WorldWideScience

Sample records for prereqs oneof writ

  1. Democratic Constitutionalism and Strategic Litigation: The Brazilian Writ of Injuntion N. º 4.733 Case

    OpenAIRE

    Maneiro, Renata de Marins Jaber; Cruz, Eugeniusz Costa Lopes da

    2016-01-01

    This research has the aim to exam the Brazilian Writ of Injunction (MI nº 4.733) in the perspective of  democratic constitucionalism. In this sense, it will be analyzed its relation with the social movements, as well as the concept of strategic litigation and its possible impacts on society. Then, the article will investigate the constitutional arguments that indicates the unfeasibility of this judicial review, likewise the possibility of this writ of injunction as a strategic litigation for ...

  2. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JUDICIAL CONTEMPT POWER IN WRIT OF PROTECTION CASES. A CASE STUDY, BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA (2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Toro, Beatriz; Universidad del Rosario; Cortés Nieto, Johanna del Pilar; Universidad del Rosario; Lombana Rodríguez, Mónica Alexandra; Universidad del Rosario; Maya, Carlos Andrés; Universidad del Rosario; Aguilar Ariza, Julián; Universidad del Rosario; Palacios Sanabria, Óscar Gabriel; Universidad del Rosario

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the research project “The Effectiveness of Judicial Contempt Power in Writ of Protection Cases. A Case Study, Bogotá (2007)”. Its purpose is to identify and analyze the variables that influence the effectiveness of contempt requests in terms of the satisfaction of fundamental rights. In order to do so, the research intended to have a quantitative approach with exploratory boundar- ies. The project examined a total of 431 files in criminal, civil, administrat...

  3. OS WRITS CONSTITUCIONAIS BRASILEIROS PARA O RESGUARDO DOS DIREITOS COLETIVOS E DIFUSOS EM MATÉRIA TRABALHISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Vescovi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La pregunta de investigación se refiere a la posibilidad jurídica de que algunos writs constitucionalmente previstos lleguen a actuar, válidamente, dentro del segmento especializado de la Justicia del Trabajo con el poder para salvaguardar los derechos eminentemente laborales, estos derivados de diversas relaciones (en especial aquellos del vector supraindividual en el territorio nacional, así como investigar las consecuencias jurídicas que se derivan de la utilización racional de estos writs en el plano del derecho procesal laboral, establecido, básicamente, en el art. 114, IV, de la Constitución Federal. El ensayo también pretende sacar a la luz información concisa que muestra la intención del legislador constitucional de haber ampliado la jurisdicción de la Justicia del Trabajo, en 2004, para que esta rama del poder judicial pudiese apreciar las cuestiones de naturaleza constitucional, por su esencia.

  4. The writ and health reform: Disillusionment of a dreamer judge [La tutela y reforma en salud: Desencanto de un juez soñador∗

    OpenAIRE

    Betancur C.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the group of social, economic and cultural rights, the Colombian regulatory progress in health has been the most prominent in the world in recent decades. The Constitutional Court, bypassing the constitutional nature of these rights, recognized in some cases the provision of health as an individual right, protected as a fundamental right for writ instance. For the government and a sector of the doctrine, this has generated funding problems and disorder in the structure of the social securi...

  5. Moral Purpose Writ Large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Argues that moral and spiritual leaders strive to make a difference in the lives of students; to reduce the achievement gap in one's school, district, and the larger educational environment; and to foster growth opportunities and leadership in others. (PKP)

  6. Death Writ Large

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

  7. Loss, writ large / Tõnu Naelapea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Naelapea, Tõnu, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    arutlusest kahe totalitaarse režiimi - natsionaalsotsialismi ja kommunismi kuritegelikkuse üle seoses aprilli lõpus toimunud Europarlamendi täiskogu kommunismi kuritegudele pühendatud istungiga. Vastukajast Saksamaa Juutide Kesknõukogu peasekretäri Stephan Krameri avaldusele seoses paralleelitõmbamisega endise kommunistliku Ida-Saksamaa režiimi ja natsirežiimi vahele. Rets. rmt.: Figes, Orlando. The Whisperers : Private Life in Stalin's Russia

  8. Human brain evolution writ large and small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Bauernfeind, Amy L; Bianchi, Serena; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Hof, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    Human evolution was marked by an extraordinary increase in total brain size relative to body size. While it is certain that increased encephalization is an important factor contributing to the origin of our species-specific cognitive abilities, it is difficult to disentangle which aspects of human neural structure and function are correlated by-products of brain size expansion from those that are specifically related to particular psychological specializations, such as language and enhanced "mentalizing" abilities. In this chapter, we review evidence from allometric scaling studies demonstrating that much of human neocortical organization can be understood as a product of brain enlargement. Defining extra-allometric specializations in humans is often hampered by a severe lack of comparative data from the same neuroanatomical variables across a broad range of primates. When possible, we highlight evidence for features of human neocortical architecture and function that cannot be easily explained as correlates of brain size and, hence, might be more directly associated with the evolution of uniquely human cognitive capacities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Investigation into Dunhuang Inheritance Writs on Wealth Sharing --from the Perspective of Race, Clan, Family and Nation%敦煌析产遗嘱文书探微——以族、宗族、家族、民族为视角的解构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斐弘

    2012-01-01

    It is of special significance to study the rarely valuable Dunhuang Manuscripts on special topics and to explore in depth from the viewpoint of the nation, instead of the usual and mere cultural interpretation. Firstly, it can distinguish wealth sharing by wills from breaking up the family. Secondly, it can reproduce the picture of mediaeval times' social life by virtue of abundant cultural gene thereunto and prove that there exis- ted succession by wills in the sense of private law in ancient China. Thirdly, by means of personal contract writs it can discover national characters, cultural structures, integration of folk beliefs and common principles based on universality of nations.%对弥足珍贵的敦煌析产遗嘱文献超越浮泛的研究,以专题探微的方式代之以文化的释解,并从民族的视角进行深层追问,不但能使我们鉴别析产遗嘱与分家的不同,而且通过其中富含的文化因子再现中古时代广阔的社会生活画卷,佐证中国古代具有私法意义的遗嘱继承,一窥隐于私契文书背后的民族特质、文化结构、混融的民间信仰与基于民族普遍性的共通原理。

  10. A question of scale: Human migrations writ large and small

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers illustrate the importance of migration and gene flow in molding the patterns of genetic variation observed in humans today. We place the varied demographic processes covered by these terms into a more general framework, and discuss some of the challenges facing attempts to reconstruct past human mobility and determine its influence on our genetic heritage. See research articles: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/15 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/11/18

  11. History Writ Large: Big-character Posters, Red Logorrhoea and the Art of Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geremie R. Barmé

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is the 1986 artwork of the then Xiamen-based artist Wu Shanzhuan, called ‘Red Humor’, which reworked references to big-character posters (dazi bao 大字报 and other Mao-era forms of political discourse, recalling the Cultural Revolution. It explains how Wu’s installation offered a provocative microcosm of the overwhelming mood engendered by a logocentric movement to ‘paint the nation red’ with word-images during the years 1966-1967. This discussion of the hyper-real use of the dazi bao during China’s Cultural Revolution era (c.1964-1978 allows us to probe into ‘the legacies of the word made image’ in modern China. The paper argues that, since the 1980s, Wu Shanzhuan has had many emulators and ‘avant-garde successors’, since we have seen multiple examples of parodic deconstructions of the cultural authority of the Chinese character (zi in recent decades.

  12. Defining, Discussing and Evaluating Mobile Learning: The moving finger writes and having writ . . . .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Traxler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the current millennium, experience and expertise in the development and delivery of mobile learning have blossomed and a community of practice has evolved that is distinct from the established communities of 'tethered' e-Learning. This community is currently visible mainly through dedicated international conference series, of which MLEARN is the most prestigious, rather than through any dedicated journals. So far, these forms of development and delivery have focussed on short-term small-scale pilots and trials in the developed countries of Europe, North America, and the Pacific Rim, and there is a taxonomy emerging from these pilots and trials that suggests tacit and pragmatic conceptualisations of mobile learning.What has, however, developed less confidently within this community is any theoretical conceptualisation of mobile learning and with it any evaluation methodologies specifically aligned to the unique attributes of mobile learning.Some advocates of mobile learning attempt to define and conceptualise it in terms of devices and technologies; other advocates define and conceptualise it in terms of the mobility of learners and the mobility of learning, and in terms of the learners’ experience of learning with mobile devices.The role of theory is, perhaps, a contested topic in a community that encompasses philosophical affiliations from empiricists to post-structuralists, each with different expectations about the scope and legitimacy of theory in their work. The mobile learning community may nevertheless need the authority and credibility of some conceptual base.Such a base would provide the starting point for evaluation methodologies grounded in the unique attributes of mobile learning. Attempts to develop the conceptualisations and evaluation of mobile learning, however, must recognise that mobile learning is essentially personal, contextual, and situated; this means it is 'noisy' and this is problematic both for definition and for evaluation.Furthermore, defining mobile learning can emphasise those unique attributes that position it within informal learning, rather than formal. These attributes place much mobile learning at odds with formal learning with its cohorts, courses, semesters, assessments, and campuses, and with its monitoring and evaluation regimes. This raises concerns for the nature of any large-scale and sustained deployment and the extent to which the unique attributes of mobile learning may be lost or compromised.Looking at mobile learning in a wider context, we have to recognise that mobile, personal, and wireless devices are now radically transforming societal notions of discourse and knowledge, and are responsible for new forms of art, employment, language, commerce, deprivation, and crime, as well as learning. With increased popular access to information and knowledge anywhere, anytime, the role of education, perhaps especially formal education, is challenged and the relationships between education, society, and technology are now more dynamic than ever.The paper explores and articulates these issues and the connections between them specifically in the context of the wider and sustained development of mobile learning.

  13. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: Mapping the Universe: Physics Writ Large

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    The age of mapping the universe began in earnest in the late twentieth century. I will describe the enormous strides we have made in mapping the galaxy distribution and in understanding its nature and history. I will show how techniques for measuring the (primarily dark) matter distribuion in massive systems of galaxies are an astrophysical route to tests of fundamental physics.

  14. Brain tumor stem cells: the cancer stem cell hypothesis writ large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Peter B

    2010-10-01

    Brain tumors, which are typically very heterogeneous at the cellular level, appear to have a stem cell foundation. Recently, investigations from multiple groups have found that human as well as experimental mouse brain tumors contain subpopulations of cells that functionally behave as tumor stem cells, driving tumor growth and generating tumor cell progeny that form the tumor bulk, but which then lose tumorigenic ability. In human glioblastomas, these tumor stem cells express neural precursor markers and are capable of differentiating into tumor cells that express more mature neural lineage markers. In addition, modeling brain tumors in mice suggests that neural precursor cells more readily give rise to full blown tumors, narrowing potential cells of origin to those rarer brain cells that have a proliferative potential. Applying stem cell concepts and methodologies is giving fresh insight into brain tumor biology, cell of origin and mechanisms of growth, and is offering new opportunities for development of more effective treatments. The field of brain tumor stem cells remains very young and there is much to be learned before these new insights are translated into new patient treatments. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Writ Large on Your Face: Observing Emotions Using Automatic Facial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieckmann Anja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotions affect all of our daily decisions and, of course, they also influence our evaluations of brands, products and advertisements. But what exactly do consumers feel when they watch a TV commercial, visit a website or when they interact with a brand in different ways? Measuring such emotions is not an easy task. In the past, the effectiveness of marketing material was evaluated mostly by subsequent surveys. Now, with the emergence of neuroscientific approaches like EEG, the measurement of real-time reactions is possible, for instance, when watching a commercial. However, most neuroscientific procedures are fairly invasive and irritating. For an EEG, for instance, numerous electrodes need to be placed on the participant's scalp. Furthermore, data analysis is highly complex. Scientific expertise is necessary for interpretation, so the procedure remains a black box to most practitioners and the results are still rather controversial. By contrast, automatic facial analysis provides similar information without having to wire study participants. In addition, the results of such analyses are intuitive and easy to interpret even for laypeople. These convincing advantages led GfK Company to decide on facial analysis and to develop a tool suitable for measuring emotional responses to marketing stimuli, making it easily applicable in marketing research practice.

  16. A Study on the Effects of Online Interaction for the EFL Learners ’Writ-ing Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ni-sha

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology, how to utilize the Web in the field of language teaching has become a heated issue in the foreign language teaching reform around the whole world. For so many years, during the teacher-centered English writing teaching process, students have no choice but to accept model essays and recite the well-performed sen⁃tences and structures. it is hard for teachers and students to conduct an effective interaction, which leads to students ’ lacking of writing motivations. The author conducted the experiment with QQ group as a medium, and analyzed the results of the experi⁃ment among 66 students from Wuhan University, in order to study how to make good use of the network environment to pro⁃mote the communication and interaction between students, and then enhance their writing motivation. The experimental data and discussions show that online interaction can motivate students to complete writing tasks, especially enhance their instrumental achievement and intrinsic motivation.

  17. Brief procedural issues, regarding the writ to reclaim a spoil judicial. If released the premises belongs to someone else

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Isaac Torres Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this installment, the author addresses a topic related to the effectuation of judicial restoration of the law of possession, through the injunction to recover, with the particularity that is brought, for the reason that the site launched is related to another person

  18. Gender Writ Small: Gender Enactments and Gendered Narratives about Lab Organization and Knowledge Transmission in a Biomedical Engineering Research Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kareen Ror; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Newstetter, Wendy

    This article presents qualitative data and offers some innovative theoretical approaches to frame the analysis of gender in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) settings. It begins with a theoretical discussion of a discursive approach to gender that captures how gender is lived "on the ground." The authors argue for a less individualistic approach to gender. Data for this research project was gathered from intensive interviews with lab members and ethnographic observations in a biomedical engineering lab. Data analysis relied on a mixed methodology involving qualitative approaches and dialogues with findings from other research traditions. Three themes are highlighted: lab dynamics in relation to issues of critical mass, the division of labor, and knowledge transmission. The data illustrate how gender is created in interactions and is inflected through forms of social organization.

  19. Cooking Class: Stir-Fried Shrimp and Green Peppers (Feicui Xiaren)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Jiangsucuisine,oneofChinaseightmajorcookingschools,isrepresentedbySuzhouandYangzhoudishes.JiangsucuisinecomprisescookinJmethodssuchasstewing,braising,simmering,steamlug,deep-frying,andstir-frying.Thedisheslookinvitlugandtastelightanddelicious.Emphasi...

  20. Problems and Coping Strategies of College English Writ-ing%大学英语写作中存在的问题及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊婧竹

    2014-01-01

    English writing training is an effective way to develop students' thinking and expression ability, also it is a standard to measure the effect of English teaching. The teaching of writing has become an indispensable part of English teaching in the uni-versity, however, it is the weak point of university English teach-ing. Due to the limited English teaching time, teachers need time to cope with university English level test, so they pay less atten-tion on English writing teaching. Aiming at these problems, teachers should combine theory with the reality of students, im-prove teaching methods, lay emphasis on vocabulary accumula-tion, expand English reading, cultivate students' writing skills, meanwhile improving the composition assessment methods,to im-prove the students' English writing ability.%英语写作能力训练是发展学生思维能力和表达能力的有效途径,也是衡量英语教学效果的标准之一。写作教学已经成为大学英语教学中不可或缺的重要组成部分,然而却是大学英语教学中的薄弱环节。由于英语教学的学时有限,以及依然严重的应付四、六级考试的应试写作教学,缺乏系统的写作训练,学生的基本写作能力得不到培养,学生的写作水平提高缓慢。针对这些问题,教师应结合学生的实际,改进教学方法,注重词汇积累,扩大学生的英语阅读量,培养学生的写作技能,同时改进作文评改方法,以提高学生的英语写作能力。

  1. Amicus brief in Ariosa v. Sequenom: Why the U.S. Supreme Court should grant the petition for a writ of certiorari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    I am happy to announce that on April 20th the New York attorney Robert M. Schwartz and I have filed an amicus brief at the US Supreme Court with the Berkeley-based attorney Andrew J. Dhuey as Counsel of Record. The brief, which was signed by 10 prominent European and Australian Law Professors...... the mitigating effects of other patentability requirements, we fear that the Federal Circuit’s overly rigid approach to claims eligibility decision might jeopardize the development of new therapies in an increasingly important area of modern medicine. As most Bill of Health readers know, the US Supreme Court has...

  2. Distance learning course for scientific articles writting. Curso a distancia para la redacción de artículos científicos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana María Molina Gómez; Rosa María Rodríguez Arencibia; Rachel Yanes Seijo; Loreta Sánchez Ortiz; Raúl López Fernández; Míriam Gutiérrez Escobar

    2009-01-01

    ...: little practical knowledge about the requirements to write scientific articles, not receiving any subject enhancing textual composition during their academic formation, and not attending to any post...

  3. Amicus brief in Ariosa v. Sequenom: Why the U.S. Supreme Court should grant the petition for a writ of certiorari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    that it will be crucial to swiftly optimize the framework for PPPs and regulatory exclusivities on an international level to allow for greater flexibilities and encompass further technological areas, such as biomedical diagnostics. Article 39 of the TRIPS agreement should provide sufficient leeway for such changes...... the mitigating effects of other patentability requirements, we fear that the Federal Circuit’s overly rigid approach to claims eligibility decision might jeopardize the development of new therapies in an increasingly important area of modern medicine. As most Bill of Health readers know, the US Supreme Court has...... in a recent series of cases (i.e. the combined effect of Bilski, Prometheus, Myriad and Alice) barred the patent eligibility for many genetic inventions as “products and processes of nature”. In Sequenom the CAFC interpreted these to mean – in essence- that “laws of nature” had to be entirely eliminated from...

  4. Experimental designs and risk assessment in combination toxicology: Panel discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henschler, D.; Bolt, H.M.; Jonker, D.; Pieters, M.N.; Groten, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Advancing our knowledge on the toxicology of combined exposures to chemicals and implementation of this knowledge in guidelines for health risk assessment of such combined exposures are necessities dictated by the simple fact that humans are continuously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. A prereq

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union KOMMUNIST No 18, December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and later in other countries. I Necessarily, dialectics includes a profound historicism in our way of thinking. This is an axiom of Marxism. The...methodological principles and, above all, without strengthening historicism as a prereq- uisite for new scientific summations which would enable us to

  6. In The U.S. Supreme Court SEQUENOM v. ARIOSA DIAGNOSTICS- On Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari To The U.S. Court Of Appeals For The Federal Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Schwartz, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Sequenom’s patentable subject matter test introduced a rigid, atomistic approach to claims eligibility that would result in an unsound change to US patent policy, which has encouraged the global convergence of patent standards for over twenty years. The Sequenom 35 U.S.C. § 101 test conflicts wit...

  7. The common problems and strategies in the training of surgical medical records writting%医学生外科病历书写教学的特点及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 邱贵兴; 于健春

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析外科病历的特点及医学生书写的常见问题,以提高医学生临床技能,促进外科临床教学.方法 总结912份北京协和医院外科医学生书写的住院病例,分析其常见问题,结合外科病历的特点,提出外科病例书写教学的方法与对策.结果 病历集中体现出一些共性问题,例如现病史与病历特点书写冗长重复,专科查体不完善,拟诊讨论简单、欠缺条理性等.结论 外科病历书写有其独特特点,应详细分析并结合这一特点,以规范性、条理性和完整性的原则指导外科病历书写.%Objective Evaluate the features of the surgery medical record and the common problems the medical students had in writing it, so as to improve clinical teaching of the surgery department and streng then the clinical skills of the students. Methods 912 cases of medical records written by the interns of PUMC hospital were summarized. The common problems and weakness were evaluated. Combined with the features of surgical medical records, the methods and strategies in surgical medical records teaching are proposed. Results There were some common problems in the 912 cases of medical records. The medical history and case characteristic were too long with over laping contents. The physical examination is incomplete. The diagnosis discussion is too simple with poor logistic thinking. Conclusion The writing of surgical medical records has its special reguirements, which should be evaluated in detail during the teaching and training of medical students. Combined with these requirements, the surgical medical records should be prepared in a standardized procedures.

  8. 关于会计基本技能中数码字书写的教学探索%Probe about Teaching of Writting Number in Accounting Basic Skill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁秀远

    2007-01-01

    数码字是财会人员的基本技能之一,但练就一手规范漂亮的数码字并非易事.本文就数码字的教学方法进行阐述.主要从规范字样、描摹、临摹方面科学引导学生练习,使学生在不长的时间练就一手规范的数码字.

  9. Irving Independent School District, Petitioner v. Henri Tatro, et Ux., Individually and as Next Friend of Amber Tatro, a Minor. On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circiut. No. 83-558.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    A Supreme Court ruling is presented regarding the provision of clean intermittent catheterization as part of related services mandated under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The case argued focused on the needs of a young girl with spina bifida for intermittent catheterization to remove urine from her bladder. The court…

  10. A dinâmica discursiva na sala de aula e a apropriação da escrita The discurcive dinamics in the classroom and the writting appropiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Alencar Nunes Macedo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute, no contexto da teoria sociocultural, alguns elementos que constituem a dinâmica discursiva de uma sala de aula em que a escrita e as normas ortográficas são objetos de ensino-aprendizagem. O vídeo foi usado na coleta de dados e as transcrições, organizadas na forma de episódios de ensino, foram submetidas à análise microgenética. Essa análise permite inferir que o discurso da professora é heterogêneo e encerra uma tensão entre dialogia e univocidade, pois possibilita a participação dos alunos no processo de enunciação ao mesmo tempo que controla a produção de significados unívocos em relação às regras de ortografia. Os dados evidenciam também que os alunos internalizam não só os conteúdos de ensino, mas também aspectos mais gerais do discurso escolar, como regras disciplinares e estratégias metacognitivas de aprendizagem.This article analyzes, in the context of the sociocultural theory, aspects of the discursive dynamic of a classroom in which writing and orthographic rules were taught. The data were recorded in video and the transcriptions, organized in teaching episodes, were submitted to microgenetic analysis. From the analysis it can be inferred that the teacher discourse is heterogeneous since it lets the students participate in the process of enunciation and, at the same time, controls the production of univocal meanings related to the orthographic rules. The data also indicate that students internalize not only the teaching contents but also more general aspects of the school discourse, as disciplinary rules and metacognitive strategies of learning.

  11. 清代殿试抑文重字之弊%On the Maladies of Paying Attention to Writting Characters and Ignoring the Article in the Examination in the Court in Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国荣

    1998-01-01

    @@ 清沿明制,科场之誊录,只限于乡试和会试,作为最初一级的童试和最高一级的殿试,其试卷则不誊抄,考官直接评阅原卷.于是,在这两级科考中,特别是殿廷考试,逐渐形成了不管文章好坏,单看字体端楷与否的评卷标准.这便是人们指斥的清代殿试中极不正常的"抑文重字"之弊.

  12. Resistance of Marigold Spinosad Water Emulsion against Watermelon Writ Disease%万寿菊杀菌素水乳剂对西瓜枯萎病反应的抗性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利霞; 王金胜

    2011-01-01

    研究了万寿菊杀菌素水乳剂对西瓜枯萎病菌菌丝生长的影响和对西瓜幼苗保护酶的作用.结果表明,万寿菊杀菌素水乳剂对西瓜枯萎病菌的菌丝生长有明显的抑制作用,当质量浓度为1μg/mL时已完全抑制病菌菌丝生长.同时,经对西瓜幼苗叶的酶活性测定和过氧化物同工酶电泳分析的结果表明,该万寿菊杀菌素水乳剂能使西瓜保护酶——超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性提高,减轻西瓜枯萎病菌对西瓜幼苗的毒害作用.%In the article the influence of the mycelium growth of watermelon wilt disease and the role of protective enzymes in watermelon seedlings from marigold spinosad water emulsion were studied. The results showed that it could restrain the mycelial growth of watermelon wilt disease obviously, and the growth in 1 μg/mL marigold spinosad water emulsion was completely stopped. The results of enzymic activity assay on watermelon seedlings' leaves and electrophoresis analyse of peroxide isozyme demonstrated that marigold spinosad water emulsion could enhance the activity of protective enzymes-superoxide dismutase ( SOD), catalase( CAT), Peroxidase( SOD), reduced the harm to watermelon seedlings by watermelon wilt disease.

  13. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    2001, but the government remains weak and rife with corruption. The government has slowly widened its writ , even though substantial powers are...councils, which are widely respected and highly conservative in orientation, remained intact. Some of them continue to exercise their writ rather than...Government Performance Congressional Research Service 4 information technology, medical, and other highly skilled professions and that they are

  14. You Should Have the Body: Understanding Habeas Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    English legal commentator William Blackstone described the writ of habeas corpus as a second Magna Carta, and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall called it the "great writ." It has been part of the Anglo-American common law tradition since the Middle Ages. In the United States, it has been a source of tension between state and federal…

  15. 莫言的小说笔法--《丰乳肥臀》人物叙事论%The Technique of Novel Writting of Mo Yan-The Narration Theory on the Characters of “Big Breasts and Wide Hips”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宇晖

    2015-01-01

    莫言在《丰乳肥臀》中塑造的上官金童这个人物曾经引发了当代文学史上的一起公案,也影响到对该作品的价值认定。如果从小说叙事的角度来看,作家实际上是选择了金童这个奇特的人物作为整部作品的意识支点,间接地表现二十世纪乡土中国怎样被现代化的历程。不同寻常的眼光可以洞穿理性化思维的盲区,使人们得以对现代性进行深度反思。钱钟书先生对史书中小说笔法的评讲打通了现代小说叙事学的核心问题,为厘清小说人物与叙事的关系提供了思路。%As a key character created by Mo Yan in “Big Breasts and Wide Hips”, Shangguan Jintong had ever initiated one fa-mous dispute in the contemporary literature history, and influenced the value evaluation on the novel. Reading from the perspec-tive of narratology, Jintong is just selected as a special conscious subject to perceive indirectly how China was modernized in 20th century. The defamiliarized sight could puncture the blind side of rationalized idea, making people to reflect on the modernity. Qian Zhongshu’s thought on the narratology in Chinese history works touches with the core issue of modern narratology, supplied ways to understand the relationship of character and narrative.

  16. Board of Education, Island Trees Union Free School District No. 26 et al., Petitioners, v. Steven A. Pico, by His Next Friend, Frances Pico et al. On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Supreme Court of the United States, No. 80-2043.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    The Supreme Court decision in the case of the Board of Education, Island Trees, New York, versus Steven A. Pico, addressed whether the First Amendment imposes limitations upon the exercise by a local school board of its discretion to remove library books from high school and junior high school libraries. Rejecting the recommendations of a…

  17. Keats et de Kooning : Pour un romantisme expressionniste abstrait ou la mise en image de l’épitaphe ‘Here lies one whose name was writ in water’: Keats and de Kooning or the abstract expressionist vision of a Romantic epitaph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bertonèche

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the comparative dialectic between John Keats’s choice of a visual epitaph, theatrically staged as a fluid, evanescent metaphor of poetic identity in relation to Romantic writing, and Willem de Kooning’s late awareness and expressionist interpretation of it. The modernity of Keats’s epitaphic imagery seemed to have been an uncanny preamble to de Kooning’s gestural art or pictorial pantomimes on the themes of impermanence and forgetfulness, memory and death. Close in many other ways, despite chronological and geographical differences, the two inspired artists meet around their creative intermingling of the picturesque and the poetic: the rhythmic liquidity, the verse schemes, the chiaroscuros, the ‘dripping’ technique, the ‘erasures’, the fading colours… Keats’s strangely melancholic but also deeply ironic and contrasted lyricism meets de Kooning’s mixed style of painting, torn as it is between the realms of tradition and novelty, of figurative and abstract art. A writer and a reader, an indolent poet and an ‘action painter’, they are, above all, or aspire to be, especially with regard to this mysterious conception and meaningful depiction of an epitaph, immortal artists as well as enlightened visionaries.

  18. Analytical methods of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Lawden, D F

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this text surveys the classical theory of the calculus of variations. It takes the approach most appropriate for applications to problems of optimizing the behavior of engineering systems. Two of these problem areas have strongly influenced this presentation: the design of the control systems and the choice of rocket trajectories to be followed by terrestrial and extraterrestrial vehicles.Topics include static systems, control systems, additional constraints, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the accessory optimization problem. Prereq

  19. Study on the Relationship between Tourist Influence and Residents' Sense of Community: An Empirical Study from Changdao County in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wei; Zhang Yan

    2012-01-01

    Residents' sense of community is an important prereq- uisite to promote the development of community. Tourism has sig- nificant influence on residents' sense of community. An empirical study from Changdao shows that economy and life conflict caused by tourism can affect neighborhood-friendly and community par- ticipation significantly. Culture, environment and social services from tourism can significantly affect community association, com- munity care and place recognition. Therefore, the regional manag- ers should pay attention to allocate revenues in the residents fairly and protect own culture to avoid the negative impact from tourism.

  20. A nata e as cotas raciais: genealogia de um argumento público

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    João Feres; Verônica Toste Daflon

    2015-01-01

    .... Using a combination of genealogy and reception studies methodology, we show (1) that the argument was received in Brazil through the reception of Thomas Sowell's writtings on affirmative action in the US; (2...

  1. Evolving Army Needs for Space-Based Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    College is to produce graduates who are skilled critical thinkers and complex problem solvers. Concurrently, it is our duty to the U.S. Army to also...missile warning data—launch loca- tion, flight tracking, and predicted impact area—to operational communities writ large.42 For space force enhancement...of cyberspace theory writ large to better coordinate actions related to space, cyberspace, and the electro- magnetic spectrum. • The Army should

  2. Intelligence and Design: Thinking about Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    than tactical reconnaissance writ large. It suggests ways to balance the inherent tensions of operational intelligence?those between the strategic and...is more than tactical re- connaissance writ large. It suggests ways to balance the inherent tensions of operational intelligence—those between the...intelligence meant “securing knowledge of the movements, capacities and intentions of other armed forces” and was indivisible from the skillful scouting

  3. Large Structure in the Far Wakes of Two-Dimensional Bluff Bodies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Super 35 mm camera with motor drive was used, along with a General Radio Model 1540 Stroboscope. We had the best success with Kodak Tri-x film pushed one...of porous sheets, in "Omaggio a Carlo Fer- rari: Torino, Libreria Editrice Universitaria Levrotto & Bella." WEIHS, D. 1973 On the existence of multiple

  4. Survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marblé

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Every crime becomes a collectivecrime when indifference is added tohorror. When no help from others ispossible, the question becomes oneof survival, which, in turn, gives riseto the different ways of thinking thesurvivor. The article examines thelatter on the basis of a clinical caseand of various paradigmatic works.

  5. How much does it cost to look like a pig in a wild boar group?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batocchio, Daniele; Iacolina, Laura; Canu, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization between domestic and wild species is known to widely occur and it is reported to be oneof the major causes of the current biodiversity crisis. Despite this, poor attention has been deserved tothe behavioural ecology of hybrids, in particular in relation to their social behaviour. We...

  6. Boekbesprekinge/Book Reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA MEDICAL JOURNAL VOLUME 63 22 JANUARY 1983 ... Bone in clinical orthopaedics. Bone in Clinical Orthopaedics: A Study in Comparative. Osteology. ... This is oneof the more dramatic stories in the history of experimental mecticine, ... facsimile reproduction (misprints and all) of his 1833 book by. Gryphon Editions.

  7. Framing the Discussion: Elections as Components of Larger Political and Cultural Geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Larry

    2016-01-01

    It is important to remember that elections are but one piece--albeit an important one--of much larger processes of politics and governance. Moreover, in the United States they are increasingly implicated in the construction of identities and places. What goes on in the course of electoral politics (creating electoral systems and voting districts,…

  8. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    open a dialysis unit but were [Text] Until recently, one-of the GDR’s positive aspects lacking a water purification machine costing 700,000 was the...LIDOVE NOVINY] Thank you for the interview. Schneider acknowledged some drug dependent patients as well as heroin addicts. She said that they had come

  9. The development and examination of a new walking executive function test for people over 50years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Arturo; Balachandran, Anoop; Britton, Jennifer C; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Kuenze, Christopher; Myers, Nicholas D; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-03-15

    A reduction in executive function (EF) performance is a major factor associated with the loss of functional independence among older adults. Computer-based tests are commonly used to evaluate EF; however, these mouse or keyboard tests are upper limb dominant while most activities of daily living (ADL, e.g. crossing a street) are lower limb dominant. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of a newly developed walking EF test called the Walking Response and Inhibition Test (WRIT). The WRIT was validated by comparing its results a number of established computer-based tests and to an ADL-related test known to require EF, the Timed "Up & Go" Test (TUG). Fifty healthy adults, ranging in age from 50 to 86years (mean±SD, 65.5±9.6y) were evaluated using the WRIT, three computer-based EF tests, the TUG, a verbal memory test and an agility test. All computer-based EF tests were positively correlated to the WRIT (p<0.05); however, regression analyses revealed that the WRIT explained 37.5% of the variance in the TUG, while a composite of traditional computer-based tests explained 10.5%. As indicated by Lin's Concordance reliability (pc=0.82) between testing days was high and was supported by a Cronbach's alpha of 0.90. Bland-Altman analyses also demonstrated good agreement between the testing days with a small mean difference 3.48 (-3.71, 10.67). These results support the validity and reliability of the WRIT, and indicate that when assessing EF as it relates to functionality, the WRIT test may be a more appropriate measure than existing computer-based mouse and keyboard tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Order in the Court: A Strategic Assessment of the Use of Military Commissions in the War on Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Great Writ." Actually , the origin of the writ is far older and even precedes the Magna Carta in 1215. The Magna Carta states: "...no free man shall be...the time, it never occurred to me that President Bush would actually implement military commissions as a course of action. I recalled reading about the...except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be

  11. Exploring Symbols Used for Themes in The Jilting of Granny Weatherall and A Worn Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄麟斐; 鲍丹

    2007-01-01

    The short stories,The Jilting of Gran-ny Weatherall and A Worn Path were writ-ten seperately by two women writers,Ka-therine Anne Porter and Eudora Welty.The two twentieth century American writ-ers share something in common.Both ofthem are Southern women writers whohave won the National Book Awards forshort-story writing.So it is commonly ac-cepted that they were both influenced byfeminism and Southern women writers.Porter is known as a writer of tremendous

  12. Tourisme de vie nocturne, une bénédiction ou une malédiction pour les communautés locales ? « Une étude de cas sur Gemmayzeh, Liban »

    OpenAIRE

    El Maalouf, Hanna; Ghadban, Socrat; Shames, Maya

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Gemmayzeh is located in Beirut Central District, known to be oneof the most famous night attractions in the Lebanese capital. It isalso a special attraction for domestic visitors and tourists. However,despite its competitive nightlife advantages in the Lebanese tourismindustry, its local residents are not convinced with the way tourismis being developed in this area. The lack of cooperation among thedifferent potential tourism stakeholders and the absence of effectiver...

  13. A Study of Gender Differences in Language in College Teachers- Undergraduates' Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任琳

    2011-01-01

    As oneof the popular studies, gender differences in language attract many attentions. It is also an important part of language culture. The gender differences in language are studied in many subjects: As far as this thesis is concerned, it is different from the previous studies, The research will be done about the gender differences of language in college teachers-undergraduates' criticism through quantitative approach. This new viewpoint will make the paper meaningful.

  14. Detection of unobserved heterogeneity with growth mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Jost Reinecke; Luca Mariotti

    2009-01-01

    Latent growth curve models as structural equation models are extensively discussedin various research fields (Duncan et al., 2006). Recent methodological and statisticalextension are focused on the consideration of unobserved heterogeneity in empiricaldata. Muth´en extended the classical structural equation approach by mixture components,i. e. categorical latent classes (Muth´en 2002, 2004, 2007).The paper will discuss applications of growth mixture models with data from oneof the first panel...

  15. Blue Whale Behavioral Response Study and Field Testing of the New Bioacoustic Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    shipping routes into southern and central California ports with predictable blue whale feeding grounds makes this an ideal location of the study of...4.8 hrs., while maximum deployment duration was Although this project focused on blue whales , tags also were deployed on 3 humpback whales , one...of Cetacean Research and Management 7: 177-187. FRISTRUP, K. M., L. T. HATCH and C. W. CLARK. 2003. Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera

  16. Field Demonstration and Validation of a New Device for Measuring Water and Solute Fluxes at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC), Port Hueneme, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    sorbent as a packing media for the PFM. Hysteretic and non-equilibrium partitioning behavior were considered in the sorbent and tracer selection...soluble tracers are desorbed from the sorbing matrix and urrounding aquifer. Figure 2-2 displays two hypothetical s circular column (such as one...of the PFM. A water-tight container (glass or stainless steel ) was used to create an aquifer model. The two ends of the container was used for flow

  17. wrtg391 full course [ all discussions and all assignments

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    wrtg391 full course [ all discussions and all assignments   Critically Thinking in WRTG 391 Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/wrtg391-full-course/   Actions for 'Critically Thinking in WRTG 391'SubscribeHide Description Welcome to WRTG 391!   Assignment: After watching Dr. Derek Cabrera's lecture please write a short paragraph in which you answer oneof the following questions: Why does Dr. Cabrera differentiate between the ability t...

  18. The Software of Polyhedral Homotopy Continuation Method and Parallel Computation of its

    OpenAIRE

    郡司, 貴之

    2008-01-01

    A system of multi variables polynomial equations arises in many fields of science and engineering. The polyhedralhomotopy continuation method is one of the methods for finding all isolated complex solutions of systems of polynomialequations. First, the method constructs the homotopy systems adding the parameter for the systems of polynomial equations.Next, it finds the solutions of starting systems of them. It traces the homotopy curves which can be defined as oneof the solution set of homoto...

  19. Planning: Complex Endeavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    standards that are intended to ensure safety. Both the function of command and planning processes tend to be fractal ; command constrains planning at one...of the Coordina- tor for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) operational expenses; a Response Readiness Corps with $25 millions financing ; and...collaboration in an effort to develop awareness and understanding) in the tradi- tional approach to planning and execution constitute fractals that are

  20. Evaluation of Modern Navies’ Damage Control and Firefighting Training using Simulator Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    15 2. USS Forrestal ( CVA -59) Incident.....................................................17 3...2. USS Forrestal ( CVA -59) Incident The following information is based on the Master Thesis of Henry P. Stewart, USN, 2004. On July 29, 1967, one...of the most severe catastrophes in recent naval history happened aboard the USS Forrestal ( CVA 59), one of the U.S Navy’s most modern aircraft

  1. Influences of the Canadian Armed Forces on the revision of US Army Field Manual 3-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    military superpower? Did the Canadian Army have anything to teach its American counterparts, and could it have influenced the US Army’s approach to...of Reality : A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (New York, NY: Anchor Books, 1967), 138-139. 14 institution (in this case, the state) and one...of troops made it virtually impossible to hold territory in Afghanistan’s violent south.” Jones, 254. 114 General Vance, “Canada in Afghanistan

  2. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post...

  3. Self-Consistent Kinetic Theory of Stochasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    HC-3 was added at ~ Qt ~ time. Contractions were recorded using an isometric muscle transducerconnected to an ink -writting dynograph. The preparation...regards to NM inhibition of high affinity choline uptake. The contam ination present in yellow HC—3 samples , as noted from the TLC resu l t s , did not

  4. Technology Approach: DoD Versus Boeing (A Comparative Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    wire. The 757 Pratt Whitney engine was completely electronically controlled... it makes neat writ - ing, but it’s not an order of magnitude change...the “best system.” Using computers, sophisticated mathematics, and all their engineering skills , these students set out to design systems that

  5. Navy Perspective on Joint Force Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    force, we are committed to revitalizing our skills as America’s mobile, forward-engaged “away team” and “first responders.” Building and maintaining...between themselves and with other global maritime partners. The Services writ large are not unfa- miliar with the notion of cross-domain synergy

  6. Training Affects Variability in Training Performance both Within and Across Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    composite derived from the US military enlistment test, the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Training performance was assessed by writ ...already possess job- related knowledge, skills , and abilities acquired through education, training, and job experience. However, few US military...acquisition of job- related specialized knowledge and skills occurs during training. Although personnel with high aptitude tend to be assigned to difficult

  7. Archie Mafeje and the Pursuit of Endogeny: Against Alterity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2009-05-14

    May 14, 2009 ... If there is a common thread tying all of Archie Mafeje's professional writ- ... distinctly to the European context of his time, as Michel Foucault did for his ... as their framework for analysing Africa were violating their own rules. .... inventing the fragmentation of African languages and then scripting exclusive.

  8. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH) Bahir Dar- Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key words: - Niger Delta, Fototales, Peoples, Relics and Issues; Images and Words ... documents and mementos of both the pre-colonial time and place; the erstwhile ... significantly deploys Image and Text to provide evidence for the character of the Niger ... of histrionic moments are writ large on the pane of each frame.

  9. Education, Schooling, and Children's Rights: The Complexity of Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    By blurring the distinction between formal school and education writ large, homeschooling both highlights and complicates the tensions among the interests of parents, children, and the state. In this essay, Robert Kunzman argues for a modest version of children's educational rights, at least in a legal sense that the state has the duty and…

  10. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: structural specification and functional-style syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motik, B.; Patel-Schneider, P.F.; Parsia, B.; Bock, C.; Fokoue, A.; Haase, P.; Hoekstra, R.; Horrocks, I.; Ruttenberg, A.; Sattler, U.; Smith, M.

    2008-01-01

    The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information writ

  11. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: XML serialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motik, B.; Patel-Schneider, P.; Bechhofer, S.; Cuenca Grau, B.; Fokoue, A.; Hoekstra, R.; Parsia, B.

    2008-01-01

    The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information writ

  12. Education, Schooling, and Children's Rights: The Complexity of Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    By blurring the distinction between formal school and education writ large, homeschooling both highlights and complicates the tensions among the interests of parents, children, and the state. In this essay, Robert Kunzman argues for a modest version of children's educational rights, at least in a legal sense that the state has the duty and…

  13. Functional interaction between beta-catenin and FOXO in oxidative stress signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, MAG; de Vries-Smits, LMM; Barker, N; Polderman, PE; Burgering, BMT; Korswagen, HC

    2005-01-01

    β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein that mediates Writ signaling by binding to members of the T cell factor (TCF) family of transcription factors. Here, we report an evolutionarily conserved interaction of β-catenin with FOXO transcription factors, which are regulated by insulin and oxidative str

  14. Pop / Tõnu Kaalep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaalep, Tõnu, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Morcheeba "Dive Deep", Mary J Blige "Growing Pains", Black Mountain "In The Future", Kelis "The Hits", El Perro Del Mar "From The Valley To The Stars", British Sea Power "Do You Like Rock Music?", The Cardigans "Best Of", cass mcCombs "Dropping the Writ".Stephen Malkmus " The Jiks "Real Emotional Trash"

  15. During My Stay in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MuhammadAdeelTalib

    2004-01-01

    CHINA is often referred to as a land of mystery and intrigue - a country isolated from the West for centuries. It is considered one of the cradles of civilization, having a writ-ten history that goes back thousands of years. Today, China has opened its door to tourism, international trade and cultural exchange. I came

  16. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: Vygotsky's Forgotten and Suppressed Legacy and Its Implication for Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory--with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise--has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is…

  17. Music as Transitional Object and Practice: Children's Spontaneous Musical Behaviors in the Subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodero, Lori A.; Calì, Claudia; Diaz-Donoso, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    This study looks at children's music making in a public setting designed for society writ large. Although known to most children in the city, the subway presents a unique environment, both structurally predictable yet sonically dynamic; it is in continuous transition. Adopting Winnicott's psychoanalytical perspective, we make a case for viewing…

  18. Report of the Hydrographic Service Royal Australian Navy for the Year Ended 30th June 1990. Issue Number 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-30

    dato Wo~o. housd ft tito lhirms moiwoon j~?4 ourno. tiod it cnpobiv or tniottrly 1l-lasng cltrt*. A* writ ms produ~cing frtvrigA mid isivi g cltnris...The Naval Weather Centro watt retitled the ’Noval Weather and Oceanographic Centre* iNWOOa in early 1990. to better rvflect. itsi it ceased

  19. Book review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has the negative effect of discouraging would-be Malawian writ- ... analysis of Chichewa literature, namely the portrayal of women in Malawian writing. ... initiated into the Nyau secret society and could therefore be considered a child could .... They rise from the characters' ambition to climb the social/economic ladder.

  20. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 23, Number 6, Nov/Dec 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    technological challenges that must be overcome . Challenges aren’t going to stop smart software professionals from developing and delivering quality software... procrastination to an art form) so I typically start writ- ing the column about a day before it is due. There is nothing like sheer stress and a looming

  1. The beta-catenin/TCF-4 complex imposes a crypt progenitor phenotype on colorectal cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, M; Sancho, E; Verweij, C; de Lau, W; Oving, [No Value; Hurlstone, A; van der Horn, K; Batlle, E; Coudreuse, D; Haramis, AP; Tion-Pon-Fong, M; Moerer, P; van den Born, M; Soete, G; Pals, S; Eilers, M; Medema, R; Clevers, H

    2002-01-01

    The transactivation of TCF target genes induced by Writ pathway mutations constitutes the primary transforming event in colorectal cancer (CRC). We show that disruption of beta-catenin/TCF-4 activity in CRC cells induces a rapid G1 arrest and blocks a genetic program that is physiologically active i

  2. Children of the Western World: The Illusion of Religious Control and the Making of Higher Education in Kentucky, 1780-1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, James Paul

    2010-01-01

    The story of Kentucky's earliest foray into higher education, Transylvania Seminary, finds denominational influence writ large--Presbyterianism presents a guiding presence in the dynamics of early growth. The forces of liberal secularism are said to be ranged against those of conservative sectarianism; the victory of the former is a movement…

  3. Wading through the Consequences of Policy Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Fenice B.

    2013-01-01

    As long as we have schools, teachers and students, educational policy mandates, with a one-size-fits all subtext will always ebb and flow. Schools however, will forever encounter diversity writ large--teachers and students, families, languages, cognitive and academic abilities, interests, etc. The policy decisions do not necessarily fit the…

  4. Children of the Western World: The Illusion of Religious Control and the Making of Higher Education in Kentucky, 1780-1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, James Paul

    2010-01-01

    The story of Kentucky's earliest foray into higher education, Transylvania Seminary, finds denominational influence writ large--Presbyterianism presents a guiding presence in the dynamics of early growth. The forces of liberal secularism are said to be ranged against those of conservative sectarianism; the victory of the former is a movement…

  5. The ARL 2030 Scenarios: A User's Guide for Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This user's guide was developed to advance local planning at ARL member libraries. It is written for library leaders writ large and for anyone leading or contributing to research library planning processes. Users do not need advanced facilitation skills to benefit from this guide, but facilitators charged with supporting scenario planning will…

  6. Frames and generalized shift-invariant systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    With motivation from the theory of Hilbert-Schmidt operators we review recent topics concerning frames in L 2 (R) and their duals. Frames are generalizations of orthonormal bases in Hilbert spaces. As for an orthonormal basis, a frame allows each element in the underlying Hilbert space to be writ...

