WorldWideScience

Sample records for prerequisites required texts

  1. A method for assessing required course-related skills and prerequisite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Wang, Jyhwen

    2015-05-01

    Engineering curricula should be dynamic with a goal of constant improvement and refinement. Unfortunately, this is often not the case; courses are developed, altered, and expanded in a piecemeal manner. Namely, as time progresses many programmes end up with courses that are developed and not a developed curriculum. To remedy this shortcoming product, development tools are proposed for the refinement and assessment of an existing curriculum; how these methods could be used for the development of a curriculum is also highlighted. The voice of the customer (VOC) process is used to identify and prioritise desired student skills. The design structure matrix (DSM) is used to assess course prerequisite structure. There is broad agreement between faculty and industry related to which professional skills are the most important. The DSM is shown to be a useful tool in ordering courses and assessing prerequisite structures. The DSM is also shown to be useful in identifying which courses in a curriculum are critical and should be the focus of educational and administrative resources.

  2. Commentary: Prerequisite Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2013-01-01

    Most biochemistry, genetics, cell biology, and molecular biology classes have extensive prerequisite or co-requisite requirements, often including introductory chemistry, introductory biology, and organic chemistry coursework. But what is the function of these prerequisites? While it seems logical that a basic understanding of biological and…

  3. Common definition for categories of clinical research: a prerequisite for a survey on regulatory requirements by the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubiak, Christine; de Andres-Trelles, Fernando; Kuchinke, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thorough knowledge of the regulatory requirements is a challenging prerequisite for conducting multinational clinical studies in Europe given their complexity and heterogeneity in regulation and perception across the EU member states. METHODS: In order to summarise the current situation...... with cell therapy, etc.); diagnostic studies; clinical research on nutrition; other interventional clinical research (including trials in complementary and alternative medicine, trials with collection of blood or tissue samples, physiology studies, etc.); and epidemiology studies. Our classification...

  4. Common definition for categories of clinical research: a prerequisite for a survey on regulatory requirements by the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Nuria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thorough knowledge of the regulatory requirements is a challenging prerequisite for conducting multinational clinical studies in Europe given their complexity and heterogeneity in regulation and perception across the EU member states. Methods In order to summarise the current situation in relation to the wide spectrum of clinical research, the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN developed a multinational survey in ten European countries. However a lack of common classification framework for major categories of clinical research was identified, and therefore reaching an agreement on a common classification was the initial step in the development of the survey. Results The ECRIN transnational working group on regulation, composed of experts in the field of clinical research from ten European countries, defined seven major categories of clinical research that seem relevant from both the regulatory and the scientific points of view, and correspond to congruent definitions in all countries: clinical trials on medicinal products; clinical trials on medical devices; other therapeutic trials (including surgery trials, transplantation trials, transfusion trials, trials with cell therapy, etc.; diagnostic studies; clinical research on nutrition; other interventional clinical research (including trials in complementary and alternative medicine, trials with collection of blood or tissue samples, physiology studies, etc.; and epidemiology studies. Our classification was essential to develop a survey focused on protocol submission to ethics committees and competent authorities, procedures for amendments, requirements for sponsor and insurance, and adverse event reporting following five main phases: drafting, consensus, data collection, validation, and finalising. Conclusion The list of clinical research categories as used for the survey could serve as a contribution to the, much needed, task of harmonisation and

  5. Common definition for categories of clinical research: a prerequisite for a survey on regulatory requirements by the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kubiak, Christine

    2009-10-16

    Abstract Background Thorough knowledge of the regulatory requirements is a challenging prerequisite for conducting multinational clinical studies in Europe given their complexity and heterogeneity in regulation and perception across the EU member states. Methods In order to summarise the current situation in relation to the wide spectrum of clinical research, the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) developed a multinational survey in ten European countries. However a lack of common classification framework for major categories of clinical research was identified, and therefore reaching an agreement on a common classification was the initial step in the development of the survey. Results The ECRIN transnational working group on regulation, composed of experts in the field of clinical research from ten European countries, defined seven major categories of clinical research that seem relevant from both the regulatory and the scientific points of view, and correspond to congruent definitions in all countries: clinical trials on medicinal products; clinical trials on medical devices; other therapeutic trials (including surgery trials, transplantation trials, transfusion trials, trials with cell therapy, etc.); diagnostic studies; clinical research on nutrition; other interventional clinical research (including trials in complementary and alternative medicine, trials with collection of blood or tissue samples, physiology studies, etc.); and epidemiology studies. Our classification was essential to develop a survey focused on protocol submission to ethics committees and competent authorities, procedures for amendments, requirements for sponsor and insurance, and adverse event reporting following five main phases: drafting, consensus, data collection, validation, and finalising. Conclusion The list of clinical research categories as used for the survey could serve as a contribution to the, much needed, task of harmonisation and simplification of the

  6. On Prerequisites of Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文

    2006-01-01

    Interpreters are invariably playing a crucial role in international affairs. Those who regularly read pictorials or watch TV news programs know best why interpreters are always placed between two leaders. That is because interpreters are indispensable if any two VIPs aim to achieve further understanding, to eliminate bilateral distrust or even establish alliance with each other, a fact may partly account for why so many students are swarming into translation schools. Are they able to become interpreters? What are the prerequisites for an interpreter? This article will, taking into operative factors as complete as possible, provide a basic framework under which prerequisites of interpreters are structured.

  7. Arithmetic: Prerequisite to Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Jack W.

    Drawing from research and observations at Lansing Community College (Michigan) (LCC), this paper argues that typical arithmetic courses do little to prepare students to master algebra, and proposes an alternative set of arithmetic skills as actual prerequisites to algebra. The first section offers a description of the algebra sequence at LCC,…

  8. Advanced prerequisite for E-infinity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    This is the third of a series of papers written with the primary aim of communicating necessary theoretical background knowledge required for an in-depth study of E-infinity theory. Compared to the previous two papers [El Naschie MS. Elementary prerequisites for E-infinity (Recommended background readings in nonlinear dynamics, geometry and topology). Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;30(3):579-605; El Naschie MS. Intermediate prerequisites for E-infinity theory. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;30(3):622-8], the present one may be described as advanced.

  9. PREREQUISITE PROGRAMMES IN OWN CHECKS IN STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prerequisite Programmes approach is a requirement for implementing a correct own check plan. This new approach, born according to the European Legislation, is completely recognized by third Nation Authorities and private Inspection and Accreditation Bodies. This method is the basis to verify if an own check system is under control and to verify if corrective actions are built up to warrant hygienic production standards. The present work demonstrate that a correct own check plan is built up only by a Pre Requisites Program approach. The new UNI EN ISO 22000:2005 standard describe this concept specifying the difference between PRP and CCP.

  10. Prerequisites of the Passage to a Regime of Inflation Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Minica

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The article synthetically presents the main prerequisites of the institutional and technical order we should consider in the context of the National Bank’s adopting a complex policy of inflation targeting.

  11. Digital Resolution Requirements for Replacing Text-Based Material: Methods for Benchmarking Image Quality. Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Anne R.; Chapman, Stephen

    This tutorial provides a means to estimate resolution requirements for the use of digital imaging technology in converting text-based material. It is suggested that benchmarks for resolution can be calculated by evaluating the physical attributes of source documents and by applying Quality Index formulas that have been derived from those…

  12. Press Conference for Issuing National Standard--Target Text Quality Requirements for Translation Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On June 2nd, the press conference for issuing the national standard-Target Text Quality Requirements for Translation Services was held in Beijing, jointly hosted by China Association for Standardization (CAS), Translator Association of China (TAC), China Translation and Publishing Corporation (CTPC) and China Shipol Information Center.

  13. 16 CFR 1130.7 - Requirements for text of registration form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for text of registration form. 1130.7 Section 1130.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... to fill the width of the card allowing for normal printing practices. (d) Product information....

  14. Minimal Impact of Organic Chemistry Prerequisite on Student Performance in Introductory Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory…

  15. Changing health care culture: a prerequisite to improving patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Saeed Azizi, Faisal Siddiqui, Ithsham Iqbal Faculty of Medicine, St George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UKWe read the recent article by Chua et al1 with great interest. We found it thought-provoking to read how novel interventions, such as sharing errors, among the team can reduce the frequency of error recurrence in the future. We are hopeful that if such interventions were applied to other areas of health care, it would yield similar results. Having said this, we strongly believe that an important prerequisite of openness among health care workers is required for such interventions to work. View the original paper by Chua et al 

  16. Advance directives: prerequisites and usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D

    2006-10-01

    Advance directives allow competent persons to extend their right of self-determination into the future, by recording choices that are intended to influence their future care should they become unable to make choices. They are considered tools to facilitate end-of-life decision making. Advance directives are a form of anticipatory decision-making. This article will focus on instruction directives against a certain treatment, so-called advance refusals. The most important legal requirement is the acknowledgement of patient autonomy. This condition is met in all European countries. The legal uncertainties surrounding advance refusals are focused on practical modalities rather than on the validity of the general principle. According to leading ethics the underlying moral rule of advanced directives is that all truly autonomous refusals of treatment must be respected, no matter what the consequences. Physicians find it hard to adhere to the wishes and choices of patients as expressed in directives. They find the text ambiguous. Another weakness is that directives give little information about what in the patient's view constitutes a good quality of life. Some health professionals lack the willingness to step outside their own value systems and fully embrace that of the patient. Empathic skills are required. Very few persons create an advance directive. Furthermore, of the created directives only some are accessible when patients are admitted to hospital. However, when directives are available they usually influence medical treatment decisions.

  17. A Novel Web-based Approach for Balancing Usability and Security Requirements of Text Passwords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Kulkarni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many Internet applications, for example e-commerce or email services require that users create a username and passwordwhich serves as an authentication mechanism. Though text passwords have been around for a while, not muchhas been done in helping naive Internet users in creating strong passwords. Generally users prefer easy-to-rememberpasswords, but service provides prefer that users use a strong, difficult-to-guess password policy to protect their ownresources. In this work we have explored how appropriate feedback on password strength can be useful in choosing astrong password. We first discuss the results of a security vs. usability study that we did, which shows the currenttrends in choosing passwords, and how a password cracking tools can easily guess a majority of weak passwords. Next,we propose a novel framework, which addresses our problem of enforcing password policies. Given a password policy,our framework is able to monitor password strength, and suggest passwords that are stronger. Moreover, since ourpasswords are pareto-efficient, and involve user participation in making a selection, we believe that our frameworkmakes appropriate tradeoffs between password strength and difficulty in remembering. We also propose novel ways tocompute the password reminder interval so that user-satisfaction remains within bounds. Experimental study showsthat our approach is much better that current password creation models, and serves as a practical tool that can beintegrated with Internet applications.

  18. Understanding spermatogenesis is a prerequisite for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Wolfgang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout spermatogenesis multiplication, maturation and differentiation of germ cells results in the formation of the male gamete. The understanding of spermatogenesis needs detailed informations about the organization of the germinal epithelium, the structure and function of different types of germ cells, endocrine and paracrine cells and mechanisms, intratesticular and extratesticular regulation of spermatogenesis. Normal germ cells must be discriminated from malformed, apoptotic and degenerating germ cells and tumor cells. Identification of the border line between normal and disturbed spermatogenesis substantiate the diagnosis of impaired male fertility. The profound knowledge of the complicate process of spermatogenesis and all cells or cell systems involved with is the prerequisite to develop concepts for therapy of male infertility or to handle germ cells in the management of assisted reproduction.

  19. Lack of Set Theory Relevant Prerequisite Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide

    2006-01-01

    Many students struggle with college mathematics topics due to a lack of mastery of prerequisite knowledge. Set theory language is one such prerequisite for linear algebra courses. Many students' mistakes on linear algebra questions reveal a lack of mastery of set theory knowledge. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative analysis of a…

  20. Prerequisites in behavioral science and business: opportunities for dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, David G; Lange, Brian M; Madden, Robert D; Tacha, Koko K

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing pressure on recent dental school graduates to understand and successfully utilize patient management and business management strategies to run a productive dental office. Dental schools are faced with the dilemma to either add more credit hours in their already crowded curriculum or adjust predental school requirements. All fifty-nine U.S. dental schools were assessed online to determine admission requirements in the areas of behavioral science and business education. Results show that only 11.9 percent of the schools require prerequisite course work in behavioral science and no school requires prerequisite course work in business. However, 64.4 percent and 30.5 percent of schools encouraged or recommended prerequisite course work in behavioral science and business, respectively. We suggest that the dental education community involve key stakeholders to discuss the incorporation of prerequisite course work in behavioral science and business. Additional courses in these disciplines would provide dental students better backgrounds from which the dental curriculum could build a more advanced and applied perspective to better prepare students for practice.

  1. A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness of Zoology Prerequisites at Slippery Rock State College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William Sechler

    This study compared the effectiveness of three sequences of prerequisite courses required before taking zoology. Sequence 1 prerequisite courses consisted of general biology and human biology; Sequence 2 consisted of general biology; and Sequence 3 required cell biology. Zoology students in the spring of 1972 were pretest and a posttest. The mean…

  2. Minimal Impact of Organic Chemistry Prerequisite on Student Performance in Introductory Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory biochemistry. We found no statistically significant differences between average biochemistry grades or grade distribution among students with or without t...

  3. Taxonomy of literature to justify data governance as a pre-requisite for information governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olaitan, O

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available is devoted to data governance. This study chronicles extant literature to justify the position that data governance should be a prerequisite for information governance within organisations. The study argues that an information governance policy which is based...

  4. Principles, Economic and Institutional Prerequisites for Fiscal Decentralization under Conditions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnevsky Valentine P.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study principles, economic and institutional prerequisites for fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories. It is determined that fiscal decentralization is one of the main ways to solve problems of post-conflict areas. There justified principles, economic and institutional prerequisites of fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories with regard to the specificity of individual spheres of fiscal relations. Moreover, different spheres of fiscal relations require different approaches: the sphere of public revenues — providing economic efficiency with the formation of the tax structure contributing to the expansion of the tax base; the sphere of public spending — ensuring social justice and transparency in allocation of social cost at the local level; the sphere of subsidies — narrowing the scope of application of intergovernmental transfers with organizing the redistribution of financial resources under the principle of «center - post-conflict regions - post-conflict recipients»; the sphere of external assistance — ensuring proper coordination for cultivation of new co-operative institutions.

  5. Prerequisites for Forming the Institutional Concept of the National Economy Competitiveness under Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaremenko Oleh L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to prove that under conditions of globalization there have developed objective and subjective prerequisites for forming the institutional concept of the national economy. The objective prerequisites are the newest information and communication technologies, post-industrial trends and market transformation of civilization intensified by globalization. Under such conditions instability and volatility of the institutional environment both within national economies and at the international level are observed. The aggravation of the global competition between national economies actualizes the role of such institutional factors as political system, property, public administration, economic organization, culture, etc. The subjective prerequisites are related to the fact that the institutional economic theory is currently one of the leading trends in the modern world and Ukrainian economic thought. Interest in it is explained not only by the fact that it overcomes the limitations of a number of prerequisites for the mainstream, but also because it allows considering the modern economic processes in complex

  6. Decision Support Systems - Technical Prerequisites and Military Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Tolk, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Decision Support Systems in the sense of online alternative course of action (ACAO) development and analysis as well as tools for online Development of Doctrine and Tactics Techniques, and Procedures (DTTP) for support to operations make it possible to evaluate and forecast the command and control processes and the performance capabilities of the friendly and enemy forces and other decision relevant factors, support the military commander (brigade and higher) and his staff in their headquarter by increasing their ability to identify own opportunities, support all phases of the command and control process, use computer based, automatic and closed models, that can be adapted to the current situation. Objective of the paper is to present the results of studies conducted in Germany on behalf of the German Ministry of Defense with the objective to work out the conceptual basis for decision support systems and to evaluate, how this technique will influence the command and control system of the army of the federal a...

  7. Minimal impact of organic chemistry prerequisite on student performance in introductory biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory biochemistry. We found no statistically significant differences between average biochemistry grades or grade distribution among students with or without the organic chemistry prerequisite. However, students who had not completed the organic chemistry prerequisite before biochemistry were more likely to withdraw from the course than those who had completed the prerequisite. In contrast to the lack of correlation between performance in biochemistry and completion of organic chemistry, we observed a strong, highly significant positive relationship between cumulative GPA and the biochemistry grade. Our data suggest that excluding students without organic chemistry would have less positive impact on student success in biochemistry than would providing additional support for all students who enroll in biochemistry with a cumulative GPA below 2.5.

  8. Syllable division: Prerequisite to dyslexics' literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A R; Hutcheson, L

    1988-01-01

    Skill in reading long words is prerequisite to dyslexics' literacy. Instant recognition of printed symbols is easy for those readers with photographic memories, but dyslexics often fail to recognize visually many long words which are actually familiar to them auditorially. Scientific, automatic, multisensory procedures for dividing longer words into easily read syllables can enable students to translate visual symbols rapidly and thereby to read, write, or spell accurately words of any length.Over one thousand dyslexics, aged seven to fifteen, guided the interdisciplinary team at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital in Dallas to develop, observe results, and test specific structured, sequential steps in working out longer words. The ten-year study (1965-1975) in the Language Laboratory of the Hospital established the Alphabetic Phonics curriculum which is now used successfully, not only in remedial groups but in regular classes of any size or age, in public and private schools in 45 states and six foreign countries.The newly-established Aylett Royall Cox Institute in Dallas prepares teachers and Master Instructors to train both students and other teachers. Comparable Alphabetic Phonics Teacher Training Centers are already established in Houston and Lubbock, Texas, in Oklahoma City, and at Columbia University Teachers College in New York.

  9. Academic Performance in MBA Programs: Do Prerequisites Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Donald Gene; Nance, William R.; White, Darin W.

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers have examined criteria used in Master of Business Administration (MBA) admissions decisions. However, prior research has not examined predictive ability of undergraduate prerequisite courses in core business disciplines. The authors investigated whether undergraduate prerequisite courses predicted MBA success by analyzing the…

  10. Academic Performance in MBA Programs: Do Prerequisites Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Donald Gene; Nance, William R.; White, Darin W.

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers have examined criteria used in Master of Business Administration (MBA) admissions decisions. However, prior research has not examined predictive ability of undergraduate prerequisite courses in core business disciplines. The authors investigated whether undergraduate prerequisite courses predicted MBA success by analyzing the…

  11. Organisational and Infrastructure Prerequisites of Creation of an International Logistic Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnavska Nataliya P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of organisational and infrastructure prerequisites of creation and functioning of integration structures capable, on the basis of logistics, of assisting subjects of economy in structuring and optimisation of material flows and also accompanying financial and information flows. In the result of the study the article identifies irregularities of the transition of national economies to new models of development and prospects of development of logistic provision of the innovation economy connected with them, transformation possibilities and prospects of international integration of the logistic market of Ukraine; it analyses prerequisites and substantiates expediency and shows benefits of formation of an international logistic centre in the city of Ternopil. The mission of the planned international logistic centre is ensuring a qualitatively new level of logistic provision of market participants, which would correspond with the existing world standards. The logistic centre performs realisation of its tasks and conduct of functions in the process of interaction with partners – participants of the logistic chain. The logistic centre should become an operator of flows of transit and export-import cargoes and it would perform important logistic functions connected not only with organisation of shipping operations but also with sorting, storing, packing and some other functions at the level of the best world representatives of the logistic servicing. In order to ensure successful activity of such a centre, it is required to adapt tariff policy of the state to international standards, to expand a list of relevant services, to reduce terms of cargo handling and to introduce modern technologies of information processing intensively.

  12. What's in a Prerequisite? A Mixed-Methods Approach to Identifying the Impact of a Prerequisite Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K.; Lee, Amanda K.; Alam, Usman; Dang, Jennifer V.; Dacanay, Samantha J.; Morgado, Pedro; Pirino, Giorgia; Brunner, Jo Ellen; Castillo, Leanne A.; Chan, Valerie W.; Sandholtz, Judith H.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of prerequisites in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula, there has been minimal effort to assess their value in a data-driven manner. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, we examined the impact of prerequisites in the context of a microbiology lecture and lab course pairing.…

  13. Prerequisites for sustainable care improvement using the reflective team as a work model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Carlsson, Gunilla; Nyström, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Several work models for care improvement have been developed in order to meet the requirement for evidence-based care. This study examines a work model for reflection, entitled the reflective team (RT). The main idea behind RTs is that caring skills exist among those who work closest to the patients. The team leader (RTL) encourages sustainable care improvement, rooted in research and proven experience, by using a lifeworld perspective to stimulate further reflection and a developmental process leading to research-based caring actions within the team. In order to maintain focus, it is important that the RTL has a clear idea of what sustainable care improvement means, and what the prerequisites are for such improvement. The aim of the present study is, therefore, to explore the prerequisites for improving sustainable care, seeking to answer how RTLs perceive these and use RTs for concrete planning. Nine RTLs were interviewed, and their statements were phenomenographically analysed. The analysis revealed three separate qualitative categories, which describe personal, interpersonal, and structural aspects of the prerequisites. In the discussion, these categories are compared with previous research on reflection, and the conclusion is reached that the optimal conditions for RTs to work, when focussed on sustainable care improvement, occur when the various aspects of the prerequisites are intertwined and become a natural part of the reflective work.

  14. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS: PREREQUISITE FOR SUCCESSFUL TOURISM ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Kraleva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, each and every organization, including the tourism organizations should be learning organizations. The globalization and the competition affect the process of working of tourism organizations, where only the organizations which have knowledge, and are learning organizations can succeed. In a time of constant change, tourism organizations can have a competitive advantage only if they can do something or offer something different than their competitors. Many organizations in order to enable the learning process, should firstly undertake changes in the organization design, the organizational culture and the leadership style. The paper discusses the relevance of implementing the process of learning organizations as a concept for successful tourism organizations.

  15. Intercultural communication. Prerequisites for translation effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titela Vîlceanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to raise awareness of some recurrent problems related to cultural and linguistic security in translation alongside strategies of achieving it. Globalisation means global thinking, individual accountability and the development of new sensitivities and capabilities. Different models of Intercultural Communicative Competence are scrutinised in an attempt to identify a common core of generalisable traits, which could be further applied to a wide range of translation situations. The (intercultural load is of paramount importance in translation being, more often than not, the cause of serious misunderstanding if the translator does not adequately equate the two cultures or bridge the cultural gap.

  16. β-Catenin inactivation is a pre-requisite for chick retina regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available In the present study we explored the role of β-catenin in mediating chick retina regeneration. The chick can regenerate its retina by activating stem/progenitor cells present in the ciliary margin (CM of the eye or via transdifferentiation of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE. Both modes require fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2. We observed, by immunohistochemistry, dynamic changes of nuclear β-catenin in the CM and RPE after injury (retinectomy. β-Catenin nuclear accumulation was transiently lost in cells of the CM in response to injury alone, while the loss of nuclear β-catenin was maintained as long as FGF2 was present. However, nuclear β-catenin positive cells remained in the RPE in response to injury and were BrdU-/p27+, suggesting that nuclear β-catenin prevents those cells from entering the cell cycle. If FGF2 is present, the RPE undergoes dedifferentiation and proliferation concomitant with loss of nuclear β-catenin. Moreover, retinectomy followed by disruption of active β-catenin by using a signaling inhibitor (XAV939 or over-expressing a dominant negative form of Lef-1 induces regeneration from both the CM and RPE in the absence of FGF2. Our results imply that β-catenin protects cells of the CM and RPE from entering the cell cycle in the developing eye, and specifically for the RPE during injury. Thus inactivation of β-catenin is a pre-requisite for chick retina regeneration.

  17. Prerequisites for building a computer security incident response capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mooi, M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of considerations before one can commence with establishing a Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT). This paper presents the results of a structured literature review investigating the business requirements...

  18. Social Prerequisites and Outcomes of Accountable Curriculum in Higher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nili

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHigher education system(HES is a social institution that has long been set up to accomplish threemissions education, research and service, but during recent years entrepreneurship has been added to itsmissions. Curriculum is the most important component and subsystem of HES and has been thought of as theheart of higher education (HE, because it is the most fundamental means that provides students withknowledge, experience and skills to supply services to the society. The curriculum which can accomplishideals and missions of universities, organizational (of the university and social (of the employers and thesociety is called accountable curriculum (AC. The main goal of this research was explanation ofprerequisites and social outcomes of higher education accountable curriculum (HEAC. To do the researchdescriptive survey method was used and in order to collect the needed data interview and questionnaireinstruments were utilized.The sample of the study which the questionnaire was distributed in, included faculty members and graduatestudents of university of Isfahan, Technical University of Isfahan, and Medical University of Isfahan andalso employers and administrators of the companies of Isfahan city. The participants of the sample wereal1ocated using stratified random sampling. The questionnaire surveyed the sample's viewpoints aboutprerequisites and outcomes of the AC in the field of social services. The collected data were analyzed atdescriptive and inferential levels using SPSS. The findings of T-test revealed that the mean of the sample'sviewpoints about the explained prerequisites and outcomes had been more than the hypothetical (theoreticalmean of the population (p≤0/001. The multivariate variance analysis( MANOVA of the data showed thatthere hadn't been significant difference among viewpoints of faculties, and employers in respect ofprerequisites of HEAC, but there had been significant difference between their views about expected

  19. Text mining from ontology learning to automated text processing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biemann, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This book comprises a set of articles that specify the methodology of text mining, describe the creation of lexical resources in the framework of text mining and use text mining for various tasks in natural language processing (NLP). The analysis of large amounts of textual data is a prerequisite to build lexical resources such as dictionaries and ontologies and also has direct applications in automated text processing in fields such as history, healthcare and mobile applications, just to name a few. This volume gives an update in terms of the recent gains in text mining methods and reflects

  20. Are There Linguistic Prerequisites for Contact-Induced Language Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Sarah Grey

    Observation of language change caused by language contact tend not to support theories put forth by Meillet, Jakobson, Weinreich, and others that there are linguistic prerequisites for such change. A theory of the social factors that determine what kinds of language change will take place as a result of contact begins with the recognition of two…

  1. Students' Perceptions on Intrapreneurship Education--Prerequisites for Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansikas, Juha; Murphy, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study is to understand the prerequisites for learning organisations (LO) as perceived by university students. Intrapreneurship education offers possibilities to increase student's adaptation of learning organisation's climate and behaviour. By analysing students' perceptions, more information about learning organisation…

  2. Cognitive and Neural Prerequisites for Time in Language: Any Answers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the position article to this volume, Klein outlines a set of questions that are relevant for furthering the linguist's understanding of what the cognitive and neural prerequisites for time in language might be. He also declares a certain skepticism regarding the likelihood that new methods from other disciplines will provide answers to those…

  3. Students' Perceptions on Intrapreneurship Education--Prerequisites for Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansikas, Juha; Murphy, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study is to understand the prerequisites for learning organisations (LO) as perceived by university students. Intrapreneurship education offers possibilities to increase student's adaptation of learning organisation's climate and behaviour. By analysing students' perceptions, more information about learning organisation…

  4. Should College Algebra be a Prerequisite for Taking Psychology Statistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibulkin, Amy E.; Butler, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to consider whether a course in college algebra should be a prerequisite for taking psychology statistics, we recorded students' grades in elementary psychology statistics and in college algebra at a 4-year university. Students who earned credit in algebra prior to enrolling in statistics for the first time had a significantly higher mean…

  5. Are There Linguistic Prerequisites for Contact-Induced Language Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Sarah Grey

    Observation of language change caused by language contact tend not to support theories put forth by Meillet, Jakobson, Weinreich, and others that there are linguistic prerequisites for such change. A theory of the social factors that determine what kinds of language change will take place as a result of contact begins with the recognition of two…

  6. 76 FR 14678 - Communications Unit Leader Prerequisite and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... the entire collection increasing from the initial reported cost of $48,840 to $49,084. Analysis Agency... Burden Cost (operating/maintaining): $18,315. COML Train the Trainer Prerequisites Verification Frequency..., or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g...

  7. What's in a Prerequisite? A Mixed-Methods Approach to Identifying the Impact of a Prerequisite Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K; Lee, Amanda K; Alam, Usman; Dang, Jennifer V; Dacanay, Samantha J; Morgado, Pedro; Pirino, Giorgia; Brunner, Jo Ellen; Castillo, Leanne A; Chan, Valerie W; Sandholtz, Judith H

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of prerequisites in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula, there has been minimal effort to assess their value in a data-driven manner. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, we examined the impact of prerequisites in the context of a microbiology lecture and lab course pairing. Through interviews and an online survey, students highlighted a number of positive attributes of prerequisites, including their role in knowledge acquisition, along with negative impacts, such as perhaps needlessly increasing time to degree and adding to the cost of education. We also identified a number of reasons why individuals do or do not enroll in prerequisite courses, many of which were not related to student learning. In our particular curriculum, students did not believe the microbiology lecture course impacted success in the lab, which agrees with our analysis of lab course performance using a previously established "familiarity" scale. These conclusions highlight the importance of soliciting and analyzing student feedback, and triangulating these data with quantitative performance metrics to assess the state of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula.

  8. What’s in a Prerequisite? A Mixed-Methods Approach to Identifying the Impact of a Prerequisite Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K.; Lee, Amanda K.; Alam, Usman; Dang, Jennifer V.; Dacanay, Samantha J.; Morgado, Pedro; Pirino, Giorgia; Brunner, Jo Ellen; Castillo, Leanne A.; Chan, Valerie W.; Sandholtz, Judith H.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of prerequisites in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula, there has been minimal effort to assess their value in a data-driven manner. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, we examined the impact of prerequisites in the context of a microbiology lecture and lab course pairing. Through interviews and an online survey, students highlighted a number of positive attributes of prerequisites, including their role in knowledge acquisition, along with negative impacts, such as perhaps needlessly increasing time to degree and adding to the cost of education. We also identified a number of reasons why individuals do or do not enroll in prerequisite courses, many of which were not related to student learning. In our particular curriculum, students did not believe the microbiology lecture course impacted success in the lab, which agrees with our analysis of lab course performance using a previously established “familiarity” scale. These conclusions highlight the importance of soliciting and analyzing student feedback, and triangulating these data with quantitative performance metrics to assess the state of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula. PMID:28232587

  9. Prerequisites for Successful Strategic Partnerships for Sustainable Building Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Thuesen, Christian

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the prerequisites for establishing successful strategic partnerships in relation to renovating buildings sustainably. Establishing strategic partnerships is in the paper seen as a potential way to make building renovation more sustainable in Denmark...... particularly in terms of reducing energy consumption and use of resources and increase productivity. However, until now we have only had a limited number of such partnerships implemented and the few examples that do exist, mostly concern the construction of new buildings. The paper is based on an investigation...... industry and analyses of two exemplary cases the paper suggests prerequisites for establishing successful strategic partnerships for sustainable building renovation. The results show that strategic partnerships are collaborations set up between two or more organizations that remain independent...

  10. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  11. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  12. The Prerequisite of Personal Guilt and the Duty to Know the Law in the Light of Article 32 ICC Statute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bock

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In international criminal law, personal guilt is a basic prerequisite for criminal liability. A guilty verdict requires at least a psychological relation between the actor and the act, i.e., the actor must fulfil the actus reus of the offence with intent and knowledge. It is, however, a contested issue if this also means that the defendant must have been aware of the criminality of his action. At first glance, the ICC Statute seems to answer this question in the negative: it adopts a narrow understanding of the mens rea requirement which does not include, as a rule, consciousness of the legal wrong, and admits mistakes of law as a valid defence only if they – by way of an exception – negate the required mens rea. This restrictive approach does not, however, have a solid basis in comparative law. Moreover, given the complexity of at least some war crime provisions it seems highly questionable to punish persons who honestly but wrongfully believe that their conduct is lawful without taking into account whether they can be blamed for their ignorance of the law. Rather, the principle of personal guilt understood in a broad and comprehensive sense calls for a more flexible approach towards mistakes of law having due regard to the reasonableness or avoidability of the misconception.

  13. Relationship Between the Cognitive Abilities of a Group of Tertiary Physics Students and the Cognitive Requirements of their Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationship between cognitive requirements of two chapters of a physics textbook for biology/pre-med students and their ability to use prerequisite reasoning skills required for its understanding. An average of 42 percent of students tested did not consistently use reasoning skills required to understand text concepts. Discusses tests…

  14. Text Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three roles of textbook illustrations--to arrest the reader's attention and arouse interest, to provide explanation and clarification of complex verbal descriptions, and to aid retention of the information presented in the text. It is recommended that illustrations be designed with their specific role(s) in mind. (EAO)

  15. Clinical Governance in Primary Care; Principles, Prerequisites and Barriers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Sadeq Tabrizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary care organizations are the entities through which clinical governance is developed at local level. To implement clinical governance in primary care, awareness about principles, prerequisites and barriers of this quality improvement paradigm is necessary. The aim of this study is to pool evidence about implementing clinical governance in primary care organizations. Data sources: The literature search was conducted in July 2012. PubMed, Web of Science, Emerald, Springerlink, and MD Consult were searched using the following MESH keywords; “clinical governance” and “primary care” Study selection: The search was limited to English language journals with no time limitation. Articles that were either quantitative or qualitative on concepts of implementing clinical governance in primary care were eligible for this study. Data extraction: From selected articles, data on principles, prerequisites and barriers of clinical governance in primary health care were extracted and classified in the extraction tables. Results: We classified our findings about principles of clinical governance in primary care in four groups; general principles, principles related to staff, patient and communication. Prerequisites were categorized in eight clusters; same as the seven dimensions of National Health System (NHS models of clinical governance. Barriers were sorted out in five categories as structure and organizing, cultural, resource, theoretical and logistical. Conclusion: Primary care organizations must provide budget holding, incentivized programs, data feedback, peer review, education, human relations, health information technology (HIT support, and resources. Key elements include; enrolled populations, an interdisciplinary team approach, HIT interoperability and access between all providers as well as patients, devolution of hospital based services into the community, inter-sectorial integration, blended payments, and a balance of

  16. Extension and Prerequisite: An Algorithm to Enable Relations Between Responses in Chatbot Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas S. Lokman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Artificial intelligence chatbot is a technology that makes interactions between man and machines using natural language possible. From literature, we found out that in general, chatbot are functions like a typical search engine. Although chatbot just produced only one output instead of multiple outputs/results, the basic process flow is the same where each time an input is entered, the new search will be done. Nothing related to previous output. This research is focused on enabling chatbot to become a search engine that can process the next search with the relation to the previous search output. In chatbot context, this functionality will enhance the capability of chatbot’s input processing. Approach: In attempt to augment the traditional mechanism of chatbot processes, we used the relational database model approach to redesign the architecture of chatbot in a whole as well as incorporated the algorithm of Extension and Prerequisite (our proposed algorithm. By using this design, we had developed and tested Virtual Diabetes physician (ViDi, a web-based chatbot that function in specific domain of Diabetes education. Results: Extension and prerequisite enabled relations between responses that significantly make it easier for user to chat with chatbot using the same approach as chatting with an actual human. Chatbot can give different responses from the same input given by user according to current conversation issue. Conclusion: Extension and prerequisite makes chatting with chatbot becomes more likely as chatting with an actual human prior to the relations between responses that produce a response related to the current conversation issue.

  17. Reasons and Prerequisites of Goodwill Devaluation in the Ukrainian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundrya-Vysotska Oksana P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors conduct studies of economic prerequisites and factors, which resulted in writing-off significant amounts of goodwill value in Ukrainian banking institutions, which are structural parts of international financial institutions. In the result of analysis of main prerequisites the article identifies external and internal reasons of acknowledgement of devaluation of goodwill in the domestic banking sector. In accordance with the results of the study, the article identifies that acknowledgement of devaluation of goodwill testifies to a negative mood of foreign investors with respect to prospects of business development in the domestic banking market. The article justifies expediency of, separate from goodwill, identification of intangible assets, subject to acknowledgement in the result of unification of banks, in particular the client base of a bank, as an intangible asset with a final date of useful use. It proves that acknowledgement of this asset in the result of unification would allow avoiding significant amounts of write-off of goodwill value under unfavourable economic conditions. The prospect of further studies in this direction is justification of an optimal method of identification of the amount of goodwill devaluation, which would allow avoiding manipulations with financial reporting and would improve quality of presented information about the real financial state of banking institutions.

  18. The Informational Text Structure Survey (ITS[superscript 2]): An Exploration of Primary Grade Teachers' Sensitivity to Text Structure in Young Children's Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Kumar, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    There has been no research reported about if or how well primary grade teachers can identify information text structures in children's authentic informational texts. The ability to do so accurately and reliably is a prerequisite for teachers to be able to teach students how to recognize and use text structures to assist them in comprehending…

  19. Epistemological considerations on neuroimaging--a crucial prerequisite for neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian G; Huber, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Whereas ethical considerations on imaging techniques and interpretations of neuroimaging results flourish, there is not much work on their preconditions. In this paper, therefore, we discuss epistemological considerations on neuroimaging and their implications for neuroethics. Neuroimaging uses indirect methods to generate data about surrogate parameters for mental processes, and there are many determinants influencing the results, including current hypotheses and the state of knowledge. This leads to an interdependence between hypotheses and data. Additionally, different levels of description are involved, especially when experiments are designed to answer questions pertaining to broad concepts like the self, empathy or moral intentions. Interdisciplinary theoretical frameworks are needed to integrate findings from the life sciences and the humanities and to translate between them. While these epistemological issues are not specific for neuroimaging, there are some reasons why they are of special importance in this context: Due to their inferential proximity, 'neuro-images' seem to be self-evident, suggesting directness of observation and objectivity. This has to be critically discussed to prevent overinterpretation. Additionally, there is a high level of attention to neuroimaging, leading to a high frequency of presentation of neuroimaging data and making the critical examination of their epistemological properties even more pressing. Epistemological considerations are an important prerequisite for neuroethics. The presentation and communication of the results of neuroimaging studies, the potential generation of new phenomena and new 'dysfunctions' through neuroimaging, and the influence on central concepts at the foundations of ethics will be important future topics for this discipline.

  20. Intermediate prerequisites for E-infinity theory (Further recommended reading in nonlinear dynamics and mathematical physics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt) and Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt) and Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)]. E-mail: LTho410189@aol.com

    2006-11-15

    The paper presents an intermediate level prerequisite for understanding E-infinity theory as applied to particle physics. It is the sequel to an earlier elementary level prerequisite paper (El Naschie MS. Elementary prerequisite for E-infinity. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;30(3):579-605). The work ends with a somewhat detailed discussion of the role which a Lagrangian type formulation could play in E-infinity theory.

