify their thermal quality.

  17. The effect of a fenbendazole treatment on cyst excretion and weight gain in calves experimentally infected with Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vandenhoute, Els; Pohle, Herbert; Casaert, Stijn; De Wilde, Nathalie; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2010-04-19

    A total of 28 Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with 10(5)Giardia duodenalis cysts. Eleven days later, all animals were allocated into two groups of 14 animals each, based on the average pre-treatment cyst counts. Treatment was randomly assigned to one of the two groups, and all animals in the treatment group received a daily oral dosage of 15mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight during 3 consecutive days. The calves in the control group received a placebo (water). From 3 days after treatment onwards, cyst excretion was determined three times a week during 4 consecutive weeks. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded on a daily basis, and all animals were weighed prior to treatment and weekly thereafter. At the end of the experimental period, there was a significant (Pfenbendazole treated and untreated calves experimentally infected with G. duodenalis, although additional data need to confirm the need for treatment in natural conditions.

  18. The rapid increase of circulating adiponectin in neonatal calves depends on colostrum intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesser, J; Hill, M; Heinz, J F L; Koch, C; Rehage, J; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Hammon, H M; Mielenz, B; Sauerwein, H; Sadri, H

    2015-10-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, regulates metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Considering that the transplacental transfer of maternal proteins of high molecular weight is hindered in ruminants, this study tested the hypothesis that the blood concentration of adiponectin in neonatal calves largely reflects their endogenous synthesis whereby the intake of colostrum might modify the circulating concentrations. We thus characterized the adiponectin concentrations in neonatal and young calves that were fed either colostrum or formula. Three trials were performed: in trial 1, 20 calves were all fed colostrum for 3 d, and then formula until weaning. Blood samples were collected on d 0 (before colostrum feeding), and on d 1, 3, 11, 22, 34, 43, 52, 70, 90, and 108 postnatum. In trial 2, 14 calves were studied for the first 4 d of life. They were fed colostrum (n=7) or formula (n=7), and blood samples were taken right after birth and before each morning feeding on d 2, 3, and 4. In trial 3, calves born preterm (n=7) or at term received colostrum only at 24 h postnatum. Blood was sampled at birth, and before and 2 h after feeding. Additionally, allantoic fluid and blood from 4 Holstein cows undergoing cesarean section were sampled. Adiponectin was quantified by ELISA. In trial 1, the serum adiponectin concentrations recorded on d 3 were 4.7-fold higher than before colostrum intake. The distribution of the molecular weight forms of adiponectin differed before and after colostrum consumption. In trial 2, the colostrum group had consistently greater plasma adiponectin concentrations than the formula group after the first meal. In trial 3, the preterm calves tended to have lower concentrations of plasma adiponectin than the term calves at birth and before and 2 h after feeding. Furthermore, the adiponectin concentrations were substantially lower in allantoic fluid than in the sera from neonatal calves and from cows at parturition. Our results show that calves are born with very low

  19. Growth performance of calves fed microbially enhanced soy protein in pelleted starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senevirathne, N D; Anderson, J L; Gibbons, W R; Clapper, J A

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to determine effects of feeding calves pelleted starters with microbially enhanced (fungi-treated) soy protein (MSP) in replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with different milk replacers (MR). Thirty-six Holstein calves (2 d old; 24 females, 12 males) in individual hutches were used in a 12-wk randomized complete block design study. Treatments were (1) MSP pellets with MR formulated for accelerated growth (28% crude protein, 18% fat; MSPA), (2) SBM pellets with MR formulated for accelerated growth (SBMA), and (3) MSP pellets with conventional MR (20% crude protein, 20% fat; MSPC). Pellets were similar except for 23% MSP or 23% SBM (dry matter basis). Pellets and water were fed ad libitum throughout the study. Feeding rates of MR on a dry matter basis were 0.37kg twice daily during wk 1, 0.45kg twice daily during wk 2 to 5, and 0.45kg once daily during wk 6. Intakes were recorded daily. Body weights, frame size measurements, and jugular blood samples were collected 2 d every 2 wk at 3 h after the morning feeding. Fecal grab samples were collected 5 times per d for 3 d during wk 12 and then composited by calf for analysis of apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients using acid detergent insoluble ash as an internal marker. Total and starter pellet dry matter intake were greatest for calves fed SBMA and least for MSPC. Calves had similar average daily gain among treatments, but there was a treatment by week interaction and during the last few weeks of the study calves on MSPC had less body weight compared with MSPA or SBMA. Gain-to-feed ratio was similar among treatments; however, there was a treatment by week interaction. Serum glucose was similar among treatments. Plasma urea nitrogen was greatest for calves fed MSPA and least for MSPC. Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 were greatest for calves fed SBMA. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides were greatest for calves fed MSPC. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate had a treatment by time

  20. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P dystocia (calving difficulty score = 4 or 5), with sensitivity = 0.50 and specificity = 0.93 at the optimal cutpoint for the ratio (>0.068 cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle.

  1. Serum chemical values in hypothermic and rewarmed young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D P; South, P J; Hendrix, K

    1983-04-01

    Serum chemical values were determined in cold-stressed Holstein bull calves ranging from 1 to 7 days of age. The animals were anesthetized and cold-stressed until their core body temperature (colonic) was lowered 10 C. Animals were then rewarmed in warm water, with heat pads or heat lamps, or were allowed to recover naturally (unassisted) at room temperature. Blood samples were collected at selected intervals during cooling and recovery. Increases (P less than 0.05) were observed in the concentrations of glucose, calcium, phosphorus, iron, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin, total globulin, serum urea nitrogen, uric acid, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, and cholesterol in the cold-stressed calves during cooling. Concentrations of chloride and insulin decreased (P less than 0.05) during the same period. Changes observed in many of the serum chemical values during rewarming were generally the reverse of the respective changes that occurred during cooling, although insulin values became exceedingly high in some cases midway or near the end of recovery. Serum enzyme values also remained high during most of recovery. Data did not indicate a clear advantage of one method of rewarming over the other methods used in terms of return of the serum chemical values to normal.

  2. Milk yield and survival of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle after laparoscopic correction of left-displaced abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorritsma, R; Westerlaan, B; Bierma, M P R; Frankena, K

    2008-06-07

    The milk yield and survival of 91 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that had had a left-displaced abomasum (LDA) corrected laparoscopically were compared with those of 193 control cows matched for herd, parity and calving date. Ninety per cent of the LDA treatments were performed within four weeks after calving. The risk of being culled during the whole observational period of at least three years was 1.5 times greater for the LDA cows than for their matched herdmates (P<0.01). The risk of being culled in the current lactation was 1.8 times greater for the LDA cows (P=0.01), but risk of being culled after the next calving following the LDA correction was similar for both groups. For the lactation in which the LDA was corrected, there was no difference in the 305-day milk production of 80 of the LDA cows and 182 of the matched cows; however, the mean interval from calving to first service during the same lactation was longer for the LDA cows (115 v 98 days) and the mean calving interval was also longer (451 v 418 days).

  3. Índices de conforto térmico e respostas fisiológicas de bezerros da raça holandesa em bezerreiros individuais com diferentes coberturas Thermal comfort indexes and physiological responses of holstein calves in individual houses with different roofings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Y. Kawabata

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência de abrigos para bezerros, a partir de índices de conforto térmico (carga térmica radiante, índice de temperatura de globo e umidade e índice de globo negro, pela comparação entre abrigos cobertos por telha de cimento-amianto e telha de cimento- celulose. O experimento foi implantado num sistema de abrigos convencionais, tipo boxe, com cinco tratamentos: telhados de cimento-amianto, cimento-celulose, cimento-celulose pintado de branco e telhado duplo de cimento-celulose, todos expostos ao sol, e telhado de cimento-celulose em área sombreada. Foram realizadas cinco repetições (um bezerro por repetição, de setembro a novembro de 2002, em Pirassununga - SP. As variáveis fisiológicas registradas foram freqüência respiratória e temperatura retal. Os abrigos expostos ao sol e com telha de cimento-amianto apresentaram os índices menos satisfatórios quanto ao conforto térmico animal, em relação aos demais abrigos ao sol. Os abrigos com telhas de cimento-celulose e em área sombreada apresentaram os melhores índices de conforto térmico animal. Os resultados das variáveis fisiológicas foram melhores para o tratamento posicionado à sombra. Encontrou-se relação entre os resultados de conforto térmico e os fisiológicos, em especial para a freqüência respiratória.This work was focused in the efficiency of housing for calves, based on thermal comfort indexes (radiant thermal load, black globe humidity index and black globe index. It was compared animal housing covered with commercial corrugated sheets produced with asbestos cement and cellulose cement tiles. The experiment was carried out in a system of conventional housing, box type, with five treatments: roofs with asbestos cement tiles, cellulose cement tiles, cellulose cement painted tiles and double layer of cement cellulose tiles, all of them exposed to the sunlight and cement cellulose roof under shade. The experiment involved five

  4. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

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    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  6. Influence of colostrum preservation and sodium bicarbonate on performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, B F; Hodge, S E; O'Dell, G D; Ellers, J E

    1984-02-01

    Forty-eight Holstein calves were fed one of four liquid diets from 3 to 30 days of age to compare sodium benzoate, propionic acid, and formaldehyde as preservatives for colostrum. Colostrum batches were fermented at temperatures of 20 degrees C or higher. Diets were 2.73 kg of 1) naturally fermented colostrum, or colostrum treated with 2) sodium benzoate (.5% by weight), 3) propionic acid (1.0% by weight), or 4) formaldehyde (.05% by weight). Colostrum diets were diluted with .91 kg water. Prior to feeding, 25 g. sodium bicarbonate was added to liquid diets of one-half the calves on each treatment. Liquid diets were fed once daily. Water and a 15% crude protein complete starter were offered for ad libitum consumption. Calves were weaned abruptly at 30 days of age and received only water and starter from 31 to 44 days of age. Daily gain from 0 to 4 wk and 0 to 6 wk favored calves fed colostrum treated with sodium benzoate or propionic acid. Gains from 0 to 6 wk were .33, .44, .45, and .32 kg/day for the four diets, and feed efficiencies (kg dry matter intake/kg gain) were 3.23, 2.36, 2.76, and 2.89 during the same period. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to colostrum diets improved intake during the 1st wk of feeding. Gain and feed efficiency were similar during wk 0 to 4 but favored slightly calves not receiving sodium bicarbonate during the overall study, wk 0 to 6. Daily gain and efficiencies during wk 0 to 6 were .41 and 2.53 for calves without .36 and 3.01 with sodium bicarbonate added to colostrum diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Effect of hot temperatures on the hematological parameters, health and performance of calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broucek, Jan; Kisac, Peter; Uhrincat, Michael

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of high temperatures on calves. The hypothesis that the red and white blood cells, health, and performance of calves would be influenced by the temperature period at birth and gender was tested. Sixty-three Holstein calves were used. They were reared in individual hutches from the second day of life to weaning at the age of 8 weeks. All calves were allotted to treatment groups according to the temperature period at birth: moderate temperature period 1 (MT1), high temperature period (HT), moderate temperature period 2 (MT2). The same conditions of nutrition were ensured. We recorded 62 summer days and 14 tropical days during HT. Sixty-six days with a value above 72.0 of the temperature-humidity index (THI) and 26 with values greater than 78.0 were found. No significant differences were found in red blood cells with the exception of hemoglobin between MT1 and MT2 ( p = 0.031) during the 8th week. Significant differences were observed among treatment groups in the percentage of eosinophiles during the 6th week ( p = 0.044). The HT calves had the least body weight from the first week to weaning ( p = 0.053) and the highest water consumption ( p = 0.042). The results emphasize the ability of dairy calves to maintain homeostasis during prolonged periods of heat stress. The exposure to high temperatures resulted only in a significant decrease of starter concentrate consumption and reduced growth.

  8. Effect of parenteral administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mohammad; Constable, Peter D

    2007-12-01

    To determine the effect of parenteral administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves. 8 male Holstein-Friesian calves tylosin, 17.6 mg/kg, IM). Calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg) 30 minutes later. Jugular venous blood samples and transabdominal ultrasonographic abomasal dimensions were obtained periodically after suckling. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed on the basis of the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration and ultrasonographic determination of the halftime of abomasal emptying. One-tailed Dunnett post tests were conducted whenever the F value for group was significant. Emptying rate was faster for erythromycin, tilimicosin, and tylosin than for the control treatment, as determined on the basis of time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Ultrasonography indicated that the half-time of abomasal emptying was significantly shorter for erythromycin than for the control treatment. Tylosin and tilmicosin accelerated the abomasal emptying rate, but not significantly, relative to the emptying rate for the control treatment. Administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin at the label dosage increased abomasal emptying rate in calves. The clinical importance of an increase in abomasal emptying rate in cattle remains to be determined.

  9. Steroid hormone may modulate hepatic somatomedin C production in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxam, V; Davicco, M J; Durand, D; Bauchart, D; Opmeer, F; Barlet, J P

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the possible influence of steroid hormones and a beta-agonist (clembuterol) on hepatic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) production in young calves. For this purpose nine 20- to 40-day-old Holstein X Friesian male calves were fitted with chronically indwelling catheters in hepatic and portal veins and hepatic artery. Estradiol induced a simultaneous increase in plasma growth hormone (GH nmol/l) and IGF1 (nmol/l) levels (0.35 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.10 +/- 0.01 in control calves; 9.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.9 +/- 0.5 in controls, respectively). In the same way, 90 min after starting testosterone treatment, plasma GH levels increased from 0.21 +/- 0.08 to 1.30 +/- 0.40 while plasma IGF1 concentrations began to rise only 240 min after starting infusion (8.4 +/- 1.0) to reach maximal values at 300 min (10.7 +/- 1.1). Cortisol and clembuterol did not significantly modify either plasma GH levels or plasma IGF1 concentrations. Our results indicate that in young calves gonadal steroids exert their anabolic action through GH and IGF1.

  10. Growth performances and carcass characteristics of veal calves fed acidified whole milk and milk replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedprasit, S.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the growth performances and carcass characteristics of male veal calves fed at different levels of acidified whole milk and milk replacer. Twenty-four male Holstein- Friesian 75% crossbred calves with an initial average live weight of 35.44±1.73 kg were allotted into 4 groups under a completely randomized design (CRD for 90 days. Group 1 received 100% whole acidified milk (AM, group 2 received 75% AM and 25% milk replacer (MR, group 3 received 50% AM and 50% MR and group 4 received 100% MR. All groups received 10% body weight of liquid diet, 2% live weight of starter feed and ad libitum of rice straw. After 90 days, the calves in group 1 showed the best final live weight (98.33 kg followed by groups 2 (75.08 kg, 3 (70.00 kg and 4 (57.36 kg (P0.05 in the percentage of fore-quarter and hind-quarter between the treatments. Considering production costs, calves in group 1 showed the lowest cost per live weight gain (53.31 baht/kg gain, followed by group 2 (64.39 baht/kg gain, 3 (77.74 baht/kg gain and 4 (116.82 baht/kg gain, respectively.

  11. Effect of crossbreeding on market value of calves from dairy cows

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    G. Bittante

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Market values (¤/kg of calves obtained from six paternal breeds , Brown Swiss (BS, Holstein Friesian (HF, Simmental (SI, Alpine Grey (AG, Limousin (LI and Belgian Blue (BB, and four maternal breeds (BS, HF, SI, AG, were studied in order to estimate the crossbreeding effects. A total of 58,877 calves sold during 143 weekly auctions from 2003 to 2005 in Bolzano in Italy near the Austrian border, were analyzed using ANOVA procedure according to a linear model that included the effects of cross, sex and age of the calf, year and month of the auction. Coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.84; cross and sex effects resulted the most important. The BBxSI calves showed the highest commercial value (7.01 ¤/kg, while the BS purebreds the lowest one (2.74 ¤/kg. The LI and BB breeds used as sire breeds showed the greater commercial prices when crossbred with SI and AG respect to BS and HF. However, BB resulted the best sire breed. On average male calves showed greater commercial values than female ones (5.16 vs. 4.44 ¤/kg, but in HF and BS purebreds the commercial value of males and females was similar.

  12. Effect of social housing on the development of feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated how social housing affects pre- and postweaning feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were housed either individually (IH; 10 calves) or in pairs (PH; 10 calves) from birth. Calves were offered grain concentrate and milk replacer ad libitum via an artificial teat (1 teat provided per calf) and weaned by incrementally diluting the milk replacer from 39 to 49 d of age. Postweaning, IH calves were paired within treatment and all pens (n=5 per treatment) were offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum and followed until 13 wk of age. We recorded feeding times from video for 3 consecutive days in wk 6, 9, and 12 of age and used this to calculate daily meal frequency and meal duration. In wk 9 and 12, frequency and duration of synchronized feeding were also calculated. In addition, preference tests were conducted at time of feed delivery in wk 10 to assess the preference of each calf to feed alongside or out of visual contact of their pen mate. Pair-housed calves consumed more concentrate, in more frequent meals, than IH calves in the week before weaning (wk 6) and continued to have greater concentrate intake during weaning. Milk intake was not affected by treatment, but calves in PH pens consumed their milk in more frequent and smaller meals. Postweaning, intake was similar between treatments, but calves raised in PH pens continued to have meals that were more frequent and shorter in duration. Both treatments had a similar frequency of synchronized meals. However, when offered a choice to feed alone or alongside their pen mate during preference testing, calves raised in PH pens spent more time feeding in the presence of their pen mate than calves raised in IH pens. These results suggest that meal patterns established in response to different early social environments may persist after weaning and that early social contact may have longer-term effects on social feeding behavior. Copyright

  13. Birth weight and gestation length of Japanese black calves following transfer of embryos produced in vitro with or without co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numabe, T; Oikawa, T; Kikuchi, T; Horiuchi, T

    2001-05-01

    Birth weight and gestation length of calves following the transfer of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos with or without co-culture of cumulus cells, were compared to those produced in vivo (IVD). Spermatozoa from one Japanese Black bull were used for both IVP and IVD. IVP embryos were produced using two types of culture method: 1) co-culturing with cumulus cells in TCM 199 supplemented with calf serum (IVP-Co), and 2) non-co-culturing without cumulus cells in CR1aa supplemented with BSA / calf serum (IVP-NON-Co). Both IVP and IVD embryos were transferred non-surgically to Holstein recipients on day 7+/-1 of the estrous cycle. Birth weight and gestation length of half-sib single calves were analyzed. No differences were observed in birth weight and gestation length between IVP-Co and IVP-NON-Co calves (31.0 kg and 31.8 kg, and 291.9 days and 291.0 days, respectively). However, the birth weight of the IVP-Co and IVP-NON-Co calves was significantly higher than that of the IVD calves (PGestation length of the IVP-Co and IVP-NON-Co calves was also significantly longer than that of the IVD calves (P<0.01).

  14. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effect of energy balance profiles on metabolic and reproductive response in Holstein and Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntallaris, T; Humblot, P; Båge, R; Sjunnesson, Y; Dupont, J; Berglund, B

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effect of two feeding levels during the antepartum and postpartum period on reproductive performance and blood metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin) in primiparous Holstein and Swedish Red (SRB) cows, in order to identify possible differences in the way these breeds respond to negative energy balance after calving. A total of 44 cows (22 Holstein, 22 SRB) kept in a loose housing system were included in the study. The control group (HE, n = 23) was fed a diet for high-producing cows (target 35 kg/d energycorrected milk, ECM). A lower feeding intensity (LE, n = 21) was achieved by giving -50% concentrate to target 25 kg/d ECM. Diets were implemented 30 days before expected calving and the cows were monitored for 120 days postpartum. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), live body weight and body condition score (BCS) were assessed to calculate the weekly energy balance (residual feed intake). Blood sampling started before diet implementation and was repeated every 2 weeks until Day 60 postpartum and then once monthly until Day 120. Plasma was kept at -20 °C until analysis for glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations. Mixed linear models were used to analyse data (SAS 9.3; PROC MIXED). Holstein cows had lower mean energy balance than SRB cows (-4.7 ± 1.4 and -0.9 ± 1.4 MJ, respectively; p = 0.05). SRB cows had higher (pbalanced metabolic profile.

  16. Machine-learning-based calving prediction from activity, lying, and ruminating behaviors in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Proudfoot, K L; Wadsworth, B A; Stone, A E; Bewley, J M

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use automated activity, lying, and rumination monitors to characterize prepartum behavior and predict calving in dairy cattle. Data were collected from 20 primiparous and 33 multiparous Holstein dairy cattle from September 2011 to May 2013 at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy. The HR Tag (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) automatically collected neck activity and rumination data in 2-h increments. The IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., South Queensferry, United Kingdom) automatically collected number of steps, lying time, standing time, number of transitions from standing to lying (lying bouts), and total motion, summed in 15-min increments. IceQube data were summed in 2-h increments to match HR Tag data. All behavioral data were collected for 14 d before the predicted calving date. Retrospective data analysis was performed using mixed linear models to examine behavioral changes by day in the 14 d before calving. Bihourly behavioral differences from baseline values over the 14 d before calving were also evaluated using mixed linear models. Changes in daily rumination time, total motion, lying time, and lying bouts occurred in the 14 d before calving. In the bihourly analysis, extreme values for all behaviors occurred in the final 24 h, indicating that the monitored behaviors may be useful in calving prediction. To determine whether technologies were useful at predicting calving, random forest, linear discriminant analysis, and neural network machine-learning techniques were constructed and implemented using R version 3.1.0 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). These methods were used on variables from each technology and all combined variables from both technologies. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies at the daily level yielded 100.0% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies in bihourly increments was

  17. The Holstein polaron problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Amin; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The Holstein Hamiltonian was proposed half a century ago; since then, decades of research have come up empty handed in the pursuit of a closed-form solution. An exact solution to the two-site Holstein model is presented in this paper. The obtained results provide a clear image of the Hamiltonian structure and allow for the investigation of the symmetry, energy level crossings and polaronic characteristics of the system. The main mathematical tool is a three-term recurrence relation between the wave function amplitudes, which was obtained using the properties of a family of orthogonal functions, namely the Poisson-Charlier polynomials. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of basis, the eigenfunctions of the problem naturally fall into two families (parities) associated with the discrete {{{Z}}}2 symmetry of the Hamiltonian. The asymptotic solution to the recurrence relation is found by using the Birkhoff expansion. The asymptotic sets the truncation criterion for the wave function, which ensures the accurate calculation of the energy levels for any strength of electron-phonon interaction. The level crossing of states with different parities is discussed and the exact points of broken symmetry are found analytically. The results are used as the building blocks for studying a four-site system. The inherited symmetries lead to the formation of a sparse matrix that is convenient for numerical calculations.

  18. Generation of cloned calves from different types of somatic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Guochun; DAI Yunping; ZHU Huabing; WANG Haiping; WANG Lili; LI Rong; WAN Rong; LIU Ying; LINing

    2004-01-01

    Six types of bovine somatic cell lines,including a granulosa cell line of Chinese red-breed yellow cattle(YGR),a granulosa cell line of Holstein cow(HGR),two skin fibroblast cell lines of two adult Holstein cows respectively(AFB1 and AFB2),a skin fibroblast cell line(FFB)and an oviduct epithelial cell line(FOV)of a Holstein fetus,were established.Somatic cell nuclear transfer(SCNT)was carried out using these cells as nuclei donor,and a total of 12 healthy calves were cloned.The effects of different types of donor cells on developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated.(i)There was no significant difference in development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from YGR and HGR(33.2% and 35.1%,respectively).Pregnancy rates of them were 33.3% and 30.2%,respectively; and birth rates were 16.7%and 11.6%,respectively.(ii)Development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from diffetent individuals(AFB1 and AFB2)differed significantly(27.9% and 39.4%,respectively,P <0.05).Pregnancy rates of them were 36.2% and 36.4%,respectively; and birth rates were 14.9% and 27.3%,respectively.(iii)There was significant difference in development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from FFB and FOV of the same fetus(37.9% and 41.5%,respectively,P < 0.05).Pregnancy rates of them were 45.7% and 24.1%,respectively; and birth rates were 22.9 % and 10.3%,respectively.Finally,developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos from all four types of somatic cells from Holstein cows(HGR,AFB,FFB and FOV)were compared.For in vitro development stage,development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from HGR,AFB,FFB and FOV were 35.1%A,29.4%B,37.9%A and 41.5%C,respectively(pABC<0.05); for in vivo development stage,pregnancy rates of them were 30.2%,36.2%,45.7%and 24.1%,respectively; and birth rates of them were 11.6%,17.2%,22.9% and 10.3% respectively.