  7. Glaciers and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2001-01-01

    Although my book focuses on valley glaciers, it is not intended to provide a basic course in glaciology, nor does it claim to give a state-of-the-art picture of glacier research. It consists mainly of the personal reflections of a meteorologist who gradually became interested in glaciers and is writ

  8. Pop / Tõnu Kaalep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaalep, Tõnu, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Morcheeba "Dive Deep", Mary J Blige "Growing Pains", Black Mountain "In The Future", Kelis "The Hits", El Perro Del Mar "From The Valley To The Stars", British Sea Power "Do You Like Rock Music?", The Cardigans "Best Of", cass mcCombs "Dropping the Writ".Stephen Malkmus " The Jiks "Real Emotional Trash"

  9. Kontserdipeegel : ERSO, Nordic Voices ja NYYD Ensemble / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    1999-01-01

    22. sept. Estonia kontserdisaalis toimunud ERSO kontserdist. Kavas Debussy "Fauni pärastlõuna", R.Straussi Oboekontsert ja F.Mendelssohni 4. sümfoonia. 24. sept. Estonia kontserdisaalis toimunud ans. Nordic Voices kontserdist. ETV suures stuudios toimunud multimeediaetendusest. Kavas M.Nymani "Letters, Riddles & Writs" ja L.Andriesseni "M is for Man, Music, Mozart"

  10. Guantanamo Bay Detainees: National Security or Civil Liberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2001: http://writ.news.findlaw.com/scripts/printer_friendly; Internet; accessed 16 February 2003. 49 Ibid, 4. 50 Tom Malinowski , “What to Do with Our...1986. Lewis, Bernard. “Annals of Religion: The Revolt of Islam.” The New Yorker, 8 January 2003, 13-32. Malinowski , Tom. “What to Do with Our

  11. Because Trucks Aren't Bicycles: Orthographic Complexity as an Important Variable in Reading Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Susan A.; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2013-01-01

    Severe enduring reading- and writing-accuracy difficulties seem a phenomenon largely restricted to nations using complex orthographies, notably Anglophone nations, given English's highly complex orthography (Geva and Siegel, "Read Writ" 12:1-30, 2000; Landerl et al., "Cognition" 63:315-334, 1997; Share, "Psychol Bul"l…

  12. Preventive Detention in the War on Terror: A Plan for a More Moderate and Sustainable Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    analysis, and for being my number one supporter. As we approach ten years of marriage, I look at our wedding vows where we promised to “support each...suspend the writ in the Hawaiian islands.306 In each of these instances, a rebellion or invasion was actually taking place in an American territory

  13. Kontserdipeegel : ERSO, Nordic Voices ja NYYD Ensemble / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    1999-01-01

    22. sept. Estonia kontserdisaalis toimunud ERSO kontserdist. Kavas Debussy "Fauni pärastlõuna", R.Straussi Oboekontsert ja F.Mendelssohni 4. sümfoonia. 24. sept. Estonia kontserdisaalis toimunud ans. Nordic Voices kontserdist. ETV suures stuudios toimunud multimeediaetendusest. Kavas M.Nymani "Letters, Riddles & Writs" ja L.Andriesseni "M is for Man, Music, Mozart"

  14. 阅读理解二则(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁红艳

    2007-01-01

    (A) One day, Mr Black went into a restaurant. He put his coat on achair near the door. There was nothing in the pockets of his coat. Afterhis meal he put on the coat, then he found there was much money in oneof his pockets. He immediately realized that someone else had taken hiscoat away by mistake. “Whose coat is this?”he thought. He saw a waiternear the door, so Mr Black said to him, “Somebody put a lot of money inmy coat. I have no time to wait for him. I have to go. Return it to him,please.”The waite...

  15. 35 seasons of US antarctic meteorites (1976-2010) a pictorial guide to the collection

    CERN Document Server

    Righter, Kevin; McCoy, Timothy; Harvey, Ralph; Harvey, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The US Antarctic meteorite collection exists due to a cooperative program involving the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Smithsonian Institution.  Since 1976, meteorites have been collected by a NSF-funded field team, shipped for curation, characterization, distribution, and storage at NASA, and classified and stored for long term at the Smithsonian.  It is the largest collection in the world with many significant samples including lunar, martian, many interesting chondrites and achondrites, and even several unusual one-of-

  16. 极大螺旋微藻(分节螺旋属)在一六面体光合生物反应器中生物合成13C标识氨基酸和糖%Biosynthesis of 13C-Labeled Amino Acids and Sugars by Spirulina (Arthrospira) Maxima in a Parallelepiped Photobioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏金兰; 聂珍媛

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation on biosynthesis of high-value-added amino acids and sugars labeleduniformly with stable isotope 13C by microalga Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a parallelepiped photobioreactor.The kinetic data of both batch and continuous cultures with characterization of the amino acids and sugars areshown. The continuous culture without nutrients deficiency is for biosynthesis of amino acids, with tyrosine as oneof the principal constituents, and the batch culture with deficiency in nitrogen is for biosynthesis of labeled glucosethat is up to 64% versus dry mass of cells.

  17. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310 ppmvin 1960 to 390 ppmv in 2012, probably due to human activity. A lot of research is being carried out forreducing CO2emissions from large stationary sources. Ofwhich, the carbonate looping process is ...

  18. Classification of Flat Lagrangian Surfaces in Complex Lorentzian Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang-Yen CHEN; Johan FASTENAKELS

    2007-01-01

    One of the most fundamental problems in the study of Lagrangian submanifolds fromRiemannian geometric point of view is to classify Lagrangian immersions of real space forms intocomplex space forms. The main purpose of this paper is thus to classify flat Lagrangian surfaces inthe Lorentzian complex plane C12. Our main result states that there are thirty-eight families of flatLagrangian surfaces in C12. Conversely, every flat Lagrangian surface in C12 is locally congruent to oneof the thirty-eight families.

  19. PSICOSSOCIAL REHABILITATION THROUGH THERAPEUTIC WORKSHOPS AND/OR SOCIAL COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília M Scatena

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic workshops and the social cooperatives, while current Mental Health NationalPolitics devices, objectify if it differentiates of the practice predecessors, idea current practices ofestablishing the work as a therapeutic, well-known resource like ‘moral treatment’. In this context, itunderstands that the workshops, don't introduce by itself an inaugural form of work with the madness. Theworkshops work experience and/or cooperative becomes positive when one of her functions is also the oneof intervene in the citizenship field. Thus, acting in the social scope, contributes like transformation currentreality possibility in the that tells respect to the psychiatric treatment.

  20. Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    Heilbron, John

    2010-01-01

    Four hundred years ago, in 1610, Galileo published the Siderius nuncius, or Starry Messenger, a 'hurried little masterpiece' in John Heilbron's words. Presenting to the world his remarkable observations using the recently invented telescope - of the craters of the moon, and the satellites of Jupiter, observations that forced changes to perceptions of the perfection of the heavens and the centrality of the Earth - the appearance of the little book is regarded as oneof the greatest moments in the history of science. It was also a point of change in the life of Galileo himself, propelling him fro

  1. El uso de recompensas en el conflicto armado colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Galvis - Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The scandal caused by the assassination of a guerrilla leader by oneof his subordinates and the payment of a substantial economic reward made to him by the State, led to the first questionings regarding the legality of the reward system in Colombia. This article seeks to establish if the state sponsored reward policy respects the rules of International Humanitarian Law applicable to the Colombian armed conflict. For this purpose the article will analyze both thelegislative development and three of the most controversialsituations raised in practice which prove the range and effects ofthe use of rewards as a strategic tactic within the armed conflict.

  2. The Historical and Cultural Past of the Manchus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE Manchu Nationality is oneof China’s many ethnic groups with a long history.Originating between Baishan and Heishui,an area of high-latitude,chilly winters,dense forests,and abundant birds and beasts,the nationality lived and flourished here since the Neolithic Age.Its foremost ancestor,as historic do cuments recorded,was Sushen of the Shang and Zhou dynasties.Some of the Sushen tribes lived primarily upon agriculture and partly upon animal husbandry.Some lived on fishing and hunting.They had a recorded history of over 3,000 years.

  3. Raza, alteridad y exclusión en Alemania durante la década de 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castillejo Cuéllar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1927, under the umbrella of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft, the institution responsible for directing Germany's research policies, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Anthropologie, Menschliche, Erblehre und Eugenic (Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics was founded. The institution represented the apex of the German eugenics movement that had developed in the previous decades, and the birth of oneof the intellectual centers where the Reich's ideology of social engineering was founded. This article discusses some of the historic elements that linked racial ideology, the bedrock of Nazi policy of extermination, and the social sciences during the Weimar period

  4. GENÇ OSMAN-OCCURRENCE IN TURKISH PLAYS IN THE COHERENCE OF NEW TURKISH LITERATURE AND HISTORY / YENİ TÜRK EDEBİYATI - TARİH İLİSKİSİ BAĞLAMINDA TÜRK TİYATRO ESERLERİNDE GENÇ OSMAN VAK’ASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Müzeyyen BUTTANRI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important sources of literary workfrom The Tanzimat period to today is history. Especiallynovel, story and play writers have frequently recourse tothe history as they find prepared material in history. Oneof the interesting historical events of 17th century isGenc Osman’s assassination, which has been processed by three Turkish play writers. Although their themes arethe same, every writer gives the reasons and results ofthe event with his contemporary interpretation. Writersdo not work a historical event with its previous analysis,but they add some messages to the modern humanbeing.

  5. Clinical Research of Rolling Manipulation in Treating Knee Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄儒德; 龚利; 吴凌翔; 吴君怡; 张沈煜

    2008-01-01

    @@ Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) is also called degenerative osteoarthritis. With its incidence reaching 13.2 % in men and 28.3 % in women, it has become the most common joint disease and also oneof the major reasons for old people to be disabled[1]. The feature of the disease is progressive degeneration in cartilage tissue of the joint, osteophyma formed in the border of the joint and reactive change in the sclerotin of the cartilage. The patients can experience pain and weakness of the knee joint, difficulty in walking, standing and climbing stairs, which severely disturb the daily life of the patients.

  6. STUDY ON THE FRACTURE AND WEIGHTING OF MAIN ROOF UNDER COMPLICATED CONDITIONS IN LONGWALL MINIG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何富连; 梁袁; 杨玉岷; 凌标灿

    1998-01-01

    To clarify and control the collapse and weighting of main roof in Iongwall mining is oneof the important research problems in ground control. Based on the results of physical modelexperiment and field measurement, the behaviour of main roof above trapezoidal goaf or with faultis studied in this paper. The fracture and weighting of main roof above trapezoidal goaf aredifferent from those above rectangular goaf. It depends on the mechanical relation between mainroof blocks whether the plate blocks of main roof on both sides of fault simultaneously break andcollapse.

  7. Business models for Serious Games developers - transition from a product centric to a service centric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Jannicke Baalsrud; Wiesner, Stefan; Sanchez, Rosa Garcia

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the serious games industry, up to now the most commonly used business models (BM) among developers representing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) consists in offering an individual product to the customer, based on tailored one-of a kind production. Such production has high co...... application fields of SG, before it presents two examples of a successful transition towards a service oriented BM within the same fields Based on this, it finally discusses the opportunities and the threats of using such BMs for SG developers....

  8. A Cluster based Technique for Securing Routing Protocol AODV against Black-hole Attack in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Yadav

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hocnetworks areprone tovarioussecurity vulnerabilitiesbecause of its characteristicsmainlyhigh mobility of nodes,and no well defined architecture.Security measuresare difficult to implement asthere is nocentral administration. Several attackson Mobile ad-hoc networkhavebeen identified so farand Black hole attack is oneof them. In this paper we discussblack hole attackon Ad-hoc network andpropose a solution to the hijacked node behaving as black hole node. A scenario has been consideredwhere anode inside network has been intruded andcompromised tocause blackholeattack. The proposedsecuritysolutionmodifies original AODV using a hierarchical basedintrusion detectionmethod toidentifyhijacked nodeand exclude the particular node from network

  9. Openbaring en ervaring, ’n reformatories-konfessionele benadering van 2 Petrus 1:16–21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno A. Zuiddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Revelation and experience, a reformed-confessional approach to 2 Peter 1:16–21. The experience of divine revelation is of crucial importance to the author of 2 Peter and in the age of the Reformation this notion was reflected in the way Guido de Brès used this epistle in the Belgic Confession. Both documents teach a divine authorship of Scripture with God as its responsible author and also that Scripture contains revelation of God that is accessible and authoritative for believers, even centuries after the lives of the prophets. In this process both documents recognise a dual interaction between holy Writ and the experience of the believer. The interaction with Scripture inspires trust in God and the work of the Spirit in the believer’s life inspires trust in holy Writ as God’s authoritative revelation.

  10. Universal Infantry Weapons Trainer (UIWT). Volume 1. M-16 Rifle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    source used in the system is a semiconductor, gallium arsenide laser. The laser is collimated by a simple plano convex lens. The laser is attached where...UfSATSOATA LITE~tlY ’%.CH’, /s PIF#, 3-48 OF 80/2P MAUAL U5MRTSSTATUS LITERALLY 6ED9’, /* PiE 3-44 *./ EcC LITERALLY ’±R; /* AS(I I "EsCFm * ZERO LITERALLY...H EI E CHIP CT 9026 15 1 EN I E6t E EXTEIEI INTEPRUPTS 41? A 2 WRIT: NOY R,R2 ,GET PIE STATUS *218 627 93 JZ WRIT ,IF 0lJETE ENPTY NO ACTION 𔄁 𔄂

  11. Waste isolation safety assessment program. Task 4. Third contractor information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Contractor Information Meeting (October 14 to 17, 1979) was part of the FY-1979 effort of Task 4 of the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP): Sorption/Desorption Analysis. The objectives of this task are to: evaluate sorption/desorption measurement methods and develop a standardized measurement procedure; produce a generic data bank of nuclide-geologic interactions using a wide variety of geologic media and groundwaters; perform statistical analysis and synthesis of these data; perform validation studies to compare short-term laboratory studies to long-term in situ behavior; develop a fundamental understanding of sorption/desorption processes; produce x-ray and gamma-emitting isotopes suitable for the study of actinides at tracer concentrations; disseminate resulting information to the international technical community; and provide input data support for repository safety assessment. Conference participants included those subcontracted to WISAP Task 4, representatives and independent subcontractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, representatives from other waste disposal programs, and experts in the area of waste/geologic media interaction. Since the meeting, WISAP has been divided into two programs: Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) (modeling efforts) and Waste/Rock Interactions Technology (WRIT) (experimental work). The WRIT program encompasses the work conducted under Task 4. This report contains the information presented at the Task 4, Third Contractor Information Meeting. Technical Reports from the subcontractors, as well as Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), are provided along with transcripts of the question-and-answer sessions. The agenda and abstracts of the presentations are also included. Appendix A is a list of the participants. Appendix B gives an overview of the WRIT program and details the WRIT work breakdown structure for 1980.

  12. Constructing Writer Identity in Developing Second Language Writer ’s Academic Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yun-wen

    2014-01-01

    Writer identity in academic writing has long been ignored by developing L2 writers. Moreover, research has much fo-cused on the reader in shaping writing, and treated the role of the writer as unproblematic. In this essay, the construction of writ-er identity in developing writers’academic writing practice will be explored through a review of some relevant literature research and gain insights for the development of writer apprentices and writing instruction.

  13. The 21st-Century Acquisition Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    articles writ - ten for the magazine. Now we can’t promise you a new job, but many of our authors: • Earn continuous learning points • Gain...data from an unpublished 2007 study by the author of this article.) It is imperative that leaders develop strong communication skills . To com...that focus on improving the communication skills of their leaders—through training, con- necting with them emotionally, providing a focused message

  14. The Search for a Permanent Home: Explaining the Organizational Instability of Air Force Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    general case study, the story of Air Force Rescue also suggests insights into organizational decision-making within the Air Force writ large...the skill and daring of the CSAR aircrews to do things like descend below a 100 foot cloud deck over a lake and wire hop to the objective, or fly...platforms. Rescue and SOF are two different missions that leverage different skills for different purposes.37

  15. On Deterrence,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Military Doctrinairism" in ?.ilitarn Writ- ings by Leon Trotsky (New York: Merit Publishers, 1969), p. 38. -57- WHY PRINCIPLES OF DETERR ENGR? Lieutenant...Clausewitz, War, Politics, and Power, trans. and ed. by Edward M. Collins, Colonel, USAF (Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1962), p. 158. 22. Ibid. 23. As Leon ... Trotsky remarked in a 1921 pamphlet on military studies in the Red Army: ...A donkey in pilfering oats from a torn sack (the opponent’s least defended

  16. Social Media Marketing Guide For New Interns

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorinen, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was conducted for case company which provides accommodation, internships and practical help mainly for students in Europe. The purpose of the thesis was to create a social media marketing guide for new interns which introduces them for the social media marketing basics to promote the company. The purpose was also to find the best social media services and tools for the company to use for marketing. In this case author discussed with the company manager for the best solutions. Writ...

  17. Review of Barry R. Litman, the Vertical Structure of the Television Broadcasting Industry: The Coalescence of Power,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    author’s conclusion that the Prime Time Access Rule ( PTAR ) has "failed" (p. 48), since the proposal amounts to little more than PTAR "writ large...although not through ongoing affiliation relationships. It is not clear how Litman expects viewers to be made better off since his proposal, like PTAR ...Litman. 3One of the effects of PTAR has apparently been to increase the profits of independents, in part by permitting them to carry "off- network" reruns

  18. A luxúria como herança de Adão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Barreto Jardim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of whole middle age the religions speech express a battle between vice and virtue. This battle is represented in abundance even in iconography as in writting. This text treat about the sin of lust into Songs of Santa Maria, where we find some compositions about the sin of lust. Taking the Cantigas as an example, Y wuill do an analisys of Songs 336, according to the portuguese translation by Walter Mettmann.

  19. Military Review. Volume 83, Number 2, March-April 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA); and the Swed- ish International Development Agency ( SIDA ). IGOs, NGHAs, NGOs, and multi- or...of the hacker’s host nation. Israel esti- mated that damage caused by the globally distributed “Love” virus , including the disruption of national...Philippines) did not make virus writ- ing a criminal offence until after the event.43 Criminal punishment is particularly difficult when the hackers operate

  20. O perfume de mulher nas minisséries brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Balogh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian miniserials are considered “la crème de la crème” in terms of television fictional series. Research referring to recent formats show an expanding presence of women - professionals in direction, production, play-writting, etc... Besides these transformations miniserials show an increasing tendency to create complex, plural and frequenty subversive portraits of women in main roles (fiction, adaptation, biography, etc...: a significant contribuition to the representation of our identity throught fictional representations.

  1. Unlearned History: The Ineffectual Application of U.S. Broad Economic Sanctions Against Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    by sanctions has increased poverty , unemployment, inflation , and led to Presidents Assad’s reduction and tailoring of government services. 49 The...fundamentally due to the high cost of compliance required of Syrian leaders, external third party support sustaining the Syrian government, and the Syrian...government’s ability to internally shift sanction impacts away from supporters. BACKGROUND The success rate of economic sanctions writ large has been

  2. The Interpretation of the Black Cat by Defamiliarization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Meng-nan

    2016-01-01

    Defamiliarization, the core theory of Russian formalism, emphasizes specific effects in a literary work by adopting fresh perspective to change readers’automatic and practical perception to an unfamiliar one. Edgar allan poe is one of the writ-ers who applied defamiliarization in his writing The Black Cat to help improve the literariness of a literature, break the set pat-tern and attract readers attention on modern people’s twisted personality and dark inner world.

  3. Inheritance of the Southern Literary Tradition——A Comparative Study of The Fall of the House of Usher and A Rose for Emily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷婷; 孔庆荣; 徐婷

    2008-01-01

    This thesis mainly compares and analyses the elements of The Gothic novel in two typical short stories, Poe's The Fall of the House of Usher and Faulknet's A Rose for Emily. Edgar Allan Poe and William Faulkner, both are known for their writ- ings of Gothic story. This thesis attempts to explore some gothic characteristics and mainly focuses on the demonstration of gothic horror in these two works. Furthermore, both authors use narration and symbolism to achieve the success.

  4. Some Renaissance, Baroque, and contemporary cultural elaborations of the art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimler, David L

    2013-12-01

    The target article addresses historical and present-day mnemotechnics as a practice. It also deserves scrutiny as culture writ small. For would-be Hermetic adepts of the Renaissance and Baroque, the ancient art of memory (AAOM) provided both an iconography and a projective-test vision of possibilities. In contemporary fiction, Memory Palaces become a metaphor for the workings of mind, of culture, and of information technology.

  5. A Market Failure Perspective on Value Creation in PSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lowe, Gregory Ferrell; Lund, Anker Brink

    2014-01-01

    Public service media is present in most countries because public intervention of this kind compensates market-failure by providing merit goods that are not provided by commercial players to the public writ large. Nonetheless, PSM is often regarded as a negative for private media providers...... in electronic media. This chapter outlines the market failure thesis to consider the ways and degrees to which it is still valid for broadcasting (PSB), and important whether there are grounds for its application in broadband (PSM)....

  6. The Story of a Souvenir Badge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    LAST year I received a neatlywritten letter from the Bei-jing Language Institute.Itwas obviously from a foreigner.Iwas surprised as I looked at theenvelope.Who could have writ-ten it?Having opened the letter,I dis-covred it wsa from a French girlnamed Dorminigue.“Mr Wen,” shewrote,″I want to visit you.Pleaselet me know when would be aconvenient time.″

  7. Astronautics:the physics of space flight

    OpenAIRE

    McClintock, P. V. E.

    2012-01-01

    Space flight provides beautiful examples of the Newtonian dynamics that teachers of physics have always wanted to demonstrate for their students – the consequences of Newton’s Laws and gravitation writ large, and with the effect of dissipation also coming in at the launch of the spacecraft and (especially) duringmits re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere. For physicists, the basic principles of space flight are self-evident, but how best to apply them is far less obvious.

  8. Humanities in Oliver’s Personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓龙

    2014-01-01

    Dickens, a great realist novelist in his time, captured the popularity as no other novelist had done. And Oliver Twist, one of his successful works, greatly displays his genius in the novel. Oliver is a perfect figure created by Dickens. In this paper, we will discuss the humanities by analyzing Oliver’s personality and thus build a better understanding of the novel and the great writ-er Dickens.

  9. Human Lives Are More Valuable Than Material Possessions--My Reflections on "Face to Face with Hurricane Camille"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾嘉祖

    1985-01-01

    @@ "Face to face with HurricaneCamille" is a piece of narration writ-ten by Joseph P. Blank. It has beenadopted by text-book compilers ofvarious countries ever since its firstpublication in The Readers Digest,March 1970. As early as 1973, Nat-ali C. Moreda, Katherlne M. Sin-clair andNancy J.Sparks put it intoa set of text-books entitled New Advanced.

  10. PERAN PEMERINTAH DAERAH TERHADAP PERLINDUNGAN ANAK SEBAGAI PEKERJA RUMAH TANGGA ANAK DI YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    GINTING, YOHANA RIBKA BR

    2015-01-01

    Legal writting / thesis is one form of scientific works made by undergraduate students of law. Protection of Domestic Workers in Yogyakarta has been stipulated in Regulation No. 31 year 2010 Governor and Mayor Regulation No. 48 of 2011, but for children who work as domestic workers there are no legal protection. So it can be encapsulated in the tittle of the thesis that the Local Government Role of Judicial Review against the Protection of Children as Domestic Workers. This research normative...

  11. Comments on the Development of Computational Mathematics in Czechoslovakia and in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    scientist University was likely m mlsom Iosoaz by in this direction was Z . hant, professor of the KrIlton, from Prachatieo (In Czechoelovakia) writ...research groups twr built and another geeration ticity modules creep and relaxation properties, of yon reserhehrs edted. etc. Thi leads to the creation...that althoug the theory (12] VItdsek. Z ., Uber die quasistationire of variational method was ve=7 advanced. the entire Lasting der

  12. High Frontier, The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 3, Number 2, March 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Invitation to the inauguration of Spaceport Sweden,” http:// www.ssc.se/esrange. Sir Richard Branson of Virgin Galactic is a partner in using...Budget (OMB). Writ- ing to President Richard M. Nixon about recommendations of the OMB staff to cancel the two remaining Apollo flights and to not...Vick, Check Six Begins on the Ground – Responding to the Evolving Ground Threat to US Air Force Bases (Rand, 1995). 6 Richard A. Paulsen, The Role of

  13. Processing of Byzantine Neume Notation in Ancient Historical Manuscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Laskov, Lasko

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the principal results of the doctoral thesis “Recognition of neume notation in historical documents” by Lasko Laskov (Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at Bulgarian Academy of Sciences), successfully defended before the Specialized Academic Council for Informatics and Mathematical Modelling on 07 June 2010. Byzantine neume notation is a specific form of note script, used by the Orthodox Christian Church since ancient times until nowadays for writ...

  14. Costs of denied health care services and of the lawsuits filed to obtain them in Medellín, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Nieto L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to retrace the legal route of writs for the protection of constitutional rights involving health care services and to determine the cost of such processes and those of the health care services invoked in a sample of such writs taken in Medellín city. Methods: a descriptive study with a qualitative focus for retracing the legal route of the writs, and a quantitative approach for the purpose of cost estimation. The 2009 SOAT (Mandatory Car Insurance fees were used for assessing the cost of the health care services. As for the assessment of the legal costs, we used the micro-costing approach together with the activity-based costing methodology. Results: for each $100 corresponding to the cost of the services denied by the health care services provider, the Medellín judicial system spent around $48 on each legal process. In more than half of the cases, the cost of the legal action was higher than the services’ cost. Discussion: the cost of the legal process involving the writs for the protection of constitutional rights regarding health care services that were filed in the country between 1999 and 2009 could represent 2% of the budget circulating throughout the entire health system. This cost is just a part of the transaction costs generated by the health care services providers’ breach of the social contract established by the Colombian Constitution. Furthermore, in most cases there is also a breach of the private contract between these service providers and the health system users.

  15. 遗传资源知识产权保护的正当性分析%The Analysis of the Legitimacy of Intellectual Property Rights Protection of Genetic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鲁艳

    2015-01-01

    Genetic resources are important biological resources in the 21st century, and how to protect the genetic resources is a prereq-uisite for countries to compete .Genetical resources can be used by the biotechnology industrialization production and its value is hard to estimate.The importance of genetic resources and the continuous "biopiracy"phenomenon in recent years also shows the necessity of the protection .The protection of intellectual property rights on genetical resources , no matter from the social contract theory , the basic function of intellectual property law or from the concrete system such as the TRIPs agreement is justified .%遗传资源是21世纪重要的生物资源,如何对遗传资源进行保护是各个国家进行竞争的前提。遗传资源可以通过生物技术进行产业化生产,具有难以估计的商业价值。遗传资源的重要性以及近年来不断发生的“生物剽窃”现象也显现出对其保护的必要性。对遗传资源进行知识产权保护,无论从理论角度如社会契约论、对知识产权法基本功能重解下的分析还是从具体制度如Trips协议的制定来进行价值判断都是正当的。

  16. 亚当·斯密的人力资本思想%On Adam Smith's Human Capital Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶德磊

    2016-01-01

    Adam Smith regarded human skills and the improved dexterity of a workman as human capital;in fact,he formulated the basis of the science of human capital.Smith also explained the meaning of human capital from the perspective of education.Smith thought that the perfectly competitive market is the prereq-uisite to ensure the proper return on investment in human capital.And the form of return on investment in human capital can be diverse.Furthermore,given human capital has a declining tendency under certain poli-cies and environmental conditions.Therefore,the related statements of Adam Smith are still enlightening to us in the modern world.%亚当·斯密将人的生产技巧、劳动熟练程度等看作为资本,实际上论述了人力资本理论的诸多内容。他还从人的基本素养方面阐释了人力资本的内涵。他认为充分的市场竞争是保证人力资本投资正当回报的前提条件,人力资本投资的回报形式也是多样的。而且,在某些政策和环境条件下,既定的人力资本水平会出现下降的现象。斯密的相关论述对于我们今天仍具有较强的启示意义。

  17. The Escherichia coli Acid Stress Response and Its Significance for Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biase, Daniela; Lund, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli has a remarkable ability to survive low pH and possesses a number of different genetic systems that enable it to do this. These may be expressed constitutively, typically in stationary phase, or induced by growth under a variety of conditions. The activities of these systems have been implicated in the ability of E. coli to pass the acidic barrier of the stomach and to become established in the gastrointestinal tract, something causing serious infections. However, much of the work characterizing these systems has been done on standard laboratory strains of E. coli and under conditions which do not closely resemble those found in the human gut. Here we review what is known about acid resistance in E. coli as a model laboratory organism and in the context of its lifestyle as an inhabitant-sometimes an unwelcome one-of the human gut.

  18. Assessing Risk in Costing High-energy Accelerators: from Existing Projects to the Future Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are large projects funded by public money, developed over the years and constructed via major industrial contracts both in advanced technology and in more conventional domains such as civil engineering and infrastructure, for which they often constitute one-of markets. Assessing their cost, as well as the risk and uncertainty associated with this assessment is therefore an essential part of project preparation and a justified requirement by the funding agencies. Stemming from the experience with large circular colliders at CERN, LEP and LHC, as well as with the Main Injector, the Tevatron Collider Experiments and Accelerator Upgrades, and the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab, we discuss sources of cost variance and derive cost risk assessment methods applicable to the future linear collider, through its two technical approaches for ILC and CLIC. We also address disparities in cost risk assessment imposed by regional differences in regulations, procedures and practices.

  19. Business models for Serious Games developers - transition from a product centric to a service centric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Jannicke Baalsrud; Wiesner, Stefan; Sanchez, Rosa Garcia

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the serious games industry, up to now the most commonly used business models (BM) among developers representing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) consists in offering an individual product to the customer, based on tailored one-of a kind production. Such production has high...... costs and low re-usability and leads to a long time-to-market. For an industry dealing with products highly dependent on technological advances, this implies high risks for failure and thus being put out of business. Consequently, an increasing number of Serious Games (SG) developers are struggling...... to survive. These trends are not specific for the SG development sector, but can actually be observed in several others, like software industry as well as the manufacturing industry, where a transition to less product-oriented BM can be observed. This article analyses first the current use of BM within two...

  20. Identification of Co-Segregating RAPD Marker Linked to Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm 18 in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-li; GU Feng; LI Tao; GAO Ju-rong; WANG Hong-gang

    2004-01-01

    The Pm18 gene of wheat confers resistance to the powdery mildew which is oneof the most serious diseases in many regions of the world. In this study, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to develop randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to Pml8 gene. Three hundred and twenty decamer primers were screened and one of them was identified as RAPD marker (S411600) linked to Pml8. Using the F2 mapping population from the cross Pml8 × Chancellor, the marker S411600 was shown to co-segregate with the gene Pml8. This marker can be conveniently used for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs for the identification or pyramiding of Pml8 with other resistance genes.

  1. Determinants of Sub-Sovereign Government Ratings In Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas JANNONE-BELLOT

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the determinantsof the rating assigned to sub-sovereignentities in Germany, Austria, Belgium, France,Italy and Spain, using a total of 92 territorial entitiesfor the 1989-2012 period. Multinomial orderedprobit estimation models were estimatedfor each specifi cation and agency.We conclude that the country’s rating is oneof the most important determinants of regionalgovernment’s ratings with a positive infl uence(as expected, and that the country debt/GDPratio is a stronger determinant for regions thantheir own indebtedness with a negative sign.Other relevant variables are population growthrate, unemployment rate, elderly people weight,regional public expenditure weight and size. Additionally,economic variables, such as country’srating and population growth are more importantto Fitch; whereas budget variables and size variablesare more relevant to Moody’s. Debt variablesand elderly people ratio are more importantto S&P.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIESON PLANNING AND COST MANAGEMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Stjepanović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient cost management is oneof the key tasks in modern management, primarilybecause of causal connection of costs, profitabilityand competitive advantage on the market. As amarket-based concept, Target Costing presentsmodern accounting philosophy of cost accountingand profit planning. In modern business, efficientcost planning and management is provided byaccounting information system as an integratedaccounting and information solution whichprovides enterprises with accounting dataprocessing neccessary for making businessdecisions related to efficient management inaccordance with declared mission and goals of anenterprise. Basic information support in the processof planning and cost management is realised bycost accounting module which is a very importantpart of accounting information system in everyenterprise. The cost accounting module as asegment of an integral information system, providescost monitoring by type, place and bearer.

  3. MORPHOLOGY CATEGORY OF GEOMAGNETIC STORMS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC CLOUDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章公亮

    1991-01-01

    Six typical geomagnetic storms are analyzed from the aspect of varieties of morphologycategories of magnetic storms with sudden commencement caused by interplanetary magneticclouds. The main conclusions obtained are drawn. The high-density structure in front ofmagnetic cloud is an important factor in determining the property of the initial phase ofgeomagnetic storm. Under similar conditions for the magnetic field of magnetic cloud, thevelocities of both the background solar wind and the magnetic cloud affect the developmentand intensity of magnetic storm. The onset and recovery of strong main phase are control-led by the orientation of the field vector inclination with respect to the ecliptic plane. Oneof the main features of the storm generated from a positive magnetic cloud is the long-delayed main phase. The solar wind streams behind the magnetic cloud keep affecting therecovery of main phase of magnetic storm.

  4. Route Elimination Heuristic for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Csiszár

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a route elimination (RE algorithm for thevehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. The problem has two objectives, oneof them is the minimal number of routes the other is the minimal cost. To cope with theseobjectives effectively two-phase solutions are often suggested in the relevant literature. Inthe first phase the main focus is the route elimination, in the second one it is the costreduction. The algorithm described here is a part of a complete VRPWT study. The methodwas developed by studying the graph behaviour during the route elimination. For thispurpose a model -called “Magic Bricks” was developed. The computation results on theSolomon problem set show that the developed algorithm is competitive with the best ones.

  5. IDS in Telecommunication Network using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Abdelhamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Data Security has become a very serious part of any organizational information system.Internet threatshavebecome moreintelligentso itcan deceivethe basic security solutions such as firewalls and antivirusscanners.To enhance the overall security of the networkan additional security layer such asintrusiondetection system(IDShas to be added.The anomaly detection IDSisa typeof IDS thatcandifferentiatebetweennormal and abnormal in thedata monitored. This paper proposes two types of IDS, oneof themcanbeusedasa network intrusion detection system(NIDS with overallsuccess (0.9161 and highdetection rate (0.9288 andtheothertypecanalso beusedasa host intrusion detection system(HIDS withoverall success (0.8493 and very high detection rate (0.9628using NSL-KDD data set

  6. Challenges of "VoiP" Communication Systems for Air Traffic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Borković

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's dense air traffic and the worldwide move to FutureAir Navigation System (FANS concepts demand a high levelof modem and reliable Air Traffic Control (ATC equipmentto accommodate customer requirements now and in the future.The work tries to answer the questions that indicate the fact whya new VCS generation (Voice Communication System basedon VoiP (Voice over Internet Protocol has some essentialcomparative advantages related to the conventional VCS. Oneof the key arguments featuring the VoiP technology is its lowprice a~d wide application in modem communications. Becauseof the fact of the PC-based HMI (Human Machine Interfaceapplication, IP-VCS could easily be implemented in thenew A TM data network infrastructure. In the future, the VoiPtechnology development and VoiP VCS will have to prove thatthey are ready to meet the requirements of more flexible, saferand cheaper way of air traffic management.

  7. The Fourth State Power – Case Study: Pamfil Şeicaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel Teodorascu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first years of the interwar period brought a major change within the role that the pressplayed in the Romanian society. The politicians could not ignore the journalists’ opinions any longer.For many Romanians, to be a newspaper editor meant to defend the interests of the poor and of thedefendless people. The heads of the most important political parties were forced to allow the pressrepresentatives in the Parliament and in the ministerial cabinets. Thus the journalist turned into aprototypical dictator, and the whole press took its “fourth power” role seriously. Pamfil Şeicaru is oneof those journalists who had the great merit of having turned the press into a fierceful institution, thefourth state power, alongside with the executive, judicial and legislative powers.

  8. Piracetam improves children's memory after general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, Ułbołgan A

    2009-01-01

    Surgery and anaesthesia may account for postoperative complications including cognitive impairment. The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of general anaesthetics on children's memory and effectiveness of piracetam for prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The study included patients receiving different kinds of anaesthesia for various surgical procedures, randomly allocated to two groups. According to immediate postoperative treatment, the study group received intravenous piracetam 30 mg kg(-1) and the control group--placebo. The cognitive functions were examined preoperatively and within 10 consecutive postoperative days using the ten-word memory test. The study group consisted of 123 children, the control one--of 127. Declines in memory indexes were observed in all anaesthetized patients. The most injured function was long-term memory. The intravenous administration of piracetam improved this cognitive function. The study results confirm that general anaesthesia affects the memory function in children. Piracetam is effective for prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction after anaesthesia.

  9. Discrete Cosine Transform-II for Reduction in Peak to Average Power Ratio of OFDM Signals Through μ-Law Companding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kaur

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonalfrequency Division multiplexing (OFDM is the most familiar word intelecommunicationand wireless communication systems as it provides enhanced spectral efficiency than Frequency divisionmultiplexing (FDM.Although itissustaininganorthogonal relationbetweencarriers but highpeak toaverage power ratio (PAPRis oneof the main disadvantages of OFDMsystem.Various PAPR reductiontechniques have beenused,including techniques based oncompanding. Incompanding,-Lawcompandinghas potential toreducethePAPRof OFDMsignals.-Law Compandingtechniquepreserves thedynamic range of samples at low amplitudes.Anew methodnamed as precoding which ishaving less complexity compared to the other power reductiontechniquesis proposed to reduce PAPR.This paper put forward combinationof two existing techniques namely-LawCompanding Transformand Discrete Cosine Transform-IIprecoding technique.The simulationresults show that, the proposedcombinedscheme givesbetter result for PAPR Reductionand resultsin no distortion

  10. Traffic- Croatia Facing the Global Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mahalec

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic today is an indispensable part of our lives and oneof the basic preconditions of what is called social progress. Likeblood in our body it circulates across the whole globe and allowsfor the necessary flow of people and materials. This workconsiders the impact of traffic on the lives of people and on theenvironment, analyses the available energy sources and vehiclepropulsion systems and illustrates global climatic issues. Thepaper presents the methodology created by EU for monitoringof harmful emissions at the national/eve! and gives data on differencesin emissions of individualtransp01t modes. The trafficcondition in the Republic of Croatia is analysed and a thesis isgiven regarding possible solution of the stated problems.

  11. Ethnic Tourism -- A Helicopter from "Huge Graveyard" to Paradise? Social impacts of ethnic tourism development on the minority communities in Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Wu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1980s, ethnic tourism has been oneof the key industries promoted by the government of Guizhouprovince in Southwestern China. This industry has broughttremendous changes to the communities of local ethnic peoplesin destination areas, especially in improving their economiclife. However, although ethnic tourism does bring manypositive results to local peoples, it also has a negative sideas well. This paper investigates, from a local perspective,some of these impacts, taking the Miao/Hmong communities as acase study. The author contends that if ethnic governments andresidents want to sustain their culture and society, they musthave an awareness and understanding of both the positive andnegative impacts of tourism when considering a project intheir community.

  12. High School English Writing Skills under the New Curriculum%新课程下的高中英语写作技能小谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧杰

    2015-01-01

    According to a student's essay writing, pointing out that the majority of high school students in English essay writ-ing common problems, analyze their causes in order to find solutions to the problem.%文章根据某个学生的作文写作情况,指出大多数高中生在英语作文写作中普遍出现的问题,对其原因进行分析,从而找到解决问题的方法。

  13. How to Improve Writing Ability of Senior High Students%如何提高高中生英语写作能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月霞

    2011-01-01

    本文通过分析现今高中英语写作教学中存在的一些问题,结合教学实践,提出了紧扣教材,从词汇入手,结合听、说、阅读等训练,提高高中生英语写作能力的教学方法。%This paper analyzes the problems in current high school English writing teaching, combined with teaching practice, closely linked to materials, from the vocabulary, combining listening, speaking, reading and other training to improve English writ- ing skills of high school teaching methods.

  14. Exploration on Chinese Language Teaching of Vocational Education%职教语文教学的一点探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周素华

    2012-01-01

    In view of the current vocational school students' actual situation, this paper from the language basic skills, writ- ing that, reading in three aspects, should train students' applied skills, to enable students to become the social needs, compan- ies like talent.%针对当前职校生的实际情况,本文从语文的基本技能说、写、读三个方面阐述,着重培养学生的应用技能,使学生成为社会需要、企业喜欢的人才。

  15. Science and Technology: The Making of the Air Force Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    to E-mai l or phone h im anyt ime I reached an impasse in the research or writ ing. I took him up on that offer by frequently pestering him to...in research. —Gen Henry H. “Hap” Arnold I t was a perfect night for baseball on 9 October 1996. The power -laden Balt imore Orioles had come to...Wright-Patterson AFB 7. Material Lab, Wright-Patterson AFB 8. Aero Propulsion and Power Lab, Wright-Patterson AFB 9. Air Force Armament Lab, Eglin

  16. Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

  17. Sociedades agrícolas en resistencia. Los pueblos de San Miguel, Santa Cruz y San Pedro, 1878-1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Neri Guarneros

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural societies in the state of Mexico involved a form of legal resistance used by indigenous communities in the face of liberal individualization policies of communal property, particularly the federal seizure law of June 25, 1956. In this context, some residents of the towns of Santa Cruz and San Miguel created an agricultural association, as did residents from the town of San Pedro, to retain the collective use of their communal goods and acquire some legal capacity. This condition thus allowed indigenous peoples to present writs of amparo to defend "private" rights.

  18. Concurrent Programming in Mac OS X and iOS Unleash Multicore Performance with Grand Central Dispatch

    CERN Document Server

    Nahavandipoor, Vandad

    2011-01-01

    Now that multicore processors are coming to mobile devices, wouldn't it be great to take advantage of all those cores without having to manage threads? This concise book shows you how to use Apple's Grand Central Dispatch (GCD) to simplify programming on multicore iOS devices and Mac OS X. Managing your application's resources on more than one core isn't easy, but it's vital. Apps that use only one core in a multicore environment will slow to a crawl. If you know how to program with Cocoa or Cocoa Touch, this guide will get you started with GCD right away, with many examples to help you writ

  19. 以策略培训为基础的高职英语写作教学探讨%Research on the Voctional English Writing Teaching Based on Strategy Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管俊

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current teaching situation in higher vocational colleges,this paper points out to cultivate students’s English writ-ing strategies and apply those strategies into English writing teaching,to improve English writing ability of higher vocational students’.%基于高职英语写作教学现状,提出了培养高职学生英语写作的策略,并把之运用到写作教学当中去,促进了高职学生英语写作技能的发展。

  20. A CASE STUDY —A SUCCESSFUL STUDENT OF ENGLISH WITH IMPAIRED HEARING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In China,there is not one school that does nottake English teaching seriously.There is not one stu-dent who does not want to learn English well.How-ever,not many learners who succeed in Englishlearning,communicate fluently in both oral or writ-ten English,and much fewer reach a high level inhigh school years.Therefore,when we encountereda high school English lover who reached a very highlevel of English,our interest in knowing her natural-ly grew.

  1. Belbin role diversity and team performance: is there a relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Batenburg, R.; Walbeek, W. van; Maur, W. in der

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to test the relationship between team role diversity and team performance, as one of the main assumptions behind the highly cited and used Belbin model and test. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected among 24 teams of 144 students that participated in different rounds of a management game. All students performed a Belbin role self-test prior to the management game. Performance of the teams was measured by the grade they received for the year-end report writ...

  2. Betwixt and Between: Yup’ik Combat Soldiers and the Burden of Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Green

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eric Hobsbawm, the noted British historian, in his masterful account of modernity writ large, suggests that the 20th century was the most violent in human history, highlighting crucial connections between capitalist expansion and bellicosity. Over the course of the twentieth century, and in particular over the past 60 years, the United States has indisputably become the global master of war. A military budget and a weapons arsenal that dwarfs those of all other countries, alongside its repeated incursions into other sovereign nations, are alone sufficient to earn the title.

  3. Lectures on classical differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Struik, Dirk J

    1988-01-01

    Elementary, yet authoritative and scholarly, this book offers an excellent brief introduction to the classical theory of differential geometry. It is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students who will find it not only highly readable but replete with illustrations carefully selected to help stimulate the student's visual understanding of geometry. The text features an abundance of problems, most of which are simple enough for class use, and often convey an interesting geometrical fact. A selection of more difficult problems has been included to challenge the ambitious student.Writ

  4. Case Report of Writer's Cramp Syndrome Along with Myoclonic Epilepsy and Compulsion

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The writer's cramp syndrome is a kind of local dystonia which appears in the hands due to uncontrollable muscular spasms, making a hard and tiring job of writing for patients.Case Report: The present study investigates a 55 year old married male, a bank officer, who has been suffering from myoclonic epilepsy and compulsion since the age of 17, and a few years later developed the writer's cramp syndrome following a sudden stress. There is no report on the simultaneity of the writ...

  5. Aspecte privitoare la procedura prealabilă reglementată de legea nr. 554/2004 a contenciosului administrativ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TĂBÂRCĂ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Law regarding the judicial review of administrative acts states that in order to initiate an action in front of the courts with the purpose of challenging an administrative act, a mandatory internal appeal needs to be first conducted, preliminary writ of summons. The exceptions to this rule have been shown expressly. This paper aims to examine some aspects related to the special conditions under which the judicial review of administrative acts takes place, with an emphasis on the standing in this court procedure, the timeframes for lodging the action, and the penalty for going over this deadline.

  6. Writing Method of Literary Griticism%文学评论写作漫谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴瑜

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on writing, given the problem of writing first, and then tells some aspects on writ-ing literary criticism should pay attention, and the application of the methods described in the given example.%论文主要谈文学评论的写作方法,先给出了文学评论写作通常遇到的问题,然后给出了写好文学评论应注意的几个方面,并且对所述方法的应用给出了举例说明.