  1. Paradigm shifts and other prerequisites to facilitate the institutionalising of strategy in South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruger

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available South African organisations must undergo a mind shift and adhere to certain prerequisites to survive and be successful. It is evident that companies not changing their mindsets will not survive and be able to create a sustainable competitive advantage and to compete in world markets. Companies have to solve new problems with new paradigms, constantly create something better, something new, create new markets as opposed to increasing market share. The Third Wave development will lead to societal transformation. Moving to Third Wave will imply growth organisations to act like small entrepreneurial businesses that will have the benefit of speed and simplicity but also be able to implement strategy more effectively. Time is of the essence. South African companies have no other option but to move swiftly. The transformation from second to third wave is inevitable.

  2. Web-based diagnosis and therapy of auditory prerequisites for reading and spelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krammer, Sandra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in auditory or visual processing or in verbal short-term-memory are amongst others risk factors for the development of dyslexia (reading and spelling disability. By early identification and intervention (optimally before school entry, detrimental effects of these cognitive deficits on reading and spelling might be prevented. The goal of the CASPAR-project is to develop and evaluate web-based tools for diagnosis and therapy of cognitive prerequisites for reading and spelling, which are appropriate for kindergarten children. In the first approach CASPAR addresses auditory processing disorders. This article describes a computerized and web-based approach for screening and testing phoneme discrimination and for promoting phoneme discrimination abilities through interactive games in kindergarteners.

  3. Active Learning: A Prerequisite for Language Development in the Mixed Ability Class (MAC of Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Harraw Verma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering students tend to pay more attention to their core subject classes rather than on an English language class. They all come from different social and academic backgrounds and their knowledge of English language varies from one another. A mixed ability group throws many challenges to an English language teacher teaching to a grown up or rather adult group of learners who always pre-define their interests and needs. The primary and the most important challenge in front of the language teacher teaching engineering students is - how to promote active learning in MAC situation? A language teacher to overcome the problems of a mixed ability classroom and promote active learning needs to adopt a number of strategies. The paper studies the MAC situation in an English language classroom of engineering students and makes an attempt to re-define methods for active learning a prerequisite for language development in an engineering classroom.

  4. Sustainable energy management - a prerequisite for the realization Kyoto Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Golušin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy management can be defined as the process of planning, directing, implementing and controlling the process of generation, transmission and energy consumption. Energy management is a kind of synthesis of phenomena and concepts of modern energy management (management, or the use of modern settings management in the energy sector. Furthermore, when outlining the basic settings for power management Modern management is based on the assumptions of sustainability and conservation of energy stability for present and future generations. Therefore, modern energy management can be seen as a kind of synthesis of three actuarial sciences: energy, sustainable development and management. Sustainable Energy Management is a unique new concept, idea and approach that require many changes in the traditional way of understanding and interpretation of energy management at all levels. Sustainable energy management concept can not therefore be construed as an adopted and defined the concept, but must be constantly modified and adjusted in accordance with changes in the three areas that define it, and in accordance with the specific country or region where applicable. Accordingly, sustainable energy management can be defined as the process of energy management that is based on fundamental principles of sustainable development.

  5. 14 CFR 61.35 - Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing....35 Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing grades. (a) An applicant for a knowledge test must have... part for the certificate or rating sought and is prepared for the knowledge test; and (2)...

  6. Academic Performance of Nursing Students: Do Prerequisite Grades and Tutoring Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potolsky, Alicia; Cohen, Jayne; Saylor, Coleen

    2003-01-01

    The academic performance of first-semester nursing students who attended 5 or more (n=18) or fewer than 5 (n=19) tutorials was compared. A significant relationship was found between grades in prerequisite science courses and first-semester performance. Those who attended fewer tutorials had higher prerequisite course grades. (Contains 17…

  7. Quality text editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyöngyi Bujdosó

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Text editing is more than the knowledge of word processing techniques. Originally typographers, printers, text editors were the ones qualified to edit texts, which were well structured, legible, easily understandable, clear, and were able to emphasize the coreof the text. Time has changed, and nowadays everyone has access to computers as well as to text editing software and most users believe that having these tools is enough to edit texts. However, text editing requires more skills. Texts appearing either in printed or inelectronic form reveal that most of the users do not realize that they are not qualified to edit and publish their works. Analyzing the ‘text-products’ of the last decade a tendency can clearly be drawn. More and more documents appear, which instead of emphasizingthe subject matter, are lost in the maze of unstructured text slices. Without further thoughts different font types, colors, sizes, strange arrangements of objects, etc. are applied. We present examples with the most common typographic and text editing errors. Our aim is to call the attention to these mistakes and persuadeusers to spend time to educate themselves in text editing. They have to realize that a well-structured text is able to strengthen the effect on the reader, thus the original message will reach the target group.

  8. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  9. Organizational prerequisites for the preservation of library collections in monastery libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Krtalić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the preservation of written heritage in monastery libraries from legislative, institutional and organizational perspectives, and establish the necessary organizational prerequisites for improvement. Setting off from the presupposition that the library collections of monastery libraries are of immense cultural value, and can therefore be considered cultural good and part of Croatian written heritage, the paper discussed the need for a systematic approach to its protection, both on the operative level, in libraries themselves, and on the strategic level, by the authorities and other relevant institutions in the Republic of Croatia. In addition to the analysis of the legal and institutional frameworks and library collections preservation projects, three case studies were conducted in Franciscan monasteries in Mostar, Požega and Zadar, including interviews with their managers and one subject from the Croatian Institute of Librarianship. The case study aimed to investigate the context of the preservation of library collections in monastery libraries and provide answers to the following questions: how is the preservation in monastery libraries defined; how does it differ from the preservation in other libraries, and how is the preservation of collections in these libraries organized on institutional, local, and national levels? The research sets off from several core presuppositions: monastery libraries have valuable collections of Croatian and European written heritage; the heritage collections in monastery libraries are not investigated, organized, protected or presented at an adequate level; the responsibility for its preservation is not clearly assigned, there is not enough staff trained for preservation; the improvements in preservation and availability of library collections in monastery libraries should result from a better organization and management of the heritage preservation system in monastery

  10. Marine survey techniques: A prerequisite for exploratory fishing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, M.C.; Kotnala, K.L.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Fish_Related_Oceanogr_1991_17.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Fish_Related_Oceanogr_1991_17.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  11. 75 FR 5608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and Evaluation AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION:...

  12. A systematic review of prerequisites for implementing assessment for learning in classroom practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, M.C.; Kleij, van der F.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.; Schildkamp, K.; Kippers, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Although many researchers acknowledge that Assessment for Learning can significantly enhance student learning, the factors facilitating or hindering its implementation in daily classroom practice are unclear. A systematic literature review was conducted to reveal prerequisites needed for Assessment

  13. Prerequisite Skills That Support Learning through Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Dickson, Chata A.; Martineau, Meaghan; Ahearn, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tasks that require delayed discriminations such as delayed imitation and delayed matching to sample on acquisition of skills using video modeling. Twenty-nine participants with an ASD diagnosis were assessed on a battery of tasks including both immediate and delayed imitation and…

  14. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  15. The political economy of health promotion: part 2, national provision of the prerequisites of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Governmental authorities of wealthy developed nations differ in their professed commitments and activity related to the provision of the prerequisites of health through public policy action. Part 1 of this article showed how nations identified as social democratic or liberal welfare states were those where such commitments are present. Nations identified as conservative or Latin welfare states were less likely to express such commitments. However, the political economy literature suggests that despite their expressed commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health, liberal welfare states fare rather poorly in implementing these commitments. The opposite is seen for conservative welfare states. Social democratic welfare states show both commitments and public policy consistent with this objective. Part 2 of this article documents the extent to which public policy activity that provides the prerequisites of health through public policy action differs among varying welfare state regimes. Despite extensive rhetoric concerning the prerequisites of health, nations identified as liberal welfare states do a rather poor job of meeting these goals and show evidence of adverse health outcomes. In contrast, social democratic welfare states fare better in providing such prerequisites--consistent with their rhetorical statements--with better health outcomes. Interestingly, conservative--and to a lesser extent Latin--nations fare well in providing the prerequisites of health despite their lack of explicit commitment to such concepts. Findings suggest that health promoters have to concern themselves with the broad strokes of public policymaking whether or not these policy activities are identified as health promotion activities.

  16. Determination of prerequisites for implementation of IPOs in the Czech capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meluzín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In advanced markets, IPOs represent an opportunity to obtain the necessary capital for further company development. This form of financing is significant not only for the joint-stock company itself, for which an IPO is an alternative to debt financing, but also for further development of the capital market as a whole. That is to say, one of the fundamental functions of the capital market, the allocation function, is accomplished by means of IPOs. It follows from investigations of the situation in IPOs in the Czech Republic that financing company development through IPOs, which are linked with entrance into the capital market, has not become common practice in the Czech capital market. Comparing the present situation with the situation in international markets, it must be stated that the Czech capital market shows anomalies not only with regard to advanced capital markets such as those in the USA or Japan but also in reference to markets in Central and Eastern Europe. In the past, unfavourable conditions resulting from legislation and the institutional environment were considered the major cause of the long-term low numbers of initial public offerings in the Czech Republic. It follows from the results of the analysis of legislative barriers to carrying out IPOs that in recent years, a number of steps were taken to draw the Czech capital market nearer to the European standard, at least formally. Laws were passed that determine the scope and regulations for entrepreneurial activities of individual subjects, and an independent authority was set up that kept an eye on the tran­spa­ren­cy of the market and compliance with the given regulations; there are institutional and technical prerequisites available that facilitate trade in securities. Nowadays there are no more any legislative or general economic barriers, designated as significant obstacles for IPO realization in the Czech environment in the past. It depends mainly on approach of individual

  17. Understanding entangled cerebral networks: A prerequisite for restoring brain function with brain-computer interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eMandonnet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically, cerebral processing has been conceptualized as a framework based on statically localized functions. However, a growing amount of evidence supports a hodotopical (delocalized and flexible organization. A number of studies have reported absence of a permanent neurological deficit after massive surgical resections of eloquent brain tissue. These results highlight the tremendous plastic potential of the brain. Understanding anatomo-functional correlates underlying this cerebral reorganization is a prerequisite to restore brain functions through brain-computer interfaces (BCIs in patients with cerebral diseases, or even to potentiate brain functions in healthy individuals. Here, we review current knowledge of neural networks that could be utilized in the BCIs that enable movements and language. To this end, intraoperative electrical stimulation in awake patients provides valuable information on the cerebral functional maps, their connectomics and plasticity. Overall, these studies indicate that the complex cerebral circuitry that underpins interactions between action, cognition and behavior should be throughly investigated before progress in BCI approaches can be achieved.

  18. Neuroinflammation is not a prerequisite for diabetes-induced tau phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M Van Der Harg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau is a key hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder for which Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a risk factor. In animal models for DM, the phosphorylation and aggregation of tau is induced or exacerbated, however the underlying mechanism is unknown. In addition to the metabolic dysfunction, DM is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. This was reported to be associated with a neuroinflammatory response in the hypothalamus of DM animal models. Neuroinflammation is also implicated in the development and progression of AD. It is unknown whether DM also induces neuroinflammation in brain areas affected in AD, the cortex and hippocampus. Here we investigated whether neuroinflammation could be the mechanistic trigger to induce tau phosphorylation in the brain of DM animals. Two distinct diabetic animal models were used; rats on free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS diet that are insulin resistant and streptozotocin-treated rats that are insulin deficient. The streptozotocin-treated animals demonstrated increased tau phosphorylation in the brain as expected, whereas the fcHFHS diet fed animals did not. Remarkably, neither of the diabetic animal models showed reactive microglia or increased GFAP and COX-2 levels in the cortex or hippocampus. From this, we conclude: 1. DM does not induce neuroinflammation in brain regions affected in AD, and 2. Neuroinflammation is not a prerequisite for tau phosphorylation. Neuroinflammation is therefore not the mechanism that explains the close connection between DM and AD.

  19. Positive Prerequisites for the Use of Reliefs in the Payment of Dues on Social Insurance Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Ofiarski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is permissible to use reliefs in the payment of social security contributions, based either on a definitive waiver by the creditor of the whole or relevant part of the amount due (partial or complete remission or only a temporary waiver of such amounts (payment deferral or payment in installments. The use of such reliefs is possible upon the occurrence of conditions laid down in the Act, for example, in the case of total non-recovery of contributions, for economic or other reasons worth considering, if justified by important interests of the person concerned. The prerequisites mentioned above have a nature of general clauses, allowing for their flexible adjustment to specific situations. Entities authorized to grant reliefs in the payment of social security contributions act within the limits of administrative discretion. But it is not a fully free operation, because the economic impact resulting from the use of such reliefs has a direct impact on the financial balance of earmarked funds which finance social security benefits, in particular pensions, disability allowances and other benefits.

  20. Comparative Analysis on Romanian Taxation in the European Context, as a Prerequisite for Tax Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of tax harmonization at EU level is becoming more present in the global crisis context, as it is both accepted and disputed by the European officials that manifest their preference for either coordination or tax competition. The crisis has generated, among other things, large budget deficits and a dangerous crisis of debts in the euro area, a situation that has attracted many followers in terms of tax harmonization. There is a European regulated Area, a unique European market, European unique currency and common monetary policy which regard the criteria relating to public finances (budget deficits, public debt. We ask ourselves to what extent it is necessary to achieve coordination or even tax unification and how does that help. This paper examines, according to the statistical database, the level and type of taxation, on categories of taxes and as a share of GDP, in Romania compared to EU countries, in order to clarify the current situation, the existing differences, the prospect of good European practice. If we speak of tax harmonization in terms of being acquired by Romania, the conclusion is that we can not report only to the technical or quantifiable aspects, as compared with the best results in European area, because they do not represent a guarantee of similar results. The fiscal policy must be both a prerequisite and a consequence of sustainable economic and financial policies, and the tax harmonization can only help insofar as it relates to the relationships between states and not at the tax level.

  1. THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COORDINATES OF DEVELOPING A SPORT ENTREPRENEURSHIP INDEX – CURRENT CHALLENGES AND PREREQUISITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU SEBASTIAN MADALIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on the consideration of the multivariate relationship between sport and economics, the present study is based on the sport potential of supporting economic growth through the enhancement of the relatively new domain of “sport entrepreneurship”. The brief revision of the specialized literature regarding the development of sport entrepreneurship in general terms is followed by a series of fundamental factors for the innovative proposal of a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in the European Union member countries. The methodological issues concerning the structure of the index represent the main novelty aspect of this research, which aims to be a prerequisite of a future thorough analysis regarding the micro- and macro-economic implications of developing a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in EU countries. The main identified challenge is a scientific one and it resides in the summative assessment of the elements representing entrepreneurship, sport and culture in the SEI, whereas the necessity of determining such an index appears because of economic and social reasons.

  2. Prerequisites for modeling price and return data series for the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei TINCA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Time series data from the capital market exhibits certain qualities which invalidate the hypotheses necessary for obtaining meaningful results from statistical modeling. This paper presents some of these qualities by looking at the time series for prices and returns on the Romanian Stock Exchange. The examples are based on the price time series and return time series of the Antibiotice securities and the BET-C index. The choice of a certain security and of the stock exchange index has been made with the intention of analyzing, in the future, the correlation between these two variables, and drawing significant conclusions which can be used for forecasts.Firstly, we will identify the empirical proprieties of the capital market, as they are described in the field research. Secondly, we will investigate the prerequisites for modeling chronological data series; these are stationary mean and variance. In the paper, the three methods are used: graphical representation, autocorrelation and the ADF test (Augmented Dickey-Fuller. For the frequent cases where the mean is not stationary, we will present the time series differentiation method, which can be used to obtain stationary values.Lastly, we will investigate the normality of the time series through the skewness and kurtosis methods, and through the Jarque-Bera statistic. We find out a characteristic for the capital market, in that the majority of the time series for securities have non-normal distributions.

  3. Prerequisites to launch neuroprotective trials in Parkinson's disease: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streffer, Johannes R; Grachev, Igor D; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar; Boroojerdi, Babak; Bronzova, Juliana; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Victor, Stephen J; Fontoura, Paulo; Alexander, Robert

    2012-04-15

    Realizing that 60% to 80% of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons are nonfunctional at the time of clinical diagnosis, there is an emerging consensus that disease-modifying treatments should be initiated in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, clinical trial designs and metrics in PD have been focused on motor symptoms as the core feature of the clinical disease. To identify earlier or "pre-motor" populations in PD, new markers have been proposed. We address the prerequisites needed to use these pre-motor markers in clinical trials for the selection of subjects, definition of populations, and monitoring of disease progression. This may require the development of new diagnostic criteria potentially based on non-motor clinical signs, imaging techniques, or biological features, all requiring discussion in a regulatory framework. Questions addressed include: Which steps must be taken to gain a broad consensus in the field from academic opinion leaders, patient advocacy groups, regulatory bodies, and industry? How do we prevent the selection of subgroups, which may not be representative of the full disease spectrum? Is there a way forward in personalized medicine? How do we balance risk and benefit in an at-risk population? While many tools are available, a concerted effort is required to develop integrated data sets, as well as to achieve the necessary standardization for multicenter clinical trials. To this end, public-private consortia (including academic centers, patient advocacy groups, and industry) will be of crucial importance to prospectively investigate and define the best tools and treatment paradigms.

  4. Economic Prerequisites Of The Formation Of The Eurasian Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysokon Anastasia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EurAsEC today is actively developing economic and political union. The purpose of this article is to review and confirmation of the objective of its formation from the point of view of economic, Anne only political preconditions. Using the method of retrospective analysis of similar economic alliances around the world, the author proves the timeliness and objectivity of EAEC as an economic and customs union, which has good prospects in view of its geopolitical situation and the level of development of its member states.

  5. PREREQUISITES FOR SUCCESSFUL CAREER AS A TEACHER IN TECHNICAL INSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Akshaya Kumar Sabat,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a noble profession and a teacher plays an important role in society. In this modern world, we have well deviated from the “Gurukul” system of Indian teaching-learning process in educating our young mass. In order to cope with the rapid developments in the technological world and the education system, a technical teacher has to understand the system as a whole to play a pivotal role. In this paper, we present the attributes, characteristics and duties of a teacher for successful career in technical education, who takes up the profession by virtue of his/her interest not by compulsion. In addition, some suggestions have been highlighted to improvethe working condition for a teacher in technical institutes.

  6. Consensus Making in Requirements Negotiation: the communication perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Price

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available When developing an Information System (IS, organizational goals of various stakeholders are commonly in direct conflict. Furthermore, individuals often rank their private objectives well over their management's directions. Recognising and reconciling all these diverse goals, and reaching agreement among the stakeholders, are prerequisite to establishing project cooperation and collaboration. This paper focuses, in particular, on the negotiation and consensus making during requirements elicitation - the earliest stages of the IS development process. As requirements elicitation involves rich communication between project stakeholders, we therefore explore negotiation and consensus making from the communication perspective. The resulting model assists our understanding of the communication factors that influence the consensus process during requirements negotiation.

  7. Knowledge management prerequisites for building an information society in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilowska, Malgorzata

    2006-01-01

    The European Research Area requires either technological development or information literacy of health professionals. This information literacy shall be understood much deeper and broader than a basic preparation to use ICT tools in everyday life only. The author's first aim is to present the literature review and analysis of different definition of the "information" concept in Polish and foreign sources for health sciences, to emphasize a problem fundamental for an information society development, i.e. lack of adequate "information" understanding. Health professionals' information literacy shall also build an awareness of conceptual differences among numerous classifications, thesauruses, and information-retrieval languages, which result in different information received in a retrieval process. This problem can be of crucial effect for either health research or practice. Understanding the problem shall mobilize the researchers, classifiers, and indexers to co-ordinate efforts aimed in organizing "a translator" covering the most popular classifications' and thesauruses' concepts, to make an international research co-operation easier, relevant, and safe for the patients.

  8. Emergency Department: Basic Prerequisites for the Upgrade of the NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Charalambous

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Emergency Department is an autonomous hospital unit comprised of doctors, nurses and paramedics, who deliver emergency care on a 24-hour basis. It provides an interface between patients and their specialized treatment, as well as a point of contact between primary and tertiary care. The need for medical services has increased disproportionately to the available resources for medical care; a fact that has given rise to difficulties in maintaining the effective function of the Emergency Department. As a result, the provision of high standard services is not ensured. In order to help establish and maintain the effective operation of the Emergency Department, new methods should be established which efficiently utilize existing and up-and-coming information and communication technologies. This will allow for the acceleration of the Department’s operational procedures, more effective treatment of emergency cases, and ultimately assists in maintaining a high level of patient satisfaction. The expansion and development of specific services offered by the ED will also assist in the Department becoming a system of qualitative assessment for primary care. This would lead to a better outcome for emergency cases as a result of fast, spherical and effective treatment.

  9. Anoikis Resistance: An Essential Prerequisite for Tumor Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nyun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a multistep process including dissociation of cancer cells from primary sites, survival in the vascular system, and proliferation in distant target organs. As a barrier to metastasis, cells normally undergo an apoptotic process known as “anoikis,” a form of cell death due to loss of contact with the extracellular matrix or neighboring cells. Cancer cells acquire anoikis resistance to survive after detachment from the primary sites and travel through the circulatory and lymphatic systems to disseminate throughout the body. Because recent technological advances enable us to detect rare circulating tumor cells, which are anoikis resistant, currently, anoikis resistance becomes a hot topic in cancer research. Detailed molecular and functional analyses of anoikis resistant cells may provide insight into the biology of cancer metastasis and identify novel therapeutic targets for prevention of cancer dissemination. This paper comprehensively describes recent investigations of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying anoikis and anoikis resistance in relation to intrinsic and extrinsic death signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, growth factor receptors, energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species, membrane microdomains, and lipid rafts.

  10. Biofilm formation is not a prerequisite for production of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prol García, María Jesús; D'Alvise, Paul; Rygaard, Anita Mac

    2014-01-01

    Aims The goal of this study was to investigate if biofilm formation on population level is a physiological requirement for antagonism in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395, since the antibiotic compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) is produced by several Roseobacter clade species during growth as multice......Aims The goal of this study was to investigate if biofilm formation on population level is a physiological requirement for antagonism in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395, since the antibiotic compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) is produced by several Roseobacter clade species during growth...... that are likely involved in EPS/LPS production, motility and chemotaxis, and redox regulation play a role in biofilm formation and/or adhesion in P. inhibens DSM17395. Conclusions Cell aggregation and biofilm formation are not physiological prerequisites for TDA production. Significance and Impact of the Study...

  11. Should Research Thesis be a Prerequisite for Doctor of Medicine Degree? A Cross-sectional Study at Jordan University of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Gharaibeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: University based research is an integral part of many prestigious medical schools worldwide. The benefits of student-conducted research have long been highlighted in the literature. This article aims to identify the insights of medical students concerning research training, including perceived hurdles in the way of conducting research, and the utility of a research thesis in acquiring a Doctor of Medicine degree.Methods: A total of 808 medical students at Jordan University of Science and Technology were selected by random sampling with a confidence level of 95%. A survey was constructed by a group of students through literature review and group discussions. The survey utilized polar and Likert scale questions to collect data from the students. Statistical inferences were then obtained through analysis of means and one sample t-test of the hypothesis.Results: A total of 687 students filled out the survey (85%. Analysis shows that respondents have a strong and positive attitude towards research. The respondents with past research experience constituted 14.3% of those surveyed. Those respondents identified the barriers faced by them during their experience. The students showed high degree of agreement that a research thesis should be a prerequisite for graduation with statistical significance of p-value ≤0.05.Conclusion: Modifying the curriculum to include research methodology is recommended, and developing it to incorporate a thesis as a requirement for graduation may be advised upon further review.

  12. Prerequisites for cytokine measurements in clinical trials with multiplex immunoassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijkers Ger T

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing knowledge about cellular interactions in the immune system, including the central role of cytokine networks, has lead to new treatments using monoclonal antibodies that block specific components of the immune system. Systemic cytokine concentrations can serve as surrogate outcome parameters of these interventions to study inflammatory pathways operative in patients in vivo. This is now possible due to novel technologies such as multiplex immunoassays (MIA that allows detection of multiple cytokines in a single sample. However, apparently trivial underappreciated processes, (sample handling and storage, interference of endogenous plasma proteins can greatly impact the reliability and reproducibility of cytokine detection. Therefore we set out to investigate several processes that might impact cytokine profiles such as blood collecting tubes, duration of storage, and number of freeze thawing cycles. Results Since under physiological conditions cytokine concentrations normally are low or undetectable we spiked cytokines in the various plasma and serum samples. Overall recoveries ranged between 80-120%. Long time storage showed cytokines are stable for a period up to 2 years of storage at -80°C. After 4 years several cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-15 and CXCL8 degraded up to 75% or less of baseline values. Furthermore we show that only 2 out of 15 cytokines remained stable after several freeze-thawing cycles. We also demonstrate implementation of an internal control for multiplex cytokine immunoassays. Conclusion All together we show parameters which are essential for measurement of cytokines in the context of clinical trials.

  13. Optimizing Simulated Multidisciplinary Team Training of Pediatric Emergencies: An Evaluation of Prerequisites for Transfer of Skills to Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. A. J. Coolen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multidisciplinary simulation-based team training (STT provides a powerful training method to train technical and team skills during emergencies. Effectiveness of STT depends on transfer of learned skills to clinical practice. In this study we examined three important prerequisites to enhance transfer from STT into clinical practice, intervention readiness, realism, and performance self-efficacy. Methods. For the quantitative part of the study, 131 participants (pediatric nurses and physicians were asked to fill out an online questionnaire before and after training. For the qualitative part of the study we organized three one-hour focus group sessions in which participants were interviewed on attitude, realism, and self-efficacy. Results. Providing adequate preparation material and extensive debriefing of scenarios is important in creating this positive learning experience. The perspective of realism depends strongly on setting and learning goals. During STT team assembly and role playing can become more important to participants, while physical aspects become less important. Performance self-efficacy for all participants increases significantly (P<0.05 regarding team skills. Conclusions. STT can be a very positive multidisciplinary learning experience, which creates the possibility of enhancing confidence, skills, and team performance within the clinical context. STT combines three important prerequisites for transfer of training to take place.

  14. A Customizable Text Classifier for Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-liang Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Text mining deals with complex and unstructured texts. Usually a particular collection of texts that is specified to one or more domains is necessary. We have developed a customizable text classifier for users to mine the collection automatically. It derives from the sentence category of the HNC theory and corresponding techniques. It can start with a few texts, and it can adjust automatically or be adjusted by user. The user can also control the number of domains chosen and decide the standard with which to choose the texts based on demand and abundance of materials. The performance of the classifier varies with the user's choice.

  15. God in Question: Questioning as a Prerequisite for Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kočí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are questions that are so important that it is a pity to spoil them with answers. No doubt, the question of God is one of them. Contrary to many presuppositions, theology is not capable of providing us with the final answers in this respect. On the contrary, theology professed as fides quaerens intellectum is an ongoing struggle with questions. Modernity interrupted this paradigm of theological questioning. Theology was withdrawn from the realm of understanding and shifted to the realm of explanation. Modernity brought the univocalization of God. Nonetheless, the attempts to tackle the question of God lead to hegemonic narratives about God. Such narratives are rightly criticized in a postmodern context for their totalizing pretensions. The problem of postmodern criticism is its one-sided emphasis on the apophatic dimension of theological discourse. I propose that theology can go a step further beyond postmodernity. In order to do so, I deal with the Czech philosopher Jan Patočka, who provides an opportunity to rethink God from the perspective of questioning in a new way. Patočka’s insistence on problematicity is the main reading key of his work. In this line of though, I interpret Patočka’s student Tomáš Halík and his thesis about the necessity to take the metaphor of an unknown God into account. I argue that theology must avoid the temptation to remove God from the question and make a well-known God of him. The time has come for theologians to turn their answers back into questions and dwell with them. Bůh jako otázka: Tázání jako předpoklad teologie Některé otázky jsou tak důležité, že je škoda kazit je odpověďmi. Není pochyb, že otázka po Bohu je jednou z nich. Navzdory mnoha předpokladům, ani teologie není schopna poskytnout v tomto ohledu konečné odpovědi. Teologie pojatá jako fides quaerens intellectum je nepřetržitý nekončící zápas s otázkami. Moderna narušila toto paradigma teologick

  16. Loss of PSD-95 enrichment is not a prerequisite for spine retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Georgia F; Oh, Won Chan; Boudewyn, Lauren C; Mikula, Sarah K; Zito, Karen

    2011-08-24

    Changes in neuronal structure are thought to underlie long-term behavioral modifications associated with learning and memory. In particular, considerable evidence implicates the destabilization and retraction of dendritic spines along with the loss of spine synapses as an important cellular mechanism for refining brain circuits, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating spine elimination remain ill-defined. The postsynaptic density protein, PSD-95, is highly enriched in dendritic spines and has been associated with spine stability. Because spines with low levels of PSD-95 are more dynamic, and the recruitment of PSD-95 to nascent spines has been associated with spine stabilization, we hypothesized that loss of PSD-95 enrichment would be a prerequisite for spine retraction. To test this hypothesis, we used dual-color time-lapse two-photon microscopy to monitor rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons cotransfected with PSD-95-GFP and DsRed-Express, and we analyzed the relationship between PSD-95-GFP enrichment and spine morphological changes. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that the majority of spines that retracted were relatively unenriched for PSD-95-GFP. However, in the subset of PSD-95-GFP-enriched spines that retracted, spine shrinkage and loss of PSD-95-GFP were tightly coupled, suggesting that loss of PSD-95-GFP enrichment did not precede spine retraction. Moreover, we found that, in some instances, spine retraction resulted in a significant enrichment of PSD-95-GFP on the dendritic shaft. Our data support a model of spine retraction in which loss of PSD-95 enrichment is not required prior to the destabilization of spines.

  17. Text Classification using Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. It is the automated assignment of natural language texts to predefined categories. Text classification is the primary requirement of text retrieval systems, which retrieve texts in response to a user query, and text understanding systems, which transform text in some way such as producing summaries, answering questions or extracting data. Existing supervised learning algorithms for classifying text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification using artificial intelligence technique that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e. association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. The concept of na\\"ive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of genetic algorithm has been added for final classification. A syste...

  18. Text Classification using Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M; Hasan, Ahmed Ryadh

    2010-01-01

    Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. It is the automated assignment of natural language texts to predefined categories. Text classification is the primary requirement of text retrieval systems, which retrieve texts in response to a user query, and text understanding systems, which transform text in some way such as producing summaries, answering questions or extracting data. Existing supervised learning algorithms to automatically classify text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification using data mining that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e. association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. The concept of Naive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of Genetic Algorithm has been added for final classification. A system based on the...

  19. Establishment of technical prerequisites for cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, E; Enghardt, W; Kaluza, M; Karsch, L; Laschinsky, L; Lessmann, E; Nicolai, M; Pawelke, J; Richter, C; Sauerbrey, R; Schlenvoigt, H P; Baumann, M

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, laser-based acceleration of charged particles has rapidly progressed and medical applications, e.g., in radiotherapy, might become feasible in the coming decade. Requirements are monoenergetic particle beams with long-term stable and reproducible properties as well as sufficient particle intensities and a controlled delivery of prescribed doses at the treatment site. Although conventional and laser-based particle accelerators will administer the same dose to the patient, their different time structures could result in different radiobiological properties. Therefore, the biological response to the ultrashort pulse durations and the resulting high peak dose rates of these particle beams have to be investigated. The technical prerequisites, i.e., a suitable cell irradiation setup and the precise dosimetric characterization of a laser-based particle accelerator, have to be realized in order to prepare systematic cell irradiation experiments. The Jena titanium:sapphire laser system (JETI) was customized in preparation for cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated electrons. The delivered electron beam was optimized with regard to its spectrum, diameter, dose rate, and dose homogeneity. A custom-designed beam and dose monitoring system, consisting of a Roos ionization chamber, a Faraday cup, and EBT-1 dosimetry films, enables real-time monitoring of irradiation experiments and precise determination of the dose delivered to the cells. Finally, as proof-of-principle experiment cell samples were irradiated using this setup. Laser-accelerated electron beams, appropriate for in vitro radiobiological experiments, were generated with a laser shot frequency of 2.5 Hz and a pulse length of 80 fs. After laser acceleration in the helium gas jet, the electrons were filtered by a magnet, released from the vacuum target chamber, and propagated in air for a distance of 220 mm. Within this distance a lead collimator (aperture of 35 mm) was introduced, leading

  20. Building the effective innovation policy in the regions of the Russian Federation as a prerequisite for socio-economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Markovna Golova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic problems and contradictions of regional innovation policy formation in Russia are revealed. The need to move the Russian economy on an innovative way of development is seen as a condition of economic security. With the usage of global experience, priorities in innovational activity of Russian companies and measures to address systemic gaps between science and industry are grounded. Particular attention is paid to the legal aspects of the state innovational policy. Methodological approaches to the formation of regional innovational policy in the Russian Federation, taking into account the spatial distribution of the scientific, technical and production capacities of the country, their state and structure are revealed. The necessity of a major upgrade of the existing system of intergovernmental relations as a prerequisite for building a functioning innovation system is substantiated. The proposals on division of competence between the Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation in the regulation of relations in science, technology and innovations are given.

  1. Recalling Prerequisite Material in a Calculus II Course to Improve Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokry, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses preparation assignments used in a Calculus II course that cover material from prerequisite courses. Prior to learning new material, students work on problems outside of class involving concepts from algebra, trigonometry, and Calculus I. These problems are directly built upon in order to answer Calculus II questions,…

  2. Recalling Prerequisite Material in a Calculus II Course to Improve Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokry, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses preparation assignments used in a Calculus II course that cover material from prerequisite courses. Prior to learning new material, students work on problems outside of class involving concepts from algebra, trigonometry, and Calculus I. These problems are directly built upon in order to answer Calculus II questions,…

  3. 41 CFR 105-70.006 - Prerequisites for issuing a complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 70-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 105-70.006... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prerequisites...

  4. Investigating Validity of Math 105 as Prerequisite to Math 201 among Undergraduate Students, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariya, Yusuf F.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the validity of MATH 105 as a prerequisite to MATH 201. The data for this study was extracted directly from the examination results logic of the university. Descriptive statistics in form of correlations and linear regressions were used to analyze the obtained data. Three research questions were formulated and…

  5. Do Screencasts Help to Revise Prerequisite Mathematics? An Investigation of Student Performance and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Birgit; Jordan, Camilla R.; Lowe, Tim W.; Mestel, Ben D.

    2014-01-01

    Basic calculus skills that are prerequisites for advanced mathematical studies continue to be a problem for a significant proportion of higher education students. While there are many types of revision material that could be offered to students, in this paper we investigate whether short, narrated video recordings of mathematical explanations…

  6. Do Screencasts Help to Revise Prerequisite Mathematics? An Investigation of Student Performance and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Birgit; Jordan, Camilla R.; Lowe, Tim W.; Mestel, Ben D.

    2014-01-01

    Basic calculus skills that are prerequisites for advanced mathematical studies continue to be a problem for a significant proportion of higher education students. While there are many types of revision material that could be offered to students, in this paper we investigate whether short, narrated video recordings of mathematical explanations…

  7. Quality Partnership as a Contextual Prerequisite of Successful Learning of Young and Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubetic, Maja; Ercegovac, Ina Reic; Koludrovic, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses quality partnership as a prerequisite for the functioning of the institutions of early and pre-school education and for the child's overall development and learning. Considering that child's development and learning take place in different contexts (family, educational institutions, clubs, local and wider communities), the…

  8. Text Maps: Helping Students Navigate Informational Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)

  9. National Map Data Base On Landslide Prerequisites In Clay and Silt Areas - Development of Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Leif

    Swedish geotechnical institute, SGI, has in co-operation with Swedish geologic survey, Lantmateriet (land surveying) and Swedish Rescue Service developed a theme database on landslide prerequisites in clay and silt areas. The work is carried out on commission of the Swedish government. A report with suggestions for production of the database has been delivered to the government. The database is a prototype, which has been tested in an area in northern Sweden. Recommended presentation map scale is about 1:50 000. Distribution of the database via Internet is discussed. The aim of the database is to use it as a modern planning tool in combination with other databases, e g databases on flooding prognoses. The main use is supposed to be in early planning stages, e g for new building and infrastructure development and for risk analyses. The database can also be used in more acute cases, e g for risk analyses and rescue operations in connection with flooding over large areas. Users are supposed to be municipal and county planners and rescue services, infrastructure planners, consultants and assurance companies. The database is constructed by combination of two existing databases: Elevation data and soil map data. The investigation area is divided into three zones with different stability criteria: 1. Clay and silt in sloping ground or adjoining water. 2. Clay and silt in flat ground. 3. Rock and other soils than clay and silt. The geometrical and soil criteria for the zones are specified in an algoritm, that will do the job to sort out the different zones. The algoritm is thereby using data from the elevation and soil databases. The investigation area is divided into cells (raster format) with 5 x 5 m side length. Different algoritms had to be developed before reasonable calculation time was reached. The theme may be presented on screen or as a map plot. A prototype map has been produced for the test area. A description is accompanying the map. The database is suggested

  10. The political economy of health promotion: part 1, national commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Canada is a leader in developing health promotion concepts of providing the prerequisites of health through health-promoting public policy. But Canada is clearly a laggard in implementing these concepts. In contrast, France is seen as a nation in which health promotion concepts have failed to gain much traction yet evidence exists that France does far better than Canada in providing these health prerequisites. Such findings suggest that it is the political economy--or form of the welfare state--of a nation rather than its explicit commitments to health promotion concepts--that shape provision of the prerequisites of health. Part 1 of this article examines how health promotion rhetoric specifically concerned with provision of the prerequisites of health differs among nations identified as being either liberal, social democratic, conservative or Latin welfare states. Governing authorities of nations that are liberal or social democratic welfare states are more likely to make explicit rhetorical commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health, the conservative and Latin states less so. Part 2 of this article provides evidence however, that despite their rhetorical commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health, liberal welfare state nations fall well behind not only the social democratic nations, but also the conservative welfare states in implementing public policies that provide the prerequisites of health. The Latin welfare states express little commitment to provision of the prerequisites of health and rather limited public policy activity towards meeting this aim.