  19. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: I. Reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Ohlerth, S; Hatz, L; Augsburger, H

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) images of the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum of five healthy Holstein-Friesian bull calves were compared with anatomical transverse cadaver sections of the same calves. The calves were scanned in the transverse plane from the 5th thoracic vertebra to the sacrum six times three weeks apart from birth to 105 days of age. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to create images in sagittal and dorsal planes. After subjective assessment of various anatomical structures, the rumen, omasum and abomasum as well as the ruminal strata (gas cap, fibre mat and fluid phase) were measured. After the last CT scan, all calves were euthanised, and four were kept at -18 °C in sternal position for 14 days. Transverse sections 1.0 to 1.5 cm thick were made from two calves and dorsal and sagittal sections were made from one calf each using a band saw. The CT images and anatomical slices were compared and the structures on the CT images identified. Very clear CT images were obtained from the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum and there was excellent agreement between images and anatomical slices.

  20. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; Gerrits, W J J; Roelofsen, H; Priebe, M G; Vonk, R J

    2016-04-01

    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body weight >100 kg). Replacement of lactose by other dietary substrates can be economically attractive, and may also positively (or negatively) affect the risk of developing problems with glucose metabolism. An experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing one third of the dietary lactose by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian (body weight=114 ± 2.4 kg; age=97 ± 1.4 d) calves were fed an MR containing 462 g of lactose/kg (CON), or an MR in which 150 g of lactose/kg of MR was replaced by glucose (GLU), fructose (FRU), or glycerol (GLY). During the first 10d of the trial, all calves received CON. The CON group remained on this diet and the other groups received their experimental diets for a period of 8 wk. Measurements were conducted during the first (baseline) and last week of the trial. A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to assess insulin sensitivity and 24 h of urine was collected to measure glucose excretion. During the last week of the trial, a bolus of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C] substrates was added to their respective meals and plasma glucose, insulin, and (13)C-glucose responses were measured. Insulin sensitivity was low at the start of the trial and remained low [1.2 ± 0.1 and 1.0 ± 0.1 (mU/L)(-1) × min(-1)], and no treatment effect was noted. Glucose excretion was low at the start of the trial (3.4 ± 1.0 g/d), but increased in CON and GLU calves (26.9 ± 3.9 and 43.0 ± 10.6g/d) but not in FRU and GLY calves. Postprandial glucose was higher in GLU, lower in FRU, and similar in GLY compared with CON calves. Postprandial insulin was lower in FRU

  1. Assessment of the impact of somatic cell count on functional longevity in Holstein and Jersey cattle using survival analysis methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraviello, D Z; Weigel, K A; Shook, G E; Ruegg, P L

    2005-02-01

    Survival analysis in a Weibull proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the impact of somatic cell count (SCC) on the involuntary culling rate of US Holstein and Jersey cows with first calvings from 1990 to 2000. The full data set, consisting of records from 978,043 Holstein and 250,835 Jersey cows, was divided into subsets (5 for Holsteins and 3 for Jerseys) based on herd average lactation SCC values. Functional longevity (also known as herd life or length of productive life) was defined as days from first calving until culling or censoring, after correcting for milk production. Our model included the time-dependent effects of herd-year-season, parity by stage of lactation interaction, within-herd-year quintile ranking for mature equivalent production, and lactation average SCC (rounded to the nearest 50,000 cells/mL), as well as the time-independent effect of age at first calving. Parameters of the Weibull distribution, as well as variance components for herd-year-season effects, were estimated within each group of herds. Mean failure and censoring times decreased as herd average SCC increased, and a nonlinear relationship was observed between SCC and longevity in all groups. The risk of culling for Holstein cows with lactation average SCC > 700,000 cells/mL was 3.4, 2.7, or 2.3 times greater, respectively, than that of Holstein cows with SCC of 200,000 to 250,000 cells/mL in herds with low, medium, or high average SCC. Likewise, the risk of culling for Jersey cows with lactation average SCC > 700,000 cells/mL was 4.0, 2.9, or 2.2 times greater, respectively, than that of Jersey cows with SCC of 200,000 to 250,000 cells/mL in low, medium, or high SCC herds. These trends may reflect more stringent culling of high SCC cows in herds with few mastitis problems. In addition, cows with lactation average SCC mastitis pathogens was likely.

  2. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calve-Perthes disease. In: Herring JA, ed. Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 17. Review Date 7/10/2015 ... MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. ...

  3. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  4. Motor evoked potentials in standing and recumbent calves induced by magnetic stimulation at the foramen magnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijckaert, J; Pardon, B; Verryken, K; Van Ham, L; van Loon, G; Deprez, P

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine reference values for magnetic motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) in calves and the influence of position during examination (standing or lateral recumbency). Reference values were determined using 41 healthy Holstein Friesian bull calves aged 1-10 months; standing and lateral recumbency were examined in 11 calves. Maximal magnetic stimulation was performed at the level of the foramen magnum with a magnetic field of 4 T at the coil surface. In standing position, distinct, reproducible mMEPs were obtained in all calves. Onset latency (LAT) (mean ± standard deviation) was significantly shorter in the thoracic limbs (34.4 ± 3.1 ms) than in the pelvic limbs (44.6 ± 3.0 ms). Amplitude (AMPL) was significantly higher in the thoracic limbs (3.7 ± 1.7 mV) than in the pelvic limbs (3.3 ± 1.7 mV) and significantly increased with body length. Age, body weight, height at the withers and rectal temperature had no significant association with LAT or AMPL, and no differences between left and right were noted. In the lateral position, only 64% of the calves showed responses in the four limbs; in these calves, LAT (29.7 ± 4.7 ms) and AMPL (3.0 ± 1.8 mV) in the thoracic limbs were significantly different from AMPL (47.0 ± 7.4 ms) and LAT (2.1 ± 2.1 mV) in the pelvic limbs. In conclusion, mMEPs in limb muscles can be evoked in calves by stimulation at the level of the foramen magnum. mMEPs are more difficult to obtain in lateral recumbency than in standing calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Essential oils for dairy calves: effects on performance, scours, rumen fermentation and intestinal fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F H R; De Paula, M R; Lezier, D; Silva, J T; Santos, G; Bittar, C M M

    2015-06-01

    The first cause of death of dairy calves is often diarrhea which is mainly caused by pathogenic bacteria, which can result in excessive use of antibiotics. However, facing the increase concern by the industry and consumers, the use of antibiotics not only to control pathogens, but also to manipulate growth, has become a challenge. Alternative additives, such essential oils, have the potential to decrease antibiotic use, without reducing performance or increasing mortality of dairy calves. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of a commercial blend of essential oils, incorporated into the calf starter and/or milk replacer to monitor the effect on overall calf performance, fecal scores and rumen fermentation parameters. A total of 30 Holstein calves received 6 l/day of a liquid diet, consisting of a commercial milk replacer containing 20% CP : 15% fat (EE). Calves had free choice access to water and calf starter. Weaning occurred at week 8, and calves were followed until the 10th week of age. Calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups in a randomized block design. (1) control without essential oils supplementation (C); (2) essential oils blend in the milk replacer at 400 mg/kg (MR) and (3) essential oils blend in the milk replacer (200 mg/kg) and starter feed (200 mg/kg) (MRS). From the 2nd week, calves were weighed and body measurements were taken, while concentrate intake and fecal scores were monitored daily. Blood samples were drawn weekly for determination of glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate. Fecal samples were collected weekly and analyzed for lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteria; and ruminal fluid for determination of pH, short chain fatty acids, ammonia-N and counts of amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria, and protozoa. Performance, fecal scores and intestines microorganisms were not affected by the essential oils supplementation. Ruminal and blood parameters were also not affected, with the exception the rumen ammonia

  6. Comparison of several methods of sires evaluation for total milk yield in a herd of Holstein cows in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samarai, F R; Abdulrahman, Y K; Mohammed, F A; Al-Zaidi, F H; Al-Anbari, N N

    2015-01-01

    A total of 956 lactation records of Holstein cows kept at Kaa Albon station, Imuran Governorate, Yemen during the period from 1991 to 2003 were used to investigate the effect of some genetic and non-genetic factors (Sire, parity, season of calving, year of calving and age at first calving as covariate) on the Total Milk Yield (TMY), Lactation Length (LL), and Dry Period (DP). Components of variance for the random effects (mixed model) were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) methodology. Sires were evaluated for the TMY by three methods, Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) using Harvey program, Transmitting Ability (TA) according to the Least Square Means of sire progeny (TALSM) and according to Means (TAM). Results showed that TMY and DP were affected significantly (P < 0.01) by all factors except season of calving and age at first calving, while LL was affected significantly (P< 0.01) only by year of calving and parity. The averages of the TMY, LL, and DP were 3919.66 kg, 298.28 days, and 114.13 days respectively. The corresponding estimates of heritability (h(2)) were 0.35, 0.06, and 0.14 respectively. The highest and lowest BLUP values of sires for the TMY were - 542.44 kg and 402.14 kg, while the corresponding estimates for TALSM and TAM were - 470.38, 380.88 kg and - 370.12, 388.50 kg respectively. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients among BLUP, TALSM and TAM ranged from 0.81 to 0.67. These results provide evidence that the selection of sires will improve the TMY in this herd because of the wide differences in genetic poetical among sires, and a moderate estimation of heritability.

  7. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  8. Seasonality of fertility measured by physical activity traits in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Strandberg, Erling; Berglund, Britt; Fogh, Anders; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Seasonality of female fertility traits, including the interval from calving to first high activity (CFHA), duration of high activity episode (DHA), and strength of high activity episode (SHA) of first estrus, were studied. The physical activity traits were derived from electronic activity tags for 20,794 Holstein cows in 135 commercial Holstein herds in Denmark. Data were categorized in 3 ways: (1) into 4 seasons of calving: winter (January-March), spring (April-June), summer (July-September), and fall (October-December); (2) into 2 seasons: a cold season (October-March) and a warm season (April-September); and (3) into an increasing light season (IL; January-June), where daylight hours gradually increased, and a decreasing light season (DL; July-December), where daylight hours gradually decreased. At the phenotypic level, least squares means of CFHA were highest at 55d for cows calving in December and lowest at 31d for cows calving in September. The highest least squares means of DHA and SHA were recorded for cows calving in November and lowest for cows calving in May and June. Genetic parameters for all traits were estimated using average information-REML in a bivariate animal model that treated the same trait in different calving seasons as different traits. Heritability estimates for CFHA were highest for the winter season (0.13) and low for the other seasons (0.03-0.04), whereas heritability estimates for DHA and SHA were lowest for winter and highest for fall. Heritability estimates for CFHA for the cold season (0.17) was higher than that for the warm season (0.10). Heritability estimates of CFHA for the IL season (0.12) was higher than for the DL season (0.07), but the opposite pattern was found for DHA and SHA. Genetic correlations (rA) of CFHA between winter and summer (rA=0.34 ± 0.27), and winter and fall (rA=0.65 ± 0.20) were significantly lower than unity. The corresponding correlations of DHA and SHA between seasons were all close to unity, except

  9. Fasting heat production and energy cost of standing activity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labussière, Etienne; Dubois, Serge; van Milgen, Jaap; Bertrand, Gérard; Noblet, Jean

    2008-12-01

    Metabolic body size of veal calves is still calculated by using the 0.75 exponent and no data were available to determine energy cost of physical activity during the whole fattening period. Data from two trials focusing on protein and/or energy requirements were used to determine the coefficient of metabolic body size and the energy cost of standing activity in male Prim'Holstein calves. Total heat production was measured by indirect calorimetry in ninety-five calves weighing 60-265 kg and was divided using a modelling approach between components related to the BMR, physical activity and feed intake. The calculation of the energy cost of standing activity was based on quantifying the physical activity by using force sensors on which the metabolism cage was placed and on the interruption of an IR beam allowing the determination of standing or lying position of the calf. The best exponent relating zero activity fasting heat production (FHP 0) to metabolic body size was 0.85, which differed significantly from the traditionally used 0.75. Per additional kJ metabolizable energy (ME) intake, FHP 0 increased by 0.28 kJ; at a conventional daily 650 kJ/kg body weight (BW)0.85 ME intake, daily FHP 0 averaged 310 kJ/kg BW 0.85. Calves stood up sixteen times per day; total duration of standing increased from 5.1 to 6.4 h per day as animals became older. The hourly energy cost of standing activity was proportional to BW 0.65 and was estimated as 12.4 kJ/kg BW 0.65. These estimates allow for a better estimation of the maintenance energy requirements in veal calves.

  10. Potential consequences of selection to change gestation length on performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Miller, R H

    2011-02-01

    Genetic evaluations for gestation length (GL) for Holstein service sires were studied to determine their effectiveness in predicting GL in an independent data set. Consequences of selection on GL were also assessed by examining correlated changes in milk and fitness traits. Holstein bulls with ≥ 300 calvings between 1998 and 2005 were stratified into the following 7 groups using predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for service sire GL: <-3.00, -3.00 to -2.01, …, 1.00 to 1.99, and ≥ 2.00 d. An independent set of 261,598 first-parity cows mated later to the same bulls and calving between 2006 and 2009 were segregated by the service sire PTA GL groups (group had 8,317 to 73,324 gestations), and these mates' GL were examined to determine effectiveness of service sire PTA GL. The model included fixed effects for herd-year and service sire group, plus covariates for conception dates to account for time opportunity among mates. Mean GL for mates by service sire group (from lowest to highest PTA GL) were 275.3, 276.5, 277.8, 278.6, 279.5, 280.6, and 281.7 d. Thus, service sire PTA GL was effective in identifying bulls that modified GL. Subsequent yield and fitness traits were also examined for the (independent) mates with the same service sire groups. Intermediate service sire PTA GL was optimal for yield traits and days open; performance for productive life and culling generally became less favorable as service sire PTA GL increased. A second examination was made by replacing service sire PTA GL groups in the model with phenotypic cow GL groups. Relationships between GL and subsequent performance for milk yield and fitness traits were examined using 9 phenotypic cow GL groups: ≤ 271, 272-273, …, 284-285, and ≥ 286 d. Performance generally improved for subsequent lactation yield as cow GL increased; however, intermediate GL was optimal for productive life, calving ease, stillbirth, culling, and days open. Results indicated that neither shortening nor increasing

  11. Heterogeneity in the Antibody Response to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Primo-vaccinated Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, S; Brito, B P; Perez, A M; Bucafusco, D; Pega, J; Rodríguez, L; Borca, M V; Pérez-Filgueira, M

    2015-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are routinely used as effective control tools in large regions worldwide and to limit outbreaks during epidemics. Vaccine-induced protection in cattle has been largely correlated with the FMD virus (FMDV)-specific antibodies. Genetic control of cattle immune adaptive responses has been demonstrated only for peptide antigens derived from FMDV structural proteins. Here, we quantify the heterogeneity in the antibody response of cattle primo-vaccinated against FMD and study its association with the genetic background in Holstein and Jersey sires. A total of 377 FMDV-seronegative calves (122 and 255 calves from 16 and 15 Holstein and Jersey sires, respectively) were included in the study. Samples were taken the day prior to primo-vaccination and 45 days post-vaccination (dpv). Animals received commercial tetravalent FMD single emulsion oil vaccines formulated with inactivated FMDV. Total FMDV-specific antibody responses were studied against three viral strains included in the vaccine, and antibody titres were determined by liquid-phase blocking ELISA. Three linear hierarchical mixed regression models, one for each strain, were formulated to assess the heterogeneity in the immune responses to vaccination. The dependent variables were the antibody titres induced against each FMDV strain at 45 dpv, whereas sire's 'breed' was included as a fixed effect, 'sire' was included as a random effect, and 'farm' was considered as a hierarchical factor to account for lack of independence of within herd measurements. A significant association was found between anti-FMDV antibody responses and sire's breed, with lower immune responses found in the Jersey sires' offspring compared with those from Holstein sires. No significant intrabreed variation was detected. In addition, farm management practices were similar in this study, and results of the serological assays were shown to be repeatable. It therefore seems plausible that differences in the

  12. Less pressure at Calve (food industry); Calve onder lagere druk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2002-04-01

    Since 1 January 2002, the Dutch food industry Calve applies a sophisticated compressed air system for the production of peanut butter, mayonnaise and sauces in the Delft factory. Parent company Unilever hopes the new system will reduce energy consumption by nearly 400,000 kWh. In a business where product quality is crucial, and where compressed air is critical for quality, pressure reduction is a daring move. [Dutch] De productie van pindakaas, mayonaise en sauzen van Calve in Delft verloopt sinds 1 januari met een uitgekiendere persluchtregeling. Zo hoopt moederbedrijf Unilever jaarlijks bijna 400.000 kWh op de energienota te besparen. In een bedrijf waar de kwaliteit van het product zeer kritisch is en sterk afhankelijk is van perslucht, is drukverlaging een gedurfde onderneming.

  13. Lethal chondrodysplasia in a family of Holstein cattle is associated with a de novo splice site variant of COL2A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Menzi, Fiona; McEvoy, Fintan;

    2016-01-01

    Background Lethal chondrodysplasia (bulldog syndrome) is a well-known congenital syndrome in cattle and occurs sporadically in many breeds. In 2015, it was noticed that about 12 % of the offspring of the phenotypically normal Danish Holstein sire VH Cadiz Captivo showed chondrodysplasia resembling...... previously reported bulldog calves. Pedigree analysis of affected calves did not display obvious inbreeding to a common ancestor, suggesting the causative allele was not a rare recessive. The normal phenotype of the sire suggested a dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or a mosaic mutation...

  14. Inclusion of tallow and soybean oil to calf starters fed to dairy calves from birth to four months of age on calf performance and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2015-07-01

    Energy demands for calves can increase during periods of heat and cold stress. One way to potentially increase energy intake is to increase the energy density of the feed with fat. Trial 1a compared a control starter with no added fat or oil (CON) to starters with 2% tallow (TAL) and 2% soybean oil (SBO). Starters were 20% crude protein (CP) and 45 to 47% starch. Male Holstein calves that were initially 3 to 5d of age were fed a 27% CP, 17% fat milk replacer at 0.66kg of dry matter daily and fully weaned by 42d of a 56-d trial. Trial 1b estimated the digestion of the diets (employed chromic oxide as an indigestible digesta flow marker) using a subset of 5 weaned calves per treatment between d 52 and 56. Trial 2 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and SBO blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Trial 3 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and TAL blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Treatments were compared using repeated measures (where appropriate) in a completely randomized design. In trials 1a and 1b, preplanned contrasts compared CON versus TAL and CON versus SBO. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced starter intake, average daily gain, and digestion of dry matter, organic matter, and CP before 8wk of age. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced average daily gain and change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Compared with CON, calves fed TAL had reduced average daily gain and tended to have reduced change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Calculated metabolizable energy intake was not increased in any trial by added fat or oil. Tallow and soybean oil inclusion at 2% of the starter feed was not advantageous for calf growth before 4 mo of age.

  15. Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Flaminio, M J B F; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Caixeta, L; Ricci, A; Guard, C L; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil (PMN) and systemic energy status in dairy cows. Peripheral blood (120 mL) was collected weekly from 84 Holstein cows for PMN isolation and plasma collection from calving until 42 d in milk (DIM). The final analysis included 80 cows. Of those, 20 cows were classified as having metritis (fetid uterine discharge and fever), 15 as having subclinical endometritis (SCE; >or=10% PMN on uterine cytology), and 45 as healthy controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased only in cows that developed metritis. Neutrophil glycogen content was reduced in cows developing metritis compared with healthy cows on the day of calving and at 7 and 42 DIM. Cows with SCE had lower PMN glycogen content than healthy cows at 7, 28, and 42 DIM. Blood glucose was affected by disease status within parity. Primiparous metritis cows had greater blood glucose concentrations than healthy primiparous cows. Multiparous metritis cows tended to have lower blood glucose concentration than multiparous SCE cows. Cows that developed metritis and SCE had or tended to have greater NEFA and BHBA than healthy cows, mainly around calving. At calving, cows that developed metritis had higher plasma estradiol concentration than healthy cows and greater plasma cortisol than cows that had SCE. Plasma insulin was not affected. Plasma glucagon was increased for SCE cows. Cows that developed uterine disease experienced a greater degree of negative energy balance and had decreased lower intracellular PMN glycogen levels, which could be a major predisposing factor for disease because of decreased availability of oxidative fuels.

  16. Hormones, metabolites, and reproduction in Holsteins, Jerseys, and their crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K L; Cassell, B G; McGilliard, M L; Hanigan, M D; Gwazdauskas, F C

    2012-02-01

    Holsteins (HH), Jerseys (JJ), and their crosses in first (n=157) and second (n=107) lactation were used to determine if reproduction, progesterone (P4), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and milk production differed between genetic groups. Thirty-four cows were Holstein-Jersey (HJ) crosses, 46 were Jersey-Holstein (JH) crosses, 48 were purebred Holsteins (HH), and 29 were purebred Jerseys (JJ) in first lactation, whereas the second-lactation animals included 23 HJ, 35 JH, 35 HH, and 14 JJ. Blood samples were collected weekly for the first 10 wk postpartum. Analyses were conducted using the MIXED, chi-square, and GLIMMIX procedures (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Seasons of calving were cold (November to May) and hot (June to October) and were combined with year to form 8 year-seasons. Days open and number of services were affected by genetic group. The HH were open 169±8 d, which was greater than HJ (143±9 d), JJ (132±10 d), and JH (127±8 d). The HH had 2.4±0.1 services per pregnancy, which was greater than JH (1.9±0.1), but not different from HJ (2.1±0.2) or JJ (2.1±0.2). Concentrations of NEFA were greater in lactation 2 (0.52±0.02 mEq/L) than in lactation 1 (0.45±0.02 mEq/L) and decreased over the 10-wk period. Concentrations of NEFA were greater in the cold season except in yr 3. Insulin in lactation 1 (0.81±0.03 ng/mL) was greater than in lactation 2 (0.72±0.03 ng/mL); insulin decreased to wk 2 then gradually increased. The HJ had the greatest insulin concentrations (0.87±0.04 ng/mL) and the JJ had the lowest (0.66±0.04 ng/mL), and IGF-1 gradually increased over the 10-wk period. Milk production (actual yield in the first 305 d, not adjusted for fat and protein) was affected by genetic group, lactation number, year-season, and wk 1 insulin. The HH produced 10,348±207 kg of milk, which was greater than the HJ (9,129±230 kg), the JH (9,384±190 kg), and the JJ (7,080±240 kg). Milk production in

  17. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluschke, A M; Gilbert, M S; Williams, B A; van den Borne, J J G C; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-08-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with gelatinized corn starch (GCS) to determine the effect on protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves. In total, 16 male Holstein-Friesian calves received either MR with lactose as the carbohydrate source (control) or 18% GCS at the expense of lactose. In the adaptation period, calves were exposed to an increasing dose of GCS for 14 weeks. The indigestible marker cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was incorporated into the MR for calculating apparent nutrient digestibility, whereas a pulse dose of chromium (Cr) chloride was fed with the last MR meal 4 h before slaughter as an indicator of passage rates. The calves were anesthetized and exsanguinated at 30 weeks of age. The small intestine was divided in three; small intestine 1 and 2 (SI1 and SI2, respectively) and the terminal ileum (last ~100 cm of small intestine) and samples of digesta were collected. Small intestinal digesta was analysed for α-amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. Digestibility of protein was determined for SI1, SI2, ileum and total tract, whereas digestibility of fat was determined for SI1, SI2 and total tract. Apparent protein digestibility in the small intestine did not differ between treatments but was higher in control calves at total tract level. Apparent crude fat digestibility tended to be increased in SI1 and SI2 for GCS calves, but no difference was found at total tract level. Activity of α-amylase in SI2 and lipase in both SI1 and SI2 was higher in GCS calves. Activity of trypsin tended to be higher in control calves and was higher in SI1 compared with SI2. A lower recovery of Cr in SI2 and a higher recovery of Cr in the large intestine suggest an increased rate of passage for GCS

  18. Supplementation with difructose anhydride III promotes passive calcium absorption in the small intestine immediately after calving in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, M; Wynn, S; Reshalaitihan, M; Kyuno, W; Sato, T; Ohtani, M; Kawashima, C; Hanada, M

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hypocalcemia increases in high-parity dairy cows because resorption of bone Ca is delayed in these animals, and they appear to have a reduced ability to absorb Ca from the intestine during the early postpartum period. Difructose anhydride (DFA) III has been shown to promote the absorption of intestinal Ca via a paracellular pathway. However, past studies have not reported this effect in peripartum dairy cows. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DFA III supplementation on Ca metabolism during the peripartum period to determine whether DFA III promotes intestinal Ca absorption via this route. Seventy-four multiparous Holstein cows were separated into DFA and control groups based on their parity and body weight. The feed of the DFA group was supplemented with 40g/d of DFA III from -14 to 6d relative to calving. The control group did not receive DFA III. At calving (0h relative to calving), serum Ca declined below 9mg/dL in both groups. However, serum Ca concentrations were greater in the DFA group than in the control group at 6, 12, 24, and 48h relative to calving, and the time required for serum Ca to recover to 9mg/dL during the postpartum period was shorter in the high-parity cows in the DFA group than in those in the control group. Parathyroid hormone concentrations increased immediately after calving in both groups and were greater in the control group than in the DFA group at 12 and 24h relative to calving. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations increased at 0 and 12h relative to calving in both groups and were higher in the control group than in the DFA group at 72h relative to calving. Serum concentrations of the bone-resorption marker cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were not different between the groups during peripartum period, and serum NTX in all cows was lower at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h relative to calving than at -21, 4, and 5d relative to calving. Thus, DFA treatment induced faster recovery of serum Ca

  19. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  20. Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J

    2011-09-01

    Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed

  1. Effects of Kefir as a Probiotic Source on the Performance and Health of Young Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Satık

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kefir as a probiotic on the performance and health status of calves. Thirty Holstein female calves with 3-day-old were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: Control (without any probiotic, probiotic (a commercial probiotic mixture-3 g/d/calf bacteria-based and 2 g/d/calf yeast-based and kefir (20 ml/d/calf. The calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The experiment was performed in 70 days. Treatment had no effect (P>0.05 on weaning and final body weight and starter intake. Although differences in weight gain were not significant (P>0.05, there were trend to increase by probiotic treatments during 0-14 days. Probiotic treatments tended to have a positive effect on the population of the fecal lactic acid bacteria at 14 days. The results of the study indicated that kefir as a natural probiotic in calf nutrition may be beneficial during the first weeks of life.