  7. The Ilimsky Ostrog in the Taltsy Museum of Wooden Architecture near Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Kradin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on archive and field studies of the remained fragments of the fort (Spasskaya gate tower and a chapel, the article considers an attempt to restore its plan structure and different objects: a shopping arcade, a writ hut, a complex of the tsar’s military governor’s yard, a tower, and salt and sable storehouses. With the help of field studies, measurements and photofixation we have revealed compositional, planning and design features of the fort (ostrog and its structures.

  8. On the Integration of Process Approach into College English Writing Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓斌; 肖青芝

    2009-01-01

    Writing classes being held rather routinely results in students' major problem of not knowing what to write when being assigned a writing task. With a review of the development of writing teaching in the United States, this arti-cle suggests that the process writing approach be integrated into college English writing in order to train students' writ-ing strategies. It also offers a new understanding of the teaching objectives of college English writing and some ideas about how to organize writing lessons under the suggested approach are provided for teachers.

  9. Education, Sociability and Written Culture : the case of the Society of Jesus in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Van Damme

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In a special Issue of the journal Annales, the historian Roger Chartier could draw up a review of the written culture history and underlined the role played by certain social groups in the diffusion of written culture in the cities. He distinguished two major elements in this evolution  : one hand “ The use of writing as an instrument of self-government and administration ” and on the other hand “ the link between religious experience and use of writting ”. In this tension, it has been intere...

  10. La inejecución de la sanción de arresto y multa dentro de un incidente de desacato por el incumplimiento al fallo de tutela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Cueto Estrada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hindering an arrest warrant serve and a fine in a case of contempt of court is a novel tool for legal scholars. Facing a first contemptuous failure to comply a writ for the protection of fundamental rights or tutela, this subsequently becomes a disciplinary measure confirmed by the judge who has jurisdiction over this matter. Research findings delineate the establishment of the criteria or guidelines Constitutional Judges must consider when pronouncing judgment about a contempt of court in the court of appeals based on the jurisprudence of Colombia’s Council of State on the case of EPS COOMEVA. Eleven court pronouncements were taken into account when it was finally decided to resort to the Council in order to demand its immediate enforcement in the different courts of the Colombian Atlantic Coast, with the satisfaction of achieving a positive result for the company without any other defense means – e.g. a writ by the way of facts- than Non-enforcement, which is less traumatic and faster

  11. IMPACT OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN LITIGATION CONCERNING ACCESS TO HIGH-COST DRUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Perez Galan, Ana

    2017-07-31

    The impact of health technology assessment (HTA) in the judicialization of the right of health has not been deeply studied in Latin American countries. The purpose of this study is to review the process of judicialization of the access to high cost drugs in Uruguay and assess the impact HTAs have had on this process. The methodology used for this study included a comprehensive literature search in electronic databases, local journals, internal documents developed in the Ministry of Health, as well as conducting interviews with key informants. Judicialization of the access of high cost drugs has been increasing since 2010. The strategy of the Ministry of Health of Uruguay to decrease this problem included the organization of roundtables with judges and other stakeholders on the basis of HTA, the training of defense lawyers in the use and interpretation of HTA, and the participation of a professional who develops HTA in the preparation of the defense arguments. A year after the implementation of this strategy, 25 percent of writs of protection were won by the Ministry of Health. Even though the strategy implemented was effective in reducing the loss of litigations, it was not effective in reducing the growing number of writs of protection. It is essential to address this problem in a broad debate and to promote understanding between the parties.

  12. An analysis on academic features of Zengguang Dasheng Yaozhi%《增广大生要旨》学术特色探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊华; 毕丹

    2012-01-01

      On the basis of Dasheng Yaozhi Zengguang writted by TANG Qian-qing, YE Hao collected Chanke Xinfa writted by WANG Zhe, and integrated into their own clinical experience made a book of Zengguang Dasheng Yaozhi, is the crystallization of the wisdom of the three physicians. From Qiusi, Baotai, Yangtai, Linchan, postpartum, pediatric nursing aspects, discussed in detail the academic features of the book, but also pointed out that the book exists some problems.%  《增广大生要旨》是清代医家叶灏在唐千顷《大生要旨》的基础上,采集汪喆的《产科心法》,并融入自己的临床经验而成的一部著作,是三位医家智慧的结晶。本文从求嗣、保胎、养胎、临产、产后、小儿调护等方面入手,详细探讨了该书的学术特色,同时也指出书中存在的一些问题。

  13. Being Poor in the Consumption Society%素心清谣:清贫自守与消费社会——读陶渊明札记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁枢元

    2012-01-01

    A healthy, simple lifestyle is gradually replaced by a fallen consumerism culture and causes severe damages to the earth. The relationship between consumption culture and personal happiness is subtle. The prereq- uisites of happy life are the harmonious social relations, appropriate work and independent leisure, and it does not relay on being rich. To save human civilization from such tragedy caused by consumerism, a role model is of great necessity. Tao Yuanming used to live a poor life with spiritual pleasance, making great contributions to human civi- lization with the minimum consumption, and his poems are regarded as the model of eco -literature.%一种健康的、淳朴的生活方式正在逐步被堕落的消费主义文化所取代,并对地球生态造成严重的破坏。消费文化与个人幸福之间的关系其实是微乎其微的,幸福生活的必要条件是和谐的社会关系、适当的劳作和自主的闲暇,并不绝对地依赖富有。要解救消费主义引发的整个人类文明的悲剧,务必保持批判的“反话语”,给消费社会举荐一个高尚、纯洁的灵魂,本文认定那就是中国的伟大诗人陶渊明。他曾经在贫苦生活中获取精神的最高愉悦,在最低“消费”的前提下,为人类文化作出最大贡献。陶渊明的清贫操守更接近道家精神。“清”,则有益于精神生态的陶冶,“贫”则有助于自然生态的养护。陶渊明的诗歌也应视为“生态文学”的楷模。

  14. Practical Experience and Enlightenment of Foreign Science and Technology Museum Open Free%国外科技馆免费开放的实践探索及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危怀安; 程杨; 吴秋凤

    2013-01-01

    By examining the official site of the world-renewned science and technology museum,such as the national air and space museum,London science museum,the Questacon and the Ontario science center,by searching and mining spo-radic information and fragmented information,collating and extracting these famous science and technology museum free-open policies and practice initiatives,the study found that limited free with the difference in charges is a combination of the basic open-door policy practiced by science and technology museum,adequate and relatively stable funding is the prereq-uisite of running science and technology museum,innovative conventional project and expand extension services business is the fundamental guarantee of the open-free policy of science and technology museum,establishing a high moral volunteer team is the strong support of the operation of the science and technology museum. The study puts some enlightenment in or-der to provide some useful references for the sustainable development of China’ s science and technology museum.%通过考察美国国家航空和航天博物馆、伦敦科学博物馆、澳大利亚国家科学技术中心、加拿大安大略科学中心等世界著名科技馆的官方网站,搜索和挖掘其中的零星信息和零碎资料,整理并提炼出这些著名科技馆的免费开放政策及实践举措。研究发现,有限免费与差异收费相结合是这些科技馆实行的基本开放政策,充足且相对稳定的经费是确保科技馆开放运行的前提条件,创新常规项目、拓展延伸服务业务是科技馆免费开放的根本保证,建立一支高品德的志愿者队伍是科技馆正常运营的有力支撑。据此提出若干启示,为我国科技馆可持续发展提供有益借鉴。

  15. Application of WORD with Four Skills%WORD 应用中的四种技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王水成; 王敏

    2012-01-01

      Convenient,fast,efficient and aesthetic point of view,this paper introduces the four operating skills in the Word application,the Practice has proved that these techniques is simple,practical,for the work of the computer writ-ing,and electronic office has a certain value.%  从方便、快捷、高效和美观的角度出发,文中介绍了 Word 应用中的四种操作技巧,实践证明,这些技巧操作简便,实用性强,对于电脑写作、电子化办公等相关工作具有一定的价值。

  16. A Few Suggestions to English Writing%《英语写作》课堂教学探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建民

    2013-01-01

      English writing is an important skill for English majors. However, there are many problems in teaching English writing. The thesis analyzes the present situation of English Writ-ing class, and provides suggestion for improvement.%  《英语写作》课程是英语本科专业学生必修课程、同时也是专业培养目标中学生必须掌握的核心技能之一。然而,其教学过程中也存在较多的问题。本文从课程内容设置、学生学习现状、及教学措施等方面对该课程进行探索,目的是改进教学方式方法,提高教学质量。

  17. “LANZAROTE IS MY ROCK RAFT”: JOSÉ SARAMAGO AND THE MEMORIALISTIC WRITING OF EXILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Xavier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current paper offers a reading of the initial Saramago’s Diaries, writ­ten by the Portuguese José Saramago and published between the years of 1993 and 1997, as it rehearses drafting a possible relation between the role of the intellectual, as performed by the writer and the composition of an autobiographical literature. This latter is constituted by means of a unique acquisition and learning of memory, from his exile in the Spanish island of Lanzarote. Edward Said´s writings will guide the discussions on exile pro­posed in this work, as much as Philippe Lejeune´s, whose writings appear in the dialogue between autobiography and memory.

  18. An Analytic Model of Gas Turbine Engine Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    FILE OF DUCT FITTINGS (Y/N)?’)*601 FCRA ( MAl ) , 632 FORAT ( )YOU MUST ?NTER THE L-TTEr INDICATED IN THE BRACKETS’/ 45K -"" 0 ’:::: "i...1 4A. 36 J30 c NA:CH :LCw r0 sxs: .aFRfXI:EA:oeNI C WRIT ASO!E N RTC. AC .S oJO . AB rc ( * OMEB) EON S 3NOV Z ON ; III A’RFO N ME !AP.H /51,’LCSS3...INS77MUCT70AIS DES14A60 By 7wr idSER AND TyPE OF TERP𔃻, MAL USER 1, PRSN CALL SySrE", 7wMG SYS~rM Ci-AS51iF/C47/OA /3 ErEgm.INED BY 7)4’S SuaR~OwrltvE TqE S

  19. Developing school psychologists as agents of social justice: a qualitative analysis of student understanding across three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Gregory E; Briggs, Alissa; Shriberg, David; Furrey, Katie Jackson; Smith, Portia; Tompkins, Nicole

    2014-06-01

    This study employed a cohort-sequential design with four cohorts over 3 years to investigate school psychology graduate trainees' (n=37) understanding of social justice. Using consensual qualitative research methods, participants' perspectives on social justice writ large, social justice as it applies to school psychology, and effective aspects of social justice training in their graduate training program were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Field-based training though service-learning in diverse communities provided trainees with exposure to experiences that were viewed as instrumental in their understanding of social justice in general and as it applies to school psychology. Trainees described aspects of the training program that were viewed as conducive to educating school psychologists as agents of social justice. Based on findings from the study, a descriptive model of school psychology training for social justice is proposed.

  20. The Washback Effect of Automated Essay Scoring on Undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dao-yu; YAO Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the washback effect that automated essay scoring has on undergraduates of China. The main pur-pose of this study is to explore the effect that the automated essay scoring has on the writing ability of undergraduates. There are some significant differences in scores of composition between the experimental group and the control group. It is found that the holistic scores of the experimental group are higher than those of the control group. Some striking differences are found in syn-tactic fluency and complexity. It is found that the experimental group is more complex in syntactic fluency and complexity than the control group. The research indicates that, under the proper guidance of teachers, the AES can effectively improve the writ-ing scores of undergraduates.

  1. Multi-Dimensional Thoughts on English Classroom Teaching Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方丽

    2013-01-01

    English Language teaching involves various English teaching techniques in terms of listening, speaking, reading, writ-ing and the like skills. Traditional teaching ways are mostly discussed from that standpoint. Here, some new English classroom teaching techniques are introduced and evaluated in a dimensional perspective, which relate to such elements as the students, the teacher, classroom organization and management, and instructional strategies, etc. It makes English classroom teaching more effec-tive, thus improve English classroom teaching results. So, it’s advisable for English teachers to reconsider and reevaluate their teaching strategy and result in language classroom from a new multi-dimensional angle in order to improve English teaching effi-ciency.

  2. Reading fluency and speech perception speed of beginning readers with persistent reading problems: the perception of initial stop consonants and consonant clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellings, Patrick; van der Leij, Aryan; Blok, Henk; de Jong, Peter F

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the role of speech perception accuracy and speed in fluent word decoding of reading disabled (RD) children. A same-different phoneme discrimination task with natural speech tested the perception of single consonants and consonant clusters by young but persistent RD children. RD children were slower than chronological age (CA) controls in recognizing identical sounds, suggesting less distinct phonemic categories. In addition, after controlling for phonetic similarity Tallal's (Brain Lang 9:182-198, 1980) fast transitions account of RD children's speech perception problems was contrasted with Studdert-Kennedy's (Read Writ Interdiscip J 15:5-14, 2002) similarity explanation. Results showed no specific RD deficit in perceiving fast transitions. Both phonetic similarity and fast transitions influenced accurate speech perception for RD children as well as CA controls.

  3. 麻醉医学专业实习生临床实践能力的培养%Exploration of the dinical practice ability culture in the anesthetic specialist practitioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万丽; 黄焕森; 朱卓丽

    2009-01-01

    广州医学院第二附属医院麻醉医学教研室从入科教育、实习生在班制、临床操作规范化示教、麻醉计划书书写、病例讨论、专题讲座和兼职班主任职责等方面人手,着重加强实习生临床实践能力的培养,取得了较好的效果.%In order to culture more and more and excellent anesthetic specialists,we summarized the teaching methods used in our clinical teaching,including entroll education,on duty rule perform,clinical standard operation teaching,anesthetic-plan paper writting,cases discussing,topic lecture and dean duty of the specianist class,so as to improve the ability of clinical anesthetic teaching.

  4. Namibia's nuclear nightmare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.

    Since July 1987 Liverpool dock workers refused to handle shipments of Namibian and South African uranium. They are hoping to extend the blockade to other ports in Britain. The recipients of the uranium hexafluoride, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) have had to find other routes for their shipments of uranium. The main argument for not allowing access to Namibian uranium is to protect Namibia's natural resources, but it is also a stand against aparteid. URENCO, a uranium enrichment consortium with British participation is accused by the United Nations Council for Namibia of processing Namibian uranium at its Dutch plant. Writs have been served but it may be 1989 before the hearings take place. An effective blockade is called for throughout Britain. The routes by which movement of uranium from South Africa takes place is shown schematically.

  5. Finanziamento della produzione e "finance motive" in Keynes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Figuera

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether the Keynesian "finance motive" discussed in the 1937-39 articles represents a development of Keynes' monetary theory, as well as its connections with the analysis conducted in his previous writ-ings. In this study the financing of production is considered as a development of the Treatise on Money in the overall Keynesian thought. If elements were provided to complete the view of Keynes' theoretical work in the articles published after the General Theory, this development must be seen as strictly connected to the first of Keynes' main works. The consideration of Keynesian monetary analysis as a whole is also im-portant to understand better the basic role of the banking system. The issu-ing money from the banks is a tool for the start and the development of the productive process and a factor influencing the income distribution.  JEL Codes: B22, E12Keywords:

  6. An Analysis of Emotion Metaphors in Runaway—Based on the First Three Short Novels:Runaway, Chance, Soon%《逃离》中的情感隐喻探析——基于前三个短篇小说Runaway,Chance,Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余彦

    2015-01-01

    2013年度诺贝尔文学奖获得者加拿大小说家艾丽丝·门罗的短篇小说集《逃离》运用了大量的情感隐喻,这些隐喻对构建门罗的写作风格、情节主题、文化内涵,塑造角色,增强语言表现力,都具有重要作用.%A great many emotion metaphors are used in Runaway,a collection of short novels by Alice Munro,a Canadian novelist and the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2013.The emotion metaphors have great effect on constructing Munro's writ-ing style,plots,themes and cultural connotation as well as portraying characters and enhance the expressing power of language.

  7. Emerging New Physics with Major Implications for Energy Technology, Biology, and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2003-03-01

    In the past 15 years, reproducible experiments and prototype technological devices have emerged that may revolutionize much of physics and chemistry(despite the common perception that modern physics is on very solid ground and is nearing a "Theory of Everything"). This new physics has flourished despite very strong opposition by the entrenched foundational paradigms within physics and chemistry ( not to forget vested financial interests within academia). In fact, beginning with "cold fusion" (more generically low-energy nuclear reactions, LENR), one of the most important discoveries of the late 20th Century has been the irrefutable proof of the failure of the physics establishment to deal ethically and appropriately with potential and real paradigm shifts, when its "sacred writ" ( i.e. Its textbooks) -- are threatened with the need for massive revision.

  8. Cultural-historical activity theory: Vygotsky's forgotten and suppressed legacy and its implication for mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory—with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise—has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is only in the process of gaining larger levels of acceptance. Mathematics educators are only beginning to realise the tremendous advantages that the theory provides over other theories. In this review essay, I articulate the theory as it may relate to the issues that concern mathematics education and educators with a particular focus on the way in which it addresses logical contradictions in existing theories.

  9. 关于高一年级语文阅读教学中写作目标落实的可行性研究%Research on the Feasibility of Implementing Writing Ob-jectives in Senior Grade One Chinese Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      本文结合自身教育教学实践,从高一年级写作教学现状和阅读现状这一背景入手,力求总结出在阅读教学中完成部分写作目标的可行性方法,进而提高语文阅读课堂教学效率。%Combining with the writer's own education and teach-ing practice, from the present situation of senior Grade One writ-ing teaching and reading, this paper tries to summarize the feasi-bility of implementing writing objectives in reading teaching, so as to improve the efficiency of Chinese reading teaching.

  10. Categorías de la filosofía política contemporánea: Gubernamentalidad y soberanía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo José Manuel Castro

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the categories used by M. Foucault in his analyses of power in modern societies: repression ("Reich hypothesis", sovereignty ("Hobbes hypothesis ", fight, war, dominance ("Nietzsche hypothesis" and "governmentality". Foucaultïs lastest category describes normalizated societies and bio-politics. This category substitutes methodologically the "Nietzsche hypothesis" of "Il faut défendre la société". At this point, Foucaultïs work is linked with that of G. Agamben, specially to the concepts of "naked life" ("nuda vita" and that of "state of exception". From the point of view of Agamben works, this article approaches an area in shadows in Foucault writtings: that of "sovereignty" and "life" relationship.

  11. 结果写作法在英语为二语教学环境下的意义%On the Significance of Product-based Writing Approach in EFL Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹家庭; 高嵩

    2015-01-01

    英语写作主要有两种方法:结果写作法和过程写作法。二者在英语写作教学实践中各有利弊。在英语为二语的教学环境下结果写作法更加符合实际。%Product-based and process-based writing approaches are the two major approaches in English writ-ing, each having pros and cons respectively. This paper advocates that the product-based approach is more applicable in the EFL context after the careful studies of the relevant literature review in this field in combination with teaching practice in China, which is especially true for those students with poorer English level.

  12. On the Importance of Teaching Oral Writing Discourse%浅论口语和写作教学中语篇的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成亭

    2009-01-01

    口语写作中语篇是制胜的法宝.篇章结构、句型固然重要,但更重要的是灵活运用不同的结构、不同的句型更好更流畅地表达自己的意思.师生要充分了解语篇对有构词能力的语言技能的重要性.%Writing in the Oral Discourse is a magic weapon to win.Chapter structure and sentences are important,but more important is to use flexibly different structures and different pattems of better and more fluent in expressing their meaning.Teachers and students fully understand the ability to discourse on the formation of the importance of language skills.

  13. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an activity that is of utmost importance not only to researchers wishing to “see” various audiences but also for audiences writ large, wishing to know themselves.

  14. Practice and Thinking about the Scientific Research Capacity of Orthopaedics Clinical Speciality Postgraduates%骨科专业型研究生科研能力培养的实践与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李甲振; 张鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    通过骨科专业型研究生的培养经验,总结认为专业型研究生科研能力的培养可通过掌握科研基础、培养科研思维、实践论文写作等方面培养专业型研究生的科研能力。%Through summarizing the training experience of orthopaedics clinical speciality postgradu-ates ,we can cultivate the scientific research capacity of clinical speciality postgraduates through these ways ,that is mastering the scientific research base ,training scientific thinking ,practicing essay writ-ing and so on .

  15. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    CERN Document Server

    Chaisson, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Nature's many varied complex systems (including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society) are islands of order within the increasingly disordered universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. This is global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across 14 billion years of time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, non-equilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. In particular, energy rate density is an objective metric suitable to gauge...

  16. Neoliberal Justice and the Transformation of the Moral: The Privatization of the Right to Health Care in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Neoliberal reforms have transformed the legislative scope and everyday dynamics around the right to health care from welfare state social contracts to insurance markets administered by transnational financial capital. This article presents experiences of health care-seeking treatment, judicial rulings about the right to health care, and market-based health care legislation in Colombia. When insurance companies deny services, citizens petition the judiciary to issue a writ affirming their right to health care. The judiciary evaluates the finances of all relevant parties to rule whether a service should be provided and who should be responsible for the costs. A 2011 law claimed that citizens who demand, physicians who prescribe, and judges who grant uncovered services use the system's limited economic resources and undermine the state's capacity to expand coverage to the poor. This article shows how the consolidation of neoliberal ideology in health care requires the transformation of moral values around life. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  17. "Integrative Social Robotics"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to sketch the basic motivations for “Integrative Social Robotics” (ISR), as a new paradigm for how to approach research, design, and development of social robotics applications that are culturally sustainable. I argue that social robotics saddles us with normative....... On the ISR approach research in social robotics turns on what social robots can and should do--design and development are from the very beginning informed by value-theoretic and cultural research. ISR thus is a form of research organization that integrates robotics with empirical, conceptual, and value......-theoretic research in the Humanities, the Social Sciences, and the Human Sciences. The resulting paradigm is user-driven design writ large: research, design, and development of social robotics applications are guided—with multiple feedback—by the reflected normative preferences of a cultural community....

  18. Leach test methodology for the Waste/Rock Interactions Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.; McVay, G.L.; Coles, D.G.

    1980-05-01

    Experimental leach studies in the WRIT Program have two primary functions. The first is to determine radionuclide release from waste forms in laboratory environments which attempt to simulate repository conditions. The second is to elucidate leach mechanisms which can ultimately be incorporated into nearfield transport models. The tests have been utilized to generate rates of removal of elements from various waste forms and to provide specimens for surface analysis. Correlation between constituents released to the solution and corresponding solid state profiles is invaluable in the development of a leach mechanism. Several tests methods are employed in our studies which simulate various proposed leach incident scenarios. Static tests include low temperature (below 100/sup 0/C) and high temperature (above 100/sup 0/C) hydrothermal tests. These tests reproduce nonflow or low-flow repository conditions and can be used to compare materials and leach solution effects. The dynamic tests include single-pass, continuous-flow(SPCF) and solution-change (IAA)-type tests in which the leach solutions are changed at specific time intervals. These tests simulate repository conditions of higher flow rates and can also be used to compare materials and leach solution effects under dynamic conditions. The modified IAEA test is somewhat simpler to use than the one-pass flow and gives adequate results for comparative purposes. The static leach test models the condition of near-zero flow in a repository and provides information on element readsorption and solubility limits. The SPCF test is used to study the effects of flowing solutions at velocities that may be anticipated for geologic groundwaters within breached repositories. These two testing methods, coupled with the use of autoclaves, constitute the current thrust of WRIT leach testing.

  19. 安溪县水土流失及防治对策%Soil and Water Loss and Countermeasures in Anxi County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金堂; 查轩

    2001-01-01

    安溪县是福建省7个重点水土流失县之一,水土流失面积大,流失程度剧烈。从安溪县水土流失的历史和现状分析人手,对水土流失的成因及其发展趋势进行系统地分析,提出安溪县水土流失的综合防治对策。%Anxi county is oneof the seven main county with serious soil and water loss in Fujian province. The area of soil and water loss is wide and the degree is acute. Based on analysis of the history and present situation of soil and water loss in Anxi county, the formation and developing trend of soil and water loss is analyzed by the numbers and several integrative countermeasures of prevention and cure are put forward.

  20. HUBUNGAN SEGITIGA ANTARA BIROKRAT PENGUSAHA DAN POLITIKUS PARTAI DEMOKRASI LIBRAL (JIMINTOO DALAM PEMILIHAN UMUM DI JEPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sendra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, after The Second World War, the pressure groupscame from big companies, which had important role toredevelop Japanese industries. Due to the fact that theywere involved in establishing the economic policiessince 1950, the political life style was expressed asthough the domination of triangle’s strength, such as; theLiberal Democracy Party (LDP politician, bureaucrat,and businessman. Businessman (industrialist as oneof pressure groups wanted to control the government ofruling party to give political finance.The pressure group, such as, Zaikei (the groupof big companies, they got unilateral eases in terms ofregulation, clearance and act. Nevertheless, the trianglerelation was not permanent because the economic growthhad made pollution and urbanization. It made contradictionto the politician’s interest. The Japanese people prosecutedthe LDP politician and bureaucrat to restrain the pollutionand increase the social welfare and the life quality. Thepressure group used many ways to influence and to controlthe government’s policies by making Advisory Board(Shingikai which was consisted of professional andcommon people.The collusion, corruption and bribe scandal cameinto the fore involving the former Japanese prime ministerswho were from the LDP politicians. They were causedby some factors such as: (a the Japanese culture and thepolitician morality; (b the election system of the House of Representatives members; (c the competition amongthe faction of LDP to become the president of LDP, whichhave a chance to be the Japanese prime minister.

  1. The Gilt-Roofed Hall for the Tenth Panchen Lama Inaugurated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    ERDENI Choji Gylitsan.the tenth Panchen Lama,oneof the two highest-ranking Living Buddhas(the otherbeing the Dalai Lama)of Tibetan Lamaism,was bornin 1938 and died on January 28,1989.Before his death heserved as vice-chairman of the Standing Committee of theNational People‘s Congress He was a great patriot,a famousstatesman and an outstanding leader of Tibetan Lamaism.After his death,the central government allocated a large sumof money to build a magnificent gold-plated stupa at the ZhaxiLhunbo Monastery,in Xigaze, to accord with the wishes ofthe Tibetan people and to commemorate his great achieve-ments,his love for his religion nd his service to his country.The total investment for the gold-plated stupa was over64 million yuan and the construction took three years andeight months to complete The stupa,11.52 meters high andcovered in gold.leaf,used 614 kilograms of gold,275 kilo-grams of silver and 1,018 gemstones of various kinds.It has

  2. A Secure Web Application: E-Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina M. Lomte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has experienced remarkable growth in recent years hence security is becoming oneof the major promising task in the present scenario of e-business environment. Web attacks can devastatethe system within no time. More than 80% attacks are at application layer and almost 90% applicationsare vulnerable to these attacks. Traditional solution is not capable to protect the web from suchattacks.This paper handles different web attacks and also provide some tricks used by hackers to hack theweb world similarly it contains an attempt has been made to analyze impact of DOS, SQL injection, Crosssite scripting, Sniffing/ Request Encoding on web application in terms of throughput and response time etc.It also provides the best protection mechanisms for the said attacks. Our main aim is to analyze both Eapplication one with security (proposed E –Tracking system and another without security and find theimpact of all above attacks on both in terms of request time, response time & throughput etc.

  3. A Survey on Injury Incidence in School Children in Shantou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-PING LI; SHENG WANG; GE HUANG; JIA-YI LUO

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To study incidence characteristics and causes of injury, and its medicalconsequences in school children of China. Methods A total of 2 553 school children aged 7-16years were recruited from Shantou City in Gunagdong by cluster sampling method, and wereinvestigated with questionnaires on cases of injuries occurred among them from October 1, 1996 toSeptember 30, 1997. Results Injuries tended to increase with children's age, with an overallincidence rate of 37.96%, higher in boys than in girls (P<0.05); and 38.1% of children had more thantwo episodes of injury during this period. Falls took leading place of injury incidence both in boys andgirls and in all age groups. Most injuries occurred when they were playing, sporting, riding andwalking at home or in school. Self-inflicted injury ranked the first place of all injuries, followed byhurt caused by others (classmates, sibling or others). Moderate and serious injuries accounted for 8%of the total with a disability rate of 121.4/100 000. Conclusions Currently, injury has become oneof the serious public health problems in China. For the improvement of children survival, it is crucialto reduce their injury to strengthen research on child safety and to implement safety-promotionprograms.

  4. Business models for Serious Games developers - transition from a product centric to a service centric approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the serious games industry, up to now the most commonly used BM among developers representing SMEs consists in offering an individual product to the customer, based on tailored one-of a kind production. Such production has high costs and low re-usability and leads to a long time-to-market. For an industry dealing with products highly dependent on technological advances, this implies high risks for failure and thus being put out of business. Consequently, an increasing number of Serious Games developers are struggling to survive. These trends are not specific for the SG development sector, but can actually be observed in several others, like software industry as well as the manufacturing industry, where a transition to less product-oriented BM can be observed. This article is based on an analysis of cases studies to outline how such a transition might be possible also within serious game industry, but also to discuss the threats and opportunities of the transition, both based on case studies as well as on comparison with experiences in other industries

  5. EFEITO DA SILVICULTURA PÓS-COLHEITA NA POPULAÇÃO DE Lecythis lurida (Miers Mori EM UMA FLORESTA DE TERRA FIRME NA AMAZÔNIA BRASILEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Taffarel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate of trees dbh > 35cm of a Lecythis lurida (Miers Mori (jarana population was evaluated in a 700ha area of natural forest after logging and applying silvicultural treatments in the municipality of Paragominas, in Pará state. Seven treatments were established: in three of them climbers were cut and competitor trees were girdled after logging; in two of them only climber cutting was performed; in oneof them the forest was logged; and one of them remained with no silvicultural intervention. The yearly diameter increment of the species was calculated from 2005 to 2009, considering also the crown shape of trees and the intensity of light on tree crown. Growth rate of Lecythis lurida was higher in T3 (only climber cutting’differing statistically from the T7 (unlogged forest. In the treatments T1, T2 and T3 where climber were cut and competitors-trees were girdled, diameter increment of the species was similar to the forest that was logged but not treated, although the trees with good shape and complete crowns receiving full light had high increment in those treatments. Therefore, one can infer that five years were not enough to conclude on the effects of the silvicultural treatments over the species growth rate.

  6. Rethinking community in the aftermath of communitarianism: outlines of a phenomenological path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pirni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n1p1Three decades after it arose, the contemporary Communitarianism and the questions it raised still appear to beworthy of serious attention. In an attempt to confront this legacy, the first part of the present essay seeks to propose aredefinition of the concept of community. It does so by setting itself two key phenomenological questions, which areboth devoted to the concept of sharing. The first question asks how something can be shared amongst multiplebeings who are divided by emotional, ethical, religious, linguistic and ethnic differences. The second and no lessfundamental question, in turn, asks what people have to share in the first place. The second part of the essay invokesa familiar Kantian distinction in order to sketch out and discuss a proposed ‘semantics of sharing’. This semanticmodel is intended to clarify and enrich the questions surrounding the ‘integration of the self’, which constitutes oneof the most central aspects of the human being’s need for sociality.

  7. Necessity of Proper Lashing of Containers on the Ship's Deck as Part of Optimization of the Sea Voyage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Radišić

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available These days we are witnessing an increase of container trafficin general and at sea in particular. In order to economizetheir business the ship owners are building bigger container vesselswhich can carry up to 8000 TEUs (Maersk line and otherbig carriers are following suit. On the drawing board is the vesselof 12000 TEUs from the mentioned ship owner. Obviously,such large quantity of containers requires highly efficient lashingequipment in order to secure them, particularly thosestowed on the deck Under the deck, almost as a rule all contemporarycontainer ships have cell guides as securing devices.Attention in this work is focused on container lashing systemexposed on the ship's deck and the relevant forces acting on thelash system during transportation at sea. Once containers areloaded on the ship's deck they should be safely secured by oneof the lashing systems in order to prevent damage and that is theprincipal task of the lashing equipment engaged within theframe of the lash system. In order to fulfill its objective theforces acting on the container should be properly calculated.The acting forces, their influence and the way of calculatingthem have been explained for all the major ship movementsand suggestions for optimum lashing equipment are given.

  8. NEW DESCRIPTION OF MICROCRACK DAMAGE BASED ON CONSERVATION LAWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宜亨

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new description for brittle solids with micro-cracks under plane strain assumption. The basic idea is to extend the conservationlaws such as the Jj-vector and M-integral analysis used in single crack problems tostrongly interacting crack problems. The M-integral contains two distinct parts. Oneof them is a summation from the well-known relation between the M-integral and thestress intensity factors (SIF) at both tips of each crack. The other, called as theadditional contribution, is obtained from the two components of the Jj-vector andthe coordinates of each microcrack center in a global system. Of great significanceis the clarification of the confusion about the dependence of the M-integral on theorigin selection of global coordinates, provided that the vector vanishes at infinityand that the closed contour chosen to calculate the integral and the vector enclosesall the microcracks completely. The M-integral is equivalent to the decrease of thetotal potential energy of the microcracking solids with the strong interaction beingtaken into account. The M-integral analysis, from a physical point of view, doesplay an important role in evaluating the damage level of brittle solids with stronglyinteracting microcracks.

  9. Discovery of Patterns and evaluation of Clustering Algorithms in SocialNetwork Data (Face book 100 Universities through Data Mining Techniques and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy.P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Data mining involves the use of advanced data analysis tools to find out new, suitable patterns and projectthe relationship among the patterns which were not known prior. In data mining, association rule learningis a trendy and familiar method for ascertaining new relations between variables in large databases. Oneof the emerging research areas under Data mining is Social Networks. The objective of this paper focuseson the formulation of association rules using which decisions can be made for future Endeavour. Thisresearch applies Apriori Algorithm which is one of the classical algorithms for deriving association rules.The Algorithm is applied to Face book 100 university dataset which has originated from Adam D’Angelo ofFace book. It contains self-defined characteristics of a person including variables like residence, year, andmajor, second major, gender, school. This paper to begin with the research uses only ten Universities andhighlights the formation of association rules between the attributes or variables and explores theassociation rule between a course and gender, and discovers the influence of gender in studying a course.This paper attempts to cover the main algorithms used for clustering, with a brief and simple description ofeach.The previous research with this dataset has applied only regression models and this is the first time toapply association rules.

  10. Statin use and risk of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharti Chogtu; Rahul Magazine; KL Bairy

    2015-01-01

    The 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductaseinhibitors, statins, are widely used in the primary andsecondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases tolower serum cholesterol levels. As type 2 diabetesmellitus is accompanied by dyslipidemia, statins havea major role in preventing the long term complicationsin diabetes and are recommended for diabetics withnormal low density lipoprotein levels as well. In 2012,United States Food and Drug Administration releasedchanges to statin safety label to include that statinshave been found to increase glycosylated haemoglobinand fasting serum glucose levels. Many studies doneon patients with cardiovascular risk factors have shownthat statins have diabetogenic potential and the effectvaries as per the dosage and type used. The variousmechanisms for this effect have been proposed and oneof them is downregulation of glucose transporters bythe statins. The recommendations by the investigatorsare that though statins can have diabetogenic risk,they have more long term benefits which can outweighthe risk. In elderly patients and those with metabolicsyndrome, as the risk of diabetes increase, the statinsshould be used cautiously. Other than a subset ofpopulation with risk for diabetes; statins still have longterm survival benefits in most of the patients.

  11. SUSTAINABLE ORIGINS IN ARCHITECTURE OF FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Zbašnik-Senegačnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Frank Lloyd Wright is the greatest American architect and oneof the greatest architects the world. His career began at theend of the 19th century, during the great architectural boom inChicago, under the mentorship of Louis Henry Sullivan, fromwhom he adopted and then perfected the concepts of organicarchitecture and the Prairie house. During the Depressionyears, Wright developed a cheaper and simpler variant of thePrairie house: the Usonian house.Wright's architecture is characterised by an entirely newapproach to building design, particularly the design of houses.He reduced the number of rooms by combining their functionsin a large living space with a central fireplace. He used largeglazed areas to connect the external environment of the housewith the interior. The natural environment of the prairie wasthe inspiration for the horizontal lines that characterised hisarchitecture. His buildings are low in height, close to humanscale and with a great feeling for the natural setting in whichthey are built. He selected materials from the surroundingarea and the principal decoration of his architecture was thenatural structure of the material.The paper presents the ideas of organic architecture, thePrairie house, the Usonian house, along with the best examplesof Wright's architecture and the criteria he employed in theselection of materials and construction technologies. Theenvironmental aspect of his philosophy of the use of materialsis considered in the discussion section.Wright may be considered a pioneer of sustainable architecture.

  12. ESTUDO DA SUSTENTABILIDADE EMPRESARIAL: O CASO DE UMA COOPERATIVA GAÚCHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marques Rossetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leading companies to the achievement of the socio-environmental sustainability has been oneof the greatest challenges in the business management.In this context, the aim of the presentresearch was to create a map of variables related to the environmental sustainability indexformulated to a cooperative in Rio Grande do Sul. The main presumptions of the Model to theStrategic Planning for the Business Sustainability–PEPSE Model were used, as well as itsstrategic diagnosis that was used as a guide to the survey of the variables and the creationofthe synthesis map. The paper has been structured on a qualitative research, availing itself of astudy case, where the information has been collected through a semi-structured interview.After the variables map used in the PEPSE model was ready, the variables which had high,average and low evidence during the preparation of the strategic diagnostic of the object ofstudy were identified. The results have shown that the level of sustainability of thecooperative can be enlarged, taking into consideration the weak points of each variable sincethey work as an extra subsidy fro the business management aiming at the businesssustainability

  13. The assessment of the intensive poultry rearing farms within the context of the IPPC Directive (B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHĂIESCU Tania

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production in intensive farms has been steadily increasing since the 1970s. This has occurredthrough a number of factors including increased feed supply through greater use of nitrogen (N fertilizer andincreased use of supplementary forage feeds. Potentially, the integration of low-protein forage (e.g. maize, toreduce dietary-N concentration, or management practices (e.g. deep layer, cage tier, to reduce excreta to waste,water and soil, can mitigate environmental N emissions and increase efficiency. However, effects of thesemitigation practices on resource use efficiency and environmental emissions, such as greenhouse gas emissionsand N leaching, are becoming more and more substantial, as the production on wider basis increased. This is oneof the reasons for including the large scale poultry farms on the list of the economical activities with significantimpact on environment, being subjected to more and stricter regulations. The direct and indirect environmentalimpacts of poultry farming are currently being investigated by using simulation modelling. The model simulationusing a life cycle assessment approach indicates that N fertilizer increases production and economic efficiencybut decreases environmental efficiency through predicted increases in N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions.In contrast, using forage increases the use of land and production efficiency, with a decrease in N leaching andno increase in greenhouse gas emissions (per capita. A comparison of an average poultry farm applying the BestAvailable Technologies versus an older technology is provided, together with considerations regarding themitigation of impacts on various scales.

  14. Biosorption Reactive Orange 16 Dye using Sargassum glaucescens from the Aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Ebrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Dyes are oneof the most important environmental pollutants in industrial wastewaters. Due to the complex molecular structure, toxic removal of the pollutant is always challenging. Thisstudy aimed toevaluate the efficiency of Sargassum glaucescens In the adsorption of ReactiveOrange16 dyein aquatic environments. Materials and Methods: This research was a lab study. S. glaucescens was used as an adsorbent to remove dye Reactive Orange 16. The effect of various parameters such as pH, initial dyes concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, Equilibrium Isotherm were studied. Concentration was measured in the wavelength of 526 nm by spectrophotometer. Results: The results showed that removal of the color increases by increasing the amount of absorbent and contact time, and decreases by increasing PH solution and initial concentration of dye. The equilibrium constant was consistent with both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm but it was more consistent with Freundlich isotherm (R2 :0.989. Conclusion: This study showed that Sargassum glaucescens having high absorption capacity, was economic and could be effective as an absorbent in water treatment especially in the removal of dyes from waste and textile sewage and other manufacturing industries and dye consumption.

  15. REPRODUCTION OF MELODRAMA IN CONTEXT OF KADER AND MASUMİYET FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba ELMACI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The genre of melodrama has manifested itself as the most popular and thebest-loved genre for long years in Turkish cinema. Melodrama lost its popularitydue to both censorship and a decrease in people’s interest in mid 1990s. However, ithas been seen that melodrama has been reproduced both semantically andstylistically since mid-1990s thanks to the leading directors of New Turkish cinemawho have been trying to re-attract their audience to cinema. Zeki Demirkubuz, oneof these directors, is different from his generation with his tendencies to draw hischaracters into a disaster, extreme emotionality and agony. One of the most important indicators of such codes of melodrama very settled in our socialperception is the fact that they are still reproduced through films in the culturalrealm. The goal of this study is to denote that the codes of melodrama that the basiccodes socially internalized are still used in contemporary Turkish cinema in contextof the films Masumiyet (1997 and its prequel, Kader (2006 by Zeki Demirkubuz.The exemplary films have been analysed through the method of genre analysis.However, considering the fact that a single method would be insufficient for a filmanalysis, the method of sociological analysis will be applied to understand therelation of the film with social structure.

  16. Spatial Distribution of Some Soil Properties, Using Geostatistical Methods in Khezrabad Region (Yazd of Iran

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    AKBARZADEH A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important compartment of the environment that is particularly easy to compromise, sensitive to shortand long-term pollution and directly affects sustainability of ecosystems and human health. A prerequisite of ecosystemmanagement decisions is monitoring of the spatial distribution of soil characteristics that geostatistics methods are oneof the most advanced techniques. In the present study, kriging, cokriging and IDW methods were used for prediction ofspatial distribution of salinity, water at saturation percentage, sodium adsorption ratio and percentage of sand, silt andclay in soils of Khezrabad region in Yazd province of Iran. After data normalization, the variograme was developed.For selecting the best model for competing on experimental variograme, the lower RSS value was used. The best modelfor interpretative was selected by means of cross validation and error evaluation methods, such as RMSE method. Theresults showed that kriging and cokriging methods were better than IDW method for prediction of soil properties.Moreover, soil texture and saturation percentage were better predicted by kriging method, where on, soil salinity andsodium adsorption ratio were better determined by cokriging method. The sum of Ca2++Mg2+ and Na+ concentrationwhich were highly correlated with soil salinity and sodium adsorption ratio, respectively, are used as auxiliaryparameters in this study. Finally, the soil characteristics maps were prepared, using the best interpolation method in GISenvironment.

  17. Developing and promoting OKP production system: a JIT production planning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavati, Mehran

    2011-10-01

    The role of production in competitive system of market on one hand and the changing conditions of market on the other hand has caused the need for more developed planning in such environments. The general purpose of the present research is to realize One-of- a- Kind- Product model (OKP) that is developed in two stages. In OKP model presented in 1994 only one sample of each product is produced and only one production method is considered for each product. In order to make OKP model more real and to use it in promoting more production methods, the following developments were made in this research: 1-First Development: Considering various methods for producing each product. 2-Second Development: Producing more than one sample of each product, while considering various production methods for each product. These models promoted OKP model of 1994. They can be used in more diversified production methods in order to promote them. In present model, while describing the main OKP model new models are provided as well. The significance of OKP has been described in Introduction

  18. CAUSES AND CONTROL COUNTERMEASURES OF EUTROPHICATION IN CHAOHU LAKE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Guang-ping; SHANG Jin-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Chaohu Lake, located in the central Anhui Province, is one.of the five largest fresh lakes in China. Now it is one of the three most eutrophication lakes in China. The deterioration of its water quality has influenced the sustainable development of society, economy and environment of Hefei City, the capital of Anhui Province. A series of measures have been carried out to control its eutrophication, but it is still serious. On the basis of the lake water quality data from 1984 to 2003, the causes of the eutrophication of Chaohu Lake are analyzed. Studies indicated that the suitable natural conditions and human activities played a crucial role in the process of the eutrophication of Chaohu Lake.A great amount of industrial, agricultural and domestic sewage discharged into the lake is the main cause of eutrophication in the lake. Land use, soil erosion and shoreline collapse destroyed the watershed eco-environment and the terrestrial ecosystem of Chaohu Lake. And the building of Yuxi Gate extends the sluggish of the nutritious substance and speeds up the process of the eutrophication. From the view of systematic engineering and watershed ecology, a series of the countermeasures have been put forward to control the eutrophication.

  19. Neural Network to Identify Individuals at Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Magoc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The risk of diseases such as heart attack and high blood pressure could be reduced by adequate physicalactivity. However, even though majority of general population claims to perform some physical exercise,only a minority exercises enough to keep a healthy living style. Thus, physical inactivity has become oneof the major concerns of public health in the past decade. Research shows that the highest decrease inphysical activity is noticed from high school to college. Thus, it is of great importance to quickly identifycollege students at health risk due to physical inactivity. Research also shows that the level of physicalactivity of an individual is highly correlated to demographic features such as race and gender, as well asself motivation and support from family and friends. This information could be collected from eachstudent via a 20 minute questionnaire, but the time needed to distribute and analyze each questionnaire isinfeasible on a collegiate campus. Thus, we propose an automatic identifier of students at risk, so thatthese students could easier be targeted by collegiate campuses and physical activity promotiondepartments. We present in this paper preliminary results of a supervised backpropagation multilayerneural network for classifying students into at-risk or not at-risk group.

  20. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  1. A study on deep structure using teleseismic receiver function in Western Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺传松; 王椿镛; 吴建平

    2004-01-01

    Western Yunnan is located at the boundary of collision or underthrusting zone of Eurasian plate and is influencedby many times tectonic movements. With very complex geological environment and tectonic background, it is oneof the seismically active areas. In the paper, the teleseismic records were selected from 16 national, local and mo-bile stations, including 4 very-wide-band mobile stations of PASSCAL. And nearly 2 000 receiver functions wereextracted. Two measuring lines are 650 km and 450 km, respectively and across some major tectonic units inWestern Yunnan. It is indicated that Nujiang might be a seam characterized by underthrusting. The western andeastern boundaries of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombus block, i.e., Honghe and Xiaojiang faults, might be an erectionseam or collision belt. Panxi tectonic zone still has the characteristics of continental rift valley, that is, the surfaceis hollow and the upper mantle is upwarping. The tectonic situation in Western Yunnan is of certain regulation withthe interlacing distribution of orogenic zone and seam. The crustal thickness decreases gradually from the north tothe south and the S wave velocity is globally lower here.