  11. Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

  12. Personal potential of manager as a prerequisite of realization of managerial potential of enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Voronkova, A. E.; Kalyuzhna, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    Crucial role of management is proved in realizing the potential of enterprise management system. The essence of the concept of “managerial staff’ based on establishing key characteristics of managerial work is specified. The necessity of consideration of personal potential managers and their competencies as prerequisites of managerial capacity of the enterprise is justified. The necessity is pointed out of mastering managers’ socio-psychological instruments of influence on the staff with the ...

  13. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases th...... datasets. Our model also outperforms A Decision Cluster Classification (ADCC) and the Decision Cluster Forest Classification (DCFC) models on the Reuters-21578 dataset....

  14. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  15. Do screencasts help to revise prerequisite mathematics? An investigation of student performance and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Birgit; Jordan, Camilla R.; Lowe, Tim W.; Mestel, Ben D.

    2014-02-01

    Basic calculus skills that are prerequisites for advanced mathematical studies continue to be a problem for a significant proportion of higher education students. While there are many types of revision material that could be offered to students, in this paper we investigate whether short, narrated video recordings of mathematical explanations (screencasts) are a useful tool to enhance student learning when revisiting prerequisite topics. We report on the outcomes of a study that was designed to both measure change in student performance before and after watching screencasts, and to capture students' perception of the usefulness of screencasts in their learning. Volunteers were recruited from students enrolled on an entry module for the Mathematics Master of Science programme at the Open University to watch two screencasts sandwiched between two online calculus quizzes. A statistical analysis of student responses to the quizzes shows that screencasts can have a positive effect on student performance. Further analysis of student feedback shows that student confidence was increased by watching the screencasts. Student views on the value of screencasts for their learning indicated that they appreciated being able to watch a problem being solved and explained by an experienced mathematician; hear the motivation for a particular problem-solving approach; engage more readily with the material being presented, thereby retaining it more easily. The positive student views and impact on student scores indicate that short screencasts could play a useful role in revising prerequisite mathematics.

  16. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  17. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that T

  18. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  19. Text mining: A Brief survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falguni N. Patel , Neha R. Soni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The unstructured texts which contain massive amount of information cannot simply be used for further processing by computers. Therefore, specific processing methods and algorithms are required in order to extract useful patterns. The process of extracting interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text completed by using Text mining. In this paper, we have discussed text mining, as a recent and interesting field with the detail of steps involved in the overall process. We have also discussed different technologies that teach computers with natural language so that they may analyze, understand, and even generate text. In addition, we briefly discuss a number of successful applications of text mining which are used currently and in future.

  20. The Only Safe SMS Texting Is No SMS Texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Cheryl; Sacopulos, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians and practice staff use short messaging service (SMS) text messaging to communicate with patients. But SMS text messaging is unencrypted, insecure, and does not meet HIPAA requirements. In addition, the short and abbreviated nature of text messages creates opportunities for misinterpretation, and can negatively impact patient safety and care. Until recently, asking patients to sign a statement that they understand and accept these risks--as well as having policies, device encryption, and cyber insurance in place--would have been enough to mitigate the risk of using SMS text in a medical practice. But new trends and policies have made SMS text messaging unsafe under any circumstance. This article explains these trends and policies, as well as why only secure texting or secure messaging should be used for physician-patient communication.

  1. Semantic Text Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kaleta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a specific issue of the semantic analysis of texts in natural language – text indexing and describes one field of its application (web browsing.The main part of this article describes the computer system assigning a set of semantic indexes (similar to keywords to a particular text. The indexing algorithm employs a semantic dictionary to find specific words in a text, that represent a text content. Furthermore it compares two given sets of semantic indexes to determine texts’ similarity (assigning numerical value. The article describes the semantic dictionary – a tool essentialto accomplish this task and its usefulness, main concepts of the algorithm and test results.

  2. Text Mining: (Asynchronous Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheema Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to correlate text sequences those provides common topics for semantic clues. We propose a two step method for asynchronous text mining. Step one check for the common topics in the sequences and isolates these with their timestamps. Step two takes the topic and tries to give the timestamp of the text document. After multiple repetitions of step two, we could give optimum result.

  3. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  4. Identified obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses' work environment - a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Annica; Engstrom, Maria; Olsson, Annakarin; Wahlberg, Anna Carin

    2017-05-18

    Telenursing is an expanding part of healthcare, staffed with registered nurses whose work environment is typical of a call centre. Work-related stress has been shown to be a major problem in nurses' work environments and of importance to the outcome of care, patient safety, nurse job satisfaction and burnout. Today, however, we have a limited understanding of and knowledge about the work environment for telenurses. The aim of the present study is to explore and reach consensus on perceived important obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses' work environment. A modified Delphi design, using qualitative as well as quantitative data sequentially through three phases, was taken. Data were initially collected via semi-structured interviews (Phase I) and later using a web survey (Phase II-III) between March 2015 and March 2016. The findings present a consensus view of telenurses' experiences of important obstacles and prerequisites in their work environment. Central to the findings are the aspects of telenurses having a demanding work, cognitive fatigue and having no opportunity for recovery during the work shift was ranked as important obstacles. Highly ranked prerequisites for managing were being able to focus on one caller at a time, working in a calm and pleasant environment and having technical support 24/7. Managers need to enable telenurses to experience control in their work, provided with possibilities to control their work and to recover during work; shortening work time could improve their work environment. Limited possibilities to perform work might contribute to feelings of stress and inability to perform work.

  5. Multivariate clustering of reindeer herding districts in Sweden according to range prerequisites for reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lundqvist

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The 51 reindeer herding districts in Sweden vary in productivity and prerequisites for reindeer herding. In this study we characterize and group reindeer herding districts based on relevant factors affecting reindeer productivity, i.e. topography, vegetation, forage value, habitat fragmentation and reachability, as well as season lengths, snow fall, ice-crust probability, and insect harassment, totally quantified in 15 variables. The herding districts were grouped into seven main groups and three single outliers through cluster analyses. The largest group, consisting of 14 herding districts, was further divided into four subgroups. The range properties of herding districts and groups of districts were characterized through principal component analyses. By comparisons of the suggested grouping of herding districts with existing administrative divisions, these appeared not to coincide. A new division of herding districts into six administrative sets of districts was suggested in order to improve administrative planning and management of the reindeer herding industry. The results also give possibilities for projections of alterations caused by an upcoming global climate change. Large scale investigations using geographical information systems (GIS and meteorological data would be helpful for administrative purposes, both nationally and internationally, as science-based decision tools in legislative, economical, ecological and structural assessments. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Multivariat gruppering av svenska samebyar baserat på renbetesmarkernas grundförutsettningar Svenska renskötselområdet består av 51 samebyar som varierar i produktivitet och förutsättningar för renskötsel. Vi analyserade variationen mellan samebyar med avseende på 15 variabler som beskriver topografi, vegetation, betesvärde, fragmentering av betesmarker, klimat, skareförekomst och aktivitet av parasiterande insekter och vi föreslår en indelning av

  6. Symmetry group prerequisite for E-infinity in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [Department of Physics, Alexandria University (United Kingdom); KACST, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: Chaossf@aol.com

    2008-01-15

    The work addresses the question of extending certain symplectic and exceptional Lie Symmetry groups to the realm of chaotic dynamics. Using a collection of simple examples, the technique of transfinite continuation is illustrated and various physically relevant results are obtained. The paper is intended as an elementary introduction to the use of symmetry groups in transfinite physics and as such is a sequel to a series of previous papers constituting the elementary and advanced mathematical prerequisite for a proper understanding of E-infinity theory.

  7. Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II-VI semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, H; Kronenberg, J; Wagner, F; ISOLDE Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The diffusion of the impurities Cu, Ag, Au, and Na in CdTe and CdZnTe exhibits the unusual phenomenon of uphill diffusion if the diffusion of the impurity is performed under external Cd pressure at temperatures typically in the range 700-900 K. A model is proposed that describes these concentration profiles quantitatively and yields pre-requisites for the observation of uphill diffusion. If a metal layer is evaporated onto the implanted surface, the diffusion of the impurity is strongly affected by the generation of intrinsic defects at the metal-semiconductor interface. (C) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH \\& Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  8. Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II-VI semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H.; Kronenberg, J.; Wagner, F.; Wichert, T. [Technische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The diffusion of the impurities Cu, Ag, Au, and Na in CdTe and CdZnTe exhibits the unusual phenomenon of uphill diffusion if the diffusion of the impurity is performed under external Cd pressure at temperatures typically in the range 700-900 K. A model is proposed that describes these concentration profiles quantitatively and yields pre-requisites for the observation of uphill diffusion. If a metal layer is evaporated onto the implanted surface, the diffusion of the impurity is strongly affected by the generation of intrinsic defects at the metal-semiconductor interface. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. [Quality assurance in student training. Prerequisites for DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 in teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, W; Kaiser, C; Schirmer, U

    2007-07-01

    Standards of quality assurance according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 have been implemented in many university hospital departments, but often teaching activities are not included. This work presents a method that allows, after having defined the various teaching activities as sub-processes of one single core process, to include the manifold teaching activities of university hospital departments into the certification process. The stepwise description of the prerequisites for including teaching activities into ISO 9001 certification is illustrated by a concrete implementation example.

  10. Planning Argumentative Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, X

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents \\proverb\\, a text planner for argumentative texts. \\proverb\\'s main feature is that it combines global hierarchical planning and unplanned organization of text with respect to local derivation relations in a complementary way. The former splits the task of presenting a particular proof into subtasks of presenting subproofs. The latter simulates how the next intermediate conclusion to be presented is chosen under the guidance of the local focus.

  11. Mining text data

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2012-01-01

    Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including

  12. [Evaluation of prerequisites programs for a HACCP plan for frozen sardine plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Patricia; Reyes, Genara

    2008-06-01

    Good manufacturing practices (GMP) and sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOP) are prerequisites programs for the application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system as a food safety approach during processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate GMP/SSOP prerequisites in processing line of frozen whole sardine (Sardinella aurita). The GMP compliance was verified according to a standard procedure of the Ministry for the Health of Venezuela, and the SSOP were assessed according to a checklist proposed by the FDA. GMP and SSOP were evaluated following a demerit-based approach. A percentage value was calculated and referred to as sanitary effectiveness. Results indicated that the plant had a good level of compliance with GMP from assessment of buildings and facilities, equipment and tools, hygienic requisites of the production, assurance of the hygiene quality, storage and transportation, and the percentage of sanitary effectiveness was 84%. The level of compliance for SSOP was 53,12% with demerits found in all assessed aspects consisting of inexistent guidelines, lack of control in the sanitary plan and lack of leadership in applying corrective actions. Thus, an improvement in the plant sanitation program was designed targeting SSOP.

  13. Biofilm formation is not a prerequisite for production of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prol García, M J; D'Alvise, P W; Rygaard, A M; Gram, L

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate if biofilm formation on population level is a physiological requirement for antagonism in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395, since the antibiotic compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) is produced by several Roseobacter clade species during growth as multicellular aggregates or biofilms at the air-liquid interface and is induced on single cell level upon attachment. A mutant library was created by Tn5 transposon insertion and 22 TDA-positive (brown) mutants with decreased biofilm formation or adhesion, and eight TDA-negative (white) mutants with increased biofilm formation or adhesion were selected. None of the selected biofilm-overproducing white mutants showed any antibiotic activity, while all brown mutants with reduced or disabled biofilm formation produced the antibacterial compound. Sequencing analysis indicated that genes that are likely involved in EPS/LPS production, motility and chemotaxis, and redox regulation play a role in biofilm formation and/or adhesion in P. inhibens DSM17395. Cell aggregation and biofilm formation are not physiological prerequisites for TDA production. This study contributes to the understanding of TDA production in P. inhibens, which has great potential as a probiotic in marine larviculture. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  15. Making Sense of Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the triadic nature regarding meaning construction of texts. Grounded in Rosenblatt's (1995; 1998; 2004) Transactional Theory, research conducted in an undergraduate Language Arts curriculum course revealed that when presented with unfamiliar texts, students used prior experiences, social interactions, and literary strategies…

  16. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  17. Clustering Text Data Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu

    2008-01-01

    Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.

  18. [Traditional midwife texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Ingela; Stolt, Carl-Magnus

    2007-01-01

    We report an hermeneutic text study in two early midwife text books. In Louise Bourgeois book from early 17th century the individual caring perspective is more present than in Helena Malhiems book from the middle of the 18th century. In both books, however, non-technological aspects of child birth delivery is more prominent than in books written by doctors.

  19. Extracting Text from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  20. EXTRACTING TEXT FROM VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  1. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Abstract Journals. There are currently over 60,000 full text articles available to access. These documents,made possible by agreement with third

  2. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Immunization remains one of the most important public health ... In line with the aforementioned, the report of World Health Organization and the earlier ... The study subjects were not required to write but just to tick the appropriate ...

  3. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly

  4. Emotion Detection from Text

    CERN Document Server

    Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  5. Health Information Needs and Reliability of Sources Among Nondegree Health Sciences Students: A Prerequisite for Designing eHealth Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Hussein; Tshuma, Ndumiso; Hu, Xiao

    Understanding health information needs and health-seeking behavior is a prerequisite for developing an electronic health information literacy (EHIL) or eHealth literacy program for nondegree health sciences students. At present, interest in researching health information needs and reliable sources paradigms has gained momentum in many countries. However, most studies focus on health professionals and students in higher education institutions. The present study was aimed at providing new insight and filling the existing gap by examining health information needs and reliability of sources among nondegree health sciences students in Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 conveniently selected health training institutions, where 403 health sciences students were participated. Thirty health sciences students were both purposely and conveniently chosen from each health-training institution. The selected students were pursuing nursing and midwifery, clinical medicine, dentistry, environmental health sciences, pharmacy, and medical laboratory sciences courses. Involved students were either in their first year, second year, or third year of study. Health sciences students' health information needs focus on their educational requirements, clinical practice, and personal information. They use print, human, and electronic health information. They lack eHealth research skills in navigating health information resources and have insufficient facilities for accessing eHealth information, a lack of specialists in health information, high costs for subscription electronic information, and unawareness of the availability of free Internet and other online health-related databases. This study found that nondegree health sciences students have limited skills in EHIL. Thus, designing and incorporating EHIL skills programs into the curriculum of nondegree health sciences students is vital. EHIL is a requirement common to all health settings, learning environments, and

  6. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and validate prerequisites for applying a cognitive (judgement) bias approach to assessing welfare in farmed mink (Neovison vison). We investigated discrimination ability and associative learning ability using auditory cues. The mink (n = 15 females) were...... mink only showed habituation in experiment 2. Regardless of the frequency used (2 and 18 kHz), cues predicting the danger situation initially elicited slower responses compared to those predicting the safe situation but quickly became faster. Using auditory cues as discrimination stimuli for female...... farmed mink in a judgement bias approach would thus appear to be feasible. However several specific issues are to be considered in order to successfully adapt a cognitive bias approach to mink, and these are discussed....

  7. Controlled assembly: a prerequisite for the use of recombinant spider silk in regenerative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Recent biotechnological progress has enabled the production of spider silk proteins, spidroins, in heterologous hosts. Matrices based on recombinant spidroins support stem cell growth and are well tolerated when implanted in living tissue, thus the material is highly attractive for use in regenerative medicine. However, the matrices made are far from natural silk in terms of mechanical properties and are either spontaneously assembled, which results in heterogeneous products, or spun from harsh solvents with the concomitant risk of harmful remnants in the final products. If we could mimic the spider's aqueous silk spinning process we would likely obtain a material that had reproducible and better characteristics and that more easily could be transferred to clinical practice. Herein, the knowledge of the spiders' silk production system and the prerequisites for artificial spinning and assembly of recombinant proteins are reviewed and discussed in a biomedical context. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ACCURATE KAP METER CALIBRATION AS A PREREQUISITE FOR OPTIMISATION IN PROJECTION RADIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusek, A; Sandborg, M; Carlsson, G Alm

    2016-06-01

    Modern X-ray units register the air kerma-area product, PKA, with a built-in KAP meter. Some KAP meters show an energy-dependent bias comparable with the maximum uncertainty articulated by the IEC (25 %), adversely affecting dose-optimisation processes. To correct for the bias, a reference KAP meter calibrated at a standards laboratory and two calibration methods described here can be used to achieve an uncertainty of energy-independent dosemeter via a reference beam quality in the clinic, Q1, to beam quality, Q Biases up to 35 % of built-in KAP meter readings were noted. Energy-dependent calibration factors are needed for unbiased PKA Accurate KAP meter calibration as a prerequisite for optimisation in projection radiography.

  9. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health

  10. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Jour-

  11. Identifying issue frames in text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Sagi

    Full Text Available Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S.

  12. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    and free online dictionaries. The Diccionario español para la producción de textos is an example of a general text production dictionary that makes use of internet technologies, is based on a lexicographic theory, contains all the lexicographic data that users need in a production situation, and aims...

  13. Text as Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woal, Michael; Corn, Marcia Lynn

    As electronically mediated communication becomes more prevalent, print is regaining the original pictorial qualities which graphemes (written signs) lost when primitive pictographs (or picture writing) and ideographs (simplified graphemes used to communicate ideas as well as to represent objects) evolved into first written, then printed, texts of…

  14. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  15. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  16. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  17. Text analysis and computers

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Content: Erhard Mergenthaler: Computer-assisted content analysis (3-32); Udo Kelle: Computer-aided qualitative data analysis: an overview (33-63); Christian Mair: Machine-readable text corpora and the linguistic description of danguages (64-75); Jürgen Krause: Principles of content analysis for information retrieval systems (76-99); Conference Abstracts (100-131).

  18. The Emar Lexical Texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantzert, Merijn

    2011-01-01

    This four-part work provides a philological analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the cuneiform lexical texts found in the Late Bronze Age city of Emar, in present-day Syria. These word and sign lists, commonly dated to around 1100 BC, were almost all found in the archive of a single school.

  19. E-text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2017-01-01

    modality, which is both an independent modality and a container in which other modalities may be contained. In the first case, the notion of electronic text would be paradigmatically formed around the e-book, conceived as a digital copy a printed book, but now produced as a deliberately closed work. Even...

  20. New mathematical cuneiform texts

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, Jöran

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents in great detail a large number of both unpublished and previously published Babylonian mathematical texts in the cuneiform script. It is a continuation of the work A Remarkable Collection of Babylonian Mathematical Texts (Springer 2007) written by Jöran Friberg, the leading expert on Babylonian mathematics. Focussing on the big picture, Friberg explores in this book several Late Babylonian arithmetical and metro-mathematical table texts from the sites of Babylon, Uruk and Sippar, collections of mathematical exercises from four Old Babylonian sites, as well as a new text from Early Dynastic/Early Sargonic Umma, which is the oldest known collection of mathematical exercises. A table of reciprocals from the end of the third millennium BC, differing radically from well-documented but younger tables of reciprocals from the Neo-Sumerian and Old-Babylonian periods, as well as a fragment of a Neo-Sumerian clay tablet showing a new type of a labyrinth are also discussed. The material is presen...

  1. Polymorphous Perversity in Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

    2012-01-01

    Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

  2. Texts On-Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  3. Summarizing Expository Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

  4. Texts On-Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  5. Education and training as prerequisites for overcoming the difficulties in the implementation of ethical and legal norms concerning gender equality in a social environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Danijela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author advances the thesis that in today's Serbia there is no social consensus concerning the unequal treatment of men and women, and that 'patriarchal syndrome', stereotypes and prejudices are still widely present and are greatly influencing the functioning of social mechanisms and the achievement of gender equality. In Serbia the process of achieving the equal treatment of women de jure is still in progress. With the absence of consensus, which is a prerequisite for 'transmitting' social values encompassed by gender equality, the chances are little that equality will be attained de facto. This paper is meant as a warning that not all types of women's inequality are easily noticeable, as well as that on the social scene there are many different and intertwined social actors which influence dealing with the problem of inequality, implementation of international and domestic legal acts, ethical standards, and taking steps to introduce mechanisms for achieving women's equality in society. One of the prerequisites for overcoming these difficulties is a system of education and educational resources, which promote the idea of gender equality.

  6. Connectives and Layout as Processing Signals: How Textual Features Affect Students' Processing and Text Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Silfhout, Gerdineke; Evers-Vermeul, Jacqueline; Mak, Willem M.; Sanders, Ted J. M.

    2014-01-01

    When students read their school text, they may make a coherent mental representation of it that contains coherence relations between the text segments. The construction of such a representation is a prerequisite for learning from texts. This article focuses on the influence of connectives ("therefore," "furthermore") and layout…

  7. Wisdom Texts and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Preus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The last essay of this issue concerns to a more "technical" subject: in many ancient cultures, literary monuments are mainly "wisdom literature". In these early works. Philosophy and Literature are more closely related than in many contemporary approaches. The author here tries to sketch the relationships between the ancient wisdom literatures of Egipt, Greece and Israel, and to show how this literary genre precedes "philosophy".

  8. Eliciting Relations from Requirements Text Based on Dependency Analysis%一种基于依存文法的需求文本策略依赖关系抽取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天颍; 刘璘; 赵德旺; 曹原

    2013-01-01

    从基于自然语言的需求文本中抽取概念模型已有很多相关研究,然而,抽取模型中的关系信息因其复杂性而较少被研究者系统地分析和处理.文中提出了一个通用的关系信息抽取方法,给出抽取规则,从需求文本中确定和抽取关系信息.基于该方法设计并实现了一个系统CREAT3,从中文需求文本自动生成i*框架中的SD(Strategy Dependency,策略依赖)模型,侧重抽取策略依赖关系信息.将得到的模型和专家抽取结果进行对比,结果显示该系统可以获得相当高的准确率,同时也保证了很高的召回率,证明了方法的可用性.并且较相关工作具有更好的可扩展性.%Much has been written on the processing of NL(natural language)-based requirements documents to yield conceptual models. However, the extraction of links in models is deemed difficult. In this paper, we propose an approach for identifying and extracting relations in a range of requirements documents using linguistic clues and pattern-matching. The set of linguistic patterns used for identifying relations was based on a thorough review of the literature and on experiments to sample requirements corpuses. Based on this approach, we developed a system to automatically generate the SD model of I" framework from Chinese requirements documents. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the automated requirements analysis system. The results show that the system achieves high recall with a consistent improvement in precision, which demonstrates the applicability of our approach.

  9. Weaving with text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter

    This paper explores how a school principal by means of practical authorship creates reservoirs of language that provide a possible context for collective sensemaking. The paper draws upon a field study in which a school principal, and his managerial team, was shadowed in a period of intensive cha...... changes. The paper explores how the manager weaves with text, extracted from stakeholders, administration, politicians, employees, public discourse etc., as a means of creating a new fabric, a texture, of diverse perspectives that aims for collective sensemaking....

  10. Metacomprehension of text material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, R H; Berry, S L

    1984-10-01

    Subjects' abilities to predict future multiple-choice test performance after reading sections of text were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects who scored above median test performance showed some accuracy in their predictions of that test performance. They gave higher mean ratings to material related to correct than to incorrect test answers. Subjects who scored below median test performance did not show this prediction accuracy. The retention interval between reading and the test was manipulated in Experiment 2. Subjects who were tested after at least a 24-hr delay showed results identical to those of Experiment 1. However, when subjects were tested immediately after reading, subjects above and below median test performance gave accurate predictions for the first immediate test. In contrast, both types of subjects gave inaccurate predictions for the second immediate test. Structural variables, such as length, serial position, and hierarchical level of the sections of text were related to subjects' predictions. These variables, in general, were not related to test performance, although the predictions were related to test performance in the conditions described above.

  11. The organic principle of eurasianism and the prerequisite of change of the style of thinking dominating in modern science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koptelova T. I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the organic principle of the Euroasian philosophy is studied. The organic principle acts as a basis of special style of thinking and a certain methodology of scientific knowledge here. The Euroasian methodology of studying of development of society allows establishing of the nature of communications between social processes and the phenomena of wildlife. In the article, the most important components of the Euroasian organic principle of thinking are shown: special terminology and possibilities of its application for the description and forecasting of the social phenomena. Prerequisites of change of the style of thinking dominating in modern science are also noted. The author considers advantages of the organic principle of the Euroasian methodology in solution of national political, social-economic and cultural problems and in possible prospects of its use for formation of scientific methodology. The organic principle of thinking creates complex idea of reality, which can appear before us new, party unknown earlier. Lack of division of sensual experience and “pure reason”, irrational and rational in organic thinking is unconditional advantage of organic approach. Organic principle presented by the Euroasian philosophical organization of the beginning of the twentieth century and continued by Lev Gumilev in the theory of ethnogenesis acts as alternative developed in the west of one-dimensional, mechanistic methodology. It can be told with confidence that owning all of variety of intellectual traditions is necessary for the modern humankind to become capable to realize global ecological threats and negative consequences of influence of culture in which ethics of individualism prevails.

  12. Code-Mixing in Social Media Text: The Last Language Identification Frontier?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Amitava; Gambäck, Björn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Automatic understanding of noisy social media text is one of the prime present-day research areas. Most research has so far concentrated on English texts ; however, more than half of the users are writing in other languages, making language identification a pre-requisite for comprehensive processing of social media text. Though language identification has been considered an almost solved problem in other applications, language detectors fail in the social media context due to pheno...

  13. Differentiating clinical care from disease prevention: a prerequisite for practicing quaternary prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Dalcanale Tesser

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article contends that the distinction between clinical care (illness and prevention of future disease is essential to the practice of quaternary prevention. The authors argue that the ongoing entanglement of clinical care and prevention transforms healthy into "sick" people through changes in disease classification criteria and/or cut-off points for defining high-risk states. This diverts health care resources away from those in need of care and increases the risk of iatrogenic harm in healthy people. The distinction in focus is based on: (a management of uncertainty (more flexible when caring for ill persons; (b guarantee of benefit (required only in prevention; (c harm tolerance (nil or minimal in prevention. This implies attitudinal differences in the decision-making process: greater skepticism, scientism and resistance towards preventive action. These should be based on high-quality scientific evidence of end-outcomes that displays a net positive harm/benefit ratio.

  14. Interconnectedness und digitale Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev Doherr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Die multimedialen Informationsdienste im Internet werden immer umfangreicher und umfassender, wobei auch die nur in gedruckter Form vorliegenden Dokumente von den Bibliotheken digitalisiert und ins Netz gestellt werden. Über Online-Dokumentenverwaltungen oder Suchmaschinen können diese Dokumente gefunden und dann in gängigen Formaten wie z.B. PDF bereitgestellt werden. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet die Funktionsweise der Humboldt Digital Library, die seit mehr als zehn Jahren Dokumente von Alexander von Humboldt in englischer Übersetzung im Web als HDL (Humboldt Digital Library kostenfrei zur Verfügung stellt. Anders als eine digitale Bibliothek werden dabei allerdings nicht nur digitalisierte Dokumente als Scan oder PDF bereitgestellt, sondern der Text als solcher und in vernetzter Form verfügbar gemacht. Das System gleicht damit eher einem Informationssystem als einer digitalen Bibliothek, was sich auch in den verfügbaren Funktionen zur Auffindung von Texten in unterschiedlichen Versionen und Übersetzungen, Vergleichen von Absätzen verschiedener Dokumente oder der Darstellung von Bilden in ihrem Kontext widerspiegelt. Die Entwicklung von dynamischen Hyperlinks auf der Basis der einzelnen Textabsätze der Humboldt‘schen Werke in Form von Media Assets ermöglicht eine Nutzung der Programmierschnittstelle von Google Maps zur geographischen wie auch textinhaltlichen Navigation. Über den Service einer digitalen Bibliothek hinausgehend, bietet die HDL den Prototypen eines mehrdimensionalen Informationssystems, das mit dynamischen Strukturen arbeitet und umfangreiche thematische Auswertungen und Vergleiche ermöglicht. Summary The multimedia information services on Internet are becoming more and more comprehensive, even the printed documents are digitized and republished as digital Web documents by the libraries. Those digital files can be found by search engines or management tools and provided as files in usual formats as

  15. A prerequisite for the effective transfer of the shape-memory effect to cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, H.; Yeung, L. Y.; Hu, J. L.

    2007-06-01

    Subtle interaction between shape-memory polymer and cellulose fibers within fabrics remains a critical issue for understanding their thermal-mechanical properties and thus the shape-memory behavior in cotton fibers. We demonstrate here the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy to probe the induced stresses in warp and weft fibers, presenting physicochemical features for cellulose fibers finished with macromolecule polyurethane and small-molecule dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. Accordingly, a possible mechanism for transfer of the shape-memory effect to fabrics is proposed. Forming as a coating on the fiber surface after the finishing process, the shape-memory polymer takes a critical role in reducing the residual stress in weft fibers, establishing the prerequisite for reserving the shape-memory effect to fabric. In addition, this work has demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is able to probe the residual stresses in cotton fabrics after being treated by chemicals in addition to that due to physical deformation. Our result provides clear evidence that in the finishing process strength reduction in fibers in general is not only caused solely by a chemical reaction, but also by a physical modification of the cotton structure.

  16. [Medical, educational and neurophysiological prerequisites to the formation of the motivation to exercises in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, P I; Sedova, A S; Berezina, N O; Viatleva, O A

    2015-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the life activity of modern children and adolescents is the couch potato, mostly "sedentary" lifestyle. Biomedical and psychosocial significance of motor activity (MA) stipulates the necessity of the substantiation of scientific and methodological approaches to the formation of the motivation to exercises and sports in children. The purpose of the study was in the scientific substantiation and the delivery of medical, pedagogical and neurophysiological prerequisites for the formation of the motivation to increase MA in students in current conditions of their life activity. There were examined 189 students from 2-5th and 9th classes, out of them 65 students were observed in the dynamics of the school year; 585 students from the 1st-11th classes participated in the survey. Results of the study allowed to reveal the relation of students to the lessons of physical training, to evaluate the impact of a new educational program on the functional possibilities of the body of children from the special medical group "A" and to reveal the neurophysiological features of adolescents with different needs in motion.

  17. Trisomy 21- affected placentas highlight prerequisite factors for human trophoblast fusion and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassiné, André; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Trophoblastic cell fusion is one essential step of the human trophoblast differentiation pathway and is a multifactorial and dynamic process finely regulated and still poorly known. Disturbances of syncytiotrophoblast formation are observed in numerous pathological clinical conditions such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and trisomy 21. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the different membrane proteins directly involved in trophoblastic cell fusion, which we identified by using the physiological model of primary culture of villous trophoblastic cells. Connexin 43 and gap junctional intercellular communication point to the role of molecular exchanges through connexin channels preceding membrane fusion. Zona occludens-1, which can interact with connexin 43, is also directly involved in trophoblast fusion. The recently identified fusogenic membrane retroviral envelop glycoproteins syncytin 1 (encoded by the HERV-W gene) and syncytin 2 (encoded by the FRD gene) and their receptors are major factors involved in human placental development . We describe the increasing number of factors promoting or inhibiting trophoblast fusion and differentiation and emphasize the role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its receptor. Indeed, in trisomy 21 the dynamic process leading to membrane fusion is impaired due to an abnormal hCG signaling. This abnormal trophoblast fusion and differentiation in trisomy 21-affected placenta is reversible in vitro. Trisomy 21 trophoblastic cell culture may therefore be useful to identify the possible large number of prerequisite factors involved in trophoblast fusion, the limiting step of trophoblast differentiation.

  18. Are left fronto-temporal brain areas a prerequisite for normal music-syntactic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Koelsch, Stefan; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-06-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies in music cognition research suggest that "language areas" are involved in the processing of musical syntax, but none of these studies clarified whether these areas are a prerequisite for normal syntax processing in music. The present electrophysiological experiment tested whether patients with lesions in Broca's area (N=6) or in the left anterior temporal lobe (N=7) exhibit deficits in the processing of structure in music compared to matched healthy controls (N=13). A chord sequence paradigm was applied, and the amplitude and scalp topography of the Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) was examined, an electrophysiological marker of musical syntax processing that correlates with activity in Broca's area and its right hemisphere homotope. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) (but not anterior superior temporal gyrus - aSTG) patients with lesions older than 4 years showed an ERAN with abnormal scalp distribution, and subtle behavioural deficits in detecting music-syntactic irregularities. In one IFG patient tested 7 months post-stroke, the ERAN was extinguished and the behavioural performance remained at chance level. These combined results suggest that the left IFG, known to be crucial for syntax processing in language, plays also a functional role in the processing of musical syntax. Hence, the present findings are consistent with the notion that Broca's area supports the processing of syntax in a rather domain-general way.

  19. Identifying photoreceptors in blind eyes caused by RPE65 mutations: Prerequisite for human gene therapy success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Samuel G; Aleman, Tomas S; Cideciyan, Artur V; Sumaroka, Alexander; Schwartz, Sharon B; Windsor, Elizabeth A M; Traboulsi, Elias I; Heon, Elise; Pittler, Steven J; Milam, Ann H; Maguire, Albert M; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Stone, Edwin M; Bennett, Jean

    2005-04-26

    Mutations in RPE65, a gene essential to normal operation of the visual (retinoid) cycle, cause the childhood blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Retinal gene therapy restores vision to blind canine and murine models of LCA. Gene therapy in blind humans with LCA from RPE65 mutations may also have potential for success but only if the retinal photoreceptor layer is intact, as in the early-disease stage-treated animals. Here, we use high-resolution in vivo microscopy to quantify photoreceptor layer thickness in the human disease to define the relationship of retinal structure to vision and determine the potential for gene therapy success. The normally cone photoreceptor-rich central retina and rod-rich regions were studied. Despite severely reduced cone vision, many RPE65-mutant retinas had near-normal central microstructure. Absent rod vision was associated with a detectable but thinned photoreceptor layer. We asked whether abnormally thinned RPE65-mutant retina with photoreceptor loss would respond to treatment. Gene therapy in Rpe65(-/-) mice at advanced-disease stages, a more faithful mimic of the humans we studied, showed success but only in animals with better-preserved photoreceptor structure. The results indicate that identifying and then targeting retinal locations with retained photoreceptors will be a prerequisite for successful gene therapy in humans with RPE65 mutations and in other retinal degenerative disorders now moving from proof-of-concept studies toward clinical trials.

  20. PREPARING STUDENTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF A NEW TEACHER CONTENT, AN IMPORTANT PREREQUISITE FOR THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TASK OF TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdan Arsić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Success in any type of activity depends on thorough preparation. Processing of new teaching facilities, or the acquisition of new knowledge in the whole course of the educational process is one of the most important prerequisites for success in the implementation of the tasks of teaching. When it comes to this problem, the analysis of available pedagogical-psychological and didactic and methodical literature, indicates that it mainly talks about the preparation of teachers, which is certainly needed. However, the implementation of teaching together and actively participating teachers and students , and the modern conception of school based on the students' activities. The above observations lead us to the conclusion that preparing students for teaching is equally important as the preparation of teachers, although it is somewhat more specific, given their status in the classroom.

  1. The Impact of Prerequisite General Education Courses on the ETS Major Field Test for Business (MFT-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Charles Michael; Rodriguez, Linda Carol; Harrison, David S.; Wates, Kathleen W.

    2014-01-01

    The authors explore the relationship between general education prerequisite courses, used for schools of business admission, and predicted grade point averages (PGPAs) with the Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B). The MFT-B is designed to assess the general business knowledge of students at the end of their programs. There is no known literature…

  2. Democratization of Education as Prerequisite for Social Economic and Cultural Progress in a Multi-Cultural Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madumere, S. C.; Olisaemeka, B. U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on democratization of education as a prerequisite for social, economic and cultural progress in a multi-cultural society, such as Nigeria. Attempt was made to define and explain the major concepts in the paper. Education was explained as an instrument of democracy and as function of socialization, culture and economic…

  3. Texts of presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, G.; Vidolov, K.; Dufour-Fallot, B.; Dewarrat, Th.; Rose, T.; Favatier, A.; Gazeley, D.; Pujol, T.; Worner, D.; Van de Wel, E.; Revaz, J.M.; Clerfayt, G.; Creedy, A.; Moisan, F.; Geissler, M.; Isbell, P.; Macaluso, M.; Litzka, V.; Gillis, W.; Jarvis, I.; Gorg, M.; Bebie, B.

    2004-07-01

    Implementing a sustainable local energy policy involves a long term reflection on the general interest, energy efficiency, distributed generation and environmental protection. Providing services on a market involves looking for activities that are profitable, if possible in the 'short-term'. The aim of this conference is to analyse the possibility of reconciling these apparently contradictory requirements and how this can be achieved. This conference brings together the best specialists from European municipalities as well as important partners for local authorities (energy agencies, service companies, institutions, etc.) in order to discuss the public-private partnerships concerning the various functions that municipalities may perform in the energy field as consumers and customers, planners and organizers of urban space and rousers as regards inhabitants and economic players of their areas. This document contains the summaries of the following presentations: 1 - Performance contracting: Bulgarian municipalities use private capital for energy efficiency improvement (K. VIDOLOV, Varna (BG)), Contracting experiences in Swiss municipalities: consistent energy policy thanks to the Energy-city label (B. DUFOUR-FALLOT and T. DEWARRAT (CH)), Experience of contracting in the domestic sector (T. ROSE (GB)); 2 - Public procurement: Multicolor electricity (A. FAVATIER (CH)), Tendering for new green electricity capacity (D. GAZELEY (GB)), The Barcelona solar thermal ordinance (T. PUJOL (ES)); 3 - Urban planning and schemes: Influencing energy issues through urban planning (D. WOERNER (DE)), Tendering for the supply of energy infrastructure (E. VAN DE WEL (NL)), Concessions and public utility warranty (J.M. REVAZ (CH)); 4 - Certificate schemes: the market of green certificates in Wallonia region in a liberalized power market (G. CLERFAYT (BE)), The Carbon Neutral{sup R} project: a voluntary certification scheme with opportunity for implementation in other European

  4. Student- and faculty-reported importance of science prerequisites for osteopathic medical school: a survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binstock, Judith; Junsanto-Bahri, Tipsuda

    2014-04-01

    The relevance of current standard medical school science prerequisites is being reexamined. (1) To identify which science prerequisites are perceived to best prepare osteopathic medical students for their basic science and osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) coursework and (2) to determine whether science prerequisites for osteopathic medical school should be modified. Preclinical osteopathic medical students and their basic science and OMM faculty from 3 colleges of osteopathic medicine were surveyed about the importance of specific science concepts, laboratories, and research techniques to medical school coursework. Participants chose responses on a 5-point scale, with 1 indicating "strongly disagree" or "not important" and 5 indicating "strongly agree" or "extremely important." Participants were also surveryed on possible prerequisite modifications. Student responses (N=264) to the general statement regarding prerequisites were "neutral" for basic science coursework and "disagree" for OMM coursework, with mean (standard deviation [SD]) scores of 3.37 (1.1) and 2.68 (1.2), respectively. Faculty responses (N=49) were similar, with mean (SD) scores of 3.18 (1.1) for basic science coursework and 2.67 (1.2) for OMM coursework. Student mean (SD) scores were highest for general biology for basic science coursework (3.93 [1.1]) and physics for OMM coursework (2.5 [1.1]). Student mean (SD) scores were lowest for physics for basic science coursework (1.79 [1.2]) and organic chemistry for OMM coursework (1.2 [0.7]). Both basic science and OMM faculty rated general biology highest in importance (mean [SD] scores, 3.73 [0.9] and 4.22 [1.0], respectively). Students and faculty rated biochemistry high in importance for basic science coursework (mean [SD] scores of 3.66 [1.2] and 3.32 [1.2], respectively). For basic science coursework, students and faculty rated most laboratories as "important," with the highest mean (SD) ratings for general anatomy (students, 3.66 [1

  5. Teacher Modeling Using Complex Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Modeling in complex texts requires that teachers analyze the text for factors of qualitative complexity and then design lessons that introduce students to that complexity. In addition, teachers can model the disciplinary nature of content area texts as well as word solving and comprehension strategies. Included is a planning guide for think aloud.