  2. Crossbreeding Holstein-Friesian with Ethiopian Boran cattle in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Additive genetic effects for the Holstein-Friesian breed were estimated as ... Holstein-Friesian cattle produced 4.5 times more milk than Boran and nearly 1000 kg more ... crosses and exotic dairy breeds evaluated under tropical environments.

  3. Intake of specific fatty acids and fat alters growth, health, and titers following vaccination in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselburn, K M; O'Diam, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Daniels, K M

    2013-09-01

    Typical fatty acid profiles of milk and milk replacer (MR) differ. Calf MR in the United States are made from animal fat, which are low in short- and medium-chain fatty acids and linolenic acid. Two 56-d trials compared a control MR containing 27% crude protein and formulated with 3 fat and fatty acid compositions. The 3 MR treatments were (1) only animal fat totaling 17% fat (CON), (2) animal fat supplemented with butyrate, medium-chain fatty acids, and linolenic acid using a commercial product (1.25% NeoTec4 MR; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) totaling 17% fat (fatty acid-supplemented; FA-S), and (3) milk fat totaling 33% fat (MF). The MR were fed at 660 g of dry matter from d 0 to 42 and weaned. Starter (20% crude protein) and water were fed ad libitum for 56 d. Trial 1 utilized Holstein calves (24 female, 24 male) during summer months and trial 2 utilized Holstein calves (48 male) during fall months. Calves (41±1 kg of initial body weight; 2 to 3d of age) were sourced from a single farm and housed in a naturally ventilated nursery without added heat. Calves were in individual pens with straw bedding. Calf was the experimental unit. Data for each trial were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 3 (MR treatment) × 2 (sex) factorial arrangement of treatments in trial 1 with repeated measures and as a completely randomized design with 3 MR treatments in trial 2 with repeated measures. Preplanned contrast statements of treatments CON versus FA-S and CON versus MF were used to separate means. We found no interactions of MR treatment by sex. Calf average daily gain, hip width change, and feed efficiency differed (CONFA-S). Titers to bovine respiratory parainfluenza-3 and bovine virus diarrhea type 1 (vaccinations to these pathogens were on d 7 and 28) in serum samples taken on d 49 and 56 differed (CONFA-S; CONFA-S; CON>MF). Calves fed FA-S and MF had improved growth and feed efficiency compared with calves fed CON, whereas calves fed FA-S also

  4. [Protozoan infection causes diarrhea in calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, T; Claerebout, E; Vercruysse, J

    2005-12-01

    The role of protozoan parasites in the etiology of diarrhea in calves is highlighted with emphasis on correct diagnosis. In neonatal calves, Cryptosporidium parvum is isolated in more than 44% of the faeces of diarrhetic calves. In calves older than one month, both Eimeria bovis and E. zuernii, and Giardia duodenalis are associated with diarrhea and poor growth. Clinical diagnosis has to be confirmed by examination of host faecal material. Both for C. parvum and G. duodenalis immunological assays are available. Control measures must aim to reduce or prevent oocyst or cyst transmission, by combining management measures, desinfection and chemotherapeutic treatment.

  5. Evaluation of serum protein-based arrival formula and serum protein supplement (Gammulin) on growth, morbidity, and mortality of stressed (transport and cold) male dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, A; Ballou, M A; Campbell, J M; Cardoso, F C; Drackley, J K

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies with calves and other species have provided evidence that blood serum-derived proteins and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) may benefit intestinal health. We assessed the effects of supplementing products containing serum proteins as a component of arrival fluid support or serum proteins plus FOS (in addition to additional solids, minerals, and vitamins) in an early life dietary supplement on performance, morbidity, and mortality of stressed (transport, cold) male calves. Male Holstein calves (n=93) water were freely available. Feed offered and refused was recorded daily. Calf health was assessed by daily assignment of fecal and respiratory scores. Stature measures and BW were determined weekly. Blood samples were obtained at d 0 (before treatments), 2, 7, 14, and 28. Calves were weaned at d 42 and remained in the experiment until d 56. After 2 wk of treatments, calves previously fed AF had greater body length (66.6 vs. 66.0cm), intakes of dry matter (38.7 vs. 23.5g/d) and crude protein (9.2 vs. 5.6g/d) from starter, and cortisol concentration in blood (17.0 vs. 13.9 ng/mL) than calves fed E. Supplementation with G resulted in greater BW gain during the first 2 wk, increased intakes of dry matter and CP, and decreased respiratory scores. For the 8-wk experiment, G supplementation resulted in lower mean fecal score (1.6 vs. 1.8) and fewer antibiotic treatments per calf (1.5 vs. 2.5) than NG. Survival was greater in G than in NG calves (98 vs. 84%). Despite the marked reduction in morbidity and mortality, blood indicators of acute-phase response, urea N, and total protein were not affected by AF or G in transported cold-stressed male calves. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  7. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  8. The pharmacokinetics and effects of meloxicam, gabapentin, and flunixin in postweaning dairy calves following dehorning with local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, H D; Coetzee, J F; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Dockweiler, J C; Allen, K A; Lubbers, B; Jones, M; Fraccaro, E; Bergamasco, L L; KuKanich, B

    2013-12-01

    Approved analgesic compounds in cattle are not currently available in the United States due to the lack of validated pain assessment methods and marker residue depletion studies. In this study, we compared the pharmacokinetic parameters and effect of preemptive analgesics administered to calves subjected to dehorning with local anesthesia. Holstein steers were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments per os (PO) or intravenously (IV) (n = 8/group): meloxicam (1 mg/kg PO), gabapentin (15 mg/kg PO), meloxicam (1 mg/kg), and gabapentin (15 mg/kg) PO, flunixin (2.2 mg/kg IV), or a placebo. Plasma drug, haptoglobin, substance P (SP) concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations, ocular thermography, mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), and average daily gain (ADG) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Meloxicam, gabapentin, and meloxicam with gabapentin at the present doses did not reduce cortisol concentrations. Analgesic-treated calves had significantly lower plasma SP concentrations and improved ADG compared with controls. Flunixin calves had reduced circulating cortisol compared with controls. Meloxicam-treated calves showed an increase in MNT at two horn bud sites compared with the other treatments. Analgesics improved ADG and reduced biomarkers of pain, but effects differed by compound and route of administration.

  9. Effects of intravenous ghrelin injection on plasma growth hormone, insulin and glucose concentrations in calves at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Rika; Mita, Takako; Sugino, Toshihisa; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Kojima, Masayasu; Kangawa, Kenji; Obitsu, Taketo; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2013-04-01

    Ghrelin action, which stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion, may alter during the weaning period in calves. Our objective was to compare the effects of intravenous ghrelin injection on plasma GH, insulin and glucose concentrations in calves around the weaning period. Four Holstein bull calves were fed whole milk and allowed free access to solid feeds, and weaned at 7 weeks of age. Measurements were performed at weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13, when calves were intravenously injected with ghrelin (1.0 μg/kg body weight (BW)) through a catheter, and jugular blood samples were obtained temporally relative to the injection time. Estimated digestible energy intake per metabolic BW transiently decreased at week 7 because of low solid intake immediately after weaning, and thereafter gradually increased. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were not affected by ghrelin injection at all ages. In contrast, plasma GH concentrations increased with ghrelin injection at all ages. The incremental area of GH at week 7 was greatest and significantly higher compared with weeks 2, 4, 6 and 9. This result suggests that nutrient insufficiency immediately after weaning enhances GH responsiveness to ghrelin.

  10. Clinical efficacy of diclofenac sodium and flunixin meglumine as adjuncts to antibacterial treatment of respiratory disease of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, M; Karakurum, M C; Durgut, R; Mamak, N

    2010-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, diclofenac sodium and flunixin meglumine as adjuncts to the antibiotic treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). We randomly allocated 80 Holstein calves with BRD to three groups. All the calves received a dose of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin by single subcutaneous injection and two of the groups received, in addition, either 2.5 mg/kg diclofenac sodium as a single intramuscular injection (diclofenac group, n = 30) or 2.2 mg/kg flunixin meglumine as an intravenous injection on the first three consecutive days after tulathromycin administration (flunixin group, n = 30). All calves were given a clinical score prior to initial treatment (day 0) and after treatment (days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14) by observing appetite, demeanour, rectal temperature, the rate and type of respiration, presence or absence of coughing, and nasal discharge. During the first 48 h, improvement of adverse signs of respiratory disease, such as pyrexia and elevated respiratory rate, and of a high clinical index score was significant in the two adjunct groups compared with the calves receiving antibiotic alone. The reduction in pyrexia was greatest in the diclofenac group. There were no statically significant differences between treatment groups with regard to eventual perceived recovery from respiratory disease in 14 days. In this trial, a single intramuscular dose of diclofenac sodium was equally effective as three intravenous injections of flunixin meglumine given on consecutive days as adjunctive therapy for BRD.

  11. Association of changes among body condition score during the transition period with NEFA and BHBA concentrations, milk production, fertility, and health of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Maturana Filho, M; Carvalho, P D; Del Valle, T A; Netto, A S; Rennó, F P; Mingoti, R D; Gandra, J R; Mourão, G B; Fricke, P M; Sartori, R; Madureira, E H; Wiltbank, M C

    2017-07-27

    Our objective was to evaluate the association between body condition score (BCS) change during the transition period with fertility, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations, milk yield, and health problems of Holstein cows in a retrospective cohort study. Holstein cows (n = 232) were assessed for BCS (5 point scale; 0.25 point increments) and had blood collected at 21 and 7 d before, on the day of, and 7 and 21 d after calving. Blood samples were assayed for NEFA and BHBA concentrations. All cows received a timed artificial insemination (TAI) at 65 ± 3 days in milk (DIM) following a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol with a progesterone implant during the Ovsynch protocol. Cows were grouped based on BCS change after calving as to whether they: 1) lost (L), 2) maintained (M), or 3) gained (G) BCS. Data were analyzed by logistic regression with GLIMMIX and ANOVA with repeated measures using the MIXED procedures of SAS. Both NEFA and BHBA concentrations after calving differed (P transition period had more health events (P transition period affected NEFA and BHBA concentrations, fertility, and occurrence of health problems during the lactation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Source of carbohydrate and metabolizable lysine and methionine in the diet of recently weaned dairy calves on digestion and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-04-01

    Two 56-d trials with weaned Holstein dairy calves (initially 72 ± 1.8 kg of body weight, 58 to 60 d of age) fed 95% concentrate and 5% chopped grass hay diets were conducted. Each trial used 96 calves (4 calves/pen). During 15 of the last 21 d of the first trial and 10 of 14 d of the second and third week of the second trial, fecal samples were taken to estimate digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Digestibility estimates along with 56-d average daily gain (ADG), hip width change, body condition score, and fecal score were analyzed with pen as the experimental unit. In trial 1, a textured diet (19% crude protein) with high starch [52% starch, 13% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] based on whole corn and oats or a pelleted low-starch (20% starch, 35% NDF), high-digestible fiber diet were used. Within starch level, diets were formulated from supplemental soybean meal or soybean meal with blood meal and Alimet (Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) to provide 2 metabolizable protein levels (1 and 1.07% metabolizable lysine plus methionine). The 4 treatments were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement (6 pens/diet). In trial 2, all pelleted diets (19% crude protein) were fed. Diets were based on soybean hulls, wheat middlings, or corn, which contained increasing concentrations of starch (13, 27, and 42% starch and 42, 23, and 16% NDF, respectively; 8 pens/diet). Contrast statements were constructed to separate differences in the means (soybean hulls plus wheat middlings vs. corn; soybean hulls vs. wheat middlings). In trial 1, intake of organic matter (OM) did not differ. Digestibility of OM was greater in calves fed high- versus low starch-diets. Digestibility of NDF and starch were less in calves fed the high- versus low-starch diets. Calf ADG and hip width change were greater for high- versus low-starch diets. Source of protein did not influence digestibility or ADG. In trial 2, intake of OM was not

  13. The association between metabolic parameters and oocyte quality early and late postpartum in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, S; O'Hara, L; Carter, F; Kelly, A K; Fair, T; Rizos, D; Lonergan, P

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this was to study the association between metabolic parameters and oocyte quality in postpartum lactating dairy cows as assessed by oocyte morphology and development after fertilization and culture in vitro. Holstein-Friesian spring-calving cows were used (n = 16, parity 3.0 ± 0.36, weight at calving 611 ± 16.2 kg, previous 305-d milk yield 6,454.0 ± 276.4 kg). Bodyweight (BW) and body condition score were recorded at approximately 2 wk before expected calving date, at calving, and then weekly until the end of the experiment (approximately 80 d postpartum). Blood plasma samples were collected weekly, starting 2 wk before the expected calving date and continuing until the end of the experiment and were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and glucose. Transvaginal oocyte recovery was carried out twice weekly on each cow for a period of approximately 12 wk starting 14 d after calving until approximately 80 d postpartum. A linear decrease in BW was observed from calving (d 0) to d 28, after which it remained stable. Body condition score decreased from 14 d precalving, reaching a nadir at approximately d 35 to 42, after which it increased to the end of the period. Nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly elevated from the week before calving until d 42 postcalving, whereas BHBA concentration was significantly elevated from calving to d 49 postcalving. Insulin-like growth factor-I concentration dramatically decreased from d -14 to a nadir on d 7. A significant increase in glucose concentration occurred from d -7 to d 0, followed by a precipitous decrease to d 7. Based on the metabolic profiles (particularly NEFA and BHBA concentrations), data from d 0 to 42 postpartum (period 1) were compared with corresponding data from d 42 to 80 (period 2). Apart from body condition score, all of the physiological parameters measured (milk yield, BW, and blood metabolites

  14. Comparison of longevity and production traits of Holstein and Simmental cows of different origin in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ocepek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to establish whether there are differences in the longevity and production characteristics within the studied breeds of cows of different origin. Holstein cows of Slovenian (461 and foreign (356 origin and Simmental cows of Slovenian (261 and foreign (43 origin were studied. Only culled animals that previously had between 1 and 9 lactations were included. The analyzed properties consisted of characteristics related to the longevity and lifetime productivity. Compared with Slovenian cows, imported Holstein cows had a significantly longer calving interval (1210±31 days, 1337±39 days, P=0.008, a longer dry period (172±6 days, 192±7 days, P=0.022, and a significantly lower daily milk yield (23.0±0.2 kg, 22.0±0.3 kg, P=0.002. Significant differences between Simmental cows of Slovenian and foreign origin were observed in functional productivity (1317±52 days, 1808±186 days, P=0.006, longevity (2175±53 days, 2701±145 days, P=0.004, and duration of lifetime lactation (990±38 days, 1265±137 days, P=0.037.

  15. Effect of timing of artificial insemination after synchronization of ovulation on reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayril, Tahir; Yilmaz, Orhan

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of timing of artificial insemination on pregnancy rates, calving rates, abortion rates, twinning rates, and calf gender ratio after synchronization of ovulation with Ovsynch protocol in Holstein dairy cows. The ovulation of 219 lactating Holstein dairy cows was synchronized using the Ovsynch protocol. Therefore, cows received an injection of GnRH followed by an injection of prostaglandin F(2α) 7 days later and a second treatment with GnRH 2 days later. Cows were artificially inseminated at 0, 12, or 24 h after the second injection of GnRH. Reproductive performance did not differ between cows inseminated at 0 h (n = 82), 12 h (n = 66), or 24 h (n = 71) after the last injection of GnRH (pregnancy rate: 0 h 48 %, 12 h 47 %, 24 h 52 %; abortion rate: 0 h 5 %, 12 h 0 %, 24 h 11 %; calving rate: 0 h 43 %, 12 h 47 %, 24 h 41 %; twinning rate: 0 h 2 %, 12 h 0 %, 24 h 0 %; calf gender ratio (F/M): 0 h 61:39 %, 12 h 48:52 %, 24 h 39:61 %; P > 0.05). Pregnancy rates for cows inseminated in postpartum times of 50-75, 76-100, and >100 days within the first and ≥ 3 parities were statistically similar (P > 0.05), but pregnancy rates for cows inseminated at different postpartum times of 50-75, 76-100, and >100 days within the second parity were different (P inseminated at different postpartum times (P artificial insemination at different times after synchronization were similar. These results also indicate that the timing of artificial insemination after synchronization did not influence calf gender ratio. Furthermore, pregnancy rates of Holstein dairy cows inseminated after synchronization were significantly influenced by postpartum time and parity number.

  16. Behaviour of calves in the first weeks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech NEJA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural observations were conducted on 20 calves (10 bull calves and 10 heifer calves. The first series of observations was made in the first 4 days of life, and the second after a month (within 30 to 33 days of calving. Time from birth to first unassisted standing (standing on all extended legs ranged from 16 minutes (heifers to 158 minutes (bulls for normal calving. Calves born from normal parturitions stood up after an average of 81 minutes and those born from difficult parturitions after 302 minutes. Calves that required assistance at calving showed shorter standing and longer lying time. In the first 4 days of life and after a month, both male and female calves were more often in left lateral recumbency when resting. Heifer calves more often visited the feeder while bull calves more often consumed concentrates, water and hay.

  17. Energy metabolism of young, unadapted calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Calves reared for veal or other meat production are usually purchased before 2 weeks of age. The first weeks at the rearing unit represent a critical phase regarding their health. During this period calves are fed at a very low level. In this thesis, the energy metabolism of young, newly purchased c

  18. Pain and sickness behavior associated with corneal lesions in dairy calves [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Woods

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK is a common corneal disease of calves that adversely affects animal welfare by causing pain and weight loss. Identifying behavioral indicators of pain and sickness in calves with IBK is necessary for designing studies that aim to identify effective means of pain mitigation. Consistent with principles of the 3Rs for animal use in research, data from a randomized blinded challenge study was used to identify and describe variation of behaviors that could serve as reliable indicators of pain and sickness in calves with corneal injuries. Behavioral observations were collected from 29 Holstein calves 8 to 12 weeks of age randomly allocated to one of three treatments: (1 corneal scarification only, (2 corneal scarification with inoculation with Moraxella bovoculi and (3 corneal scarification with inoculation with Moraxella bovis. Behavior was continuously observed between time 1230 - 1730 h on day -1 (baseline time period and day 0 (scarification time period. Corneal scarification and inoculation occurred between 0800 - 1000 h on day 0. Frequency of head-directed behaviors (head shaking, head rubbing, head scratching and durations of head rubbing, feeding, standing with head lifted, lying with head lifted and sleeping were compared between study days and groups. Following scarification, the frequency of head-directed behavior significantly increased (p = 0.0001, as did duration of head rubbing (p=0.02. There was no significant effect of trial, trial day, treatment or treatment-day interaction on other behaviors studied. Our study demonstrated that head-directed behavior, such as head shaking, rubbing and scratching, was associated with scarification of eyes using an IBK challenge model, but sickness behavior was not observed.

  19. Effect of maternal dry period length on colostrum immunoglobulin content and on natural and specific antibody titers in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayasari, N; de Vries Reilingh, G; Nieuwland, M G B; Remmelink, G J; Parmentier, H K; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of dry period length in dairy cows on immunoglobulin content and natural antibodies (NAb) titers in colostrum, growth, and plasma natural and specific antibody titers in plasma of calves. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were randomly assigned to 3 dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d). Colostrum production, concentration of colostrum IgG and IgM, and titers of NAb (isotypes IgG and IgM) binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and human serum albumin (HuSA) in colostrum were measured. Female calves were immunized with both KLH and HuSA at wk 6 and 10 of life. Titers of NAb and specific antibody (SpAb) for isotypes IgG, IgM, and total immunoglobulin (IgT) binding KLH or HuSA were determined in plasma of female calves. Primary and secondary antibody responses to KLH or HuSA from wk 6 and 10 were expressed as the increase in antibody titers to wk 10 and 11 of life after primary and secondary challenges, respectively. Pregnancy length for cows with a 0-d dry period was 3d shorter compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Birth weight of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period was lower compared with calves from cows with a 30-d dry period. Growth of calves until 12 wk of life was not affected by dry period length. Colostrum production and IgG and IgM concentration in colostrum were lower for cows with a 0-d dry period than a 60-d dry period. Natural IgG and IgM titers binding KLH or HuSA were lower in colostrum from cows with a 0-d dry period compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Natural antibody titers (IgG, IgM, and IgT) binding KLH or HuSA in plasma were lower during the first 2 wk of life for calves from cows with a 0-d dry period compared with calves from cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. After primary and secondary immunization of calves with KLH and HuSA, SpAb titers of calves were not affected by dry period length. After secondary immunization, the response of IgG and IgT binding KLH was higher in plasma of

  20. Competition during the milk-feeding stage influences the development of feeding behavior of pair-housed dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how the feeding behavior of pair-housed calves develops in response to reduced teat and feed place availability. Twenty Holstein bull calves were pair housed and provided with milk replacer (MR) and grain concentrate ad libitum via either (1) 1 teat and feed bucket/pen, such that calves could not feed simultaneously [competitive feeding (CF)] or (2) 2 teats and feed buckets/pen [noncompetitive feeding (NCF)]. The calves were weaned during wk 7 of life by incrementally diluting the MR. Postweaning, all pens were managed identically and offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum via 2 feed buckets/pen (NCF) in period 1 (wk 8 and 9) and period 3 (wk 12 and 13) and exposed to a competitive challenge with CF in period 2 (wk 10 and 11). Feeding times and competitive interactions were recorded from video for 3 d/wk in wk 2, 4, and 6 and 2 d/wk in wk 8 to 13. Meal criteria were used to calculate daily meal frequency, meal time, and synchronized meal time (the percentage of meal time when calves within the pen were engaged in simultaneous meals). Milk replacer intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with calves in CF pens having lower MR intake (wk 2: 8.3 vs. 10.0 L/calf per day for CF vs. NCF), but compensating by increasing intake to a greater extent over time (wk 4-5: 13.3 vs. 11.7 L/d for CF vs. NCF). Corresponding to MR intake, meal frequencies and feeding times evolved differently over this period, increasing in CF pens and decreasing in NCF pens (wk 2: 5.8 vs. 11.1 and wk 4-6: 6.2 vs. 5.1 meals/d for CF vs. NCF). Calves in CF pens also spent less time engaged in synchronized meals (28 vs. 51% of meal time; standard error=7.1) and displaced each other 5 times more frequently during synchronized eating. Postweaning, calves in previously CF pens maintained 5 times greater displacement frequencies and had fewer overlapping meals than calves in previously NCF pens (34.5 vs. 40.7% of meals, respectively). Postweaning, when calves

  1. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, James L.; Grove-White, Dai H.

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences. PMID:28068399

  2. Effect of sugarcane silage on productive parameters of replacement Holstein-Friesian heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reyes G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Measure the productive parameters of Holstein-Friesian females from weaning to 470 days old, comparing feeding through sugarcane silage (SCS and corn silage (CS in a concentrated fodder ratio of 70:30. Materials and methods. Twenty-eight post-weaning calves were used, with an average age of 80±16 days old and an initial weight of 79.5±12.9 kg. The T-Student test was used for the comparison of means, where calves were divided into two groups of 14, one for each treatment. The body weight BW (kg, wither height WH (cm, body condition BC (1 to 5 scale, daily weight gain DWG (kg and feed conversion FC (kg was measured every 30 days. Results. Differences were found between treatments, where heifers fed with SCS showed better BC (3.12, FC (7.4 as compared to the CS treatment. No significant differences were found in terms of DWG (0.666 and 0.743 kg/d. Conclusions. Feeding based on sugarcane silage allows for an improved body condition and feed conversion of animals having with this an acceptable and cost-effective production performance in the raising of dairy replacements.