  2. IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF COST ACCOUNTING IN COMPANY CRISIS MANAGEMENT

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    Nemanja Todorović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Company crisis could be defined asa process in a period of time that unexpectedlythreatesn the realization of the mission and goals ofthe company. As such, it has been present forseveral years both in highly developed countries ofthe world and in our country. The causes of thecrisis can be numerous, and the current crisis inour business is in many ways specific, and requiresa large extent and greater involvement ofmanagement structures in the detection andelimination of consequences caused by the crisis. Inthis regard, the management structure must focusattention to high-quality accounting - informationsupport, which results from adequately establishedconcept of managing accounting. Appropriate,timely and relevant information on economicperformance are necessary for its success, which atthe same time assume the role of control and/ordispositive crisis management instruments in thecompany. The information derived from managingaccounting as a quality base for decision makingshould enable recognition of symptoms and causesof the crisis, as well as crisis prevention andassessment. The paper recalls the specific and mostcommon causes of the crisis in the company, as oneof the important issues, especially in the globaleconomic crisis. In addition, the paper will pointout the importance of setting realistic goals andpossibilities to prevent the crisis. Finally, wehighlight the importance of cost accounting inorder to overcome the effects of the crisis.

  3. Targeting head and neck tumoral stem cells: From biologicalaspects to therapeutic perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is the sixthmost common cancer in the world. Effective therapeuticmodalities such as surgery, radiation, chemotherapyand combinations of each are used in the managementof the disease. In most cases, treatment fails to obtaintotal cancer cure. In recent years, it appears that oneof the key determinants of treatment failure may bethe presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that escapecurrently available therapies. CSCs form a small portionof the total tumor burden but may play a disproportionatelyimportant role in determining outcomes. CSCshave stem features such as self-renewal, high migrationcapacity, drug resistance, high proliferation abilities. Alarge body of evidence points to the fact that CSCs areparticularly resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.In HNSCC, CSCs have been increasingly shown to havean integral role in tumor initiation, disease progression,metastasis and treatment resistance. In the light of suchobservations, the present review summarizes biologicalcharacteristics of CSCs in HNSCC, outlines targetedstrategies for the successful eradication of CSCs inHNSCC including targeting the self-renewal controllingpathways, blocking epithelial mesenchymal transition,niche targeting, immunotherapy approaches and highlightsthe need to better understand CSCs biology for newtreatments modalities.

  4. CONCENTRATION ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET IN BiH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Borović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measures of economic policy in thefield of protection against excessive marketconcentration is one of the segments in the broaderfield of protection of market competition, while themeasures of the protection of competition are oneof the measures of overall economic policy of acountry. The reason for the existence andimplementation of measures in the field of marketconcentration as one of the segments of thecompetition policy is that imperfect marketstructures, generally speaking, lead to decline ofsocial welfare. The telecommunications market inBiH is dominated by three telecom operators withsignificant market power. However, the telecommarket in BiH is unique for geographical marketsegmentation, where the individual segments aredominated by single telecom operators dependingon the ethnic structure of population of a givenmarket segment. Hereafter, we analyzed thedevelopment of the telecommunications market inBiH and pointed to the current situation of thismarket segment. To measure the concentration, weused the two most commonly used measures of theHerfindahl-Hirschman Index of concentration(HHI and the Concentration Ratio (CR. Theresults directly indicate the existence of classicaloligopoly in the telecommunications market in BiH.However, for objective reasons, the analysis wasperformed using the variables that come fromoutside (supply, share in supply and totalrevenues, ignoring the internal variables ofenterprises (average and marginal costs.

  5. Succint analysis of the social expenses in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Maria Craciun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The satisfaction of social needs, aiming the improvement of life conditions for each person in a given society, defines anaspect of the importance of public expenses.1The amount of public expenses allocated for socio-cultural actions has an essential economic and social rôle and andhas effect on the education, the professional training and qualification, the cultural, artistic and civilisation level, the quality ofmedical assistance and infant mortality, the system of social protection. Transition is a crisis process, implying the demolition ofan order and the instauration of another. The results of the processes of economic transition may have sometimes dramaticeconomic, social and human consequences. The prolongation of transition and its high social costs have effects on many socialcategories and generate a climate of uncertainty and social non-engagement. Romania faced one of the longest process oftransition from all ex-communist countries of Central Europe. This prolonged and sometimes regressive transition represents oneof major handicaps for Romania in the attempt for emancipation and integration in the system of Occidental democracy.

  6. Hypertension – a public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is considered an important public health problem in Brazil,which is aggravated by its high prevalence and late detection. In addition, it is oneof the major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Hypertension, considered a “silent murder”, is the largest social problem indeveloped countries and in a large number of developing countries. Despite of knownefficacy and affectivity of various preventive and control measures, including thepharmacological ones, hypertension will continue, for decades, representing oneof the largest health challenges and high cost disease for individuals and society. Ifcontrol of existed cases, as well as control and prevention of risks factors for thisdisease are not implemented, this problematic will affect a large proportion of thepopulation in our country, which, in 2020, will have had increase significantly over60 years of age.Hypertension is a multifactor, multisystem syndrome. It can be cause bymultiple causes, being related to inadequate life style, constitutional factors, suchas: sex, age, race/color and family history; as well as environmental issues, suchas: sedentary lifestyle, stress, smoking, alcoholism, inadequate diet and obesity.Due to its silent course, a person can be surprised by its complications, beingnecessary learn to live with its chronic nature on an every day basis. Nevertheless,this type of problem is influenced by a series of determinants, including personalitycharacteristics, forms to face the disease, self-concept, self-image, experience withthe disease and health care professionals attitudes.One of the difficulties found in the treatment of persons with hypertensionis the lack of adhesion to the treatment, as 50% of the known patients withhypertension don’t treat themselves, and among those who do, few have controlledblood pressure. Between 30 and 50% of persons with hypertension stop treatmentwithin the first year of treatment, and 75% after five

  7. Radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideomi; Yamashita; Wataru; Takahashi; Akihiro; Haga; Keiichi; Nakagawa

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy(SBRT)has a locacontrol rate of 95%at 2 years for non-small cell lungcancer(NSCLC)and should improve the prognosis oinoperable patients,elderly patients,and patients withsignificant comorbidities who have early-stage NSCLCThe safety of SBRT is being confirmed in internationalmulti-institutional PhaseⅡtrials for peripheral lungcancer in both inoperable and operable patients,bureports so far have found that SBRT is a safe and effective treatment for early-stage NSCLC and early metastatic lung cancer.Radiation pneumonitis(RP)is oneof the most common toxicities of SBRT.Although mospost-treatment RP is Grade 1 or 2 and either asymptomatic or manageable,a few cases are severe,symptomatic,and there is a risk for mortality.The reportedrates of symptomatic RP after SBRT range from 9%to28%.Being able to predict the risk of RP after SBRT isextremely useful in treatment planning.A dose-effecrelationship has been demonstrated,but suggesteddose-volume factors like mean lung dose,lung V20and/or lung V2.5 differed among the reports.We foundthat patients who present with an interstitial pneumo-nitis shadow on computed tomography scan and high levels of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein D have a high rate of severe radiation pneumo-nitis after SBRT.At our institution,lung cancer patients with these risk factors have not received SBRT since 2006,and our rate of severe RP after SBRT has de-creased significantly since then.

  8. Assessment of adaptation strategies to flooding: A comparative study between informal settlements of Keko Machungwa in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Sangkrah in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of informal settlements in developing countries are located in high risk areas(low-lying lands and on river banks. This situation is caused by poverty and the inabilityof authorities to supply planned plots for building to meet demands of the growing urbanpopulations. Informal settlements have, in turn, triggered disaster risks, flooding being just oneof them. As a way of reducing impacts of flooding, residents in informal settlements have resortedto the use of structural adaptation strategies. Despite these efforts, the vulnerability of peopleand properties in informal settlements is increasing. This article aimed to provide an answer as towhy this is the case, by assessing and comparing the technical suitability of adaptation strategiesto flooding in the informal settlements of Sangkrah and Keko Machungwa and recommendingmeasures for improvement. Household interviews, physical observation (visual inspections ofsigns of damage and deterioration, measurements of height of physical adaptation strategies,mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews were the key methods employed. Generally,in both cases, it was determined that flood mitigation and risk minimisation measures throughstructural adaptation strategies were hardly achieved at the household level, as adaptationstrategies were constructed with little or no attention to acceptable technical considerations.However, when levels of compliance to technical considerations in the construction of houseswere compared between the two cases, they were found to be slightly higher in Sangkrah thanin Keko Machungwa. Residents in Sangkrah demonstrated a slight difference, especially in theuse of reinforced concrete (4.3% for constructing a building’s foundation, as well as in the useof ceramics (72.9% to construct the floor. In order to deliver technically suitable adaptationstrategies, efforts need to be directed toward: regulating and controlling the construction ofstructures for

  9. Effects of histone acetylation and DNA methylation on p21WAF1 regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yuan Fang; You-Yong Lu

    2002-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is regulated by interactions betweencyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). p21wAF1 is oneof the CIP/KIP family which inhibits CDKs activity. Increasedexpression of p21WAF1 may play an important role in thegrowth arrest induced in transformed calls. Although thestability of the p21wAF1 mRNA could be altered by differentsignals, cell differentiation and numerous influencingfactors. However, recent studies suggest that two knownmechanisms of epigenesis, i. e. gene inactivation bymethylation in promoter region and changes to an inactivechromatin by histone deacetylation, seem to be the bestcandidate mechanisms for inactivation of p21WAF1. To date,almost no coding region p21wAF1 mutations have been foundin tumor cells, despite extensive screening of hundreds ofvarious tumors. Hypermethylation of the p21WAF1 promoterregion may represent an alternative mechanism by which thep21WAF1/ClPl gene can be inactivated. The reduction of cellularDNMT protein levels also induces a corresponding rapidincrease in the cell cycle regulator p21wAF1 proteindemonstrating a regulatory link between DNMT and p21WAF1which is independent of methylation of DNA. Both histonehyperacetylation and hypoacetylation appear to be importantin the carcinoma process, and induction of the p21WAF1 geneby histone hyperacetylation may be a mechanism by whichdietary fiber prevents carcinogenesis. Here, we review theinfluence of histone acetylation and DNA methylation onp21WAF1 transcription, and affection of pathways or factorsassociated such as p53, E2A, Sp1 as well as several histonedeacetylation inhibitors.

  10. Czy pacjenci po przeszczepie nerki są świadomi konieczności stosowania ochrony przeciwsłonecznej?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojas-Pelc

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Organ transplant recipients are at 10-fold higher risk ofdeveloping basal cell carcinoma and up to 250-fold higher risk of developingsquamous cell carcinoma compared with the general population.Common risk factors include the type of immunosuppression, fair skin,male gender, older age and sunlight.Objective. To evaluate patients’ compliance with sunlight protectionbefore and after renal transplantation.Material and methods. The study covered 455 patients after renal transplantationaged 18-74 years. A special questionnaire was used to determineage, gender, place of residence, skin type (according to the Fitzpatrickclassification, hair and eye colour, and any episodes of sunburn.Outdoor occupation, frequency of sun exposure and residence in a hotclimate for a long time were taken into consideration for evaluation ofUV exposure. Information about use of sunscreens and protectiveclothes before and after the renal transplant procedure were also noted.Results. Before the renal transplant procedure only 20% of patientsavoided sun at midday (11 am - 4 pm compared to 64% of patientsafter renal transplantation. Sunscreens were used by 15.4% vs. 20% andprotective clothes 7.7% vs. 21.8% of patients respectively. After therenal transplant procedure 57.6% of patients started to use at least oneof the methods of skin cancer prophylaxis. After transplantation 44% ofpatients (p < 0.01 reported limiting time spent outdoors. 17.1% ofpatients started to use or used more frequently protective clothes(p < 0.0022 and 14.1% sunscreen creams (p < 0.0315 compared to thesituation before the surgical procedure. No sun protection such as protectiveclothes or sunscreen creams was still used by 78.2% and 80% ofpatients, respectively.Conclusions. There is insufficient protection against UV light amongpatients after renal transplantation, so further education is needed.

  11. Caracterização da Contaminação por Petróleo e seus Derivados na Baía de Guanabara: Aplicação de Técnicas Organogeoquímicas e Organopetrográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Graciano Mendonça Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guanabara Bay is the second bigger bay of the Brazilian coast. The bay is oneof most beautiful of the world and shelters an ample and protected natural environment,preponderant factor for the development of the region. Due the pollution of this ecosys-tem, today, the bay represents an important focus of environmental interest. In order todeterminate the preservation degree of the organic components of bottom sediments from Guanabara Bay, ninety-two samples were collected from these sediments, however, pre-liminarily, twenty-five samples were analyzed. These twenty-five samples were submittedto techniques of organic geochemistry (Total Organic Carbon - TOC and Rock-Evalpyrolysis to determinate the amount and quality of the organic matter, and microscopy(transmitted white light and reflected ultraviolet light. The TOC values of the twenty-fivesamples range from 0.04 to 6.1% indicating the high preservation degree of the organicmatter. The Rock- Eval pyrolysis data show Hydrogen Index (HI values from 25 to 249mg HC/gCOT; S1 values ranges from 0,02 to 5,6 mg HC/gR; Production Index (PI rise up0,5. The results of the microscopy investigation showed that occur a predominance ofamorphous organic matte (AOM over the palynomorphs and phytoclasts. The liptiniticmaterial showed a light yellow-greenish yellow fluorescence color. The percentages ofAOM, the TOC values and fluorescence color indicate a high degree of preservation of theorganic matter. The integration of the results from organic geochemistry and microscopytechniques indicate that the sediments of the Baía de Guanabara present very high hydro-carbon pollution, deposited in dysoxic-anoxic environment.

  12. KONSULTASI DAN PEMBINAAN AWIG-AWIG DI DESA PAKRAMAN JUNJUNGAN KECAMATAN UBUD-GIANYAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. G. Oka Parwata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As it is widely recognized that community empowerment in tertiary education provides a wide chance to keepin touch with the community members. This is in order to get new experience and to dedicate the knowledgefor others. This community empowerment activity aims at guiding community members of Junjungan village inGianyar Regency, Bali to reformat and to revise the substance of their traditional law. Traditional law which isknown as awig-awig in Junjungan customary village has been documented in written form. It also has been usedas the code of conduct for the community members of Junjungan customary village for 10 years. However, theawig-awig has yet not considered representative that it has not been responsive to represent the people’s need anddevelopment in the community. Besides, this village is located in a strategic area of Ubud which is known as oneof the tourist centers in Bali. As a result, the revision of awig-awig that makes it more responsive to communitydevelopment is significantly needed. The method utilized in this event is discussion and consultation in whichthe community members are actively involved in redesigning their awig-awig. The techniques on how to writethe articles in the traditional law are also the main focus in this event. All community leaders and communitymembers involved in this event and gave their support so that a new guidance in the revision of the awig-awigof Junjungan village is successfully made and redesigned. In addition, the event can be carried out on time basedon its plan and timeline.

  13. STUDY CONCERNING EQUILIBRIUM’S DEVELOPMENT AT A POST-PUBERTY AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius VAIDA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study wants to demonstrate that also atan adult age this motor skill utilitarian-applied –equilibrium, can be improved, knowing the fact thatits development can be realized in all conditions ofmaterial rigging. The study has been realized withthe help of two tests, the Matorin test and theequilibrium test with the device in a „T” shape andwas made on a pattern of 80 subjects that until themoment of the experiment did not have a specifictraining. The resulted data from the experimentdemonstrate us clearly that these skills can beimproved also at an adult age, equilibrium being oneof the motor skills very important for the man ingeneral and for the athletes in special.From the presented data both in the form of tablesand graphic one we can conclude that the motorskill equilibrium can be perfecting also at the adultage only if a well made training plan is followed, aplan that has as result the perfecting of sense organs.The development of the equilibrium sense and ofspace orientation has as result the increase of thelevel of general training.Perfecting the equilibrium can be realized with aminimum material equipment (gym benches,wooden beam etc., not being necessary a specialequipment, the condition that this motor utilitarianapplicativeskills to be educated is that the bodyaltitude during the exercises of equilibrium to be acorrect one, an important role being held also by theapplicative routes.The training process must has as workingmethodology the continuous and progressiveincrease of the motor actions complexity, of courserespecting the characteristics and means of theirformation, development and perfecting (educationsteps.

  14. Perinatal Outcomes of Newborn Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Dadashloo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcomes of such pregnancies have been rarely evaluated in our country. Adescriptive study was planned to assess the health and condition of neonates conceived with assistedtechniques in a one year period.Materials and Methods: At Royan Institute, Tehran, 443 women who became pregnant by oneof the assisted techniques in vitro fertilization (IVF, intrauterine insemination (IUI andintracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI enrolled in a descriptive study during 16 month periodbeginning on September, 2007. The sampling method used was non-incidental, consecutive.Questionnaires regarding the contents of the baby birth card were completed after interviews withthe mothers. The time from fertilization of the ovum until delivery was considered as the gestational(conception age. Pregnant mothers were under periodic evaluation until delivery. Women withstillborn babies were followed via phone contact.Results: From a total of 443 conceptions, there were 13 (2.9% pregnancies demised in utero(stillbirths and 10 (2.6% who died during the neonatal period. Additionally, 133 (43% infantswere born after multifetal pregnancies and 96 (31% infants were prematurely born. There were 106(34.3% infants with low birth weight (LBW; less than 2500 g, of which 83 (78.3% LBW infantswere multiplets. After completion of the study, 71 women were still passing their pregnancy periodand no assessed.Conclusion: The most important factor for untoward perinatal events was multifetal pregnancy. Suchpregnancies were more frequently complicated and higher risk. Low birth weight and prematuritywere more frequent in singletons conceived by assisted techniques in respect to control singletons.

  15. Effects of RSM and astragus on expression of Fos and Jun proteins in rat brains after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion%丹参、黄芪合用对脑缺血再灌注后脑组织Fos,Jun蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲友直; 高国栋; 赵燕玲

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of Fos and Jun proteins in rat brainsafter focal cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion and effects of RSMand astragus. METHODS: 30 SD adult male rats were divided into 5groups at random . Group A: sham-operated group; Group B: model group;Group C: treated with RSM; Group D: treated with astragus; Group E:treated with RSM and astragus. The immunohistochemistry and medicalimage processing system(MIPS) were used to measure the numbers andmean grey levels of Fos and Jun protein positive cells in rat cerebralcortex of 5 groups. RESULTS: ( 1 ) In cerebral cortex of group B , C , D, E, the numbers of Fos and Jun positive cells were more than those ingroup A and mean grey levels of Fos and Jun positive cells were lower thanthose in group A(P < 0.01); (2) In cerebral cortex of ischemic sidesin group C, D, E,the numbers of Fos and Jun positive cells were less thanthose in group B and mean grey levels of Fos and Jun positive cells werehigher than those in group B(P < 0.01) ; (3) Group E had more sig-nificant effects than group C or group D ( P < 0. 01 ). CONCLUSION:The expression of Fos protein and Jun protein in model group increasedsignificantly, compared with sham-operated group; RSM , astragus , RSMand astragus all could inhibit partly the expression of Fos protein and Junprotein after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion; Prescription of RSM andastragus had stronger inhibiting effects than RSM or astragus. It may be oneof mechanisms that ischemic stoke is treated by reinforcing Qi and acti-vating blood circulation therapy in TCM clinic.

  16. Old flying ice-rock body in space allows a glance at its inner working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    I am studying old, cold bodies of rock and ice flying through space, usually far, far away from the Sun. They are even behind the last of the big 8 balls we call our home worlds. (There were 9 balls a few yearsago, but then one of the balls was not considered a ball anymore by some people and he/she had to leave the group.)Because they are so far away from the Sun, they remain dark and very cold for the most part of their life.That is why even most of the very nervous stuff sticks on them ever since. With stuff I mean the little things that the Sun, the big 8 balls, we humans and everything else that is flying around the Sun ismade of. The nervous ones quickly change into something wind like andcan get lost. But the cold on the ice-rock bodies slows this down andthey stick around. This makes those ice-rock bodies interesting tostudy, they did not change too much since they were made.I study news sent back from a computer controlled box flying around oneof those rock-ice things that is now closer to the Sun. When thespace between such a body and the Sun gets smaller, it warms up andsome of the ice changes into wind like things. We find out how muchof what stuff is flying away from that body and at what time.Then I and my friends put those numbers into a big ass computer to findout more on how those rock-ice bodies work. Where does the wind comefrom? Do they all come from the same place or only some? Is it really the Sun's fault? How many cups of ice change into wind each day? Many questions.

  17. A QoS aware services mashup model for cloud computing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Ming Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With the popularity of cloud computing, cloud services have become to be application programming platform where users can create new applications mashup(composing the functionality offered byothers.By composing of distributed, cloud services dynamicallyto provide more complex tasks, services mashup provides an attractive way for building large-scale Internetapplications.Oneof the challenging issues of cloud services mashup is how to find service paths to route the service instances provider through whilemeeting the applications’ resource requirements so that the QoS constraints are satisfied. However, QoS aware service routing problem istypically NP-hard.The purpose of this paper is to propose a QoS Aware Services Mashup(QASM model to solve this problem more effectively.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, we focus on the QoS aware services selection problem in cloud services mashup, for example, given the user service composition requirements and their QoS constraint descriptions, how to select the required serviceinstances and route the data flows through these instances so that the QoS requirements are satisfied. We design a heuristic algorithm to find service paths to route the data flows through whilemeeting the applications’ resource requirements and specific QoS constraints.Findings: This study propose a QoS Aware Services Mashup(QASM model to solve this problem more effectively. Simulations show that QASM can achieve desired QoS assurances as well as load balancing in cloud services environment.Originality/value: This paperpresent a QASM model for providing high performance distributedapplications in the cloud computing systems.

  18. Genome-Wide DNA Binding of GBF1 IsModulated by Its Heterodimerizing ProteinPartners, HY5 and HYH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Dear Editor, In today's post-genomic era where direct targets of manytranscription factors have been identified, it is becomingincreasingly evident that transcriptional networks are verycomplex. Heterodimerization of transcription factors is oneof the several methods by which these complex transcrip-tional networks are formed. By heterodimerization, DNA-binding specificity and affinity, transactivation properties,and ultimately cell physiology might be altered (Naar et al.,2001). The formation of heterodimers has the potential torecognize additional binding sites and increase the rangeof DNA-binding specificity (Foster et al., 1994). Further, het-erodimerization also allows the production of new proteinconfigurations. For example, the protein STF1 from soybeancan dimerize with GBF proteins and this dimerization bringstogether the acidic region from STF1 and the proline-richregion of the GBF proteins into one binding element (Cheonget al., 1998). These results highlight the importance and/orconsequences of heterodimerization of transcription factorsat particular locus. However, to understand the complex tran-scriptional networks, it is important to investigate that howheterodimerization affects the whole-genome-wide bind-ing and transcriptional properties of a transcription factor.Here in this study, we have investigated genome-wide DNAbinding of bZIP transcription factor GBF1, and analyzed theimportance of its heterodimerization with HY5 and HYH forits genome-wide binding. We have found that GBF1 bindingsites are enriched within the 1-kb regions upstream to thetranscription start sites of target genes. Moreover, the bind-ings of GBF1 to most of its targets are largely dependent onHY5, while HYH only affects the binding of GBF1 to somespecific sites.

  19. Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation addressing focal chondral defect in adolescent knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xue-song; CAI You-zhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation(MACI)is the third generation tissue-engineering technique for the treatment of full-thickness articular cartilage defects.The aim of this study was to describe this new technique and the postoperative findings in adolescent knee with focal chondral defect.Methods The MACI consists of diagnostic arthroscopy and cartilage harvest,chondrocyte culture and seeding in tissue-engineering collagenous membrane,and implantation of the scaffold.Clinical outcome at minimum 1-year follow-up was assessed in seven patients(mean age(16.6±1.5)years;14-19 years)with full-thickness cartilage defects,with International Knee Documentation Committee(IKDC)score,the International Cartilage Repair Society(ICRS)score and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score(KOOS).Besides,MR imaging was performed with T1 and T2-weighted imaging and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled(3D-SPGR)MR imaging.Results Clinical evaluation showed significant improvement and MRI analysis showed that the structure was homogeneous and the implant surface was regular and intact in six patients,but irregular in one.Of all the seven patients,the cartilage defect site was nearly totally covered by the implanted scaffold.Conclusions These results indicated that MACl technique is an option for cartilage defect in adolescent knee joint,especially large defect of over 2 cm2.Long-term assessment is necessary to determine the true value of this technique.

  20. Respons Antibodi Sekunder Terhadap Penyakit Tetelo pada Ayam Petelur Pascavaksinasi Ulangan dengan Vaksin Tetelo Aktif (NEWCASTLE DISEASESECONDARY ANTIBODY RESPONSE AFTER REVACCINATION IN LAYER WITH THE ACTIVE ND VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Budi Kurnianto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Revaccination is required in order to preventNewcastle Disease (ND reccurence inlayers chickens. Oneof vaccine for ND revaccination is freeze-died ND active vaccine containing e” 106,5EID50. Revaccinationisdone to trigger a faster secondary antibody responses in layers and can achieve protective antibody titersagainst ND that can be monitored by a hemagglutinationinhibition (HI. The aim of this study was todetermine the ND secondary antibody responses in layers after revaccination with ND active vaccine.Antibody titer of 20 layers chickens of 20 week old were determined before revaccinations (week 0 andafter revaccinations (week 1 until week 9. The first vaccination was conducted using ND-IB (NewcastleDisease-Infectious Bronchitis at the age of 2 days through eye drops and subcutaneous injection at the ageof 5 days using a dose of 1 ampoule.Vaccination is repeated at the age of 20 weeks at a dose of 1 ½ ampoule through drinking water. Blood samples were collected on the wing vein (venous cutane ulnar and left for 5-10 minutes at room temperature.Sera were then collected and stored at -20oC until use. HI antibody titerwas determined by micro titeration system. The HI mean titers were analyzed by Duncan test. The studyresults showed that antibody titer before revaccination was3,47 HI log 2 and the HI titers after revaccinationwere 4,02; 5,22; 6,52; 7,85; 8,4; 8,6; 7,7; 5,92; dan 3,87 HI log 2 respectivelly at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and9.The NDV revaccination with ND active vaccine significantly (P <0.01 increased in antibody titer inlayers starting from week 1 to week 6, but decreased following week 7 to week-9. It can be concluded thatrevaccinantion with ND active vaccine increases the antibody titers in layer chickens.

  1. Lie symmetry and their conserved quantities of Tzénoff equations for the vairable mass nonholonomic systems%变质量非完整系统Tzénoff方程的Lie对称性与其导出的守恒量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑世旺; 王建波; 陈向炜; 李彦敏; 解加芳

    2012-01-01

    航天器运行系统大都属于变质量力学系统,变质量力学系统的对称性和守恒量隐含着航天系统更深刻的物理规律.本文首先导出了变质量非完整力学系统的Tzénoff方程,然后研究了变质量非完整力学系统Tzénoff方程的Lie对称性及其所导出的守恒量,给出了这种守恒量的函数表达式和导出这种守恒量的判据方程.该研究结果对进一步探究变质量系统所遵循的守恒规律具有一定的理论价值.%The operational system of the spacecraft is general a variable mass one,of which the symmetry and the conserved quantity imply physical rules of the space system.In this paper,Tzénoff equations of the variable mass nonholonomic system are derived,from which the Lie symmetries of Tzénoff equations for the variable mass nonholonomic system and conserved quantities are derived and are researched.The function expressions of conserved quantities and the criterion equations which deduce these conserved quantities are presented.This result has some theoretical value for further research of the conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system.

  2. STAND AT EASE/GARY GREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Van der Westhuizen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Books by ex-conscripts detailing their experiences were few and far betweenin the era of the Border War while more than 500 000 white males were called upfor what was described as “national service”. While books like these are not exactlyflooding the shelves of bookstores, they roll of the presses more regularly now.These works mostly deal with ex-conscript's that actively experienced the war inNamibia and Angola.Stand at ease is different: there is no "cordite and conflict".Green describes himself as a reluctant conscript (one wonders how many ofthe erstwhile national servicemen were of the same view. He was a product of oneof the country's first multi-racial schools - in this case a school that did not subscribeto the former government's apartheid policies.Hence, his period of national service was seen as a necessary evil, somethingthat had to be done - to get it behind one. But he and a few friends were determinedto have as easy a time as possible. Their most important aim was to avoid the"dreaded" call-up to the Border. Green was helped in this endeavour when he wasmedically classified as G3K3. He was called up to 5 South African InfantryBattalion in Ladysmith where he spent a few days before going to Kimberley. Hedid guard duty at 93 Ammunition Depot in Jan Kempdorp in the Northern Capebefore being deployed to the Army Battle School in Lohatla where he spent the restof his days as a national serviceman.He says his time in the military "could hardly be described as constructive orenjoyable", but it was also "a period of unprecedented personal growth and selfdiscovery”.“There is little doubt that during the two years of my conscription, Istopped being a boy and at some point became a man." Green unfortunately does notelaborate too much on this rite of passage.

  3. An improved energy efficient SRAM cell for access over a wide frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Debasish; Acharya, Debiprasad Priyabrata; Mahapatra, Kamalakanta

    2016-12-01

    Leakage current contribution to the power consumption cannot be ignored in the sub-100 nm technology. Drastic reduction of channel length of the modern highly scaled device enhances the leakage current significantly. Two novel 8T-SRAM cells low-leakage-current SRAM cell (LLC-SRAM cell) and low-leakage-current high-threshold-voltage SRAM cell (LLC-HVT SRAM cell) are proposed to offer high energy efficiency. The cell performances are compared with 8T NC-SRAM cell and 6T-SRAM cell. The proposed cells significantly reduce the overall power consumption. The cell array simulations are performed in spectre with a general purpose 45 nm technology library. The short-circuit current reduction during state transition helps to decrease the dynamic power consumption. In standby mode the cell operates at a voltage lower than the supply which brings down the leakage current and hence leakage power. Besides the energy prospective the stability, speed and writ-ability analysis are also performed in this work.

  4. 论原文转述训练在英语写作教学中的运用%On the Use of the Original Reporting Training in the Teaching of English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东育

    2016-01-01

    在英语写作教学中,中国英语学习者需要运用原文转述的训练方法对英语文章进行描述,从而提高英语学习者的英语写作能力。针对英语学习者在词汇量、语法以及文章理解方法存在的问题,论述在英语写作教学中利用原文转述训练的方法所产生的重要作用,并根据实际原文转述训练提出了阶段化的训练方法,对学生英语写作能力的提高具有一定的借鉴作用。%In the teaching of English writing,Chinese English learners use the original reporting training methods to describe the English articles to improve the English writing ability of English learners. According to the existing problems in English learners’ vocab-ulary,grammar and text understanding,this paper discusses the important role original reporting plays in the teaching of English writ-ing,and presents a stage-based training method according to the actual training of original reporting,which is of certain reference value for the improvement of students’ English writing ability.

  5. 基于输入-输出理论的“新闻播报法”听力学习模式%"News Broadcasting" English Listening Improvement ;Model Based on Input-Output Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温纯

    2015-01-01

    Restricted by limited vocabulary size, poor pronuncia-tion and intonation, weak lingual sensitivity, unfamiliarity with the topic and other factors, second-year English major students in China are often encountered with great difficulty in improving their English listening. This paper introduces a listening im-provement model,"News Broadcasting", based on Krashen's In-put Hypothesis and Swain's Output Hypothesis. In this model, students are expected to make extensive efforts in listening, writ-ing, intensive reading and reciting, effectively bringing students' lingual competence to a higher level quickly.%英语专业低年级学生经常受制于词汇量有限、辨音能力差、语感弱、话题不熟悉等因素的影响,英语听力难以提高。本文介绍一种基于Krashen的语言输入假设和Swain的语言输出理论的听力学习模式———“新闻播报法”,通过听、写、校、读四个环节对新闻材料进行高强度的研习,突破听力的各个瓶颈,使学生各方面的语言能力迅速得到提高。

  6. 生态教学模式下书面纠错反馈在英语写作中的应用研究%Study on the Application of Writt en Corrective Feedback on English Writing Teaching from the Perspective of t he Ecological English Teaching Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱娟

    2016-01-01

    文章研究了生态英语教学模式下所进行的书面纠错反馈教学法在英语写作中的应用,探讨了书面纠错反馈教学法在英语写作中存在的几个主要问题。并且,经过四学期的实践教学,验证了生态模式下的书面纠错反馈法在一定程度上能够提高英语写作的教学效果和学生的写作效能。%This paper mainly studies the applic ation of written corrective feedback on English writ-ing teaching based on the ecological English teaching mode , and probes into several major problems on the application of English writing on the basis of written corrective feedback teaching method . After four semesters ’ practical teaching , to some extent , it is verified that the written corrective feedback method based on the ecological English teaching mode could improve the teaching effect of English writing and students' writing skills .

  7. The Study of Qiu Chi's A Letter to Chen Bozhi%藏词与借代--从丘迟《与陈伯之书》说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雄溪

    2016-01-01

    Qiu Chi's A Letter to Chen Bozhi is a very successful book about capitulate. This letter is very vivid and logical. Qiu Chi had very clear goals in writing this letter. This letter is a meaningful Practical writ-ing. This paper is aimed at studying hiding words and metonymy, which are two major writing skill.%丘迟的《与陈伯之书》是一篇十分成功的劝降书。论者谓是文“晓之以理,动之以情”,乃中肯的评价。丘迟写作此文,有特定对象,也有明确的目的,是一篇不折不扣的应用文。选取“藏词”与“借代”两种修辞手法,讨论二者在是文所起的作用,并述这两种修辞手法的发展。

  8. 病历书写的临床教学%Clinical Teaching in Medical Records Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马云波; 刘怀戈

    2011-01-01

    病历书写是临床所有专业医师必备的基本技能之一,如何使病历书写的临床教学,在依据教学大纲的前提下,必须以符合国家和卫生部等相关法律法规为根本,与临床实践紧密结合,抓住教学中主要诊断的选择、危重疑难病案、围手术期病历书写等重点和难点问题,努力克服教学与临床工作中的反差,不断提高病历书写的教学质量.%Medical records writing is one of basic skills that are essential to all the clinical professional doctors. Under the premise of teaching outline, how to make clinical teaching of medical records writing overcomes contrast between teaching and clinical work and improves teaching quality in medical records writting, as the basis of according with related law sand regulations of country and ministry of health, closely com bing with clinical practice, grabbing the key points and difficult points of choice about main diagnosis, critical and difficult medical records, medical records writing of perioperative period in teaching.

  9. 元认知策略与大学英语写作教学%On Meta-cognitive Strategies and University English Writing Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莎

    2013-01-01

    如何有效地提高大学生英语写作能力一直是困扰教师的瓶颈问题。本文根据元认知理论,提出了在大学英语写作教学中应用元认知策略的教学方法。培养学生元认知策略能力不仅能帮助学生认识写作过程,还能培养学生独立解决问题和客观评价自我的能力,促进学生积极、主动、有效地学习,切实提高英语写作水平。%How to improve university students' writing skills in English is always a bottleneck problem for teachers. According to the theory of meta-cognition, this article discusses the application of meta-cognitive strategies in English writing teaching. Meta-cognitive strategies not only help students understand writ-ing process, but also cultivate students' abilities to solve problems independently and evaluate themselves objectively, which facili-tate students' active and effective learning, and improve their English writing skills.

  10. On Student Body Discourse Space in Junior High School Composition Teaching%初中作文教学中的学生主体话语空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一丁

    2015-01-01

    写作对于初中生综合语文素养的提高具有很重要的意义,写作教学是语文教学的重要组成部分。明确初中生作为主体在初中作文教学中的地位,将话语权归还给学生,在校园活动、社会生活、自然环境中为学生创造以学生为主体的话语空间,加强初中生写作技巧的同时也不能忽略了学生本身的话语权。%Writing for junior high school students to improve overall language literacy has very important significance, writ-ing teaching is an important part of language teaching. While clearly dominant position as a junior high school students in junior high school teaching of writing and will be returned to the student the right to speak, to create student-centered dis-course space for students in campus activities, social life, the natural environment, strengthen writing skills of junior high school students can not ignoring the voice of the students themselves.

  11. 大学英语写作模板与经典范文之教学价值比较%Comparison of Values Between Writing Frameworks and Classic English for the Improvement of College English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英红; 谢京睿

    2012-01-01

    对比研究英语写作模板和经典英语范文对大学英语写作学习的价值。基于写作的本质与必需的技巧对两种方式的理论分析以及对比实验研究都表明:写作模板不能提供必要、准确的写作知识和技巧,不能明显提高大学英语写作学习者的英语写作水平;而经典英语范文则能在写作所必需的各方面给学习者以全面、地道、充分的输入,能有效提高学习者的英语写作水平。%The article explored the value of English writing frameworks and classic English to the learners of col- lege English. The theoretical analysis based on the nature and basic techniques of writing and the contrastive test show that writing frameworks won't provide necessary and accurate writing knowledge and techniques, so it cannot improve the learners' writing ability;while classic English will help the input and accumulation of all kinds of writ- ing knowledge and skills authentically and promote the learners' English writing level effectively.

  12. 俄语专升本二外英语教学效果的影响因素及对策%Factors Affecting English Teaching of Upgraded Students of Russian Major and Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒进艳

    2015-01-01

    As the second foreign language,upgraded students of Russian major have to master the basic English knowledge, culture and custom of English countries.They are required to grasp some English skills like listening,speaking,reading,writ-ing and translating,and they should communicate fluently.The paper aims to analyze the teaching background,achievements, issues and put forward strategies based on practical teaching.%作为俄语专升本学生的二外英语,本课程要求学生掌握基础的英语知识、了解英语国家文化习俗及具备基本的听、说、读、写、译等英语技能,并能在日常生活中进行正常交流。本文从教学现状、教学中取得的成绩、教学中存在的问题入手,并结合实际教学提出对策。

  13. Problems and Countermeasures of Law Thesis Guidance in Newly Undergraduate University%新建本科院校法学毕业论文指导的问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽红

    2012-01-01

    在新建本科院校法学毕业论文的写作与指导实践中,存在部分学生态度不端正、缺乏先期训练、选题自主权不受尊重、专业热点与前沿问题掌握不够、写作技能欠缺等问题,应充分发挥教师的主导作用和学生的主体作用,调动学生的积极性,有针对性地解决上述问题,使得论文的指导与写作实现完美的互动、共赢。%In the new undergraduate colleges, there are lots of problems= in practice and guidance of law thesis writing the attitude of some students is not correct, they are lack of early training and writting skills, their autonomous right to the topics are not respected, they don't grasp professional and the frontier issues. So teachers should play the leading role to solute these questions.

  14. A Study on English Writing Anxiety of Chinese College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敏

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between English writing anxiety and English proficiency of Chinese college stu-dents. A total of 149 college students participated in the study. Research data was collected through a writing anxiety test and the final course scores of writing classes. In order to address assess writing anxiety, three factors (Negative perception about writing ability, Fear of evaluation, and Avoidance of writing in English) were examined. The results found that Chinese college students were highly apprehensive in the process of English writing, and the Negative perception about the writing ability was a most im-portant and significant component of their writing anxiety. It also found that there was a significant correlation between the writ-ing anxiety and the final English writing score, and it also provided evidence that self-perception about the writing ability had the strongest relationship with the writing performance. Students who are not interested in taking more advanced English writing classes were more anxiety than the participant who were willing to enroll the courses.

  15. Interactive Composition Teaching Design and Evaluation Reform%交互式作文教学设计及评价改革探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永英

    2014-01-01

    "Language Curriculum Standards"on the"writing"requirement is:students specific, fluent in their own language to express their views, experiences and ideas and be able to use a common expression in various ways according to the needs expressed. New Curriculum for teachers teaching writing at the same time evaluates ways to do specific requirements:a writ-ten comment evaluation can also be evaluated by an oral comment;grades can be used for various types of evaluation me-thods, it can take many forms comprehensive evaluation approach.%《语文课程标准》关于“作文”的要求是:学生能够具体、流畅地用自己的语言表达自己的见解、体验和想法,而且能够根据表达的需要运用各种常见的表达方式。新课标同时对教师的作文教学评价方式做了具体的要求:可以用书面评语评价,也可以用口头评语评价;可以用各种类型的等级评价方式,也可以采用多种形式综合评价的方式。

  16. The Research of Elementary English Writing Teaching Reform and Practice in University%高校英语基础写作教学改革与实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文兰

    2012-01-01

    教师在高校英语基础写作教学实践中把课内教学活动与学生的课外自主学习有效地结合起来,采用“课内讨论式写作与课上、课下的互动式批改”的教学方法和作文评估模式能够促进英语写作教学,使其成为真正提高学生思维能力与写作能力的一种手段。%In elementary English writing teaching in university, teachers combine effectively classroom activi ties with students' learning actively after class, and adopt the teaching method of "discussion writing in class" and the mode of writing evaluation "interactive evaluating individual writing in and after class" to promote English writ ing teaching, making it become a means to improve students' abilities of thinking and writing.

  17. «La medida de su existencia». La abolición de las comunidades indígenas y el juicio de amparo en el contexto desamortizador. (Centro de México, 1856-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper delves into the administrative and judicial process of the distribution of the communal property of the Indian population. It examines the consequences of some of the measures taken by the central Mexican states in order to overcome legal hurdles, as well as court decisions. By analyzing records of writs of protection presented by individuals, groups and villages, it aims to determine what the roles of the legislation, the jurisprudence and the judicial practices of the actors were in the transformation of the ownership culture, and how this process interwove with the constitution of State and citizenry.Este trabajo indaga sobre el proceso administrativo y judicial de reparto de la propiedad comunal de la población indígena. Examina las consecuencias de algunas medidas tomadas por estados del centro de México para subsanar escollos legales, así como la actuación de los tribunales. Mediante el análisis de expedientes de juicios de amparo presentados por individuos, grupos y pueblos busca determinar cuáles fueron los roles jugados por la legislación, la jurisprudencia y las prácticas jurídicas de los actores en la transformación de la cultura de la propiedad, y cómo se imbricó este proceso con la construcción del Estado y la ciudadanía.

  18. IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC INFORMATIONS FOR PLANNING IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Rubin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning in basketball (like in other sports is one aspect of the job of a sport coach. Every coach while writting (creating, composing the plan and programme of a trainning (trainning proces should have the informations important for achievingsuccess. That kontigent of informations should be hierarchy arranged. Driving the pro- gramme the coach should always barring in mind what is the most important aim which in particular moment he wants to realise. Problem of this work is in fact that difference between coaches is that thay dont give certain importance to the particular informati- ons. Beside the necessity to know wich informations are the most important for solving a problem, it is important to prove their corelations. The aim of the research is to present the importance of identification and using of strategic infomations in planning (and pro- gramming in basketball. According to all infomations colected by coach he creates his strategic koncept. Using the strategic koncept he can create tactical koncept, particular koncept for the particular opponent (tactical plan and to (more or less use intime cer- tain tactical variance on the game (operative tactics. The coach (as the most important in the trainning process should be familiar with the science aspects of sport activities. That way he can overtake expected integral functions and be a lieder who gain the aim.

  19. An asynchronous writing method for restart files in the gysela code in prevision of exascale systems*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomine O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with an optimization procedure developed in the full-f global GYrokinetic SEmi-LAgrangian code (GYSELA. Optimizing the writing of the restart files is necessary to reduce the computing impact of crashes. These files require a very large memory space, and particularly so for very large mesh sizes. The limited bandwidth of the data pipe between the comput- ing nodes and the storage system induces a non-scalable part in the GYSELA code, which increases with the mesh size. Indeed the transfer time of RAM to data depends linearly on the files size. The necessity of non synchronized writing-in-file procedure is therefore crucial. A new GYSELA module has been developed. This asynchronous procedure allows the frequent writ- ing of the restart files, whilst preventing a severe slowing down due to the limited writing bandwidth. This method has been improved to generate a checksum control of the restart files, and automatically rerun the code in case of a crash for any cause.

  20. Distribution and covering percentage of sponge (Porifera in different coral reef condition and depth in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARYANTO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, four specieses of sponge namely Auletta sp., Callyspongia pseudoreticulata, Callyspongia sp., and Halichondria sp. have been potentially identified as bacteriside for fishery commodities. Nevertheless, information on sponge distribution, its covering percentage, and its habitate are still very little. Observation on distribution and abundance of sponge was conducted in the Southeastern and the Northwestern part of Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi, using scuba diving set and under water writting tools. At first, coral reef condition in 3 and 10 m depths up to 100 m length of shore line were observed in both stations, using “lifeform method”. Then distribution and covering percentage of sponge, biotic and abiotic factor in 3, 6, 9, and 12 m depths in both stations were examined using “square transect method”. The result showed that different coral reef condition qualitatively causes different of sponge species distribution, but quantitatively not significantly different (P>0,05 on its covering percentage. It was also found that generally sponge grows better at the dead coral where no other biotic organism around.

  1. 基于应用型视角的师范院校写作教学改革%Application-based Writing Teaching Reform for Normal Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈登平

    2015-01-01

    师范教育语文方向的学生在实习中存在"不会教不会改作文"的现象,造成这一现象的根源在于应试教育和我们的课程设置不合理.解决这一问题应该秉持三个教学理念:写作教学要充分尊重生命的成长,重视连续性和非连续性教学的统一,既重视会"写"还要重视会"教".让写作教学回归尊重生命的本位上来,才能使写作教学收到好的效果.%The phenomenon can be seen that Primary Chinese Education majors do not know how to teach writ-ing in their teaching practicum. The examination-oriented education and the irrational curriculum setting are to be blamed. To solve the problem, three philosophies should be retained: adhering to the ideas of fully respecting life growth, attaching importance to the unification of the continuity and discontinuity in teaching;besides writing, teach-ing should also be attached much importance;restoring the original part of writing teaching to the respect for life so as to achieve betler effects.

  2. Brief introduction of urban planning method%《城市规划方法》简评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽梅; 赵立志

    2014-01-01

    Methods to subject, is a key to the door. This article put forward on the methodology of urban planning, from the background of the subject as a discipline. In view of the complex and diverse of the city, the author introduced a book named“urban planning methods”writ en by the French designer Jean-Paul Lacaze, and given a brief introduction. Five planning methods are summed up, summarized the background, scope of application and the Chinese significance.%方法之于学科,犹如钥匙之于门。文章从城乡规划学设立为一级学科的背景出发,提出要对该学科方法论进行思考。鉴于城市本身的复杂多元,作者引入法国规划师让-保罗·拉卡兹(Jean-Paul Lacaze)《城市规划方法》一书,并对其简要介绍。总结出该书所提出的5种规划方法产生的时代背景、适用范围,并联系当下我国城市所面临的困境,以资参考。

  3. CHOICE OF PRACTISES AND VARIANTS IN TRANINING OF A CIRCULAR ATTACKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrudin Mavrić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One o f m ost impo rta nt function s in handball is play o f a circular pla yer of pivo t man. Data used for this wor k are partially from my o wn practical work, then, us in g of domest ic and f oreign ex pe rt s’ literature as we ll as c onsultation s with fa mous domest ic and foreign top handball playe rs and co aches. Major part I have taken fr om my pe rs on al experience a s an active player but in recent tim e as a coach as well . The m a tter treated in this work is not o n ly a theore ti ca l consideration but i s also based mostl y upon so me pra ctical resu lts. Ha nd ball r el at ed lite ra ture domest ic and forein has advanced in a grea t way, meaning tha t many b ooks relating this matter have been writ ten in recent years . But al thoug h some books a boutn hadn ba ll pr actise have been wr itten, none o f them have an al yz ed individual pla y and training of a player for a certain task , in our ca se a „circular attack“ Ma ny handbooks and tex ts published by ou r or f oreign e xpe rts explain o nly partially the play of a player at the lin e of 6 meters.