  6. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirnov, O P; Manykin, A A; Rossman, J S; Klenk, H D

    2016-05-01

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~ 25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prerequisites for understanding climate-change impacts on northern prairie wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Post van der Burg, Max; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) contains ecosystems that are typified by an extensive matrix of grasslands and depressional wetlands, which provide numerous ecosystem services. Over the past 150 years the PPR has experienced numerous landscape modifications resulting in agricultural conversion of 75–99 % of native prairie uplands and drainage of 50–90 % of wetlands. There is concern over how and where conservation dollars should be spent within the PPR to protect and restore wetland basins to support waterbird populations that will be robust to a changing climate. However, while hydrological impacts of landscape modifications appear substantial, they are still poorly understood. Previous modeling efforts addressing impacts of climate change on PPR wetlands have yet to fully incorporate interacting or potentially overshadowing impacts of landscape modification. We outlined several information needs for building more informative models to predict climate change effects on PPR wetlands. We reviewed how landscape modification influences wetland hydrology and present a conceptual model to describe how modified wetlands might respond to climate variability. We note that current climate projections do not incorporate cyclical variability in climate between wet and dry periods even though such dynamics have shaped the hydrology and ecology of PPR wetlands. We conclude that there are at least three prerequisite steps to making meaningful predictions about effects of climate change on PPR wetlands. Those evident to us are: 1) an understanding of how physical and watershed characteristics of wetland basins of similar hydroperiods vary across temperature and moisture gradients; 2) a mechanistic understanding of how wetlands respond to climate across a gradient of anthropogenic modifications; and 3) improved climate projections for the PPR that can meaningfully represent potential changes in climate variability including intensity and duration of wet and dry periods. Once

  8. Treating transsexuals in India: History, prerequisites for surgery and legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Richie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their clinical practice came across transsexual patients, who were determined to get their gender affirmed by undergoing a change of sex. This motivated the authors to review the literature extensively regarding transsexualism and report their experience. Opinions were taken from legal luminaries practicing in related fields. They also took inputs from several patients who were at various stages of psychiatric analysis and hormone therapy and also those, who had completed their treatment procedures. A paucity of the Indian inputs in medical literature concerning transsexualism was noted by the authors They also found deficiencies in the Indian Law, as applied to the individuals undergoing gender affirmation surgery (GAS. In this paper they have enumerated these deficiencies. Though GAS has been legally allowed in U.K. since 1967, in America since 1972, and in various other countries, Indian Laws are silent on the issue. An Indian surgeon dealing with transsexual patients is faced with a number of issues like consent for the procedure, safe guarding the surgeon or gender team from future litigation. Another issue is postoperative sexual and legal status of the patient. Present Indian Laws regarding marriage, adultery, sexual and unnatural offences, adoptions, maintenance, succession, labour and industrial laws will require modifications when dealing with these individuals and protecting their rights. Authors have tried to deal with all these issues that an individual surgeon faces when he manages a transsexual patient.

  9. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  10. Can Total Quality Management Succeed at Your College--Now? (Does Your College Meet the Essential Prerequisites and Underlying Assumptions of TQM?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, James O.

    1994-01-01

    Defines Total Quality Management (TQM) and describes prerequisites for successful implementation, underlying assumptions, and the cultural barriers hindering implementation. Indicates that TQM's long-term benefits outweigh costs at most colleges. Urges practitioners to rate their schools with respect to the prerequisites and assumptions to…

  11. Can Total Quality Management Succeed at Your College--Now? (Does Your College Meet the Essential Prerequisites and Underlying Assumptions of TQM?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, James O.

    1994-01-01

    Defines Total Quality Management (TQM) and describes prerequisites for successful implementation, underlying assumptions, and the cultural barriers hindering implementation. Indicates that TQM's long-term benefits outweigh costs at most colleges. Urges practitioners to rate their schools with respect to the prerequisites and assumptions to…

  12. Persistent Identifiers: a Prerequisite to Establish the Framework for Scholarly Link Exchange—Scholix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, M.; Mokrane, M.; Burton, A.; Koers, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Scholix framework—Scholarly Link Exchange—is a set of aspirational principles and practical guidelines developed under the umbrella of a joint Working Group of the Research Data Alliance (RDA) and the World Data System (WDS). It supports a global open information ecosystem unveiling the links between scholarly literature and underpinning research data. The core objectives of the framework are to (1) increase visibility and discoverability of data and articles, (2) place data in context to enable re-use, and (3) support credit attribution mechanisms. Thus, facilitating reproducibility and the transparent evaluation of science. Scholix provides an evolving lightweight set of Guidelines to increase interoperability rather than a normative standard. It consists initially of a conceptual and information models, information standards and encoding guidelines, and options for encoding and exchange protocols. An essential prerequisite to enable the proposed framework is the use of global, unique and persistent identifiers for research objects (such as data and literature). Scholix provides incentives and encourages best practice in the use of such identifiers and standardised referencing. The Data and Literature Interlinking Service (DLI: dliservice.research-infrastructures.eu) is the first exemplar of an aggregation and query service supported by the Scholix framework which will allow the emergence of third party services such as domain-specific aggregations, integrations with other global services, discovery tools, impact assessments, etc. Scholix is already implemented by existing hubs or global aggregators of data-literature link information such as DataCite, CrossRef, OpenAIRE, and EMBL-EBI building on the capacities of existing Persistent Identifier Systems (PIDs) such as Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) and Accession Numbers. These hubs in turn work with their natural communities of data centres or literature publishers to collect the information through

  13. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhirnov, O.P., E-mail: zhirnov@inbox.ru [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Manykin, A.A. [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Rossman, J.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT27NJ (United Kingdom); Klenk, H.D. [Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Marburg 35037 (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. - Highlights: • The influenza A virus has a novel asymmetric internal structure. • The structure is largely maintained by M1-RNP cohesion within the virion. • This asymmetry plays an important role during viral entry, facilitating virus uncoating and the initiation of a productive

  14. Digital Model-Based Engineering: Expectations, Prerequisites, and Challenges of Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, J. P.; Zimmerman, P.; Kukkala, G.; Guerrero, J.; Kobryn, P.; Puchek, B.; Bisconti, M.; Baldwin, C.; Mulpuri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Digital model-based engineering (DMbE) is the use of digital artifacts, digital environments, and digital tools in the performance of engineering functions. DMbE is intended to allow an organization to progress from documentation-based engineering methods to digital methods that may provide greater flexibility, agility, and efficiency. The term 'DMbE' was developed as part of an effort by the Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Infusion Task team to identify what government organizations might expect in the course of moving to or infusing MBSE into their organizations. The Task team was established by the Interagency Working Group on Engineering Complex Systems, an informal collaboration among government systems engineering organizations. This Technical Memorandum (TM) discusses the work of the MBSE Infusion Task team to date. The Task team identified prerequisites, expectations, initial challenges, and recommendations for areas of study to pursue, as well as examples of efforts already in progress. The team identified the following five expectations associated with DMbE infusion, discussed further in this TM: (1) Informed decision making through increased transparency, and greater insight. (2) Enhanced communication. (3) Increased understanding for greater flexibility/adaptability in design. (4) Increased confidence that the capability will perform as expected. (5) Increased efficiency. The team identified the following seven challenges an organization might encounter when looking to infuse DMbE: (1) Assessing value added to the organization. Not all DMbE practices will be applicable to every situation in every organization, and not all implementations will have positive results. (2) Overcoming organizational and cultural hurdles. (3) Adopting contractual practices and technical data management. (4) Redefining configuration management. The DMbE environment changes the range of configuration information to be managed to include performance and design models

  15. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    and diglossia and textual criticism (Chapters 7, 13), and the significance of extra-biblical sources, including Amarna Canaanite, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Hebrew inscriptions of the monarchic period, Qumran and Mishnaic Hebrew, the Hebrew language of Ben Sira and Bar Kochba, and also Egyptian, Akkadian, Persian....... This is followed by an detailed synthesis of the topics introduced in the first volume, a series of detailed case studies on various linguistic issues, extensive tables of grammatical and lexical features, and a comprehensive bibliography. The authors argue that the scholarly use of language in dating biblical...... texts, and even the traditional standpoint on the chronological development of biblical Hebrew, require a thorough re-evaluation, and propose a new perspective on linguistic variety in biblical Hebrew. Early Biblical Hebrew and Late Biblical Hebrew do not represent different chronological periods...

  16. Can donor aid for health be effective in a poor country? Assessment of prerequisites for aid effectiveness in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet, Nabyonga Orem; Freddie, Ssengooba; Okuonzi, Sam

    2009-10-22

    Inadequate funding for health is a challenge to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals. Significant increase in health funding was recommended by the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health. Indeed Official Development Assistance has increased significantly in Uganda. However, the effectiveness of donor aid has come under greater scrutiny. This paper scrutinizes the prerequisites for aid effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the prerequisites for effectiveness of donor aid, specifically, its proportion to overall health funding, predictability, comprehensiveness, alignment to country priorities, and channeling mechanisms. Secondary data obtained from various official reports and surveys were analyzed against the variables mentioned under objectives. This was augmented by observations and participation in discussions with all stakeholders to discuss sector performance including health financing. Between 2004-2007, the level of aid increased from US$6 per capita to US$11. Aid was found to be unpredictable with expenditure varying between 174-8722;360 percent from budgets. More than 50% of aid was found to be off budget and unavailable for comprehensive planning. There was disproportionate funding for some items such as drugs. Key health system elements such as human resources and infrastructure have not been given due attention in investment. The government's health funding from domestic sources grew only modestly which did not guarantee fiscal sustainability. Although donor aid is significant there is need to invest in the prerequisites that would guarantee its effective use.

  17. Succincter Text Indexing with Wildcards

    CERN Document Server

    Thachuk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of indexing text with wildcard positions, motivated by the challenge of aligning sequencing data to large genomes that contain millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)---positions known to differ between individuals. SNPs modeled as wildcards can lead to more informed and biologically relevant alignments. We improve the space complexity of previous approaches by giving a succinct index requiring $(2 + o(1))n \\log \\sigma + O(n) + O(d \\log n) + O(k \\log k)$ bits for a text of length $n$ over an alphabet of size $\\sigma$ containing $d$ groups of $k$ wildcards. A key to the space reduction is a result we give showing how any compressed suffix array can be supplemented with auxiliary data structures occupying $O(n) + O(d \\log \\frac{n}{d})$ bits to also support efficient dictionary matching queries. The query algorithm for our wildcard index is faster than previous approaches using reasonable working space. More importantly our new algorithm greatly reduces the query working space to ...

  18. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  19. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  20. Retinal locus for scanning text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T; Sharma, Manoj K; Grose, Susan A; Maino, Joseph H

    2006-01-01

    A method of mapping the retinal location of text during reading is described in which text position is plotted cumulatively on scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images. Retinal locations that contain text most often are the brightest in the cumulative plot, and locations that contain text least often are the darkest. In this way, the retinal area that most often contains text is determined. Text maps were plotted for eight control subjects without vision loss and eight subjects with central scotomas from macular degeneration. Control subjects' text maps showed that the fovea contained text most often. Text maps of five of the subjects with scotomas showed that they used the same peripheral retinal area to scan text and fixate. Text maps of the other three subjects with scotomas showed that they used separate areas to scan text and fixate. Retinal text maps may help evaluate rehabilitative strategies for training individuals with central scotomas to use a particular retinal area to scan text.

  1. An Embedded Application for Degraded Text Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillou Céline

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mobile device which tries to give the blind or visually impaired access to text information. Three key technologies are required for this system: text detection, optical character recognition, and speech synthesis. Blind users and the mobile environment imply two strong constraints. First, pictures will be taken without control on camera settings and a priori information on text (font or size and background. The second issue is to link several techniques together with an optimal compromise between computational constraints and recognition efficiency. We will present the overall description of the system from text detection to OCR error correction.

  2. Automatic Text Decomposition and Structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salton, Gerard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Text similarity measurements are used to determine relationships between natural-language texts and text excerpts. The resulting linked hypertext maps can be broken down into text segments and themes used to identify different text types and structures, leading to improved information access and utilization. Examples are provided for text…

  3. Texts in multiple versions: histories of editions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuliani, L.; Brinkman, H.; Lernout, G.; Mathijsen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Texts in multiple versions constitute the core problem of textual scholarship. For texts from antiquity and the medieval period, the many versions may be the result of manuscript transmission, requiring editors and readers to discriminate between levels of authority in variant readings produced

  4. Texts in multiple versions: histories of editions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Giuliani; H. Brinkman; G. Lernout; M. Mathijsen

    2006-01-01

    Texts in multiple versions constitute the core problem of textual scholarship. For texts from antiquity and the medieval period, the many versions may be the result of manuscript transmission, requiring editors and readers to discriminate between levels of authority in variant readings produced alon

  5. Temporal Adverbials in Text Structuring: On Temporal Text Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Tuija

    This paper discusses clause-initial adverbials of time functioning as signals of the temporal text strategy. A chain of such markers creates cohesion and coherence by forming continuity in the text and also signals textual boundaries that occur on different hierarchic levels. The temporal text strategy is closely associated with narrative text.…

  6. Mining free-text medical records.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, D. T.; Morsch, M. L.; Holbrook, J.

    2001-01-01

    Text mining projects can be characterized along four parameters: 1) the demands of the market in terms of target domain and specificity and depth of queries; 2) the volume and quality of text in the target domain; 3) the text mining process requirements; and 4) the quality assurance process that validates the extracted data. In this paper, we provide lessons learned and results from a large-scale commercial project using Natural Language Processing (NLP) for mining the transcriptions of dicta...

  7. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can......The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... to improve the models of human motor behaviour. TUP-Key is a variant of TUP, designed for 12 key phone keyboards. It is introduced in the thesis but has not been implemented or evaluated. Both text entry methods support adaptive context-aware language models. YourText is a framework for adaptive context...

  8. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  9. Trypsinogen activation in acute and chronic pancreatitis: Is it a prerequisite?

    OpenAIRE

    Sah, Raghuwansh P.; Saluja, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    Trypsinogen activation is sufficient to induce acute pancreatitis in an experimental model. However, whether it is a requirement for the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pancreatitis remains to be explored.

  10. Short Text Classification: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosive growth of e-commerce and online communication, a new genre of text, short text, has been extensively applied in many areas. So many researches focus on short text mining. It is a challenge to classify the short text owing to its natural characters, such as sparseness, large-scale, immediacy, non-standardization. It is difficult for traditional methods to deal with short text classification mainly because too limited words in short text cannot represent the feature space and the relationship between words and documents. Several researches and reviews on text classification are shown in recent times. However, only a few of researches focus on short text classification. This paper discusses the characters of short text and the difficulty of short text classification. Then we introduce the existing popular works on short text classifiers and models, including short text classification using sematic analysis, semi-supervised short text classification, ensemble short text classification, and real-time classification. The evaluations of short text classification are analyzed in our paper. Finally we summarize the existing classification technology and prospect for development trend of short text classification

  11. PDF text classification to leverage information extraction from publication reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha

    2016-06-01

    Data extraction from original study reports is a time-consuming, error-prone process in systematic review development. Information extraction (IE) systems have the potential to assist humans in the extraction task, however majority of IE systems were not designed to work on Portable Document Format (PDF) document, an important and common extraction source for systematic review. In a PDF document, narrative content is often mixed with publication metadata or semi-structured text, which add challenges to the underlining natural language processing algorithm. Our goal is to categorize PDF texts for strategic use by IE systems. We used an open-source tool to extract raw texts from a PDF document and developed a text classification algorithm that follows a multi-pass sieve framework to automatically classify PDF text snippets (for brevity, texts) into TITLE, ABSTRACT, BODYTEXT, SEMISTRUCTURE, and METADATA categories. To validate the algorithm, we developed a gold standard of PDF reports that were included in the development of previous systematic reviews by the Cochrane Collaboration. In a two-step procedure, we evaluated (1) classification performance, and compared it with machine learning classifier, and (2) the effects of the algorithm on an IE system that extracts clinical outcome mentions. The multi-pass sieve algorithm achieved an accuracy of 92.6%, which was 9.7% (pPDF documents. Text classification is an important prerequisite step to leverage information extraction from PDF documents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  13. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  14. The Challenge of Challenging Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

  15. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network for Scene Text Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature globally computed from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this paper, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel text-attentional convolutional neural network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/non-text information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates the main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called contrast-enhancement maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 data set, with an F-measure of 0.82, substantially improving the state-of-the-art results.

  16. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2013-05-28

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

  17. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network for Scene Text Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature computed globally from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this work, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/nontext information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called Contrast- Enhancement Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (CE-MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely-used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 dataset, with a F-measure of 0.82, improving the state-of-the-art results substantially.

  18. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Networks for Scene Text Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-03-28

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature computed globally from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this work, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/nontext information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called Contrast- Enhancement Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (CE-MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely-used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 dataset, with a F-measure of 0.82, improving the state-of-the-art results substantially.

  19. Contrastive Study of Coherence in Chinese Text and English Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the text-linguistic concepts on which the analysis of textual structure is based including text and discourse, coherence and cohesive. In addition we try to discover different manifestations of text between ET and CT, including different coherent structures.

  20. Supported eText: Assistive Technology through Text Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    To gain meaningful access to the curriculum, students with reading difficulties must overcome substantial barriers imposed by the printed materials they are asked to read. Technology can assist students to overcome these challenges by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text. By electronic text it means textual material read using a…

  1. Test of Picture-Text Amalgams in Procedural Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David Edey

    Designed to assess how people read and comprehend information presented in picture-text amalgams in procedural texts, this instrument presents various combinations of text information and illustrative information on slides. Subjects are assigned to one of four conditions and directed to follow the instructions presented on the slides. Videotapes…

  2. Working with text tools, techniques and approaches for text mining

    CERN Document Server

    Tourte, Gregory J L

    2016-01-01

    Text mining tools and technologies have long been a part of the repository world, where they have been applied to a variety of purposes, from pragmatic aims to support tools. Research areas as diverse as biology, chemistry, sociology and criminology have seen effective use made of text mining technologies. Working With Text collects a subset of the best contributions from the 'Working with text: Tools, techniques and approaches for text mining' workshop, alongside contributions from experts in the area. Text mining tools and technologies in support of academic research include supporting research on the basis of a large body of documents, facilitating access to and reuse of extant work, and bridging between the formal academic world and areas such as traditional and social media. Jisc have funded a number of projects, including NaCTem (the National Centre for Text Mining) and the ResDis programme. Contents are developed from workshop submissions and invited contributions, including: Legal considerations in te...

  3. Intracellulair Organization: A Prerequisite for Root Hair Elongation and Cell Wall Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Cell growth requires not only production of matter, but in addition, the targeting, transport, and delivery of this matter to the site of cell expansion. Thus, a proper organization of cell structure, the cytoarchitecture, is a necessity for cell elongation. The actual process of cell growth in a ce

  4. The concept of apparent cardiac arrest as a prerequisite for coronary digital subtraction angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, T. van der; Heethaar, R.M.; Stegehuis, H.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible use of digital subtraction applied after selective coronary arteriography. An identical position of the objects with and without contrast medium is an absolute requirement for the application of subtraction techniques. Because coronary arteries are

  5. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  6. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    apply in industry. The findings of this study show that SME managers employ a practice-shaped holistic multi- and cross-disciplinary approach to learning. This learning approach is supported by theory dissemination, business challenge applications, and organisational prerequisites. Diversified learning......This paper reveals how managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can utilise their participation in research-based training. Empirical research from a longitudinal study of 10 SMEs managers in the wind turbine industry is provided to describe a learning approach that SME managers can...... that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  7. The Prerequisites To Ukrainian Students Participation In Study Abroad Programs At The Canadian Universities And Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukovskyi Vasyl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of outbound mobility of Ukrainian students has been presented in the paper. The data regarding the number of Ukrainian students studying in Canada has been pointed out. This paper examines “push-pull” factors which motivate Ukrainian students to seek higher education overseas and factors which attract Ukrainian students to Canadian higher education establishments.

  8. Text Signals Influence Team Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.; Rysavy, Monica D.; Taricani, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory quasi-experimental investigation describes the influence of text signals on team visual map artifacts. In two course sections, four-member teams were given one of two print-based text passage versions on the course-related topic "Social influence in groups" downloaded from Wikipedia; this text had two paragraphs, each…

  9. Too Dumb for Complex Texts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

  10. Multilingual Text Analysis for Text-to-Speech Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Sproat, R

    1996-01-01

    We present a model of text analysis for text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis based on (weighted) finite-state transducers, which serves as the text-analysis module of the multilingual Bell Labs TTS system. The transducers are constructed using a lexical toolkit that allows declarative descriptions of lexicons, morphological rules, numeral-expansion rules, and phonological rules, inter alia. To date, the model has been applied to eight languages: Spanish, Italian, Romanian, French, German, Russian, Mandarin and Japanese.

  11. Evaluation of Prerequisite Programs Implementation and Hygiene Practices at Social Food Services through Audits and Microbiological Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Roncesvalles; Yánez, Nathaly; Díez-Leturia, María; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Vitas, Ana Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Prerequisite programs are considered the most efficient tool for a successful implementation of self-control systems to ensure food safety. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of these programs in 15 catering services located in Navarra and the Basque Country (regions in northern Spain), through on-site audits and microbiological analyses. The implementation of the prerequisite program was incomplete in 60% of the sample. The unobserved temperature control during both the storage and preparation of meals in 20% of the kitchens reveals misunderstanding in the importance of checking these critical control points. A high level of food safety and hygiene (absence of pathogens) was observed in the analyzed meals, while 27.8% of the tested surfaces exceeded the established limit for total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (≤100 CFU/25 cm²). The group of hand-contact surfaces (oven door handles and aprons) showed the highest level of total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Enterobacteriaceae, and the differences observed with respect to the food-contact surfaces (work and distribution utensils) were statistically significant (P food workers' hands, lower levels of microorganisms were observed in the handlers wearing gloves (that is, for Staphylococcus spp we identified 43 CFU/cm2 on average compared with 4 CFU/cm2 (P food handlers, through specific activities such as informal meetings and theoretical-practical sessions adapted to the characteristics of each establishment.

  12. Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2012-01-01

    Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis covers the specific aspects of prosody, mainly focusing on how to predict the prosodic information from linguistic text, and then how to exploit the predicted prosodic knowledge for various speech applications. Author K. Sreenivasa Rao discusses proposed methods along with state-of-the-art techniques for the acquisition and incorporation of prosodic knowledge for developing speech systems. Positional, contextual and phonological features are proposed for representing the linguistic and production constraints of the sound units present in the text. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers working in the area of speech processing.

  13. A Survey on Web Text Information Retrieval in Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapaswini Nayak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have analyzed different techniques for information retrieval in text mining. The aim of the study is to identify web text information retrieval. Text mining almost alike to analytics, which is a process of deriving high quality information from text. High quality information is typically derived in the course of the devising of patterns and trends through means such as statistical pattern learning. Typical text mining tasks include text categorization, text clustering, concept/entity extraction, creation of coarse taxonomies, sentiment analysis, document summarization and entity relation modeling. It is used to mine hidden information from not-structured or semi-structured data. This feature is necessary because a large amount of the Web information is semi-structured due to the nested structure of HTML code, is linked and is redundant. Web content categorization with a content database is the most important tool to the efficient use of search engines. A customer requesting information on a particular subject or item would otherwise have to search through hundred of results to find the most relevant information to his query. Hundreds of results through use of mining text are reduced by this step. This eliminates the aggravation and improves the navigation of information on the Web.

  14. Exploring the Notion of Space in Virtual Collaborations : Finding Prerequisites for Success in Virtual Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Hamrin, Per; Persson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Virtual Teams are becoming an increasingly common work form. The ability to connect people with required sets of skills, regardless of their location in the world has been enabled by advances in information technology over the past 20 years. However, as researchers and practitioners have discovered, this new kind of team brings with it number of challenges. This thesis aims to examine the challenges and the opportunities that technology brings to the environment of the Virtual Team and to giv...

  15. Text comprehension practice in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, José Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the study is the existence of relations between the two dimensions of text compression: the instrumental dimension and the cognitive dimension. The first one includes the system of actions, the second one the system of knowledge. A description of identifying, describing, inferring apprising and creating actions are suggested for each type of text. Likewise, the importance of implementing text comprehension is outlined on the basis of the assumption that the text is a tool for preserving and communicating culture, that allows human beings to wide their respective cultural horizons and develop cognitive and affective process that allow them to get universal morals.

  16. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  17. Adaptació d’una bateria per a l’avaluació de prerequisits per a l’aprenentatge d’Estadística en Psicologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Guàrdia-Olmos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les recerques recents sobre docència universitària en estadística s’han centrat en identificar les principals variables que afecten al rendiment acadèmic. L’objectiu d’aquest estudi és analitzar les propietats psicomètriques de quatre qüestionaris (SAS, SATS, MSES-R, PMP disposats en una bateria de prerequisits per a l’aprenentatge de l’estadística i, per tant, potencials predictors del rendiment.Mètode: La bateria es va administrar a una mostra de 96 estudiants del Grau en Psicologia de la Universitat de Barcelona durant el curs acadèmic 2010-2011 en l’assignatura de Tècniques de Recerca.Resultats: Totes les escales van mostrar alts valors en els coeficients de consistència interna. En relació a la validesa, es van trobar correlacions significatives en sentit negatiu entre els factors teòrics del SAS i del SATS. Les puntuacions d’autoeficàcia davant els problemes matemàtics estaven fortament relacionades amb el rendiment en matemàtiques. Les anàlisis factorials van mostrar una solució de cinc factors per al SAS i una solució unifactorial per al MSES-R.

  18. Attitudes and Prerequisites for the Establishment of an Integrated Cultural Identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Popova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: On the basis of the results from an empirical study this research aims at exploration of the prerequisites for the establishment of an integrated cultural identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River (RBCBR. Prior Work: The paper is trying to prove the necessity of identity re-negotiation process within RBCBR. The theoretical background of the research is related to some of the most topical considerations in this scientific field. Approach: The research uses an interdisciplinary approach and combines the perspectives of regional studies, cross-cultural psychology and intercultural communication. A representative survey is the main instrument of the research. Results: Among the citizens of the RBCBR there exist favourable attitudes towards closer relations with their neighbours which can serve as a key element of the identity re-negotiation process within the region. Implications: The research results can be used by policy makers and regional authorities in the process of establishment of a new policy for territorial cooperation as well as by researchers in further development of this topic area. Value: the importance of the research is in its new approach towards the establishment of integrated regional identity as well as in the comparison of the Romanian and Bulgarian attitudes towards cooperation in the neighbourhood area.

  19. Single-Tube Reaction Using Perfluorocarbons: A Prerequisite Step Leading to the Whole-Slide In Situ Technique on Histopathological Slides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Chen

    Full Text Available Developing a robust, novel method for performing multiple reactions in a single tube is not only time- and cost-saving but also critical for future high-throughput whole-slide in situ techniques on diseased tissues. In this study, we introduce the use of perfluorocarbons and compound-coated magnetic particles to create pseudochambers in a single tube, allowing different reactions to be performed in different phases. Perfluorocarbons also serve as cell lysis buffer and polymerase chain reaction (PCR buffer owing to their highly penetrating, repellent and emulsifiable properties. Using this method, nucleic acids can be isolated and purified from various sample types and sizes, followed by PCR, real-time PCR, or multiplex PCR in the same tube. No incubation or enzyme digesting time is needed and the risk of cross-contamination is reduced. Tests can be performed in microemulsions (water-in-oil droplets containing sequence-specific captures and probes for further high-throughput detection. We present a simple, quick, and robust procedure as a prerequisite step to future high-throughput in situ techniques.

  20. TEXT DEIXIS IN NARRATIVE SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Rivera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at demonstrative descriptions, regarding them as text-deictic procedures which contribute to weave discourse reference. Text deixis is thought of as a metaphorical referential device which maps the ground of utterance onto the text itself. Demonstrative expressions with textual antecedent-triggers, considered as the most important text-deictic units, are identified in a narrative corpus consisting of J. M. Barrie’s Peter Pan and its translation into Catalan. Some linguistic and discourse variables related to DemNPs are analysed to characterise adequately text deixis. It is shown that this referential device is usually combined with abstract nouns, thus categorising and encapsulating (non-nominal complex discourse entities as nouns, while performing a referential cohesive function by means of the text deixis + general noun type of lexical cohesion.

  1. Basic prerequisites of appearance and resocialization of children and young people of the risk group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тамара Василівна Говорун

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological factors of the appearance of young people of the "risk" group, the best practices of their resocialization have been determined. Children of vulnerable categories from young age have predispositions for acquiring properties and antisocial behavior caused by everyday stress in family life, conflict situations in school interaction. Youth is marked by lag in education, substance abuse, criminal acts, variance of exploitation. Psychocorrectional programs activate subjectivity of undergrads in anger management skills, education and communication

  2. Prerequisites for Increasing the Axle Load on Railway Tracks in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lidmila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problems of increasing the axle load on Czech Railways (ED tracks to 250 kN or 300 kN, respectively. The results of a numerical analysis of the effects of increased axle loads on the track bed structure were verified by experimental measurements carried out on track bed construction models in an experimental box on a 1:1 scale. The results of the research are applicable for routine use on ED. 

  3. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration.

  4. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  5. Management modelling behaviour: An important prerequisite for the implementation of business ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Zyl

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers agree that ethics and ethical behaviour have become two of the most important topics of the new millennium. Reasons for this can include changing business conditions as well as the growing public demand for quality services, reasonable prices and honest treatment. Furthermore, the present wave of corruption in South African business makes it important to focus on management-related factors that seem to influence employees’ decisions to behave ethically at work. These phenomena will be used as a basis to make practical suggestions on how to improve the situation.

  6. A study of cognitive reflection prerequisites in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Knyazeva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reflection is a necessary condition for productivity of children education programs. Meanwhile, preconditions for the development of cognitive reflection, formed during the preschool years, are still poorly understood. The article discusses theoretical and practical significance of its study. We present tools development to identify the preconditions of cognitive reflection in preschoolers. We describe a pilot study using this tool, in which age-related features and the dynamics of reflexive abilities were identified. We define a strategy for further research on the issue of children reflective abilities.

  7. EXPORT PROMOTION POLICY, PREREQUISITE OF AN EFFICIENT NATIONAL FOREIGN TRADE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIAN-LIVIU OLARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of international trade is widely recognized not only by the business sector, but also by governments. Governments all over the world have reviewed and streamlined their foreign trade strategies during the last decades. Nearly all countries have adopted special export promotion and development programmes. These programmes have focused on providing more efficient trade support services in areas such as trade information, financing, logistics, customs procedures and communications. Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs have a broad mandate to provide or coordinate trade support services in the above mentioned area.

  8. On Prerequisites for the Application of Sustainable Development Indicators in Urban Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Palme

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-structured interviews with 47 key actors were conducted in Swedish water utilities on why Sustainable Development Indicators (SDIs are or are not used. Important influencing aspects identified included organizational inertia, social capital, the national water sector and authorities. Divergent views of SD and indicators appear to hinder SDI initiatives. Possible explanations are that: (a not all actors look at decision-making as the kind of rational process the focus on indicators implies, and (b, Swedish urban water systems are widely regarded as sustainable. The water sector itself and regulation are identified as the strongest potential drivers for increased use of SDIs.

  9. Text Mining Applications and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Text Mining: Applications and Theory presents the state-of-the-art algorithms for text mining from both the academic and industrial perspectives.  The contributors span several countries and scientific domains: universities, industrial corporations, and government laboratories, and demonstrate the use of techniques from machine learning, knowledge discovery, natural language processing and information retrieval to design computational models for automated text analysis and mining. This volume demonstrates how advancements in the fields of applied mathematics, computer science, machine learning

  10. Survey of Text Plagiarism Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaraa Abuobieda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are going to review and list the advantages and limitations of the significant effective techniques employed or developed in text plagiarism detection.  It was found that many of the proposed methods for plagiarism detection have a weakness and lacking for detecting some types of plagiarized text. This paper discussed several important issues in plagiarism detection such as; plagiarism detection Tasks, plagiarism detection process and some of the current plagiarism detection techniques.

  11. Typesafe Modeling in Text Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Steeg, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concept of annotation-based agents, this report introduces tools and a formal notation for defining and running text mining experiments using a statically typed domain-specific language embedded in Scala. Using machine learning for classification as an example, the framework is used to develop and document text mining experiments, and to show how the concept of generic, typesafe annotation corresponds to a general information model that goes beyond text processing.

  12. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  13. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Tafti, Ahmad P; He, Karen Y; Wang, Kai; He, Max M

    Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  14. Timely interaction between prostaglandin and chemokine signaling is a prerequisite for successful fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamba, Shigero; Yodoi, Rieko; Segi-Nishida, Eri; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Narumiya, Shuh; Sugimoto, Yukihiko

    2008-09-23

    Timely interaction between the egg and sperm is required for successful fertilization; however, little is known about the signaling therein. Prostaglandin (PG) E receptor EP2-deficient (Ptger2(-/-)) female mice exhibit a severe fertilization defect. We investigated the molecular events leading to this failure. We found increased gene expression for chemokines, such as Ccl2, Ccl7, and Ccl9, in Ptger2(-/-) cumulus cells (the somatic cells surrounding the egg) compared with wild-type cells. Furthermore, under physiological conditions, cumulus-derived chemokine signaling was found to have a dual action; CCL7 facilitates sperm migration to the cumulus-egg complex and integrin-mediated cumulus extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly to protect eggs. However, in the absence of PGE(2)-EP2 signaling, chronic CCL7 signaling results in excessive integrin engagement to the ECM, making the cumulus ECM resistant to sperm hyaluronidase, thereby preventing sperm penetration. Our findings indicate that PGE(2)-EP2 signaling negatively regulates the autocrine action of chemokines and prevents excessive cumulus ECM assembly. This interaction between PG and chemokine signaling is required for successful fertilization.

  15. Hermeneutic reading of classic texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Camilla A-L; Lindström, Unni Å

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to broaden the understandinfg of the hermeneutic reading of classic texts. The aim is to show how the choice of a specific scientific tradition in conjunction with a methodological approach creates the foundation that clarifies the actual realization of the reading. This hermeneutic reading of classic texts is inspired by Gadamer's notion that it is the researcher's own research tradition and a clearly formulated theoretical fundamental order that shape the researcher's attitude towards texts and create the starting point that guides all reading, uncovering and interpretation. The researcher's ethical position originates in a will to openness towards what is different in the text and which constantly sets the researcher's preunderstanding and research tradition in movement. It is the researcher's attitude towards the text that allows the text to address, touch and arouse wonder. Through a flexible, lingering and repeated reading of classic texts, what is different emerges with a timeless value. The reading of classic texts is an act that may rediscover and create understanding for essential dimensions and of human beings' reality on a deeper level. The hermeneutic reading of classic texts thus brings to light constantly new possibilities of uncovering for a new envisioning and interpretation for a new understanding of the essential concepts and phenomena within caring science.

  16. Text Character Extraction Implementation from Captured Handwritten Image to Text Conversionusing Template Matching Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barate Seema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Images contain various types of useful information that should be extracted whenever required. A various algorithms and methods are proposed to extract text from the given image, and by using that user will be able to access the text from any image. Variations in text may occur because of differences in size, style,orientation, alignment of text, and low image contrast, composite backgrounds make the problem during extraction of text. If we develop an application that extracts and recognizes those texts accurately in real time, then it can be applied to many important applications like document analysis, vehicle license plate extraction, text- based image indexing, etc and many applications have become realities in recent years. To overcome the above problems we develop such application that will convert the image into text by using algorithms, such as bounding box, HSV model, blob analysis,template matching, template generation.

  17. Factual Approach in Decision Making - the Prerequisite of Success in Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučerová, Marta; Škůrková Lestyánszka, Katarína

    2013-12-01

    In quality management system as well as in other managerial systems, effective decisions must be always based on the data and information analysis, i.e. based on facts, in accordance with the factual approach principle in quality management. It is therefore necessary to measure and collect the data and information about processes. The article presents the results of a conducted survey, which was focused on application of factual approach in decision making. It also offers suggestions for improvements of application of the principle in business practice. This article was prepared using the research results of VEGA project No. 1/0229/08 "Perspectives of the quality management development in relation to the requirements of market in the Slovak Republic".

  18. Dangers of Texting While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nhtsa.gov/risky-driving/distracted-driving . Print Out Texting While Driving Guide (pdf) File a Complaint with the FCC ... Office: Consumer and Governmental Affairs Tags: Consumers - Distracted Driving - Health and Safety - Texting Federal Communications Commission 445 12th Street SW, Washington, ...