  3. Determining the optimum replacement policy for Holstein dairy herds in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, A S; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H; Moradi, M; Sanders, A H; De Vries, A

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum replacement policy for Holstein dairy herds in Iran using a dynamic programming model. Cows were described in terms of state variables that included milk production class, parity, pregnancy status, and month in milk with a 1-mo stage length. The objective function maximized the net present value of cows over a 15-yr planning horizon. Markov simulation was used to estimate expected herd dynamics under the optimal decision plan determined by dynamic programming. Stochastic elements included probabilities of pregnancy and abortion, production level, and involuntary culling. The optimum annual culling rate was estimated to be 31.4%, and cows had an expected herd life (time from first calving until culling) of 3.18 yr. High replacement cost and low carcass value resulted in only 2.87% voluntary culling (i.e., optimal model-based replacement). Assuming a heat detection rate of 0.4, cows averaged 2.8 services per lactation under the optimal policy. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the effect of milk price, herd-average production, feed cost, heifer price, and carcass value on optimum replacement decisions. Herd-average production, replacement cost, and risk of involuntary culling were important factors affecting the optimal culling policy. Changes in the price of feed, calves, and milk and the probability of pregnancy had no considerable effect on the optimal policy considering the market situation in Iran during 2008.

  4. Spectral Functions for the Holstein Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    We perform an unitary transformation for the symmetric phonon mode of the Holstein molecular crystal hamiltonian. We show how to compute the electronic spectral functions by exact numerical diagonalisation of an effective hamiltonian fully taking account of the symmetric phonon mode, usually discarded.

  5. Feeding an enhanced diet to Holstein heifers during the preweaning period alters steroid receptor expression and increases cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; Akers, R M

    2017-07-26

    Preweaning diet and estradiol treatment alters mammary development. Our objectives were to study the effects of diet and estradiol on proliferation of mammary epithelial cells and expression of estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and progesterone receptors (PGR) in these cells. Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves were raised on (1) a control milk replacer fed at 0.44 kg of powder/head per day, dry matter (DM) basis (restricted, R; 20.9% crude protein, 19.8% fat, DM basis), or (2) an enhanced milk replacer fed at 1.08 kg of powder/head per day, DM basis (Enhanced, EH; 28.9% crude protein, 26.2% fat, DM basis). Milk replacer was fed for 8 wk. At weaning, a subset (n = 6/diet) of calves were euthanized and had tissue harvested. Remaining calves received estradiol implants (E2) or placebo and were euthanized at wk 10 to harvest tissue. Treatments were (1) R, (2) R + E2 (R-E2), (3) EH, and (4) EH + E2 (EH-E2). One day before euthanasia calves were given bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 5 mg/kg of body weight). At euthanization, mammary parenchyma was removed and fixed. Tissue sections from zone 1 (cisternal), 2 (medial), and 3 (distal) within the mammary gland were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and antibodies to measure expression of ESR1, PGR, and incorporation of BrdU. At wk 8, R-fed calves had more PGR-expressing cells in distal parenchyma; however, PGR expression intensity was greater in EH-fed calves. The proportion of cells expressing ESR1 was not affected by diet, but expression intensity (receptors per positive cell) was greater in EH-fed calves across all zones (62-81%). Overall, the percent BrdU-positive epithelial cells was 2 and 0.5 fold greater for EH-fed calves in zone 2 and 3. The proportion of labeled cells was greater in terminal ductal units than in subtending ducts, and treatment effects were more evident in terminal ductal units. At wk 10, calves treated with estradiol had 3.9-fold greater PGR expression intensity. The intensity and percent of cells

  6. Effect of feed intake on heat production and protein and fat deposition in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labussiere, E; Maxin, G; Dubois, S; van Milgen, J; Bertrand, G; Noblet, J

    2009-04-01

    Energy requirements for veal calves have not been updated recently despite the increased age at slaughter and the predominance of the Prim'Holstein breed in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of four feeding levels (FLs) on protein and fat deposition and heat production in milk-fed calves at three stages of fattening and to determine energy requirements of calves. At each stage, 16 Prim'Holstein male calves (mean body weight (BW): 73.4, 151.6 and 237.4 kg) were fed a milk replacer at 79%, 87%, 95% or 103% of a reference FL. Measurements for one stage were conducted over 4 successive weeks in two open-circuit respiration chambers and consisted of a 6-day nitrogen and energy balance followed by a fasting day for estimating fasting heat production (FHP) of the calves. Heat production (HP) measurements were analyzed using a modeling approach to partition it between HP due to physical activity (AHP), feed intake (thermic effect of feeding (TEF)) and FHP. There was no effect of FL and stage on apparent digestibility coefficients, except for a tendency for increased digestibility coefficient of fat as animals got older. The metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy (DE) ratio did not depend on FL but decreased (P AHP and TEF components of HP were not affected by stage or FL and averaged 8.4% and 7.8% of ME intake, respectively. The FHP, expressed per kg BW0.85, increased with increasing FL, suggesting that also ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) may depend on FL. For an average intake of 625 kJ ME/kg BW0.85 per day (95% of the reference FL), FHP was 298 kJ/kg BW0.85 per day. Energy retention as protein and fat increased with increasing FL resulted in higher BW gain. But the rate of increase depended on stage of growth. The slope relating protein deposition to FL was lower in the finishing phase than in the growing phase, while the slope for lipid deposition was greater. Protein and fat contents of BW gain were not affected by FL but

  7. Reaction norm of fertility traits adjusted for protein and fat production level across lactations in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Buxadera, A; Carabaño, M J; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Cue, R I; Ugarte, E; Alenda, R

    2013-07-01

    A total of 304,001 artificial insemination outcomes in up to 7 lactations from 142,389 Holstein cows, daughters of 5,349 sires and 101,433 dams, calving between January 1995 and December 2007 in 1,347 herds were studied by a reaction norm model. The (co)variance components for days to first service (DFS), days open, nonreturn rate in the first service (NRFS), and number of services per conception were estimated by 6 models: 3 Legendre polynomial degrees for the genetic effects and adjustment or not for the level of fat plus protein (FP) production recorded at day closest to DFS. For all traits and type of FP adjustment, a second degree polynomial showed the best fit. The use of the adjusted FP model did not increase the level of genetic (co)variance components except for DFS. The heritability for each of the traits was low in general (0.03-0.10) and increased from the first to fourth calving; nevertheless, very important variability was found for the estimated breeding value (EBV) of the sires. The genetic correlations (rg) were close to unity between adjacent calvings, but decreased for most distant parities, ranging from rg=0.36 (for DFS) to rg=0.63 (for NRFS), confirming the existence of heterogeneous genetic (co)variance components and EBV across lactations. The results of the eigen decomposition of rg shows that the first eigenvalue explained between 82 to 92% and the second between 8 to 14% of the genetic variance for all traits; therefore, a deformation of the overall mean trajectory for reproductive performance across the trajectory of the different calving could be expected if selection favored these eigenfunctions. The results of EBV for the 50 best sires showed a substantial reranking and variation in the shape of response across lactations. The more important aspect to highlight, however, is the difference between the EBV of the same sires in different calvings, a characteristic known as plasticity, which is particularly important for DFS and NRFS. This

  8. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC cows (n = 94,440; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC contemporaries (n = 141,365. In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall. Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however

  9. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  10. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  11. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  12. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG Brix % ≤ 8.5% showed optimal sensitivity (100%) and specificity (89.2%) to predict FPT. At the same IgG cut-point, an STP value of ≤ 52 g/L showed a similar sensitivity (100%) and specificity (80.4%) to predict FPT. Brix refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted.

  13. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam C; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Mogens; Larsen, Torben

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned to ruminal dosing of 500 g/d tap water (CON, n = 4) or 500 g/d PG (PPG, n = 5). The PG was given with the morning feeding week 1-4 postpartum (treatment period) and cows were further followed during week 5-8 postpartum (follow-up period). All cows were fed the same postpartum diet. Milk samples were obtained at each milking (3 times/d) in the treatment period, and at morning milking during the follow-up period. Weekly blood samples were obtained from -4 to +8 weeks relative to calving and daily blood samples from -7 until +7 d relative to calving. The main effect of PG allocation was an increased glucogenic status, e.g. visualised by a prompt marked increase in blood fructosamine. During the treatment period, milk concentration of free glucose tended to be greater, whereas milk concentrations of isocitrate and BHBA were lower for PPG compared with CON. It is proposed that the ratio between free glucose and isocitrate in milk may be a potential biomarker for glucogenic status in the vulnerable early postpartum period. We will pursue this issue in the future.

  14. Replacement of Forage Fiber Sources with Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles and Corn Germ Meal in Holstein Calf Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; HOU Yu-jie; ZHAO Guo-qi; YU Ai-bing; SU Yan-jing; HUO Yong-jiu; ZHU Jian-ming

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of replacement of forage ifber sources from alfalfa and Leymus chinensis with nonforage ifber sources (NFFS) from dried distillers grains with solubles and corn germ meal on calves growth, rumen development and blood parameters. 48 female and 12 male calves ((110.55±15.36) kg of body weight and 12 wk of age) were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments (15 calves/treatment) in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were:0%NFFS (control), 9%NFFS (group 1), 18%NFFS (group 2), 27%NFFS (group 3), and contained equivalent neutral detergent ifber and total digestible nutrients, respectively. The dry matter intake was similar among diets, averaging 3.33 kg d-1, and no differences were detected for body weight, withers height, body length and heart girth. In addition, the development of rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum also were similar among diets. Dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent ifber digestibilities increased with the increasing levels of NFFS in the experimental diets, but had no signiifcant effect. Blood urea nitrogen, total protein and glubulin were not affected by the dietary treatment, but group 3 resulted in the highest (P<0.05) concentrations of glucose and the lowest (P<0.05) concentrations of triglycerides and albumin. In conclusion, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn germ meal (CGM) were available and alternative ifber sources for Holstein calf diets.

  15. Genetic parameters for tunisian holsteins using a test-day random regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, H; Rekik, B; Soyeurt, H; Ben Gara, A; Gengler, N

    2008-05-01

    Genetic parameters of milk, fat, and protein yields were estimated in the first 3 lactations for registered Tunisian Holsteins. Data included 140,187; 97,404; and 62,221 test-day production records collected on 22,538; 15,257; and 9,722 first-, second-, and third-parity cows, respectively. Records were of cows calving from 1992 to 2004 in 96 herds. (Co)variance components were estimated by Bayesian methods and a 3-trait-3-lactation random regression model. Gibbs sampling was used to obtain posterior distributions. The model included herd x test date, age x season of calving x stage of lactation [classes of 25 days in milk (DIM)], production sector x stage of lactation (classes of 5 DIM) as fixed effects, and random regression coefficients for additive genetic, permanent environmental, and herd-year of calving effects, which were defined as modified constant, linear, and quadratic Legendre coefficients. Heritability estimates for 305-d milk, fat and protein yields were moderate (0.12 to 0.18) and in the same range of parameters estimated in management systems with low to medium production levels. Heritabilities of test-day milk and protein yields for selected DIM were higher in the middle than at the beginning or the end of lactation. Inversely, heritabilities of fat yield were high at the peripheries of lactation. Genetic correlations among 305-d yield traits ranged from 0.50 to 0.86. The largest genetic correlation was observed between the first and second lactation, potentially due to the limited expression of genetic potential of superior cows in later lactations. Results suggested a lack of adaptation under the local management and climatic conditions. Results should be useful to implement a BLUP evaluation for the Tunisian cow population; however, results also indicated that further research focused on data quality might be needed.

  16. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  17. Impact of maturity rate of daughters on genetic ranking of Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Powell, R L; Vanraden, P M

    2005-09-01

    If genetic evaluations are calculated with a single-trait repeatability model, evaluation changes may be attributed in part to bulls that have daughters that deviate considerably from the typical response to aging. Differences in maturity rate of bull daughters were examined to determine whether they influence change in bull evaluations. Standardized milk records for Holsteins that first calved between 1960 and 1998 were used to calculate 12 tailored predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for each bull. Predicted transmitting abilities were tailored from combinations of 4 annual cut-off dates and 3 parities. Date screening selected cows first calving before January of 1996, 1997, 1998, or 1999. Parity screening selected milk records from the first 1, 2, or 3 parities. Therefore, 4 evaluations (PTA1) included only first-parity records available for daughters and contemporaries prior to the respective years designated. Four more evaluations (PTA(1,2)) included the records from the first 2 parities for cows first calving prior to those same year cutoffs; likewise, the last 4 evaluations (PTA(1,2,3)) included records from the first 3 parities. Stability of bull evaluations (standard deviations of differences as well as correlations between bull evaluations) across time was compared. Bulls born after 1984 with > or =500 daughters were of interest because of the high precision of evaluations and recent activity. Tailored PTA of those bulls had more uniformity across years in mean records per daughter than did official USDA PTA. Standard deviation of differences in PTA1, PTA(1,2), and PTA(1,2,3) for milk between evaluation years 1996 and 1997 were 28, 28, and 27 kg compared with 63 kg for official evaluations; similarly, between 1996 and 1999, SD were 36, 32, and 32 kg compared with 80 kg. Results suggested that a modification to the current evaluation model to account for maturity rate should reduce fluctuations in individual bull PTA across time and may improve accuracy

  18. Effects of local anesthesia and flunixin meglumine on the acute cortisol response, behavior, and performance of young dairy calves undergoing surgical castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, H B; Morin, D; Jarrell, V; Shipley, C; Brown, L; Green, A; Wallace, R; Constable, P D

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) and a local anesthetic block (LA) on postcastration performance, plasma cortisol concentration, and behavior in dairy calves. Thirty 2- to 3-mo-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were allocated to 5 treatments: castration with LA (2% lidocaine injected into the testes and subcutaneously), castration with FM (1.1mg/kg, i.v.), castration with LA+FM, castration without drugs (CC), and sham castration (SC). Castration was performed using a Newberry knife and Henderson castrating tool. Feed intake and body weight gain were recorded for 10d postcastration. Plasma cortisol concentration and behavior frequency and duration were monitored for 8h postcastration. Variables with repeated measures were analyzed using PROC MIXED (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); one-way ANOVA was used for nonrepeated measures. No differences in feed intake or body weight gain were detected among groups. Calves in the CC, LA, and FM groups had transient (<60, <60, and <45 min, respectively) increases in plasma cortisol concentration after castration, with a second increase at 120 min in the LA group, whereas cortisol concentration remained at baseline in the LA+FM and SC groups. Mean cortisol concentrations were lower for calves in the LA+FM and SC groups than in the CC group. The area under the plasma cortisol concentration curve during the first 3h postcastration was greater in CC- and LA-treated calves than in SC controls. Castration without drugs was associated with higher frequencies of crouching and statue standing and less oral activity compared with SC controls. Administering LA alone before castration was associated with higher frequencies of head turning, statue standing, and postural changes, and less feeding behavior compared with SC controls. More leg lifting to groom was seen in LA+FM-treated calves than in SC controls. Calves administered FM alone before castration exhibited less crouching than CC calves, fewer postural shifts

  19. Associations among body condition score, body weight, somatic cell count, and clinical mastitis in seasonally calving dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Lee, J M; Macdonald, K A; Stafford, K; Matthews, L; Roche, J R

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if an association existed among body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), and udder health, as indicated by somatic cell score (SCS) and cases of clinical mastitis (CM). The data consisted of 2,635 lactations from Holstein-Friesian (n = 523) and Jersey (n = 374) cows in a seasonal calving pasture-based research herd between the years 1986 and 2000, inclusive. Increased BCS at calving was associated with reduced SCS in first- and second-parity cows, and greater SCS in cows of third parity or greater. This relationship persisted for most BCS traits throughout lactation. Body weight was positively associated with SCS, although the effect was greater in Jersey cows than in Holstein-Friesians. Increased BCS and BW loss in early lactation were associated with lower SCS and a reduced probability of a high test-day SCC. Body condition score was not significantly related to CM with the exception of a curvilinear relationship between the daily rate of BCS change to nadir and CM in early lactation. Several BW variables were positively associated with a greater likelihood of CM. Nevertheless, most associations with udder health lacked biological significance within the ranges of BCS and BW generally observed on-farm. Results are important in assuring the public that modern dairy systems, where cows are subjected to substantial amounts of BCS mobilization in early lactation, do not unduly compromise cow udder health.

  20. Effect of a lucerne feeding strategy in the first week postpartum on feed intake and ketone body profiles in blood plasma, urine, and milk in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of a lucerne feeding strategy to postpartum transition dairy cows on feed intake and ketone body profiles in plasma, urine, and milk. At calving, 13 Holstein cows were assigned to one of two treatments: a control lactation diet or a lucerne haylage....... The concentrations of ketone bodies in plasma, urine, and milk tended to be greater at 4 days in milk for lucerne as compared with control. Plasma concentrations of ketone bodies correlated stronger to urinary concentrations than to milk concentrations...

  1. Diarrhea in Pre-Weaned Calves: Relative Risk Rates for Morbidity and Mortality in 13 Commercial Farms of Hot Arid Zone

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    M. A. Razzaque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In many hot arid countries, pregnant Holstein Friesian heifers are imported for herd replacement. The calves obtained from exotic cows are exposed to adverse climate in feedlot system resulting in very high morbidity and mortality rates. Diarrhea, dehydration and deaths are causing a major loss to the producers. This study examines the Risk Rates (RR for morbidity and mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Thirteen commercial dairy farms of small, medium and large sizes were surveyed using 1,280 newborn calves. A survey was conducted for calves from their birth to weaning at 90 day. Parameters of the study were birth weights, colostrum feeding, growth rate, incidences of diseases, clinical symptoms, post-mortem findings and results of laboratory investigations of samples obtained from sick and dead calves. Calf housing and feeding management of 13 farms were investigated. Results: RR for morbidity and mortality ranged from 0.3-1.00 and being highest during the first week. Most common disease was diarrhea representing 90.6% of the total calves affected. Common pathogens causing diarrhea were E. coli, Salmonella sp. Klebsiella, Pasturella and rotavirus. Relationship between calf management and morbidity RR for diarrhea was significant (r2 = 627, p = 0.01 and the growth rate was positively correlated (r2 = 0.761, p = 0.1. Diarrhea caused a significant negative impact on gross margins of the calf enterprises. Conclusion: Colostrum feeding and housing management were the key factors for causing a high RR for morbidity and mortality. Gross margin loss was significantly influenced by morbidity and mortality RR of calves.

  2. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, M J; Steele, M A; DeVries, T J

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding patterns persist after calves were switched to a conventional silage-based diet. Ten Holstein bull calves (91 ± 2.4d of age, weighing 136 ± 12.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a TMR containing [dry matter (DM) basis] either (1) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 10 wk (wk 1 to 10) or (2) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 1 to 5), then 70% concentrate and 30% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 6 to 10). After 10 wk, all animals were transitioned to a TMR containing (DM basis) 42.3% corn silage and 57.7% haylage for 2 wk (wk 11 to 12). During wk 1 to 5, all calves had similar DMI (5.5 kg/d), average daily gain (1.7 kg/d), feed efficiency (3.5 kg of DM/kg of gain), and eating time (151.9 min/d). During wk 6 to 10, calves transitioned to the 70% diet ate less DM (5.5 vs. 7.4 kg/d), grew more slowly (1.3 vs. 1.6 kg/d), sorted more against long forage particles (62.8 vs. 103.8%), and had greater feeding times (194.9 vs. 102.6 min/d). The difference in feeding time occurred only during the first 8 h after feed delivery. Despite similar DMI (5.2 kg/d) and average daily gain (1.1 kg/d) in wk 11 to 12, differences in behavior were observed resulting from previous diets. In wk 11 to 12, calves previously fed the 70% diet continued to have a longer meal immediately after feed delivery. Overall, the results indicate that diluting a dry TMR containing a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw with more straw resulted in calves spending more time feeding and having longer meals immediately after feed delivery; this feeding pattern carried over after calves were transitioned to a silage-based ration.

  3. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2015-01-01

    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare....... on learning variables, and these were proposed to reflect feed motivation and working speed. A single correlation was found between temperament and learning PC scores: high activity was associated with low feed motivation. This preliminary exploratory study suggests that temperament, as assessed during...

  4. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; Pantophlet, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; Hendriks, W H; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-02-01

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy and protein metabolism in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian calves (114±2.4 kg) were fed milk replacer containing 46% lactose (CON) or 31% lactose and 15% of glucose (GLUC), fructose (FRUC), or glycerol (GLYC). Solid feed was provided at 10 g of dry matter (DM)/kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) per day. After an adaptation of 48 d, individual calves were harnessed, placed in metabolic cages, and housed in pairs in respiration chambers. Apparent total-tract disappearance of DM, energy, and N and complete energy and N balances were measured. The GLUC, FRUC, and GLYC calves received a single dose of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, or [U-(13)C]glycerol, respectively, with their milk replacer at 0630 h and exhaled (13)CO2 and (13)C excretion with feces was measured. Apparent total-tract disappearance was decreased by 2.2% for DM, 3.2% for energy, and 4.2% for N in FRUC compared with CON calves. Energy and N retention did not differ between treatments, and averaged 299±16 kJ/kg of BW(0.75) per day and 0.79±0.04 g/kg of BW(0.75) per day, respectively, although FRUC calves retained numerically less N (13%) than other calves. Recovery of (13)C isotopes as (13)CO2 did not differ between treatments and averaged 72±1.6%. The time at which the maximum rate of (13)CO2 production was reached was more than 3 h delayed for FRUC calves, which may be explained by a conversion of fructose into other substrates before being oxidized. Recovery of (13)C in feces was greater for FRUC calves (7.7±0.59%) than for GLUC (1.0±0.27%) and GLYC calves (0.5±0.04%), indicating incomplete absorption of fructose from the small intestine resulting in fructose excretion or

  5. Concentration of cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-I and immunoglobulin G class in blood of neonatal calves of different body mass at birth

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    Kirovski Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine whether concentrations of cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and immunoglobulin G class (IgG, in fact blood parameters which are believed to be of extreme importance in the postnatal survival of calves, are dependant on the body mass of calves at birth. Investigations were performed on 12 newborn calves of the Holstein-Friesian breed, placed into two groups on the grounds of their body mass at birth. The first group (n=6 comprised calves whose body mass was more than 35 kg at birth (41.67±3.08 kg, while the second group (n=6 comprised calves whose body mass at birth was less than 35 kg (32.00±3.58 kg. Blood samples were taken immediately preceding the consuming of colostrum, as well as at 32 hours of neonatal life. Cortisol and IGF-I concentrations were determined in blood serum samples taken immediately before colostrum consumption, while IgG concentration was determined in the samples taken 32 hours after the birth of the calves. The cortisol concentration in calves born with a greater body mass (61.51±32.78 nmol/l was lower (p=0.052 than in calves born with a smaller body mass (94.89±17.74 nmol/l. A significant negative correlation (r= -0.592; p<0.05 was established between the body mass of calves at birth and the cortisol concentration. The IGF-I concentration determined immediately following birth in calves with a greater boy mass at birth (10.17±1.71 nmol/l was statistically significantly higher (p<0.05 in comparison with calves born with a smaller body mass (7.04±1.15 nmol/l. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.519; p<0.10 between the body mass of calves at birth and the IGF-I concentration. Thirty-two hours following birth, the IgG concentration in blood serum of calves born with a bigger body mass (18.72±1.99 g/l was significantly higher (p<0.05 than in calves born with a smaller body mass (11.68±4.79 g/l. A significant positive correlation was established

  6. Haematological Studies of Gaolao Calves

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    P. M. Kapale

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The hematological study in fifteen healthy Gaolao calves ranging from birth to 12 months of age indicate the mean ± S.E. value of TEC (11.00± 0.20 million/cu.mm, Hb (14.27±0.43 gm%, PCV (35.00±0.79%, MCV (31.70±0.92 cu.μ, MCH (13.04±0.84 μ. μgm, MCHC (41.16±1.76%, TLC (07.49±0.39 thousand/cu.mm, Lymphocytes (71.87 ±1.45%, Neutrophil (23.27±1.27%, Monocyte (1.3 ±0.25%, Basophil (0.27±0.12% and Esonophil (3.4 ±0.49%. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 17-17

  7. Uji Biologis Konsumsi Pakan, Populasi Bakteri Rumen dan pH Pellet Complete Calf Starter pada Pedet Friesian Holstein Pra Sapih

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    Nadia Maharani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Biological test feed intake, population rumen bacteria and ph pellet complete calf starter friesian holstein on pre weaning calf  ABSTRACT. The study aims to assess the quality of the formula Complete Calf Starter (CCS with 5% molasses instead of milk to the development of rumen microbial calf Holstein Friesian (HF pre-weaning. The material used is 20 head calf FH pre weaning age of 2 weeks. Feed intake data taken from 20 respondents consisted of 16 females and 4 calf tail male calf. Data rumen bacterial populations and pH were taken from 5 head of cattle slaughtered at the age of 2 weeks (one tail, 4 weeks (2-tailed and 6 weeks (2-tailed. The study was designed as a descriptive non-parametric. Parameters measured were rumen bacterial populations, pH and feed intake. The results showed the average consumption of dry matter (DM and CCS calf milk FH ages 2, 4, 6 weeks respectively at 506, 517, 528 grams. Rumen bacterial populations in calves aged 2, 4, and 6 weeks of 80x106, 45x106 and 19x106 kol/m. ruminal pH in calves aged 2, 4 and 6 weeks was 5.71, 5.36 and 5.55. Biological test showed that the use of complete calf starter (CCS in the form of pellets FH calves at the age of 2 weeks to stimulate the development of the rumen (feed intake, the population of bacteria and pH but not in calves aged 4 and 6 weeks. This is because the number of bacterial populations declined due to impaired absorption is impaired absorption of VFA marked low rumen pH.