  4. Księgarnia i Biblioteka do Czytania Tomasza Szumskiego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Jazdon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Szumski, hitherto known in the literature as a secondary school teacher and the author of textbooks, was also the owner of a bookshop and a lending library attached to it. Both were in operation between 1809 and 1824. Their establishment was apparently effected by a deliberate wish to create an establishment that would counterbalance the influence of German bookshops in the town and would offer Polish and foreign literature (mainly French to as wide circles of readers as possible. Additionally, it was intended to be a bookshop that would provide support to the general public with selling textbooks and assigned reading texts for youths. For Szumski himself, the bookshop was also a source of considerable extra income. Szumski’s intention was to sell as much of the current publishing output from Warsaw, Cracow, Lvov, Wrocław (then Breslau and Vilna as possible. He also provided subscriptions to a great number of titles of newspapers and periodicals. He did not neglect the marketing issues involved in his line of business and published numerous book catalogues and kept the press well informed about his new acquisitions. In terms of its size, the bookshop was not a big place and, at the time of its forced closure effected by an administrative writ issued by the German authorities, nearly 2,500 titles were on offer. Following its closure it was repossessioned and bought by the German bookseller Ernst S. Mittler.

  5. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel

    2001-01-01

    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  6. HIV-related stigma and NGO-isation in India: a historico-empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki

    2012-06-01

    In response to World Bank critiques in 2007, the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare declared that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related stigma was a barrier to the participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the implementation of HIV prevention targeted interventions. Taking a deeper view of HIV-related stigma as a historically inflected process of devaluation, this article details the history and transformation of NGO involvement in the HIV epidemic from 1986 through economic liberalisation in the 1990s up to the Second National AIDS Control Programme (NACP II 1999-2006). It additionally examines findings from interviews and participant observation of NGO workers (N = 24) from four targeted intervention NGOs in Delhi funded under NACP II. Analysis reveals that a second wave of HIV-related NGO involvement has mushroomed in the past two decades, affording NGO workers multiple pathways to credibility in the Indian response to the epidemic. Contradictions embedded in the overlap of these pathways produce stigma, reflecting 'adverse incorporation' of the NGO workers. Drawing upon noteworthy exceptions to this trend from the first wave of Indian HIV-related NGOs, the article calls for NGO participation as an explicitly political project of addressing the social inequalities that shape stigma as well as vulnerability to illness writ large.

  7. ”Theory, Method & the Future of Pre-Columbian Art History”, 100th Annual Conference of the College Art Association - Los Angeles, California - February 24, 2010” Contributors: Cecelia F. Klein, Introductions; Esther Pasztory, ‘Pre-Columbian Art and World Art History’; Mary Miller, ‘Now You See It, Now You Don’t: Pre-Columbian Art in the American Museum . . . and in the Academy’; Elizabeth Hill Boone, ‘What Do You Say When There Are No Words?’; Tom Cummins, ‘Looking Back at the Future of Pre-Columbian Art History’; Carolyn Dean, ‘The Elusive Future of Pre-Columbian Art History’; Claudia Brittenham, ‘Interdisciplinary, International, Indispensable’.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecelia F. Klein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the founding of the academic field of Pre-Columbian art history in the mid 20th century, the training of and work by Pre-Columbianists have changed substantially. Whereas the first Pre-Columbian art historians drew heavily on their knowledge of art history, other disciplines, and theory writ large, younger Pre-Columbian art historians today tend to specialize in one area and one time period, and to write primarily for fellow specialists with interests similar to their own. Increasingly little effort is made to render Pre-Columbian art history relevant to a broader public, whether that public comprise scholars in other fields or laypersons. One of the last fields to have been fully accepted by college and university art history departments in the U.S., Pre-Columbian art history also has always been among the first to go during an economic downturn. During this session, following brief presentations by the speakers and the discussant, there will be a panel conversation in which the audience may participate. The goal will be to assess where the field might and should go in the decades to come.

  8. THE LACK OF FUNCTIONAL JURISDICTION OF THE DIVISION FOR ADMINISTRATIVE AND TAX DISPUTES IN SETTLING THE APPEAL PETITION WITHIN THE APPEAL AGAINST ENFORCEMENT IN TAX MATTERS ARGUMENTS REGARDING THE CIVIL NATURE OF THE DISPUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Costin GRIMBERG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian legislation sets out the practical and theoretical manner of establishing the legal nature of disputes in the light of the applicable legal dispositions, establishing a specific statutory system for challenging enforcement proceedings. The characterization of a dispute as civil or commercial in character should be done based on the legal standards applicable to the legal relationships existing between the parties. As regards the challenge against tax enforcement, establishing the legal nature of the dispute under judgment and establishing the functional jurisdiction of the court that is asked to judge on the substance of the challenge against tax enforcement, as well as of the court invested to settle the appeal has generated over time a number of controversies and opposite solutions. There were and still are some discussions and confusions regarding the functional jurisdiction of the enforcement courts having jurisdiction to judge on the substance of the challenge against tax enforcement, lodged on the basis of a writ of execution issued under some administrative tax acts.

  9. Design and Application of Laser Direct Wring System Based on Computer Control%基于计算机控制的激光直写系统的设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宓斌华; 李静

    2016-01-01

    激光直写技术具有加工效率高、加工速度快、环境污染小等优点,近年来在国内的发展非常迅速。采用计算机操纵控制的激光直写技术,可以构建复杂的微纳图案,满足微细加工要求。建立了一套基于计算机控制的激光直写系统,它由光机电和控制软件部分组成。在建立的系统上,以玻璃为基底进行了金光栅的制作并对其进行了形貌测量。测量结果表明,采用该激光直写系统制作的金光栅具有较高的重复精度。%Because of high processing efficiency,processing speed,less environmental pol ution,etc.,recently,laser direct writ-ing technology is growing very rapidly in China.In this paper a laser direct writing system is built based on computer con-trol,it includes optomechatronics and control software.The system is used for the production of gold grating on the glass substrate,and its profile is measured.

  10. The Enzymatic Extraction of Parboiled Rice Bran Protein was Analysed with Response Surface%酶法提取蒸谷米糠蛋白的响应面分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕银德; 赵俊芳; 朱永义

    2009-01-01

    以脱脂蒸谷米糠为原料,采用酶法提取蒸谷米糠蛋白,结合响应面分析确定最佳工艺条件为:反应时间为2.4 h、反应温度为50℃、pH值为7.5、加酶量为1%、酶解率为53.8%.同时由响应面可知,时酶解效果影响最大的因素为温度,其它依次为pH值、加酶量、反应时间.%The extraction of parboiled rice bran protein with enzymatic treatment was introduced.Through with response surface analysis,the optimum conditions of enzymatic extraction were discussed.The results showed that under extraction time 2.4 h,temperature 50 ℃,pH value 7.5 and conditions of enzyme addition 1%,the enzyming yields were 53.8%.The biggest reason of enzymatic extraction Writ8 temperature and then pH.conditions of enzyme addition and extraction time.

  11. SISTEM E-LEARNING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN iBT TOEFL (INTERNET BASE TEST OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA VOIP (VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchammad Husni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengan semakin berkembangnya komunikasi internasional saat ini, seseorang dituntut untuk memiliki kemampuan berkomunikasi dalam bahasa global, diantaranya adalah bahasa Inggris. Salah satu alat untuk mengukur kemampuan berbahasa Inggris adalah dengan menggunakan TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Languge. iBT TOEFL ( Internet Base Test TOEFL mengukur kemampuan pembelajar untuk memahami, menggunakan dan mengerti bahasa Inggris ditingkat Universitas, disamping itu, test ini juga mengevaluasi seberapa baik pembelajar menggabungkan keterampilan mendengarkan/menyimak (listening, berbicara (speaking, membaca (reading, dan menulis (writing dalam bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini akan mengembangkan Sistem E-learning untuk pembelajaran (Pelatihan dan Tes TOEFL menggunakan jaringan intranet yang dapat digunakan untuk mengukur kemampuan TOEFL pembelajar dengan memberikan hasil keluaran berupa kelemahan seseorang dalam menjawab soal-soal tes. iBT TOEFL terdiri atas 4 (empat bagian tes yaitu Listening, Writting, Reading dan Speaking. Sistem E-learning ini akan disertai dengan soal-soal latihan yang disesuaikan dengan kelemahan kemampuan TOEFL dari pembelajar/pengguna. Dengan demikian diharapkan Sistem E-learning ini dapat membantu pembelajar untuk meningkatkan kemampuan TOEFL sehingga target nilai TOEFL yang diinginkan dapat tercapai. Dalam sistem E-learning ini juga disediakan jalur komunikasi suara antara pembelajar/pengguna dengan penilai (assessor yang dikembangkan dengan teknologi VoIP untuk membantu pengguna dalam melatih teknik berbicara (speaking dalam bahasa Inggris.

  12. 德国简易刑事程序评析%Assessment of Simplified Criminal Procedure in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋

    2011-01-01

    德国的刑事简易程序体系由处罚令程序、简易程序、诉讼协商程序等构成,实际上是一种高度类型化的司法体系,以简单、即时、速决的方式应对和处理不同类型的刑事案件,因地制宜地实现各类案件中价值和利益的权衡及取舍。德国刑事简易程序主要通过适用案件范围、保障被告人的程序选择权和辩护权充分行使等三个方面的措施来保障。%Abstract. In Germany simplified criminal procedure is a full categorized judicial system consisted of procedure of punishment writ, summary procedure and consultation procedure, simply, instantaneous and quickly responding and handling different types of eriminal cases to judge and resolve the interests and values in the cases according to circumstances. The guarantee of this system pis controlling applicable - case scope, ensuring the litigaut's fully exercising his procedure option and defense right.

  13. From division of labor to unity: on AGIL analysis for Durkheim occupation group idea%从分工到团结:对涂尔干职业群体观念的AGIL分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵劲

    2012-01-01

    为探究中国转型期社会、道德领域失范问题,借助帕森斯AGIL框架,分析涂尔干各时期著作中对职业群体必要性和可行性的论述。分析认为:现代社会问题的症结是在分工的基础上,个体性趋向普遍性,但国家与个人过于疏远造成社会失范;为了解决这一问题,可以在个人与国家之间设立中介组织——职业群体。%In order to explore the breaching problem in the field of morality during the transformation of Chinese society, the author, with the Parson's the AGIL framework, analyzed and summarized the writ- ings of Durkheim in each period on the necessity and feasibility of the occupational groups. The author pointed out that the crux of the problem in the modem society is due to the basis of the division of labor, and individuals trend of universality. Besides, being too remote between the state and individuals may also cause social anomaly. To solve the problem, an intermediary body:occupationel group between the state and individual should be set up.

  14. Historicizing affect, psychoanalyzing history: pedophilia and the discourse of child sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Within the last two decades in Australia, Britain, and the United States, we have seen a veritable explosion of cultural panic regarding the problem of pedophilia. Scarcely a day passes without some mention in the media of predatory pedophiles or organized pedophile networks. Many social constructionist historians and sociologists have described this incitement to discourse as indicative of a moral panic. The question that concerns me in this article is: If this incitement to discourse is indicative of a moral panic, to what does the panic refer? I begin by detailing, first, how social constructionism requires psychoanalytic categories in order to understand the notion of panic, and second, how a psychoanalytic reading of history might reveal important unconscious forces at work in the current pedophilia "crisis" that our culture refuses to confront. Here, I will suggest a repressed discourse of child sexuality is writ large. I will argue that the hegemonic discourse of pedophilia is contained largely within a neurotic structure and that many of our prevailing responses to pedophilia function as a way to avoid tackling crucial issues about the reality and trauma of childhood sexuality.

  15. As An“Unfinished Scheme”--- Detective Fiction and the Sinicization of Modernity,1896-1949

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi

    2016-01-01

    This paper,analyses how the Chinese writers borrowed the literary genre of detective fiction from the West,but also points out the“indigenous”features of the Chinese detective fiction during the late Qing and early republic periods. Further,it examines why a few Chinese writers chose to reshape detective fiction - an imported literary genre - with these indigenous features. While earlier studies argue that the“old litterateurs”in modern China represented the conservative forces,I believe that these writers were in fact well aware of the impact of Western ideologies and intellectual trends on the Chinese society. Their pref-erence of the indigenous,therefore,was not a blind choice but a conscious act of resistance. Unlike the“New Literature”writers’positive responses to Western ideas,this group of writ-ers treated Western ideas not as the way to save the motherland. Rather,they viewed the“he-gemony”of the empires with alarm,and resorted to a set of traditional Chinese cultural values for ways of precluding such hegemony. Their efforts of reshaping detective fiction by this means,I argue,sheds a new light on the cultural transformation of the Chinese society - and, more broadly,of the Asian societies - during this time. That is,such transformation figured not simply as the great triumph of the West over the Asian societies,but rather suggested a dy-namic process of cultural collisions and re-creation.

  16. A Review of the Preface and Postscript to Yigutang Written by Lu Xinyuan%陆心源《仪顾堂题跋》述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕亚非

    2014-01-01

    陆心源是清季著名藏书家,《仪顾堂题跋》是陆心源书目题跋的代表作。梳理和阐述《仪顾堂题跋》的撰写与编纂、收书范围与特点、刊刻与流传、意义与评价,全面揭示《仪顾堂题跋》的成书、流布与影响,有助于进一步深化对陆心源的文献目录学成就的研究。%Lu Xinyuan is a famous bibliophile in the late Qing Dynasty,and the Preface and Postscript to Yigutan g is his masterpiece bibliographic inscriptions.By researching on the work’s writ-ing and compilation,book collecting scope and features,inscription and spreading,significance and e-valuation,the paper fully reveals the publication,spreading and influence of the work the Preface and Postscript to Yigutan g ,which will help to do further researches into Lu Xinyuan’s bibliographic a-chievements.

  17. Moundsville Penitentiary Reconsidered: Second Thoughts on Hyperreality at a Small Town Prison Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Mendenhall

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, I toured Moundsville Penitentiary, a tourist spectacle that was once—and fairly recently—a working prison. I wrote about the experience as would a journalist, except that my working paradigm was the postmodern theory of hyperreality, which Jean Baudrillard used to describe the complex tensions between reality and illusion. A term of semiotics, hyperreality refers to the disappearance of the referent and its subsequent, oft-replicated simulation. It almost always involves strategically controlled images that distort and conceal true meaning. The International Journal of Baudrillard Studies published my essay in January 2009. Shortly thereafter, many of my libertarian friends and colleagues wrote to ask for clarification or to express their disagreements. In what follows, whether I’m describing hyperreality or speculating about the horror-themed attractions at Moundsville Penitentiary, my principal concern is laying the libertarian foundation for my argument. I do not mean to defend my theories so much as explain them; nor do I insist that my cultural criticism is somehow “the” right way. I simply hope to fill a critical vacuum and to generate conversation not only about the condition of the American prison system writ large, but also about state-run tourist attractions that glorify the history of the sovereign at the expense of real knowledge about human suffering.

  18. Making the middle classes on shifting ground? Residential status, performativity and middle-class subjectivities in contemporary London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michaela; Jackson, Emma

    2017-06-01

    This paper argues that shifts in access to housing - both in relation to rental and ownership - disrupt middle-class reproduction in ways that fundamentally influence class formation. While property ownership has had a long association with middle-class identities, status and distinction, an increasingly competitive rental market alongside inflated property prices has impacted on expectations and anxieties over housing futures. In this paper, we consider two key questions: (1) What happens to middle-class identities under the conditions of this wider structural change? (2) How do the middle classes variously manoeuvre within this? Drawing on empirical research conducted in London, we demonstrate that becoming an owner-occupier may be fractured along lines of class but also along the axes of age, wealth and timing, particularly as this relates to the housing market. It builds on understandings of residential status and place as central to the formation of class, orienting this around the recognition of both people and place as mutable, emphasizing that changing economic and social processes generate new class positionalities and strategies for class reproduction. We argue that these processes are writ large in practices of belonging and claims to place, with wider repercussions within the urban landscape. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  19. COllisiOn Between Writers’Appeal tO Rescue SOciety and Readers’Appeal tO COgnize SOciety---a Survey of Young aduLts Dystopian Boom Phenomenon%社会拯救诉求与社会认知诉求的碰撞--近年来英美青少年恶托邦小说井喷现象评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓兰

    2015-01-01

    in the past decade,there appeared a fLood of dystopian noveLs catering to the youngsters in Britain and america,Leading to a dystopian boom in both writing and consuming. The dystopian writ-ing conveys writer’s appeaL to improve and rescue the society which is faced with a variety of dan-gers and crises,and young readers’acceptance of dystopian noveLs conveys their desire to know more about the society before entering the aduLt society. The dystopian boom in Britain and america is the resuLt of coLLision between the appeaL of writers and that of readers.%在21世纪最初的短短十多年时间里,英美国家出版了大量预示各种灾难的青少年小说,呈现出版和消费两旺的井喷势头。恶托邦书写传达着作家的社会拯救诉求,而青少年读者对这类作品的接受则反应了他们的社会认知诉求,近年来英美青少年恶托邦文学的井喷现象是作家和读者双方诉求交相碰撞的结果。

  20. 基于单片机的公交车自动报站系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 项伟; 杨海萌

    2013-01-01

    The designed system consists of several parts as follows: the microcontroller module, the wireless radio frequency transceiver module, the voice broadcast module and the display module, etc. Among them, the wireless transceiver module is to real-ize information transmitting and receiving between bus and platform;Voice chip is to realize voice recording and playback. By writ-ing control program to debug,the whole system can realize functions of site recognition, voice broadcast during pitting, real-time dis-play of time and site information, etc.%系统由单片机主控模块、无线射频收发模块、语音播报模块、显示模块等部分组成。其中,无线收发模块实现公交车与站台之间信息的发射与接收;语音芯片实现语音的录制与播放。通过编写软件控制程序进行调试,整个系统能够完成识别站点、进站时语音播报、实时显示时间和站点信息等功能。

  1. On Hardy’ s Ecological Thought%试论哈代的生态思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖晓春

    2015-01-01

    英国生态文学的历史源远流长,生态文学传统对哈代的创作产生了深刻影响。哈代认为大自然与人类都是自然的存在物,所以人类与自然应该是平等的。他笔下的自然被赋予了人的脾性、情感,自然在他的作品中获得了主体性的地位,而不是像在其他作家那里只是被观察、被欣赏的客体。他的这些观点是对英国生态文学传统的升华。%British ecological literature has a long history , and the traditional ecological literature has a profound impact on the creation of Hardy.Hardy believes that nature and human beings are the natural objects, man and nature should be equal.His description of the na-ture was given a temperament and emotion of human beings, and nature in his works won the subject status, which is not like in other writ-ers.His view is a distillation of the traditional British ecological literature .

  2. Michael Reid Trice, Encountering Cruelty: The Fracture of the Human Heart (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Hamblet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As many violence scholars, I have not found myself to be greatly interested in cruelty, for the simple reason that instances of cruelty are relatively rare, if we accept its usual definition as “willful indifference to suffering, or taking pleasure in inflicting such suffering upon sentient beings.” Most people do not actively wish harm to others, and for this reason, the harms that keep our societies running smoothly and in ordered fashion must be kept in concealment, far from our direct vision, if we are to be asked to tolerate them—cruel punishments, executions, exclusions of minorities from the full benefits of the society, etc. However, Michael Trice’s new book, Encountering Cruelty, renews a fresh interest in this dark topic by redefining cruelty as an ordinary, common occurrence, infecting the everyday in ever more subtle forms. Trice reveals how a too narrow definition of cruelty may grant us the comfort of believing its occurrence to be minimal, but it robs us of the opportunity to track its traces writ large across the landscape of the human world. We cannot hope to understand, and ultimately heal, the rebounding effects of suffering across the broader social terrain, unless we are willing to admit the cruelty that underlies modern institutional life.

  3. Psychoanalysis: the sacred and the profane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Allan

    2014-06-01

    Colleagues from a variety of perspectives have written about the propensity to enshrine psychoanalytic theory. The meaning of the word "enshrine" is to cherish as sacred an idea or philosophy and protect it from change. In other words, the way we view psychoanalysis, our theories of mind and technique, become holy writ and we have divided the world of theory into the sacred and the profane. This is the kiss of death for theory, which must constantly evolve and change, but comforting for the analyst who believes he is on the side of the right, the sacred. In this paper I will discuss how our propensity to enshrine theory has had a debilitating effect on the development of psychoanalysis and, in particular, as a treatment for the most vulnerable people who seek our help. I also address the idea that movement away from enshrined positions allows us to construct different versions of reality. In this context, the notion of "action at a distance" is presented along with the attendant idea of psychoanalytic entanglement.

  4. Revealing Dimensions of Thinking in Open-Ended Self-Descriptions: An Automated Meaning Extraction Method for Natural Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    A new method for extracting common themes from written text is introduced and applied to 1,165 open-ended self-descriptive narratives. Drawing on a lexical approach to personality, the most commonly-used adjectives within narratives written by college students were identified using computerized text analytic tools. A factor analysis on the use of these adjectives in the self-descriptions produced a 7-factor solution consisting of psychologically meaningful dimensions. Some dimensions were unipolar (e.g., Negativity factor, wherein most loaded items were negatively valenced adjectives); others were dimensional in that semantically opposite words clustered together (e.g., Sociability factor, wherein terms such as shy, outgoing, reserved, and loud all loaded in the same direction). The factors exhibited modest reliability across different types of writ writing samples and were correlated with self-reports and behaviors consistent with the dimensions. Similar analyses with additional content words (adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs) yielded additional psychological dimensions associated with physical appearance, school, relationships, etc. in which people contextualize their self-concepts. The results suggest that the meaning extraction method is a promising strategy that determines the dimensions along which people think about themselves.

  5. La visión directa de José de Ribera a través de los "Voyages en Italie" de los franceses en los siglos XVII y XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Alzaga Ruiz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Francia del Grand Goût de los siglos XVII y XVIII empezó a fraguarse el mito romántico del pintor español José de Ribera, cuya leyenda de artista violento se consolidó en el siglo XIX. Frente a los escritos de Félibien y Dezallier D’Argenville, los viajeros franceses del siglo XVIII opusieron su mirada personal ante la contemplación directa de sus obras conservadas en Nápoles. Sus comentarios escritos, que en muchas ocasiones permanecieron inéditos, suponen una crítica más moderna que la condena uniforme de la Academia.In France, during the 17th and 18th Century, where the Grand Goût was uniform, begann the romantic mith of the spanish painter José de Ribera, which legendary violence got in the 19th century consolidated. In front of the writtings of Félibien and Dezallier D’Argenville, the french travellers of the 18th century opposed their personal look of the direct contemplation of his works in Naples. Their texts, which in several ocasions remained unpublished, mean a more modern critic than the uniform condemn of the Academy.

  6. An assessment of boiling as a method of household water treatment in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Luke; MacDonald, Morgan C

    2014-12-01

    This article scrutinizes the boiling of water in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India. Boiling, as it is commonly practiced, improves water quality, but its full potential is not being realized. Thus, the objective is to refine the method in practice, promote acceptability, and foster the scalability of boiling and household water treatment (HWT) writ large. The study is based on bacteriological samples from 300 households and 80 public standposts, 14 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 74 household interviews. Collectively, the data fashion both an empirical and ethnographic understanding of boiling. The rate and efficacy of boiling, barriers to and caveats of its adoption, and recommendations for augmenting its practice are detailed. While boiling is scientifically proven to eliminate bacteria, data demonstrate that pragmatics inhibit their total destruction. Furthermore, data and the literature indicate that a range of cultural, economic, and ancillary health factors challenge the uptake of boiling. Fieldwork and resultant knowledge arrive at strategies for overcoming these impediments. The article concludes with recommendations for selecting, introducing, and scaling up HWT mechanisms. A place-based approach that can be sustained over the long-term is espoused, and prolonged exposure by the interveners coupled with meaningful participation of the target population is essential.

  7. FRUIT NUTRITIVE FACTOR NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing QU; Yumei JIANG; Daren HE

    2009-01-01

    As an research example of the widely existing cooperation-competition systems, the authors present an empirical investigation on a fruit nutritive factor network. It is described by a node-weighted bipartite graph. The fruit nutritive factors are defined as the nodes, and two nodes are connected by an edge if at least one fruit contains these two nutritive factors. The fruits are defined as the collaboration acts. The node-weight Writ, which signifies the "importance degree" of each actor node, is defined as the content of a nutritive factor in a fruit. The empirical investigation results show some unique features.The node-weight distributions take so-called "shifted power law" function forms, but the act-weight distribution takes a normal form. The degree and act-degree distributions show impulsive-spectrum like forms. These observations may be helpful for the study of fruits. The network description method proposed in this article may be universal for a kind of cooperation-competition systems.

  8. Pty Attention to Contingencies, Let Students Have Something to Write%关注偶发事件,让学生有话可写

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠贞

    2014-01-01

    “Language curriculum standards of compulsory education”clearly states:“Students should be close to the actual teaching of writ-ing, so that students easy to write, happy expression, should guide students to focus on the reality, love life.”Guiding students to use contingency exercises, better able to guide students concerned in real life, pay attention to things around, accumulated rich material, triggering a rich emotion-al experience, change“bricks without straw”to“have the necessary fuel.”%《义务教育语文课程标准》中明确指出:“写作教学应贴近学生实际,让学生易于动笔,乐于表达,应引导学生关注现实,热爱生活。”利用偶发事件指导学生习作,能够较好地引导学生关注现实生活,留心周围的事物,积淀丰厚的素材,引发丰富的情感体验,变“无米之炊”为“有米下锅”。

  9. Adolescents taken care of in a public service of urgency and emergency: profile of morbidade and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islaine Fernandes Dubuc

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available One is about a transversal descriptive inquiry in the characterize causes of morbidade and mortality between adolescents taken care of in the urgency and emergency service of a public hospital. The collection of data was carried through the attendance fiches, in the January, February and March months of 2003, totalizing 2722. The population consisted of adolescents of 10 the 19 years of age, residents in the city. The morbi-mortality causes had been classified in accordance with the International Classification of Desease (CID-10. More than the half of the taken care is for the feminine population (54.1%. The predominant causes of morbidade had been the infectious and parasitic illnesses in the feminine sex (26.5% and injuries and poisoning and some other consequences of external causes in the masculine sex (30.5%. The month of bigger attendance was March (38.4%. The period of the night was of bigger prevalence (37.6%. The medical clinic took care of 63.9% of the adolescents. They had received high, 84.6% of the cases and had not been detected deaths. The results contribute for the aiming of writ of prevention public politics the specific action, of control and reduction of the main causes of morbidade that take the adolescent population to look the service of ready aid.

  10. New science, old convictions - Texas Senate Bill 344: identifying further necessary reform in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Naina

    2015-02-01

    In June 2013, Texas Senate Bill 344 (SB 344) was signed into law after strong Innocence Project support. SB 344 has since transformed the Texan judicial landscape. Known as the 'Junk Science Writ', SB 344 enables the court to grant habeas corpus relief based on scientific evidence that '(1) was not available to be offered by a convicted person at the convicted person's trial; or (2) contradicts scientific evidence relied on by the state at trial'. Inmates, such as the 'San Antonio Four', whose convictions were based upon what is now considered 'faulty' medical and forensic testimony, have been released under SB 344. Yet, science, as a field dependent on innovation, is inherently prone to debunking the scientific and forensic methods the law has relied upon to convict individuals. This commentary identifies policy behind SB 344, how SB 344 may influence the perception of science in the courtroom, and how 'junk science' is defined and/or limited. Furthermore, this commentary concludes that to achieve justice in the legal system through habeas relief based on 'junk science', it is necessary to revitalize and standardize forensic science.

  11. 创伤理论下看小说《宠儿》中塞丝的创伤及复原之路%Look Trauma and Rehabilitation of the Road Novel "Beloved"Sethe under Trauma Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鸣敏

    2016-01-01

    作为美国著名的黑人女性作家,托尼·莫里森的第五部小说《宠儿》反映的就是饱受摧残的黑人种族在奴隶制被废除后所经历的苦难。这篇小说人物众多,结构复杂,莫里森以丰富的表达手法为读者表现了深刻的文化内涵。本文通过对《宠儿》中女主人公赛丝的创伤表现进行分析,再深入剖析她内心创伤的恢复过程,进而窥探托尼·莫里森的写作思想以及作品中的黑人精神。%As a famous black American woman writer,Toni Morrison's fifth novel "Beloved"reflected suffering experience of the heroine after the battered black race slavery was abolished.Based on the "Beloved"heroine game,filament wound per-formance is analyzed in -depth.The author analyzed her inner trauma recovery process,and then pried Toni Morrison's writ-ing,black spirit in his thought and works.

  12. On Han Shanbi' s Trilogy A Biography of Deng Xiaoping and The Last Years of Deng Xiaoping%在自由中逼近真理——论寒山碧的三卷本《邓小平评传》及《邓小平最后岁月》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德喜

    2012-01-01

    《邓小平评传》是海南籍香港作家寒山碧传记文学的代表作。寒山碧利用香港的民主自由为邓小平撰写传记文学作品,力求客观真实,公正中立,既叙述了传主曲折的人生,又表现了传主的人性和温情,同时对传主作了精湛的评点,显示出作家追求真理的勇气。%A Biography of Deng Xiaoping is the master work of biography literature for Han Shanbi, a Hong Kong writer of Hainan origin. Thanks to the democratic and free atmosphere in Hong Kong, Han Shanbi makes ev- ery effort to be objective, authentic, fair and impartial in his writing of a biography of Deng Xiaoping. In his writ- ing, Han Shanbi not only relates Deng Xiaoping' s tortuous life but also shows Deng Xiaoping' s human nature and tender feelings coupled with a review of Deng Xiaoping' s life, which reveals Han' s courageous pursuit of the truth.

  13. A Study on Network-based Process Writing Teaching in College English%基于网络的过程教学法在大学英语写作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀庭

    2015-01-01

    本文采用教学实践和问卷调查的研究方法,通过对作文成绩和写作能力的三个水平层面的发展情况,即语言的流畅性、句法的复杂性和准确性进行研究,分析了基于网络的过程写作法对大学生英语写作能力的影响,以及学习者对此教学方法的态度。%By conducting experimental teaching and question-naires, this study focuses on the effect of network-based process writing teaching on college students' writing competence devel-opment. The findings include data analyses based on students' writing test results and three levels which indicate students' writ-ing competence, namely language fluency, grammatical complex-ity and accuracy, and the opinions of students to the new teaching mode.

  14. The pain of flesh---Analysis of Lolita from Freud’s trauma%言说肉身之痛--《洛丽塔》的精神创伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建飞

    2015-01-01

    《洛丽塔》是俄裔美籍作家弗拉基米尔-纳博科夫最满意的作品,也是其最富争议的一部作品。几乎所有人都将《洛丽塔》归结为:中年男子兼“恋童癖”亨伯特迷恋上12岁的洛丽塔的畸形恋爱故事。然而,童年亨伯特痛失玩伴,成年后由于对童年玩伴的思念而使得这一创伤得以延续、加深,最终以死亡来结束这一肉身之痛,显然,亨伯特是出于对洛丽塔的爱才造成了这一切。%Lolita,written by Russian American Vladimir Nabokov,is the author’s most satisfied work and also wins lots of critics. Almost all the people conclude this novel as a middle-aged man loved the 12-year’s girl. However,teenager Humbert lost his first love when he was only 14 years old and this trauma continuing to torture him and finally he has to end this torture with death only. Apparently,Humbert treats Lolita in this way because of true love.

  15. Audience Accommodation in Terms of Audience's Wants in English Writings%英语写作中需求方面的读者顺应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌奇

    2012-01-01

    写作是作者与读者的一种交流,读者在写作过程中占据极其重要的地位。写作中需求层面的读者顺应是指作者从读者入手,正确判断读者的阅读需求,通过语域方面的顺应、得体定位、价值凸显,以促进读者对话语的认同。达到有效交际的目的。%Written text is a way of communication with audience,so audience plays an im- portant role in writing. Audience accommodation in terms of audience' s want in English writ- ings means that the writer, starting from audience,rightly estimating his audience' s wants, pres- ents his ideas by ways of genre analysis, value-bursting and propriety in settings that can best facilitate his audience's identification, by which an effective communication can be achieved.

  16. Detached concern?: Emotional socialization in twenty-first century medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underman, Kelly; Hirshfield, Laura E

    2016-07-01

    Early works in medical sociology have been pivotal in the development of scholarly knowledge about emotions, emotional socialization, and empathy within medical training, medical education, and medical contexts. Yet despite major shifts in both medical education and in medicine writ-large, medical sociologists' focus on emotions has largely disappeared. In this paper, we argue that due to recent radical transformations in the medical arena, emotional socialization within medical education should be of renewed interest for sociologists. Developments in medical education such as increased diversity among enrollees, the rise of patient health movements, and curricular transformation have made this context a particularly interesting case for sociologists working on a variety of questions related to structural, organizational, and cultural change. We offer three areas of debate within studies in medical education that sociologists may be interested in studying: 1) gendered and racialized differences in the performance of clinical skills related to emotion, 2) differences in self-reported empathy among subspecialties, and 3) loss of empathy during the third year or clinical year of medical school.

  17. Adolescents and Young Adults’ Conceptions on Being in Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castro Solano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Data on conceptions about BEING IN LOVE as well as answers on marrying somebody who has desirable characteristics withou loving him/her are analyzed. A survey on mate preferences that included an open sentence (Being in love means to me.... and a question about marrying somebody without loving him/her was administered to an intentional sample of 761 adolescents and young adults living in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. Content analysis of free writ- ten expressions was carried out. We found that both males and females mainly consider that being in love is related to needs of sharing time together, thinking on the beloved most of the time and having deep feelings. High percentages of subjects think in marrying only wihen being in love, but males are more doubtful than females. Some differences between sex and age on conceptions were found. Data grouping supports Sternberg ́s (1989 three dimensions model : passion, intimacy and commitment. 

  18. "Unidade de estilo" e educação dos impulsos em escritos de juventude de Friedrich Nietzsche "Unit of style" and education of the impulses in Friedrich Nietzche's youth writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Gontijo Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda a concepção de "unidade de estilo" forjada por Nietzsche nos escritos da época de professorado na Universidade de Basiléia. Pretende-se mostrar a conexão entre tal concepção e a defesa da necessidade de educação dos instintos, nesse momento da obra ainda fortemente associada ao conjunto de um povo ou cultura; no caso, a cultura grega. Ao centro, o desafio de se compreender a duplicidade de apolíneo e dionisíaco, para além da esfera estrita da arte trágica.This article approaches the concept of "unity of stile" forged by Nietzsche in his writtings when he was professor at Basel university. It aims to show the connections between such concept and his defense of the necessity of educating the insticts. It is necessary to understand the duplicity of apollinean and dionysian beyond the limits of the tragic art.

  19. A Theoretical Exploration on Applied Writing Teaching in Higher Vocational English%高校英语应用文写作教学的理论探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高非

    2014-01-01

    Since the revision of "English Teaching Syllabus for English Majors of Colleges and Universities" in 2000, applied English writing course has been included into it. This paper at-tempted to explore theories which can be used to improve the teaching practice of the three core stages of applied English writ-ing, including curriculum content arrangement, classroom teach-ing process, and after-class consolidation assignment. This paper analyzed pragmatic theories, memetics and the process of lan-guage meme replication, as well as the theory of text, aiming to provide detailed theoretical support for teaching practice.%《高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲》在2000年修订后,增设了英语应用文写作课程。本文试图针对英语应用文写作教学的三个核心阶段:课程内容编排,课堂教学过程以及课后巩固任务,探讨可以用来提高各个阶段教学实践的理论。本文分析了语用学理论,模因论和语言模因复制的过程,以及文本论,为教学实践提供了详细的理论支持。

  20. POETRY AND CRITICS. WORD AND BODY: SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON MIA COUTO’S WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Junkes Bueno Martha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to put in dialogue two texts by Mia Couto, writ­ten in different genders, and published with a large gap of time between each other. In both, the tensions among poetry, thought and life reflect the author’s attitude in face of language and its poetic transformation strength that could act in society and lyric person. The first text, is an intervention [poetic] made in Stockholm, in 2008; the other is a poem from author’s first writings, Nocturnamente, from 1981. In both it is possible to note that authorship figurations address to two kinds of crisis: political and social dilemmas from Africa and also, in terms of individual subjectivity crisis, to the dilemmas of the poetic person, following the path of modernity but adding to it something new: the concern with body and corporality of scripture. In both texts, the intervention and the poem, language and human being has a crucial role, whether to re-ordinate the world or to ordi­nate the profound lyricism of poetic person. In this sense, the critical cons­ciousness are pinpointed not as something usually dropped in traditional crisis debate, but from this debate to something challenger: the reflexions on (unlimited powerful of poetry resistance, as Jean Luc Nancy suggests.

  1. Transfrontalité et perméabilité dans les genres de non-fiction : l’essai et la chronique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Picazo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the notion of literature of thought as a complex set of literary forms seeking to develop an argument, this study sets out to demonstrate the paradigmatic value of the essay in relation to these writ-ings and the cross-border nature of non-fiction genres, of which the essay and the chronicle are two of the most closely rela-ted. The analysis begins by tackling the description of the characteristic features of the essay as conceived by Montaigne, with the aim of establishing the lines of force of this matrix form, which gave rise to a tradi-tion of unsystematic and permeable person-al and reflective writings that has endured to this day. The study goes on to describe specific features of contemporary journal-istic writing in the light of the canon mod-el, with particular emphasis on the subjec-tive view of the gaze and on the notion of currency that highlight the permeable and hybrid side of this genre

  2. Cultural Perspective on the Language of Oscar Wilde's Comedies%王尔德喜剧语言的文化透视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学平

    2011-01-01

    王尔德的喜剧语言远离了粗俗鄙俚,体现出十分文雅的特点。不仅如此,在王尔德喜剧人物的对话中,还大量出现了与爱、道德评判以及人生态度相关的词汇,从而构成了王尔德喜剧语言的又一显著特征。王尔德喜剧语言的这些特点,不仅烙下了维多利亚时代意识形态和社会风尚的印痕,而且流露出王尔德与维多利亚时代主流意识形态的微妙关系——既迎合又叛逆。这种关系在一定程度上反映了维多利亚时代末期部分上流社会人士的思想意识,成为王尔德喜剧在当时能够得到上流社会观众认同并大获成功的原因之一。%Far beyond vulgarity,the language of Oscar Wilde's comedies is rich in elegance.Moreover,words about love,moral judgments and attitude of life are abundant in the conversa-tions of the characters in his plays,forming another remarkable trait of the language of Wilde'scomedies.Not only are these traits branded with Victorianism,but they also divulge the subtle re-lationship between Wilde and the Victorian ideology—both catering and rebellious.This relation-ship,to some extent,reflects the ideology of the upper-class in the late-Victorian times.It is oneof the reasons for the recognition and success that Wilde's comedies had gained among the upper-class audience of his time.

  3. Planejamento urbano: o povo constitucional e a tarefa teórica de resgate do coletivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Isaac Pilati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Flagram-se, na CRFB e na legislaçãoinfraconstitucional, dois Brasil: um individualistaque reluta em desaparecer e outro novo, dedemocracia participativa, que não consegue seafirmar. Este só será realidade se forem criados osconceitos e categorias de direito material e direitoprocessual indispensáveis ao resgate jurídico docoletivo. Concretamente, é tarefa do povoconstitucional, no exercício de prerrogativasfundamentais como a de elaborar o plano diretorda cidade, visto como norma proveniente dademocracia direta e não da representativa. À teoriacabe contribuir: pela identificação dos benscoletivos a par dos bens públicos e privados; peloreconhecimento do sujeito de direito coletivo; pelacriação de um processo civil coletivo e pelaclassificação da propriedade em novas categorias.As propriedades especiais não só asseguram oefetivo cumprimento da função social, comodevolvem ao coletivo os bens “estadualizados”pelo velho constitucionalismo liberal.We find, in the CRFB and in theinfraconstitutional legislation, two Brazil: oneindividualist that refuses to go away and a new one,of participative democracy, that can not affirm itself.This will only be a reality with the creation of thenew concepts and categories of material andprocessual rights inalienable to the judicial rescue ofthe collective. In fact, this is a job of the constitutionalpeople, in the exercise of fundamental prerogativessuch as elaborating a city plan, seen as a norm whichcomes from direct and not representative democracy.It is fitting to add to the theory: for the identificationof the collective possessions together with the publicand private ones; for the recognition of the subjectof collective right; for the creation of a collectivecivil process and for the classification of property innew categories. The special properties not onlyassure the effective carrying out of the social function,but also return to the collective the possessions thatthe old liberal

  4. Sutura mecánica microvascular en cirugía reconstructiva de cabeza y cuello Mechanical microvascular suture in head and neck reconstruction surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández Díaz

    2012-12-01

    (80%. The mean anastomosis time was 8min. Four patients required revision of the anastomosis, with a salvage rate of 25%. There were 3 failures, oneof which was a conversion to manual suturing. Conclusion: Microvascular mechanical anastomoisis is a technique with an efficiency at least equal to the hand-sewn artery and vein anastomosis, with a shorter anastomosis (60% time reduction and arterial use with satisfactory results, taking into account certain restrictions.

  5. Characterization of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Originating from Cucurbits in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is considered one of the most economically importantplant viruses and has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range including plantsfrom family Cucurbitaceae. In Serbia, on cucurbits CMV was detected in single and mixedinfections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Viruses,including CMV, are constantly present in cucurbit crops, but their frequency changesby year and locality. Surveys and sample collections were conducted in cucurbit crops inthe period from 2008 to 2009 at 15 localities in Vojvodina province, and sample testing wascarried out using the DAS-ELISA method and commercially available antisera for six economicallymost important cucurbit viruses. In 2008, a total of 51 samples were collected from13 cucurbit crops of oilseed pumpkin Olinka variety, squash, and bottle gourd and CMV wasdetected in a total of 55% of tested samples with symptoms of viral infection. The most commoninfectious type was mixed infection with ZYMV and WMV (35.3%, and then mixedinfection with ZYMV (17.7% and WMV (2%. A total of 599 symptomatic samples of oilseedpumpkin Olinka variety, zucchini squash varieties Beogradska and Tosca, squash, and wintersquash were collected in 15 cucurbits crops in 2009. CMV was present in 4.4% of totalcollected samples, in single infections in 1.3%, and in mixed with WMV or ZYMV in 1.3%, and1.8%. Five CMV isolates were obtained by mechanical inoculations of N. glutinosa and oneof them was selected for further biological characterization. Test plants which were describedto be hosts of CMV expressed symptoms characteristic for those caused by CMV afterinoculations by isolate 115-08. CMV specific primers Au1u/Au2d were used to amplify an850 bp fragment using RT-PCR method. Amplified fragment encodes the entire viral coatprotein (CP gene and partial 5’ and 3’ UTRs of two selected CMV isolates. Amplified fragmentswere sequenced and deposited in the NCBI, where

  6. A INTRODUÇÃO REFERENCIAL EM TEXTOS VERBO-IMAGÉTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walleska Bernadino Silva

    2016-01-01

    Van Dijk (2012. The focus of this article, specifically, is to show the objects of discourse in oneof corpus categories of analysis: the referential introduction. It was found that in all the textswas carried out by referential introduction, performed by objects of discourse in verbal andimaging manner and recategorized, primarily, by objects of discourse in imaging manner. It wasalso proved the multifunctionality of referential introduction, since not only showed the functionof presenting references. Keywords: Textual linguistic, referenciation, objects of discourse, verb-imagery texts.