  19. Text analysis for knowledge graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, Roel

    2007-01-01

    The concept of knowledge graphs is introduced as a method to represent the state of the art in a specific scientific discipline. Next the text analysis part in the construction of such graphs is considered. Here the 'translation' from text to graph takes place. The method that is used here is compar

  20. Text Retrieval on a Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Richard; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents description of the Generalized Automatic Text Organization and Retrieval system (GATOR), a database system that indexes and retrieves information from machine-readable texts such as interviews and case histories. Qualitative and quantitative analyses are discussed, and integrating GATOR with standard statistical packages is described.…

  1. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  2. Text Genres in Information Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahotko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Text genres used by so-called information organizers in the processes of information organization in information systems were explored in this research. Method: The research employed text genre socio-functional analysis. Five genre groups in information organization were distinguished. Every genre group used in information…

  3. Leveled Reading and Engagement with Complex Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of engaging with age-appropriate reading materials in classroom settings are numerous. For example, students' comprehension is developed as they acquire new vocabulary and concepts. The Common Core requires all students have daily opportunities to engage with "complex text" regardless of students' decoding levels. However,…

  4. A holistic approach to corporate social responsibility as a prerequisite for sustainable development: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR for contemporary organizations demands appropriate holistic tools. The paper highlights how Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, a relevant holistic, i.e., soft systems approach, supports the conceptualization and management of the complex issues of CSR and sustainable development. The SSM’s key methodological tools are used: rich picture, root definitions, and conceptual models. Empirical research compares a selected sample of enterprises in the automotive industry in the Republic of Serbia, to identify possible systemically desirable and culturally feasible changes to improve their CSR behaviour through promoting their sustainable development. Some limitations of this research and of SSM application are discussed. Combining SSM with some other systems approaches, such as System Dynamics or Critical Systems Heuristics, is recommended for future research.

  5. Quality and integrity in scientific writing: prerequisites for quality in science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Roland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Standards and Good Practice guidelines provide explicit criteria for maintaining quality and integrity in science. But research practices are now openly questioned. I defend the idea that the tension between norms and practices in scientific writing must be addressed primarily by the scientific community if quality of the sources in the process of science communication is to be guaranteed. This paper provides evidence that scientific writing and researchers’writing practices do not reflect expected quality criteria. Evidence is based on four complementary analyses of: (i communication manuals, journals’ recommendations to authors and the norms they convey (ii feedback given by reviewers (ii interviews and questionnaires (iv researchers’ written productions and writing practices. I show that researchers’ writing and communication practices are very often in total contradiction with the norms and standards the scientific community has established. Unless researchers can improve and guarantee quality and integrity of the sources, the whole system of science communication will be threatened.

  6. Freedom of Education as a Prerequisite for the Development of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Hanaba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the need to modernize the education sector as an area of freedom. That educational space of freedom is a necessary condition for the development of creativity. This space, which grows with its context through acts of creativity, creates a new context. Methodological guidance in considering this problem is to understand the phenomenon of freedom as a special be-ing a person that opposes the principle of necessity as being of nature. Freedom is an opportunity and the ability to be a human and to be an open to changes in various modes of social and personal realization. The learning process is not perceived as the cultivation of a certain abstract image, under which definite personality “is shaping “, but as a process of discovering its inner creative original building. In such circumstances, the creative process is focused on cultural transformation rather than social adaptation of educational interaction participants.

  7. Social Media and eCRM as a Prerequisite for Hotel Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Milović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of information and communication technology (ICT has enabled the development of electronic customer relations (eCRM as a business strategy that uses web technologies for developing the capacity and enabling hotels to engage guests in the strong, personalized and mutually beneficial interactive relationship, and thus increase their profitability and sales efficiency. Internet development has enabled the rapid growth of hotel industry. Today, hotel managers are completely aware of benefits that Internet as a promotion tool offers to their business, and accordingly, they are motivated to create greater awareness of their hotels with the goal of increasing number of guests and improving hotel reputation. This article describes how eCRM strategy is used by hotel managers to promote the hotel, more specifically, how much impact websites, social media and e-mail marketing campaigns have on hotelpromotion and business performance.

  8. PREREQUISITES OF DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSNATIONAL INTEGRATION OF ECONOMICS OF MIDDLE URALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Kovalev

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with questions of structurization extension and motivation process the transnational integration economics of the Middle Urals. Ascertain In the base of clusters approach priority of formation and development transfrontier axis FRG (Bavaria − Czech − Middle Urals seeing that now creating favorable conditions for renaissance of ural-czech economic relations, at German capital superiority in Czech economic. On base of strategic vision promising social-economic development Middle Urals and Bavaria comparison proves high degree their content correlation, that can be more intensify at the expense of obtain synergetic effects from building the cluster structure integration development cooperation regions. Offered on the fact and logic materials authors classification of integration forms of the corporate and state property management in conditions of transfrontier economic integration. Elaborate basic institutional principles allow to building international integration process in no simple condition of world economy relationships globalization and Russia’s entering in WTO.

  9. Transformational leadership as a prerequisite for organizational innovations during turbulent socio-economic circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many organizations are operating in turbulent socio-economic circumstances which do not represent a matter of certain time, but the only certainty and consistency. There is a necessity for an adequate organizational response to changes so that organizations can remain competitive. The paper highlights the importance of new forms of management and leadership in managing organizations. Transformational leadership represents a form of leadership that encourages and nurtures employee creativity at all levels within the organization - individual, group and organizational, which implies the generating and establishment of organizational innovation. Due to the fact that creativity is a necessary condition for organizational innovation, this paper points out that transformational leadership is essential for the induction of organizational innovations and their management which further results in organizational changes that contribute to the survival and competitiveness of organizations and business systems on the market.

  10. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  11. Text mining for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, Juliane; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Scientific communication in biomedicine is, by and large, still text based. Text mining technologies for the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text that can be directly used for systems biology modelling have been substantially improved over the past few years. In this review, we underline the importance of named entity recognition and relationship extraction as fundamental approaches that are relevant to systems biology. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of publicly organized scientific benchmarking challenges that reflect the current status of text-mining technology and are important in moving the entire field forward. Given further interdisciplinary development of systems biology-orientated ontologies and training corpora, we expect a steadily increasing impact of text-mining technology on systems biology in the future.

  12. Text structures in medical text processing: empirical evidence and a text understanding prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M

    1997-01-01

    We consider the role of textual structures in medical texts. In particular, we examine the impact the lacking recognition of text phenomena has on the validity of medical knowledge bases fed by a natural language understanding front-end. First, we review the results from an empirical study on a sample of medical texts considering, in various forms of local coherence phenomena (anaphora and textual ellipses). We then discuss the representation bias emerging in the text knowledge base that is likely to occur when these phenomena are not dealt with--mainly the emergence of referentially incoherent and invalid representations. We then turn to a medical text understanding system designed to account for local text coherence.

  13. Text Analytics to Data Warehousing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalli Srinivasa Nageswara Prasad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Information hidden or stored in unstructured data can play a critical role in making decisions, understanding and conducting other business functions. Integrating data stored in both structured and unstructured formats can add significant value to an organization. With the extent of development happening in Text Mining and technologies to deal with unstructured and semi structured data like XML and MML(Mining Markup Language to extract and analyze data, textanalytics has evolved to handle unstructured data to helps unlock and predict business results via Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing. Text mining involves dealing with texts in documents and discovering hidden patterns, but Text Analytics enhances InformationRetrieval in form of search and enabling clustering of results and more over Text Analytics is text mining and visualization. In this paper we would discuss on handling unstructured data that are in documents so that they fit into business applications like Data Warehouses for further analysis and it helps in the framework we have used for the solution.

  14. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

  15. High host-plant nitrogen content: a prerequisite for the evolution of ant-caterpillar mutualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, L; Rasmann, S; Litsios, G; Fiedler, K; Dubuis, A; Pottier, J; Guisan, A

    2012-08-01

    The amount of nitrogen required to complete an insect's life cycle may vary greatly among species that have evolved distinct life history traits. Myrmecophilous caterpillars in the Lycaenidae family produce nitrogen-rich exudates from their dorsal glands to attract ants for protection, and this phenomenon has been postulated to shape the caterpillar's host-plant choice. Accordingly, it was postulated that evolution towards myrmecophily in Lycaenidae is correlated with the utilization of nitrogen-rich host plants. Although our results were consistent with the evolutionary shifts towards high-nutrient host plants serving as exaptation for the evolution of myrmecophily in lycaenids, the selection of nitrogen-rich host plants was not confined to lycaenids. Butterfly species in the nonmyrmecophilous family Pieridae also preferred nitrogen-rich host plants. Thus, we conclude that nitrogen is an overall important component in the caterpillar diet, independent of the level of myrmecophily, as nitrogen can enhance the overall insect fitness and survival. However, when nitrogen can be obtained through alternative means, as in socially parasitic lycaenid species feeding on ant brood, the selective pressure for maintaining the use of nutrient-rich host plants is relaxed, enabling the colonization of nitrogen-poor host plants.

  16. Paris vs. Prague: A "Suspicion of Fraud": Ernst Mach Argues over Photographs and Epistemological Prerequisites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Argument In spring 1888, an anonymous critic raised severe doubts about Ernst Mach's and Peter Salcher's studies, published one year before, on the processes in the air caused by very rapid projectiles. Paraphrasing the experiments for the French popular science magazine La Nature, the critic insinuated that the photographs upon which Mach and Salcher's argument were ostensibly based must have been of such low quality that they did not allow any well-founded conclusion. The critic did not deny the phenomena Mach and Salcher had presented in their article; he denied that the photographs taken in the course of the experiments could permit any observation of the phenomena. I take the resulting quarrel as a window into the actors' ideas on the requirements of "good observations" and the role of technical devices in this case. In particular I enquire how the various arguments relate to Lorraine Daston's and Peter Galison's framing of photography as an emblem of "mechanical objectivity." We will see that in the case under debate, actors considered naked-eye observation, observation by telescope and photography mainly with regard to the challenges of the particular research object.

  17. ECONOMIC THINKING AS A SIGNIFICANT PREREQUISITE FOR THE EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT AND FUNCTIONING OF THE DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera FRIANOVÁ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to draw attention of readers to the importance of economic thinking in order to solve various current economic problems in the defence sector as well as to indicate how economic thinking and behaviour of the sector members, especially managers, can increase the overall efficiency of the Armed Forces activities or the efficiency of the defence sector activities. The author in the article defines the general economic principles (3E principles of resource management, highlights the problem of application of the efficiency principle in the public sector and also in terms of the Department of Defence of the Slovak Republic and suggests some possible ways to solve some of current economic issues. In this context the author of the article also points to the need to educate managers in the economic field. The article is the output of a research and development project undertaken at the Armed Forces Academy of General M. R. Štefánik in Liptovský Mikuláš, the Slovak Republic.

  18. Gliotransmission by Prostaglandin E2: a prerequisite for GnRH neuronal function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome eClasadonte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades it has become clear that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a phospholipid-derived signaling molecule, plays a fundamental role in modulating the GnRH neuroendocrine system and in shaping the hypothalamus. In this review, after a brief historical overview, we highlight studies revealing that PGE2 released by glial cells such as astrocytes and tanycytes is intimately involved in the active control of GnRH neuronal activity and neurosecretion. Recent evidence suggests that hypothalamic astrocytes surrounding GnRH neuronal cell bodies may respond to neuronal activity with an activation of the erbB receptor tyrosine-kinase signaling, triggering the release of PGE2 as a chemical transmitter from the glia themselves, and, in turn, leading to the feedback regulation of GnRH neuronal activity. At the GnRH neurohemal junction, in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, PGE2 is released by tanycytes in response to cell-cell signaling initiated by glial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Upon its release, PGE2 causes the retraction of the tanycyte end feet enwrapping the GnRH nerve terminals, enabling them to approach the adjacent pericapillary space and thus likely facilitating neurohormone diffusion from these nerve terminals into the pituitary portal blood. In view of these new insights, we suggest that synaptically-associated astrocytes and perijunctional tanycytes are integral modulatory elements of GnRH neuronal function at the cell soma/dendrite and nerve terminal levels, respectively.

  19. Arsenic speciation in fish products and seafood as a prerequisite for proper risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Piras

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Boi Cerbus lagoon, facing a mining and industrial site in Sardinia (Italy, is an important fishing area for the local population. Previous studies showed high concentrations of total arsenic (Astot in fish, molluscs and crustaceans sampled in the lagoon, and a possible exceeding of the provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives by some local consumer groups. However, the percentage of inorganic As (Asinorg should be known for a correct assessment of potential risk, as its toxicity is much higher than that of the organic forms. Eighty samples of 14 different species of fish, molluscs and crustaceans, sampled in the Boi Cerbus lagoon in 3 different seasons (winter, spring and summer, were analysed for Astot by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and Asinorg by high performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS. All the data obtained from the analysis were statistically processed to evaluate significant differences based on season, taxon and habitat, in preparation for a subsequent risk assessment.

  20. Marketing Study of the Use of Internet Opportunities as a Pre-requisite of Innovation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziukova Alina O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of Internet opportunities for ensuring innovation development and increase of economic growth of market subjects. The article uses marketing instruments of the study of opportunities of Internet technologies. In the course of the content analysis the article considers evolution of the Internet market and the broadband access in general and its segments, reveals tendencies of development, identifies directions of use of Internet opportunities both for B2B and B2C markets. The article studies the competitive situation in the Internet access market in Ukraine. It shows main players in the market and their competitive strategies. It lists main operators of the Internet access market in the city of Kryvyi Rih. The conducted poll among the city communication operators and clients (consumers of telecommunication services (1000 respondents provided grounds to understand vision of the future market of Internet technologies by operators and consumers. The article identifies a new vector of relations of the subjects of business processes. It shows that the effect of use of Internet technologies lies in acceleration of business processes, overcoming transaction barriers and strengthening competitive positions.

  1. UNDERSTANDING THE DETERMINANTS OF TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR AS A PREREQUISITE FOR INCREASING PUBLIC LEVIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan BǍTRÂNCEA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the most important studies concerning the factors which shape tax compliancebehavior with the aim of understanding how these factors could be used by tax authorities as tools for increasing publicproceedings. In order to do that, we first summarize the most relevant socio psychological, political and economicdeterminants. Among the socio psychological factors, we offer details concerning attitudes, norms, fairnessperceptions, motivational postures, and the way they relate to tax compliance behavior. From the range of politicaldeterminants, we particularly emphasize the importance of tax law complexity. Moreover, we briefly present theevolution of the research on tax behavior starting from the assumptions of the classical model of tax evasion developedby Allingham and Sandmo (1972. We also underline the impact which audit probabilities, fines, tax rates, and incomehave on tax compliance behavior. Second we offer different examples of countries (e.g., Australia, New Zealand which,based on the understanding of these determinants, have managed to develop models of tax compliance, to apply themand, as a consequence, to boost tax compliance. Third we draw conclusions about the importance of these factors andabout the extent to which they could help other economies to increasingly levy taxes.

  2. ICT usage as a key prerequisite for open knowledge environment creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Gryczka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of information and telecommunication technologies (ICT and growing popularity of the Internet as communication medium were the most important incentives having influenced the global knowledge-based economy for at least two decades. Although the ICT infrastructure development degree is still often considered as an information society measure, it seems that nowadays, when so many people has broadband and mobile access to the Web, more appropriate ones are those reflecting ICT skills and efficient Internet usage qualifications. One of the new concepts is "open innovation", which in a wider sense could be understood as an exemplification of networked knowledge and innovation exchange method possible thanks to the contemporary Internet revolution. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the general concept of open innovation environment, which could be created in Poland to facilitate and foster a scientific and innovation-oriented cooperation among different stakeholders, like companies (especially SMEs, universities, public institutions and the mass of individual Internet users. To achieve this goal, the latter part of the paper is dedicated to the electronic survey results analysis and discussion. This survey has been conducted via social media and other electronic communication channels in course of author’s research concerning new models of knowledge diffusion and technology transfer in electronic networks, especially on the Web.

  3. STUDENTS' SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL MOBILITY AS A PREREQUISITE OF DYNAMIC CAREER PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evald F. Zeer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problems of students' social and professional mobility in the post-industrial society, given the dynamism and uncertainty of future career prospects, and variability and multidimensionality of individual career trajectories.The research is aimed at defining the phenomenon of social and professional mobility, determining factors of professional growth, and functional structural characteristics of mobility development.The scientific novelty involves the author's interpretation and conceptual analysis of students’ socio-professional mobility, and its contribution to the future professional growth. The author considers both the objective and subjective factors affecting the uncertainty of students' professional future: objective factors include socio-economic conditions of postindustrial society, systems of vocational education and guidance; subjective factors deal with the intrapersonal conflicts of professional self-determination, discrepancy of socio-professional orientation, and low auto-competency level.The research findings reveal the structure and characteristic features of students' social and professional mobility: psycho-physiological qualities, cognitive abilities, socio-professional experience and orientation, as well as the negative impact factors. Based on the content analysis and expert evaluation, the author singles out and defines the key characteristics of students’ mobility: adaptability, initiative, innovativeness, learning ability, behavioral flexibility, reflexivity and excessive activity.Practical significance: the research outcomes provide the ground for extrapolation of students' career prospects in vocational schools, career counseling and job placement centers.

  4. PREREQUISITES FOR CREATING THE IMAGE OF IRAQ IN THE NETWORK SPACE OF THE RUSSIAN METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. TROFIMOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading trends in modern mega-polis has become a strong preference of online media to the traditional format and the formation of the picture of the world with their help. The article focuses on the complex study of cultural, political and informational preconditions for the formation of the image of Iraq among the Internet audience in Russia. The author names the main publications that impact the formation of the image of Iraq in the Russian network space, notes special features of Russian Internet-audience and the impact of these features on the formation of the overall image of Iraq in the information space of Russian media. As an example, the author relies on the quotes from the leading Russian publications and online information resources and historical relationships of two countries. In addition, the authoranalyzes the key features of the formation of the image of a foreign country in the context of the Russian media and comes to the conclusion that the image of Iraq is formed mainly on network news resources, which often have political overtones, excluding the historical and cultural context. Results of the study suggest that the image of a foreign country is formed mainly in the network space.

  5. Learning medical English: A prerequisite for successful academic and professional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present specificities of the English language teaching necessary for successful education and professional training of medical students. In contemporary globalized world the English language has become the basic language of communication in all scientific fields including the field of medical science. It is well established that Medical English teaching should primarily focus on stable linguistic competence in English that is created by means of content and context based curriculum, thus preparing students for active use of English upon graduation. In order to achieve this it is very important that English language teaching be based on specific real situations in which the language is to be used. In addition, students should be encouraged to adapt practical skills applicable in specific future professional setting. Medical English teaching represents constant challenge for teachers because they need to be flexible, open to new approaches and methods, make decisions and adapt themselves to constant changes. In addition, long-term learning is at the core of higher education, and being equal partners, both students and teachers should be aware that education is a two-way process.

  6. Geomorphological Prerequisites of Recreation and Tourism Development in the Basin of Bolshaya Golubaya River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnyakov Nikolay Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The basin of the Bolshaya Golubaya river is a promising region for the development of recreation, due to the unique natural conditions and rich historical and cultural heritage of this territory. The article demonstrates geomorphological features of the basin of Bolshaya Golubaya and their influence on the prospects of recreational use of this area. The author analyses the literature data on the geomorphology of the region and supplements it with his own field studies. The nature of this region is picturesque and multifarious. There are a lot of ravines, gullies, terraces, chalk cliffs and other landforms here. The author discovers the opportunities of organization of different recreational types in the study area in light of its geomorphological features. Recreational characteristics of this territory make it suitable for hiking, skiing and cycling tourism, horse riding. The results of this research can be used at the stage of creating of tourist-recreational projects, when designing and conducting excursion trips, sports and health touristic events. These studies contribute to the expansion of practical knowledge about the geography of the territory which has a positive effect on the possibility of carrying out mentioned above recreational projects.

  7. INVESTMENT IN HUMAN CAPITAL – PREREQUISITE FOR THE GROWTH OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investment in human capital as an essential element for ensuring organizational performance. Human capital investments may be direct, more focused on professional training, as well as indirect, more oriented towards the health of employees and the purchase of equipment for their development. In Moldovan organizations investments in human capital are more oriented towards training and professional development of employees. At the same time, in the recruitment and selection of candidates’ process, organizations are trying to attract people that have a high level of professional knowledge and skills, which contribute to increasing the value of their human capital. In order to assess the involvement level of the organizations from Republic of Moldova in terms of human capital development investment, a sociological research that included 152 organizations was conducted. The result of investigations have shown us that human capital value into an organization depends, in the first instance, on the selection tools and techniques that allow election of candidates with an intellectual and professional potential at higher level. Human capital value within organizations increases provided that their staff participates in various professional training programs.

  8. Social freedom as a prerequisite for social responsibility of economic agents in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonar, Viktor Pavlovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the development of theoretical understanding of social freedom as the basis for socially responsible behavior of economic agents acting in socially and economically diverse environment as well as at the analysis of social freedom realization in the economy of Ukraine. The reasoning presented in the paper suggests that social freedom as a precondition for social responsibility of economic agents means a state of socioeconomic relations which gives the proactive agents full awareness of economic interests and a possibility for constructive influence on each other and on the socioeconomic reality with the minimum difference in the power of that influence. The paper gives a structure for multidimensional analysis of realization of social freedom in Ukraine in economic terms of social responsibility. Being based on international indicators the structure includes the components for analysis of civil freedom, actual economic freedom and freedom as the absence of social exclusion. The analysis reveals a relative scarcity of social freedom in Ukraine, hindering social responsibility manifestation in the economy. The realization of actual economic freedom is the most flawed. The fight against social exclusion also proved inconsistent. That slightly contrasts with the humble advances in the area of civil freedom. The international comparison confirms this observation. The paper concludes that social freedom as a precondition for social responsibility of economic agents suffers from the vulnerability and instability in Ukraine and the relevant reform is to be intensified in the country.

  9. Relational Marketing – the Prerequisite to Implement Tourist Companies’ Marketing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Iordache

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available By means of enterprisers’ complex efforts to be oriented towards and take permanent steps to customers’ benefits, relational marketing actually and essentially argues rendering customers loyal by the persuasive qualities of the products supplied, the conditions they are offered in, and a more favourable quality-price ratio than the competitors’.Within relational marketing, marketing managers must set up and implement efficient strategies and programmes in order to attract and keep their customers. In case of losing their customers, it is necessary they explore the causes and try to emotionally or rationally regain them, especially if customers’ strategic value is high to suppliers. The balance between attracting new customers and keeping the current ones has a dynamic feature proved by the change in priorities of the two main concerns during enterprisers’ and products’ progress on the market.The business environment where enterprisers in the Romanian tourism develop their activities is complex and continuously changing. This imposes an increase in the concerns of tourism managers that should take account of the motivations and demands of current and potential tourists, which would be the best way to attract customers and make them loyal.

  10. STUDENTS' SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL MOBILITY AS A PREREQUISITE OF DYNAMIC CAREER PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evald F. Zeer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problems of students' social and professional mobility in the post-industrial society, given the dynamism and uncertainty of future career prospects, and variability and multidimensionality of individual career trajectories.The research is aimed at defining the phenomenon of social and professional mobility, determining factors of professional growth, and functional structural characteristics of mobility development.The scientific novelty involves the author's interpretation and conceptual analysis of students’ socio-professional mobility, and its contribution to the future professional growth. The author considers both the objective and subjective factors affecting the uncertainty of students' professional future: objective factors include socio-economic conditions of postindustrial society, systems of vocational education and guidance; subjective factors deal with the intrapersonal conflicts of professional self-determination, discrepancy of socio-professional orientation, and low auto-competency level.The research findings reveal the structure and characteristic features of students' social and professional mobility: psycho-physiological qualities, cognitive abilities, socio-professional experience and orientation, as well as the negative impact factors. Based on the content analysis and expert evaluation, the author singles out and defines the key characteristics of students’ mobility: adaptability, initiative, innovativeness, learning ability, behavioral flexibility, reflexivity and excessive activity.Practical significance: the research outcomes provide the ground for extrapolation of students' career prospects in vocational schools, career counseling and job placement centers.

  11. (ReBranding As a Fundamental Prerequisite for Future Development of Montenegrin Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđela Jakšić Stojanović, MSc. Oec.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Having on mind the fact that the name of the country and its logo and slogan are very important for destination branding and its positioning on the global market, this paper will be focused on the branding system of Montenegro. The main purpose of the paper is to identify main advantages and disadvantages of its branding system in order to create a coherent visual and verbal identity which differentiate Montenegro from the competition and position it as an attractive, unique, recognizable destination on the global market.            The paper is based on the survey research design because of the fact that it represents a very valuable tool for assessing opinions, attitudes and beliefs of not only tourists, but also local residents about the branding system of Montenegro.   The paper is based on the mixed research methods which involve both -collecting and analyzing quantitative and qualitative data.   The paper represents mixed research approach which includes mixing quantitative and qualitative approaches in an interactive way at all stages of the investigation.   The main findings of the paper refer to the identification of the main associations on brand “wild beauty” and highlighting of its main advantages and disadvantages in order to point out the necessity of rebranding system of Montenegro.           The survey includes some topics about branding system of Montenegro which have never been carried in Montenegro before.

  12. Anomaly Detection with Text Mining

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many existing complex space systems have a significant amount of historical maintenance and problem data bases that are stored in unstructured text forms. The...

  13. Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agarwal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme ofmissing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a wordof cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover andstego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded characterdetermines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach conceals a message, withoutdegrading cover, by using start and end letter of words of the cover. For enhancing the security of secretmessage, the message is scrambled using one-time pad scheme before being concealed and cipher text isthen concealed in cover. We also present an empirical comparison of the proposed approaches with someof the popular text steganographic approaches and show that our approaches outperform the existingapproaches.

  14. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.

  15. Adaptive Personality Recogntion from Text

    OpenAIRE

    Celli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We address the issue of domain adaptation for automatic Personality Recognition from Text (PRT). The PRT task consists in the classification of the personality traits of some authors, given some pieces of text they wrote. The purpose of our work is to improve current approaches to PRT in order to extract personality information from social network sites, which is a really challenging task. We argue that current approaches, based on supervised learning, have several limitations for th...

  16. Functional Stylistics and Peripeteic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchmann, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Using a pragmatically based linguistic description apparatus on literary use of language is not unproblematic. Observations show that literary use of language violates the norms contained by this apparatus. With this paper I suggest how we can deal with this problem by setting up a frame for the ...... for the use of a functional linguistic description apparatus on literary texts. As an extension of this suggestion I present a model for describing a specific type of literary texts....

  17. Text messaging during simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A; Yazdani, Hina; Godfrey, Celeste N; Cooper, Joel M; Strayer, David L

    2009-10-01

    This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Forty participants engaged in both a single task (driving) and a dual task (driving and text messaging) in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Analysis of driving performance revealed that participants in the dual-task condition responded more slowly to the onset of braking lights and showed impairments in forward and lateral control compared with a driving-only condition. Moreover, text-messaging drivers were involved in more crashes than drivers not engaged in text messaging. Text messaging while driving has a negative impact on simulated driving performance. This negative impact appears to exceed the impact of conversing on a cell phone while driving. The results increase our understanding of driver distraction and have potential implications for public safety and device development.

  18. (ReBranding As a Fundamental Prerequisite for Future Development of Montenegrin Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđela Jakšić Stojanović, MSc. Oec.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Having on mind the fact that the name of the country and its logo and slogan are very important for destination branding and its positioning on the global market, this paper will be focused on the branding system of Montenegro. The main purpose of the paper is to identify main advantages and disadvantages of its branding system in order to create a coherent visual and verbal identity which differentiate Montenegro from the competition and position it as an attractive, unique, recognizable destination on the global market.           The paper is based on the survey research design because of the fact that it represents a very valuable tool for assessing opinions, attitudes and beliefs of not only tourists, but also local residents about the branding system of Montenegro. The paper is based on the mixed research methods which involve both -collecting and analyzing quantitative and qualitative data. The paper represents mixed research approach which includes mixing quantitative and qualitative approaches in an interactive way at all stages of the investigation. The main findings of the paper refer to the identification of the main associations on brand “wild beauty” and highlighting of its main advantages and disadvantages in order to point out the necessity of rebranding system of Montenegro.         The survey includes some topics about branding system of Montenegro which have never been carried in Montenegro before.

  19. Text mining for the biocuration workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Lynette; Burns, Gully A P C; Krallinger, Martin; Arighi, Cecilia; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Valencia, Alfonso; Wu, Cathy H; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Dowell, Karen G; Huala, Eva; Lourenço, Anália; Nash, Robert; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Wiegers, Thomas; Winter, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    Molecular biology has become heavily dependent on biological knowledge encoded in expert curated biological databases. As the volume of biological literature increases, biocurators need help in keeping up with the literature; (semi-) automated aids for biocuration would seem to be an ideal application for natural language processing and text mining. However, to date, there have been few documented successes for improving biocuration throughput using text mining. Our initial investigations took place for the workshop on 'Text Mining for the BioCuration Workflow' at the third International Biocuration Conference (Berlin, 2009). We interviewed biocurators to obtain workflows from eight biological databases. This initial study revealed high-level commonalities, including (i) selection of documents for curation; (ii) indexing of documents with biologically relevant entities (e.g. genes); and (iii) detailed curation of specific relations (e.g. interactions); however, the detailed workflows also showed many variabilities. Following the workshop, we conducted a survey of biocurators. The survey identified biocurator priorities, including the handling of full text indexed with biological entities and support for the identification and prioritization of documents for curation. It also indicated that two-thirds of the biocuration teams had experimented with text mining and almost half were using text mining at that time. Analysis of our interviews and survey provide a set of requirements for the integration of text mining into the biocuration workflow. These can guide the identification of common needs across curated databases and encourage joint experimentation involving biocurators, text mining developers and the larger biomedical research community.

  20. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Natalia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available English as a second language (ESL teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to analyse English language subject textbooks written for secondary school students with the aim of gaining information about what bilingual secondary school students need to know in terms of language to process academic textbooks cannot avoiding deal with a dilemma. It needs to be decided which way it is most appropriate to analyse the texts in question. Handbooks of English applied linguistics are not immensely helpful with regard to this problem as they tend not to give recommendation as to which major text analytical approaches are advisable to follow in a pre-college setting. The present theoretical research aims to address this lacuna. Respectively, the purpose of this pedagogically motivated theoretical paper is to investigate two major approaches of ESP text analysis, the register and the genre analysis, in order to find the more suitable one for exploring the language use of secondary school subject texts from the point of view of an English as a second language teacher. Comparing and contrasting the merits and limitations of the two contrastive approaches allows for a better understanding of the nature of the two different perspectives of text analysis. The study examines the goals, the scope of analysis, and the achievements of the register perspective and those of the genre approach alike. The paper also investigates and reviews in detail the starkly different methods of ESP text analysis applied by the two perspectives. Discovering text analysis from a theoretical and methodological angle supports a practical aspect of English teaching, namely making an informed choice when setting out to analyse

  1. Anopheline larval habitats seasonality and species distribution: a prerequisite for effective targeted larval habitats control programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of malaria vector abundance and subsequent disease transmission reduction. Understanding larval habitat succession and its ecology in different land use managements and cropping systems can give an insight for effective larval source management practices. This study investigated larval habitat succession and ecological parameters which influence larval abundance in malaria epidemic prone areas of western Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 51 aquatic habitats positive for anopheline larvae were surveyed and visited once a week for a period of 85 weeks in succession. Habitats were selected and identified. Mosquito larval species, physico-chemical parameters, habitat size, grass cover, crop cycle and distance to nearest house were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that An. gambiae s.l was the most dominant vector species comprised of An.gambiae s.s (77.60% and An.arabiensis (18.34%, the remaining 4.06% had no amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Physico-chemical parameters and habitat size significantly influenced abundance of An. gambiae s.s (P = 0.024 and An. arabiensis (P = 0.002 larvae. Further, larval species abundance was influenced by crop cycle (P≤0.001, grass cover (P≤0.001, while distance to nearest houses significantly influenced the abundance of mosquito species larvae (r = 0.920;P≤0.001. The number of predator species influenced mosquito larval abundance in different habitat types. Crop weeding significantly influenced with the abundance of An.gambiae s.l (P≤0.001 when preceded with fertilizer application. Significantly higher anopheline larval abundance was recorded in habitats in pasture compared to farmland (P = 0.002. When habitat stability and habitat types were considered, hoof print were the most productive followed by disused goldmines. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that implementation of effective larval

  2. FINANCIAL STABILITY – THE PRE-REQUISIT OF A SUCCESSFUL FINANCIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirila Emil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential component of social life, the economic activity is faced with the problems of permanent balance. General economic balance implies the existence of a correspondence between needs for material goods and goods possibly available; needs for labor force and manpower available; needs for financial resources and opportunities for their procurement; between revenues of the population and their possible coverage with goods and services; between needs for foreign currency resources and those potentially available in given circumstances. We believe that the financial balance of an company must reflect, through financing rates, the method of ensuring, allocating and using financial resources, on the one hand, and the economic-financial results obtained from the activity performed on the other hand, as well as reflect the relation between cash flows generated by operation activities, by investments and financing, on the one hand, and cash flows used for these activities, on the other hand. The financial balance study, according to "Cross-border research programme - performance indicators of entities in the Bihor- Hajdu Bihar Euro-region" - HURO/0901/204/2.2.3 was based on the basis of financial reporting for the years 2008-2010 for a number of 50 companies grouped in the representative activity sectors contributing to the county’s GDP performance as follows: Processing industry, Building, Building materials industry, Light industry, Agricultural products processing, Forestry and wood-processing industry, Commerce, Tourism services, Transport services. The calculation of balance indicators for the examined Bihor county companies are presented in the tables from the second chapter and briefly interpreted. It is important to note that companies which are representative for the economy of the Bihor county, possess 93,7% of the total subscribed and used capital, given that the number of public limited companies is 330 and represents only 1

  3. Princess Brambilla - images/text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Read the illustrated literary text is simultaneously think pictures and words. This articulation between the written text and pictures adds potential, expands and becomes complex. Coincides with nowadays discussions on Giorgio Agamben's "contemporary" that add to what adheres to respectively time the displacement and the distance needed to understand it, shakes linear notions of historical chronology. Somehow the coincidence is related to the current interest in the concept of "Nachleben" (survival, which assumes the images of the past ransom, postulated by the art historian Aby Warburg in a research on ancient art of motion characteristics in Renaissance pictures Botticelli's. For the translation of the Princesa Brambilla – um capriccio segundo Jakob Callot, de E. T. A. Hoffmann, com 8 gravuras cunhadas a partir de moldes originais de Callot (1820 to Portuguese such discussions were fundamental, as I try to present in this article.

  4. Text Recognition from an Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinath Janvalkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To achieve high speed in data processing it is necessary to convert the analog data into digital data. Storage of hard copy of any document occupies large space and retrieving of information from that document is time consuming. Optical character recognition system is an effective way in recognition of printed character. It provides an easy way to recognize and convert the printed text on image into the editable text. It also increases the speed of data retrieval from the image. The image which contains characters can be scanned through scanner and then recognition engine of the OCR system interpret the images and convert images of printed characters into machine-readable characters [8].It improving the interface between man and machine in many applications

  5. Quality Inspection of Printed Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Ballisager; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Inspecting the quality of printed texts has its own importance in many industrial applications. To do so, this paper proposes a grading system which evaluates the performance of the printing task using some quality measures for each character and symbols. The purpose of these grading system is two......-folded: for costumers of the printing and verification system, the overall grade used to verify if the text is of sufficient quality, while for printer's manufacturer, the detailed character/symbols grades and quality measurements are used for the improvement and optimization of the printing task. The proposed system...

  6. A Guide Text or Many Texts? "That is the Question”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado de Valencia Sonia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of supplementary materials in the classroom has always been an essential part of the teaching and learning process. To restrict our teaching to the scope of one single textbook means to stand behind the advances of knowledge, in any area and context. Young learners appreciate any new and varied support that expands their knowledge of the world: diaries, letters, panels, free texts, magazines, short stories, poems or literary excerpts, and articles taken from Internet are materials that will allow learnersto share more and work more collaboratively. In this article we are going to deal with some of these materials, with the criteria to select, adapt, and create them that may be of interest to the learner and that may promote reading and writing processes. Since no text can entirely satisfy the needs of students and teachers, the creativity of both parties will be necessary to improve the quality of teaching through the adequate use and adaptation of supplementary materials.

  7. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  8. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  9. The Return of the Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikis, Peter

    2002-01-01

    In celebration of the work of Claire Kramsch, this article affirms her promotion of the literary text "to enrich and enliven the classroom, making the act of reading reflective and self-reflective, and creating a common culture of interpretation and debate within each classroom." (Author/VWL)

  10. Text as an Autopoietic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Maria Skou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research article is to discuss the possibilities and limitations in addressing text as an autopoietic system. The theory of autopoiesis originated in the field of biology in order to explain the dynamic processes entailed in sustaining living organisms at cellular level...

  11. Multilingual text induced spelling correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a multilingual, language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from raw text corpora, without supervision, and contains word unigrams

  12. Seductive Texts with Serious Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    1995-01-01

    Debates whether a text claiming to have scientific value is using seduction irresponsibly at the expense of the truth, and discusses who is the subject and who is the object of such seduction. It argues that, rather than being an assault against scientific ethics, seduction is a necessary premise for a sensible conversation to take place. (GR)

  13. Comparison of Text Categorization Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yong-feng; ZHAO Yan-ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes several automatic text categorization algorithms in common use recently, analyzes and compares their advantages and disadvantages.It provides clues for making use of appropriate automatic classifying algorithms in different fields.Finally some evaluations and summaries of these algorithms are discussed, and directions to further research have been pointed out.