  8. Efeito do tempo após a ingestão de leite sobre o equilíbrio ácido-básico de bezerros Effect of the time after milk feeding on the acid-base balance of calves

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    J.A.N. Lisbôa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pH, carbon dioxide and oxygen partial pressures, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide, base excess, standard bicarbonate and oxygen saturation concentrations were measured by blood gas analyses in a study of assessment of the acid-base status in young calves. Venous blood samples were taken from 80 healthy female Holstein calves, from four to 30 days of age. The calves were divided in two groups based on the interval between the morning milk feeding and the blood sample collection (up to 30 minutes or over two hours. Greater alkali reserve and higher carbon dioxide pressure values were observed later than 2h after milk feeding, supporting the influence of the diet on the acid-base balance of calves during the milk feeding phase.

  9. Short communication: Jersey × Holstein crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins for production, mastitis, and body measurements during the first 3 lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; Seykora, A J; Hazel, A R; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G

    2011-01-01

    Jersey (JE)×Holstein (HO) crossbred cows (n=76) were compared with pure HO cows (n=73) for 305-d milk, fat, and protein production, somatic cell score (SCS), clinical mastitis, lifetime production, and body measurements during their first 3 lactations. Cows were in 2 research herds at the University of Minnesota and calved from September 2003 to June 2008. Best prediction was used to determine actual production for 305-d lactations as well as lifetime production (to 1,220 d in the herd after first calving) from test-day observations. During first lactation, JE×HO cows and pure HO cows were not significantly different for fat plus protein production; however, JE×HO cows had significantly lower fat plus protein production during second (-25 kg) and third (-51 kg) lactation than pure HO cows. Nevertheless, JE×HO cows were not significantly different from pure HO cows for lifetime production or lifetime SCS. The JE×HO cows were not significantly different from pure HO cows for SCS and clinical mastitis during first and second lactations; however, JE×HO cows tended to have higher SCS (3.79) than pure HO cows (3.40), but significantly lower (-23.4%) clinical mastitis during third lactation. The JE×HO cows had significantly less hip height, smaller heart girth, less thurl width, and less pin width than pure HO cows during the first 3 lactations. Furthermore, JE×HO cows had significantly less udder clearance from the ground and significantly greater distance between the front teats than pure HO cows during their first 3 lactations. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of milk replacer program on calf performance and digestion of nutrients in dairy calves to 4 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Dennis, T S; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-10-01

    Calves fed >0.7kg of dry matter from milk replacer (MR) typically have greater growth preweaning but lower growth postweaning. This is partially explained by lower digestibility of starter due to less development of the rumen at and after weaning; however, it is unclear when digestibility matures postweaning to levels typical of mature ruminants. Thus, we fed Holstein calves (initially 2 to 3d of age) 3 MR programs (MOD=0.66kg daily for 39d, and then 0.33kg daily for 3d, n=15 calves; HIMOD=0.88kg daily for 5d, then 1.1kg daily for 23d, then 0.66kg daily for 18d, and then 0.33kg daily for 3d, n=16 calves; HI=0.88kg daily for 5d, then 1.1kg daily for 37d, and then 0.56kg daily for 7d, n=15 calves). The MR consisted of 28% crude protein and 20% fat and was reconstituted to 14% solids and fed at 0630 and 1400 h daily. A 39% starch textured starter (19% crude protein) was fed free-choice for the first 56d of a nursery trial with calves in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped by MR program into pens of 3 to 4 calves and offered a starter with the same ingredient composition blended with 5% chopped grass hay for ad libitum consumption. Digestion was estimated at 11 and 16wk. Measurements in the first and second 56d were analyzed separately in a completely randomized design using repeated measurements when applicable. Preplanned contrasts of MOD versus HIMOD and MOD versus HI were used to separate means. Milk replacer dry matter intake was 26.6, 42.4, and 48.7kg in calves fed MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Starter intake was less for calves fed HIMOD and HI versus MOD from 3 to 8wk. Efficiency of metabolizable energy and protein used for body weight gain did not differ among programs. During the second 56d, body weight gain and hip width changes were greater for calves fed MOD than HI. Total 112-d body weight gain and total hip width changes were 101.4, 101.3, and 101.7kg, and 9.0, 9.1, and 8.7cm for MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Digestibility of

  11. Computed tomography of the thorax in calves from birth to 105 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlerth, S; Augsburger, H; Abé, M; Ringer, S; Hatz, L; Braun, U

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide computed tomographic (CT) reference values for structures in the thorax of the calf. Six clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian calves were anaesthetized. Transverse pre- and postcontrast images with a reconstructed 1.5-mm slice thickness were obtained using a multislice-CT scanner at 6 different time points from birth to 105 days of age. Absolute and relative measurements of the trachea, heart, cranial and caudal vena cava, thoracic aorta, right and left principal bronchi, right and left caudal lobar bronchi and the accompanying branches of the right and left pulmonary artery and vein, thoracic lymph nodes and lung density were taken for every time point. All animals were euthanized after the last CT scan, and 4 calves were frozen to generate an atlas comparing gross anatomy with CT. During the study, 4 animals temporarily showed coughing and mucopurulent nasal discharge, and mild to moderate bronchopneumonia and pleuritis were diagnosed using CT. Animals recovered with treatment; however, mild to moderate CT changes remained throughout the study. Even in the 2 clinically normal animals, mild bronchopneumonia was diagnosed on CT.

  12. Effects of inulin and lactulose on the intestinal morphology of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanetz, S; Wimmer, N; Plitzner, C; Limbeck, E; Preißinger, W; Pfaffl, M W

    2010-05-01

    For some time now prebiotics have been proposed to improve health by stimulation of beneficial bacteria in the intestine of humans and animals. The current study is aiming to show effects of feeding of either 2% inulin or 2% lactulose in milk replacer on performance and intestinal morphology of male Holstein-Friesian calves. After 20 weeks of feeding inulin led to significantly higher daily weight gains than lactulose while control animals ranged between the experimental feedings. Ingestion of milk replacer was reduced in lactulose treated animals. Additionally differences of villus height in jejunum (P = 0.07) and ileum (P = 0.03) could be found with an increase for lactulose treated animals and a decrease for inulin treated animals. In ileum the density of proliferative epithelial cells tended to be lower in inulin treated and higher in lactulose treated animals (P = 0.08). Both inulin and lactulose tended to decrease the quantity of goblet cells in the tips of ileal villi (P = 0.07). Both prebiotics can affect performance and intestinal morphology of calves and may as such affect animal health. But effects differ between substances.

  13. Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows

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    Abd El -Fattah Alaa M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in colostrum composition of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows collected at calving, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h and after 14 days of parturition were studied. Total solids, total protein, whey proteins, fat, lactose and ash contents were determined. Macro- and micro-elements, IgG, IgM, IGF-1, lactoferrin and vitamins (A and E were also estimated. Results At calving, the total protein and whey proteins concentration did not differ between buffalo and cow colostrum, while total solids, fat, lactose and ash concentrations were higher in buffalo than in cow colostrum. All components decreased gradually as the transition period advanced except lactose which conversely increased. On the fifth day post-partum, concentration of total protein, whey proteins, fat, ash and total solids decreased by 69.39, 91.53, 36.91, 45.58 and 43.85% for buffalo and by 75.99, 94.12, 53.36, 33.59 and 52.26% for cow colostrum. However, lactose concentration increased by 42.45% for buffalo and 57.39% for cow colostrum. The macro-and micro-elements concentration of both colostrums tended to decline slightly toward normality on the fifth day of parturition. Buffalo colostrum had a higher concentration of vitamin E than cow colostrum during the experimental period. At calving, the concentration of vitamin A in buffalo colostrum was found to be approximately 1.50 times lower than in cow colostrum. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, IGF-1 and lactoferrin decreased by 97.90, 97.50, 96.25 and 96.70% for buffalo and 76.96, 74.92, 76.00 and 77.44% for cow colostrum, respectively after five days of parturition. Conclusions There is a dramatic change in buffalo and cow colostrum composition from the first milking until the fifth day of parturition. There are differences between buffalo and cow colostrum composition during the five days after calving. The composition of both colostrums approaches to those of normal milk within five days after parturition.

  14. The effects of calving to first service interval on reproductive performance in normal cows and cows with postpartal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R

    1983-11-01

    The relationships between the calving to first service interval and several measures of reproductive performance were evaluated in 1738 lactation records from cows in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds. Lactation records were divided into three mutually exclusive health categories based on the cows' postpartal disease histories.Relationships between the calving to first service interval and the first service conception rate, number of services per conception and open interval were similar for all three health categories. The first service conception rate was lower and the average number of services per conception higher in cows first bred before 60 days when compared to cows first bred after 60 days. The relationship between the calving to first service interval and the open interval indicated that for each day that breeding was delayed the open interval was extended by 0.86 days.It appeared that overall conception rates may be lower for cows first bred very early or very late, but differences in the overall conception rate were only significant for cows experiencing a reproductive tract infection. Unless very expensive semen is being used, it is suggested that disease free cows be bred at the first heat occurring after 40 days postpartum, and that cows experiencing postpartal disease be bred at the first heat occurring after 60 days postpartum.

  15. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, contact sensitivity, and phytohemagglutinin skin-test responses of heat- and cold-stressed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K W; Greenfield, R E; Evermann, J F; Parish, S M; Perryman, L E

    1982-05-01

    Three-week-old Holstein bull calves were used to investigate the effect of a 2-week chronic heat (35 C) or cold (-5 C) exposure on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified protein derivative after sensitization with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contact sensitivity (CS) reactions to 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin tests. Heat exposure reduced expression of DTH reactions by 42% and CS reactions by 38% at 24 hours after elicitation of the responses. The PHA-induced skin tests were not affected after 1 week of heat exposure, but this reaction was reduced by 20% after 2 weeks of heat exposure. The immune response of calves exposed to cold air temperatures was more complex. Cold exposure suppressed CS reactions by 39% at the end of both the 1st and 2nd weeks. The PHA response was reduced by 39% after 2 weeks of cold exposure. The DTH response depended on duration of cold exposure. The DTH reaction was increased by 42% after 1 week, but was reduced by 14% after 2 weeks. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stressors alter host resistance by affecting the immune system. Furthermore, these stress-induced changes in immune events depend on the type of immune response, the nature of the environmental stressor, and the length of time that calves are exposed to the stressor.

  16. Development of ruminal and fecal microbiomes are affected by weaning but not weaning strategy in dairy calves

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    Sarah Jade Meale

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of weaning, considered the most stressful and significant transition experienced by dairy calves, influences the ability of a calf to adapt to the dramatic dietary shift and thus, can influence the severity of production losses through the weaning transition. However, the effects of various feeding strategies on the development of rumen or fecal microbiota across weaning are yet to be examined. Here we characterized the pre- and post-weaning ruminal and fecal microbiomes of Holstein dairy calves exposed to two different weaning strategies, gradual (step-down or abrupt. We describe the shifts towards a mature ruminant state, a transition which is hastened by the introduction of the solid feeds initiating ruminal fermentation. Additionally, we discuss the predicted functional roles of these communities, which also appear to represent that of the mature gastrointestinal system prior to weaning, suggesting functional maturity. This assumed state of readiness also appeared to negate the effects of weaning strategy on ruminal and fecal microbiomes and therefore, we conclude that the shift in gastrointestinal microbiota may not account for the declines in gain and intakes observed in calves during an abrupt weaning.

  17. Technical note: validation of methodology for characterization of feeding behavior in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2011-12-01

    Time sampling techniques are useful in collecting feeding behavior data because they minimize the time required for observation. Instantaneous recording is often used in the collection of feeding behavior data for dairy calves; however, the recording intervals used vary widely and it is unclear what minimum interval is necessary to yield accurate data. The objective of this study was to validate data obtained using instantaneous recording of feeding behavior of dairy calves across a range of time intervals with data obtained from continuous recording. Ten Holstein bull calves were observed continuously using time-lapse video for 3 d during the milk-feeding period while they were fed milk ad libitum and for 3 d post-milk-weaning while they consumed solid feed. Feeding behavior data obtained from continuous recording were compared with data obtained from instantaneous recording at intervals ranging from 15 s to 10 min. As expected, the strength of linear association between behavior measures obtained from continuous recording and instantaneous recording decreased with increasing recording interval. The relationship varied between feeding behavior measures; feeding time was represented well (R² >0.76) by instantaneous recording at up to 5-min intervals, but a strong linear association of meal frequency and meal time (R² >0.8) required intervals no greater than 1 min and 30 s, respectively. The relationship between feeding behavior measures obtained from continuous recording and recording at different intervals was similar in both periods; however, sensitivity of time sampling data across recording intervals was greater during the milk-feeding period. Sensitivity was low in both periods (feeding behavior well. Instantaneous recording can provide accurate calf feeding behavior data if the recording interval is sufficiently short.

  18. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

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    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  19. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

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    Waters Sinead M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05 from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.

  20. Crevassing and calving of glacial ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneally, James Patrick

    Calving of ice is a relatively new area of research in the still young field of glaciology. In the short time that calving has been studied, it has been mainly treated as an afterthought, with the predominant mode of thinking being that it will happen so to concern oneself with why is not important. Many studies dealt with observations of calving front positions over time vs. ice velocity in an attempt to quantify the calving rate as the difference between the two, while others have attempted to deduce some empirical relationship between calving rate and variables such as water depth or temperature. This study instead addresses the question of why, where, and when ice will first become crevassed, which is an obviously necessary condition for a later calving event to occur. Previous work examining the causes of calving used ideas put forth from a variety of fields, including civil engineering, materials science, and results from basic physics and mechanics. These theories are re-examined here and presented as part of a larger whole. Important results from the field of fracture mechanics are utilized frequently, and these results can be used as a predictor of ice behavior and intrinsic properties of ice, as well as properties like back stresses induced by local pinning points and resistive shears along glacial ice boundaries. A theory of fracture for a material experiencing creep is also presented with applications to ice shelves and crevasse penetration. Finally, a speculative theory regarding large scale iceberg formation is presented. It is meant mainly as an impetus to further discussion on the topic, with the hope that a model relating crevasse geometries to flow parameters can result in crevasse spacings that could produce the tabular icebergs which are so newsworthy. The primary focus of this thesis is to move away from the "after the fact" studies that are so common in calving research, and instead devote energy to determining what creates the conditions that

  1. Potential consequences of selection on gestation length on Holstein performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluations for gestation length (GL) for Holstein service sires were studied to determine their effectiveness in predicting GL in an independent data set. Consequences of selection on GL were assessed also by examining correlated changes in milk and fitness traits. Holstein bulls, each with...

  2. Administration of estradiol benzoate before insemination could skew secondary sex ratio toward males in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, S R; Rezaei, A; Bolourchi, M; Hovareshti, P; Akbarinejad, V

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate administration before insemination on secondary sex ratio (proportion of male calves at birth) in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n = 1,647) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups by parity over a 1-yr period. Cows in the control group (n = 827; 232 primiparous and 595 multiparous cows) received 2 administrations of PGF2α (500 μg) 14 d apart, started at 30 to 35 d postpartum. Twelve d after the second PGF2α injection, cows received GnRH (100 μg), followed by administration of PGF2α 7 d later. Cows in the treatment group (n = 820; 238 primiparous and 582 multiparous cows) received the same hormonal administrations as the cows in the control group. Additionally, cows in the treatment group received estradiol benzoate (1 mg) 1 d after the third PGF2α injection. Estrus detection by visual observation was started 1 d after the third PGF2α injection and after estradiol administration in the control (for 6 d) and treatment (for 36 h) groups, respectively. Artificial insemination was carried out 12 h after observation of standing estrus. Exposure of cows to heat stress at conception was determined based on temperature-humidity index. Estrus detection rate was lower in primiparous than in multiparous cows (P heat stress diminished heat detection rate and fertility (P calves being male in Holstein dairy cows. Moreover, the results showed that cows exposed to heat stress around conception had diminished fertility and increased secondary sex ratio.

  3. Composite β-κ-casein genotypes and their effect on composition and coagulation of milk from Estonian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallas, M; Kaart, T; Värv, S; Pärna, K; Jõudu, I; Viinalass, H; Pärna, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of composite β-κ-CN genotypes on milk coagulation and composition traits, and on the additive genetic variation of these traits in Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 23,970 milk samples, repeated measurements from the first to third lactation from 2,859 Estonian Holstein cows from 78 herds across the country, were analyzed for milk yield, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, and milk coagulation properties (milk coagulation time and curd firmness). Each cow had at least 3 measurements per lactation. Two single-trait random regression animal models were fitted for the traits studied. The first model considered fixed effects of year-season of sampling and year-season of calving, calving age (nested within lactation), sample age (only for milk coagulation traits) and days in milk, and random herd, additive genetic, and permanent environmental effects. The animal and permanent environmental effects were modeled over the lactation period by using Legendre polynomials. The second model had the additional fixed β-κ-casein effect in the form of a third-order Legendre polynomial. The 2 most frequent β-κ-casein composite genotypes were A2A2AA and A1A2AA, both with prevalence greater than 20%. Percentages of the remaining 31 genotypes were less than 8%, including 20 genotypes with percentages less than 1%. The β-κ-casein genotype-specific lactation curves were significantly different for milk coagulation traits and milk protein percentage. The B variant of κ-casein showed a favorable effect on both milk coagulation traits, whereas the IB haplotype had an increasing effect on curd firmness and protein percentage. Inclusion of the β-κ-casein genotype effects in the model resulted in decreases in the mean additive genetic variations for milk coagulation time and curd firmness of 12.9 and 51.1%, respectively.

  4. evaluation of early calves' weaning diet as milk replacer for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    This results in depressed calves' growth rates, high calf mortality rates, late ... additive can be an effective milk- replacer in smallholder dairy production systems to wean dairy calves at 28-35 ... consumption, but also increases cash income for.

  5. Space allowance influences individually housed Holstein bull calf innate immune measures and standing behaviors after castration at 3 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Ballou, M A; Fowler, A L; Luo, Y; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2017-03-01

    Dairy calves in the Southwest regions of the United States are typically raised individually in wooden hutches with 1.23 m(2) of space. The objective of the study was to determine if increased space allowance in wooden hutches influences measures of innate immunity and behaviors of Holstein bull calves pre- and postcastration. Calves were randomly assigned at 4 d of age to conventional (CONV; 1.23 m(2) of space; n = 18), moderate (MOD; 1.85 m(2) space; n = 17), or maximized space allowance (MAX; 3.71 m(2) space; n = 19) in hutches. Calves were surgically castrated at 24 d of age. Peripheral whole blood samples were collected at -1, +1, +5, and +12 d of castration. Accelerometer loggers (n = 16 calves per treatment) were used from -3 to +5 d of castration to assess standing behaviors. All calves decreased total standing duration the day of castration versus precastration. Overall, MAX spent the most time in the stand position postcastration versus CONV and MOD. Within treatments, MOD and MAX had increased plasma cortisol 1 d postcastration versus precastration. A treatment × time tendency was observed for cortisol at 12 d postcastration; MAX had the least circulating cortisol. A treatment × time tendency for circulating haptoglobin (Hp) was observed and Hp was greatest among CONV 1 d pre- and 12 d postcastration. Compared with precastration, CONV had increased Hp at 1, 5, and 12 d, whereas MOD had increased Hp at 5 d, and Hp remained similar within MAX. A treatment × time tendency for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood was observed; at 1 d postcastration, MOD had the most TNF-α, whereas MAX had the least. Within MAX, calves had increased TNF-α from precastration to 5 d postcastration. A treatment × time interaction was observed for whole blood bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (WB anti-E). The CONV tended to have the greatest WB anti-E at d -1, but at d 1 and 5 postcastration, CONV had the least WB

  6. A transposable element insertion in APOB causes cholesterol deficiency in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzi, F; Besuchet-Schmutz, N; Fragnière, M; Hofstetter, S; Jagannathan, V; Mock, T; Raemy, A; Studer, E; Mehinagic, K; Regenscheit, N; Meylan, M; Schmitz-Hsu, F; Drögemüller, C

    2016-04-01

    Cholesterol deficiency, a new autosomal recessive inherited genetic defect in Holstein cattle, has been recently reported to have an influence on the rearing success of calves. The affected animals show unresponsive diarrhea accompanied by hypocholesterolemia and usually die within the first weeks or months of life. Here, we show that whole genome sequencing combined with the knowledge about the pedigree and inbreeding status of a livestock population facilitates the identification of the causative mutation. We resequenced the entire genomes of an affected calf and a healthy partially inbred male carrying one copy of the critical 2.24-Mb chromosome 11 segment in its ancestral state and one copy of the same segment with the cholesterol deficiency mutation. We detected a single structural variant, homozygous in the affected case and heterozygous in the non-affected carrier male. The genetic makeup of this key animal provides extremely strong support for the causality of this mutation. The mutation represents a 1.3kb insertion of a transposable LTR element (ERV2-1) in the coding sequence of the APOB gene, which leads to truncated transcripts and aberrant splicing. This finding was further supported by RNA sequencing of the liver transcriptome of an affected calf. The encoded apolipoprotein B is an essential apolipoprotein on chylomicrons and low-density lipoproteins, and therefore, the mutation represents a loss of function mutation similar to autosomal recessive inherited familial hypobetalipoproteinemia-1 (FHBL1) in humans. Our findings provide a direct gene test to improve selection against this deleterious mutation in Holstein cattle.

  7. Citrobacter koseri septicaemia in a holstein calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komine, M; Massa, A; Moon, L; Mullaney, T

    2014-11-01

    A 4-day-old male Holstein calf with dull mentation, nystagmus and blindness was humanely destroyed and subject to necropsy examination. Gross lesions included severe suppurative meningitis characterized by diffuse cloudy thickening of the meninges, bilateral hypopyon and fibrinosuppurative polyarthritis affecting the hocks. Citrobacter koseri was isolated from the meninges, ocular fluid, synovial fluid, spleen and small intestine. Microscopically, there was neutrophilic and histiocytic meningitis with intralesional bacilli, endophthalmitis, neutrophilic splenitis and multiple renal microabscesses. Failure of passive transfer of colostrum was confirmed. This appears to be the first characterization of septicaemia in a calf caused by C. koseri, with lesions comparable with those described in human neonates.

  8. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F

  9. Spring migration, calving and post-calving distribution and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The continued collection of information regarding calving and post-calving distribution, and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd is important for...

  10. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs and mana...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist.......In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs...... and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...

  11. Genetic parameters of direct and maternal effects for calving ease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaglen, S.A.E.; Bijma, P.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic parameters of direct and maternal effects for calving ease in Dutch dairy cattle were estimated using 677,975 calving ease records from second calving. Particular emphasis was given to the presence and impact of environmental dam-offspring covariances on the estimated direct-maternal genetic

  12. Evaluation of colostrum protection of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these investigations was to examine the concentration of total proteins and total immunoglobulins in blood serum of calves and on the bases of the obtained results to evaluate the risk of their contracting a disease in the first month of life. Examinations were carried out on 23 calves maintained in farm conditions, whose medical condition was monitored in the first month of life. Blood samples were taken by puncture from the v. jugularis immediately at birth, and at 24 and 48 hours after that, and blood serum was obtained by spontaneous coaggulation. The concentration of total proteins in blood serum was determined using biuretic probe, and the immunoglobulin level using the refractometric method with the zinc-sulphate test (ZST. The average value of total proteins in calves immediately at birth was low and stood at 42±0.3 g/l. The increased concentration of total proteins in calves after the intake of colostrum is a result of the absorption of colostrum immunoglobulins. A high positive correlation was established between the concentration of total proteins and total immunoglobulins at 24 and 48 hours after birth (rxy = 0.92 and rxy = 0.75. Based on the results of monitoring the health condition and the values for total protein concentrations during the examined period (24 and 48 hours after birth it is possible to make the following risk evaluation regarding diseases in newborn calves: 1 proteinaemia lower than 50 g/l presents a high risk; 2 proteinaemia between 50-54 g/l presents a medium risk: and, 3 proteinaemia between 55-69 g/l presents a low risk for diseases occurring in newborn calves. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31085

  13. Genetic parameters for somatic cell score and production traits in the ifrst three lactations of Chinese Holstein cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fu-ping; GUO Gang; WANG Ya-chun; GUO Xiang-yu; ZHANG Yuan; DU Li-xin

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters of lactation average somatic cel scores (LSCS) and examine genetic associations between LSCS and production traits in the ifrst three lactations of Chinese Holstein cows using single-parity multi-trait animal model and multi-trait repeatability animal model. There were totaly 273605 lactation records of Chinese Holstein cows with ifrst calving from 2001 to 2012. Heritability estimates for LSCS ranged from 0.144 to 0.187. Genetic correlations between LSCS and 305 days milk, protein percentage and fat percentage were –0.079,–0.082 and –0.135, respectively. Phenotypic correlation between LSCS and 305 days milk yield was negative (–0.103 to –0.190). Genetic correlation between 305 days milk and fat percentage or protein percentage was highly negative. Genetic correlation between milk fat percentage and milk protein percentage was highly favorable. Heritabilities of production traits decreased with increase of parity, whereas heritability of LSCS increased with increase of parity.