  7. 结直肠癌患者血清SEPT9基因甲基化检测的研究进展%Research Progress on Detection of SEPT9 Gene Methylation in Serum of Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 王娟

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignanttumors of the digestive system, and has been a serious threat to human life. Currently, the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease is not definite. Screening and diagnosis of early colorectal cancer is particularly important. Serum SEPT9 gene methylation detection is oneof significant medical tests. Septin9 consists of a P-loop-based GTP-binding domain lfanked by alterable N terminus region and a C terminus region. It is involved in the following biological processes such as cytokinesis, polarization, vesicle trafifcking and membrane reconstruction. The functions of these proteins become diverse in many organisms. Recently, more and more data suggest that septin9 participate in the pathogenesis and progress of colorectal cancer. In the review, we will summarize the research advancements about the structural features, biological function, expression in colorectal cancer tissues and oncogenetic mechanisms of SEPT9.%结直肠癌是消化系统最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,严重威胁着人类的生命安全。该病的病因及发病机制尚不明确,其早期筛查及诊断尤其重要,血清SEPT9基因甲基化检测是其中具有重要意义的一项检查。Septin9蛋白由位于中央的P-loop GTP结合域、可变的N端和C端结构域组成,参与细胞分裂、细胞极化、囊泡运输和胞膜重构等生物过程,且SEPT9基因编码的蛋白质在许多生物体内出现了较大的功能分化。最近有数据表明,SEPT9基因表达的蛋白与结直肠癌的发生、发展直接相关。从SEPT9的结构特征、生物学功能、在结直肠癌中的表达改变以及致瘤机制等方面的研究进展进行综述。

  8. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  9. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  10. 明代古诗选本中的“谐隐”与博雅思潮%"Humorous"and Liberal Thoughts in the Classical Poem Anthology in the Ming Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳进

    2016-01-01

    the classical poetry anthologies in the Ming Dynasty collects a great number of maxims, proverbs and oth-ers, which, on the one hand, inherited the style classification and the integration of diverse values as evidenced in Wenxin Diaolong(Carving a Dragon at the Core of Literature) by Liu Xie, and, on the other, was directly impacted by Yang Shen’s Fengyayi Pian (On Elegance), Gujin Feng Yao (Folk Songs) and Gujin Yan (Proverbs: Past and Present) and by the academic atmosphere of advocating the classical, retro and liberal thoughts represented in the works. Toward the end of the Ming Dynasty, this trend was blended with the spirit of"self soul expression", curiosity and uniqueness advocacy and revealed its liberal thoughts, classic addiction and unconventionality in the motto writ-ings and Gushigui(Return to Classic Poems).%明代古诗选本中箴铭、谣谚等谐隐类话语的大量收录,一方面是承继刘勰《文心雕龙》的文体分类观念和多元融合的价值取向,直接的影响则来自杨慎《风雅逸篇》《古今风谣》和《古今谚》等,及其所代表的宗经、复古、博雅的学术风气。明末,这股风气又与“独抒性灵”、好奇尚异的性灵思潮合流,在箴言体小品的创作与《古诗归》的评选中都呈现出博雅嗜古又独标心解的特点。

  11. Connotation of the Enlightenment Discourse and Debate about“National Form” in Literature and Art from Perspective of HU Feng s Doubt%启蒙话语交锋与“民族形式”文艺论争的实际内涵--以胡风的质疑为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕海

    2013-01-01

    The debate about “national form” in literature and art around 1940 s involved a series of theo-retical issues such as how to use old form, and the appraisement of“May 4th Movement”, etc. HU Feng, who had analyzed and questioned the debate, not only criticized the viewpoint of the Popular Reading Publishing House,i. e. ,“new character was born out of the‘old character’”, but also disagreed with other left-wing writ-ers. He was actually adhering to the May 4th Enlightened Literature Tradition initiated by LU Xun. The fact that HU Feng was criticized indicates that the“National Form” literature movement was intertwined with politi-cal ideology, which marked the beginning of the intellectuals. destiny of being transformed.%20世纪40年代前后文艺的“民族形式”论争,涉及了如何利用旧形式、评价“五四”新文学等一系列的理论问题。胡风对“民族形式”论争的分析,既批评了通俗读物编刊社“新质发生于旧质的胎内”的观点,也与其他左翼作家的意见不同,实际上是坚持鲁迅所开创的“五四”启蒙文学传统。胡风的质疑和被批判,显示了“民族形式”运动文学与政治意识形态纠缠的实际内涵,同时也标志着知识分子被改造命运的开始。

  12. 回归宁静:《赫索格》中主人公旅行的意义%Africa with Fortitude: an Analysis of The Grass Is Singing from the Perspective of Eco - imperialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭蓓蓓

    2012-01-01

    本文将把主人公赫索格的旅行分为地域旅行和心灵旅行两部分,第一部分拟以运用旅行文学相关知识并结合犹太传统探寻赫索格地域旅行的意义;第二部分将深入剖析美国时代背景,揭示赫索格在心灵旅行中从逃避现实﹑继而不断思考、探索,最终心灵获得短暂的回归与宁静的圆满过程。%As the Nobel Prize winner for literary in 2007, Doris Lessing is regarded as the greatest female writ er after Virginia Woolf. In Lessing's literary works, she depicts a world filled with both reality and delusion by her unique female perspective and exquisite style. Since the publication of one of Lessing's masterpieces The Golden Notebook, she has been labeled with "feminist". She wants to get rid of such title all the time, but the analysis of her works mostly confines in the field of feminism, thus greatly restricting readers" understanding. Based on the scrutinizing of the text This paper selects Lessing'S maiden work The Grass is Singing as analytical object, combines her deep affection for Africa, thereby reveals the criticism of eeo imperialism implied in her work, excavates her detestation toward the destruction caused by eolonists in Africa and expresses her revere and passion to the vigorous vitality in Africa.

  13. 大学英语写作教学中的同侪反馈研究%Peer Feedback in College English Writing Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘银丽

    2014-01-01

    Peer feedback is a second language research focuses on the teaching of writing. Study abroad has been a lot of fe-edback for the effectiveness of peer, but the results are not the same. The domestic research mostly stay in the theoretical, empirical research based on our actual teaching situation is still rare. Therefore, this study attempts sophomore English writ-ing lesson using peer feedback, results showed that:(1) although students are more willing to adopt teacher feedback, but the vast majority of students on peer feedback or hold a positive attitude;(2) peer feedback will help improve students' self-learning ability and develop students' critical thinking skills.%同侪反馈是二语写作教学中的研究重点。国外已有大量针对同侪反馈有效性的研究,但结果不尽相同。而国内研究大多是停留在理论层面,基于我国实际教学情况的实证研究尚不多见。因此,本研究在英语专业二年级学生的写作课中尝试使用同侪反馈,结果表明:(1)虽然学生更愿意采纳教师反馈,但绝大多数学生对同侪反馈还是持有积极的态度;(2)同侪反馈有利于提高学生的自主学习能力和培养学生的批判性思维能力。

  14. 记忆·书写:满族说部的传承%Memory and Writing:Inheritance of the Man People’s Long Narratives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高荷红

    2016-01-01

    Of over 50 Man people’s long narratives,more than 20 are related to Fu Yuguang,a national-level inheritor. Through our study we find that the Fu family has a unique way of inheritance and training. Also,Mr. Fu is superbly good at memorizing and writ-ing down tales and events,with an excellent command of literary qualities and skills.%在业已出版和待出版的五十多部满族说部中,与国家级传承人富育光有关的超过20部,逾千万字。他是怎样将这些说部复述、记录、书写并传承下来的?与此相关的问题引起了学界的关注。通过研究我们认为,这既与富察氏家族的说部传承及其独特的训练方式有关,也与富育光超常的记忆力和善于有效地利用书写手段不可或分。换言之,家族内部世代相沿的传统和规训是个体能够掌握巨量叙事资源的关键,而个人较高的文学修养和长期的记诵—书写实践也造就了传承人及其说部文本的独特性。

  15. 浅议TEM4与听力教学相结合的策略%Initial Analysis of TEM4 and the Strategies in Listening Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓红

    2015-01-01

    In English teaching, it is repeatedly stressed that the four basic skills are"listening","speaking","reading"and"writ-ing"."Listening"is the top one among the four skills, thus we can see the importance of listening. Therefore, it is necessary for us to deeply study listening teaching. Because of TEM4's widespread influence in society, it has attracted many researchers' attention. The author analyzes the problems of listening part in TEM4, and the corresponding listening teaching situation in private colleges, combining with the actual situation, puts forward useful sugges-tions on listening teaching.%在高校英语测试中,TEM4因其广泛的社会影响一直备受研究者的关注。就TEM4中听力部分的测试,如何提高听力许多研究者都进行了相应的研究。事实上,学生听力的提高一直是英语教学关注的焦点,也是听力教学中反复强调的部分,对听力教学进行深入研究确有必要。作者分析了专业四级考试中的听力部分相关情况,以及相应的民办高校的听力教学现状,并结合实际情况对听力教学提出有益的建议。

  16. 高职院校课程考试改革探索%Survey of Examination Reform of Courses for Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶志娟

    2014-01-01

    课程考试改革是高职院校人才培养模式改革的重要内容,目前课程考试存在考试内容过分依附于教材、考核方式过分依赖于笔试、考核能力偏重于记忆力、评价结果过于看重考试的分数等问题,必须树立以能力测试为中心的现代考试理念,构建以职教特色为核心的课程考试体系,完善以服务学生为宗旨的考试管理体制。%The curriculum examination reform is an important part of the mode reform of talent cultiva-tion in higher vocational colleges .At present ,some problems have arisen in the curriculum examination as follows :the content of examination overly depends on textbooks ;the ways of testing overly rely on writ-ten examination ;the testing ability puts more emphasis on students'memory ;the evaluation results focus too much on the marks .As a result ,the authors point out in this paper that the modern examination con-cept centering around skill testing must be set up and the curriculum examination system with the charac-teristic of vocational education must be established to improve the examination management system dedica-ted to serving students .

  17. A Study on the Writing Techniques in the Full-length Novel Frog by Mo Yan:an Analysis of the Specific Ones Including Repetition, Metaphor, Framework and Rhythm%重复与隐喻架构与节奏--浅谈莫言长篇小说《蛙》的写作技法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮

    2015-01-01

    Literary writing is a kind of creative aesthetic activity of mind, in which the author uses literary language to shape artistic images and to express their thoughts and emotions.It not only has some general characteristics, such as rich perceptual characteristics and typified depiction, also has more personal experi-ences.This thesis attempts to take the novel Frog by Mo Yan, the 2012 Nobel Prize winner, as an example to analyze the writing skills, which finally bring people wonderful reading experience.The analysis starts with confirming the story theme, and then includes screening characters relationship, extending story plot, estab-lishing the story framework by means of repetition, and controlling the narrative rhythm strictly with many writ-ing skills, such as metaphor, etc.%文学写作作为作者使用文学语言描述艺术形象、表达思想情感的一种创造性的审美心智活动,不仅具有富含感性特征、典型化描摹等共性特点,同时还具有更多私人经验。以2012年诺贝尔文学奖得主莫言的长篇小说《蛙》为例进行分析发现,其从确立故事主题到筛选人物关系、扩展推进情节的各环节中,以“重复”的方式不断丰富故事架构,进而用隐喻等方式严格控制小说节奏,从而带给人震撼性的阅读体验。

  18. 论索尔·贝娄小说中的现代性%On the Modernity in Saul Bellow's Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔国强

    2013-01-01

    西方学者一度对索尔·贝娄作品性质的归宿问题产生过一些争论。有论者称贝娄为现代主义作家;也有论者认为贝娄一生都在同福楼拜等现代主义作家的美学主张进行论战;还有论者干脆认为贝娄与现代主义创作格格不入,是一个典型的后现代主义作家。厘清上述观点后,可以从贝娄与现代主义文学之间的关系、贝娄小说中的现代“荒原”情结以及女性人物塑造三个方面,来看贝娄小说创作中的现代性。%Western scholars debate about the nature of Saul Bellow's novels.Some of them maintain that Bellow is a modernist writer;others observe that Bellow fought against Modernist aesthetics championed by writ-ers like Gustave Flaubert;still others insist that Bellow is a post-modernist writer.The author of the present pa-per attempts to argue about the modernity in Bellow's novels through the following issues,i.e.Bellow and the modernism,the "waste land"images in Bellow's novels,and the women character and modernity.

  19. Modern Interpretation of Cohesion in English Poetry%解读现代英语诗歌中的衔接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琴

    2015-01-01

    The text is divided into spoken discourse and written discourse.Poetry is a type of literature,but also a kind of writ-ten discourse,with distinct uniqueness in the technique of expression,especially modern poetry.And it is this unique enable readers to read English poetry more difficult.One of the reasons for this unique is the poets happy to use various strange cohe-sive devices.In this paper,through the analysis of cohesive devices in English poetry,discusses the connection characteristics of English poetry,and proposed several suggestions to read English poetry,try to help the reader to alleviate the difficulty of English poetry reading.%语篇分为口头语篇和书面语篇。诗歌是一种文学题材,也是书面语篇中的一种,在表现手法上具有鲜明的独特性,现代诗歌尤其明显。而正是这种独特性使读者阅读英语诗歌时倍感艰难。造成这一独特性的原因之一便是诗人们乐于运用各种奇特的衔接手法。本文通过分析英语诗歌中的衔接手法,探讨英语诗歌的衔接特点,提出阅读英语诗歌的几点建议,试帮助读者减轻英语诗歌阅读的难度。

  20. Escribir para dialogar: la construcción de un espacio público entre estudiantes de nivel medio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Falconi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo desarrolla cómo los estudiantes de una escuela de nivel medio superior (CCH-Sur impulsaron en el contexto de huelga de la UNAM (1999-2000 la conformación de un espacio de opinión pública a través de sus producciones escritas. Estas producciones se encontraron orientadas por la apropiación de particulares "géneros de escritura", y diversas fuentes y materiales de la cultura escrita. Asimismo, las prácticas de escritura estuvieron articuladas con la construcción de las autorías y con las relaciones de poder sostenidas entre editores y público lector, pertenecientes al mismo colectivo estudiantil. En estas circunstancias institucionales los estudiantes utilizaron la escritura como instrumento de expresión y "concreción" de los argumentos circulantes y como estrategia para promover el diálogo y una nueva forma de participación social.This work develops how the students of intermediate superior level (CCH-Sur in the context of strike of the UNAM (1999-2000 impelled the conformation of a space of public opinion through the written productions. These productions were oriented by the appropriation of particular written genres and diverse sources and materials of the written culture. Also, the literacy practices were articulated with the construction of the authorship and power relations maintained between publishers and reading public, all of them from the same student group. In this institutional circumstances, the students used the writting as instrument of expression and "concretion" of the circulating arguments and as a strategy to promote the dialogue and a new form of social participation.

  1. 浅谈《三言》与《宝文堂书目》的同源性%Homology of Baowen Room Bibliography (宝文堂书目) and San Yan (三言)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春光

    2014-01-01

    《宝文堂书目》作为明代的私人藏书目录,其著录的宋人小说一般被认为是留存到明代的宋代话本。“三言”也吸收了宋代话本的精华,各家小说史均有论述。《宝文堂书目》作为宋元明话本、拟话本传藏的一个重要载体,与“三言”有很多类似之处。“三言”在吸收元明新作的同时,也吸收了很多宋话本小说,这其中《宝文堂书目》功不可没。%As a private bibliography , Baowen Room Bibliography (宝文堂书目) is generally thought as a story-telling script of the Song dynasty preserved in the Ming dynasty .In San Yan (三言) , excellent story-tell-ing scripts in the Song dynasty were collected .As an important carrier of the story -telling stories and novels writ-ten in the style of story-telling scripts in the Song , Yuan and Ming dynasties , Baowen Room Bibliography (宝文堂书目) was much similar to San Yan (三言) .While absorbing new works of the Yuan and Ming dynasty , San Yan (三言) assimilated a lot of story -telling novels of the Song dynasty .Among this, Baowen Room Bibliography (宝文堂书目) plays a very vital role .

  2. spo(2|2-Equivariant Quantizations on the Supercircle S^{1|2}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Mellouli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the space of differential operators $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ acting between$lambda$- and $mu$-densities defined on $S^{1|2}$ endowed with its standard contact structure.This contact structure allows one to define a filtration on $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ which is finerthan the classical one, obtained by writting a differential operator in terms of the partial derivativeswith respect to the different coordinates.The space $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ and the associated graded space of symbols $mathcal{S}_{delta}$($delta=mu-lambda$ can be considered as $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-modules, where $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$ isthe Lie superalgebra of contact projective vector fields on $S^{1|2}$.We show in this paper that there is a unique isomorphism of $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-modules between$mathcal{S}_{delta}$ and $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ that preserves the principal symbol (i.e.an $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-equivariant quantization for some values of $delta$ called non-critical values.Moreover, we give an explicit formula for this isomorphism, extending in this way the resultsof [Mellouli N., SIGMA 5 (2009, 111, 11 pages] which were established for second-order differential operators.The method used here to build the $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-equivariant quantization is the same as the oneused in [Mathonet P., Radoux F., Lett. Math. Phys. 98 (2011, 311-331] to prove the existence of a $mathfrak{pgl}(p+1|q$-equivariant quantization on$mathbb{R}^{p|q}$.

  3. Analysis on Ouyang xiu’s Practical Writing about Creation Practice and Value%欧阳修应用文体创作成就及价值探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁士宽

    2014-01-01

    Ouyang Xiu is recognized as a leader of literature in the Song Dynasty, and he is one the of repre-sentative figures in the ancient prose movement of the Northem Song Dynasty. He has written many articles, which involve various fields. As a prominent writer of practical writings, the majority of his writing style is practical writing. Ouyang xiu has not only defined the basic properties of practical writing from the aspects of literary forms and literary application, also constructed the general framework of practical writing theory, which advocates practical writing should be practical, concise, appropriate. The Ouyang xiu’s practical writ-ing abides by the rule of“comprehensive and practical style”, creating a new generation of literary form that has a unique effect.%欧阳修是公认的宋代文坛领袖,北宋古文运动的代表。他一生著述颇丰,文章涉及多个领域,作为杰出的应用文写作大家,其应用文占多数。欧阳修不仅从文体形式、文体应用等方面明确了应用文体的基本性质,还构筑了应用文理论的大体框架,主张应用文体应实用、言简、得体。欧阳修的应用文体恪守“明道”、“致用”,开创一代文风,有独特的影响价值。

  4. A Brief Discussion on Class Management Approaches%浅谈班级管理的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马成

    2015-01-01

    The class is the basic unit of the school, and the head-teacher is an important member of the class, because he is the organizer, educator and leader of the class. A good headteacher can not only improve the students' achievements, but also can make all of the students grow up healthily and happily and achieve all-round development in morality, intelligence and sports. The main object of class management is a group of chil-dren who are not entirely sensible. In the classroom, various things happen every day, so the effective management of a class and the proper handling of various class affairs requires the headteacher's certain art of management. According to the writ-er's personal experience, this paper discusses the methods and strategies about class management.%班级是学校的基本单位,班主任是班级的重要成员,他是班集体的组织者、教育者和领导者。一位优秀的班主任不仅可以提高学生的成绩,还可以带领全班学生健康快乐地成长,并能让学生在德、智、体等方面全面发展。班级管理的主要对象是一群还不完全懂事的孩子。在班级里每天都会有事情发生,怎样才能管理好班级、处理好班级的各项事务,要求班主任有一定的管理艺术。本文结合我个人的经历,谈谈班级管理的一些方法。

  5. 论V.S.奈保尔在中国的译介、研究和接受特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭峰

    2012-01-01

    There are some special characteristics in the translation, research and reception of V. S. Naipaul in China. The selective translation of Naipaul's works to some extent is made by the writer's religious ideas and the historical and political thinking. In the field of research, the domestic scholars avoid the exploration on Naipaul's political position, and are keen to study Naipaul's cultural identity. Meanwhile, they'd like to place Naipaul into the Chinese context and make the comparative study. In the reading process, Chinese writ- ers and readers like the image of Naipaul as a master of words and libertine, while the aca- demics prefer to Naipaul's cultural diasporic identity.%奈保尔在中国的译介、研究和接受呈现出鲜明的特征。在翻译领域,奈保尔作品译介的选择性受到了作家宗教观念和历史政治观念的影响。在研究领域,国内学界回避了对奈保尔政治立场的探索,而专注于研究奈保尔的文化认同和文化身份,同时又将奢保尔置入中国语境,进行比较研究。在对奈保尔的接受上,国内作家和普通读者倾向于将奈保尔塑造成文学大师和风流才子,而学界则更青睐奈保尔的文化流散者身份?,

  6. Problems in Ethnographic Text Writing--On Works and Lives:The Anthropologist as Author%民族志文本的写作问题1--读格尔兹《论著与生活》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑红

    2014-01-01

    《论著与生活:人类学家作为作者》是格尔兹出版于1988年的一本稍微晚近的关于人类学民族志文本写作的书,这本书的中文版在2013年由中国人民大学出版社出版。文章主要就格尔兹在书中所谈的民族志作为一种写作以及由此带来的作者是什么,作品是什么,“作者-功能”是如何实现的等问题进行梳理和总结,并且把格尔兹的这本书放到特定的历史背景中,指出格尔兹其实是对后现代“写文化”论争的一种回应,他们观点有分歧但其实都是对“阐释学科”的进一步探索。%Works and Lives:The Anthropologist as Author is a later book of Geertz about Anthropology Ethno-graphic text writing. The Chinese version of this book is published by Renmin university of China publishing house in 2013.This article mainly review and summarize about ethnography, as a kind of writing and the prob-lem it brought such as what is author, what is the work, The“author-function”is how to implement. This arti-cle put the book in the specific historical background and point that it is a response to the postmodern“writ-ing culture”argument. They have different opinions, but they are both further explorations on“Interpretation of the discipline”.

  7. 章太炎与散文理论现代化的再选择%Zhang Taiyan and the Modernization of Chinese Theory of Prose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚苏平

    2014-01-01

    中国散文的现代化是通过“革新”与“祛旧”的不断探索中,逐步对“阐教翼道”的散文正统做出系统、彻底的清理。这其中章太炎对“散文”范畴的划定、对散文审美标准和范本的独特选择、对严复、林纾等散文正宗的颠覆性评价,都对此后文学革命的散文现代化产生了深远的影响。本文以此为线索,为中国散文理论现代化提供一种考察路径。%In their efforts to modernize Chinese theory of prose through relentless innovation and re-form , Chinese men of letters systematically and thoroughly examined the traditional ideas of prose writ-ing, which emphasized interpreting the canons and protecting the accepted principles. Among them, Zhang Taiyan re-defined prose, advanced his aesthetic criteria for prose appreciation, and accordingly selected a collection of model texts. At the same time, he severely criticized Yan Fu’s and Lin Shu’s notions of quality prose. All this has exerted a profound influence on the development of Chinese theo-ry of prose. Through reviewing Zhang’s thoughts on prose, this paper attempts to provide a new ap-proach to viewing the modernization of Chinese prose theory.

  8. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  9. Indulging in Meditation and Resistance-The Describing of the Suffering in Xie Hua′s Children′s Literature%沉湎中的沉思和抗争--论谢华儿童文学作品中的苦难指向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周英芝

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990′s,Xie Hua′s works of children′s literature had obtained a lot of attention.From writing the body and the spiritu-al suffering of modern children,she built her creation,which contains a strong realistic color of confusion and resistance.In her writ-ing,Xie Hua pours her sentiments to children′s weakness and the sentiments motivate the readers′reflection of humanities and resist-ance with the rich connotation.How to write about the suffering is always an important part of children′s literature,and growth,death and resistance are typical and exemplary in her works.%20世纪90年代以来,谢华的儿童文学作品得到了社会的广泛关注。她的创作从儿童身体和精神的双重苦难入手,刻画了当代儿童生存的迷茫、困惑与抗争,蕴含着浓厚的现实主义色彩。在写作中,谢华对儿童的弱势所倾注的情感,以及这些情感所引发的人性思考和反抗,丰富了其作品的意味。如何描写“苦难”是儿童文学关注的内容之一,而在谢华的作品中,书写成长、死亡和抗争无疑具有代表性和示范性。

  10. Targeting brains, producing responsibilities: the use of neuroscience within British social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Tineke; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2015-05-01

    Concepts and findings 'translated' from neuroscientific research are finding their way into UK health and social policy discourse. Critical scholars have begun to analyse how policies tend to 'misuse' the neurosciences and, further, how these discourses produce unwarranted and individualizing effects, rooted in middle-class values and inducing guilt and anxiety. In this article, we extend such work while simultaneously departing from the normative assumptions implied in the concept of 'misuse'. Through a documentary analysis of UK policy reports focused on the early years, adolescence and older adults, we examine how these employ neuroscientific concepts and consequently (re)define responsibility. In the documents analysed, responsibility was produced in three different but intersecting ways: through a focus on optimisation, self-governance, and vulnerability. Our work thereby adds to social scientific examinations of neuroscience in society that show how neurobiological terms and concepts can be used to construct and support a particular imaginary of citizenship and the role of the state. Neuroscience may be leveraged by policy makers in ways that (potentially) reduce the target of their intervention to the soma, but do so in order to expand the outcome of the intervention to include the enhancement of society writ large. By attending as well to more critical engagements with neuroscience in policy documents, our analysis demonstrates the importance of being mindful of the limits to the deployment of a neurobiological idiom within policy settings. Accordingly, we contribute to increased empirical specificity concerning the impacts and translation of neuroscientific knowledge in contemporary society whilst refusing to take for granted the idea that the neurosciences necessarily have a dominant role (to play).

  11. Relation Between Type of Academic Institution of Origin and Development of Critical Thinking Abilities in College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicole Hansen Salas; Angel Roco Videla

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking abilities are not sufficiently developed across the curriculum of academic programs in Chile, neither in schools nor in universities. Considering these skills are so essential for every human being in all aspects of their life, it is a necessity for new programs to be created and taught from school through university. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development of critical thinking abilities in 109 first-year college students at AndrOs Bello University, and to evaluate if their institution of origin (private, public, and subsidy schools) was a significant factor in their skill development. To do so, the test for critical thinking was applied, measuring the level of agreement the students showed when asked if they apply these abilities in everyday situations. This test included the exploration of speaking, reading, and writting abilities, which were divided in two dimensions, substantive and dialogical. The results showed that there is no dependence between the type of school and development of critical thinking skills, although there was a small tendency that private schools show better results, which is coherent with the fact that these schools concentrate the majority of debate and critical thinking programs in the country. However, these programs are still insufficient, which is proved by the fact that, according to our results, the vast majority of students do not reach a desirable level of development in their critical thinking skills. This research was the start point for two very innovative and important academic programs in Chile: the Center for Critical Thinking and Debate Development through general education at Andres Bello University (mandatory for all students), and the Debate and Critical Thinking Program across the curriculum program at Lincoln International Academy (inserted in the curriculum for scholars from 5th to 1 lth grade).

  12. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-01-01

    Background Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. Objective To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. Eligibility criteria All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Data extraction Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Results Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Conclusions Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate

  13. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH/sup -/, CO/sup - -//sub 3/) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states.

  14. Pemikiran Syekh Muhammad Arsyad Al-Banjari tentang Zakat dalam Kitab Sabîl al-Muhtadîn Analisis Intertekstual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslich Shabir

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabil al-Muhtadin is a fiqh book written by Muhammadd Arsyad al-Banjari (d. 1812 in year 1193-1995 H / 1779-1781 A.D. Backgrounds of its written are, for example, desires to improve currently available Malay fiqh book entitled ash-Shirath al-Mustaqim written by Syekh Nuruddin Ar-Raniri. There are three significant thoughts on almsgiving / zakat described in Sabil al-Muhtadin, which are not explained in ash-Shirath al-Mustaqim. First, there are no obligation to almsgivingonjewelries except gold and silver jewelry. Second, portion of the needy are allowed to be utilized for production interests. Third, involvement of imam (leader in managing zakat / almsgiving especially in giving zakat / almsgiving to the needy for productive interests. Those thoughts are evaluated by research team of IAIN Antasari Banjarmasin and Rasyidah HA as the result of Al-Banjari’s individual interpretation and judment (ijtihad. Al-Banjari in his preface of Sabil al-Muhtadin described that during his writting of this book, he based on books written by muta'akkhirin scholars in Syafi’i mazhab in particular al-Anshari’s Fath al-Wahhab (d. 926, al-Haitami’s Tuhfat al-Muhtaj(d. 973, asy-Syarbini’s Mughni al-Muhtaj (d. 977 and ar-Ramli’s Nihayat al-Muhtaj (d. 1004. With the confession of Al-Banjari, it is necessary to do research using intertextual approach to find out whether those thoughts are the results of his individual interpretation and judgment (ijtihad. After reviewing all named references, it turnedout that what are evaluated as ijtihad results are already discussed by previous scholars.Key Words: The Needy, Productive almsgiving / Zakat, Intertextual, Ijtihad

  15. Warm Retrospect at a Controlled Distance---On the Writing Strategy of Love at the Time of the Cultural Revolution in The Love of the Hawthorn Tree%距离控制下的温情回望*--论《山楂树之恋》关于文革时期的爱情书写策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪丽霁

    2015-01-01

    The Love of the Hawthorn Tree differw itwelf from other“wcar”novelw wet in the Cultural Rev-olution by expertly controlling the aewthetic diwtance of both time and wpace. Inwtead of purpowely depicting perwonal wuffering in political turmoil ,thiw novel centerw around love in a tender-mood manner in a writ-ing wtrategy deliberately adopted by the noveliwt. Another point to ponder iw the feminiwt perwpective which, when applied to miwery and grievance in the Cultural Revolution,helpw the narration to go wmoothly. For the above reawonw,the novel haw rouwed great interewt,both individual and wocial.%与不少深烙“伤痕”印记的文革小说不同,《山楂树之恋》将涉及时间和空间的审美距离作了较为巧妙的控制和处理,有意淡化灾难及其背后的政治对个人生活的影响力。作品主要以爱情作为小说叙事的中心线索,对一段已逝的往事作出了富有温情的回望与书写,突显出创作者的良苦用心和颇具特点的写作策略:运用浪漫的女性创作视角来叙述文革故事,通过叙述实现与苦难和创伤的告别,使因阅读而产生的审美活动得以顺利、有效地进行,小说因此也引起了人们的普遍关注,产生了强烈的社会反响。

  16. CONSIDERATIONS WITH REGARD TO THE USUFRUCT OVER THE RIGHT OF VOTE AS GUARANTY APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CONSTANTINESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to scrutinize the usufruct over the right of vote related to a share as legal concept (from foregoing and current Romanian legislation and doctrine standpoint and to highlight also the legal traits and the effective benefits provided as guaranty. To the same extent, the consolidation of the legal regime of this concept as guaranty is also the pursued objective. Although the usufruct over the right of vote has been not considered as a valid guaranty, the companies from Romania (mostly the banks used this mechanism as guaranty within the (sophisticated lending transactions. It is worthy to be mentioned that the right of vote may be related to a share belonging to a joint-stock company or to a social part belonging to a limited liability company. The main scope of such guaranty is to strengthen the creditor’s rights besides other established hard collaterals (mortgages over real estates, shares, receivables etc.. Thus, the creditor may influence the corporate will of a company (within the general shareholders meeting. Moreover, the guaranty has to be set up in the form of a notarized deed (authenticated by a Notary Public aiming to be considered a writ of execution and to enable the creditor to commence the foreclosure if needed. Having in mind the above, this paper mainly regards: the content of the right of vote related to a share, security, social part, the applicability of the usufruct to the shares belonging to different companies (joint-stock companies listed or not listed to the Stock Exchange, other companies of capitals and persons, the relevant differences between the usufruct as dismemberment of the ownership right and the usufruct as guaranty, the significant aspects regarding the guaranty agreement, proposals to amend the legislation.

  17. 魔幻现实里的故乡情怀--评雷平阳的小说《三甲村氏族》%The Nostalgia in Magic Realism---On The Clan of San Jia Village by Lei Ping-yang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹宗义; 崔艳

    2013-01-01

    With the creation method of magic realism and through the description of folk arts and skills ,Lei Ping-yang reveals Chinese people’s obsession with traditional culture for several thousand years and lets the readers realize the es-sence of national culture which makes the self-awakening and self-supporting a possibility .The weird story of death writ-ten by the author reflects the living states of those alive and their loneliness and reveals their fear and helpless defense in reality .The traditional primitive art adopted by the works indicates the self-awakening in reality .All of these shows Lei Ping-yang is deeply attached to the hometown .%雷平阳运用魔幻现实主义的创作手法,通过民间艺术与技术描写,“揭示了浸淫于几千年传统文化中的国人的深层心理,让我们触摸到了民族文化之魂,使在此基础上的自醒和更生成为一种可能。作者写的离奇的“死亡”故事,表达的是活人的生存现状;表现“孤独”的心理,揭示现实中的畏惧与无奈防卫;缅怀“传统”的原生态艺术,表达现实中的自醒。但所有的一切,都体现了雷平阳浓浓的故乡情怀。

  18. Research on Web System Security Architecture based on Defense in Depth%基于纵深防御的Web系统安全架构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许子先; 卜哲; 裴立军

    2013-01-01

      文章综述了构建一个安全的Web应用系统需要遵守的准则。并根据Web应用系统层次化的结构特点,从构建合理安全的网络拓扑结构,配置安全严格的主机系统安全策略,编写严谨的应用代码三个方面阐述了如何从技术方面来构建安全的Web应用系统。另外也强调了建立以人为主体的安全管理与技术相结合的保护模式的重要性。%With the development of network technology, Hackers’ attention were transferred from attacking the Web server to attacking the Web application system.So many softwares for hacking make it easy for hackers to attack Web applications system.Network security incident occurred frequently, So Web security has been widespread concern.This paper introduced how to build a security Web application system.From the following three aspects that how to construct the Web application security system. First,reasonable construction safety of network topology. Secondly,making the confguration of the host system security strategy strict.Third,writting rigorous application code. Also,it is very important to make the safety management and technical combination.

  19. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  20. The natural science underlying big history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Nature's many varied complex systems-including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society-are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density-contrasting with information content or entropy production-is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  1. Crafting a Democratic Enclave on the Cyberspace: Case Studies of Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyue Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As an antithesis of “authoritarian enclave” which has been well-established in the comparative politics literature, “democratic enclave” points to the institution of a state or the unambiguous regulatory space in society “where the authoritarian regime’s writ is substantively limited and is replaced by an adherence to recognizably democratic norms and procedures” (Gilley 2010. In this sense, the Internet space, embodied by information and communication technologies, has great potential to play such a role, since its “inherited” properties of decentralization and anonymity would inevitably breach the authoritarian rules. However, a closer look at three Southeast Asian states, Malaysia, Singapore and the “New Order” Indonesia whose regimes were characterized by authoritarianism when Internet was initially developed, reveals different trajectories. In the “New Order” Indonesia and Malaysia, the governments consciously left the Internet space uncontrolled; the online media developed independently, vibrantly, and professionally, especially in the Malaysian case; and there were strong connections between online and offline contentious politics. These elements made the Internet space in Indonesia and Malaysia a successful case of democratic enclave. Based on these criteria, however, the Internet space in Singapore has not achieved similar status. This paper analyses the different outcomes of enclave creation on the cyberspace among these countries. It argues that elite conflict and the strength of civil society are the two major factors that shape the differences. In this sense, the political contexts are of great importance for the understanding of Internet’s political impacts.

  2. Discurso, Representação e Imaginário Social na “Constituição dos Lacedemônios” de Xenofonte (séc. V e IV A.c. * Discourse, Representation and Social Imaginary in Xenophon‘s ‘Lacedaemonian Constitution’ (Fifth and Fourth-Centuries B.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FILIPE BANTIM DE ASSUMPÇÃO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Ao relacionarmos o discurso de um autor da Antiguidade com o contexto histórico-social em que o mesmo se encontrava seremos capazes de interagir com parte das possíveis motivações e interesses que o mesmo deteve ao desenvolver as suas considerações escritas. Desta maneira, ao efetuarmos um estudo de caso na obra intitulada “Constituição dos Lacedemônios”, do ateniense Xenofonte podemos observar que as representações que o discurso deste pensador elaborou sobre a sociedade de Esparta estavam vinculadas ao lugar que este sujeito ocupava, frente à pólis de Atenas. Sendo assim, mediante o arcabouço teórico adotado, objetivamos por demonstrar como o imaginário social partilhado por Xenofonte fora um mecanismo determinante para o modo como este autor representou os espartanos em seu discurso.Palavras-chave: Antiguidade – Xenofonte – Imaginário Social. Abstract: Abstract: When we relate the discourse of an author of Antiquity with his own historical and social context, we will be able to analyze some of the possible motivations and interests that he held to develop his writtings. Thus, when we perform a case study on Xenophon’s work entitled ‘Constitution of the Lacedaemonians’ we can notice that the discursive representations   elaborated on Sparta society were linked with the place the author occupied in the polis of Athens. Through the theoretical framework adopted, we aim to demonstrate how the social imaginary shared by Xenophon was crucial to the way that the author represented the Spartan society in his discourse.Keywords: Antiquity – Xenophon – Social Imaginary.

  3. How to Write Scientific PaPer from the PersPective of Three Elements of Argumentation%从论文三要素看科技论文写作二

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海山

    2015-01-01

    The three elements of the thesis are argument,grounds of argument,and argumentation. Science and technology papers as a discussion of academic issues,also cover these three elements. In the scientific and technological paper writ-ing,the three elements are very important,which basically determine the success or failure of the thesis writing. In order to improve the level of scientific and technological paper writing,one must work hard in these three aspects. From the point of view,it is the premise to choose the subject of scientific and technological papers,and from the point of view of the evi-dence,it is the key to arrange the structure of scientific paper writing.%议论文三要素是论点、论据、论证,科技论文作为讨论学术问题的议论文,同样具备这三要素。在科技论文写作中,论点、论据、论证三要素非常重要,基本上决定了论文写作的成败。要想提高科技论文写作水平,就必须在这三方面狠下功夫。从论点来看,选择确定主题是科技论文写作的前提;从论据来看,积累准备材料是科技论文写作的基础;从论证来看,安排结构层次是科技论文写作的关键。

  4. Tecnologías para la recuperación de las cadenas de centrales azucareros. Repercusión económica. // Technology for the recuperation of chains transmission in sugar mill industry. Economic repercussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Aneiro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es el desarrollo de la tecnología de recuperación de las cadenas cañeras y bagaceras asícomo demostrar la efectividad del método evaluado por sus resultados económicos.El trabajo esta encaminado a recuperar los laterales y los rolletes, por ser estos los elementos más costosos y difíciles defabricar en la cadena.La recuperación de los rolletes será por maquinado y sus medidas dependen de los escalones de recuperación de loslaterales para lo cual se realizó el estudio estadístico del estado de los mismos al desarmar las cadenas, lo que permiteclasificar en grupos cada uno de ellos mediante calibres.En el trabajo se presentan las tecnologías de recuperación de los laterales y los rolletes así como los herramentalesnecesarios para su ejecución.Se realizó la valoración económica de la recuperación de cadenas al compararlas con su fabricación. La recuperación de lascadenas constituye una tecnología significantemente económica ya que alarga la vida útil de las mismas, no se incurre engastos de materiales (70% del costo de la cadena para la fabricación de los laterales y los rolletes y en el caso de loslaterales no requieren de tratamiento térmico pues estos se recuperan con dureza.Palabras claves: Cadenas, recuperación, desgaste.__________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The objective of the present paper is the development of the technology of recovery of chains transmissions.in order todemonstrate the effectiveness of the method evaluated by its economic performance.The work deals with the recovery of the lateral and the rollers, being the most expensive and difficult elements of the chainmanufacturing.The roller recovery will be by machinery and its dimensions depend on the recovery steps of the lateral for which wascarried out the statistical study of their state when dismantling the chains, that allows the classification in groups, each oneof

  5. THE AESTHETICS, RELIGIOSITY, AND RESPONSE OF THE READERS OF GEGURITAN SUCITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suka Yasa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is the text of Geguritan Sucita having total versesof 1,877. The problem observed is that the structure, esthetic rule applied andsource of text transformation into GS as religion literature. The main objective ofthis research is to answer the three problems concerned. In addition, it has theobjective to preserve and develop geguritan literature. The benefit can be as oneof sources of knowledge in literary science, especially concerning geguritanliterature; as the consideration in making policy related to religion and Balineseculture; and also as reading material, especially for readers of geguritan literature.The theory applied in reviewing the three problems is structural, semiotic,intertext, rasa (mode and literature reception. The data source obtained byconducting literature study, observation and interview. The data is the analyzedfrom literature and religion point of view. The research novelties are as follows :GS is gita puja of Ida Ketut Jlantik (1905-1961 which is offered to GodAlmighty. As worshipped song, GS is sekar. The materials are quoted fromclassical works of prior Hindu which is then arranged in accordance with idealismof writers kawi-wiku by considering rule of k?vya.GS is established using Balinese language Kepara enriched withvocabularies of Old Javanese so it has Hindu esthetic. Formal structure of GS isestablished according to geguritan : padalingsa matrix. The text consists of 1,877rhythm, 11 rhyme and 57 melodies. Sinom rhythm as the idol one to lead otherrhythm in order to s?nta rasa. Verses of GS can be grouped into two parts: 4rhythm manggala and 1,873 narrative rhythm. Totally, formal structure of GSfulfills alamkara principle. the text has melody and euphony religious melody.Narrative structure GS is established following norm of tattwa purarbh?wa‘reborn cycle’, in addition it is the leader of rhythm as well as function as epilog.In term of contemplative reading level bhakti yoga

  6. Construction of A Deep Coverage Rice BAC Library and Identification of Clones Associated with Disease-resistant Genes%高覆盖率水稻BAC库的构建及抗病基因相关克隆的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文明; 江光怀; 王世全; 朱立煌; 翟文学

    2001-01-01

    A BAC library for IRBB56, an accession pyramiding Xa4, xa5 and xa13 three bacterial blight resistance genes, was constructed. The library contains 55 296 clones with an average insert size of 132kb. Based on a haploid genome size of 450Mb, the coverage of the library was about 14 genome equivalents that make it oneof the most comprehensive BAC libraries available in rice and provide 99.99% possibility to isolate any interested rice genes or sequences in the library. To determine the representation of organelle DNA homologues in the library, the library was screened with three different choloroplast genes and four mitochondrial genes, respectively. Results from this screening showed that less than 1% of clones in the library contain organelle genomic DNA homologues. Then, DNA markers on three different chromosomes linked to Xa4, xa5, and xa13, and a PCR fragment of rice UROD gene, were used to screen the library resulting in a range of 11~106 hits that will promote the isolation of these genes. The deep coverage and the large insert size of the library will facilitate physical mapping, isolation, and cloning of rice genes.%利用含Xa4、xa5和xa13 3个水稻白叶枯病抗性基因的累加系IRBB56构建了一个水稻细菌人工染色体文库。该文库包含55 296个克隆,平均插入片段为132kb。按水稻基因组为450Mb 计,该文库覆盖14倍基因组,筛选出任一水稻基因或序列的概率为99.99%。用均匀分布的3个叶绿体基因和4个线粒体基因克隆作探针筛选文库,结果显示该文库中含细胞器基因组DNA同源序列的克隆数小于1%。用分布于水稻3条不同染色体、分别与Xa4、xa5和xa13连锁的DNA标记筛选文库,分别检测出11~106个阳性克隆,为克隆这些基因打下了基础。 该文库对水稻基因组的高度覆盖率和较大的插入片段,非常适合于物理作图和基因的分离和克隆。

  7. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae = Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Paes de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos àslarvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered oneof the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of differentconcentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis werefungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower survival

  8. 基于 LabVIEW的不平衡振动信号相位实时提取方法研究%Research on the phase real-time extraction methods for imbalance vibration signa based on the LabVIEW platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟玉; 潘鑫; 高金吉; 吴海琦

    2015-01-01

    Online automatic balancing is considered as the best solution to solve the mass imbalance faults of rotating machinery , and the phase exaction accuracy of imbalance vibration is one of the key technologies to affect the balancing speed and accuracy of the balancing system .To find out an accurate phase exaction method , three methods , such as cross -power method , tracking-filter method and all-phase FFT method , were introduced in this paper , and three simulation programs were respectively writ-ten for the three methods based on the LabVIEW platform .Under the whole cycle sampling and non -in-teger-period sampling conditions , the phase exaction accuracies of the three methods were compared quantitatively .The results demonstrate that the all -phase FFT method has a higher phase exaction accu-racy under two sampling conditions .%在线自动平衡技术被公认为是解决旋转机械转子不平衡故障的最佳方案,而不平衡振动相位的识别精度是影响在线自动平衡技术平衡速度和精度的一项关键技术。为了寻求一种精确的相位提取方法,该文分别介绍了互功率法、跟踪滤波法和全相位FFT法,且基于LabVIEW虚拟仪器平台,分别编写了3种算法的仿真程序,并最终定量对比了3种算法在整周期和非整周期两种不同采集工况下的相位提取精度。结果表明,在两种采集条件下,全相位FFT算法均具有较高的相位提取精度。

  9. 不仅仅是亲爱的山鲁佐德--论伊丽莎白·盖斯凯尔的经典化过程%Not Merely Dear Scheherazade:A Review of the Canonization of Elizabeth Gaskell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅燕晖

    2015-01-01

    Victorian England has been well known for the flowering of women writings and the birth of distinguished women writers in large numbers .Victorian women writer studies , for a long period , were confirmed to a few canonical women writ-ers including George Eliot , Charlotte Bronte and the like .Elizabeth Gaskell had been highly regarded in the Victorian liter-ary world, and yet her great significance to British literature has not been fully confirmed until recent years .After more than one and a half century ’ s hovering between literary fame and obscurity , Gaskell has firmly established herself in British lit-erature as a forceful social commentator , and concomitantly impressed many people with her persistence in undertaking both social and family responsibilities .The Gaskell studies undoubtedly shall provide penetrating insights to both the modern so -ciety and the more liberated modern women that are confronted with moral conundrums .%英国维多利亚时代(1837—1901)是女性写作繁荣时期,孕育了不少优秀的女作家。在相当长的时间内,关于这一时代女作家的研究一直局限于乔治·爱略特、夏洛蒂·勃朗特等极少数几位经典作家。同时代的女作家伊丽莎白·盖斯凯尔在维多利亚时代即已享有很高的文学声誉,但她在英国文学史中的重要地位却是直到近期才完全确立。在经历一个半世纪多的盛衰沉浮之后,盖斯凯尔以强有力的社会批评家的形象跻身英国文学史,同时也以身兼社会与家庭责任的形象印刻在众人心中。盖斯凯尔研究对于面临诸多道德困惑的当代社会及当代女性都极具启发意义。

  10. 经阴道超声检测宫颈长度预测无症状双胎早产价值的Meta分析%Prediction of Preterm Birth in Asymptomatic Twin Pregnancies with Transvaginal Sonographic Measurement of Cervical Length:Metaanalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺瑶谦; 解丽梅

    2014-01-01

    目的应用meta分析的方法评价经阴道超声检测宫颈长度预测无症状双胎早产的价值。方法通过电子文献检索有关宫颈长度(cervical length,CL)预测双胎早产的中英文文献,并计算受试者工作特性曲线(SROC)曲线下面积(AUC)并进行比较。结果在20~24w测量宫颈长度,以25mm为界值时,预测34w前早产及以30mm为界值时,预测35w前早产SROC曲线下面积均大于90%。结论于20~24w测量,25mm为界值时,预测34w之前早产及30mm为界值时,预测35w之前早产的准确率较高。%Objective To assess the accuracy of transvaginal sonographic cervical length (CL) in predicting preterm birth in asymptomatic women with twin pregnancies.Methods From a comprehensive literature search articles writ en in Chinese and English were selected that investigated the diagnostic accuracy of CL to predict preterm birth in asymptomatic women with twin pregnancies.The area under the SROC curve was used as the final indicator of test performance. Results Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. At 20~24 weeks' gestation,the AUC of a CL≤25 mm in predicting preterm birth<34 weeks'gestation and a CL≤30 mm in predicting preterm birth<35 weeks'gestation are more than 90%. Conclusion Through transvaginal sonographic CL 20~24 weeks' gestation ,a CL≤25 mm in predicting preterm birth<34 weeks'gestation and a CL≤30 mm in predicting preterm birth<35 weeks'gestation are more accurate.