  14. COMPENDEX/TEXT-PAC: CIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standera, Oldrich

    This report evaluates the engineering information services provided by the University of Calgary since implementation of the COMPENDEX (tape service of Engineering Index, Inc.) service using the IBM TEXT-PAC system. Evaluation was made by a survey of the users of the Current Information Selection (CIS) service, the interaction between the system…

  15. β2 integrin-mediated crawling on endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 is a prerequisite for transcellular neutrophil diapedesis across the inflamed blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorina, Roser; Lyck, Ruth; Vestweber, Dietmar; Engelhardt, Britta

    2014-01-01

    In acute neuroinflammatory states such as meningitis, neutrophils cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and contribute to pathological alterations of cerebral function. The mechanisms that govern neutrophil migration across the BBB are ill defined. Using live-cell imaging, we show that LPS-stimulated BBB endothelium supports neutrophil arrest, crawling, and diapedesis under physiological flow in vitro. Investigating the interactions of neutrophils from wild-type, CD11a(-/-), CD11b(-/-), and CD18(null) mice with wild-type, junctional adhesion molecule-A(-/-), ICAM-1(null), ICAM-2(-/-), or ICAM-1(null)/ICAM-2(-/-) primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells, we demonstrate that neutrophil arrest, polarization, and crawling required G-protein-coupled receptor-dependent activation of β2 integrins and binding to endothelial ICAM-1. LFA-1 was the prevailing ligand for endothelial ICAM-1 in mediating neutrophil shear resistant arrest, whereas Mac-1 was dominant over LFA-1 in mediating neutrophil polarization on the BBB in vitro. Neutrophil crawling was mediated by endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 and neutrophil LFA-1 and Mac-1. In the absence of crawling, few neutrophils maintained adhesive interactions with the BBB endothelium by remaining either stationary on endothelial junctions or displaying transient adhesive interactions characterized by a fast displacement on the endothelium along the direction of flow. Diapedesis of stationary neutrophils was unchanged by the lack of endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 and occurred exclusively via the paracellular pathway. Crawling neutrophils, although preferentially crossing the BBB through the endothelial junctions, could additionally breach the BBB via the transcellular route. Thus, β2 integrin-mediated neutrophil crawling on endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 is a prerequisite for transcellular neutrophil diapedesis across the inflamed BBB.

  16. Lymphatic filariasis in Nigeria; micro-stratification overlap mapping (MOM as a prerequisite for cost-effective resource utilization in control and surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia N Okorie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nigeria has a significant burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. A major concern to the expansion of the LF elimination programme is the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs associated with the use of ivermectin in areas co-endemic with Loa filariasis. To better understand this, as well as other factors that may impact on LF elimination, we used Micro-stratification Overlap Mapping (MOM to highlight the distribution and potential impact of multiple disease interventions that geographically coincide in LF endemic areas and which will impact on LF and vice versa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LF data from the literature and Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH were collated into a database. LF prevalence distributions; predicted prevalence of loiasis; ongoing onchocerciasis community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi; and long-lasting insecticidal mosquito net (LLIN distributions for malaria were incorporated into overlay maps using geographical information system (GIS software. LF was prevalent across most regions of the country. The mean prevalence determined by circulating filarial antigen (CFA was 14.0% (n = 134 locations, and by microfilaria (Mf was 8.2% (n = 162 locations. Overall, LF endemic areas geographically coincided with CDTi priority areas, however, LLIN coverage was generally low (<50% in areas where LF prevalence was high or co-endemic with L. loa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extensive database and series of maps produced in this study provide an important overview for the LF Programme and will assist to maximize existing interventions, ensuring cost effective use of resources as the programme scales up. Such information is a prerequisite for the LF programme, and will allow for other factors to be included into planning, as well as monitoring and evaluation activities given the broad spectrum impact of the drugs used.

  17. Database Citation in Full Text Biomedical Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Şenay Kafkas; Jee-Hyub Kim; Johanna R. McEntyre

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleoti...

  18. Functional Stylistics and Peripeteic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchmann, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Using a pragmatically based linguistic description apparatus on literary use of language is not unproblematic. Observations show that literary use of language violates the norms contained by this apparatus. With this paper I suggest how we can deal with this problem by setting up a frame for the ...... for the use of a functional linguistic description apparatus on literary texts. As an extension of this suggestion I present a model for describing a specific type of literary texts.......Using a pragmatically based linguistic description apparatus on literary use of language is not unproblematic. Observations show that literary use of language violates the norms contained by this apparatus. With this paper I suggest how we can deal with this problem by setting up a frame...

  19. Text Segmentation Using Exponential Models

    CERN Document Server

    Beeferman, D; Lafferty, G D; Beeferman, Doug; Berger, Adam; Lafferty, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a new statistical approach to partitioning text automatically into coherent segments. Our approach enlists both short-range and long-range language models to help it sniff out likely sites of topic changes in text. To aid its search, the system consults a set of simple lexical hints it has learned to associate with the presence of boundaries through inspection of a large corpus of annotated data. We also propose a new probabilistically motivated error metric for use by the natural language processing and information retrieval communities, intended to supersede precision and recall for appraising segmentation algorithms. Qualitative assessment of our algorithm as well as evaluation using this new metric demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in two very different domains, Wall Street Journal articles and the TDT Corpus, a collection of newswire articles and broadcast news transcripts.

  20. Locative inferences in medical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, P S; Bailey, G H; Mayer, R J; Hillis, A; Dvoracek, J E

    1987-06-01

    Medical research relies on epidemiological studies conducted on a large set of clinical records that have been collected from physicians recording individual patient observations. These clinical records are recorded for the purpose of individual care of the patient with little consideration for their use by a biostatistician interested in studying a disease over a large population. Natural language processing of clinical records for epidemiological studies must deal with temporal, locative, and conceptual issues. This makes text understanding and data extraction of clinical records an excellent area for applied research. While much has been done in making temporal or conceptual inferences in medical texts, parallel work in locative inferences has not been done. This paper examines the locative inferences as well as the integration of temporal, locative, and conceptual issues in the clinical record understanding domain by presenting an application that utilizes two key concepts in its parsing strategy--a knowledge-based parsing strategy and a minimal lexicon.

  1. Text as an Autopoietic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Maria Skou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research article is to discuss the possibilities and limitations in addressing text as an autopoietic system. The theory of autopoiesis originated in the field of biology in order to explain the dynamic processes entailed in sustaining living organisms at cellular level. Th....... By comparing the biological with the textual account of autopoietic agency, the end conclusion is that a newly derived concept of sociopoiesis might be better suited for discussing the architecture of textual systems....

  2. Survey on Text Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    M.Thangamani; Dr.P.Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Document clustering is also referred as text clustering, and its concept is merely equal to data clustering. It is hardly difficult to find the selective information from an ‘N’number of series information, so that document clustering came into picture. Basically cluster means a group of similar data, document clustering means segregating the data into different groups of similar data. Clustering can be of mathematical, statistical or numerical domain. Clustering is a fundamental data analysi...

  3. Individual Profiling Using Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    implemented using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) [3], and n–gram language models were used to extract features to train Support Vector Machine (SVM... extraversion , agreeableness, and neuroticism. 3 Methods, Assumptions and Procedures 3.1 Data and Preprocessing The text provided proved to be quite clean and...assess the affect of various features a 10-fold cross validation was performed on the training data. 3 n–gram language model Throughout early experiments

  4. Learning Context for Text Categorization

    CERN Document Server

    Haribhakta, Y V

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes our work which is based on discovering context for text document categorization. The document categorization approach is derived from a combination of a learning paradigm known as relation extraction and an technique known as context discovery. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our categorization approach using reuters 21578 dataset and synthetic real world data from sports domain. Our experimental results indicate that the learned context greatly improves the categorization performance as compared to traditional categorization approaches.

  5. Mining free-text medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, D T; Morsch, M L; Holbrook, J

    2001-01-01

    Text mining projects can be characterized along four parameters: 1) the demands of the market in terms of target domain and specificity and depth of queries; 2) the volume and quality of text in the target domain; 3) the text mining process requirements; and 4) the quality assurance process that validates the extracted data. In this paper, we provide lessons learned and results from a large-scale commercial project using Natural Language Processing (NLP) for mining the transcriptions of dictated clinical records in a variety of medical specialties. We conclude that the current state-of-the-art in NLP is suitable for mining information of moderate content depth across a diverse collection of medical settings and specialties.

  6. Preprocessing and Morphological Analysis in Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Mohbey Sachin Tiwari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the preprocessing activities which is performed by the software or language translators before applying mining algorithms on the huge data. Text mining is an important area of Data mining and it plays a vital role for extracting useful information from the huge database or data ware house. But before applying the text mining or information extraction process, preprocessing is must because the given data or dataset have the noisy, incomplete, inconsistent, dirty and unformatted data. In this paper we try to collect the necessary requirements for preprocessing. When we complete the preprocess task then we can easily extract the knowledgful information using mining strategy. This paper also provides the information about the analysis of data like tokenization, stemming and semantic analysis like phrase recognition and parsing. This paper also collect the procedures for preprocessing data i.e. it describe that how the stemming, tokenization or parsing are applied.

  7. Text Mining for Protein Docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha D Badal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing amount of publicly available information from biomedical research is readily accessible on the Internet, providing a powerful resource for predictive biomolecular modeling. The accumulated data on experimentally determined structures transformed structure prediction of proteins and protein complexes. Instead of exploring the enormous search space, predictive tools can simply proceed to the solution based on similarity to the existing, previously determined structures. A similar major paradigm shift is emerging due to the rapidly expanding amount of information, other than experimentally determined structures, which still can be used as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction. Automated text mining has been widely used in recreating protein interaction networks, as well as in detecting small ligand binding sites on protein structures. Combining and expanding these two well-developed areas of research, we applied the text mining to structural modeling of protein-protein complexes (protein docking. Protein docking can be significantly improved when constraints on the docking mode are available. We developed a procedure that retrieves published abstracts on a specific protein-protein interaction and extracts information relevant to docking. The procedure was assessed on protein complexes from Dockground (http://dockground.compbio.ku.edu. The results show that correct information on binding residues can be extracted for about half of the complexes. The amount of irrelevant information was reduced by conceptual analysis of a subset of the retrieved abstracts, based on the bag-of-words (features approach. Support Vector Machine models were trained and validated on the subset. The remaining abstracts were filtered by the best-performing models, which decreased the irrelevant information for ~ 25% complexes in the dataset. The extracted constraints were incorporated in the docking protocol and tested on the Dockground unbound

  8. The Balinese Unicode Text Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Habibi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In principal, the computer only recognizes numbers as the representation of a character. Therefore, there are many encoding systems to allocate these numbers although not all characters are covered. In Europe, every single language even needs more than one encoding system. Hence, a new encoding system known as Unicode has been established to overcome this problem. Unicode provides unique id for each different characters which does not depend on platform, program, and language. Unicode standard has been applied in a number of industries, such as Apple, HP, IBM, JustSystem, Microsoft, Oracle, SAP, Sun, Sybase, and Unisys. In addition, language standards and modern information exchanges such as XML, Java, ECMA Script (JavaScript, LDAP, CORBA 3.0, and WML make use of Unicode as an official tool for implementing ISO/IEC 10646. There are four things to do according to Balinese script: the algorithm of transliteration, searching, sorting, and word boundary analysis (spell checking. To verify the truth of algorithm, some applications are made. These applications can run on Linux/Windows OS platform using J2SDK 1.5 and J2ME WTK2 library. The input and output of the algorithm/application are character sequence that is obtained from keyboard punch and external file. This research produces a module or a library which is able to process the Balinese text based on Unicode standard. The output of this research is the ability, skill, and mastering of 1. Unicode standard (21-bit as a substitution to ASCII (7-bit and ISO8859-1 (8-bit as the former default character set in many applications. 2. The Balinese Unicode text processing algorithm. 3. An experience of working with and learning from an international team that consists of the foremost experts in the area: Michael Everson (Ireland, Peter Constable (Microsoft US, I Made Suatjana, and Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa.

  9. Text Mining the Biomedical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-05

    FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE 72 (7): 798-814. Kostoff, RN; del Rio, JA; Humenik, JA; Garcia , EO; Ramirez , AM. 2001. Citation mining: Integrating text...Author, verify your references - or, the accuracy of references in Israeli medical journals. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences. 27 (2): 109-112...0.3352% DEY, L 3 0.3352% 252 DIAZ, I 3 0.3352% FELDMAN, R 3 0.3352% FREEMAN, RT 3 0.3352% FRIEDMAN, C 3 0.3352% GAO, W 3 0.3352% GARCIA

  10. New Historicism: Text and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta M. Vesić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During most of the twentieth century history was seen as a phenomenon outside of literature that guaranteed the veracity of literary interpretation. History was unique and it functioned as a basis for reading literary works. During the seventies of the twentieth century there occurred a change of attitude towards history in American literary theory, and there appeared a new theoretical approach which soon became known as New Historicism. Since its inception, New Historicism has been identified with the study of Renaissance and Romanticism, but nowadays it has been increasingly involved in other literary trends. Although there are great differences in the arguments and practices at various representatives of this school, New Historicism has clearly recognizable features and many new historicists will agree with the statement of Walter Cohen that New Historicism, when it appeared in the eighties, represented something quite new in reference to the studies of theory, criticism and history (Cohen 1987, 33. Theoretical connection with Bakhtin, Foucault and Marx is clear, as well as a kind of uneasy tie with deconstruction and the work of Paul de Man. At the center of this approach is a renewed interest in the study of literary works in the light of historical and political circumstances in which they were created. Foucault encouraged readers to begin to move literary texts and to link them with discourses and representations that are not literary, as well as to examine the sociological aspects of the texts in order to take part in the social struggles of today. The study of literary works using New Historicism is the study of politics, history, culture and circumstances in which these works were created. With regard to one of the main fact which is located in the center of the criticism, that history cannot be viewed objectively and that reality can only be understood through a cultural context that reveals the work, re-reading and interpretation of

  11. Effectiveness of prerequisites and the HACCP plan in the control of microbial contamination in ice cream and cheese companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Eva; Amorós, José Antonio; Escriche, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    In food safety, implementation of prerequisites and application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) guarantee the control of processes, and microbiological criteria permit validation of their effectiveness. With these aims in mind, this article presents the results obtained by the official control carried out by the Valencian administration in ice cream and cheese companies, located in the Xativa/Ontinyente area (Valencian region, Spain) in the period between 2005 and 2010. The audits of Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) and HACCP show that "Structure & Design" followed by "Hygiene & Cleaning" and "Traceability" were the evaluated items with most nonconformities. Pathogenic microorganisms were not found in any of the final products analyzed. Microorganism indicators of unhygienic conditions were present in 100% of the analyses; however, 87.98% of them had low levels, which did not exceed the microbiological criteria. These results highlight the general good effectiveness of the safety management systems implemented and emphasize that companies and official control must continue working in order to guarantee the consumers' welfare.

  12. Individual Pheromone Signature in Males: Prerequisite for Pheromone-Mediated Mate Assessment in the Central American Locust, Schistocerca Piceifrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahr, Christiane; Seidelmann, Karsten

    2016-12-01

    Living in high-density groups of animals has advantages and disadvantages for mating. The advantage of facilitated mate finding is compromised by difficulties in protecting a suitable partner from competitors. Thus, males regularly are faced with increased competition for sperm, and females with harassment by males at high population densities. To cope with these problems, mating tactics and mate choice mechanisms have to be adjusted. An adaptation to gregarious condition observed in locusts includes the use of male-emitted pheromones. Males of the Central American locust, Schistocerca piceifrons, release sex-specific volatiles, which were identified as phenethyl alcohol (synonym: phenyl-ethyl-alcohol, 2-phenyl-1-ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, PEA), (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol (3-Nol), and (Z)-2-octen-1-ol (2-Ool). The emission of the two major compounds, PEA and 3-Nol, was restricted to crowded conditions. Furthermore, the release of both volatiles was coupled to males reaching sexual maturity, indicating a function in reproductive behavior. However, neither the single substances nor their mixtures were attractive or repellent to the locusts. Instead, females prefer the sperm of high pheromone-emitting males to fertilize their ova. In this way, the male-specific volatiles act as mate assessment pheromones utilized in a context of cryptic female choice. This function is well supported by the highly variable but individual-specific emission rates of the three compounds. Schistocerca piceifrons males release a virtually unique personal pheromone signature, a prerequisite for mate assessment pheromones.

  13. New nanosized catalytic membrane reactors for hydrogenation with stored hydrogen: Prerequisites and the experimental basis for their creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. P.; Tsodikov, M. V.; Parenago, O. P.; Teplyakov, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    The prerequisites and prospects for creating a new generation of nanosized membrane reactors are considered. For the first time, hydrogenation reactions take place in ceramic membrane pores with hydrogen adsorbed beforehand in mono- and multilayered oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs) formed on the internal pore surface. It is shown for Trumem microfiltration membranes with D avg ˜130 nm that oxidation reactions of CO on a Cu0.03Ti0.97O2 ± δ catalyst and the oxidative conversion of methane into synthesis gas and light hydrocarbons on La + Ce/MgO are considerably enhanced when they occur in membranes. Regularities of hydrogen adsorption, storage, and desorption in nanosized membrane reactors are investigated through OCNTG formation in Trumem ultrafiltration membrane pores with D avg = 50 and 90 nm and their saturation with hydrogen at a pressure of 10-13 MPa. It is shown that the amount of adsorbed hydrogen reaches 14.0% of OCNTG mass. Using thermogravimetric analysis in combination with mass-spectrometric analysis, hydrogen adsorption in OCNTG is first determined and its desorption is found to proceed at atmospheric pressure at a temperature of ˜175°C. It is shown that adsorbed hydrogen affects the transport properties of the membranes, reducing their efficiency with respect to liquids by 4-26 times. This is indirect confirmation of its high activity, due apparently the dissociative mechanism of adsorption.

  14. Efficient Index for Handwritten Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ibrahim

    This paper deals with one of the new emerging multimedia data types, namely, handwritten cursive text. The paper presents two indexing methods for searching a collection of cursive handwriting. The first index, word-level index, treats word as pictogram and uses global features for retrieval. The word-level index is suitable for large collection of cursive text. While the second one, called stroke-level index, treats the word as a set of strokes. The stroke-level index is more accurate, but more costly than the word level index. Each word (or stroke) can be described with a set of features and, thus, can be stored as points in the feature space. The Karhunen-Loeve transform is then used to minimize the number of features used (data dimensionality) and thus the index size. Feature vectors are stored in an R-tree. We implemented both indexes and carried many simulation experiments to measure the effectiveness and the cost of the search algorithm. The proposed indexes achieve substantial saving in the search time over the sequential search. Moreover, the proposed indexes improve the matching rate up to 46% over the sequential search.

  15. Video Self-Modeling in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study Validating Prerequisite Skills and Extending the Utilization of VSM across Skill Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Robert L.; Casey, Laura B.; Robertson, Janna Siegel; Buggey, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Given the recent interest in the use of video self-modeling (VSM) to provide instruction within iPod apps and other pieces of handheld mobile assistive technologies, investigating appropriate prerequisite skills for effective use of this intervention is particularly timely and relevant. To provide additional information regarding the efficacy of…

  16. Video Self-Modeling in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study Validating Prerequisite Skills and Extending the Utilization of VSM across Skill Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Robert L.; Casey, Laura B.; Robertson, Janna Siegel; Buggey, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Given the recent interest in the use of video self-modeling (VSM) to provide instruction within iPod apps and other pieces of handheld mobile assistive technologies, investigating appropriate prerequisite skills for effective use of this intervention is particularly timely and relevant. To provide additional information regarding the efficacy of…

  17. Everyday Life as a Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lahey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how audience data are utilized in the tentative partnerships created between television and social media companies. Specially, it looks at the mutually beneficial relationship formed between the social media platform Twitter and television. It calls attention to how audience data are utilized as a way for the television industry to map itself onto the everyday lives of digital media audiences. I argue that the data-intensive monitoring of everyday life offers some measure of soft control over audiences in a digital media landscape. To do this, I explore “Social TV”—the relationships created between social media technologies and television—before explaining how Twitter leverages user data into partnerships with various television companies. Finally, the article explains what is fruitful about understanding the Twitter–television relationship as a form of soft control.

  18. Segmental Rescoring in Text Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    ttm № tes/m, m* tmvr mowm* a Smyrna Of l δrtA£ACf02S’ A w m - y i p m AmiKSiS € f № ) C № № m .. sg6#?«rA fiθN ; Atφ h Sft№’·’Spxn mm m fim f№b t&m&mm...applying a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) recognition approach. Generating the plurality text hypotheses for the image forming includes generating a first...image. Applying segmental analysis to a segmentation determined by a first OCR engine, such as a segmentation determined by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM

  19. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... in the history of biblical Hebrew, but instead represent co-existing styles of literary Hebrew throughout the biblical period....... and diglossia and textual criticism (Chapters 7, 13), and the significance of extra-biblical sources, including Amarna Canaanite, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Hebrew inscriptions of the monarchic period, Qumran and Mishnaic Hebrew, the Hebrew language of Ben Sira and Bar Kochba, and also Egyptian, Akkadian, Persian....... This is followed by an detailed synthesis of the topics introduced in the first volume, a series of detailed case studies on various linguistic issues, extensive tables of grammatical and lexical features, and a comprehensive bibliography. The authors argue that the scholarly use of language in dating biblical...

  20. A NOVEL MULTIDICTIONARY BASED TEXT COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Venkataramani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of digital contents grows at a faster speed as a result does the demand for communicate them. On the other hand, the amount of storage and bandwidth increases at a slower rate. Thus powerful and efficient compression methods are required. The repetition of words and phrases cause the reordered text much more compressible than the original text. On the whole system is fast and achieves close to the best result on the test files. In this study a novel fast dictionary based text compression technique MBRH (Multidictionary with burrows wheeler transforms, Run length coding and Huffman coding is proposed for the purpose of obtaining improved performance on various document sizes. MBRH algorithm comprises of two stages, the first stage is concerned with the conversion of input text into dictionary based compression .The second stage deals mainly with reduction of the redundancy in multidictionary based compression by using BWT, RLE and Huffman coding. Bib test files of input size of 111, 261 bytes achieves compression ratio of 0.192, bit rate of 1.538 and high speed using MBRH algorithm. The algorithm has attained a good compression ratio, reduction of bit rate and the increase in execution speed.

  1. Audio Steganography with Embedded Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teck Jian, Chua; Chai Wen, Chuah; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Binti Ab.; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi Binti A.

    2017-08-01

    Audio steganography is about hiding the secret message into the audio. It is a technique uses to secure the transmission of secret information or hide their existence. It also may provide confidentiality to secret message if the message is encrypted. To date most of the steganography software such as Mp3Stego and DeepSound use block cipher such as Advanced Encryption Standard or Data Encryption Standard to encrypt the secret message. It is a good practice for security. However, the encrypted message may become too long to embed in audio and cause distortion of cover audio if the secret message is too long. Hence, there is a need to encrypt the message with stream cipher before embedding the message into the audio. This is because stream cipher provides bit by bit encryption meanwhile block cipher provide a fixed length of bits encryption which result a longer output compare to stream cipher. Hence, an audio steganography with embedding text with Rivest Cipher 4 encryption cipher is design, develop and test in this project.

  2. A programmed text in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, J

    1975-01-01

    Exercises for Section 2 42 Physical sciences and engineering 42 43 Biological sciences 45 Social sciences Solutions to Exercises, Section 1 47 Physical sciences and engineering 47 49 Biological sciences 49 Social sciences Solutions to Exercises, Section 2 51 51 PhYSical sciences and engineering 55 Biological sciences 58 Social sciences 62 Tables 2 62 x - tests involving variances 2 63,64 x - one tailed tests 2 65 x - two tailed tests F-distribution 66-69 Preface This project started some years ago when the Nuffield Foundation kindly gave a grant for writing a pro­ grammed text to use with service courses in statistics. The work carried out by Mrs. Joan Hine and Professor G. B. Wetherill at Bath University, together with some other help from time to time by colleagues at Bath University and elsewhere. Testing was done at various colleges and universities, and some helpful comments were received, but we particularly mention King Edwards School, Bath, who provided some sixth formers as 'guinea pigs' for the fir...

  3. Basic test framework for the evaluation of text line segmentation and text parameter extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodić, Darko; Milivojević, Dragan R; Milivojević, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Text line segmentation is an essential stage in off-line optical character recognition (OCR) systems. It is a key because inaccurately segmented text lines will lead to OCR failure. Text line segmentation of handwritten documents is a complex and diverse problem, complicated by the nature of handwriting. Hence, text line segmentation is a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Due to inconsistencies in measurement and evaluation of text segmentation algorithm quality, some basic set of measurement methods is required. Currently, there is no commonly accepted one and all algorithm evaluation is custom oriented. In this paper, a basic test framework for the evaluation of text feature extraction algorithms is proposed. This test framework consists of a few experiments primarily linked to text line segmentation, skew rate and reference text line evaluation. Although they are mutually independent, the results obtained are strongly cross linked. In the end, its suitability for different types of letters and languages as well as its adaptability are its main advantages. Thus, the paper presents an efficient evaluation method for text analysis algorithms.

  4. TRAIL-Induced Caspase Activation Is a Prerequisite for Activation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Signal Transduction Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Sung, Ki Sa; Guo, Zong Sheng; Kwon, William Taehyung; Bartlett, David L; Oh, Sang Cheul; Kwon, Yong Tae; Lee, Yong J

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis can be initially triggered by surface death receptors (the extrinsic pathway) and subsequently amplified through mitochondrial dysfunction (the intrinsic pathway). However, little is known about signaling pathways activated by the TRAIL-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. In this study, we report that TRAIL-induced apoptosis is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells were treated with TRAIL and the ER stress-induced signal transduction pathway was investigated. During TRAIL treatment, expression of ER stress marker genes, in particular the BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein) gene, was increased and activation of the PERK (PKR-like ER kinase)-eIF2α (eukaryotic initiation factor 2α)-ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4)-CHOP (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein) apoptotic signal transduction pathway occurred. Experimental data from use of a siRNA (small interfering RNA) technique, caspase inhibitor, and caspase-3-deficient cell line revealed that TRAIL-induced caspase activation is a prerequisite for the TRAIL-induced ER stress response. TRAIL-induced ER stress was triggered by caspase-8-mediated cleavage of BAP31 (B cell receptor-associated protein 31). The involvement of the proapoptotic PERK-CHOP pathway in TRAIL-induced apoptosis was verified by using a PERK knockout (PERK(-/-)) mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cell line and a CHOP(-/-) MEF cell line. These results suggest that TRAIL-induced the activation of ER stress response plays a role in TRAIL-induced apoptotic death.

  5. Extraction of information from unstructured text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, N.H.; DeLand, S.M.; Crowder, S.V.

    1995-11-01

    Extracting information from unstructured text has become an emphasis in recent years due to the large amount of text now electronically available. This status report describes the findings and work done by the end of the first year of a two-year LDRD. Requirements of the approach included that it model the information in a domain independent way. This means that it would differ from current systems by not relying on previously built domain knowledge and that it would do more than keyword identification. Three areas that are discussed and expected to contribute to a solution include (1) identifying key entities through document level profiling and preprocessing, (2) identifying relationships between entities through sentence level syntax, and (3) combining the first two with semantic knowledge about the terms.

  6. Prerequisites of the automated system of monitoring and early diagnosis of the state of high-voltage lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михайло Дмитрович Дяченко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Violation of the contact connection leads either to breakage of the conductor, or fire equipment. Currently, for technical inspection of high voltage contact connections used method of thermal control or periodic visual inspection. Such control of long power lines becomes expensive. Therefore, to improve the reliability of connections required automatic condition monitoring of high-voltage contact connections. The system consists of a set of intelligent modules, located directly to contact connection and continuously measure its temperature and contact resistance. Microprocessor control module has a continuous connection with the same modules on other low-power contact connections via packet radio transceiver. The basis of the organization of an information network on the concept of self-organizing sensor networks. In it, each intelligent module performs the function of a router. It solves the problem of finding an optimal route data to central control. He can change the decision if conditions change operation transceiver equipment. This solution allows using a low-power transmitter to provide coverage in the long power lines more than hundreds km. And provide excellent data transmission quality. The proposed system allows continuous monitoring of each high-voltage power system contact connection, predict rejection of degradation of each of them and thus improve the reliability of power supply in general

  7. Understanding the Extent and Sources of Variation in Gut Microbiota Studies; a Prerequisite for Establishing Associations with Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Baer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans harbor distinct commensal microbiota at various anatomic sites. There has been renewed interest in the contributions of microbiota activities to human health and disease. The microbiota of the gut is the most complex of all anatomic sites in terms of total numbers of bacteria that interact closely with the mucosal immune system and contribute various functions to host physiology. Especially in the proximal large intestine a diverse microbiota ferments complex substrates such as dietary fiber and host mucins, but also metabolizes bile acids and phytoestrogens that reach the large intestine. It is now well established that microbiota composition differs between but over time also within individuals. However, a thorough understanding of the sources of variations in microbiota composition, which is an important requirement for large population based microbiota studies is lacking. Microbiota composition varies depending on what kind of sample is collected, most commonly stool samples, stool swabs or superficial rectal or intestinal biopsies, and the time of collection. Microbiota dynamics are affected by life style factors including diet and exercise that determine what nutrients reach the proximal colon and how fast these nutrients pass through (transit time. Here we review sample collection issues in gut microbiota studies and recent findings about dynamics in microbiota composition. We recommend standardizing human microbiota analysis methods to facilitate comparison and pooling between studies. Finally, we outline a need for prospective microbiota studies in large human cohorts.

  8. Orientalist discourse in media texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Mora

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available By placing itself at the center of the world with a Eurocentric point of view, the West exploits other countries and communities through inflicting cultural change and transformation on them either from within via colonialist movements or from outside via “Orientalist” discourses in line with its imperialist objectives.The West has fictionalized the “image of the Orient” in terms of science by making use of social sciences like anthropology, history and philology and launched an intensive propaganda which covers literature, painting, cinema and other fields of art in order to actualize this fiction. Accordingly, the image of the Orient – which has been built firstly in terms of science then socially – has been engraved into the collective memory of both the Westerner and the Easterner.The internalized “Orientalist” point of view and discourse cause the Westerner to see and perceive the Easterner with the image formed in his/her memory while looking at them. The Easterner represents and expresses himself/herself from the eyes of the Westerner and with the image which the Westerner fictionalized for him/her. Hence, in order to gain acceptance from the West, the East tries to shape itself into the “Orientalist” mold which the Westerner fictionalized for it.Artists, intellectuals, writers and media professionals, who embrace and internalize the stereotypical hegemonic-driven “Orientalist” discourse of the Westerner and who rank among the elite group, reflect their internalized “Orientalist” discourse on their own actions. This condition causes the “Orientalist” clichés to be engraved in the memory of the society; causes the society to view itself with an “Orientalist” point of view and perceive itself with the clichés of the Westerner. Consequently, the second ring of the hegemony is reproduced by the symbolic elites who represent the power/authority within the country.The “Orientalist” discourse, which is

  9. Investigating Text Input Methods for Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry O’Riordan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Computer Interaction is a primary factor in the success or failure of any device but if an objective view is taken of the current mobile phone market you would be forgiven for thinking usability was secondary to aesthetics. Many phone manufacturers modify the design of phones to be different than the competition and to target fashion trends, usually at the expense of usability and performance. There is a lack of awareness among many buyers of the usability of the device they are purchasing and the disposability of modern technology is an effect rather than a cause of this. Designing new text entry methods for mobile devices can be expensive and labour-intensive. The assessment and comparison of a new text entry method with current methods is a necessary part of the design process. The best way to do this is through an empirical evaluation. The aim of the study was to establish which mobile phone text input method best suits the requirements of a select group of target users. This study used a diverse range of users to compare devices that are in everyday use by most of the adult population. The proliferation of the devices is as yet unmatched by the study of their application and the consideration of their user friendliness.

  10. Establishing the Shortcut for Deep Text Reading%建立文本深读的快捷方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏

    2014-01-01

    为了在课堂上带给学生更多的启发与提升,我尝试在文本细读的基础上进行文本深读,为了实现文本深读的优化效果,我提倡建立文本深读的“快捷方式”,并在九年级做了一些尝试。文本深读即是在学情的基础上,在学生不懂或理解浅显的地方加以点拨与深究。但要找准切入口,精化简化教学过程,化教师灌输为学生主动探究归纳总结,这即建立“快捷方式”。当然文本能否深读,深读到何种程度,能否建立“快捷方式”,建立怎样的“快捷方式”,都是有前提的,需要教师结合学情,需要教师不断提升自己的文学素养,需要教师持之以恒地进行文本深读,并循序渐进。%In order to bring more enlightenments and improve-ments to students, the writer attempts to carry out deep text read-ing based on careful text reading, and in order to realize the opti-mization effect of deep text reading, the writer advocates the"shortcut" for deep text reading and makes some attempts in Grade Nine. Deep text reading means to give directions and deeply explore what students don't understand or understand su-perficially, based on students' learning situations. But the teacher should pinpoint the breakthrough point, simplify the teaching process, and transform the teacher's infiltration to students' au-tonomous inquiry, induction and summarization, namely, estab-lish the"shortcut". Of course, whether a text can be deeply read, to what extent can a text be deeply read, whether a"shortcut"can be established, and what kind of "shortcut" should be estab-lished, all have prerequisites, requiring the teacher to base on students' learning situations, constantly improve his or her own literary accomplishment, permanently carry out deep text reading and make progress gradually.

  11. Effective teaching methods in higher education: requirements and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAHID SHIRANI BIDABADI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University of Technology. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten faculty members (3 of them from the best professors in the country and 7 from the best local professors. Content analysis was performed by MAXQDA software. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process that began from semantic units or direct quotations to general themes. Results: According to the results of this study, the best teaching approach is the mixed method (student-centered together with teacher-centered plus educational planning and previous readiness. But whenever the teachers can teach using this method confront with some barriers and requirements; some of these requirements are prerequisite in professors’ behavior and some of these are prerequisite in professors’ outlook. Also, there are some major barriers, some of which are associated with the professors’ operation and others are related to laws and regulations. Implications of these findings for teachers’ preparation in education are discussed. Conclusion: In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers, as the agents of responsibility for change. But training through this method has some barriers and requirements. To have an effective teaching; the faculty members of the universities

  12. 49 CFR 392.80 - Prohibition against texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... driver shall engage in texting while driving. (b) Motor Carriers. No motor carrier shall allow or require its drivers to engage in texting while driving. (c) Definition. For the purpose of this section only... § 390.3(f)(1) and (6) are not applicable to this section. (2) Emergency Use. Texting while driving...

  13. Comprehension Strategy Instruction: Teaching Narrative Text Structure Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymock, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Research shows that students who have a good understanding of narrative text structure have fewer problems comprehending stories. Research also suggests that many students require explicit instruction in how to comprehend this text type. While some children are able to figure out the more elaborate structure of narrative text on their own (i.e.,…

  14. Effect of Alignment on Text Cohesion in the Continuation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Xu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A continuation task provides learners with a text with its ending removed and requires them to complete it through writing in a most coherent and logical way. The current study investigated (a) whether the continuation task had a positive effect on text cohesion and (b) whether texts produced by pairs exhibited higher cohesion than those produced…

  15. MANAGING THE TRANSLATION OF ECONOMIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Anamaria Mirabela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, translation may pass as science; practically, it seems closer to art. Translation is a challenging activity requiring a set of abilities and posing few difficulties that appear during the translation process. This paper investigates the extent to which sub-technical vocabulary can constitute a problem to Romanian students of economics reading in English, by looking at the translations produced as independent or pair work during English classes and analyzing the various errors which may appeared. The exigencies required by the efficient business communication have increased in the past few decades because of rising international trade, increased migration, globalization, the recognition of linguistic minorities, and the expansion of the mass media and technology. All these led us to approach the topic of translation which is actually a job that requires skills, stages of research necessary for disclosure of transfer characteristic into the target language, training, experience and a good sense of languages. The paper defines the theoretical issues and terminology: translation, types of translation, economic texts and then focuses on the presentation of the practical work carried out throughout the academic year of second year students. Considering that only 28% of the entire European population can read English, and even less people in South America and Asia can, it is obvious that an effective communication of business matters relies on an accurate understanding of terminology. Economics is a field of knowledge in accelerated scientific and technological development. As there is a permanent and ever increasing need to quickly update their knowledge, economists read and learn directly in the original language of the publication and stick to it in daily usage, including conferences, scientific events and articles written in Romanian. Besides researching properly the markets, finding distribution channels, and dealing with legal

  16. Learning history by composing synthesis texts: Effects of an instructional programme on learning, reading and writing processes, and text quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Martínez; M. Mateos; E. Martín; G. Rijlaarsdam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve learning from texts via strategies that train students how to process synthesis texts. Processing such texts requires goal-oriented interaction between reading and writing activities. The participants were 62 sixth-grade students, 33 in the experimental an

  17. Measurement of prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Zykunov, V; Shumeiko, N; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Ruan, M; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Susa, T; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Tsiakkouri, D; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Assran, Y; Elkafrawy, T; Mahrous, A; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Arleo, F; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Miné, P; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sabes, D; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Khvedelidze, A; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Preuten, M; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Verlage, T; Albert, A; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hamer, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Knutzen, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the measurement of [Formula: see text] meson production in proton-proton ([Formula: see text]) and proton-lead ([Formula: see text]) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of [Formula: see text] by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The data samples used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 28[Formula: see text] and 35[Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions, respectively. Prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] mesons, the latter produced in the decay of [Formula: see text] hadrons, are measured in their dimuon decay channels. Differential cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range of [Formula: see text], and center-of-mass rapidity ranges of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The nuclear modification factor, [Formula: see text], is measured as a function of both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Small modifications to the [Formula: see text] cross sections are observed in [Formula: see text] relative to [Formula: see text] collisions. The ratio of [Formula: see text] production cross sections in [Formula: see text]-going and Pb-going directions, [Formula: see text], studied as functions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], shows a significant decrease for increasing transverse energy deposited at large pseudorapidities. These results, which cover a wide kinematic range, provide new insight on the role of cold nuclear matter effects on prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production.

  18. Visual Classifier Training for Text Document Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerl, F; Koch, S; Bosch, H; Ertl, T

    2012-12-01

    Performing exhaustive searches over a large number of text documents can be tedious, since it is very hard to formulate search queries or define filter criteria that capture an analyst's information need adequately. Classification through machine learning has the potential to improve search and filter tasks encompassing either complex or very specific information needs, individually. Unfortunately, analysts who are knowledgeable in their field are typically not machine learning specialists. Most classification methods, however, require a certain expertise regarding their parametrization to achieve good results. Supervised machine learning algorithms, in contrast, rely on labeled data, which can be provided by analysts. However, the effort for labeling can be very high, which shifts the problem from composing complex queries or defining accurate filters to another laborious task, in addition to the need for judging the trained classifier's quality. We therefore compare three approaches for interactive classifier training in a user study. All of the approaches are potential candidates for the integration into a larger retrieval system. They incorporate active learning to various degrees in order to reduce the labeling effort as well as to increase effectiveness. Two of them encompass interactive visualization for letting users explore the status of the classifier in context of the labeled documents, as well as for judging the quality of the classifier in iterative feedback loops. We see our work as a step towards introducing user controlled classification methods in addition to text search and filtering for increasing recall in analytics scenarios involving large corpora.