  14. [Coffee hulls and pulp. XII. Effect of storage of coffee pulp on its nutritive value for calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M T; Estrada, E; Murillo, B; González, J M; Bressani, R

    1976-06-01

    Coffee pulp, dehydrated and stored for 7, 13 and 17 months or ensiled for 4, 10 and 14 months, was studied in calves with a rapid growing rate. Storage of dehydrated coffee pulp did not affect its chemical composition, but ensiling reduced crude fiber and increased its nitrogen free extract content after 10 and 14 months. Three growth trials were carried out with Holstein calves averaging 95 kg in the first and second trials, and 130 kg in the third. Eighteen calves were used in the first trial and 24 in each of the other two. In each trial the animals were divided into three equal groups and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: control, which contained 48% cottonseed hulls, and the other two, with 30% dehydrated coffee pulp or 30% ensiled coffee pulp. Basically, the difference between trials consisted in the time of storage or ensiling of coffee pulp. In all trials, weight gains of calves fed coffee pulp (1.00, 0.90 and 0.98 kg/day, and 1.06, 0.94 and 1.08 kg/day, respectively) were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the weight gains induced by the control ration (1.21, 1.08 and 1.19 kg/day). Feed intake was also lower, but feed conversion ratio was higher for those rations containing coffee pulp. Calf performance was better with ensiled than with deydrated coffee pulp, particularly in the third trial, where the differences in weight gains were significantly higher (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that storage time does not change nutritive value of coffee pulp; and the ensiling is an adequate process for storing pulp during coffee harvesting, and, possibly also, for improving its nutritive value.

  15. Whole-genome scan for quantitative trait loci associated with birth weight, gestation length and passive immune transfer in a Holstein x Jersey crossbred population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltecca, C; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H; Cowan, M; Bagnato, A

    2009-02-01

    We herein report results from a daughter design genome-scan study aiming to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with birth weight, direct gestation length and passive immune transfer in a backcross (Holstein x Jersey) x Holstein population. Two-hundred and seventy-six calves, offspring of seven crossbred sires, were genotyped for 161 microsatellite markers distributed along the 29 bovine autosomes. The genome scan was performed through interval mapping using an animal model in order to identify QTL accounting for phenotypic differences between individual animals. Based on significant chi-squared values, we identified putative QTL on BTA7 and BTA14 for gestation length, on BTA2, BTA6 and BTA14 for birth weight and on BTA20 for passive immune transfer. In total, these QTL accounted for 12%, 18% and 1% of the phenotypic variance in gestation length, birth weight and passive immune transfer respectively. We also report results from a supplementary and independent influential grand-daughter Holstein family. In this family, findings on BTA7 and BTA14 for direct gestation length were in agreement with results in the crossbred population. Two other regions on BTA6 and BTA21 putatively underlying QTL for direct gestation length variability were discovered with this analysis.

  16. The effect of body condition at calving and supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on energy status and some reproductive parameters in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlIbrahim, R M; Crowe, M A; Duffy, P; O'Grady, L; Beltman, M E; Mulligan, F J

    2010-08-01

    Improving the energy status of dairy cows during the early post-partum (PP) period by adding a safe dietary supplement such as live yeast culture (YS) may have a positive effect on reproductive function. The objective was to examine potential benefits of YS supplementation on PP energy status and fertility indices of dairy cows managed to have low or high body condition score (BCS, 1-5 scale) at calving. Forty (10 primiparous and 30 multiparous) Holstein/Friesian dairy cows were blocked by yield, parity, BCS, and predicted calving date. Within each block, cows were randomly allocated to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments which were: BCS at calving (low or =3.75; n=20) and YS supplementation (2.5g/cow/day for pre-calving and 10g/cow/day for post-calving x 10(8) CFU of Saccharomyces cerevisiae/g) (supplemented or control; n=20). Daily milk yield was recorded and weekly milk composition, BCS and BW were assessed from calving to week 10 PP. Forage (100% grass silage pre-calving; 50% grass silage, 50% maize silage post-calving; ad libitum) intake was recorded individually. Concentrate (2kg of pre-calver nuts+/-YS for pre-calving and 8 kg of lactating nuts+/-YS for post-calving) feeding was controlled individually. Estimated energy balance PP was calculated on a weekly basis individually as the difference between the net energy (NE) intake and the sum of NE for maintenance and milk production. Insulin and IGF-I concentrations were determined on days 14 and 7 pre-calving and 1, 5, 15, 25 and 35 post-calving. Daily ovarian ultrasonography was performed from day 10 PP to monitor the size and development of the first dominant follicle (>10mm in diameter with absence of other large growing follicles), first ovulatory follicle and days to first ovulation PP. Pre-ovulatory peak of serum oestradiol concentration was determined during the 2 days before ovulation day. Cows with high BCS (over-conditioned) at calving ingested less NE, produced more milk NE output, and

  17. Genetic evaluation of the longevity of the Holstein population in Japan using a Weibull proportional hazard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Aihara, Mitsuo; Hagiya, Koichi; Nishiura, Akiko; Ishii, Kazuo; Satoh, Masahiro

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm the stability of the genetic estimation of longevity of the Holstein population in Japan. Data on the first 10 lactation periods were obtained from the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan. Longevity was defined as the number of days from first calving until culling or censoring. DATA1 and DATA2 included the survival records for the periods 1991-2003 and 1991-2005, respectively. The proportional hazard model included the effects of the region-parity-lactation stage-milk yield class, age at first calving, the herd-year-season, and sire. The heritabilities on an original scale of DATA1 and DATA2 were 0.119 and 0.123, respectively. The estimated transmitting abilities (ETAs) of young sires in DATA1 may have been underestimated, but coefficient δ, which indicated the bias of genetic trend between DATA1 and DATA2, was not significant. The regression coefficient of ETAs between DATA1 and DATA2 was very close to 1. The proportional hazard model could steadily estimate the ETA for longevity of the sires in Japan.

  18. Measurement of ferritin and anti-ferritin autoantibodies in serum and colostrum of Holstein and Japanese Black cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yoshiya; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Orino, Koichi

    2013-07-01

    Anti-ferritin autoantibody is a ferritin-binding protein commonly found in mammals; it is thought to form an immune complex with ferritin and thereby mediate the rapid clearance of circulating ferritin. The aim of this study is to determine concentrations of ferritin and anti-ferritin autoantibodies (immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgG and IgA) in serum and colostrum of Holstein (H) and Japanese Black (JB) cows within 24 h of normal calving. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from cows of various ages (2-11 years) and calving number (1-8 live births). Mean ferritin concentrations were higher in colostrum than in serum for both breeds, and higher colostrum ferritin concentrations were found in H than JB cows. IgA antibodies in serum and colostrum from both breeds had negligible ferritin-binding activity. For both breeds, IgM and IgG antibodies had higher ferritin-binding activity in colostrum than in serum. There was a significant correlation between IgM and IgG ferritin-binding activities in serum and colostrum of H and JB cows. These results suggest that ferritin and IgM and IgG autoantibodies are actively transferred from the blood stream to the colostrum at prepartum or early lactation.

  19. Short communication: Effects of oral flavonoid supplementation on the metabolic and antioxidative status of newborn dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciej, J; Schäff, C T; Kanitz, E; Tuchscherer, A; Bruckmaier, R M; Wolffram, S; Hammon, H M

    2016-01-01

    Scientific proof for flavonoids as a health tool in calf nutrition is inconsistent. We investigated the effects of the most abundant flavonoid, quercetin, and of a green tea extract (GTE) containing various catechins on the metabolic and antioxidative traits in dairy calves to clarify their potential health-promoting effects. Male newborn German Holstein calves (n=7 per group) received either no flavonoid (control group), 10mg of quercetin equivalents as quercetin aglycone or as rutin/kg of body weight (BW) per day, or 10mg/kg of BW per day of a GTE from d 2 to 26 of life. The supplements were provided with the morning and evening feeding. The calves were fed colostrum and milk replacer, and BW, feed intake, and health status were evaluated daily. Blood samples were collected from a jugular vein on d 1, 5, 12, 19, and 26 before the morning feeding to investigate the metabolic and antioxidative status of the calves. The growth performance and health status remained unchanged, but the GTE-fed calves had fewer loose feces than the controls. The plasma concentrations of quercetin changed over time and were higher in the rutin-fed group than in the control group, whereas the catechins were below the detection limit. The plasma Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and ferric reducing ability of plasma were measured as markers for plasma antioxidative capacity. The concentrations of Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity increased, whereas ferric reducing ability of plasma decreased after the first day of life in all the groups. The oxidative stress markers in the plasma were measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and F2-isoprostanes, but these did not indicate treatment or time effects. The plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, lactate, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids and of insulin and cortisol varied over time, but no group differences were caused by the flavonoid supplementation. In summary, orally administered quercetin and

  20. Potential gains in lifetime net merit from genomic testing of cows, heifers, and calves on commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Herring, W; Lawlor, T J

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the gains in genetic potential of replacement females that could be achieved by using genomic testing to facilitate selection and culling decisions on commercial dairy farms. Data were simulated for 100 commercial dairy herds, each with 1,850 cows, heifers, and calves. Parameters of the simulation were based on the US Holstein population, and assumed reliabilities of traditional and genomic predictions matched reliabilities of animals that have been genotyped to date. Selection of the top 10, 20, 30, …, 90% of animals within each age group was based on parent averages and predicted transmitting abilities with or without genomic testing of all animals or subsets of animals that had been presorted by traditional predictions. Average gains in lifetime net merit breeding value of selected females due to genomic testing, minus prorated costs of genotyping the animals and their unselected contemporaries, ranged from $28 (top 90% selected) to $259 (top 20% selected) for heifer calves with no pedigrees, $14 (top 90% selected) to $121 (top 10% selected) for heifer calves with known sires, and $7 (top 90% selected) to $87 (top 20% selected) for heifer calves with full pedigrees. In most cases, gains in genetic merit of selected heifer calves far exceeded prorated genotyping costs, and gains were greater for animals with missing or incomplete pedigree information. Gains in genetic merit due to genomic testing were smaller for lactating cows that had phenotypic records, and in many cases, these gains barely exceeded or failed to exceed genotyping costs. Strategies based on selective genotyping of the top, middle, or bottom 50% of animals after presorting by traditional parent averages or predicted transmitting abilities were cost effective, particularly when pedigrees or phenotypes were available and a relatively small proportion of animals were to be selected or culled. Based on these results, it appears that routine genotyping of

  1. Effects of a concentrated lidocaine solution on the acute phase stress response to dehorning in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, T J; Kattesh, H G; Adcock, R J; Welborn, M G; Saxton, A M; Morrow, J L; Dailey, J W

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to more fully define the surgical stress response to dehorning by heat cauterization in dairy calves by measuring behavioral, hormonal, inflammatory, and immunological markers of stress and to determine whether a nerve block of the surgical site with a concentrated solution of lidocaine (5%) reduces the degree of stress. Thirty-two 10- to 12-wk-old female Holstein calves were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments: 5% lidocaine followed by dehorning, 2% lidocaine followed by dehorning, saline followed by dehorning, or 5% lidocaine followed by sham dehorning. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured in blood samples collected via a jugular catheter at -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Various other blood constituents were measured in samples collected at -0.5, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Feeding, drinking, scratching, grooming, rubbing, licking, and inactivity behaviors were observed in the standing and recumbent positions using a 10-min scan sampling method analyzed on a time period and daily basis for 72 h following the dehorning procedure. The frequency of vocalization, kicking, and lying in the chute during the dehorning procedure were also assessed. The overall plasma cortisol concentrations were higher in calves subjected to dehorning than in control calves. Compared with the control group, the saline-treated calves had a higher cortisol concentration at 30 and 60 min postdehorning. Plasma cortisol concentrations were higher in all groups at 30 min postdehorning than at other sampling times. The percentage of circulating neutrophils and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio were increased in the saline and 2% lidocaine group. Total plasma protein, fibrinogen, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentrations were similar among treatments. The behavioral response to dehorning, as manifested by kicking while in the chute, was greater in the saline and 2% lidocaine group than in the control or 5% lidocaine

  2. Heat-treated colostrum feeding promotes beneficial bacteria colonization in the small intestine of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Chen, Yanhong; Liang, Guanxiang; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the effect of heat-treated colostrum feeding on the bacterial colonization in calf small intestine of neonatal calves within the first 12h of life. Newborn Holstein bull calves (n=32) were assigned to 3 treatment groups and fed with either fresh colostrum (FC, n=12) or heat-treated (60°C, 60 min) colostrum (HC, n=12) soon after birth, whereas the control (NC, n=8) group did not receive colostrum or water. Small intestinal tissues and contents were collected from proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum at 6 and 12h after birth, following euthanasia. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to explore the colonization of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia coli. The feeding of colostrum soon after birth increased the colonization of total bacteria in calf gut within the first 12h compared with NC. In contrast, the prevalence of Lactobacillus was lower in HC and FC compared to NC. Remarkable changes in the prevalence of small intestinal tissue-attached Bifidobacterium were observed with the feeding of HC, but not that in small intestinal contents. The prevalence of Bifidobacterium was 3.2 and 5.2 fold higher in HC than FC and NC, respectively, at 6h. Although the feeding of FC did not enhance the prevalence of tissue-attached Bifidobacterium at 6h compared with NC, it displayed a gradual increase over the time that was higher than NC, but similar to that of HC at 12h. Moreover, the colonization of E. coli was drastically reduced in HC calves compared with FC and NC. Thus, the present study suggests that the feeding of HC enhances the colonization of Bifidobacterium but lessens E. coli in the calf small intestine immediately postpartum compared with that of FC and NC. The increased colonization of beneficial bacteria along with the decreased colonization of potential pathogens in calf gut may also diminish the neonatal calf diarrhea when calves are fed heat-treated colostrum soon after birth.

  3. Tactile stimulation of dairy heifers: effects on behavior and milk production after calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. M. Néri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The positive management of primiparous heifers before calving through tactile stimulation may have beneficial effects on behavior during routine milking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of tactile stimulation in dairy heifers and its effects on behavior and milk production after calving. Ten primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Half the group received training with tactile stimulation of all body regions, while the other group did not receive stimulation (control group. The training period was divided into three phases: early, days 1 to 6 of training; intermediate: days 7 to 12, and final, days 13 to 23. During training, movement and displacement scores were obtained over a period of 5 minutes. Physiological parameters were also recorded [respiratory rate (FR and minimum eye temperature (ETmin measured with a thermal imaging camera]. After calving, the heifers were submitted to first milking when the evaluations were started for the first 10 days of milking (20 consecutive milkings. The behavior of the animals was evaluated by attributing a reactivity score of 1 (desirable behaviors or 2 (undesirable behaviors: entry into the pen, teat disinfection, milking one or two jets of milk for mastitis testing, attachment of teat cups, and removal of milk, as well as the amount of milk produced. Mean ETmin and FR decreased over the training period. A significant difference was observed for displacement score (P=0.019, with a reduction in displacement from the early to the final period (from 60.0% to 25.7%. During the attachment of teat cups, stimulated heifers were less reactive (P=0.002, characterized by a lower frequency of undesirable behaviors (12.0%, than unstimulated heifers (30.2%. The average milk yield during the first 60 days of lactation was higher for the group of stimulated heifers (Ln y=2.20–0.0102t+0.331lnt, R2=0.76 compared to unstimulated heifers (Ln y=1.54–0.0191x+0.578lnx, R2=0.79, with this difference being

  4. First-principles Simulations and the Criticality of Calving Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallot, D.; Åström, J. A.; Schäfer, M.; Welty, E.; O'Neel, S.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Liu, Y.; Riikilä, T.; Zwinger, T.; Timonen, J.; Moore, J.

    2014-12-01

    The algoritm of a first principles calving-simulation computer-code is outlined and demonstrated. The code is particle-based and uses Newtonian dynamics to simulate ice-fracture, motion and calving. The code can simulate real-size glacier but is only able to simualte individual calving events within a few tens of minutes in duration. The code couples to the Elmer/Ice ice flow-simulation code: Elmer is employed to produce various glacier geomteries, which are then tested for stability using the particle code. In this way it is possible to pin-point the location of calving fronts. The particle simulation code and field observations are engaged to investigate the criticality of calving glaciers. The calving mass and inter-event waiting times both have power-law distributions with the same critical exponents as found for Abelian sand-pile models. This indicate that calving glaciers share characteristics with Self-Organized Critical systems (SOC). This would explain why many glacier found in nature may become unstable as a result of even minor changes in their environment. An SOC calving glacier at the critical point will display so large fluctuations in calving rate that it will render the concept 'average calving rate' more or less useless. I.e. 'average calving rate' will depend on measurement time and always have fluctuaions in the range of 100% more or less independent of the averaging time.

  5. Efficacy of fenbendazole against tapeworms in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciordia, H; Stuedemann, J A; McCampbell, H C

    1983-06-01

    Forty-five commercial-grade Angus calves naturally infected with tapeworms (Moniezia sp) were used in 2 controlled experiments to evaluate the cestocidal efficacy of 3 dosage levels of fenbendazole, methyl-5-(phenylthio) -2-benzimidazolecarbamate. In the 1st trial, 15 calves were divided into 3 groups of 5 each. One group served as nonmedicated controls. Other groups were drenched with fenbendazole at dosage rates of 10 and 15 mg/kg of body weight. Thirty calves used in the 2nd experiment were divided into 3 equal groups. One group served as nonmedicated controls and the other 2 groups were drenched at dosage rates of 7.5 and 10 mg/kg. Calves were necropsied 13 days after treatment. Doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg were 100% efficacious in reducing the number of tapeworm scolices, and a dose of 7.5 mg/kg was 91.7% effective. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in medicated cattle from time of treatment to necropsy.

  6. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  7. The Statistical Physics of Iceberg Calving and the Emergence of Universal Calving Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassis, J. N.

    2010-12-01

    Determining a calving law valid for all glaciological regimes has proven to be a difficult problem in glaciology. For this reason, most models of the calving process are semi-empirical, with little connection to the underlying fracture processes. In this study, I introduce methods rooted in statistical physics to show how calving laws, valid for any glaciological domain, can emerge naturally as a large spatial-scale/long temporal-scale limit of an underlying continuous or discrete fracture process. An important element of the method developed here is that iceberg calving is treated as a stochastic process and that the probability that an iceberg will detach in a given interval of time can be described by a probability distribution function. Using limiting assumptions about the underlying probability distribution, the theory is shown to be able to simulate a range of calving styles including the sporadic detachment of large, tabular icebergs from ice tongues and ice shelves and the more steady detachment of smaller sized bergs from tidewater/outlet glaciers. The method developed has the potential to provide a physical basis to include iceberg calving into numerical ice sheet models that can be used to produce more realistic estimates of the glaciological contribution to sea level rise.

  8. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  9. A Bayesian threshold-linear model evaluation of perinatal mortality, dystocia, birth weight, and gestation length in a Holstein herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, J M; Berger, P J; Tsuruta, S; Misztal, I

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for a multiple-trait evaluation of dystocia (DYS), perinatal mortality (PM), birth weight (BWT), and gestation length (GL) in Holsteins. The data included 5,712 calving records collected between 1968 and 2005 from the Iowa State University dairy breeding herd in Ankeny. The incidence of PM was 8.8% and that of DYS 28.8%; mean BWT was 40.5 kg, and GL was 279 d. A threshold-linear animal model included the effects of year, season, sex of calf, parity, sire group, direct genetic, maternal genetic, and maternal permanent environment. Direct heritabilities for DYS, PM, BWT, and GL were 0.11 (0.04), 0.13 (0.05), 0.26 (0.04), and 0.51 (0.05), respectively. Maternal heritabilities were 0.14 (0.04), 0.15 (0.03), 0.08 (0.01), and 0.08 (0.02), for DYS, PM, BWT, and GL, respectively. The heritabilities are the posterior means of the Gibbs samples with their standard deviations in parentheses. The direct genetic correlation between PM and DYS was estimated at 0.67 (0.19), whereas the maternal genetic correlation was 0.45 (0.16). Direct and maternal PM and DYS are partially controlled by the same genes. Selection on only calving ease is not sufficient to control PM. With moderate genetic correlations between all 4 traits, BWT and GL should be included with DYS and PM in an evaluation of calving performance.

  10. Effect of slaughter weight on the carcass value of young crossbred ('Polish Holstein Friesian' x 'Limousin' steers and bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from others factors, carcass quality is determined by the animal's age and body weight (BW at the end of the fattening period. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum finishing weight of young crossbred 'Polish Holstein Friesian' (PHF x 'Limousin' (LIM steers and bulls, based on their slaughter value. The experimental materials comprised 60 animals, including 30 bulls and 30 steers, fed farm-made feeds. At 2 or 3 wk of age, one half of calves were castrated. Bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. Calves were reared under a conventional system, and were fattened semi-intensively. Daily gains ranged from 800 to 950 g. Calves were fattened to 450, 500, 550, or 600 kg BW. Carcass value was estimated after slaughter. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography in fat extracted from samples of muscle longissimus dorsi (MLD. Bulls, compared with steers, were characterized by a higher slaughter value, including a higher carcass dressing percentage by 1.07-2.60%, higher carcass conformation, and lower carcass fatness. In steers, an increase in live BW was accompanied by a considerable increase in fat content (higher than bulls, as confirmed by a significant (p ≤ 0.01 interaction. The intramuscular fat of bulls was characterized by higher concentrations of fatty acids delivering health benefits, and a more desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA ratio. Fat from bulls contained higher levels of PUFAs by 2.34 g 100 g-1 on average. Semi-intensive fattening of PHF x LIM bulls to slaughter weight of 600 kg BW is recommended due to an increase in carcass value. Steers should be fattened to slaughter weight of 500-550 kg BW to prevent excessive fat deposition.

  11. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  12. Diet effects on glucose absorption in the small intestine of neonatal calves: importance of intestinal mucosal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Zitnan, Rudolf; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hudakova, Monika; Metges, Cornelia C; Hammon, Harald M

    2014-10-01

    Colostrum (C) feeding in neonatal calves improves glucose status and stimulates intestinal absorptive capacity, leading to greater glucose absorption when compared with milk-based formula feeding. In this study, diet effects on gut growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporters were investigated in several gut segments of the small intestine. Fourteen male German Holstein calves received either C of milkings 1, 3, and 5 (d 1, 2, and 3 in milk) or respective formulas (F) twice daily from d 1 to d 3 after birth. Nutrient content, and especially lactose content, of C and respective F were the same. On d 4, calves were fed C of milking 5 or respective F and calves were slaughtered 2h after feeding. Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid-, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were taken to determine protein content, and mRNA expression and activity of lactase and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT2) were determined from mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and BBMV were determined, as well as immunochemically localized GLUT2 in the intestinal mucosa. Villus circumference, area, and height were greater, whereas crypt depth was smaller in C than in F. Lactase activity tended to be greater in C than in F. Protein expression of SGLT1 was greater in F than in C. Parameters of villus size, lactase activity, SGLT1 protein expression, as well as apical and basolateral GLUT2 localization in the enterocytes differed among gut segments. In conclusion, C feeding, when compared with F feeding, enhances glucose absorption in neonatal calves primarily by stimulating mucosal growth and increasing absorptive capacity in the small intestine, but not by stimulating abundance of intestinal glucose transporters.

  13. Interaction between genotype and climates for Holstein milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... climates, on the basis of Extended De Martonne method. ... Calculated genetic correlation between milk production traits in 5 various climates of Iran showed that there ..... in a study of Holstein cows in Brazil and United States,.