  11. Construction of a system for teaching oral Chinese to LCSL learners%论对外汉语口语教学体系的建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景高娃

    2016-01-01

    This paper defines oral language as the impromptu oral expressions made by speakers with body language or in the context of formal or informal situations.Oral language is different from writ-ten language in the aspects of vocabulary,grammar,pragmatics,semantics and registers.The goal of Teaching Chinese as a Second Language (TCSL)aims to develop the studentsˊoral expression and fos-ter their communicative competence,which should receive more attention.The Oral Chinese Course should integrate the training of the studentsˊcommunicative competence with the standardization of the Chinese language.The teaching of oral Chinese should rely both on the general oral Chinese and relatively formal oral Chinese.The existing teaching of oral Chinese to speakers of other languages still has quite a few problems.The solutions to these problems rely on the construction of an effective system for teaching oral Chinese to LCSL learners,which includes an independent syllabus composed of the sections of grammar,vocabulary and phonetics,good textbooks featuring oral Chinese as well as an effective assessment system.%本文提及的口语是指说话人在正式或者非正式的场合下借助身体语言或者上下文语境所进行的即兴的口头表达。口语在词汇、句法、语用、语义以及语体风格等方面都不同于书面语。对外汉语口语教学的目标是培养学生的口语表达能力和交际能力,因此口语教学应当受到更多的重视。口语课程应该把交际能力的培养与语言的规范性二者结合起来,教学口语应该以一般口语和较正式口语为基础。现在口语教学还有很多不尽如人意的地方,为此本文呼吁建立完善的口语教学体系,其中包括独立的教学大纲(包括语法、词汇、语音三个部分)、具备口语特征的教材和完善的学生口语评价体系。

  12. 少数民族学生汉语写作反馈有效性调查%A Survey of the Feedback Effectiveness of Chinese Writing of Minority Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪琴; 李少平

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Chinese as a second language teaching is to cultivate learners'actual language using ability.Writ-ten expression ability is one of the four language sKills.It is also the important content of language ability.Improving written sKills for Chinese learners whose mother tongue is Chinese is very important.Evaluation is a Key linK of the Chinese writing teaching,and the effectiveness of feedbacK in writing teaching evaluation plays a decisive role.So it is worthy of paying atten-tion to Chinese writing teaching from the perspective of evaluation in teaching Chinese as second language.The thesis bases on the Process teaching method and discusses ethnic minorities in Xinjiang from the empirical perspective for the teaching object of Chinese writing teaching evaluation of teacher's feedbacK on the impact of improving learners'writing,analyses the learner's need for feedbacK and existing problems.%汉语作为第二语言教学的最终目标是培养学习者的语言实际运用能力。书面表达能力是四项言语技能之一,也是语言能力的重要内容,那么提高书面表达能力对于汉语为非母语的汉语学习者十分重要。评价是汉语写作教学中的一个关键环节,而评价的反馈有效性在写作教学评价中起着决定性作用,因此从评价的反馈有效性的角度研究汉语写作教学是汉语作为第二语言教学中十分值得关注的论题。本文以过程教学法为基本的理论基础,从实证角度探讨了以新疆少数民族学生为教学对象的汉语写作教学评价中教师的反馈对提高学习者写作水平所产生的影响,分析了学习者对反馈的需要以及存在的问题。

  13. An Empirical Study of Methods in the Improvement of English Majors’ English Writing Through Content-Based Courses%英语专业写作训练方法实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诗宇; 常俊跃

    2016-01-01

    文章通过定性与定量相结合的研究方法,借助半结构化访谈和问卷调查采集研究数据,关注了英语专业内容依托教学系统改革实践中专业知识内容的扩展与英语写作能力同步提高的多种结合形式。研究发现,教师在教学中采用了创意改写课文、读后续写课文、编写导游册写游记、撰写期末论文等多种写作训练方式,并且大多数学生认为这些方法比较有效。但在实施过程中存在反馈不及时、专业知识与写作训练活动结合不紧密、缺乏写作技巧指导、学生缺乏对写作的兴趣等问题。针对上述问题,文章提出了相应的解决策略。%With semi-structured interview and questionnaire to collect data,t a qualita-tive and quantitative analysis was conducted on a variety of methods which were employed not only to expand students’ knowledge but also to improve their writing,and the research explored the effectiveness and probed problems of these methods in the hope of raising cop-ing strategies accordingly.The findings indicated that teachers adopted a wide array of writ-ing training methods,such as creative rewriting texts,finishing“continued writing of texts”, writing “travel notes”,writing term papers.Most of the students thought these methods were effective.However,some problems were identified in giving proper guides to students, the combination of disciplinary knowledge and writing tasks, teachers ’ inadequate feedback, students’ lack of interest in some writing tasks.Based on these problems,some measures on the improvement of assigning writing tasks were raised accordingly.

  14. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HALF ON -LINE EXAMINATION SYSTEMS FOR CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION%半网络化的医学继续教育考试系统设计与实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东; 唐丽娜; 何建璋

    2015-01-01

    由于大型的网络化在线学习与考试系统对资金、技术、人员均有一定要求,因此,虽已有较为成熟的产品,但是,至今为止都没有得到普遍的推广和应用。本文实现的半网络化的医学继续教育考试系统,仅在发卷与收卷过程中采用在线操作方式,命题、考试(练习)、阅卷等过程均可离线进行,这样既避免了对网络的实时依赖,又解决了远程考试的用户需求,是对目前的在线考试系统的一种良好补充。对于技术力量较弱的边远地区和基层医院,半网格化的考试系统也许更有应用优势。%A large coverage on-line learning and examination systems on the internet so far has not gained wide usage and application even though some systems are available commercially because those internet based systems have certain demands of capitals , technology and skilled personals .Our system is half on -line and half off line for examinations .The on-line part is for giving out examination questions and collecting answers , whereas student writ-ing exams and instructors marking the exams are carried out by going off -line.Such a exam-writing application re-duces its dependence on the internet , which is easier for exam-writers in a remote area to use .This half on-line system can be used as a back -up application for the whole on -line examination system , but definitely has more ad-vantages for hospitals in remote areas where the internet is not reliable and popular , and well-trained technicians are lacking.

  15. 学生外语水平对其在独立写作与综合写作中写作结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何莲珍; 闵尚超

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the extent and ways of the influ- ence of students' linguistic proficiency on the written products in independent and integrated writing tasks, by drawing upon data from undergraduate subjects actual test performance as well as their perceptions of the two tasks, as evidenced in the question- naires. Results indicate that (1) in terms of overall perform- ance, subjects of low and high proficiency levels perform signifi- cantly better in the integrated writing task than the independent writing task, but no significant statistical difference of perform- ance is reported for subjects of the intermediate proficiency lev- el; (2) in terms of performance on specific features, subjects from all the three proficiency levels consistently obtain signifi- cantly higher scores in the integrated writing task than the inde- pendent writing task on the measure of content and vocabulary, as well as marginally significant higher scores on the measure of accuracy, whereas on the measure of organization, no significant difference is found for all levels. (3) what integrated writing task measures is a dynamic ability to perform tasks that involve an interaction of different skills of reading, listening and writ- ing.%本研究探讨学生外语水平对其在独立写作与综合写作任务中写作结果的影响方式与程度。采用的数据收集方法为:写作测试与问卷调查。研究结果表明:(1)从整体写作质量的角度来看,低水平组与高水平组在综合写作任务中的写作质量优于独立写作,而中等水平组则无显著差异;(2)从分项写作质量的角度来看,相对于独立写作,三个水平层次的学生在综合写作任务中的内容更丰富、词汇更复杂,语言偏向于更准确,但在结构清晰度方面没有显著差异;(3)综合写作任务所考查的是一种综合运用阅读、听力以及写作技能的动态能力。

  16. Research on Ways for the Effective Integration of Reading and Writing in Primary Chinese%小学语文阅读与写作有效契合途径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志美

    2014-01-01

    找到阅读与写作的契合点,以阅读丰富写作,以写作升华阅读,是当前新课改背景下提高小学语文教学效率的重要举措。本文就如何将小学语文阅读与写作有效契合起来进行探究,以简要阐述小学语文阅读与写作契合重要意义为基础,深入分析了当前新形势下小学语文阅读与写作教学中存在的主要问题,从而进一步探讨小学语文阅读与写作有效契合途径,旨在改善小学语文阅读与写作教学现状,使学生以阅读来拓宽视野,丰富情感,发掘素材,以写作来表达观点,锻炼技巧,升华阅读。%To find the integration point between reading and writ-ing in order to enrich writing by reading and sublimate reading by writing, is an important measure to improve the efficiency of pri-mary Chinese teaching in the background of the current new cur-riculum reform. This paper explores how to effectively integrate reading and writing in primary Chinese, briefly expounds the im-portance of the integration, and deeply analyzes the main existing problems, so as to further explore the ways for the effective inte-gration of reading and writing, aiming to improve the current situ-ation of primary Chinese reading and writing teaching, expand students' horizon, enrich their emotions, develop writing materials through reading, and help them express their opinions, practice their skills and sublimate reading through writing.

  17. Immigration Reform and Administrative Relief for 2014 and Beyond: A Report on Behalf of the Committee for Immigration Reform Implementation (CIRI, Human Resources Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kamasaki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of any broad-scale immigrant legalization program requires an adequately funded infrastructure of immigrant-serving organizations. In 2014, President Obama announced an expanded Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program, as well as the Deferred Action for Parents of Citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA program, which would make it possible for approximately five million people to attain lawful, albeit temporary, status and employment authorization. As the initial DACA program instituted in 2012 has already stretched the capacity of immigrant-serving organizations to their limits or even beyond them, the possibility of full implementation of DAPA and the expanded DACA programs presents a formidable challenge for these organizations.In this paper, the Human Resources Working Group of the Committee for Immigration Reform Implementation (CIRI draws on the lessons of the Immigrant Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA, DACA, and other initiatives to provide a roadmap for immigrant service delivery agencies and their partners in planning for implementation of the expanded DACA and the DAPA programs, with an eye (ultimately to broad legislative reform. In particular, this paper focuses on the funding and human resources that the immigrant service delivery field, writ large, would require to implement these programs.If expanded DACA and DAPA were implemented, the CIRI Working Group estimates that, of the total of five million that may be eligible, 1.08 million individuals will require extensive application assistance, generating the need for approximately three times more full-time staff than are currently in the field. Moreover, without additional funding and staff, agencies will likely not be able to shift a portion of staff time to accommodate any new program, even taking the typical fee-for-service model into account. Thus, the paper identifies a pressing need for “upfront” funding as early in the

  18. O desenvolvimento do texto dissertativo em crianças da 4ª série The development of argumentative text by fourth grade children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Antonio da Silva Leite

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa analisa o desenvolvimento da habilidade de produzir textos dissertativos em crianças da 4ª. série, relacionando com o contexto em que foram produzidos. Este estudo justifica-se devido à escassez de trabalhos lingüísticos na área, bem como ao alto índice de fracasso dos alunos nesta modalidade de texto. Coletou-se a produção escrita de crianças de rede pública, durante um período de três meses. O material foi analisado buscando-se identificar os operadores argumentativos, os tipos de argumentos utilizados e o estágio da capacidade argumentativa dessas crianças. O estudo sugere que a introdução do texto argumentativo nas séries iniciais do 1º grau, além de proporcionar mais chances de sucesso aos alunos na produção deste tipo de texto ao término do 2º grau, certamente facilitará o desenvolvimento de uma postura crítica, possibilitando aos alunos refletirem sobre a realidade social onde vivem.This reaserch analysed the developmental stage of fourth grade (primary school children in ability of writting argumentative texts joint with their context. The reason of this reaserch is the lack of new studies in linguistical area and high ratio of unable students to make this kind of text. It will be showed the analysis of making text by public schools children for three months. These data were analysed trying identify argumentative operators, the kinds of arguments used and the stage of the argumentative ability of these children. The study showed that the introduction of argumentative text in first grades give them more chances of succeed, preparing these pupils in their finishing high school. This fact obviously will make easier the development of their critical point of view, helping the students to think about their living social reality.

  19. Is Ancestor veneration the most universal of all world religions? A critique of modernist cosmological bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reuter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research by anthropologists engaged with the Comparative Austronesia Project (Australian National University has amassed an enormous data set for ethnological comparison between the religions of Austronesian-speaking societies, a language group to which nearly all Indonesian societies also belong. Comparative analysis reveals that ancestor veneration is a key-shared feature among “Austronesian” religious cosmologies; a feature that also resonates strongly with the ancestor-focused religions characteristic of East Asia. Characteristically, the religions of Austronesian-speaking societies focus on the core idea of a sacred time and place of ancestral origin and the continuous flow of life that is issuing forth from this source. Present-day individuals connect with the place and time of origin though ritual acts of retracing a historical path of migration to its source. What can this seemingly exotic notion of a flow of life reveal about the human condition writ large? Is it merely a curiosity of the ethnographic record of this region, a traditional religious insight forgotten even by many of the people whose traditional religion this is, but who have come under the influence of so-called world religions? Or is there something of great importance to be learnt from the Austronesian approach to life? Such questions have remained unasked until now, I argue, because a systematic cosmological bias within western thought has largely prevented us from taking Ancestor Religion and other forms of “traditional knowledge” seriously as an alternative truth claim. While I have discussed elsewhere the significance of Ancestor Religion in reference to my own research in highland Bali, I will attempt in this paper to remove this bias by its roots. I do so by contrasting two modes of thought: the “incremental dualism” of precedence characteristic of Austronesian cultures and their Ancestor Religions, and the “transcendental dualism” of mind and

  20. Wnt3a signaling promotes proliferation,myogenic differentiation,and migration of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-chang SHANG; Shu-hui WANG; Fu XIONG; Cui-ping ZHAO; Fu-ning PENG; Shan-wei FENG; Mei-shan LI; Yong LI; Cheng ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of the wingless-related MMTV integration site 3A (Wnt3a) signaling on the proliferation,migration,and the myogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSC). Methods:Primary MSC were isolated and cultured from Spragne-Dawley rats and characterized by flow cytometry. Mouse L cells were transfected with Wnt3a cDNA,and conditioned media containing active Wnt3a proteins were prepared. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell count and 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay.The migration of rMSC was performed by using a transwell migration and wound healing assay. The myogenic and adipogenic differentiation in rMSC were examined by light microscopy,immunofluorescence,and RT-PCR at different time points after myogenic or adipogenic introduction. Results:Wnt3a signaling induced β-catenin nuclear translocation and activated the Writ pathway in rMSC.In the presence of Wnt3a,rMSC proliferated more rapidly than the control cells,keeping their differentiation potential. Moreover,Wnt3a signaling induced 2.62%and 3.76% of rMSC-expressed desmin and myosin heavy chain after being cultured in myogenic medium. The myogenic differentiation genes,including Pax7,MyoD,Myf5,Myf4,and myogenin,were activated after Wnt3a treatment. On the other hand,Wnt3a inhibited the adipogenic differentiation in rMSC through the downregulated expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha)and peroxisome proliferator-activaled receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Furthermore,Wnt3a promoted the migration capacity of rMSC. Conclusion:The results indicate that Wnt3a signaling can induce myogenic differentiation in rMSC. Wnt3a signaling is also involved in the regulation of the proliferation and migration of rMSC. These results could provide a rational foundation for cell-based tissue repair in humans.

  1. The Interpretation about America against Domestic Violence Legislation and Implementation of Children in Guasha%从电影《刮痧》解读美国针对儿童的家庭暴力立法及实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    2014年《反家庭暴力法(草案)》(征求意见稿)中针对未成年人的条款引起热议,应参考国外未成年人立法经验加以完善。以电影《刮痧》剧情为线索,逐步展示根据美国《针对妇女暴力法》(VAWA)和《儿童虐待预防与处理法案》(CAPTA)等规定程序,对遭受家庭暴力的儿童如何有效地进行保护。重点探讨相关的几个概念———“家庭暴力”、“强制报告制度”、“人身保护令”、“临时监护听证会”等,认为美国针对儿童的家庭暴力立法完善、程序完备,权责分明、责任主体明确,培训到位、多方力量协作,法理兼顾、立意以人为本,对我国反家庭暴力法的进一步完善和实施具有借鉴意义。%The Domestic Violence La w(Draft)provoked the debate on perfecting the law according to the child protection legislation in foreign countries. Based on the movie Guasha, the paper examines how to protect the children from abuse according to America VAWA and CAPTA. Focusing on some conceptions-Mandatory reporting system, the writ of habeas corpus, temporary custody hearing and etc. It discussed the traits of the legislation on children abuse in America and implementation and therefore concluded these traits will help to legislation perfection on anti-domestic violence in China.

  2. 《国医旬刊》及其中西医汇通理念%Ten-day Periodical of Traditional Chinese Medicine and its concept of confluence of Chinese and west-ern medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孙彪; 王尊旺

    2016-01-01

    厦门国医专门学校1934年7月创办的《国医旬刊》,在近代中西医交会之际,刊载了众多中医师以西医知识阐释传统中医的文章,开启了当地中医界探索中西医汇通的学术路径.该刊坚持"发扬国医学术""融贯中西学说"的办刊理念,破除"科学"迷信,树立中医信念,用西医解剖知识佐证中医气化与脏腑理论,正视中西医差异,力戒盲目汇通,表现出学术的继承性和时代的进步性.所刊论说虽失之于穿凿附会、过誉中医之长,但对中西医汇通所做的探索和留下的经验,应能帮助当代学人更好地处理中西医学的关系,更加自觉地应对未来的挑战.%The Ten-day Periodical of Traditional Chinese Medicine, a TCM Journal founded by the Xiamen Professional School of Traditional Chinese Medicine in July 1934, had published a lot of essays writ-ten by many TCM physicians that interpret the concept of traditional Chinese medicine by western medicine, offering the academic way of probing confluence of Chinese and Western Medicine in Xiamen. The aim of the Journal includes "developing TCM academy" and the"confluence of TCM with western medicine", the exploration of TCM and the penetration of Chinese and western medicine, and getting rid of blind faith on"science" to set up the belief of TCM and to prove the ideas of visceral theory and its gasification by the an-atomical knowledge of western medicine. The Journal envisaged the difference between the TCM and WM, avoided blind convergence, representing the academic inheritance and progress of the era. Although the es-says published might have made a forced analogy by over-praising TCM, however, its exploration and con-vergence of TCM and the experiences are helpful to modern scholars to properly manage the relation of TCM and WM to face the future challenge consciously.

  3. "微电子器件"实验教学改革与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卉; 文毅; 张华斌; 胡云峰

    2016-01-01

    As a core curriculum of Electronic Science and Technology, microelectronic device is the foundation of learning subsequent professional courses. According to the requests of the personnel training mode of college, the writ-er trys to reform traditional experimental teaching, introduce TCAD simulation software for experimental teaching so that students can visually understand the production process of the device and effect of device parameters on device electrical and optical properties; The writer brings students to visit Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices-State Key Laboratory of Zhongshan branch office to learn preparation and testing process of organic devices. The introduc-tion of micro-video and flipped classroom teaching mode not only increases the enthusiasm of students in active learning course, but also promotes a better understanding of the theoretical teaching.%微电子器件作为电子科学与技术专业的核心课程,是学生学习理解后续专业课程的基础.为了符合学院应用型人才培养模式的需求,笔者对传统实验教学进行了改革,引入TCAD仿真软件进行实验教学,学生能形象直观的了解器件的制作流程及器件制备过程中相关参数对器件电学,光学性能的影响;带学生参观电子薄膜与集成器件国家重点实验中山分室,了解有机器件的制备测试流程.微视频,翻转课堂教学模式的引入,不仅提高了学生主动学习课程的积极性,也促进学生更好的理解课程的理论教学内容.

  4. Review: Margaret A. Morrison, Eric Haley, Kim Bartel Sheehan & Ronal E. Taylor (2002. Using Qualitative Research in Advertising: Strategies, Techniques, and Applications / Shay Sayre (2001. Qualitative Methods for Marketplace Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Friese

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The review discusses two books, both covering very similar contents and addressing more or less the same audience. The book by SAYRE is about the use of qualitative method in marketplace research in general and is aimed at marketing students and practitioners; the book by MORRISON, HALEY, SHEEHAN and TAYLOR focuses more specifically on one area of mar­keting, namely advertising research. MORRISON et al. provide the more practical perspective, a fact that is also reflected in the writing style of the book. It is stimulating to read, even for readers fa­miliar with qualitative methods. It provides insights from the perspective of advertising agency plan­ners and demonstrates how qualitative methods are applied in a commercial context. SAYRE, in comparison, provides more details and builds her book around five theoretical perspectives. It is writ­ten by an academic for a largely academic audi­ence, containing all the basics that one needs to know when embarking on a qualitative research project. It differs from other qualitative method books in that the various steps along the way are illustrated by examples from the field of marketing. The book will, therefore, resonate well with mar­ket­ing students. Nonetheless, both books can be recommended as text books for qualitative method courses in marketing—SAYRE's book for market­ing students in general, and MORRISON et al.'s book for students specializing in the field of adver­tising. When used in a course where students conduct a small scale research project on their own, both books need to be supplemented by further readings or teacher input. Specifically, the sections on qualitative data analysis are too thin in MORRISON et al. and too broad in SAYRE in order to be useful to students without further explanation and training. Nonetheless, the two books are the best I have seen so far when it comes to selecting a book to be used in a qualitative method course for marketing students. URN

  5. 妙用金字塔原理 科学搭建文章结构--《应用文写作》教学创新实践%Using the Pyramid Principles Skillfully and Building Article Structure Scientifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎瑞萍; 叶会昌

    2014-01-01

    金字塔原理(Pyramid Principles)由美国麦肯锡公司顾问巴巴拉·明托(Barbara Minto)在她的专著———《金字塔原理———写作、思考、解决问题的逻辑》中提出,旨在解决写作过程中如何组织材料的问题,虽然1973年此书已经出版,但是并未引起国内学界注意。在《应用文写作》的教学中,结合实践深入探讨金字塔原理的原则及搭建方法,不但能够准确定位自己的思想,同时有助于写出意义明确,条理清晰的句子。它会节约时间,提高效率,在短时间内提高文章写作的能力和水平。%In her treatise The Minto Pyramid Principle :Logic in Writing ,Thinking and Problem Solving ,Barbara Minto,a consultant working in McKinsey & Company,puts forward the Pyramid Princi-ples designed to solving the problems concerning how to organize the information in the process of writing. This book was published in 1973,but has been overlooked by the academic circles in China.The paper ex-plores these principles and construction methods in the practical teaching of Practical Writing ,and finds that they can help students pinpoint their own ideas exactly and write out the well-organized sentences with clear meaning.Meanwhile,they can help students save time and increase efficiency,and the students’writ-ing ability and level can be improved in a short time.

  6. Atrial fibrillation:what do we actually know%心房颤动:我们到底知道多少?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄从新; 陈新

    2009-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most emphasized issues in the past two decades. But till now, we really know little about its mechanisms. The three classical theories about AF mechanism could not totally eluci-date the occurrence and development of AF. The remodeling theory including structural and electrical remodeling was used to interpret the pathological course. Based on patch-clamp studies, kinetics of a lot of ion channels such as potassium, calcium, sodium channel were involved in the development of AF. But the change of single channel can not explain the whole aspects of electrical remodeling and also can not explain the interaction of multichannels and microcosmic circumstance. Autonomic nervous system seems to play an important role in AF, but its real effects were still controversial. Gene research of familial AF and gene therapy of AF were emerged in recent years. More efforts will be put on the mutated gene and provide candidates for gene therapy. One paper on this issue writ-ten by HUANG Cong-xin, ZHANG Shu, MA Chang-sheng et al, on behalf of the working group of Chinese society of pacing and Electrophysiology, is worthy to read carefully[1]. The highlights of AF therapeutics were focus on non-drug therapies, especially on radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). RFCA may be the most promise therapy to cure AF. Now, there are several kinds of RFCA including CPVI, SPVI, CFAE ablation, Ganglion plex ablation and stepwise ablation[15-20]. The most accepted methods is CPVI with or without extension. The success rates of RF-CA is still not satisfied[1,15,17-18,20-21]. The other question we encountered in RFCA is how to improve and optimize procedures and techniques[1,15,17-18,20-21]. Also, a lot of attention is paid to drug therapy of AF[1]. Dronedarone was supposed to replace anmiodarone with less side-effects and more efficient. Unfortunately, the clinical data did not support the hypothesis. The investigation of new anti-coagulant meets the same

  7. 论先锋、实验文学中的意识流手法%On the Stream of Consciousness in Pioneering and Experimental Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 王琴

    2014-01-01

    在改革开放的社会背景下,一批思想敏锐的作家以独特的话语方式进行小说文本形式的实验,被评论界冠以“先锋派”的称号。先锋、实验小说可大致分为两个时期。在前期,作家们全面吸收和借鉴西方意识流小说的特质,避开时代政治主题,关注人的生存状态,展示人的精神危机所带来的意识流程。在后期,意识流技巧得到更加娴熟的运用,它融入到很多现代和后现代的技巧之中,成为中国作家挖掘人物内心奥秘的常用手法。%Reform and opening up changed people’s life styles,and swashed the previous values and moral standards as well.In a social context like this,a school of sharp-minded writers were eager to dispense with the control of ideology and win over the freedom of literature itself.These writers conducted a series of experiments on text forms with unique manners of discourse and were named as “pioneers”by critics. Pioneering and experimental literature could be roughly divided into two periods.In the first period,writ-ers fully absorbed and drew lessons from the characteristics of the western stream of consciousness novels. Keeping away from the political themes of the times and paying attention to people’s living conditions, they revealed people’s flow of consciousness caused by mental crisis.In the sencond period,the art of stream of consciousness was adopted more sophisticatedly.Merged into many modern and post-modern techniques,it appeared a popular skill of psycho-description for Chinese writers.

  8. Monetizing Leakage Risk of Geologic CO2 Storage using Wellbore Permeability Frequency Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Fitts, Jeffrey; Peters, Catherine; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) may be captured from large point sources (e.g., coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement manufacturers) and injected into deep sedimentary basins for storage, or sequestration, from the atmosphere. This technology—CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)—may be a significant component of the portfolio of technologies deployed to mitigate climate change. But injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, may leak from the storage reservoir through a variety of natural and manmade pathways, including existing wells and wellbores. Such leakage will incur costs to a variety of stakeholders, which may affect the desirability of potential CO2 injection locations as well as the feasibility of the CCS approach writ large. Consequently, analyzing and monetizing leakage risk is necessary to develop CCS as a viable technological option to mitigate climate change. Risk is the product of the probability of an outcome and the impact of that outcome. Assessment of leakage risk from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs requires an analysis of the probabilities and magnitudes of leakage, identification of the outcomes that may result from leakage, and an assessment of the expected economic costs of those outcomes. One critical uncertainty regarding the rate and magnitude of leakage is determined by the leakiness of the well leakage pathway. This leakiness is characterized by a leakage permeability for the pathway, and recent work has sought to determine frequency distributions for the leakage permeabilities of wells and wellbores. We conduct a probabilistic analysis of leakage and monetized leakage risk for CO2 injection locations in the Michigan Sedimentary Basin (USA) using empirically derived frequency distributions for wellbore leakage permeabilities. To conduct this probabilistic risk analysis, we apply the RISCS (Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage) model (Bielicki et al, 2013a, 2012b) to injection into the Mt. Simon Sandstone. RISCS monetizes leakage risk

  9. 从《雾都孤儿》看狄更斯小说的现实性与童话性%AN ANALYSIS OF DICKENS'REALISTIC AND ROMANTIC THINKING FROM OLIVER TWIST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吟

    2013-01-01

    查尔斯·狄更斯是英国批判现实主义小说的代表作家。《雾都孤儿》作为其早期作品,其中有不少现实性的描写,表现在儿童生活的现实性、下层人士生活的现实性以及司法的现实性等方面。然而,小说中也出现了不少童话性的描写。究其原因,从系统的观点看,构成狄更斯童话性话语系统的关系项主要有客观环境、自组织,以及狄更斯的创作态度等。他的现实性描写,真实再现了资本主义制度下穷苦儿童艰难的处境,而童话性的描写,则是其对社会自上而下改革的美好愿望。%Charles Dickens was one of the representative novelists of English critical realism. As one of his earliest novels, there are many descriptions that reflect the then reality in Oliver Twist, like the life of poor children and lower class people and the then judicial system. However, there are also many romantic descriptions in the novel. As for the reasons for romantic writ-ing, from the perspective of system, the relational terms that form the system of Dickens' romantic discourse include objective environment, self-organization and Dickens'writing attitude. His realistic depiction reveals poor children's hard life in capital-istic society, while the use of romantic writing reflects his good wishes for top-down reform of the society.

  10. A Silent Resistance and A Firmly Persuit---On Liu Kebang’s Essays The Natural Arrival%无声的抵抗与决绝的坚守--评刘克邦散文集《自然抵达》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晗; 龚芳敏

    2015-01-01

    Liu Kebang's essays The Natural Arrival consider the nature as a kind of writing state and aesthetic pur-suit.From the natural perception of life,Liu Kebang resisted the media discourse discipline on our perception of the world,and restored the world’s rich texture and multidimensional faces.He resolutely resisted all kinds of postmodernist thoughts on emotion and adhered to the emotion as a kind of the noumenon of prose writing.In his writing,Liu Kebang described secular emotion naturally,realistically,mellow and full,showing his ability to grasp and control to the general emotional state.The Natural Arrival was a kind of writing of attitide.In his writ-ing,Liu Kebang often reflected himself,critized the unhealthy tendencies,kept watching his ideal,and trans-fered positive energy with a firmly and uncompromising attitude,which was different from the value-banishing at-titude of the leisure and melodramatic prose writing in the current.%刘克邦的《自然抵达》将自然作为一种写作境界与美学追求,从自然而然的生命感知出发,抵抗媒介话语对我们感知的规训,还原了生存世界本身丰厚的质地和多维的面相。他坚决抵抗各种“后”思潮对情感的放逐,坚持情感对于散文写作的本体性与本位性,把俯拾皆是但又极为不易处理的世俗情感写得自然、逼真、圆润与饱满,显示其对这种普通情感状态独特的把握与掌控能力。《自然抵达》是一种有态度的写作,刘克邦以一种决绝而不妥协的姿态叩问自我,针砭时弊,守望理想,传递正能量,这与当前那种将散文写作闲适化与矫情化,放逐价值立场的写作态度大相径庭。

  11. 贾平凹《老生》的叙事方式与历史构建%A Research on the Narrative Form and Construction of History in Jia Pingwa's Lao Sheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荀睿

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,Jia Pingwa is committed to writting novels about his native land from his memory, therefore providing much more meanings of the time.The novel Lao Sheng outlines the appearance of history of China with identify of folk artist and the fist person. Between the two layers of narrative text,the characteristic of "I" with marginalized existence and multifarious narrative identity objectively describe history development skeleton.And it shows author's selection on value when faced with complicated historical truth. Shan Hai Jing as an important relevance text for Lao Sheng, both of them are connection with each other in different narrative time and space, dialoguing in linear relation of time.Accordingly, author narrates history and sorts out the long time with personal memory and thinks about the meaning of reality through deconstructing and constructing the truth of history.%押近年来,贾平凹着力于对乡土书写的回归,以求赋予其更为宽广的时代内涵. 新作《老生》凭借民间唱师的身份和第一人称"我"的口吻意图勾勒历史的面貌."我"在两层叙事文本中因叙事身份多样性和存在方式的边缘化特点,客观地展现着历史的发展脉络,也表现出作家在面对复杂的历史真相时所做出的价值选择. 其中《山海经》作为小说重要的关照性文本,二者在叙事时空的不同维度上彼此呼应,并在外在的时间线性关系上形成对话.作家以此为依托进行历史叙述,凭借个人记忆对跨度巨大的时间进行梳理,在对历史真实的消解与构建中思考着当下的意义.

  12. A Different Flower of Gothic in American Wilderness:Brief Analysis of Gothic Features in The Last of the Mohicans%荒野中别样的哥特之花--《最后的莫希干人》哥特特色浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕姣

    2014-01-01

    James Fenimore Cooper's masterpiece The Last of the Mohicans is generally believed to be a frontier ro-mance or historical legend. However, the novel is abundant in gothic traces and can be read as a gothic novel to some extent. This paper tries to reveal its gothic features from the analyses of several characters and important settings and finds that the caves and graveyards are Americanized gothic settings and the horror brought by Indians is no less than the horror brought by demons and ghosts in traditional gothic novels. The insecurity and uncertainties White charac-ters felt in a strange environment are projected into the setting to create deep horror. Cooper has integrated the gothic elements with American experience and wilderness to realize his domestication of the Gothic. The different gothic writ-ing has great significance on Cooper's writing career and American literature.%詹姆斯·菲里莫·库珀的代表作《最后的莫希干人》通常被认为是一部边疆罗曼史或革命历史小说,然而小说中充满了哥特色彩。分析表明,书中的洞穴和墓地是美国版本的哥特背景,而印第安人带给读者的恐惧等同于哥特小说中的恶魔和鬼魂带来的恐惧。处于陌生环境中的白人内心的不确定和不安全投射在外在的环境中,产生了深刻的恐惧效果。库珀将哥特元素与美国的经历和荒野结合起来,实现了对哥特的美国式书写,这种别样的哥特小说对库珀本人的创作和美国文学都有重要的意义。

  13. 论王维诗歌中的佛性观--以《胡居士卧病遗米因赠》为例%Analysis on Irony,Criticism and Social ideals of Jonathan Swift from the Perspective of"Gulliver's Travels"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹丹

    2016-01-01

    佛教是在两汉之际传入我国,到了南北朝时期得以弘扬,至唐代到达鼎盛时期。这种佛教文化的蓬勃发展,在一定程度上潜移默化地影响了唐代文人的创作。其中,具有典型性的代表文人王维就有“诗佛”之称。《胡居士卧病遗米因赠》这首诗又是王维佛教诗中的一个典型代表。这首诗清楚地阐释了王维思想中的“空无观”和“清净自性”的佛性观。在这种思想的指导下,王维认为万有皆空,人的感受也是虚假的存在,一切实相都没有实体,只有通过清净自性的方法才能克服人生的苦痛烦恼,才能真正地解脱。%"Gulliver's Travels"was published in 1726,it was written by British famous satirical novelist Jonathan Swift.It has achieved higher reputation and conquered the world for its prominence.In the book "Gulliver's Travels",Jonathan swift's writ-ing is with his unique political perspective,rigorous attitude and rich imagination.With his ironical writing style,he satirized the corrupt social reality of the British at that time.In this novel,Jonathan swift uses his humorous language to enrich the moral implications of the story and the absurd plots to satirize the social reality.Jonathan swift's life and personal experience make him know more about that Irish people were exploited and slaved by English government.Based on the reflection of social reality, Jonathan swift's novel "Gulliver's Travels"has become a great irony work in world literary.

  14. 实施护士能级管理模式前后对护理质量管理的研究%Study for application with or without the care level management mode on nursing quality management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肯杰茜; 秦君玫; 张丽

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究护理能级管理模式在临床护理工作中的作用,以完善护理能级管理模式并提升护理管理质量。方法:通过对医院信息管理系统中的三级护理质控信息进行系统化分析,评价实施护理能级管理模式前后的护理质量效果。结果:与实施能级管理模式前比较,除了病区管理和消毒隔离,护理人员能级管理模式的实施,可促进特级、一级护理、基础护理、护理文书书写和住院患者健康教育质量的提升,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:护士能级管理是体现以人为本,可优化护理人力资源,全面提高护理质量管理的有效方法。%Objective: To study the care level management model on clinical nursing work, in order to improve the care level management mode and enhance the nursing quality management. Methods:To evaluate the nursing quality management result before and after the care level management mode application by systemic analysis the information of three-level nursing quality control in the hospital information management system. Results:The care level management mode can promote the special grade nursing,first grade nursing, basic nursing, nursing documents writ en and health education quality expect ward management and disinfection isolation. Compared to the care level management mode application before, the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion:The care level management is people-oriented, it is an effective method to improve human resource of nursing and increase the overal nursing quality management.

  15. 本科院校英语专业《学术论文写作》课程教学改革研究%On Teaching Reformation of“Academic Thesis Writing”Course in English Major of Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉

    2015-01-01

    At present, Foreign Languages Departments of many universities have opened the course of“Academic Thesis Writ-ing”for improving the writing quality of students of English Major. But the majority of students are not good at thesis writing . These problems reflect perfunctory learning study of students, and also increase many difficulties to teacher’s guidance. So tradi-tional teaching model of this course should be reformed, and simulation training should be increased in thesis writing. At the same time, thinking ability and language ability of students should be equally valued. To the teaching reformation of“Academic Thesis Writing”, the paper puts forward four suggestions, that is, simulating thesis proposal and discussing thesis argument and outline in groups, practicing and discussing the writing of abstract, introduction and conclusion and of English punctuation, sen-tence and paragraph, so as to simulate writing initiative of students and improve thesis writing level of students.%目前,许多本科院校的外国语学院为了提高英语专业学生毕业论文写作的质量而专门开设了《学术论文写作》课程,但是绝大多数英语专业学生的毕业论文写作存在着许多问题,毕业论文的质量不高。针对以上问题,应该适当改革《学术论文写作》课程传统的教学模式,增加学生论文写作的模拟训练,同时还应该把学生思维能力和语言能力的培养放在同等重要的地位。该文针对《学术论文写作》课程教学模式的改革提出了四点建议:一、分组模拟开题;二、分组讨论中心论点及提纲;三、练习和讨论摘要、引言和结论的写作;四、练习和讨论英文标点符号、句子和段落的写作。从而激发学生论文写作的积极性和提高学生的英语论文写作水平。

  16. Un códice perdido de la Biblioteca del Marqués de Santillana: El Fedón o Diálogo sobre la inmortalidad del ánima y el resumen de la Ilíada en castellano por Juan de Mena (ms. 36 de la Biblioteca Menéndez Pelayo de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurruchaga Sánchez, Marina

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article describes us a manuscript (ms. 36 in the Library of Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo at Santander, the "Fedon" or the dialogue on the Soul's Immortality and the summary of the Illiad in castillian by Juan de Mena whose origin, unknown until now, is the collection of the Marquis of Santillana (1398-1456. The cultural, codicologie and paléographie characterization of the codex shows us, at first, the panorama of the early Renaissance accomplished in the litterary court of Don Iñigo López de Mendoza and, at a larger scale, in the Castile ruled by Juan Trastamara the Second. After a detailed exam, we refer typologically our manucript to the category of "vernacular luxurius codex"; the cursive essence of the writing showed by the paleographical study, points out the "bookish" atmosphere where the documental writting also finds use in the first half of the fifteenth century.[fr] L'article qui suit présent un manuscrit originellement appartenant à la collection du Marquis de Santillana (1398-1456, le ms. 36 de la Bibliothèque de Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo à Santander (le "Fedon" ou le Dialogue sur l'immortalité de l'âme et le résumé de l'Illiade en castillian par Juan de Mena, dont la provenance resta inconnue jusqu'au présent. Une caracterisation culturelle, codicologique et paléographique du codex montre, premièrement, le panorama de la précoce Renaissance développé dans la cour littéraire de Don Íñigo López de Mendoza et, plus généralement, dans la Castille gouvernée par Juan II Trastamara. L'atribution typologique du manuscrit à la catégorie du "codex vernaculaire de luxe" se produit après un détaillé étude archéologique; finalement, l'examination de l'écriture nous révèle le champ libraire d'application préfèrent des écritures cursives castilliannes dans la première moitié du XVᵉ siècle.

  17. 论职务犯罪特殊侦查措施适用制度的构建%A Study of Special Investigative Measures for Job-related Crimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斯年

    2011-01-01

    当前,在查办职务犯罪案件中,检察机关适用职务犯罪特殊侦查措施存在着法律依据缺乏、技术装备缺少和理论支撑缺失等一系列的问题。对此分析职务犯罪特殊侦查措施的表现形式、特点及当前我国相关的立法现状,阐述构建职务犯罪特殊侦查措施的必要性,研拟出职务犯罪特殊侦查措施适用的制度的构建,在立法上必须制定《反贪污贿赂法》。在原则上,必须坚持合法性、必要性、比例性、令状原则。在内容上,必须规定适用的主体和对象、启动办法、监督和救济令法。%Currently, in investigating and prosecuting jobbery crimes committed, there exist a series of problems such as a lack of exisiting legal basis, technical equipment and the lack of theoretical support for the prosecution of special investigative measures applicable to jobbery crimes committed. This paper makes an analysis of the manifestation, characteristics of the special investigative measures for jobbery crimes as well as the current status of China's relevant legislation, this paper expounds the necessity of constructing the special investigative measures for jobbery crimes and the system constructed for special investigative measures applicable to jobbery crimes. In the legislation, "law against corruption and bribery" must be developed. In principle, the principles of legality, necessity, proportionality and writ must be adhered to. In content, the provisions applicable to the subject and the object together with supervision and judicial relief must be provided.

  18. 药物纺织品领域中涉及的专利撰写问题%Patent writing problems in the pharmaceutical textile field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾连锁; 王强; 冯洁; 刘丹

    2014-01-01

    药物纤维及其制品涉及药物和纺织的交叉技术领域,由于药物在纤维制造的各个环节中均有可能发生变化,而导致最终制备得到的药物纤维是否具有药用价值难以确定,特别是对于一些近年来出现的用于治疗疾病的药物纤维,其能否达到治病的目的是值得怀疑的。如果申请人提供的一些证据或者数据不是足够有效,则可能导致说明书不满足公开充分的要求,或者导致不满足创造性的要求,最终使得该专利申请难以获得专利权。在现行专利法及实施细则、专利审查指南的规范下,结合药物纤维领域中的审查实践,就其中出现的专利撰写问题及其形成原因,以及申请文件中证据或效果数据的使用情形进行详细说明,以期为申请人提供有意义的帮助。%Pharmaceutical fiber and article belong to a combined technical field of pharmaceuticals and textiles . Because pharmaceuticals are likely to change at each stage of manufacturing the fiber , it is uncertain whether the consequent pharmaceutical fiber exhibits pharmaceutical characteristics , especially for those fibers used for treating some diseases that appear in recent years .It is also doubted whether they can cure those diseases .If some evidence and data offered by patent applicants are not effective enough, it can cause the description cannot meet the requirement of sufficient disclosure or the require -ment of the inventive step , so that the invention can not be granted .Under the guidance of the current patent law and its practical rules as well as guidelines of patent examination , the authors explain writ-ing errors in detail and related reasons in patent applications about pharmaceutical fibers , and uses of evidence or effective data in application in order to help the patent applicants to some extent .

  19. Legal Costs as Damages in the Application of UN Sales Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiburg Peter Schlechtriem

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on the uniform UN sales law (CISG, the decisions in the first and second instances of the Zapata1 case triggered an extraordinarily lively discussion. Simply stated, the case concerned the delivery of painted cookie tins used for packaging Christmas cookies, for which the American buyer (i.e., place of business in the USA, citing flimsy pretexts, refused to pay. The Mexican seller (i.e., place of business in Mexico, sued and was awarded compensatory damages; as part of the damages, the trial court also awarded the plaintiff its attorneys’ fees. At the appellate level, where only the issue of attorneys’ fees was disputed, the appellate court rejected the claim for reimbursement of attorneys’ fees and reversed the trial court decision. [The seller’s] appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court by writ of certiorari was denied. The cases concerned the so-called “American rule,” according to which the parties each bear their own litigation expenses, and in particular their own attorneys’ fees, independent of the outcome of the case. This deviates from German legal understanding and has significant practical consequences. In particular, high attorneys’ fees could lead to the result that the compensatory damages awarded to the plaintiff in actuality fall far short of covering his losses, and for the victorious defendant winning a case can be a pyrrhic victory. Yet, the American rule is not without exceptions, and especially for abusive lawsuits brought on obviously groundless claims, American procedural law permits the losing party bringing such claims to be partially burdened with the cost.Also in cases of especially serious breach of contract, an award of punitive damages could make it possible for the victorious plaintiff to recover his litigation expenses and attorneys’ fees. Nevertheless, in the large majority of cases the American rule leads to the described results, which for German jurists appear at first glance

  20. Foule et public Crowd and audience. Reflections about the French theory of reception studies in the silent period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Plasseraud

    2012-04-01

    th century. It had many interpretations, which we can find again in cinema writtings. For those who fight against cinema, crowd can be seen as Gustave Le Bon describes it in its popularization of crowd psychology. Therefore, movie theaters are places where crowds relieve or excite their instincts. On the contrary, for film enthusiasts, cinema proposes a modern communal refoundation where crowds find back their lost spirituality. For them, theaters are places where an hypnotic phenomenon occurs, leading crowds. This conception is the foundation of the idea of « seventh art » invented by Canudo and used also, with diverses meanings, by Delluc, Gance, Epstein or L’Herbier. Is this conception suitable to the reality of the spectators practice at that time? Is it possible to consider the cinema audience as a whole, as it seems if we use the idea of crowd? We can answer no, and we can think that the gap between theory and reality of the film reception is one of the reasons explaining the problems of French cinema facing American cinema. The theorical deadlock of the French conception of film reception, due to the use of the notion of crowd, appears clearly in Germaine Dulac’s writtings. She was the first among French theoricians to doubt about the ability of cinema to get the crowds receiving Holy Communion. She understood that the audience, in its diversity, would dictate its tastes to the film-makers, expressing an idea that Hollywood producers had already assimilated.