  19. The socio-demographics of texting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Bertel, Troels Fibæk; Sundsøy, Pål

    2012-01-01

    Who texts, and with whom do they text? This article examines the use of texting using metered traffic data from a large dataset (nearly 400 million anonymous text messages). We ask 1) How much do different age groups use mobile phone based texting (SMS)? 2) How wide is the circle of texting partn...

  20. What's so Simple about Simplified Texts? A Computational and Psycholinguistic Investigation of Text Comprehension and Text Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Yang, Hae Sung; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a moving windows self-paced reading task to assess both text comprehension and processing time of authentic texts and these same texts simplified to beginning and intermediate levels. Forty-eight second language learners each read 9 texts (3 different authentic, beginning, and intermediate level texts). Repeated measures ANOVAs…

  1. Texting teens in transition: the use of text messages in clinical intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Gwen R; Ballantyne, Ross T; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Nicholas, David B; Mackie, Andrew S

    2014-11-06

    teen, interaction with health care providers, texting teens in transition, texting as a mechanism to initiate other forms of communication, affirmation, and the nurse as an educator. Benefits of texting were identified as flexibility, ability to respond over time, information presented in byte-sized amounts, and information directly related to patient questions. Risks of texting were identified as the possibility that interactions may not be in-depth, distraction of teen and researcher, and invasiveness. Text messaging was useful in collecting data regarding the use of the MyHealth Passport. Text messaging resulted in conversations with the teens that were sometimes in-depth and meaningful, especially when combined with other communication modalities. Using text messaging in a manner resulting in full conversations with the patients requires more study and may benefit from protocols and the use of solid theoretical foundations that would standardize the interaction so that more conclusions could be drawn.

  2. A Survey On Various Approaches Of Text Extraction In Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Sumathi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Text Extraction plays a major role in finding vital and valuable information. Text extraction involvesdetection, localization, tracking, binarization, extraction, enhancement and recognition of the text from the given image. These text characters are difficult to be detected and recognized due to their deviation of size, font, style, orientation, alignment, contrast, complex colored, textured background. Due to rapid growth of available multimedia documents and growing requirement for information, identification, indexing and retrieval, many researches have been done on text extraction in images.Several techniqueshave been developed for extracting the text from an image. The proposed methods were based on morphological operators, wavelet transform, artificial neural network,skeletonization operation,edge detection algorithm, histogram technique etc. All these techniques have their benefits and restrictions. This article discusses various schemes proposed earlier for extracting the text from an image. This paper also provides the performance comparison of several existing methods proposed by researchers in extracting the text from an image.

  3. Drug name recognition in biomedical texts: a machine-learning-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linna; Yang, Zhihao; Lin, Hongfei; Li, Yanpeng

    2014-05-01

    Currently, there is an urgent need to develop a technology for extracting drug information automatically from biomedical texts, and drug name recognition is an essential prerequisite for extracting drug information. This article presents a machine-learning-based approach to recognize drug names in biomedical texts. In this approach, a drug name dictionary is first constructed with the external resource of DrugBank and PubMed. Then a semi-supervised learning method, feature coupling generalization, is used to filter this dictionary. Finally, the dictionary look-up and the condition random field method are combined to recognize drug names. Experimental results show that our approach achieves an F-score of 92.54% on the test set of DDIExtraction2011.

  4. Incorporating other texts: Intertextuality in Malaysian CSR reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Rajandran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, corporate social responsibility (CSR is relatively new but corporations have been required to engage in and disclose their CSR. A typical genre for disclosure is CSR reports and these reports often refer to other texts. The article investigates the act of referencing to other texts or intertextuality in Malaysian CSR reports. It creates an archive of CEO Statements and Environment Sections in CSR reports and studies the archive for keywords, which can identify the incorporated texts. The function of these texts is examined in relation to Malaysia’s corporate context. CSR reports contain explicit references to documents (policies, regulations, reports, research, standards and to individuals/groups (CEOs, stakeholders, expert organizations. The incorporated texts display variation in corporate control, which organizes these texts along an intertextual cline. The cline helps to identify corporate and non-corporate sources among the texts. The selection of incorporated texts may reflect government and stock exchange demands. The texts are not standardized and are relevant for the CSR domain and corporations, where these texts monitor and justify CSR performance. Yet, the incorporated texts may perpetuate inexact reporting because corporations select the texts and the parts of texts to refer to. Since these texts have been employed to scrutinize initiatives and results, CSR reports can claim to represent the “truth” about a corporation’s CSR. Hence, intertextuality serves corporate interests.

  5. Reading on the Internet: Realizing and Constructing Potential Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byeong-Young; Afflerbach, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Successful Internet reading requires making strategic decisions about what texts to read and a sequence for reading them, all in accordance with readers' goals. In this paper, we describe the process of realizing and constructing potential texts as an important and critical part of successful Internet reading and use verbal report data to…

  6. Development of a scale for the evaluation of patients' rights prerequisites at educational hospitals in Iran: a study using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Mozafari, Mosayeb

    2015-01-01

    The patients' rights status is one of the essential elements in defining norms related to the concept of clinical governance system. In addition, the patients' rights status is an important index for quality of care offered in the health care system. However, the lack of a coherent instrument makes it difficult to evaluate patients' rights status in hospitals and clinics. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument for the evaluation of patients' rights prerequisites at educational hospitals in Iran. This study was conducted using the modified Delphi technique. In this study, 36 experts in the fields of law, medicine, and professional ethics were participated. The panel of experts participated in 3 rounds. First, experts were asked to judge some pre-identified items, and then, excluded items were judged again in the second round. At the end of the third round, all of the agreed items were included in the final list to form an evaluative scale on practice of patients' rights. Experts were asked to judge a total 171 items in 3 rounds. Around 31% (n = 53) of items obtained the panel's approval to be included in the final version of the scale. The experts' opinions were collected using face-to-face interviews and electronic email during a 6-month period of data collection from October 2013 to February 2014. This study developed a 53-item scale for evaluation of patients' rights prerequisites in educational hospitals in Iran. This scale was developed in 7 areas of commitments including university education, research, supervision, process management, physical structure, organizational policy, and human resources management. This study developed an evaluative scale to assess the practice of patients' rights in educational hospitals. The items in the final version of this scale were obtained from a consensus of experts and the instrument can be used to evaluate the context and prerequisites for practice of patients' rights in Iranian educational hospitals.

  7. SIAM 2007 Text Mining Competition dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Subject Area: Text Mining Description: This is the dataset used for the SIAM 2007 Text Mining competition. This competition focused on developing text mining...

  8. Text Categorization with Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLACKÝ Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the text categorization of Slovak text corpora using latent Dirichlet allocation. Our goal is to build text subcorpora that contain similar text documents. We want to use these better organized text subcorpora to build more robust language models that can be used in the area of speech recognition systems. Our previous research in the area of text categorization showed that we can achieve better results with categorized text corpora. In this paper we used latent Dirichlet allocation for text categorization. We divided initial text corpus into 2, 5, 10, 20 or 100 subcorpora with various iterations and save steps. Language models were built on these subcorpora and adapted with linear interpolation to judicial domain. The experiment results showed that text categorization using latent Dirichlet allocation can improve the system for automatic speech recognition by creating the language models from organized text corpora.

  9. PathText: a text mining integrator for biological pathway visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Brian; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Kitano, Hiroaki; Ananiadou, Sophia; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Metabolic and signaling pathways are an increasingly important part of organizing knowledge in systems biology. They serve to integrate collective interpretations of facts scattered throughout literature. Biologists construct a pathway by reading a large number of articles and interpreting them as a consistent network, but most of the models constructed currently lack direct links to those articles. Biologists who want to check the original articles have to spend substantial amounts of time to collect relevant articles and identify the sections relevant to the pathway. Furthermore, with the scientific literature expanding by several thousand papers per week, keeping a model relevant requires a continuous curation effort. In this article, we present a system designed to integrate a pathway visualizer, text mining systems and annotation tools into a seamless environment. This will enable biologists to freely move between parts of a pathway and relevant sections of articles, as well as identify relevant papers from large text bases. The system, PathText, is developed by Systems Biology Institute, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, National Centre for Text Mining (University of Manchester) and the University of Tokyo, and is being used by groups of biologists from these locations. Contact: brian@monrovian.com. PMID:20529930

  10. New challenges for text mining: mapping between text and manually curated pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kanae; Kim, Jin-Dong; Ohta, Tomoko; Okanohara, Daisuke; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Tateisi, Yuka; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Associating literature with pathways poses new challenges to the Text Mining (TM) community. There are three main challenges to this task: (1) the identification of the mapping position of a specific entity or reaction in a given pathway, (2) the recognition of the causal relationships among multiple reactions, and (3) the formulation and implementation of required inferences based on biological domain knowledge. Results To address these challenges, we constructed new resources to link the text with a model pathway; they are: the GENIA pathway corpus with event annotation and NF-kB pathway. Through their detailed analysis, we address the untapped resource, ‘bio-inference,’ as well as the differences between text and pathway representation. Here, we show the precise comparisons of their representations and the nine classes of ‘bio-inference’ schemes observed in the pathway corpus. Conclusions We believe that the creation of such rich resources and their detailed analysis is the significant first step for accelerating the research of the automatic construction of pathway from text. PMID:18426550

  11. Text Anomalies Detection Using Histograms of Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahed Faraj Almarimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors of written texts mainly can be characterized by some collection of attributes obtained from texts. Texts of the same author are very similar from the style point of view. We can consider that attributes of a full text are very similar to attributes of parts in the same text. In the same thoughts can be compared different parts of the same text. In the paper, we describe an algorithm based on histograms of a mapped text to interval. In the mapping, it is kipped the word order as in the text. Histograms are analyzed from a cluster point of view. If a cluster dispersion is not large, the text is probably written by the same author. If the cluster dispersion is large, the text will be split in two or more parts and the same analysis will be done for the text parts.  The experiments were done on English and Arabic texts. For combined English texts our algorithm covers that texts were not written by one author. We have got the similar results for combined Arabic texts. Our algorithm can be used to basic text analysis if the text was written by one author.       

  12. TEXT CLASSIFICATION TOWARD A SCIENTIFIC FORUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Text mining, also known as discovering knowledge from the text, which has emerged as a possible solution for the current information explosion, refers to the process of extracting non-trivial and useful patterns from unstructured text. Among the general tasks of text mining such as text clustering,summarization, etc, text classification is a subtask of intelligent information processing, which employs unsupervised learning to construct a classifier from training text by which to predict the class of unlabeled text. Because of its simplicity and objectivity in performance evaluation, text classification was usually used as a standard tool to determine the advantage or weakness of a text processing method, such as text representation, text feature selection, etc. In this paper, text classification is carried out to classify the Web documents collected from XSSC Website (http://www. xssc.ac.cn). The performance of support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) is compared on this task. Specifically, binary text classification and multi-class text classification were conducted on the XSSC documents. Moreover, the classification results of both methods are combined to improve the accuracy of classification. An experiment is conducted to show that BPNN can compete with SVM in binary text classification; but for multi-class text classification, SVM performs much better. Furthermore, the classification is improved in both binary and multi-class with the combined method.

  13. Machine aided indexing from natural language text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

  14. Linguistically informed digital fingerprints for text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuner, Özlem

    2006-02-01

    Digital fingerprinting, watermarking, and tracking technologies have gained importance in the recent years in response to growing problems such as digital copyright infringement. While fingerprints and watermarks can be generated in many different ways, use of natural language processing for these purposes has so far been limited. Measuring similarity of literary works for automatic copyright infringement detection requires identifying and comparing creative expression of content in documents. In this paper, we present a linguistic approach to automatically fingerprinting novels based on their expression of content. We use natural language processing techniques to generate "expression fingerprints". These fingerprints consist of both syntactic and semantic elements of language, i.e., syntactic and semantic elements of expression. Our experiments indicate that syntactic and semantic elements of expression enable accurate identification of novels and their paraphrases, providing a significant improvement over techniques used in text classification literature for automatic copy recognition. We show that these elements of expression can be used to fingerprint, label, or watermark works; they represent features that are essential to the character of works and that remain fairly consistent in the works even when works are paraphrased. These features can be directly extracted from the contents of the works on demand and can be used to recognize works that would not be correctly identified either in the absence of pre-existing labels or by verbatim-copy detectors.

  15. Open architecture for multilingual parallel texts

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez, M T Carrasco

    2008-01-01

    Multilingual parallel texts (abbreviated to parallel texts) are linguistic versions of the same content ("translations"); e.g., the Maastricht Treaty in English and Spanish are parallel texts. This document is about creating an open architecture for the whole Authoring, Translation and Publishing Chain (ATP-chain) for the processing of parallel texts.

  16. Noticeable Focuses in Reading a Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between commanding those basic information contained in a text and the final p urpose of comprehending in a text-reading process. By using the main topic and the central meaning that all texts have as two main examples, the author mainly illustrates what a reader should pay attention to in reading a text.

  17. What makes a written text written

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亦倩

    2008-01-01

    Text can be used for both written and spoken language, and different features of spoken and written texts provide us the possibility to have a general idea of the division of two main categories--spoken English and written English. In this article, an attempt will be given to a sample text in order to discuss the general features of written texts.

  18. Theoretical simulation of CO2 capture by an \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}_{11}}\\text{Mg}_{3}^{-} cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Xuefang; Hamid, Ilyar; Chen, Chu; Duan, Haiming

    2017-04-01

    In order to have an impact on carbon emissions, new stable materials for carbon capture should be able to adsorb CO2 from a mixture of other gases efficiently. Based on density functional theory calculations, we showed that the \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- cluster has an excellent capture capacity of CO2 and high CO2 selectivity under ambient conditions. \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- has an O2-resist property because this cluster is similar to \\text{Al}13- which contains 40 electrons with a larger energy gap. The \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- cluster prefers to adsorb CO2 compared with CH4, H2 and N2, and the CO2 molecule can be chemically adsorbed on the cluster by overcoming a lower barrier, which originates from the introduction of the Mg atom. When seven CO2 molecules are chemically adsorbed on the cluster, the capture capacity of CO2 can reach up to 18.99 mol kg-1 this means that the \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- cluster can be viewed as a potential candidate material for CO2 capture.

  19. Comprehending expository texts: the dynamic neurobiological correlates of building a coherent text representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swett, Katherine; Miller, Amanda C; Burns, Scott; Hoeft, Fumiko; Davis, Nicole; Petrill, Stephen A; Cutting, Laurie E

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the neural correlates of expository text comprehension. In this study, we sought to identify neural networks underlying expository text comprehension, how those networks change over the course of comprehension, and whether information central to the overall meaning of the text is functionally distinct from peripheral information. Seventeen adult subjects read expository passages while being scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). By convolving phrase onsets with the hemodynamic response function (HRF), we were able to identify regions that increase and decrease in activation over the course of passage comprehension. We found that expository text comprehension relies on the co-activation of the semantic control network and regions in the posterior midline previously associated with mental model updating and integration [posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus (PCU)]. When compared to single word comprehension, left PCC and left Angular Gyrus (AG) were activated only for discourse-level comprehension. Over the course of comprehension, reliance on the same regions in the semantic control network increased, while a parietal region associated with attention [intraparietal sulcus (IPS)] decreased. These results parallel previous findings in narrative comprehension that the initial stages of mental model building require greater visuospatial attention processes, while maintenance of the model increasingly relies on semantic integration regions. Additionally, we used an event-related analysis to examine phrases central to the text's overall meaning vs. peripheral phrases. It was found that central ideas are functionally distinct from peripheral ideas, showing greater activation in the PCC and PCU, while over the course of passage comprehension, central and peripheral ideas increasingly recruit different parts of the semantic control network. The finding that central information elicits greater response in mental model

  20. Assessment of the Prerequisite Skills for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children with and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lickel, Athena; MacLean, William E.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Hepburn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) thought to be necessary for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Forty children with ASD and forty age-matched typically developing children between the ages of 7–12 years participated. Groups were comparable with regard to nonverbal IQ, but children with ASD had significantly lower verbal IQ. Children completed three CBT-related tasks requiring emotion recognition, discrimination amon...

  1. Critical water requirements for food, methodology and policy consequences for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.

    2004-01-01

    Food security and increasing water scarcity have a dominant place on the food policy agenda. Food security requires sufficient water of adequate quality because water is a prerequisite for plant growth. Nowadays, agriculture accounts for 70% of the worldwide human fresh water use. The expected incre

  2. Critical water requirements for food, methodology and policy consequences for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.

    2004-01-01

    Food security and increasing water scarcity have a dominant place on the food policy agenda. Food security requires sufficient water of adequate quality because water is a prerequisite for plant growth. Nowadays, agriculture accounts for 70% of the worldwide human fresh water use. The expected

  3. An inquiry into the characteristics, applicability and prerequisites of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID solutions in transport networks and logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniu Ovidiu Balint

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of intelligent solution represents the key factor for developing both the logistics sector and the economic environment. This paper analyses the Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID technology and its role in the Supply Chain Management (SCM especially in logistics and transport networks. The main objective is to demonstrate that RFID represents a solution for improving the transport networks and logistics sector by implementing various complex and intelligent solutions that can improve the actual economic environment

  4. Intermediate or above Level of English Proficiency:the Prerequisite of Tertiary Level ESP Teaching in China%中高级英语水平与中国大学英语ESP开课关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚兵

    2015-01-01

    本文从专门用途英语(下称ESP)定义特征、《大学英语课程教学要求》(2007)、我国大学生英语水平、ESP对语言水平的要求等四个方面阐述我国大学新生英语水平与ESP教学要求存在巨大差距。国外及港台地区的ESP研究成果表明,中高级二语水平乃外语环境下大学层次ESP教学的基本条件。本文提出,中国大学层次ESP教学必须以中高级英语水平为基础,不能简单以词汇量作为判断依据。%From the aspects of the ESP definitive characteristics, the Teaching Requirements of College English Curriculum (2007), and the current status of Chinese learners’ English proficiency and requirements of ESP teaching, the paper expounds that there is a wide gap between the English language proficiency of Chinese college first-year students and the requirements of ESP teaching. The empirical studies abroad and in HK and Taiwan prove that English language proficiency is the key factor to the success of ESP teaching. The paper posits that post-intermediate level of English proficiency is the prerequisite of ESP teaching in Chinese colleges and vocabulary size can not be the sole measure of ESL learner’s SL proficiency.

  5. Text To Speech System for Telugu Language

    OpenAIRE

    Siva kumar, M; E. Prakash Babu

    2014-01-01

    Telugu is one of the oldest languages in India. This paper describes the development of Telugu Text-to-Speech System (TTS).In Telugu TTS the input is Telugu text in Unicode. The voices are sampled from real recorded speech. The objective of a text to speech system is to convert an arbitrary text into its corresponding spoken waveform. Speech synthesis is a process of building machinery that can generate human-like speech from any text input to imitate human speakers. Text proc...

  6. A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Abu-Ain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line.  The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.

  7. Comparative Discourse Analysis of Parallel Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Eijk, P

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative representation of discourse structure can be computed by measuring lexical cohesion relations among adjacent blocks of text. These representations have been proposed to deal with sub-topic text segmentation. In a parallel corpus, similar representations can be derived for versions of a text in various languages. These can be used for parallel segmentation and as an alternative measure of text-translation similarity.

  8. Multimodal Diversity of Postmodernist Fiction Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. I. Tykha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of structural and functional manifestations of multimodal diversity in postmodernist fiction texts. Multimodality is defined as the coexistence of more than one semiotic mode within a certain context. Multimodal texts feature a diversity of semiotic modes in the communication and development of their narrative. Such experimental texts subvert conventional patterns by introducing various semiotic resources – verbal or non-verbal.

  9. Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

  10. Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding Literary Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossanova, Altynay Zh.; Ismakova, Bibissara S.; Tapanova, Saule E.; Ayupova, Gulbagira K.; Gotting, Valentina V.; Kaltayeva, Gulnar K.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose is the implementation of the interdisciplinary approach to understanding and the construction of integrative models of understanding literary texts. The interdisciplinary methodological paradigm of studying text understanding, based on the principles of various sciences facilitating the identification of the text understanding…

  11. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an explorato

  12. Applying statistical methods to text steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Nechta, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of text steganography methods used for hid- ing secret information inside some covertext. Widely known hiding techniques (such as translation based steganography, text generating and syntactic embed- ding) and detection are considered. It is shown that statistical analysis has an important role in text steganalysis.

  13. Mathematical Texts as Narrative: Rethinking Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietiker, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for reading mathematics texts as narratives. Building from a narrative framework of Meike Bal, a reader's experience with the mathematical content as it unfolds in the text (the "mathematical story") is distinguished from his or her logical reconstruction of the content beyond the text (the…

  14. Object reading: text recognition for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use text recognition to aid in visual object class recognition. To this end we first propose a new algorithm for text detection in natural images. The proposed text detection is based on saliency cues and a context fusion step. The algorithm does not need any parameter tuning and can d

  15. Refutation Texts for Effective Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, E. Michael; Cordova, Jacqueline R.; Rehmat, Abeera P.

    2017-01-01

    Refutation texts, which are texts that rebut scientific misconceptions and explain the normative concept, can be effective devices for addressing misconceptions and affecting conceptual change. However, few, if any, refutation texts specifically related to climate change have been validated for effectiveness. In this project, we developed and…

  16. About Reformulation in Full-Text IRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debili, Fathi; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes different kinds of reformulations used in information retrieval systems where full text databases are accessed through natural language queries. Tests of these reformulations on large full text databases managed by the Syntactic and Probabilistic Indexing and Retrieval of Information in Texts (SPIRIT) system are described, and an expert…

  17. The Ecological Approach to Text Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents both theoretical and technical bases on which to build a "science of text visualization." The Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration (SPIRE) text-visualization system, which images information from free-text documents as natural terrains, serves as an example of the "ecological approach" in its visual metaphor, its…

  18. Creating and Using Culturally Sustaining Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe Kganetso, Lynne M.

    2017-01-01

    Current standards and assessments emphasize the importance of a variety of genres in students' literacy diets, which has placed increased attention on informational texts. Unfortunately, young students' current exposure to and experiences with informational texts are often limited by the texts' availability, quality, and relevance to children's…

  19. Text Complexity: Primary Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Relyea-Kim, E. Jackie; Kung, Melody; Elmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The research question was, "What text characteristics do primary teachers think are most important for early grades text complexity?" Teachers from across the United States accomplished a two-part task. First, to stimulate teachers' thinking about important text characteristics, primary teachers completed an online paired-text…

  20. Role of Terms in Popular Science Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabbarova F. U.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines and determines the specifics of terminological vocabulary used in a popular science text. It differentiates the notions of cohesion and coherence. The article reveals the main terminological means realizing cohesion in the text of a popular science article.

  1. Figure text extraction in biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures. METHODOLOGY: We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36

  2. Identification and Comparison of Requirements Placed on Brand Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Wroblowská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article: Building a strong brand is difficult, even when viewing brands as an essential asset of the company is a lasting trend. So for brand managers to succeed in their job roles, they must possess knowledge, skills, and relevant personality traits. The purpose of the author´s work was to provide the insight into the offering of brand manager´s posts in the Czech Republic and to analyze the collected data with the special interest in finding the answer, whether the employers see a brand manager as a knowledge worker. Methodology/methods: For a successful empirical research, the content analysis method by Berelson was used to study the texts in recruitment advertisements. The statistical verification of results was conducted using the chi-squared test. Scientific aim: The goal of the primary survey was to provide answers to the research questions, which arise from the following research assumption: (1 the set of requirements for candidates for the job of Brand Manager will confirm that a brand manager is one of the workers who have skills and personality prerequisites expected for knowledge workers and (2 after the period of economic recession and despite the oncoming recovery, employers do not concede their requirements placed on candidates for the job of Brand Manager. Findings: The results of the actual research project confirmed a fundamental need of excellent communication skills (69.6 %, a high degree of creativity (51.8 % and analytical ability (42.9 % of candidates for the position “Brand Manager”. During the comparison of the data results gathered in 2007 there were recorded some differences. Statistical verification confirmed the shift of requirements in the group of traits and skills connected to motivation and self-control. The results also showed significant differences in the analysed group of ads for the position of “Brand Manager” and “Product Manager” in almost all groups of psychological

  3. Text line Segmentation of Curved Document Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusree.M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Document image analysis has been widely used in historical and heritage studies, education and digital library. Document image analytical techniques are mainly used for improving the human readability and the OCR quality of the document. During the digitization, camera captured images contain warped document due perspective and geometric distortions. The main difficulty is text line detection in the document. Many algorithms had been proposed to address the problem of printed document text line detection, but they failed to extract text lines in curved document. This paper describes a segmentation technique that detects the curled text line in camera captured document images.

  4. Unified layout analysis and text localization framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Nikos; Kavallieratou, Ergina

    2017-01-01

    A technique appropriate for extracting textual information from documents with complex layouts, such as newspapers and journals, is presented. It is a combination of a foreground analysis and a text localization method. The first one is used to segment the page in text and nontext blocks, whereas the second one is used to detect text that may be embedded inside images, charts, diagrams, tables, etc. Detailed experiments on two public databases showed that mixing layout analysis and text localization techniques can lead to improved page segmentation and text extraction results.

  5. Compressed Text Indexes:From Theory to Practice!

    CERN Document Server

    Ferragina, Paolo; Navarro, Gonzalo; Venturini, Rossano

    2007-01-01

    A compressed full-text self-index represents a text in a compressed form and still answers queries efficiently. This technology represents a breakthrough over the text indexing techniques of the previous decade, whose indexes required several times the size of the text. Although it is relatively new, this technology has matured up to a point where theoretical research is giving way to practical developments. Nonetheless this requires significant programming skills, a deep engineering effort, and a strong algorithmic background to dig into the research results. To date only isolated implementations and focused comparisons of compressed indexes have been reported, and they missed a common API, which prevented their re-use or deployment within other applications. The goal of this paper is to fill this gap. First, we present the existing implementations of compressed indexes from a practitioner's point of view. Second, we introduce the Pizza&Chili site, which offers tuned implementations and a standardized AP...

  6. Text-speak processing impairs tactile location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James; Helton, William; Russell, Paul; Neumann, Ewald

    2012-09-01

    Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text.

  7. The translated text as re-textualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Carlos Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All texts seem to be, in one way or another, dependent upon other texts, but a translated text is dependent upon one particular text in a very peculiar way. When writing a normal text the writer is in principle free to organise a set of words, clauses and paragraphs, according to his or her intentions and abilities. Yet we all know that this liberty is more apparent than real, since our memory of previous texts, as well as the cultural norms we have internalised, restrict, as a rule, many of our textual movements. The translator, however, works under different conditions. The text he or she writes will be based on a message that already exists in a textual form in another language. The original text constrains the new text in a number of ways. The most inmediate one is that in order to be recognised as a translation, the translator’s text must have a great degree of similarity with its original counterpart. In translation studies this similarity is currently labelled equivalence.

  8. Text segmentation in degraded historical document images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Kavitha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Text segmentation from degraded Historical Indus script images helps Optical Character Recognizer (OCR to achieve good recognition rates for Hindus scripts; however, it is challenging due to complex background in such images. In this paper, we present a new method for segmenting text and non-text in Indus documents based on the fact that text components are less cursive compared to non-text ones. To achieve this, we propose a new combination of Sobel and Laplacian for enhancing degraded low contrast pixels. Then the proposed method generates skeletons for text components in enhanced images to reduce computational burdens, which in turn helps in studying component structures efficiently. We propose to study the cursiveness of components based on branch information to remove false text components. The proposed method introduces the nearest neighbor criterion for grouping components in the same line, which results in clusters. Furthermore, the proposed method classifies these clusters into text and non-text cluster based on characteristics of text components. We evaluate the proposed method on a large dataset containing varieties of images. The results are compared with the existing methods to show that the proposed method is effective in terms of recall and precision.

  9. The nuclear modification of charged particles in Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}} = \\text{5.02}\\,\\text{TeV}$ measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00537113

    2016-01-01

    The study of inclusive charged-particle production in heavy-ion collisions provides insights into the density of the medium and the energy-loss mechanisms. The observed suppression of high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ yield is generally attributed to energy loss of partons as they propagate through a deconfined state of quarks and gluons - Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) - predicted by QCD. Such measurements allow the characterization of the QGP by comparison with models. In these proceedings, results on high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ particle production measured by ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}}\\, = 5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ as well as well in pp at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}}\\,=5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ are presented for the first time. The nuclear modification factors ($\\text{R}_\\text{AA}$) in Pb-Pb collisions are presented and compared with model calculations.

  10. CRIE: An automated analyzer for Chinese texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Kuan-Sheng; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-12-01

    Textual analysis has been applied to various fields, such as discourse analysis, corpus studies, text leveling, and automated essay evaluation. Several tools have been developed for analyzing texts written in alphabetic languages such as English and Spanish. However, currently there is no tool available for analyzing Chinese-language texts. This article introduces a tool for the automated analysis of simplified and traditional Chinese texts, called the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE). Composed of four subsystems and incorporating 82 multilevel linguistic features, CRIE is able to conduct the major tasks of segmentation, syntactic parsing, and feature extraction. Furthermore, the integration of linguistic features with machine learning models enables CRIE to provide leveling and diagnostic information for texts in language arts, texts for learning Chinese as a foreign language, and texts with domain knowledge. The usage and validation of the functions provided by CRIE are also introduced.

  11. The nuclear modification of charged particles in Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}} = \\text{5.02}\\,\\text{TeV}$ measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Gronefeld, Julius

    2016-09-21

    The study of inclusive charged-particle production in heavy-ion collisions provides insights into the density of the medium and the energy-loss mechanisms. The observed suppression of high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ yield is generally attributed to energy loss of partons as they propagate through a deconfined state of quarks and gluons - Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) - predicted by QCD. Such measurements allow the characterization of the QGP by comparison with models. In these proceedings, results on high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ particle production measured by ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}}\\, = 5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ as well as well in pp at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}}\\,=5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ are presented for the first time. The nuclear modification factors ($\\text{R}_\\text{AA}$) in Pb-Pb collisions are presented and compared with model calculations.

  12. Text mining with R a tidy approach

    CERN Document Server

    Silge, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Much of the data available today is unstructured and text-heavy, making it challenging for analysts to apply their usual data wrangling and visualization tools. With this practical book, you'll explore text-mining techniques with tidytext, a package that authors Julia Silge and David Robinson developed using the tidy principles behind R packages like ggraph and dplyr. You'll learn how tidytext and other tidy tools in R can make text analysis easier and more effective. The authors demonstrate how treating text as data frames enables you to manipulate, summarize, and visualize characteristics of text. You'll also learn how to integrate natural language processing (NLP) into effective workflows. Practical code examples and data explorations will help you generate real insights from literature, news, and social media. Learn how to apply the tidy text format to NLP Use sentiment analysis to mine the emotional content of text Identify a document's most important terms with frequency measurements E...

  13. The textualization of space and the spacialization of the text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ‘space’ bears a long history within the metalanguages of literary studies, especially those concerned with literary narrative. Although space has never been a central category in narratology studies, it is a starting point for reflections that lead to the notion of cyberspace. The above requires a conceptual reformulation determined by possibilities expressed and represented in digital languages in the electronic media, often requiring collaboration with the reader. Writing and hypertextual reading develop within a context where the spatial dimension of texts is reinvented.

  14. Multi-Leu PACE4 Inhibitor Retention within Cells Is PACE4 Dependent and a Prerequisite for Antiproliferative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Couture

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression as well as the critical implication of the proprotein convertase PACE4 in prostate cancer progression has been previously reported and supported the development of peptide inhibitors. The multi-Leu peptide, a PACE4-specific inhibitor, was further generated and its capability to be uptaken by tumor xenograft was demonstrated with regard to its PACE4 expression status. To investigate whether the uptake of this inhibitor was directly dependent of PACE4 levels, uptake and efflux from cancer cells were evaluated and correlations were established with PACE4 contents on both wild type and PACE4-knockdown cell lines. PACE4-knockdown associated growth deficiencies were established on the knockdown HepG2, Huh7, and HT1080 cells as well as the antiproliferative effects of the multi-Leu peptide supporting the growth capabilities of PACE4 in cancer cells.

  15. Assessing Training Needs of LIS Professionals: A Prerequisite for Developing Training Programs in University Libraries of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Bhatti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated LIS professionals’ perception related to their training needs in university libraries of Pakistan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and the data were collected using a questionnaire administered to 150 LIS professionals in 59 public and private universities recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. The response rate was 84 percent. The results obtained show that LIS professionals need training related to troubleshooting new technologies, endnote, data compression, Internet, social media such as Facebook, Blogger, Flickr, Twitter, and online databases. The respondents considered seminars, web-based training, computer tutorials, ad-hoc training sessions by staff members, and group briefings as effective training programs for improving their professional skills.

  16. Text accessibility by people with reduced contrast sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Michael D; Rubin, Gary S

    2012-09-01

    Contrast sensitivity is reduced in people with eye disease, and also in older adults without eye disease. In this article, we compare contrast of text presented in print and digital formats with contrast sensitivity values for a large cohort of subjects in a population-based study of older adults (the Salisbury Eye Evaluation). Contrast sensitivity values were recorded for 2520 adults aged 65 to 84 years living in Salisbury, Maryland. The proportion of the sample likely to be unable to read text of different formats (electronic books, newsprint, paperback books, laser print, and LED computer monitors) was calculated using published contrast reserve levels required to perform spot reading, to read with fluency, high fluency, and under optimal conditions. One percent of this sample had contrast sensitivity less than that required to read newsprint fluently. Text presented on an LED computer monitor had the highest contrast. Ninety-eight percent of the sample had contrast sensitivity sufficient for high fluent reading of text (at least 160 words/min) on a monitor. However, 29.6% were still unlikely to be able to read this text with optimal fluency. Reduced contrast of print limits text accessibility for many people in the developed world. Presenting text in a high-contrast format, such as black laser print on a white page, would increase the number of people able to access such information. Additionally, making text available in a format that can be presented on an LED computer monitor will increase access to written documents.

  17. Incorporating other texts: Intertextuality in Malaysian CSR reports

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran Rajandran

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is relatively new but corporations have been required to engage in and disclose their CSR. A typical genre for disclosure is CSR reports and these reports often refer to other texts. The article investigates the act of referencing to other texts or intertextuality in Malaysian CSR reports. It creates an archive of CEO Statements and Environment Sections in CSR reports and studies the archive for keywords, which can identify the incorporated ...

  18. Two approaches to gathering text corpora from the WorldWideWeb

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, G

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of pattern recognition to natural language processing require large text corpora in a specified language. For many of the languages of the world, such corpora are not readily available, but significant quantities of text...

  19. Text To Speech System for Telugu Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siva Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telugu is one of the oldest languages in India. This paper describes the development of Telugu Text-to-Speech System (TTS.In Telugu TTS the input is Telugu text in Unicode. The voices are sampled from real recorded speech. The objective of a text to speech system is to convert an arbitrary text into its corresponding spoken waveform. Speech synthesis is a process of building machinery that can generate human-like speech from any text input to imitate human speakers. Text processing and speech generation are two main components of a text to speech system. To build a natural sounding speech synthesis system, it is essential that text processing component produce an appropriate sequence of phonemic units. Generation of sequence of phonetic units for a given standard word is referred to as letter to phoneme rule or text to phoneme rule. The complexity of these rules and their derivation depends upon the nature of the language. The quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its closeness to the natural human voice and understandability. In this paper we described an approach to build a Telugu TTS system using concatenative synthesis method with syllable as a basic unit of concatenation.

  20. Technical prerequisites for efficient drive systems - Fundamentals for SwissEnergy measures; Technische Grundlagen effizienter Antriebssysteme. Grundlagen fuer Aktionen (Massnahmen) von Energieschweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Ritz, Ch.

    2007-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the technical prerequisites necessary for the implementation of various measures that are to be taken to promote efficient electrical drive systems. The document defines the approach taken and describes the methodologies to be used, including market analysis, the collection of basic data, the definition of measures and the acquisition of partners. The potential for making savings is estimated. Eight areas of action are defined, including the organisation of tutorials, exchange of experience, knowledge transfer, basic consulting services, the deployment of consultants, the setting-up of an Internet portal, information transfer in conferences and the optimisation of auxiliaries in domestic installations. A comprehensive annex completes the report.

  1. Accurate mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei. Prerequisites for high-accuracy investigations of superallowed {beta}-decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Sauvan, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ames, F.; Engels, O. [Sektion Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Audi, G.; Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Kluge, H.J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sikler, G.; Weber, C. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824-1321 (United States); Moore, R.B. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 2T8 (Canada); Oinonen, M. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-10-01

    Mass measurements of {sup 34}Ar, {sup 73-78}Kr, and {sup 74,76}Rb were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Very accurate Q{sub EC}-values are needed for the investigations of the Ft-value of 0{sup +} {yields} 0{sup +} nuclear {beta}-decays used to test the standard model predictions for weak interactions. The necessary accuracy on the Q{sub EC}-value requires the mass of mother and daughter nuclei to be measured with {delta}m/m {<=} 3{sup .}10 {sup -8}. For most of the measured nuclides presented here this has been reached. The {sup 34}Ar mass has been measured with a relative accuracy of 1.1 .10{sup -8}. The Q {sub EC}-value of the {sup 34}Ar 0 {sup +} {yields} 0 {sup +} decay can now be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.01%. Furthermore, {sup 74}Rb is the shortest-lived nuclide ever investigated in a Penning trap. (orig.)

  2. Quality assessment of medicinal herbs and their extracts: Criteria and prerequisites for consistent safety and efficacy of herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2015-11-01

    Ingredients of commercial herbal medicines are assessed for quality primarily to ensure their safety. However, as complex mixtures of different groups of plant secondary metabolites, retention of overall phytochemical consistency of herbal medicines is pivotal to their efficacy. Authenticity and homogeneity of the herbs and strict regimes of physical processing and extract manufacturing are critical factors to maintain phytochemical consistency in commercial products. To ensure both safety and efficacy of herbal medicines, implementation of and adherence to good agricultural and collection practice (GACP), good plant authentication and identification practice (GPAIP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) before and during the manufacturing process, and good laboratory practice (GLP) in analysis are necessary. Establishment and application of harmonized multilaboratory-validated analytical methods and transparency in the supply (value) chain through vendor audits are additional requirements in quality assurance. In this article, we outline steps of a comprehensive quality assurance paradigm aimed at achieving and maintaining safety, consistent phytochemical composition, and clinical efficacy of ingredients of herbal medicines. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Botanicals for Epilepsy.