  14. Electrocardiogram assessment using the Einthoven and base-apex lead systems in healthy Holstein cows and neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Cedeno

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective aimed to describe the electrocardiographic behavior of parameters in Holstein pregnant cows and neonates during the perinatal period. The electrocardiograms were performed using a computerized electrocardiogram. The animals selected for the study were 23 cows and 18 neonates. Maternal electrocardiographic examinations were conducted in the 35, 28, 21, 14, 7 days and one-day pre -partum and the neonates were evaluated in six moments; at the time of birth, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after delivery. The evaluations were done in pre and post-delivery cows and into the group of neonates between female and male. For each electrocardiographic recording P-wave duration and amplitude, PR interval and the QRS complex duration, R, S-wave amplitude and polarity, QT and RR interval duration were examined. Changes in heart rate, ST segment and T wave polarity were recorded in leads of Einthoven and base-apex planes. The mean electrical axis of the QRS complex was calculated. In cows the results when comparing the two leads system, there are significant changes in the amplitude of the waves P, R, S, and T and the duration of the intervals PR, ST and QRS complex. The difference between primiparous and multiparous dairy cows was in the amplitude of the Twave. It was concluded that the base-apex system is a suitable lead for monitoring heart rhythm in Holstein cows and Einthoven in neonates. During the first month of life, no differences in P, Q, S and T waves, in PR, QRS, and ST intervals and in axis orientation was observed in neonates. There was a significant difference in duration of the QT interval. Among sexes, the difference was in the Q amplitude. This study incorporated the calves and Holstein cows in a single study in search of baseline information regarding the duration and morphology of the ECG parameters. In conclusion, it was proved that, with increasing age, there are changes in ECG components associated with variations in

  15. Genetic and environmental variance and covariance parameters for some reproductive traits of Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Zambrano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters for calving interval (CI, days open (DO, number of services per conception (NSC and conception rate (CR in Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia. Variance and covariance component estimates were obtained by an animal model that was solved using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method. The means and standard deviations for CI, DO, NSC and CR were: 430.32±77.93 days, 127.15±76.96 days, 1.58±1.03 services per conception and 79.88±28.66% in Holstein cattle, and 409.33±86.48 days, 125.62±86.09 days, 1.48±0.98 services per conception and 84.08±27.23% in Jersey cattle, respectively. The heritability estimates (standard errors were: 0.088(0.037, 0.082(0.037, 0.040(0.025 and 0.030(0.026 in Holstein cattle and 0.072(0.098, 0.090(0.104, 0.093(0.097 and 0.147(0.117 in Jersey cattle, respectively. The results show that the genetic, phenotypic and permanent environmental correlations in the two evaluated breeds were favorable for CI × DO, CI × NSC and DO × NSC, but not for CI × CR, DO × CR and NSC × CR. Genetic and permanent environmental correlations were high in most cases in Holstein cattle, whereas in Jersey cattle they were moderate. In contrast, phenotypic correlations were very low in both breeds, except for CI × DO and NSC × CR, which were high. Overall, the genetic component found was very low (<8% in both evaluated breeds and this implies that their selection would take long time and that a good practical management of the herd will be essential in order to improve the reproductive performance.

  16. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Poudel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Chlamydia (C. bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8 in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4. Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4 suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4. High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027, indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics.

  17. Different milk feeding intensities during the first 4 weeks of rearing in dairy calves: Part 1: Effects on performance and production from birth over the first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korst, M; Koch, C; Kesser, J; Müller, U; Romberg, F-J; Rehage, J; Eder, K; Sauerwein, H

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to test the effects of ad libitum feeding of whole milk (WM) or milk replacer (MR) versus restrictive feeding of MR during the first 4 wk of life on growth performance and on milk yield in the first lactation. We studied 57 German Holstein calves (29 females, 28 males) from birth until d 110 of life (trial 1). The 28 females from trial 1 were further studied during their first lactation (trial 2). In trial 1, all calves were randomly allocated at birth to 1 of 3 groups: MR-res [n = 20, 6.78 kg MR (11.5% solids)/calf per day], MR-ad lib (n = 17, 13.8% solids) or WM-ad lib (n = 20). All calves received colostrum ad libitum from their dam until d 3 of age. From d 4 to 27, calves were fed according to their group regimen. From d 28 to 55, all calves received MR-res feeding and were then gradually weaned until d 69. We recorded body weight (until d 110) and feed intake (amount, metabolizable energy, and frequency of liquid feed intake until weaning). We estimated the profitability of the different feeding regimens, taking into account income from milk yield (trial 2) and feed costs during rearing. In trial 1, the calves from WM-ad lib and MR-ad lib had total metabolizable energy intakes 2.02- and 1.65-fold greater than the MR-res group during the first 4 wk of life. During this period, concentrate intake did not differ among groups, but tended to be greater in WM-ad lib than in MR-ad lib calves from d 28 to 69. The MR-res calves visited the automatic feeders more often than the ad libitum-fed groups during differential feeding, but 70% of the visits were unrewarded (lib and WM-ad lib calves than among MR-res animals during the first 4 wk of life, but not from d 1 to 110. In trial 2, age at first calving, dry matter intake, and body weight over the first 10 mo of lactation were not different among groups, nor was milk composition. Milk yields (305 d) were numerically but not statistically greater in the ad libitum-fed groups during the first lactation (+765 kg

  18. Short communication: Glucagon-like peptide-2 and coccidiosis alter tight junction gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M P; Evock-Clover, C M; Elsasser, T H; Connor, E E

    2015-05-01

    Tight junction (TJ) proteins are integral factors involved in gut barrier function, and therapy with glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) enhances gut integrity. Our aim was to assess effects of GLP-2 treatment on mRNA expression of 8 TJ complex proteins in the intestine of dairy calves not infected or infected with Eimeria bovis at 11±3d of age. Mucosal epithelium from jejunum, ileum, and cecum was collected at slaughter from Holstein bull calves assigned to 4 groups: noninfected, buffer-treated (n=5); noninfected, GLP-2 treated (n=4); E. bovis-infected, buffer-treated (n=5); and E. bovis-infected, GLP-2-treated (n=4). Infected calves were orally dosed with 100,000 to 200,000 sporulated E. bovis oocysts on d 0; GLP-2-treated calves received 50 µg of GLP-2/kg of body weight subcutaneously twice daily for 10d beginning on d 18; and buffer-treated calves received an equal injection volume of 0.01 M Na bicarbonate buffer. All calves were killed on d 28. The mRNA expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), claudins 1, 2, and 4 (CLDN1, CLDN2, and CLDN4), F11 receptor (F11R), junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2), occludin (OCLN), and tight junction protein ZO-1 (TJP1) was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. In jejunum and ileum, an interaction of E. bovis infection and GLP-2 treatment on gene expression was noted. In jejunum of noninfected calves, GLP-2 increased CXADR, CLDN2, OCLN, and TJP1 mRNA expression but had no effect on mRNA expression in infected calves. Treatment with GLP-2 also increased tight junction protein ZO-1 protein expression in jejunum of noninfected calves as determined by immunohistochemistry. In ileum, E. bovis decreased expression of JAM2, OCLN, and TJP1 in buffer-treated calves, and GLP-2 increased TJP1 expression in infected calves. In cecum, E. bovis infection reduced expression of CXADR, CLDN4, F11R, and OCLN, and GLP-2 therapy increased expression of CLDN4, F11R, OCLN, and TJP1. Results are consistent with studies in

  19. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves (Bos taurus and Bos indicus in the Formiga city, Minas Gerais - Brazil

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    Roberto César Araujo Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a waterborne disease, has as aggravating the difficulty of preventing environmental contamination and lack of effective therapeutic measures. With marked importance to the cattle, causes inflammation and intestinal villous atrophy resulting in loss of absorptive surface. This study aimed to perform molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves in the city of Formiga, Minas Gerais. A total of 300 faeces samples from Holstein calves, Nelore and indefinite breed, both healthy, were evaluated by negative contrast staining technique of malachite green and through the reaction of nested PCR for amplification of DNA fragments of the 18S subunit of the RNA gene ribosomal. Occurrence of 5.33 % ( 16/300 for malachite green and 4.66 % ( 14/300 by PCR was observed, whereas no correlation was found between positive and variables studied. Through molecular characterization were identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae species. In conclusion, we observed a low incidence of infection and elimination of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, the absence of clinical signs in animals, strong agreement between the results obtained by the two techniques. Beyond, with the molecular characterization ( nested PCR , species of C. andersoni and C. ryanae were diagnosed in age groups not present in the literature. These two species of Cryptosporidium are described above for the first time parasitizing cattle in the state of Minas Gerais.

  20. Sugar Supplementation Stimulates Growth Performance in Calves with Growth Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Tomohiro; HIDAKA, Yuichi; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, bi...

  1. Controls on Helheim Glacier calving rates from 2001-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, L. A.; Foga, S. C.; Hamilton, G. S.; Straneo, F.; Sutherland, D.; van der Veen, C. J.; Oltmanns, M.; Schild, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Iceberg calving is an efficient mechanism for ice mass loss. While the physical controls on calving are not well understood, recent field and remote sensing observations from Helheim Glacier, southeast Greenland, suggest calving is dependent on both glacier and fjord conditions. This presentation investigates the sensitivity of calving rates to ice velocity, ocean temperature and mélange composition using a combination of in situ and satellite observations. Ocean properties in Sermilik Fjord for 2009-2014 are reconstructed using mooring data, and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) that inventories icebergs, sea-ice and small icebergs quantifies mélange composition several times a season. Ice velocity from InSAR and optical imagery is used to calculate calving rates and investigate the role of longitudinal gradients on calving. Ice velocity appears to be the dominant control on calving rates at Helheim Glacier. However, calving rates exhibit a complex pattern of seasonal and interannual variability, which does not simply mimic ice velocity patterns. We explore the relative roles of ocean properties, glacier geometry, and mélange composition on calving rates from 2001-2014 in order to improve physically-based glacier models.

  2. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  3. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Oltramari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO or glucose syrup (GS in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO; ii starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO; iii starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO; and iv starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS. Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids, divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h. Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA. At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05 concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  4. Effects of changing milk replacer feedings from twice to once daily on Holstein calf innate immune responses before and after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, L E; Cobb, C J; Carroll, J A; Ballou, M A

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of switching Holstein calves to once-daily feeding during the fourth week of life (24 ± 2.3 d of age; once-fed n=22; twice-fed n=22) on innate immune responses, and to evaluate whether carry-over effects occurred when the calves were weaned during the seventh week of life. Peripheral blood samples were taken immediately before the change in feeding strategy (24 d of age) and at 27, 31, 45, 48, 52, and 66 d of age and were analyzed for circulating cortisol, haptoglobin, total leukocyte counts, neutrophil:mononuclear cells, and hematocrit percentage. Heparinized whole blood was also stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24h and the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the supernatant was analyzed. Neutrophil L-selectin and β(2)-integrin expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. Simultaneous neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst responses to a heat-killed Escherichia coli were quantified by dual-color flow-cytometry. Treatment (once-daily or twice daily feeding) had no effect on pre- or postweaning performance. Once-fed calves tended to have more circulating neutrophils at 27 d of age, greater expression of L-selectin on neutrophils at 31 and 45 d of age, and greater intensity of phagocytosis at 45 d of age. Once-fed calves secreted less TNF-α in LPS-stimulated whole blood cultures at 45 d of age compared with twice-fed calves and this tended to persist through the immediate postweaning period. None of the other immune parameters differed after weaning between the preweaning feeding strategies. Consolidating calf milk replacer into one feeding during the fourth week of life was likely a mild and acute stressor, as evidenced by transient neutrophilia in the absence of suppressed functional capacities of neutrophils. Future research should address the mechanism and immunological significance of the persistent decreased TNF-α response in once-fed calves.

  5. Neonatal lipopolysaccharide challenge does not diminish the innate immune response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide challenge in holstein bull calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The innate immune response following experimental mastitis is quite variable between individual dairy cattle. An inflammatory response that minimizes collateral damage to the mammary gland while still effectively resolving the infection following pathogen exposure is beneficial to dairy producers. ...

  6. Effects of transdermal flunixin meglumine on pain biomarkers at dehorning in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, M D; Van Engen, N K; Gorden, P J; Ji, J; Walsh, P; Coetzee, J F

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic properties of transdermal flunixin meglumine when given at the time of dehorning on pain biomarkers. Twenty-four weaned male Holstein calves, 6 to 8 wk of age were enrolled into the study. The calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 1) transdermal flunixin and dehorn (DH-FLU); 2) transdermal flunixin and sham dehorn (SHAM-FLU); and 3) placebo and dehorn (DH-PLBO). Transdermal flunixin at a label dose of 3.33 mg/kg (or placebo at an equivalent volume) was administered as a pour-on along the top-line of the calves in each treatment group concurrently with electrocautery dehorning or sham dehorning. Biomarker parameters collected and analyzed included: infrared thermography (IRT), mechanical nociception threshold (MNT), plasma cortisol, and substance P (SP). There were no differences in maximal temperatures detected for the IRT measurements of the medial canthus of the eye for the DH groups. Mean control point MNT measurements at 48 h were 3.14 kgF, 3.46 kgF, and 1.43 kgF for the DH-FLU, Sham-FLU, and DH-PLBO groups, respectively (P = 0.0001). No other differences of MNT were detected between the dehorned groups for the other test sites and time points. Plasma cortisol reached peak concentration at 20 min postdehorning for the DH-FLU and DH-PLBO groups and 10 min for SHAM-FLU group. Peak plasma cortisol concentrations were 32.0 ng/mL, 12.7 ng/mL, and 28.8 ng/mL for the DH-FLU, SHAM-FLU, and DH-PLBO groups, respectively. Cortisol concentrations were lower for the DH-FLU group at 90 min postdehorning compared to the SHAM-FLU and DH-PLBO groups ( = 0.04). Area under the effect curve (AUEC) were similar for all groups ( = 0.93). No statistical differences in SP concentrations between groups were detected for any of the time points. In conclusion, transdermal flunixin meglumine given at the time of dehorning did not provide substantial analgesia based on the pain biomarkers investigated. Further

  7. Avaliação clínica da infecção experimental de bezerros com Salmonella Dublin Clinical evaluation of experimental Salmonella Dublin infection in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical conditions of healthy calves infected with experimental 10(8CFU of Salmonella Dublin were evaluated and the viability of the experimental model in disease induction in calves was verified. Twelve 10 to 15-day-old male Holstein calves were examined. They were allocated into two groups, control and experimentally infected with 10(8CFU of Salmonella Dublin. Animals were submitted to clinical examination after inoculation and at every 12 hours, during seven days after the experimental infection. Samples of rectal swabs were collected for Salmonella Dublin isolation. All animals had severe diarrhea, with mucus and bleeding, 12 to 84 hours after the experimental infection with Salmonella Dublin, accompanied by fever, dehydration and respiratory signs. The isolation of Salmonella Dublin from rectal swabs occurred 12 hours after the infection. Two out of the six animals inoculated with Salmonella Dublin died with symptoms of enteritis, fibrinous pneumonia, centrilobular hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte necrosis, spleen congestion, interstitial nephritis, and tubular degeneration. Thus, the oral administration of 10(8CFU of Salmonella Dublin induced clinical signs of salmonellosis in 10 to 15-day-old calves.

  8. Bovine immunoglobulin G does not have an inhibitory effect on diagnostic polymerase chain reaction utilizing magnetic bead extraction methods as demonstrated on the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Crossley, Beate M

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate if the presence of colostral-derived immunoglobulin G (IgG) in blood is an inhibitor of diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Eleven precolostral and 11 postcolostral blood samples in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant as well as serum samples were collected from 11 Holstein bull calves. Calves were fed 3 liters of colostrum once, by oroesophageal tubing. Postcolostral, blood, and serum samples were collected at 48 hr of age. Serum IgG concentrations were determined in the precolostral and postcolostral serum samples using radial immunodiffusion. The blood samples (precolostral and postcolostral) were spiked with BVDV, and 2 diagnostic PCR extraction methods were applied to each sample. The extraction and amplification efficiencies of the 2 PCR methods on the precolostral and postcolostral EDTA blood samples were evaluated. Two of the 11 calves had inadequate passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins at 48 hr of age based on the serum IgG concentrations. All blood samples from calves were negative for BVDV prior to the spiking with the virus. Evaluation of the 2 different methods among 3 different virus concentrations demonstrated that there was no difference in extraction or amplification efficiency in precolostral and postcolostral samples. The results of this study suggest that bovine IgG is not an inhibitor of PCR used for detection of BVDV in cattle. The methods used in the current study are acceptable for PCR detection of BVDV in cattle.

  9. Effect of long-distance transportation on serum metabolic profiles of steer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Satoshi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2017-07-19

    Long-distance transportation is sometimes inevitable in the beef industry because of the geographic separation of major breeding and fattening areas. Long-distance transportation negatively impacts production and health of cattle, which may, at least partly, result from the disturbance of metabolism during and after transportation. However, alteration of metabolism remains elusive in transported cattle. We investigated the effects of transportation on the metabolomic profiles of Holstein steer calves. Non-targeted analysis of serum concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Transportation affected 38 metabolites in the serum. A pathway analysis suggested that 26, 10, and 10 pathways were affected immediately after transportation, and 3 and 7 days after transportation, respectively. Some pathways were disturbed only immediately after transportation, likely because of feed and water withdrawal during transit. Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and citric acid cycle were affected for 3 days after transportation, whereas propionate metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism were affected throughout the experiment. Four pathways were not affected immediately after transportation, but were altered thereafter. These results suggested that many metabolic pathways had marked perturbations during transportation. Metabolites such as citric acid, propionate, tyrosine and niacin can be candidate supplements for mitigating transportation-induced adverse effects. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Genome Scan Detects Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G;

    2009-01-01

    Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416 mic...

  11. Selection signature analysis in Holstein cattle identified genes known to affect reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using direct comparison of 45,878 SNPs between a group of Holstein cattle unselected since 1964 and contemporary Holsteins that on average take 30 days longer for successful conception than the 1964 Holsteins, we conducted selection signature analyses to identify genomic regions associated with dair...

  12. Food intake, milk production, and tissue changes of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey × Holstein-Friesian dairy cows within a medium-input grazing system and a high-input total confinement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, E R; Ferris, C P; Elliott, C T; McGettrick, S A; Kilpatrick, D J

    2012-03-01

    Although interest in crossbreeding within dairy systems has increased, the role of Jersey crossbred cows within high concentrate input systems has received little attention. This experiment was designed to examine the performance of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (J × HF) cows within a high concentrate input total confinement system (CON) and a medium concentrate input grazing system (GRZ). Eighty spring-calving dairy cows were used in a 2 (cow genotype) × 2 (milk production system) factorial design experiment. The experiment commenced when cows calved and encompassed a full lactation. With GRZ, cows were offered diets containing grass silage and concentrates [70:30 dry matter (DM) ratio] until turnout, grazed grass plus 1.0 kg of concentrate/day during a 199-d grazing period, and grass silage and concentrates (75:25 DM ratio) following rehousing and until drying-off. With CON, cows were confined throughout the lactation and offered diets containing grass silage and concentrates (DM ratio; 40:60, 50:50, 40:40, and 75:25 during d 1 to 100, 101 to 200, 201 to 250, and 251 until drying-off, respectively). Full-lactation concentrate DM intakes were 791 and 2,905 kg/cow for systems GRZ and CON, respectively. Although HF cows had a higher lactation milk yield than J × HF cows, the latter produced milk with a higher fat and protein content, so that solids-corrected milk yield (SCM) was unaffected by genotype. Somatic cell score was higher with the J × HF cows. Throughout lactation, HF cows were on average 37 kg heavier than J × HF cows, whereas the J × HF cows had a higher body condition score. Within each system, food intake did not differ between genotypes, whereas full-lactation yields of milk, fat plus protein, and SCM were higher with CON than with GRZ. A significant genotype × environment interaction was observed for milk yield, and a trend was found for an interaction with SCM. Crossbred cows on CON gained more body condition than HF

  13. Energy report 1995 for Schleswig-Holstein. Situation, focal areas, examples; Energiebericht Schleswig-Holstein 1995. Situation, Schwerpunkte, Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Since 1988 the Land of Schleswig Holstein has been going new ways in its energy policy. Its declared aims are energy saving in heat and electricity supply, efficient energy utilisation, a greater utilisation of renewable energy resources, and, of principal importance, the phase-out of nuclear energy. As the legislative competence of the Laender is very restricted in matters relating to energy, the new policy has primarily been designed as a means of demonstrating by way of example that there actually are considerable potentials for saving energy and that they can be exploited. The present report gives an overview of the results of Schleswig Holstein`s energy policy of the last seven years. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Seit 1988 geht das Land Schleswig-Holstein energiepolitisch neue Wege. Das erklaerte Ziel: Energieeinsparung im Waerme- und Strombereich, rationelle Energieverwendung, staerkere Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Und grundsaetzlich: Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie. Da die Bundeslaender nur ueber eine sehr eingeschraenkte Gesetzgebungskompetenz im Energiebereich verfuegen, zielte die neue Energiepolitik zunaechst darauf ab, durch Foerderprogramme beispielhaft zu zeigen, dass tatsaechlich erhebliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen und auch umsetzbar sind. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Ergebnisse der Energiepolitik der letzten sieben Jahre in Schleswig-Holstein. (orig./RHM)

  14. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van

    1987-01-01

    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  15. Feeding & Management of Dairy Calves & Heifers. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Walt

    This guide is designed to assist postsecondary and secondary teachers of agriculture in their use of the University of Wisconsin bulletin "Raising Dairy Replacements" in their dairy science instructional program. Eight lessons are provided in this unit: breeding decisions, management of cows from breeding to calving, care at calving time, the…

  16. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  17. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  18. Toxocara vitulorum in suckling calves in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Holzhauer, M.; Herder, F.L.; Veldhuis-Wolterbeek, E.G.; Hegeman, C.

    2012-01-01

    A Dutch farmer with beef cattle and suckling calves noticed one of the calves suffering from diarrhoea and observed large white worms near the perineum. In the faeces of this calf, eggs of Toxocara vitulorum were found. The majority of the cows in the herd were of the Piemontese breed previously imp

  19. Influence of lactation on metabolic characteristics and embryo development in postpartum Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillo, V; Rizos, D; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Kelly, A K; Garrett, M; Lonergan, P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct effect of lactation on the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows to support early embryo development. Twenty-one primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Immediately after calving, half of the cows were dried off (i.e., never milked), and the other half entered the milking herd and were milked twice daily. Jugular blood samples were taken twice per week from 15 d before calving to approximately 100 d postpartum to measure nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. At the same time, body weight and body condition score were recorded for each cow. At approximately 60 d postpartum (experiment 1), approximately 65 two- to four-cell embryos, produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization, were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum of all cows on d 2 of the estrous cycle. Five days later (d 7), the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically and the number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded. At approximately 90 d postpartum (experiment 2), the estrous cycles of the same cows were resynchronized and 15 to 20 in vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to the uterus of each recipient on d 7. All cows were slaughtered on d 14 to assess embryo survival and dimensions. Body weight and body condition score were significantly different between groups for the entire postpartum period of the study. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were higher and concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I were lower in lactating compared with nonlactating cows. Embryo recovery rates from lactating and dry cows were similar. In experiment 1, fewer embryos developed to the blastocyst stage in the lactating cows compared with the nonlactating cows. In experiment 2, embryo survival and conceptus dimensions were not different between lactating and

  20. Evaluation of the California Mastitis Test as a precalving treatment selection tool for Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean-Philippe; Du Tremblay, Denis; Descôteaux, Luc; Messier, Serge; Scholl, Daniel; Bouchard, Emile

    2009-02-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and a portable electrical conductivity meter for diagnosing precalving intramammary infection (IMI) in Holstein heifers. A total of 428 dairy heifers from 23 dairy herds were enrolled between 6 and 12 days before the expected calving date from June 2002 to June 2003. Mammary secretions were tested by both diagnostic methods and by bacterial culture for evidence of IMI. California Mastitis Test was considered negative if the score was negative, trace or 1 and was considered positive otherwise. Two cut-off points were evaluated for milk electrical conductivity (>5 and >6.5 mS/cm). From this study, an overall proportion of 69% of heifers had precalving IMI and the overall heifer prevalence of major pathogen IMI was 16.8%. At the quarter level, sensitivity and specificity of CMT (68.9% and 68.4%, respectively) and milk conductivity >5 mS/cm (41.0% and 65.2%, respectively) or >6.5 mS/cm (25.2% and 83.3%, respectively) to identify all IMI were low. However, the heifer level sensitivity and specificity of CMT for major pathogens were 91.0% (81.5-96.6) and 27.5% (22.8-32.6), respectively. Using a cut-off point of 5 mS/cm, the heifer level sensitivity and specificity for major pathogens was 68.7% (56.2-79.4) and 44.1% (38.7-49.6), respectively. A conductivity cut-off value of 6.5 mS/cm decreased the sensitivity and increased the specificity to 53.7% (41.1-66.0) and 59.5% (54.0-64.8), respectively. California Mastitis Test and milk electrical conductivity are not good predictors of major pathogen IMI in heifers during the last 2 weeks before calving. However, the negative predictive values at quarter or heifer level were high and the heifer false negative rate was 6-14% using CMT or conductivity, respectively. Therefore, these measures could be useful for screening out heifers or quarters that are unlikely to have a major pathogen IMI.

  1. The Effect of Rumen Acid Load on Postpartum Performance and Blood Metabolic Responses in Transition Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Mesgaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The transition period is the most stressful time in the production cycle of a dairy cow because of depressed feed intake, endocrine and metabolic changes at parturition. The aim was to determine the effect of rumen acid load on postpartum performance and metabolic parameters in transition Holstein cows. Approach: The Acidogenicity Values (AV of the diets were determined using an In-vitro essay. Thirty late pregnant multiparous Holstein cows with the average yielding of 9800 Kg/year were housed. Three weeks before the expected date of calving, cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (a High AV (AV11.9 diet (n = 16 (b Low AV (AV10.7 diet (n=14. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein once a week at a consistent time after morning feeding from d 10 till d 42 postpartum and were analysed for Beta Hydroxybutyrate (BHB, Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFAs, glucose and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN. Milk samples were collected from each milking once per week and composited for subsequent analysis of milk composition. Results: Overall subsequent milk yield of animals in high AV was higher compared to the other group (41.9 and 37.8 kg. Although milk fat percentage of the low AV group was higher than the other group (3.7 and 3.5%, however there was no significant effect of the diets on milk protein. Plasma NEFA and BHBA was reduced significantly in animals receiving the high AV diet. Although the concentration of glucose was markedly higher in high AV animals, however the BUN concentration was lower compare to the low AV group. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that high grain prepartum diets have dramatic impact on postpartum performance and blood metabolic parameters.

  2. Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Brink, D; Orth, M W; Whittet, K M

    2002-06-01

    Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements.

  3. First investigations to refine video-based IR thermography as a non-invasive tool to monitor the body temperature of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, G; Schmidt, M; Ammon, C

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a video-based infrared camera (IRC) was investigated as a tool to monitor the body temperature of calves. Body surface temperatures were measured contactless using videos from an IRC fixed at a certain location in the calf feeder. The body surface temperatures were analysed retrospectively at three larger areas: the head area (in front of the forehead), the body area (behind forehead) and the area of the entire animal. The rectal temperature served as a reference temperature and was measured with a digital thermometer at the corresponding time point. A total of nine calves (Holstein-Friesians, 8 to 35 weeks old) were examined. The average maximum temperatures of the area of the entire animal (mean±SD: 37.66±0.90°C) and the head area (37.64±0.86°C) were always higher than that of the body area (36.75±1.06°C). The temperatures of the head area and of the entire animal were very similar. However, the maximum temperatures as measured using IRC increased with an increase in calf rectal temperature. The maximum temperatures of each video picture for the entire visible body area of the calves appeared to be sufficient to measure the superficial body temperature. The advantage of the video-based IRC over conventional IR single-picture cameras is that more than one picture per animal can be analysed in a short period of time. This technique provides more data for analysis. Thus, this system shows potential as an indicator for continuous temperature measurements in calves.

  4. New generation extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with MedTech Mag-Lev, a single-use, magnetically levitated, centrifugal blood pump: preclinical evaluation in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Eiki; Watanabe, Taiju; Miyagi, Naoto; Kitao, Takashi; Sakota, Daisuke; Mamiya, Taichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Arai, Hirokuni; Takatani, Setsuo

    2013-05-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of a newly developed single-use, magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump, MedTech Mag-Lev, in a 3-week extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) study in calves against a Medtronic Bio-Pump BPX-80. A heparin- and silicone-coated polypropylene membrane oxygenator MERA NHP Excelung NSH-R was employed as an oxygenator. Six healthy male Holstein calves with body weights of about 100 kg were divided into two groups, four in the MedTech group and two in the Bio-Pump group. Under general anesthesia, the blood pump and oxygenator were inserted extracorporeally between the main pulmonary artery and the descending aorta via a fifth left thoracotomy. Postoperatively, both the pump and oxygen flow rates were controlled at 3 L/min. Heparin was continuously infused to maintain the activated clotting time at 200-240 s. All the MedTech ECMO calves completed the study duration. However, the Bio-Pump ECMO calves were terminated on postoperative days 7 and 10 because of severe hemolysis and thrombus formation. At the start of the MedTech ECMO, the pressure drop across the oxygenator was about 25 mm Hg with the pump operated at 2800 rpm and delivering 3 L/min flow. The PO2 of the oxygenator outlet was higher than 400 mm Hg with the PCO2 below 45 mm Hg. Hemolysis and thrombus were not seen in the MedTech ECMO circuits (plasma-free hemoglobin [PFH] 20 mg/dL) and large thrombus were observed in the Bio-Pump ECMO circuits. Plasma leakage from the oxygenator did not occur in any ECMO circuits. Three-week cardiopulmonary support was performed successfully with the MedTech ECMO without circuit exchanges. The MedTech Mag-Lev could help extend the durability of ECMO circuits by the improved biocompatible performances.

  5. Bounds on the calving cliff height of marine terminating glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tripathy, Cory S.; Bassis, Jeremy N.

    2017-02-01

    Increased calving and rapid retreat of glaciers can contribute significantly to sea level rise, but the processes controlling glacier retreat remain poorly understood. We seek to improve our understanding of calving by investigating the stress field controlling tensile and shear failure using a 2-D full-Stokes finite element model. Using idealized rectangular geometries, we find that when rapidly sliding glaciers thin to near buoyancy, full thickness tensile failure occurs, similar to observations motivating height-above-buoyancy calving laws. In contrast, when glaciers are frozen to their beds, basal crevasse penetration is suppressed and calving is minimal. We also find that shear stresses are largest when glaciers are thickest. Together, the tensile and shear failure criteria map out a stable envelope in an ice-thickness-water-depth diagram. The upper and lower bounds on cliff height can be incorporated into numerical ice sheet models as boundary conditions, thus bracketing the magnitude of calving rates in marine-terminating glaciers.

  6. Anticoccidial efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Nitanai, Atushi; Kurosawa, Takashi; Oikawa, Shin

    2004-12-01

    Anticoccidial efficacy of dietary fat was evaluated in calves with coccidial infection (Eimeria spp., including E. bovis and E. zuernii). Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)--natural edible fats composed of caprylic (C8), capric (C10), and lauric (C12) acids -- were given orally with milk to 5 calves and with 10% glucose solution to 3 older, weaned calves by using the reticular groove reflex. After 3 to 11 days of MCT feeding, all Eimeria spp. oocysts had disappeared from the feces of all calves. MCT had no adverse effects on appetite or on fecal pH, ammonia, lactic acid, or volatile fatty acid levels. MCT feeding for coccidial control in calves has minimal side-effects and has benefits in terms of residue-free food production.

  7. Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic change for stillbirth in Iranian Holstein cows: a comparison between linear and threshold models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. HOSSEIN-ZADEH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on stillbirth from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran collected from January 1990 to December 2007 and comprising 668810 Holstein calving events from 2506 herds were analyzed. Linear and threshold animal and sire models were used to estimate genetic parameters and genetic trends for stillbirth in the first, second, and third parities. Mean incidence of stillbirth decreased from first to third parities: 23.7%, 22.1%, and 21.8%, respectively. Phenotypic rates of stillbirth decreased from 1993 to 1998, for first, second and third calvings, and then increased from 1998 to 2007 for the first three parities. Direct heritability estimates of stillbirth for parities 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 2.2 to 8.7%, 0.6 to 5.1% and 0.1 to 3.8%, respectively, and maternal heritability estimates of stillbirth for parities 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 1.4 to 6.3%, 0.5 to 4.2% and 0.08 to 2.0%, respectively, using linear and threshold animal models. The threshold sire model estimates of heritabilities for stillbirth in this study were 0.021 to 0.071, while the linear sire model estimates of heritabilities for stillbirth in the current study were from 0.003 to 0.021 over the parities. There was a slightly increasing genetic trend for stillbirth rate in parities 1 and 2 over time with the analysis of linear animal and linear sire models. There was a significant decreasing genetic trend for stillbirth rate in parity 1 and 3 over time with the analysis of threshold animal and threshold sire models, but the genetic trend for stillbirth rate in parity 2 with these models of analysis was significantly positive. The low estimates of heritability obtained in this study implied that much of the improvement in stillbirth could be attained by improvement of production environment rather than genetic selection.;

  8. The comparison of dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of holstein cows imported from Sweden and their Polish age mates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the present work was to compare dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of Holstein-Friesian (HF cows imported from Sweden as an in-calf heifers, and their age mates in Poland. The animals were kept freely on the deep litter on the farm owned by Agro-company “Witkowo” and feeding was based on TMR (total mixed ration system during whole year. All ration’s ingredients (bulky feed, concentrate, miscellaneous additives were mixed and fed as all-mash. The feed ration depended from the physiological condition of a cow and it was composed of corn and grass ensilage, mash concentrate, crushed corn meal, brewer’s grains and beet pulp.Cows imported from Sweden as in-calf heifers obtained higher milk, fat and protein yield in both lactations comparing to home cows. Significant statistical differences were observed for kg of milk, kg of protein, for FCM (P<0.01 and for kg of fat (P<0.05 in 2nd lactation. Fat and protein content in milk was in average higher for home cows (P<0.01. Big differences (P<0.01 were observed in SBT (proportion of protein to fat content and RTB (difference between concentration of fat and protein at imported cows in 2nd lactation. As far as reproduction parameters (gestation interval, calving interval, insemination index are concerned was cows from Sweden better too. Heifers from Sweden calved earlier. The usage of high genetic potential of imported cows is possible only with providing them optimum living conditions suitable to their needs.

  9. Sufentanil citrate immobilization of Alaskan moose calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeger, Terry J; Kellie, Kalin A

    2012-10-01

    Free-ranging Alaskan moose calves (Alces alces gigas) were immobilized with 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil (S; n=16), 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.27 mg/kg xylazine (SX; n=11), or 0.007 mg/kg carfentanil plus 0.36 mg/kg xylazine (CX; n=13). Immobilants were antagonized with 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone (S) or 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone plus 2.4 mg/kg tolazoline (SX, CX). There were no differences in induction (P ≥ 0.29) or processing (P ≥ 0.44) times between groups. Moose given either S or SX had significantly shorter recovery times than moose given CX (P=0.001) and recovery times from S were shorter than from SX (P=0.02). Oxygen saturation values for all groups averaged 85 ± 8%, but were significantly higher (P=0.048) for CX (89 ± 7%) than for S (82 ± 8%). Based on these data, sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg or sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg plus xylazine at 0.25 mg/kg could provide effective remote immobilization for Alaskan moose calves and could be substituted for carfentanil or thiafentanil should the need arise.

  10. Effect of subclinical lead intake on calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinius, D.A.; Brinsfield, T.H.; Williams, E.E.

    1973-01-01

    Sixteen bull calves were fed a 70% concentrate diet containing no added lead, 10 ppM lead from newsprint, or 10 and 100 ppM lead from lead chromate. The diets were pelleted and fed ad libitum for 100 days. Fecal and urine samples were collected and EKG and respiration rates were monitored at 25-day intervals. At the end of the 100-day feeding trial, the calves were sacrificed and samples of skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, liver and kidney were collected for lead analysis. Supplemental lead did not affect feed consumption nor weight gain; however, newsprint depressed both intake and gain. Neither EKG patterns, heart rate nor respiration rate were affected by dietary treatment. The percentage of ingested lead excreted in feces and urine was not significantly different among treatments. There were no significant tissue accumulations of lead from feeding newsprint or 10 ppM lead chromate; however, feeding 100 ppM lead chromate resulted in accumulations of the element in liver and kidney. Samples of cerebral cortex, liver and kidney cortex were examined by electron microscopy. Changes were not detected in the cellular ultrastructure of these tissues from either control or treated animals.

  11. Crude protein and rumen undergradable protein effects on reproduction and lactation performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M E; French, D D; Brown, T F; Cuomo, G J; Chapa, A M; Fernandez, J M; Beatty, J F; Blouin, D C

    1999-12-01

    We conducted a study to determine the effects of excess dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) on reproduction and lactation performance of Holstein cows. During each of three yearly replicates, cows were blocked by previous mature equivalent milk production and randomly assigned at calving (n = 47; partum group) or at 42 +/- 21 d postpartum (n = 134; postpartum group) to the following dietary treatments: 1) ryegrass pasture supplemented with a corn and soybean meal grain mix (high CP, moderate RUP); 2) ryegrass pasture mornings and corn silage evenings, supplemented with grain as in diet 1 (moderate CP, moderate RUP control diet), and 3) ryegrass pasture mornings and corn silage evenings, supplemented with a grain mix containing corn, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, and blood meal (moderate CP, high RUP). Dietary CP and RUP concentrations were approximately 23.1, 5.8; 17.7, 5.0; and 17.2, 6.8% of dry matter for diets 1 to 3, respectively. Plasma urea N concentrations were highest in cows fed diet 1 (25.0 mg/dl), intermediate in cows on diet 2 (20.1 mg/dl), and lowest in cows on diet 3 (18.5 mg/dl). Cows fed excess dietary protein (diet 1) exhibited lower first breeding pregnancy rates (24.1 vs. 41.0%) and lower overall pregnancy rates (53.4 vs. 75.4%) than did cows fed diet 2, increasing time nonpregnant by an average of 15.1 d per cow. Reproductive performance was similar between cows fed diets 2 and 3. Mean fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield was not affected by protein concentration (diet 1 vs. 2); however, partum group cows that received supplemental RUP (diet 3) produced more 3.5% FCM than controls in early lactation. Feeding grain diets that contained excess dietary protein impaired the reproductive performance of dairy cows grazing ryegrass.

  12. Vertebral and spinal dysplasia: A novel dominantly inherited congenital defect in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromik, A; Kusenda, M; Tipold, A; Stein, V M; Rehage, J; Weikard, R; Kühn, C

    2015-06-01

    Monitoring and surveillance strategies are imperative for managing genetic defects in livestock populations in order to avoid detrimental effects on animal welfare and productivity. Recently, a number of previously unknown defects have been described in cattle, fostered by the huge progress in genome analysis and genomic selection. In response to reports about a potentially new defect in Holstein cattle, case-control studies were carried out to confirm a genetic background of the defect and to evaluate its phenotypic relevance. Eighty-five potentially affected offspring of a suspected carrier sire for the defect and 41 matched control calves were subjected to clinical and epidemiological monitoring on 39 farms. Forty-one animals, all offspring of the suspected carrier sire, showed pathognomonic tail malformations providing highly significant evidence for a congenital inherited defect, which was subsequently termed vertebral and spinal dysplasia (VSD). The defect is characterised by vertebral (specifically tail) deformities and neurological dysfunctions with gait abnormalities of the hind limbs. The deformities and neurological dysfunctions varied from very mild (only tail deformities) to severe (paraparesis). Detailed epidemiological monitoring provided no indication of environmental factors affecting VSD. The malformations and dysfunctions associated with VSD, as well as its mode of inheritance and the genotyping of the suspected carrier sire, indicated that VSD is a defect previously not described in cattle. VSD is inherited in a dominant mode, but shows incomplete penetrance of the phenotype, which impedes unequivocal identification of VSD carriers. A direct diagnostic genetic test for VSD is available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surto de aflatoxicose em bezerros no Rio Grande do Sul Outbreak of aflatoxicosis in calves in southern Brazil

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    Felipe Pierezan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de aflatoxicose crônica é relatado em bezerros de raça leiteira. Quarenta bezerros holandeses machos de quatro meses de idade e aproximadamente 100kg eram mantidos em gaiolas individuais de 1,5 x 1,5m e alimentados com uma ração constituída por feno de alfafa, milho quebrado e substituto de leite. Seis bezerros (15% morreram após apresentar uma doença caracterizada por mau desenvolvimento geral, diarreia, pelagem áspera, dor abdominal, tenesmo, prolapso de reto e bruxismo. Alguns bezerros "deitavam e rolavam" no chão da gaiola. A duração do curso clínico, segundo observado pelos proprietários, foi de 2-3 dias; muitos terneiros desse lote que não morreram permaneceram pouco desenvolvidos. Três bezerros foram necropsiados. Os achados de necropsia incluíam fígado firme e castanho-claro, marcados hidrotórax e ascite, e edema do mesentério, mesocólon e das dobras da mucosa do abomaso. Os principais achados histopatológicos estavam restritos ao fígado e consistiam de fibrose, moderada megalocitose, hiperplasia de ductos biliares e lesão veno-oclusiva. A procura por contaminação de Senecio spp. no feno de alfafa resultou negativa. A análise do milho do alimento dos bezerros por cromatografia de camada delgada revelou 5.136ppb de aflatoxina B1. O diagnóstico de aflatoxicose foi feito baseado nos sinais clínicos e patologia característicos, na ausência de Senecio spp. na alimentação dos terneiros e na presença de altos níveis de aflatoxina no milho da alimentação dos bezerros.An outbreak of chronic aflatoxicosis is reported in dairy calves. Forty 4-month-old male Holstein calves of approximately 100kg were kept in individual cages of 1.5 x 1.5m and were fed a ration constituted by alfalfa hay, broken corn and milk substitute. Six calves (15% died after presenting a disease characterized by general unthriftiness, diarrhea, rough hair coats, abdominal pain, prolapsed rectum, grinding of teeth, and lying down

  14. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-2 responds to nutrient intake but not glucose provision in milk-fed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J J; Morrison, S Y; Hosseinni, A; Loor, J J; Drackley, J K; Ipharraguerre, I R

    2016-07-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a peptide released by the lower gut that has potent trophic and restorative effects on the intestinal epithelium. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of feeding rate and either metabolizable or nonmetabolizable glucose supplementation on GLP-2 concentrations in plasma and intestinal development in Holstein calves. In the first experiment, 48 newborn calves were assigned to 12 treatments (n=4) corresponding to the factorial combination of 4 milk feeding amounts [1.75, 1.32, 0.88, and 0.44% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM)] and 3 oral supplementation treatments (nonsupplemented, glucose-supplemented, and 3-O-methyl glucose-supplemented). In the second experiment 30 newborn calves (n=10) were fed milk at a fixed rate of 1.75% of BW as DM and assigned to the same glucose supplementation treatments used in experiment 1 to investigate effects on intestinal development. In the first experiment, we found a saturating response of plasma GLP-2 to increasing feeding levels. The feeding rate at which 50% of the maximal GLP-2 release occurred was estimated to be 0.53% of BW as DM or 30.3% of the maximum feeding rate (1.75% of BW as DM), whereas maximal secretion was estimated to be about 98.6 pmol/L. In turn, feeding 75, 50, or 25% of the maximal feeding rate (i.e., 1.75% BW as DM) resulted in plasma GLP-2 concentrations 87, 72, and 49% of that in fully fed calves, respectively. Neither metabolizable nor nonmetabolizable glucose supplementation affected GLP-2 secretion and no interaction with feed intake level was detected. In the second experiment, no effect of glucose supplementation was observed on intestinal growth, mucosal cell proliferation, or expression of genes related to the actions of GLP-2. Nonetheless, we observed that a pool of genes of the GLP-2 signaling pathway was more abundantly and coordinately regulated in the colon than in the ileum of these animals, indicating an opportunity for dietary induction

  15. Effect of early postpartum PGF2α treatment on reproductive performance in dairy cows with calving and puerperal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasel, B; Mokhtari, A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of early postpartum PGF two alpha treatment on reproductive performance in dairy cows with calving and puerperal traits. A total of 363 Holstein cows (128 primiparous and 235 multiparous) were selected based on the presence of at least one of calving and puerperal traits (dystocia, retained placenta, twin, abortion, and postpartum uterine infections) and were assigned to two groups (treatment and control) irrespective of presence or absence of luteal tissue. Cows in the treatment group were treated twice with 25 mg dinoprost 8 h apart on day 20 postpartum, and for the control group saline placebo was administered. As it was speculated that the timing of a second dose would mimic the release of endogenous PGF2α from the uterus, our hypothesis was that two doses of PGF2α 8 h apart may increase the duration of elevated plasma prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentration in these cows. Recorded reproductive variables included days to first estrus, days to first AI, first service conception rate, pregnancy by 150 days in milk, service per conception, open days, and the percentage of repeat breeder animals. The data were analyzed using SPSS (Version 15) (IBM North America, New York, NY, USA) and Minitab (Version 14) (Minitab, State College, PA, USA). Although early postpartum PGF2α treatment had no effect on days to first estrus (36.7 days vs. 34.9 days, P = 0.056) and days to first AI (70.5 days vs. 72.2 days, P = 0.537), it increased first service conception rate (47.1% vs. 27.6%, P remarkable in primiparous cows (64.7% vs. 25%, P service per conception (1.92 vs. 2.72, P < 0.001) and the mean open days (112 days vs. 144 days, P < 0.001), and increased pregnancy by 150 days in milk (DIM) (80% vs. 66%, P = 0.004). The prevalence of repeat breeder syndrome in cows with calving and puerperal traits was reduced by PGF2α treatment (10% vs. 29.8%, P < 0.001). In conclusion, treatment of cows with calving and puerperal

  16. Short communication: grazing pattern of dairy cows that were selected for divergent residual feed intake as calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Waghorn, G C; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Romera, A J; Macdonald, K A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and assess differences in the grazing pattern of 2 groups of mature dairy cows selected as calves for divergent residual feed intake (RFI). Sixteen Holstein-Friesian cows (471±31kg of body weight, 100 d in milk), comprising 8 cows selected as calves (6-8 mo old) for low (most efficient: CSCLowRFI) and 8 cows selected as calves for high (least efficient: CSCHighRFI) RFI, were used for the purpose of this study. Cows (n=16) were managed as a single group, and strip-grazed (24-h pasture allocation at 0800h) a perennial ryegrass sward for 31 d, with measurements taken during the last 21 d. All cows were equipped with motion sensors for the duration of the study, and jaw movements were measured for three 24-h periods during 3 random nonconsecutive days. Measurements included number of steps and jaw movements during grazing and rumination, plus fecal particle size distribution. Jaw movements were analyzed to identify bites, mastication (oral processing of ingesta) during grazing bouts, chewing during rumination, and to calculate grazing and rumination times for 24-h periods. Grazing and walking behavior were also analyzed in relation to the first meal of the day after the new pasture was allocated. Measured variables were subjected to multivariate analysis. Cows selected for low RFI as calves appeared to (a) prioritize grazing and rumination over idling; (b) take fewer steps, but with a higher proportion of grazing steps at the expense of nongrazing steps; and (c) increase the duration of the first meal and commenced their second meal earlier than CSCHighRFI. The CSCLowRFI had fewer jaw movements during eating (39,820 vs. 45,118 for CSCLowRFI and CSCHighRFI, respectively), more intense rumination (i.e., 5 more chews per bolus), and their feces had 30% less large particles than CSCHighRFI. These results suggest that CSCLowRFI concentrate their grazing activity to the time when fresh pasture is allocated, and graze more efficiently

  17. Comparison of two methods of breeding Holstein heifers, grazing and stabling In the villa maria farm, in firavitoba – Boyacá

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    Jorge Eliécer Plazas Real

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The breeding of replacement heifers constitutes one of the biggest challenges of competitive modern farming, especially in the dairy industry, where profitability is given a priority attention. This study compared two rearing systems for Holstein heifers on the “villa María” farm in Firavitoba (Boyacá - Colombia. This town is located in the highland tropic. For the study, 20 years old calves were randomly chosen. They were divided into two equal groups with the same food conditions and under the same study standards. This was done for a period of six months. Two methods of breeding were tested: grazing and stabling. In order to do a respective testing, the calves were weighed with an electric scale and a cattle tape measure for an interval of fifteen days. The data obtained were compared and analyzed to know which breeding method was the most effective. The results showed that the use of the stabling system produced a gain weight increase in the tested subjects, as well as maintenance of management and health conditions that were not observed in other types of rearing systems. Therefore, this system represents a better response in terms of animal wellbeing

  18. DETERMINATION OF SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO SEX RATIO OF BROWN SWISS CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the environmental factors related to sex of calves born from Brown-Swiss cattlereared at Malya (M) and Konuklar (K) State Farms in Türkiye. A total of 7055 calves (1861 calves for K and 5194calves for M state farms) were used as animal material. Unlike previous studies, a new ratio called “Relative FemaleRatio (RFR)” (the superiority of female to male calves) was firstly suggested in this study for dairy cattle. The data onsex of all these calves, calving...

  19. Spectral density method to Anderson-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebrolu, Narasimha Raju; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Two-parameter spectral density function of a magnetic impurity electron in a non-magnetic metal is calculated within the framework of the Anderson-Holstein model using the spectral density approximation method. The effect of electron-phonon interaction on the spectral function is investigated.

  20. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  1. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  2. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  3. Initial analysis of sperm DNA methylome in Holstein bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberrant DNA methylation patterns have been associated with abnormal semen parameters, idiopathic male infertility and early embryonic loss in mammals. Using Holstein bulls with high (Bull1) or low (Bull2) fertility rates, we created two representative sperm DNA methylomes at a single-base resolutio...

  4. Identification of complex vertebral malformation carriers in Chinese Holstein.