  3. Pathogen-induced conditioning of the primary xylem vessels - a prerequisite for the formation of bacterial emboli by Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, V Y; Daminova, A G; Mikshina, P V; Petrova, O E; Ageeva, M V; Salnikov, V V; Gorshkova, T A; Gogolev, Y V

    2016-07-01

    Representatives of Pectobacterium genus are some of the most harmful phytopathogens in the world. In the present study, we have elucidated novel aspects of plant-Pectobacterium atrosepticum interactions. This bacterium was recently demonstrated to form specific 'multicellular' structures - bacterial emboli in the xylem vessels of infected plants. In our work, we showed that the process of formation of these structures includes the pathogen-induced reactions of the plant. The colonisation of the plant by P. atrosepticum is coupled with the release of a pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan I, into the vessel lumen from the plant cell wall. This polysaccharide gives rise to a gel that serves as a matrix for bacterial emboli. P. atrosepticum-caused infection involves an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the vessels, creating the conditions for the scission of polysaccharides and modification of plant cell wall composition. Both the release of rhamnogalacturonan I and the increase in ROS precede colonisation of the vessels by bacteria and occur only in the primary xylem vessels, the same as the subsequent formation of bacterial emboli. Since the appearance of rhamnogalacturonan I and increase in ROS levels do not hamper the bacterial cells and form a basis for the assembly of bacterial emboli, these reactions may be regarded as part of the susceptible response of the plant. Bacterial emboli thus represent the products of host-pathogen integration, since the formation of these structures requires the action of both partners.

  4. NEW TECHNIQUES USED IN AUTOMATED TEXT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I strate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Automated analysis of natural language texts is one of the most important knowledge discovery tasks for any organization. According to Gartner Group, almost 90% of knowledge available at an organization today is dispersed throughout piles of documents buried within unstructured text. Analyzing huge volumes of textual information is often involved in making informed and correct business decisions. Traditional analysis methods based on statistics fail to help processing unstructured texts and the society is in search of new technologies for text analysis. There exist a variety of approaches to the analysis of natural language texts, but most of them do not provide results that could be successfully applied in practice. This article concentrates on recent ideas and practical implementations in this area.

  5. Biomechanical patterns of text-message distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Peter; Hwang, Jaejin; Grawe, Sarah; Li, Jing; Snyder, Alison; Lee, Christina; Marras, William S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify biomechanical measures that can distinguish texting distraction in a laboratory-simulated driving environment. The goal would be to use this information to provide an intervention for risky driving behaviour. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. Three independent variables were tested: task (texting, visual targeting, weighted and non-weighted movements), task direction (front and side) and task distance (close and far). Dependent variables consisted of biomechanical moments, head displacement and the length of time to complete each task. Results revealed that the time to complete each task was higher for texting compared to other tasks. Peak moments during texting were only distinguishable from visual targeting. Peak head displacement and cumulative biomechanical exposure measures indicated that texting can be distinguished from other tasks. Therefore, it may be useful to take into account both temporal and biomechanical measures when considering warning systems to detect texting distraction.

  6. The Research of Chinese Text Proofreading Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Generally, text proofreading consists of two procedures, finding the wrongly used words and then presenting the correct forms. At present, most of the Chinese text proofreading focuses on finding the wrongly used words, but pays less attention to correcting these errors. In this paper, the Chinese text features are interpreted first and then a Chinese text proofreading method and its algorithm are introduced. In this algorithm, text features, including text statistical feature and language structure feature, are properly used. Here, correcting errors goes on at the same time with finding errors. Experimental results show that this method has a performance of detecting 75% of wrongly used Chinese words and correcting about 60% of them with the first candidates.

  7. Algorithm for Generating Train Calendar Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Greiner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a possibility of generating train calendar text for the needs of compiling the annual timetable in the conditions of the Czech Republic. Based on the analysis of the types of texts of calendars that appear in various print outputs, a heuristic algorithm was designed to generate a text from a set of calendar days. The algorithm is a part of an application that also provides a tool to define the text of the calendar by using a mask of sub-periods and calendars to be displayed in them. The algorithm was tested on real data of the timetable. In most cases, the algorithm shows the same or better results than the previously used tools. In several cases, however, a better result can be obtained by the user. The described algorithm to generate the text of the calendar is a part of a program that is used for compiling the timetable for trains in the Czech Republic.

  8. Colored-sketch of Text Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomjin Kim

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an information visualization method, which transforms text into abstracted visual representations. The proposed color-coding algorithm converts text into a sequence of colored icons that inform users about the distributional patterns of given queries, as well as the structural overview of a document simultaneously. By presenting the compact, but instructive visual abstraction of texts concurrently, users can compare multiple documents intuitively while alleviating the need to reference the underlying text. The system provides interactive navigation tools to support users' decision-making processes - including multi-level viewing, a tree hierarchy recording previous search activities, and suggestive words for refinement of the search scope. An experimental study evaluating this visual approach for delivering search results has been conducted on text corpora in comparison with a traditional information retrieval system. By informing search results to clientele in a perceptive form, the users' performance in obtaining desired information has been improved, while maintaining the accuracy.

  9. Legal English and Adapted Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the significance of authentic legal English text and adapted legal texts in ESP classes. The authors point out the advantages and disadvantages of legal texts and analyse the possibilities of their efficient application in the teaching process. At the initial stage of teaching English legalese, materials prepared specially for teaching purposes in textbooks seem to be more appropriate as they are adapted for a particular level for law students whereas in more advanced levels, authentic texts in a legal English classroom can more considerably contribute to the learning experience. The usage of both legal authentic materials and adapted legal texts have tangible impact on mastering legal English.

  10. Discovering gene annotations in biomedical text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozsoyoglu Gultekin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes and gene products are frequently annotated with Gene Ontology concepts based on the evidence provided in genomics articles. Manually locating and curating information about a genomic entity from the biomedical literature requires vast amounts of human effort. Hence, there is clearly a need forautomated computational tools to annotate the genes and gene products with Gene Ontology concepts by computationally capturing the related knowledge embedded in textual data. Results In this article, we present an automated genomic entity annotation system, GEANN, which extracts information about the characteristics of genes and gene products in article abstracts from PubMed, and translates the discoveredknowledge into Gene Ontology (GO concepts, a widely-used standardized vocabulary of genomic traits. GEANN utilizes textual "extraction patterns", and a semantic matching framework to locate phrases matching to a pattern and produce Gene Ontology annotations for genes and gene products. In our experiments, GEANN has reached to the precision level of 78% at therecall level of 61%. On a select set of Gene Ontology concepts, GEANN either outperforms or is comparable to two other automated annotation studies. Use of WordNet for semantic pattern matching improves the precision and recall by 24% and 15%, respectively, and the improvement due to semantic pattern matching becomes more apparent as the Gene Ontology terms become more general. Conclusion GEANN is useful for two distinct purposes: (i automating the annotation of genomic entities with Gene Ontology concepts, and (ii providing existing annotations with additional "evidence articles" from the literature. The use of textual extraction patterns that are constructed based on the existing annotations achieve high precision. The semantic pattern matching framework provides a more flexible pattern matching scheme with respect to "exactmatching" with the advantage of locating approximate

  11. Beyond Text Theory: Understanding Literary Response

    OpenAIRE

    Miall, David S.; Kuiken, Don

    1994-01-01

    Approaches to text comprehension that focus on propositional, inferential, and elaborative processes have often been considered capable of extension in principle to literary texts, such as stories or poems. However, we argue that literary response is influenced by stylistic features that result in defamiliarization; that defamiliarization invokes feeling which calls on personal perspectives and meanings; and that these aspects of literary response are not addressed by current text theories. T...

  12. Translation Strategies of Non-literary Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2015-01-01

    Translator's subjectivity is closely related to the choice of the style of the translated texts and translation strategies.This paper presents an analytical study of translation strategies of non-literary texts.It introduces different non-literary texts,and then generalizes some factors influencing the selection of translation strategies.Take these Influencing factors into account,Translators should adopt different translation strategies

  13. Colored-sketch of Text Information

    OpenAIRE

    Beomjin Kim; Philip Johnson; Adam S. Huarng

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an information visualization method, which transforms text into abstracted visual representations. The proposed color-coding algorithm converts text into a sequence of colored icons that inform users about the distributional patterns of given queries, as well as the structural overview of a document simultaneously. By presenting the compact, but instructive visual abstraction of texts concurrently, users can compare multiple documents intuitively while alleviating the need...

  14. Fatty acid and phospholipid syntheses are prerequisites for the cell cycle of Symbiodinium and their endosymbiosis within sea anemones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsueh Wang

    Full Text Available Lipids are a source of metabolic energy, as well as essential components of cellular membranes. Although they have been shown to be key players in the regulation of cell proliferation in various eukaryotes, including microalgae, their role in the cell cycle of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium endosymbioses remains to be elucidated. The present study examined the effects of a lipid synthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, on the cell cycle of both cultured Symbiodinium (clade B and those engaged in an endosymbiotic association with the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. In the former, cerulenin exposure was found to inhibit free fatty acid (FFA synthesis, as it does in other organisms. Additionally, while it also significantly inhibited the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, it did not affect the production of sterol ester (SE or phosphatidylcholine (PC. Interestingly, cerulenin also significantly retarded cell division by arresting the cell cycles at the G0/G1 phase. Cerulenin-treated Symbiodinium were found to be taken up by anemone hosts at a significantly depressed quantity in comparison with control Symbiodinium. Furthermore, the uptake of cerulenin-treated Symbiodinium in host tentacles occurred much more slowly than in untreated controls. These results indicate that FFA and PE may play critical roles in the recognition, proliferation, and ultimately the success of endosymbiosis with anemones.

  15. Multilingual Text Detection with Nonlinear Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual text detection in natural scenes is still a challenging task in computer vision. In this paper, we apply an unsupervised learning algorithm to learn language-independent stroke feature and combine unsupervised stroke feature learning and automatically multilayer feature extraction to improve the representational power of text feature. We also develop a novel nonlinear network based on traditional Convolutional Neural Network that is able to detect multilingual text regions in the images. The proposed method is evaluated on standard benchmarks and multilingual dataset and demonstrates improvement over the previous work.

  16. Financial Statement Fraud Detection using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining techniques have been used enormously by the researchers’ community in detecting financial statement fraud. Most of the research in this direction has used the numbers (quantitative information i.e. financial ratios present in the financial statements for detecting fraud. There is very little or no research on the analysis of text such as auditor’s comments or notes present in published reports. In this study we propose a text mining approach for detecting financial statement fraud by analyzing the hidden clues in the qualitative information (text present in financial statements.

  17. An approach for NL text interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatol Popescu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For modeling the interpretation process of NL sentences we use the mechanisms implying semantic networks that assure syntactic - semantic text interpretation (SSI, including an understanding axiomatic model, interpretation model and denotation model to represent the result of SSI. These models estimate the correctness and the consistency of texts too. Also it implements an information extraction from texts in NL. Our approach based, mainly, upon semantic networks grammars has an extraordinary interpretation potential implying a system of completely new concepts and processing methods.

  18. Handwritten text line segmentation by spectral clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuecheng; Yao, Hui; Zhong, Guoqiang

    2017-02-01

    Since handwritten text lines are generally skewed and not obviously separated, text line segmentation of handwritten document images is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel text line segmentation algorithm based on the spectral clustering. Given a handwritten document image, we convert it to a binary image first, and then compute the adjacent matrix of the pixel points. We apply spectral clustering on this similarity metric and use the orthogonal kmeans clustering algorithm to group the text lines. Experiments on Chinese handwritten documents database (HIT-MW) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Reading of Foreign Language Technical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Brkan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient foreign language reader is one who has approached the reading flexibility of a native speaker as he reads different texts presented in his environment: newspaper articles, magazins, personal letters, business correspondence, official documents, academic textbooks and scientific and technical texts. Flexibility in reading means increased speed as well as enhanced comprehension: an efficient re­ ader should read fast with needed comprehension. A poor reader is one who reacts everything slowly without getting much meaning from reading. The article focuses on techniques for developing foreign language reading skills of university students to cape with the reading of English technical texts.

  20. COMPARISON OF LOSSLESS DATA COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS FOR TEXT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. S.Amarasinghe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Data compression is a common requirement for most of the computerized applications. There are number of data compression algorithms,which are dedicated to compress different data formats. Even for a single data type there are number of different compression algorithms,which use different approaches. This paper examines lossless data compression algorithms and compares their performance. A set ofselected algorithms are examined and implemented to evaluate the performance in compressing text data. An experimental comparison of anumber of different lossless data compression algorithms is presented in this paper. The article is concluded by stating which algorithmperforms well for text data.

  1. A Novel Approach For Syntactic Similarity Between Two Short Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anterpreet Kaur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Syntactic similarity is an important activity in the area of high field of text documents data mining natural language processing information retrieval. Natural language processing NLP is the intelligent machine where its ability is to translate the text into natural language such as English and other computer language such as c. Web mining used for task such as document clustering community mining etc to performed on web. However to find the similarity between the two documents is the difficult task. So with increasing scope in NLP require technique for dealing with many aspects of language in particular syntax semantics and paradigms.

  2. Identifying Non-Sustainable Courses of Action: A Prerequisite for Decision-Making in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresch, Helge; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Students are faced with a multitude of decisions as consumers and in societal debates. Because of the scarcity of resources, the destruction of ecosystems and social injustice in a globalized world, it is vital that students are able to identify non-sustainable courses of action when involved in decision-making. The application of decision-making strategies is one approach to enhancing the quality of decisions. Options that do not meet ecological, social or economic standards should be excluded using non-compensatory strategies whereas other tasks may require a complete trade-off of all the evidence, following a compensatory approach. To enhance decision-making competence, a computer-based intervention study was conducted that focused on the use of decision-making strategies. While the results of the summative evaluation are reported by Gresch et al. (International Journal of Science Education, 2011), in-depth analyses of process-related data collected during the information processing are presented in this paper to reveal insights into the mechanisms of the intervention. The quality of high school students' ( n = 120) metadecision skills when selecting a decision-making strategy was investigated using qualitative content analyses combined with inferential statistics. The results reveal that the students offered elaborate reflections on the sustainability of options. However, the characteristics that were declared non-sustainable differed among the students because societal norms and personal values were intertwined. One implication for education for sustainable development is that students are capable of reflecting on decision-making tasks and on corresponding favorable decision-making strategies at a metadecision level. From these results, we offer suggestions for improving learning environments and constructing test instruments for decision-making competence.

  3. Concentrations of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in European cosmetics and personal care products: prerequisite for human and environmental exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular weight cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) are widely employed as emollients and carrier solvents in personal care formulations in order to acquire desired performance benefits owing to their distinctive physicochemical properties. Under current European legislation cosmetic ingredients such as cVMSs are required to be labeled on the product package only qualitatively, while for the assessment of environmental and consumer exposure quantitative information is needed. The aim of this study was therefore to measure concentrations of three cVMSs, namely octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in 51 cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) that are currently available on the European market. The list of selected articles comprised a variety of hair and sun care products, skin creams and lotions, deodorants including antiperspirants, liquid foundations and a toothpaste. The target compounds were extracted from the products with different organic solvents dependent on the product matrix, followed by gas chromatography analysis with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). D5 was the predominant cVMS with the highest mean and median concentrations in all the C&PCP categories. The median concentrations of D5, D6 and D4 were 142, 2.3 and 0.053 mg/g in deodorants/antiperspirants (n = 11); 44.6, 30.0mg/g and below the limit of quantification (cosmetics (n = 5); 8.4, 0.32 mg/g and

  4. Absolute frequency measurement of the {{}^{1}}{{\\text{S}}_{0}} – {{}^{3}}{{\\text{P}}_{0}} transition of 171Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzocaro, Marco; Thoumany, Pierre; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Milani, Gianmaria; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide

    2017-02-01

    We report the absolute frequency measurement of the unperturbed transition {{}1}{{\\text{S}}0} – {{}3}{{\\text{P}}0} at 578 nm in 171Yb realized in an optical lattice frequency standard relative to a cryogenic caesium fountain. The measurement result is 518 295 836 590 863.59(31) Hz with a relative standard uncertainty of 5.9× {{10}-16} . This value is in agreement with the ytterbium frequency recommended as a secondary representation of the second in the International System of Units.

  5. [Text comprehension, cognitive resources and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesneau, Sophie; Jbabdi, Saad; Champagne-Lavau, Maud; Giroux, Francine; Ska, Bernadette

    2007-03-01

    Aging brings cognitive changes. Language is not immune to these changes. The use of compensation strategies may permit older adults to achieve a performance level identical to the one obtained by younger adults. This research aims to study text comprehension in aging and the reading strategies used for by older and younger adults. Kintsch's cognitive model (1988) allows the identification of different levels of representation within text treatment (linguistic form, macrostructure, microstructure and situation model) and predicts the underlying cognitive components. Eye-tracking analyses during reading permit inference about the moments of reading treatment and detection of reading strategies. Sixty highly educated participants were assessed. They were divided in two age groups (20-40 and 60-80 years old). Participants were asked to read and understand three texts constructed to highlight the features of text comprehension within each one of the different levels of text representation. The amount of detail and the necessity of updating the situation model varied for each text. Eye movements were registered by an eye-tracker (Cambridge research) during the reading process. Specific complementary tasks were administered to evaluate working memory, long-term memory, and executive functions. Variances analyses showed significantly lower performance by older adults regarding: 1) recall of the microstructure of the two texts with a high degree of detail, 2) macrostructure of the text with fewer details, and 3) performance on all tasks that evaluated cognitive components. Aging influenced treatment of levels of text representation depending on text characteristics. However, cluster analysis of the text comprehension and eye-tracker data revealed a group of older adults whose performance in reading comprehension was identical to the performance of younger adults, with the same reading profile. This result seems to show that use of compensation strategies by older adults at

  6. Searches for ttH and tH with $\\text{H}\\rightarrow\\text{b}\\bar{\\text{b}}$

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The associated production of a Higgs boson with a top quark-antiquark pair (ttH production) or with a single top quark (tH production) allows a direct measurement of the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling with minimal model dependence. In this article, recent results of searches for ttH and tH production in the $\\text{H}\\rightarrow\\text{b}\\bar{\\text{b}}$ channel performed by the ATLAS and CMS experiments are reviewed. The analyses use pp collision data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of $13\\,$TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 13.2$\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$.

  7. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  8. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic featu

  9. Modeling text with generalizable Gaussian mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Kolenda, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We apply and discuss generalizable Gaussian mixture (GGM) models for text mining. The model automatically adapts model complexity for a given text representation. We show that the generalizability of these models depends on the dimensionality of the representation and the sample size. We discuss...

  10. Touchstone Texts: Fertile Ground for Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgell, Irma

    2008-01-01

    When state and local standards drive instruction, teachers often worry about compromising their creativity for a prescriptive curriculum with predictable outcomes. It is possible for creative teaching to flourish by using touchstone texts, or mentor texts, that engage both teacher and student in exploratory yet purposeful learning. (Contains 1…

  11. A text in Romani from 1622

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    this is a reprint of a 2012 article: A new old text in Romani: Lord's Prayer, 1622. International Journal of Romani Language and Culture 2 (2011): 193-212.......this is a reprint of a 2012 article: A new old text in Romani: Lord's Prayer, 1622. International Journal of Romani Language and Culture 2 (2011): 193-212....

  12. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,

  13. Texts, Transmissions, Receptions. Modern Approaches to Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lardinois, A.P.M.H.; Levie, S.A.; Hoeken, H.; Lüthy, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume study the function and meaning of narrative texts from a variety of perspectives. The word 'text' is used here in the broadest sense of the term: it denotes literary books, but also oral tales, speeches, newspaper articles and comics. One of the purposes of this v

  14. An Intelligent System For Arabic Text Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syiam, M.M.; Tolba, Mohamed F.; Fayed, Z.T.; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed S.; Ghoniemy, Said A.; Habib, Mena Badieh

    Text Categorization (classification) is the process of classifying documents into a predefined set of categories based on their content. In this paper, an intelligent Arabic text categorization system is presented. Machine learning algorithms are used in this system. Many algorithms for stemming and

  15. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  16. Choices of texts for literary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    . The teaching of literature has a double bind. On the one hand, there is a subject (Danish) and a curriculum with a certain type of texts with cultural and even national connotations, and the limits of the choice of texts and curriculum are decided by the state. On the other hand, there are some concrete...

  17. On the Techniques of Journalistic Text Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economy globalization,the translation of journalistic text has become increasingly important to cultural exchanges or economy communication among different countries. This paper briefly introduces the characteristics of news text and provides some feasible techniques for translation from English to Chinese or Chinese to English based on the case study.

  18. The Managed Text: Prose and Qualms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Managed texts are written and designed by a team of writers and researchers under the direction and control of a publishing house. How these books got started, what needs they meet, their advantages and disadvantages, and the consequences they are having on college text publishing are addressed. (JMD)

  19. Ontology Assisted Formal Specification Extraction from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of knowledge processing, the ontologies are the most important mean. They make possible for the computer to understand better the natural language and to make judgments. In this paper, a method which use ontologies in the semi-automatic extraction of formal specifications from a natural language text is proposed.

  20. Opening Mathematics Texts: Resisting the Seduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David

    2012-01-01

    This analysis of the writing in a grade 7 mathematics textbook distinguishes between closed texts and open texts, which acknowledge multiple possibilities. I use tools that have recently been applied in mathematics contexts, focussing on grammatical features that include personal pronouns, modality, and types of imperatives, as well as on…

  1. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation, summa

  2. Extracting Conceptual Feature Structures from Text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Lassen, Tine;

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to indexing texts by their conceptual content using ontologies along with lexico-syntactic information and semantic role assignment provided by lexical resources. The conceptual content of meaningful chunks of text is transformed into conceptual feature structures...

  3. Texts, Troubled Teens, and Troubling Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Seeking ways to effectively mediate texts with troubled teens in troubling times is worth the investment. Text is a powerful tool for shaping positive life trajectories, especially for those teens being affected by vulnerable-producing conditions that interrupt positive human development. These conditions, coupled with poor literacy skills…

  4. Texts, Transmissions, Receptions. Modern Approaches to Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lardinois, A.P.M.H.; Levie, S.A.; Hoeken, H.; Lüthy, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume study the function and meaning of narrative texts from a variety of perspectives. The word 'text' is used here in the broadest sense of the term: it denotes literary books, but also oral tales, speeches, newspaper articles and comics. One of the purposes of this

  5. The Patchwork Text in Teaching Greek Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the rewards and challenges of using the Patchwork Text to teach Greek Tragedy to Cambridge University English final-year students. The article uses close reading of the students' texts, analysis and reflection to discuss both the products and the process of Patchwork writing. (Author/AEF)

  6. The Limited Benefits of Rereading Educational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Aimee A.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Though rereading is a study method commonly used by students, theoretical disagreement exists regarding whether rereading a text significantly enhances the representation and retention of the text's contents. In four experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of rereading relative to a single reading in a context paralleling that faced by…

  7. Text mining and visualization using VOSviewer

    CERN Document Server

    van Eck, Nees Jan

    2011-01-01

    VOSviewer is a computer program for creating, visualizing, and exploring bibliometric maps of science. In this report, the new text mining functionality of VOSviewer is presented. A number of examples are given of applications in which VOSviewer is used for analyzing large amounts of text data.

  8. Text Writing at an Undergraduate College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David G.

    Strategies for writing a text are offered by a college professor on the basis of his own experience of writing a text on social psychology. Suggestions are given on creating an efficient office environment, researching the topic, and drafting the manuscript. One way to improve efficiency is to compress teaching into a few days, leaving the…

  9. Undergraduates' Text Messaging Language and Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating whether people's literacy skill is being affected by the use of text messaging language has produced largely positive results for children, but mixed results for adults. We asked 150 undergraduate university students in Western Canada and 86 in South Eastern Australia to supply naturalistic text messages and to complete…

  10. Student Performance in an Electronic Text Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Edward A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a project conducted at Stevens Institute of Technology to develop and test the applicability of full-text electronic databases and full-text retrieval technology for use in undergraduate humanities education. The creation of a machine-readable database on Galileo is described, student reactions are discussed, and further work is…

  11. Flexible frontiers for text division into rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan L. Lacrămă

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original solution for flexible hand-written text division into rows. Unlike the standard procedure, the proposed method avoids the isolated characters extensions amputation and reduces the recognition error rate in the final stage.

  12. Rapid and effective synthesis of $\\text{}^{40}\\text{Ca}-\\text{}^{27}\\text{Al}$ ion pair towards quantum logic optical clock

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Junjuan; Cao, Jian; Wang, Shaomao; Shu, Hualin; Huang, Xueren

    2016-01-01

    High precision atomic clocks have been applied not only to very important technological problems such as synchronization and global navigation systems, but to the fundament precision measurement physics. Single $\\text{}^{27}\\text{Al}^+$ is one of the most attractions of selection system due to its very low blackbody radiation effect which dominates frequency shifts in other optical clock systems. Up to now, the $\\text{}^{27}\\text{Al}^+$ still could not be laser-cooled directly by reason that the absence of 167nm laser. Sympathetic cooling is a viable method to solve this problem. In this work, we used a single laser cooled $\\text{}^{40}\\text{Ca}^+$ to sympathetically cool one $\\text{}^{27}\\text{Al}^+$ in linear Paul trap. Comparing to laser ablation method we got a much lower velocity atoms sprayed from a home-made atom oven, which would make loading aluminum ion more efficient and the sympathetic cooling much easier. By the method of precisely measuring the secular frequency of the ion pair, finally we prove...

  13. Considering Visual Text Complexity: A Guide for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Marva

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first century literacy requires students to analyze and create images for communication across and within academic disciplines. Thus, literacy teachers are now responsible for supporting students as they engage with visual texts. We must carefully and intentionally choose images for teaching practice and consider the reader, instructional…

  14. A Simple Text File for Curing Rainbow Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylo, Robert; Tomlin, Marilyn; Seager, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of a simple text file to work with large, multi-component thermal models that present a post-processing challenge. This complexity is due to temperatures for many components, with varying requirements, need to be examined and that false color temperature maps, or rainbows, provide a qualitative assessment of results.

  15. SACRED TEXTS AND MYSTIC MEANING: AN INqUIRY INTO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and defining “truth” about the nature of human existence in its ultimate and conclusive ... as a meaningful enterprise in its ultimate sense, to impose foreclosure upon that text .... On the subjective side this requires knowing the inner and outer.

  16. Search and Rescue. Auxiliary Operational Specialty Course. Student Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast Guard, Washington, DC.

    This text, based on the National Search and Rescue (SAR) Plan, was prepared to provide a course of study on common procedures for SAR operations so that any basically qualified person in the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary can effectively accomplish a SAR mission and act as on-scene commander if required. There are 13 chapters: Introduction to Search…

  17. Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year. PMID:17977867

  18. Using Genetic Algorithms for Texts Classification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shumeyko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The avalanche quantity of the information developed by mankind has led to concept of automation of knowledge extraction – Data Mining ([1]. This direction is connected with a wide spectrum of problems - from recognition of the fuzzy set to creation of search machines. Important component of Data Mining is processing of the text information. Such problems lean on concept of classification and clustering ([2]. Classification consists in definition of an accessory of some element (text to one of in advance created classes. Clustering means splitting a set of elements (texts on clusters which quantity are defined by localization of elements of the given set in vicinities of these some natural centers of these clusters. Realization of a problem of classification initially should lean on the given postulates, basic of which – the aprioristic information on primary set of texts and a measure of affinity of elements and classes.

  19. Integrating Text Plans for Conciseness and Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, T; Harvey, Terrence; Carberry, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Our experience with a critiquing system shows that when the system detects problems with the user's performance, multiple critiques are often produced. Analysis of a corpus of actual critiques revealed that even though each individual critique is concise and coherent, the set of critiques as a whole may exhibit several problems that detract from conciseness and coherence, and consequently assimilation. Thus a text planner was needed that could integrate the text plans for individual communicative goals to produce an overall text plan representing a concise, coherent message. This paper presents our general rule-based system for accomplishing this task. The system takes as input a \\emph{set} of individual text plans represented as RST-style trees, and produces a smaller set of more complex trees representing integrated messages that still achieve the multiple communicative goals of the individual text plans. Domain-independent rules are used to capture strategies across domains, while the facility for addition...

  20. Is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jimmy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the growing availability of full-text articles online, scientists and other consumers of the life sciences literature now have the ability to go beyond searching bibliographic records (title, abstract, metadata to directly access full-text content. Motivated by this emerging trend, I posed the following question: is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts? This question is answered by comparing text retrieval algorithms on MEDLINE® abstracts, full-text articles, and spans (paragraphs within full-text articles using data from the TREC 2007 genomics track evaluation. Two retrieval models are examined: bm25 and the ranking algorithm implemented in the open-source Lucene search engine. Results Experiments show that treating an entire article as an indexing unit does not consistently yield higher effectiveness compared to abstract-only search. However, retrieval based on spans, or paragraphs-sized segments of full-text articles, consistently outperforms abstract-only search. Results suggest that highest overall effectiveness may be achieved by combining evidence from spans and full articles. Conclusion Users searching full text are more likely to find relevant articles than searching only abstracts. This finding affirms the value of full text collections for text retrieval and provides a starting point for future work in exploring algorithms that take advantage of rapidly-growing digital archives. Experimental results also highlight the need to develop distributed text retrieval algorithms, since full-text articles are significantly longer than abstracts and may require the computational resources of multiple machines in a cluster. The MapReduce programming model provides a convenient framework for organizing such computations.

  1. Energy requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an appr

  2. Energy requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an

  3. Rhetorical structure theory and text analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, William C.; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Thompson, Sandra A.

    1989-11-01

    Recent research on text generation has shown that there is a need for stronger linguistic theories that tell in detail how texts communicate. The prevailing theories are very difficult to compare, and it is also very difficult to see how they might be combined into stronger theories. To make comparison and combination a bit more approachable, we have created a book which is designed to encourage comparison. A dozen different authors or teams, all experienced in discourse research, are given exactly the same text to analyze. The text is an appeal for money by a lobbying organization in Washington, DC. It informs, stimulates and manipulates the reader in a fascinating way. The joint analysis is far more insightful than any one team's analysis alone. This paper is our contribution to the book. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), the focus of this paper, is a way to account for the functional potential of text, its capacity to achieve the purposes of speakers and produce effects in hearers. It also shows a way to distinguish coherent texts from incoherent ones, and identifies consequences of text structure.

  4. The network of concepts in written texts

    CERN Document Server

    Caldeira, S M G; Andrade, R F S; Neme, A; Miranda, J G V; Caldeira, Silvia M. G.; Lobao, Thierry C. Petit; Neme, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Complex network theory is used to investigate the structure of meaningful concepts in written texts of individual authors. Networks have been constructed after a two phase filtering, where words with less meaning contents are eliminated, and all remaining words are set to their canonical form, without any number, gender or time flexion. Each sentence in the text is added to the network as a clique. A large number of written texts have been scrutinized, and its found that texts have small-world as well as scale-free structures. The growth process of these networks has also been investigated, and a universal evolution of network quantifiers have been found among the set of texts written by distinct authors. Further analyzes, based on shufling procedures taken either on the texts or on the constructed networks, provide hints on the role played by the word frequency and sentence length distributions to the network structure. Since the meaningful words are related to concepts in the author's mind, results for text...

  5. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bretonnel Cohen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  6. Integrating image data into biomedical text categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkay, Hagit; Chen, Nawei; Blostein, Dorothea

    2006-07-15

    Categorization of biomedical articles is a central task for supporting various curation efforts. It can also form the basis for effective biomedical text mining. Automatic text classification in the biomedical domain is thus an active research area. Contests organized by the KDD Cup (2002) and the TREC Genomics track (since 2003) defined several annotation tasks that involved document classification, and provided training and test data sets. So far, these efforts focused on analyzing only the text content of documents. However, as was noted in the KDD'02 text mining contest-where figure-captions proved to be an invaluable feature for identifying documents of interest-images often provide curators with critical information. We examine the possibility of using information derived directly from image data, and of integrating it with text-based classification, for biomedical document categorization. We present a method for obtaining features from images and for using them-both alone and in combination with text-to perform the triage task introduced in the TREC Genomics track 2004. The task was to determine which documents are relevant to a given annotation task performed by the Mouse Genome Database curators. We show preliminary results, demonstrating that the method has a strong potential to enhance and complement traditional text-based categorization methods.

  7. How Popular Culture Texts Inform and Shape Students' Discussions of Social Studies Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leigh A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine how 6th-grade students used pop culture texts to inform their understandings about social studies texts and shape their discussions of it. Discussions showed that students used pop culture texts in three ways when talking about social studies texts. First, students applied comprehension strategies to pop culture texts to…

  8. Engaging Texts: Effects of Concreteness on Comprehensibility, Interest, and Recall in Four Text Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; Goetz, Ernest T.; Rodriguez, Maximo

    2000-01-01

    Investigates concreteness as a text feature that engaged undergraduate readers' comprehension, interest, and learning in four text types: persuasion, exposition, literary stories, and narratives. Results show that concrete texts were recalled better than abstract texts, although the magnitude of the advantage varied across text types. Concreteness…

  9. Text-Based Recall and Extra-Textual Generations Resulting from Simplified and Authentic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a moving windows self-paced reading task to assess text comprehension of beginning and intermediate-level simplified texts and authentic texts by L2 learners engaged in a text-retelling task. Linear mixed effects (LME) models revealed statistically significant main effects for reading proficiency and text level on the number of…

  10. How Popular Culture Texts Inform and Shape Students' Discussions of Social Studies Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leigh A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine how 6th-grade students used pop culture texts to inform their understandings about social studies texts and shape their discussions of it. Discussions showed that students used pop culture texts in three ways when talking about social studies texts. First, students applied comprehension strategies to pop culture texts to…

  11. Engaging Texts: Effects of Concreteness on Comprehensibility, Interest, and Recall in Four Text Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; Goetz, Ernest T.; Rodriguez, Maximo

    2000-01-01

    Investigates concreteness as a text feature that engaged undergraduate readers' comprehension, interest, and learning in four text types: persuasion, exposition, literary stories, and narratives. Results show that concrete texts were recalled better than abstract texts, although the magnitude of the advantage varied across text types. Concreteness…

  12. NOTICING AND TEXT-BASED CHAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Lai

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the capacity of text-based online chat to promote learners’ noticing of their problematic language productions and of the interactional feedback from their interlocutors. In this study, twelve ESL learners formed six mixed-proficiency dyads. The same dyads worked on two spot-the-difference tasks, one via online chat and the other through face-to-face conversation. Stimulated recall sessions were held subsequently to identify instances of noticing. It was found that text-based online chat promotes noticing more than face-to-face conversations, especially in terms of learners’ noticing of their own linguistic mistakes.

  13. Extracting and Sharing Knowledge from Medical Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹存根

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, we have been developing a new framework for acquiring medical knowledge from Encyclopedic texts. This framework consists of three major parts. The first part is an extended high-level conceptual language (called HLCL 1.1) for use by knowledge engineers to formalize knowledge texts in an encyclopedia. The other part is an HLCL 1.1compiler for parsing and analyzing the formalized texts into knowledge models. The third part is a set of domain-specific ontologies for sharing knowledge.

  14. A New Text Location Approach Based Wavelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Li; Zhen Fang; Shuozhong Wang

    2002-01-01

    With the advancement of content-based retrieval technology, the importance of semantics for text information contained in images attracts many researchers. An algorithm which will automatically locate the textual regions in the input image will facilitate the retrieving task, and the optical character recognizer can then be applied to only those regions of the image which contain text. In this paper a new text location method based wavelet is described, which can be used to locate textual regions from complex image and video frame. Experimental results show that the textual regions in image can be located effectively and quickly.

  15. A New Text Location Approach Based Wavelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Li; Zhen Fang; Shuozhong Wang

    2002-01-01

    With the advancement of content-based retrieval technology, the importance of semantics for text information contained in images attracts many researchers. An algorithm which will automatically locate the textual regions in the input image will facilitate the retrieving task, and the optical character recognizer can then be applied to only those regions of the image which contain text. In this paper a new text location method is described, which can be used to locate textual regions from complex image and video frame. Experimental results show that the textual regions in image can be located effectively and quickly.

  16. Monolingual Accounting Dictionaries for EFL Text Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading....... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...

  17. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading....... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...

  18. Supported eText: Effects of Text-to-Speech on Access and Achievement for High School Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Margo Vreeburg; Yurick, Amanda; McArrell, Bianca

    2009-01-01

    Students with disabilities often lack the skills required to access the general education curriculum and achieve success in school and postschool environments. Evidence suggests that using assistive technologies such as digital texts and translational supports enhances outcomes for these students (Anderson-Inman & Horney, 2007). The purpose of the…

  19. Executive Decision:Text or Talk?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahma; Karam

    2011-01-01

    Nielsen Media, a global market researchcompany, reported in March that spending onvoice calls has gone down significantly over thelast five years, while customers’ text spendingis increasing. It’s anticipated that textingwill eclipse voice calls totally in three years.

  20. Understanding How Headings Influence Text Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lemarié

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titles and headings are commonly used signaling devices in expository texts. Researchers in cognitive and educational psychology have demonstrated several important effects of headings and titles on text processing: headings improve memory for text organization; headings influence text comprehension by activating readers’ prior knowledge; and titles can bias text comprehension by their emphasis on a particular text topic. However, the lack of precise linguistic analyses of titles/headings has limited both the scope of empirical research and the precision of conclusions. We present a theory of signaling devices that provides a detailed analysis of variation in titles and headings and generates predictions concerning their effects. We discuss the implications of our analyses for research on titles and headings and summarize recent research findings that illustrate the validity of a central component of our analyses. Finally, we propose some future research directions integrating insights from linguistics for the study of how headings and titles affect text processing.Les titres et intertitres sont des dispositifs de signalisation fréquemment utilisés dans les textes expositifs. De nombreuses recherches réalisées en psychologie cognitive et psychologie des apprentissages ont mis en évidence leurs effets sur le traitement du texte par le lecteur : les intertitres améliorent la représentation mnésique de l’organisation du texte et influencent la compréhension du texte par un mécanisme d’activation des connaissances antérieures du lecteur. Les titres généraux, lorsqu’ils mettent en avant un des thèmes du texte, biaisent la compréhension du texte. Cependant, l’absence d’analyse linguistique approfondie des titres et intertitres a limité la portée de ces travaux et a mené à des conclusions méritant d’être affinées. Nous présentons une théorie générale de la signalisation des textes qui propose un cadre d