  1. 涡虫神经再生的分子机制%Molecular actions guiding neural regeneration in planarian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕芬; 叶波平; 王大勇

    2008-01-01

    Planarian is among the simplest animals that possess a centralized nervous system (CNS),and its neural regeneration involves the replacement of cells lost to normal 'wear and tear' (cell turnover),and/or injury.In this review,we state and discuss the recent studies on molecular control of neural regeneration in planarians.The spatial and temporal expression patterns of genes in intact and regenerating planarian CNS have already been described relatively clearly.The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Writ signaling pathways are identified to regulate neural regeneration.During neural regeneration,conserved axon guidance mechanisms are necessary for proper wiring of the nervous system.In addition,apoptosis may play an important role in controlling cell numbers,eliminating unnecessary tissues or cells and remodeling the old tissues for regenerating CNS.The bilateral symmetry is established by determination of anterior-posterior (A-P) and dorsal-ventral (D-V) patterns.Moreover,neurons positive to dopamine,serotonin (5-HT),and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been detected in planarians.Therefore,planarians present us with new,experimentally accessible contexts to study the molecular actions guiding neural regeneration.%涡虫是具有简单中枢神经系统的模式动物之一,其神经再生过程包括受损细胞的替换以及细胞的再生过程.本文阐述并讨论了近年来利用涡虫进行神经再生研究取得的研究进展.目前,参与涡虫神经再生相关基因的时空间表达图谱己被相对清晰地勾勒出来.骨形成蛋白和Wnt信号通路已被鉴定参与神经再生的调控.在神经再生过程中,保守的轴突导向机制为神经系统网络的正确形成所必需.此外,细胞凋亡在控制细胞数量、消除多余组织和细胞以及重新塑造再生的神经系统中发挥着重要作用.而且,在涡虫中多巴胺能神经元、五羟色胺能神经元和γ-氨基丁酸能神经元可以被有效地予以标

  2. 探讨内科临床技能教学与考核新模式的实践意义及价值%Study on Practical Significance and Value of Clinical Skill Teaching in the Department of Internal Medicine and New Examination Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research and analyze the practical significance and value of clinical skill teaching in the depart-ment of internal medicine and new examination model. Methods 4000 cases of three-system junior college students in 2013 and five-system vocational college students in 2016 in nursing and medical majors were selected as the research objects, and randomly divided into two groups, the control group adopted the traditional teaching, the observation group adopted the clinical skill teaching and new examination model, and the internal practice score and examination score on graduation of the two groups were compared and analyzed. Results There was no obvious difference in the internal score between the two groups during the practice period by comparison, P>0.05, the post-departmental?examination score, basic internal knowl-edge, skill written examination score, short-term teaching effect of students, subjective evaluation of practice teachers, writ-ten examination score of case-analysis questions in the observation group were obviously better than those in the control group, and in terms of long-term teaching effect, the clinical operation skill after half a year in the observation group was obviously better than that in the control group. Conclusion The internal clinical skill teaching and new examination model not only contributes to improving the comprehensive analysis ability of students, but also contributes to cultivating the clini-cal thinking ability and personnel community ability of students, which is of long-term application value.%目的:研究分析内科临床技能教学与考核新模式的实践意义及价值。方法以2013级三年制大专至2016年五年制高职的近4000名护理﹑医疗专业学生为研究对象,随机分为对照组和观察组,对照组的学生进行传统教学,观察组的学生进行临床技能教学和考核新模式,对比分析两组学生内科实习的成绩和毕业时的考核成绩。结果两组学

  3. Deeply Intoxicated and Light Wake ——The Double Cultural Psychology of the Historical Novel at the Beginning of 19th Century%沉醉与微醒——十九世纪初期历史小说的双重文化心理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐云

    2012-01-01

    十九世纪初期的历史小说,尽管作品数量较为丰富,但由于优秀作品较少,因而很少引起学界关注。在为数不多的研究中,普遍评价不高,认为此期历史小说在艺术上乏善可陈,因循守旧,公式化倾向严重,思想上更是陈陈相囚,不外乎忠奸斗争与劝善惩恶等传统思想。不过,从思想史与文化史的角度来说,此期历史小说展现出中国近代思想走向的两种不同维度:一方面,既沉醉于天朝大国的辉煌记忆中不能自拔,复古思潮与保守主义盛行;另一方面,随着十九世纪中国内忧外患的逐步深入,对时局敏锐而焦虑的小说家的忧世心态札在历史小说中充分呈卿。出来。其突出的标志,暑对外患内忧的广泛“书写”。%The historical novels at the beginning of 10th century, which arerich in the number of works, but few of them in excellent,have rarely been paid attention by research circles. A few researches of them, with low general comments, think that the historical novels in this period are artistically dull, lockstep, and serious in formulation trend, and ideologically routinization, nothing more than the eraditional ideology of the struggle between loyal officials and treacherous ones and persuading to be good and punishing the evil and so on. However, from the perspectives of ideological history and cultaral history, the historical novels in this period express two different di- mensions of the trend of Chinese modern ideology: on one hand, deeply intoxicated in the great memory of Celestial Empere, trend restoring ancient way and conservatism prevail over; on the other hand, with the gradual development of the domestic strife and foreign agression of China in 19th century, the mood of concerning for the country and the people of novelists, who are keen and anxious about the current affairs, fully showed in the historical novels. Its prominent symbol is the widely "writting

  4. 我国七个少数民族使用盲文状况的调查研究%The Survey of Using Braille in Seven Minority Nationalities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳虹; 顾定倩; 程黎; 魏丹; 韩萍; 钟经华

    2015-01-01

    Abstracts:The study investigated the status of studying and using different Braille Schemes in 7 mi-nority nationalities,including Mongolian,Tibetan,Uighur,Kazakhs,Chuang,Yi and Korean.The re-sults show that 1)The Chinese Current Braille Scheme is the only used braille scheme by public special ed-ucation schools in minority nationalities except Tibetan and Korean minority nationalities because no blind students of those two minority nationalities are in their public special education school;2)Under the sup-porting of foreign finance,the Tibetan blind students study the English Braille scheme,the Current Braille Scheme and the Tibetan Braille Scheme which was created by blind German;3)Braille Scheme of Uighur language has experienced the process of studied-stopped-experimented-stopped again since it was made;4) Korean blind people can use Chinese Current Braille Scheme and Korean Braille Scheme very well;5)Dif-ferent groups have different opinions on whether the government should make different Braille schemes for each minority nationality,but all of them agree on creating and widely using a national universal Braille scheme;and 6)Majority of blind students and blind adults from minority nationalities suggest that the government should offer enough learning resources about braille and more braille equipment to help them read and writ braille.To those blind adults who have left school,they pay more attention on braille infor-matization and the development and promoting of braille informatization study tool.%对蒙古族、藏族、维吾尔族、哈萨克族、壮族、彝族和朝鲜族的7个少数民族盲文使用状况进行调查。结果显示,除西藏、吉林的公办特殊教育学校没有藏族和朝鲜族盲生外,现行盲文是少数民族公办特殊教育学校唯一使用的盲文。在外国资金支助下的拉萨盲童学校学习英语盲文、汉语现行盲文和德国盲人研制的藏语盲文三种盲文。维吾尔语盲文方案自

  5. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  6. La escritura de un cuento y el cumplimiento de las cláusulas de un pacto comunicativo (Writing a Story and Complying with the Legal Terms of a Communicative Pact (L'écriture d'un compte et l'accomplissement des clauses d'un pacte communicatif (A escrita de um conto e o cumprimento das cláusulas de um pacto comunicativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Uribe-Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo resume uno de los resultados de la inves- tigación Análisis de una muestra representativa de los relatos presentados al Concurso Nacional de Cuento Gabriel García Márquez (grupo de investigación DiLe- Ma, Universidad del Quindío, 2008. Esta reflexión gira en torno a las implicaciones teóricas y metodológicas del pacto comunicativo que supone la escritura de un cuento en el marco de un concurso dirigido a los es- tudiantes colombianos. En ese contexto, se describen las fortalezas de los estudiantes en términos del cum- plimiento de las condiciones iniciales de la consigna, para luego analizar las debilidades más recurrentes en la comprensión de la escritura como práctica socio- discursiva.AbstractThis article summarizes the results of the research project Analysis of a representa- tive sample of the stories submitted to the National Short Story Competition Gabriel García Márquez (DiLeMa re- search group, Quindío University, 2008. This discussion focuses on the theoreti- cal and methodological implications of the communicative pact involving writ- ing a story in the context of a compe- tition aimed at Colombian students. In this context, it describes the strengths of students in terms of compliance with the initial conditions of the slogan to later analyze the recurring weaknesses in the understanding of writing as a social dis- course practice.RésuméCet article présente un résumé des résul- tats de la recherche Analyse d'un échan- tillon représentatif des récits présentés au Concours National de Compte enfantin Gabriel García Márquez (groupe de re- cherche DiLeMa, Université de Quindío, 2008. Cette réflexion s'organise autour des implications théoriques et méthodo- logies du pacte communicatif que l'écri- ture d'un comte présuppose dans le ca- dre d'un concours adressé auz étudiants colombiens. Dans ce contexte, on décrit les points forts des e

  7. Para un catálogo atractivo: libros y políticas editoriales para las bibliotecas populares. La propuesta de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento For an attractive catalog: books and editorial policies for popular libraries. The proposal by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Planas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una hipótesis de trabajo para abordar el estudio de los escritos de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento sobre las bibliotecas populares. En ese contexto, el presente ensayo explora una cuestión específica: ¿qué libros para las bibliotecas populares? A través de un análisis crítico de los textos del autor, se intenta mostrar que los lineamientos que perfilan las características de las colecciones de estas instituciones deben identificarse en los vínculos que mantienen los múltiples núcleos temáticos analizados por Sarmiento, a saber: el examen del comercio y la industria del libro en América, la organización de proyectos editoriales, la toma de posición frente a la lectura de novelas, entre otros. A partir de un artículo concreto, se describe la manera en que Sarmiento entiende la relación entre los lectores y las lecturas en el contexto específico de una biblioteca popular. En un balance final, se realizan dos observaciones. Primero: la elección de lecturas no es una prescripción aislada, sino un complejo de observaciones sobre la presencia del libro y la lectura en América Latina, especialmente en Chile y en la Argentina. Segundo, el autor apela a la constitución de un catálogo capaz de atraer a los lectores. Esta finalidad, es prioritaria en su proyecto.It is shown a work hypothesis to study the writtings by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento about popular libraries. In this context, the present essay is centered in a specific question: what books for popular libraries? Through a critical analysis of the author texts, it is intended to show that the lines which define the characteristics of the collections of that institutions must be sought in the ties maintained by the multiple thematic nucleus analyzed by Sarmiento, that is: the examination of the trade and industry of books in America, the organization of editorial projects, his position about reading novels, among others. From a concrete article, it is described the way

  8. Un notario español en Rusia de Diego Hidalgo (1929 o la atracción de un burgués en el terreno del comunismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuelle Peloille

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Es mucha la atracción que ejerce sobre mí este pueblo y mucha aún la pena que siento por no poder estar aquí y seguir estudiando tantas cosas nuevas", escribe Diego Hidalgo en sus notas de viaje a la URSS recogidas en Un notario español en Rusia . El autor de este volumen, publicado en Madrid en 1929 por la editorial Cénit, no es dirigente de una organización popular como lo eran Fernando de los Ríos, Ángel Pestaña o Rodolfo Llopis; no pertenece a la clase obrera preferentemente interesada en el experimento ruso; tampoco es corresponsal como lo fue Sofía Casanova. Oficialmente, viaja para examinar el derecho soviético y su aplicación, pero declara ante todo querer comprobar la certeza de lo que se viene diciendo de la Unión Soviética en España desde 1917. Asumiendo su estatuto de miembro de la burguesía, se distancia tanto de las representaciones hostiles como de la aprobación beata. El interés de este libro reside en cómo lo que entonces fue una novedad histórica (cualquiera que sea el juicio que podamos formular sobre ésta ejerce el papel de polo de atracción entre individuos de una clase social a priori no interesados en ella.Palabras Clave: Rusia, URSS, relato de viaje, intelectuales, tópicos, burguesía, hegemonía___________________________Abstract:"Es mucha la atracción que ejerce sobre mí este pueblo y mucha aún la pena que siento por no poder estar aquí y seguir estudiando tantas cosas nuevas", writted Diego Hidalgo in his travel notes about USSR, collected in Un notario español en Rusia. The author of this book, published in 1929 by the marxist editor Cénit, is not a leader of popular organization at all like Fernando de los Ríos, Ángel Pestaña o Rodolfo Llopis, neither belongs to the working class, potentially more interested in the development of the Soviet experience. The official aim of his travel is to get information about Soviet laws and their applying. But before everything he wants to check

  9. Un notario español en Rusia de Diego Hidalgo (1929 o la atracción de un burgués en el terreno del comunismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuelle Peloille

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available “Es mucha la atracción que ejerce sobre mí este pueblo y mucha aún la pena que siento por no poder estar aquí y seguir estudiando tantas cosas nuevas", escribe Diego Hidalgo en sus notas de viaje a la URSS recogidas en Un notario español en Rusia . El autor de este volumen, publicado en Madrid en 1929 por la editorial Cénit, no es dirigente de una organización popular como lo eran Fernando de los Ríos, Ángel Pestaña o Rodolfo Llopis; no pertenece a la clase obrera preferentemente interesada en el experimento ruso; tampoco es corresponsal como lo fue Sofía Casanova. Oficialmente, viaja para examinar el derecho soviético y su aplicación, pero declara ante todo querer comprobar la certeza de lo que se viene diciendo de la Unión Soviética en España desde 1917. Asumiendo su estatuto de miembro de la burguesía, se distancia tanto de las representaciones hostiles como de la aprobación beata. El interés de este libro reside en cómo lo que entonces fue una novedad histórica (cualquiera que sea el juicio que podamos formular sobre ésta ejerce el papel de polo de atracción entre individuos de una clase social a priori no interesados en ella.Palabras Clave: Rusia, URSS, relato de viaje, intelectuales, tópicos, burguesía, hegemonía___________________________Abstract:"Es mucha la atracción que ejerce sobre mí este pueblo y mucha aún la pena que siento por no poder estar aquí y seguir estudiando tantas cosas nuevas", writted Diego Hidalgo in his travel notes about USSR, collected in Un notario español en Rusia. The author of this book, published in 1929 by the marxist editor Cénit, is not a leader of popular organization at all like Fernando de los Ríos, Ángel Pestaña o Rodolfo Llopis, neither belongs to the working class, potentially more interested in the development of the Soviet experience. The official aim of his travel is to get information about Soviet laws and their applying. But before everything he wants to check

  10. History as a tool in identifying "new" old drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, John M

    2002-01-01

    To trace the history of a natural product and its use, it is necessary to identify to correct plant among around a half-million species. One must also know how and when harvest the plant and the morphology of location and extraction. Within the same species plant chemistry varies, depending upon climatic and soil conditions, stage of maturity and even diurnal factors. To all of these variations must be added the diagnostic ability of physicians and native healers (to distinguish between Hippocratically-trained Western physicians and whose knowledge is less formally taught). Seldom was a disease identified as we Know it today, but the constellations of symptoms described, when studied carefully within the framework historical setting of the culture, can be related to modern medicine. It is essential to study the historical contemporary usage data in the language in which those accounts were writTen. Translators are often philologists who are not sensitive to medical nuances. Modern readers of translated historical documents often are unaware of the precision the authors delivered in describing medical afflictions and their treatments. Natural product drugs are truly products of human knowledge. Because so many modern pharmaceuticals are manufactured synthetically we forget that once either the compound or its affinity had a home in a natural product. Over 2,500 years ago man first used a drug obtained from white willow bark, which was aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid. Today's scientists continue to be bewildered by just what aspirin's mechanisms of action are, discovering new modes of action, and how they relate to medical diagnostics. Whatever the science of aspirin, an intelligent person today takes it just as our ancestors did fo millennia. Throughout time, explanations continue to vary just as purpose of administration do as well. Nevertheless, aspirin is perceived as being beneficial. Historical in-use data can also be a factor in judging a drug's safety, since

  11. 得失参半的创新之作--《剑桥中国文学史》评议%Success Equals Failure in an Innovated Book-A Review about The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泽宝

    2015-01-01

    《剑桥中国文学史》旨在打破以往文学史写作中的习惯性范畴,开创新的文学史范式。其中最引人注目的是它特殊的“文学文化史”的书写姿态,立足于在文化史的背景下考察中国文学的发展进程。这种书写策略为我们认识文学史提供了新的视角与方法,但并没有在全书中得到全面的贯彻。《剑桥中国文学史》的文学史分期方式也引人注目,某些基于文学文化史立场的分期方式显得新颖别致。全书的文学史分期方式并没有统一的标准,也存在着按世纪、朝代为文学史分期的现象。由于全书的编者热衷于探求“过去的文学”原貌,在实践中往往对某些重要作家作品叙述较少,而对次要的文学现象评价过高。这种迥异于时流的评价可新人耳目,但有些评价是出于臆测,并没有坚实的依据。%The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History aims at creating a new pattern about the writing of Chinese literature history by removing familiar categories in the field.The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History is famous for its special view of the history of literature culture.The writ-ers believe that the real original appearance of literature is clear when we research literature by the hand of whole history of culture.Some problems in literature could be removed with the view of cul-ture,which is not reflected completely in the whole book.The divisions of literature history are also eye-attracting,some are reasonable based the view of culture history.Other kinds of division of histo-ry carry on changeless criterion as before.The book aims to seek the original appearance of literature happened as announced.Some famous writers in history are not take high while common ones are over praised.So,some evaluations in the book are not valid.

  12. Géneros para la persuasión en prensa: los artículos de opinión del diario El País

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Pastora Moreno Espinosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio partimos de la consideración de los géneros periodísticos como discursos a partir de los cuales la investigación periodística ha ido configurando los diferentes mensajes. Los géneros periodísticos son el resultado de una lenta evolución histórica ligada a la evolución del mismo concepto de lo que se entiende por periodismo. A lo largo de la historia del periodismo cada uno de los géneros no ha tenido la importancia que en la actualidad nosotros le damos.El artículo es un género periodístico que interpreta los sucesos de una comunidad concreta y que destaca la importancia de éstos dentro del momento histórico, a la vez que las posibles consecuencias económicas, sociales y políticas que pueden derivarse. Se escribe con la intención de crear opinión en el público, interpreta y enjuicia lo más destacado de lo que sucede, pero no es la institución como en el editorial la que se manifiesta, sino que es el periodista el que interpreta los acontecimientos, expresando su punto de vista, y puede incluso solicitar un comportamiento concreto del público.Así pues, al ser la perspectiva de los géneros periodísticos la que más nos interesa, y en concreto el artículo, comenzaremos por buscar un punto de partida teórico que luego nos permita analizar el género que nos ocupa en el diario El País.ABSTRACTIn the present writting, we start from the consideration about the journalistic genres as discourses from which the journalistic investigation has gone configurating the different messages.The journalistic genres are the result of a slow historical evolution connected with the evolution of the same concept that is understood as journalism. But along the journalism’s history every one of the genres hasn’t interested as well as at present.On the other hand, the article is a journalistic genre that explain the happenings of a determinate community and their importance stands out inside the historical moment

  13. El gusto por lo extremado: un análisis crítico de Baudrillard y Derrida sobre el terror y el terrorismo

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    Ungureanu, Camil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For Baudrillard, the «new terrorism» should be understood as a symbolic exchange of gift and counter-gift: the terrorist’s death is an unanswerable counter-gift that disrupts the coercing circle of social relationships «imposed» by the global system. In turn, Derrida’s conception has two dimensions, explicative and normative. First, Derrida considers 11/9 as a multi-faceted symptom of an autoimmunitary crisis that has political, religious and technological-capitalist aspects. Second, Derrida argues that there is an Abrahamic «moment» of terror, violence and sacrifice that is constitutive to ethical decisions and responsibility. On the critical side, I will argue that Baudrillard’s view is premised on an extreme and partisan notion of a system interpreted as a totalitarian ruler writ large. In turn, Derrida unnecessarily turns the common observation that human actions can have perverse consequences into a law of autoimmunity inspired by biology. By seeing terror as constitutive even to the most common ethical relationships, Derrida also runs the risk of turning an extreme phenomenon into a catch-all concept, and of losing touch with the day-to-day ethical practice. I will conclude that Baudrillard’s and Derrida’s conceptions of terror and terrorism partake in a «taste for the extreme» that makes them ultimately unconvincing.

    Baudrillard interpreta el «nuevo terrorismo» como un intercambio simbólico de regalo y contra-regalo: la muerte del terrorista es un contra-regalo irrefutable que rompe el círculo coercitivo de las relaciones sociales «impuestas» por el sistema global. A su vez, la concepción de Derrida tiene dos dimensiones, explicativa y normativa: en primer lugar, Derrida considera el 11-S como un síntoma multifacético de una crisis autoinmune que tiene aspectos políticos, religiosos y tecno-capitalistas. En segundo lugar, Derrida arguye que existe un «momento» de terror, violencia y sacrificio

  14. Jakob Kelemina on Shakespeare's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jurak

    2007-12-01

    development of drama and theatre in Slovenia, particularly as regards pro­ ductions and early attempts oftranslating Shakespeare's plays into Slovene. This information,  which may be particularly  relevant for foreign readers, ends with the year 1922, when Kelemina's last writ­ing about Shakespeare's plays appeared. In 2007 we commemorate the one hundred and twenty-fifth anniversary of Kelemina's birth and fiftieth anniversary of his death, which is another reason why his work on Shakespeare should be finally researched and evaluated. This study should also help expand our knowledge about Jakob Kelemina's contribution regarding translations of Shakespeare's plays for the Slovene theatre and for Slovene culture generally.

  15. Surdez e linguagem escrita: um estudo de caso Deafness and written language: a case of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Guarinello

    2007-08-01

    clarify that this professional was fluent in sign language, and she acted as an interpreter and interlocutor, emphasizing language as interaction and interfering in written productions when requested. During the years she worked with R, it was seen that he started to reflect upon his written production and that his attitudes towards writing changed. The fact that R and his speech and language therapist shared sign language allowed him to talk about his life and experiences; this material was then taken down as written language. Thus, R started to use written language with crossovers and juxtapositions of the two languages he used: Portuguese and sign language. Writting became an added possibility that could reveal his uniqueness as an individual, enabling him to rebuild the history of his relations to language.

  16. Şer’iyye Sicillerine Göre Dokuma Ürünleri Fiyat Endeksi ( 1750-1880 Price Index of Weaving Goods According to Ottoman Islamic Records [1750-1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüsnü YÜCEKAYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phases of industrialization in Ottoman manufacturing andproblems related to them are of the aspects which haven't become clearyet. Among the factors which cause trouble for manufacturers,historians of Ottoman economics have most emphasized the extreme increase in the prices of raw materials . Undoubtedly, in order tounderstand the case, it is necessary to discuss the matter in detail.Which factor had what share on the rise in prices?Was the financialinstability as a result of the changes on the value of the kuruş the mosteffective factor on this case?Or did the inflation as a result of selling rawmaterials to foreign merchants cause the dramatic rise in prices?If oneof these aspects or another aspect which isn't mentioned here waseffective,when did the reflections of this case in Ottoman lands becomeapparent?Lots of questions and problems like these have been facingOttoman economic historians. In this research, certain facts taken fromthe court register become meaningful by making simple index. It isknown that in index studies related with prices in Ottoman Empirewhich were conducted in the past, data related with the food sector wasgenerally used.When the fact that both the şer’iyye registers and thedata related with the weaving sector were not used sufficiently in indexstudies is taken into consideration it will be understood that this indexshall include some interesting results.According to the image reflectedfrom index,prices started to increase after 1750s.However,the sharpestincreases were observed after 1840s.Moreover this increase occured atan increasing speed andrate. Yet,it is known that regulations on thevalue of coin ended after 1844. .Unceasing increase in prices despitethe lack of any changes on the value of the kuruş is a subject on whichdeep analyses should be made. Osmanlı İmalatçılığının endüstrileşme safhaları ve yaşamış olduğu sıkıntılar, bugün hala net olarak berraklaşmayan hususlardand

  17. Fenâyî Ehl-i Cennet Efendi, “Teceliyyât” Adlı Arapça Eseri ve Tecelliyyât’a Hasan Rızâyî El-Aksarâyî Tarafından Yapılan Manzûm-Mensûr Türkçe Tercüme/Şerh Üzerine Decent Fellow Fenâyî Ehl-i Cennet, “Teceliyyât” Named Arabic Literary Work And Verse-Article Turkish Translation-On Commentary Was Done By Hasan Rızâyî El-Aksarâyî To “Teceliyyât”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan ERDOĞAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fenâyî who is called Decent Fellow Cennet Mehmed, DecentFellow Ehl-i Cennet, Decent Fellow Fenâyî Ehl-i Cennet and DecentFellow Fenâyî Mehmed is one of Anatolia caliphs of Dear MahmudHüdâyî and is one of the most stentorian voice faces on the way ofHüdâyî in Celvetî religios order. His dîvân which is inspired by YunusEmre and Hüdâyî consigned to writing and it is mostly formed withchant verse, exhortations which is mostly scientific and again he is oneof the people which worth to cite in mystic poets with Tecelliyyât whichis a result of opinion is the custom of Tecelliyyât consign to writingbegins with Hüdâyî. In his term Decent Fellow Ehl-i Cennet who is theone of the most effective names after Hüdâyî in Celvetî school. It isunderstood that Hüdâyî knows Arabic and Persian well. It is specifiedthat Arabic Tecelliyyât which was written by some researches with hisfollower and despatched to him is about interior attitudes of DecentFellow Fenâyî, dreams and inspirations. It is thought that the aim of thesharing some psychological experiences with his followers or the aim ofthis sharing despatch to him is that it motivates Celvetî mystics andwith rapturing elate them, join them the way of Celvetî which they livedin pyschological tension and above all, join Islam. A religius orderspiritual guide make allowence for extraordinary things which lived, apraise by experts in their field, in other words it is qualified an indicatorof praise to chant benefaction and it is specified that it isnt seen like aconcession from to be given modesty. Again this literary work wastranslated by Rızâyî-i Aksarâyî who is Celvetî . “Cennet Mehmed Efendi”, “Ehl-i Cennet Efendi”, “Fenâyî Ehl-i Cennet Efendi” ve “Fenâyî Mehmed Efendi” gibi isimlerle anılan Fenâyî; Aziz Mahmud Hüdâyî’nin Anadolu halifelerinden olup Celvetî tarikatının Hüdâyî yolunda giden en gür sesli simalarından birisidir. H

  18. 急性主动脉夹层早期快速诊断及用药的选择%Early rapid diagnosis and rational choice of the first-line agents for acute aortic dissection in the emergency department: ses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆永; 陈立波

    2015-01-01

    ) successively.The reliabilities of results from each diagnostic method were verified by the "gold standard" of intra-operative findings and the comparisons of their diagnostic potential were carried out.Results The preoperative diagnostic sensitivity of chest radiography,TTE and CTA in the assessment of AAD were 64%,77% and 100%,respectively;the specificity is 86%,90% and 100%,respectively;the accuracy rats were 70%,78% and 100%,respectively;the positive predictive values were 93%,99% and 100%,respectively;the negative predictive values were 46%,27% and 100%,respectively.In the work-up of any patient with suspected AAD,the emergency bedside non-invasive TTE or computed tomography was the first-line initial diagnostic screening,and the best method for the accurate diagnosis of AAD was CTA.Medical management included pain control and deliberate hypotension therapy by using rapidly short-acting vasodilator and beta blockers to lower heart rate,and the hibernation therapy in small dose of specific agents might serve as a useful adjuvant method,and the early combination of vasodilatation medicines was better than the single one.Of them,242 patients fortunately survived on treatment,and 42 died of hypovolemic shock after rupture of AAD and multiorgan failure.Conclusions Acute aortic dissection is the most potentially life-threatening cardiovascular disease,though it is extremely rare in the hypertensive patients,attending doctors should pay more attention.Early rapid diagnosis is the key to AAD treatment.The best method for correctly diagnosing AAD is complementary use of TTE,CTA and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).Correct and timely diagnosis and strictly deliberate hypotension treatment are the essential determinant of decreasing mortality and improving prognosis of AAD.

  19. Divan Şairinin Sessiz ve Gizli Anlatımı: Muvaşşah The Secret and Silent Expression of Divan Poet: Muvaşşah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YEKBAŞ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface and deep structure of the elements that form the poembring new meaning to poetry. Determination of these elements is veryimportant in Ottoman poem studies. In this respect, many poets ofOttoman poem resorted to create a secret language through sounds andletters. From this point of view, letters gain great many peculiarity withregard to its shape and contents and therefore we see that differentkinds of literary arts reconstituted.These different experiments which have the aim of benefittingfrom the letters’ symbolic value or with the help of letters they try toconstitute concept are characterized as the not suitable line for ourtopic. For this reason, these applications whose examples are rarelyencountered in our literature according to the other literary arts reshown between the talents included the rhetoric. In our literature, oneof the talents which bases on the letters’ types, union, way of reading iscalled muvaşşah and muvaşşah is the method which bases on visualthings.Today, muvaşşah is expressed as the acrostic. Because of thatmuvaşşah is perceived as the art which finds the first letter of verse andcreates the name from these letters. But examples of muvaşşah inclassical Ottoman poetry benefit from not only the first letter of versebut also middle and last letter of verse. Our poets use muvaşşah toform the title, prayer, moreover while constituting verse or couplet, itcan be seen that they use muvaşşah to compose a chronogram tocommemorate the date. In this respect we can express that muvaşşahhas different contents.In our study, with the help of different examples of muvaşşahdifferent peculiarity of this art found place for itself. Different kinds ofmuvaşşah such as kasida, lyric poem, müseddes, stanza, masnavi,müstezad will show us the secret language and silent expression whichis used by the poet in the poem. Divan şiiri incelemelerinde, o şiirin yüzey ve derin yapısını oluşturan unsurların ve

  20. Effect of whey protein on the rehabilitation of plateau truck soldiers with chronic fatigue syndrome%乳清蛋白治疗高原汽车驾驶人员慢性疲劳综合征的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宁; 徐辉; 白艳; 黄建国; 韦红梅; 赵晓伟; 王勇强

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨乳清蛋白对患有慢性疲劳综合征( chronic fatigue syndrome,CFS)的高原汽车驾驶人员的康复作用。方法选取新疆军区某部高原汽车驾驶人员268名,根据美国疾病控制中心1994修订的CFS诊断标准,通过CFS自评表进行调查,再由心理科医师对可疑CFS患者进行回访以明确诊断,筛选出CFS患者62名,将其中50名高原汽车驾驶人员分为5组,每组10名。除空白对照组外,4组患者分别接受不同的抗疲劳治疗:补充乳清蛋白、补充铁剂、心理干预及综合治疗(同时补充乳清蛋白、铁剂及心理干预)。用疲劳量表14(the Fatigue Scale-14,FS-14)评定干预前、干预后1周及2周分值。结果CFS患病率为23.1%(62/268)。对照组、接受乳清蛋白治疗和综合治疗的患者在不同时间点的疲劳程度不同,差异有统计学意义。对照组疲劳评分呈增加趋势,乳清蛋白治疗和综合治疗组疲劳评分呈降低趋势,体力疲劳和脑力疲劳评分分别下降44.6%~47.6%和60.5%。而心理治疗、铁剂治疗前后疲劳评分改变差异无统计学意义。结论高原汽车驾驶人员患CFS值得关注,口服乳清蛋白可在一定程度上减轻CFS。%Objective To explore the efficacy of whey protein on the rehabilitation of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in truck soldiers on the plateau.Methods Two hundred and sixty-eight of plateau truck soldiers were selected from Xinjiang Military Command,according to the centers for disease control symptoms of diagnostic criteria specified in the revision of the CFS of 1994.Sixty-two CFS patients were screened by investigation of the CFS self-evaluation table and diagnosed by psychological practitioner for suspi-cious CFS again one by one.Of which,50 plateau truck troops were divided into 5 groups,each group contained 10 soldiers,one group used as blank control,the rest of the four groups of CFS soldiers

  1. From the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Hutinski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available All the papers in this issue of the JIOS Journal may fit into the Science as Usual categoryand are therefore not going to be dealt with in detail in the introduction. However, for oneof the papers included an exception has been provided, namely the paper Sigma-notationand the equivalence of P and NP classes by Miron Ivanovich Telpiz. The circumstancesleading to its publication in this issue of JIOS are presented by the editors in this preface.It is generally acknowledged that, ever since it was defined by S. Cook over thirty yearsago, P = NP has presented one of the major open problems in computing science andinformation science in general. Whereas, on one hand, this problem presents a formidablechallenge to any scientist dealing with it, its solution, especially in case it should turn out tobe a positive one considering that current technology tends to evolve in a practicaldirection and its overall functioning is conducted implicitly under the assumption of anegative solution would have a major impact on the development of informationtechnology as well as the wider context of human society as a whole. Apart from being putforward in conferences, both positive and negative “solutions” to P = NP problem can beoccasionally found in press, scientific and professional journals. The web page titled “Pversus-NP Page” (see http://www.win.tue.nl/~gwoegi/P-versus-NP.htm provides anexcellent source for this issue. It contains links to papers stating that P = NP, as well asthose contradicting the opposite, i.e., stating that P NP. Furthermore, references are givento Oded Goldreich's rationale behind his decision not to review papers proposing solutionsto P = NP problem and related difficult problems because, in his own words, they “alsoattract the attention of non-experts, and one annoying consequence is a flood of falseclaims of resolutions of these problems” (see http://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~oded/faq.html. Dr. Goldreich a recognised

  2. Şeyhülislam Bostanzade Mehmed Efendi Ve Nazmen Verilmiş Fetvâları Shaykh Al-Islam Bostanzadah Mehmed Effendi And His In Verse Fatwas

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    Muhittin ELİAÇIK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Ottoman Empire is seen even fatwas in verse written and it in the classical Turkish literature are instrumental to the emergence of a original poetry species. The word fatwa is derived from feta which means brave, young and strong; a difficult issue in the reply given to making a strong statement describes. Ifta, describes in the Ottoman Empire as an important public service by shayk al Islam to investigate an issue or put forward. In the Ottoman the fatwas of shaykh al Islams or muftis although are usually given Turkish and prose, but the in verse was given even. According to prose fatwas in verse fatwas very little has been written and came from pen of shaykh al Islams that has a specialplace among the poets of the Court. Bostanzādah Mehmed Effendi, oneof them. In Ottoman, during the Shaykh al-Islam Bostanzâde MehmedEffendi time, it has been many events that experienced firstly. His 52couplet in verse fatwa about coffee is a firstly experienced event and puta stop to an important discussion. Mehmed Effendi, besides being astrong dewan poet he has written many in verse fatwas. The coupletnumber of the questions and answers of this fatwas are very long andthat is very remarkable. In this article, four examples of his in versefatwas will be presented. Osmanlı’da fetvâların da manzum hâlde verilmiş olması, Klasik Türk Edebiyatı içinde orijinal bir nazım türünün ortaya çıkmasına ve farklı bir türün incelenmesine sebep olmuştur. Fetvâ kelimesi yiğit, genç, kavî anlamına gelen Arapça fetâ kökünden türemiş ve müşkil bir meselenin verilen cevapla güçlü bir şekilde izahının yapılmasını anlatmıştır. İftâ, Osmanlı’da mühim bir halk hizmeti olarak, bir meselenin hükmünün müftü veya şeyhülislamca araştırılarak ortaya konulmasını ifade etmiştir. Osmanlı’da şeyhülislâm veya müftülerin fetvâları genellikle Türkçe ve mensur hâlde verilmiş, ama orijinal bir şekil olarak

  3. Mevlânâ’nın Rubâîlerinde “Gönül” İstiaresi The Metaphor of "Heart" in Mevlana's Rubais

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    Salih UÇAK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mevlana, as a person of the heart and the guide of the love, is oneof the most important mystics of all the ages. He is an intellectual whohas been become universal while passing from the world of ego to theworld of unity. His transcandental language that integrated with love, isa deep and rich meaning world. Mevlana who used all the colours ofboth behavioral language and verbal language simultaneously and alsoskilfully, created an insatiable feeling and thinking field for the man ofmeaning.Mevlana who realised multiplicity and opened wings towards theunity, used the metaphors and symbols of the language for theexploration and the disclosure of God‟s mystery. No doubt that Mevlanais a master of implication and signal. There are some meanings that canbe infered from each expression he revealed or concealed. He says thatit is essential to express things that cannot be told by using statements,without letters and words and he invites us to explore and understandGod with the codes of a language master.In this study we have intended to emphasize the methafor of„heart‟ that Mevlana used as a symbol in his rubais(stanzas.We haveanalyzed over a thousand rubai about this study. In this examinationwe have dealt with „heart states‟ ,used in his rubais, under somesubtitles such as heart as poetic space, guest of heart, the dilemma ofheart(love-mind, and similes of heart. Like each sufi Mevlana prefer touse heart, as a rich image and metaphor.According to Mevlana, heart that hasn‟t got a border, is theperpetual home for the Absolute Beauty(Allah that cannot be fittedanywhere and this can be read in the sacred hadith(hadis.‟Heart‟ as adivine reflection, forms the main part of our study. Mevlânâ, gönül ehli ve aşk rehberi olarak bütün zamanların en önemli mistiklerinden biridir. O, “benlik” dünyasından “birlik” dünyasına geçerken evrenselleşen bir entelektüeldir. Onun aşkla yoğrulan aşkın(transendantal dili, derin ve

  4. Thyroid Function Test Imbalance in Epileptic Children Under Anticonvulsive Therapy

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    Mohammad TORKAMAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Ravi Torkaman M, Amirsalari S, Saburi A. Thyroid Function Test Imbalance in Epileptic ChildrenUnder Anticonvulsive Therapy. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1:43-44. Dear Editor,There have been many studies regarding the impact of antiepileptic drugs(AEDs on thyroid function. There are some challenging scopes which must beconsidered for conducting the study adressing the focused question. “Which oneof the thyroid hormones is related to the AEDs consumption?”. Some studiesdemonstrated that there may be alterations in all thyroid function tests (T3, T4 andTSH after antiepileptic therapy in children (1. Some studies concluded that longtermprescription of anticonvulsive medications resulted in a decline in serum T4levels, although it had no effect on serum TSH levels. However, changes in serumT3 level was challenging and it must be investigated further (2.There were some confounding factors which may interfere with the conclusion.One of them is the type of the study. There are various study plans for this purposesuch as cross-sectional, case-control, experimental, self-controlled cohort anddouble-blind randomized clinical trial studies. It seems that the proper protocol ofstudy for this propose is a double-blind randomized clinical trial study. By usingother designs, the authors cannot interpret the effect of AEDs on thyroid function;however, they can discuss the prevalence of thyroid hormone imbalance and thecoordination among T3, T4 and TSH.Moreover, one of the confounding factors is the thyroid binding globulin (TBGeffect. It has appeared that some of the AEDs may change the amount of TBGand in this way may affect the amount of thyroid hormones (3. Clonazepamand valproic acid do not have any enzyme inducing effects, but phenobarbital,carbamazepine, phenytoin and primidone may induce the hepatic enzyme (4-6. Therefore, it seems necessary to analyze each group of patients based on thetype of drug which is

  5. Relación del consumo de drogas en el hogar y los problemas de aprendizaje de los niños de aula recurso en las escuelas públicas de Costa Rica

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    Damaris Salazar Montero

    1998-12-01

    frecuentes y donde no se vivencian estos problemas. El alcohol se hace presente en aquellos hogares donde hay más de un niño con problemas de aprendizaje.Los problemas familiares se dan frecuentemente en aquellos hogares donde la pareja está casada. Ahora bien, independientemente de la existencia de problemas familiares en el hogar, la causa principal, dentro de este grupo de niños son las dificultades de lecto-escritura, dentro de este grupo de niños la mayoría de padres consumen alcohol y otras drogas.The relation between drugs consume and learning problems in the special classes on the public schools in Costa Rica. There is a majority of boys in the special classes. But the survey shows that women are must likely to be the legal guardians of the child due to the time the interview was done, most of the legal guardians were married. The school level of most of the guardians was an unfinished elementary. This situation brings a very poor academic orientation from parents and not a very accurate help on their child's homework. Even though is not an accurate help, the mothers are the ones helping in the school duties of their children. The principal reason to asist to a special class is the problem with reading and writting , and it was pointed out by both students and parents. The totality of interview children knew why they had to asist to special classes, but most of the parents didn't. This situation shows that children know exactly the conditions that make them have a low academic performance, while their parents are are totally clueless about the attention and help the kids most receive. The majority of kids live in a home formed by parents and brothers or sisters, and they are ussually the middle child. In some houses there are more than one child assisting to a special school. In most of the homes there are not family problems at all, but when they come up they affect way too much the child, specially in thier academis performance. Most parents pointed this out

  6. THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF TURKISH LITERARY LANGUAGE IN IRAQ IRAK TÜRK EDEBÎ DİLİNİN TARİHÎ GELİŞİMİ

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    Nevzat ÖZKAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is a state settled Turkish in the period of Seljuk State, Musul and Erbil Sultanate, Ilhanlıs, Karakoyunlus, Akkoyunlus and Safevi. It was conrolled by Ottoman Empire in 1534 and it was continued 384 years. Than it was given over to English. With Ankara Treaty in 5th June 1926, the authority of Ottoman Empire ended and Iraq Turkish in this area became minority.Tukish literary language costum has very improved past (in this state that trained Nesimî, Fuzulî, Bağdatlı Ruhî and a lot of famous Turkish poets in Ottoman period. Literary language was formed in Anatolia effected Iraq. For Iraq Turkmen Literature this time was the Ottoman Turkish period.After 1920’s Iraq secured independence, Iraq Turkmen Literature was a minority literature. But Iraq Turkmens followed literary language and literature in Turkey in this period.Since 1958 subverted the monarchy Turkish literature and publishing was subdued(tense kullanımı. Turkmen writters and poets faced prosecution and massacre in this period. Repressive applications are continued carry or maintain today by others.In spite of everything everything Iraq Turkmen literary continued to follow Turkey Turkish. Iraq Turkmen dialects use everyday life and parol literature but ıt’s not used in formal writting language. Iraq Turkmens follow Turkey about the alphabet despite all coactions. Irak; Selçuklu Devleti, Musul ve Erbil atabeylikleri, İlhanlılar, Karakoyunlular, Akkoyunlular ve Safevîler döneminde Türklerin yerleştiği bir ülkedir. 1534’te Osmanlı Devleti’nin yönetimi altına girmiş ve 384 yıl Osmanlı idaresi altında kaldıktan sonra 1918’de İngilizlere terk edilmiştir. 5 Haziran 1926’da Ankara Anlaşmasıyla Musul’un kesin olarak Türk hakimiyetinden çıkmasıyla birlikte Irak Türkleri bu bölgede azınlık haline gelmiştir.Osmanlı döneminde başta Nesimî, Fuzulî, Bağdatlı Ruhî gibi pek çok büyük Türk şairini yetiştiren bu ülkede, Türk yaz

  7. Ortaöğretim 9. Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Yazılı Anlatım Alan Bilgisi Başarı Düzeyleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma A Research On 9th Grade Of Secondary Education Students ' Achievement Levels Of Field Knowledge Of Writing Expression

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    Hasan BAĞCI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary and Secondary education is a period that covers a process of students’ writing skills are laid the foundation of skills in accordance with a specific plan and program and these skills are developed until the final stage of tranining. As writing skill requiresknowledge, experience and using language effectively, this process mustbe supported by reading, listening / viewing, speaking and grammaractivities as well.The researchers investigating students' writing texts, refer thatstudents’ texts have many deficiencies and students’ expected writingskills are failed to reach proficiency. These deficiencies in skills areconsidered to distribute in a large frame that is from the knowledgestage to not converting knowledge to skill. Therefore, aim of this studyis to determine the levels of students’ writing kowledge, towards thewriting skill in accordance with acquisition sentences that is alsoreferred in secondary schools, 9th grade students’ Programme ofLanguage and Expression. In the study, the level of students' writingproficiency whether changed or not according to first gender and othervariables has been also identified. According to the findings from theresearch, the average of general success for the knowledge of writtingexpression for 9th grade of secondary education students wasdetermined as 59 %. And according to gender 9th grade of secondaryeducatıon students ' achievement levels of fıeld knowledge of writingexpression not significant difference, but according to student’sacademic success, make free writing activity, keep a journal, Languageand Speech lessons love and be pleased from writting events showedsignificant difference.At the end of the research with adhering to the results obtainedfrom the study, some suggestions have been given to teachers whoinstruct Language and Expression Courses. İlk ve ortaöğretim, öğrencilerin yazma becerilerinin belirli bir plan ve program doğrultusunda temelinin atıldığı ve

  8. PDCA循环管理法在重庆市南川区人民医院全科医生转岗培训中的应用%Application of PDCA loop for job-transfer training of general practition-ers in Chongqing Nanchuan District People's Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 张艳; 邬开凤; 郝瑜

    2015-01-01

    information software was used for management by the specialized medical education committee. By investigating, the problem was found and countermeasures were formulated and carried out, and last the training effect was fed back. Before and after PDCA loop, the training effectiveness and satisfaction were compared. Results Compared with the con-trol group, in the experimental group, the practitioners' examination qualified rate was risen from 72.7% to 94.7%; the qualified rate of operation skills was risen from 63.6% to 94.7%; the qualified rate of medical record writting was risen from 72.7%to 100.0%;both the patient complaints rate and the occurrence rate of occupation exposure were reduced from 18.2%to 5.3%;the pactitioners' satisfaction with each index was risen from 72.7%to 94.7%;there were statistically sig-nificant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion The PDCA loop used to manage the job-transfer training of general practitioners is effective in Chongqing Nanchuan District People's Hospital and is worthy popularization in other hospital's training fields.

  9. Creating a More Responsive and Seamless Refugee Protection System: The Scope, Promise and Limitations of US Temporary Protection Programs

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    Donald Kerwin

    2014-04-01

    , although the United States has never limited TPS to sub-state groups. TPS does not cover persons from designated states who arrive following the effective date of the designation, even those who fled great peril. TPS recipients cannot petition for the admission of close family members. In addition, TPS cannot be granted to persons in substantial need of protection from undesignated states.  Like refugees and asylees, TPS recipients receive work authorization. Unlike refugees or asylees, they are not eligible for resettlement benefits or deemed “qualified” for most federal public benefit programs. They can apply for political asylum and immigration benefits. However, TPS does not, in itself, lead to permanent status or other durable solutions. Beyond TPS, the executive branch can exercise its discretion not to remove persons who fall outside its law enforcement priorities, including persons who might otherwise suffer violence, extraordinary hardship, or death at home.  This paper outlines international standards for the design and operation of temporary protection programs, describes the US refugee protection program writ large, and identifies gaps in protection. It recommends that Congress create a non-immigrant “protection” visa for non-citizens who are at substantial risk of persecution, danger, or harm in their home or host countries, and that DHS expand its use of parole for de facto refugees and individuals in refugee-like situations. It also argues that the United States should prioritize the reconstruction and development of TPS-designated states and work to establish regional migration and development agreements covering North America, Central America and the Caribbean.Congress should also pass legislation to extend LPR status to long-term recipients of temporary protection.  In particular, it should advance the “registry” date to January 1, 1999 (which would provide LPR status to most non-citizens in the country since that date and it should

  10. “THE CONFESSIONS OF A CHILD OF THE CENTURY” OF ALFRED DE MUSSET and THE FRANCE AFTER THE 1789 FRENCH REVOLUTION

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    Fuat BOYACIOĞLU

    2013-03-01

    social reality and the religious conception of that time. Alfred de Musset being a child of the century with all his characteristics observes precisely his time and becomes a intimate voice of his time. He became one of those who perceived the sad truth that the reason, that is to say, the Enlightenment doesn’t afford to console everything in France after the Revolution. For this reason he doesn’t like Voltaire and his similars. For him, they belong to France before the Revolution. The generation of Voltaire leaved a belief confusion to the fallowing generation. This generation goes neither to the church nor believes to Jesus. If they have a religion, it is a shapeless and worshipless religion and their God is vague. For this reason, Musset feels himself poisoned with the writtings of the former century. The disbelief isn’t no more a pride and becomes a malediction of which everybody want to get ride. Musset want to make live to the hero Octave the religious liberation that he couldn’t live. He can realise the religious enlightenment on Octave.

  11. Gogol’ün Palto’sundan Çıkan Bir Eser: Odalarda A Work Of Art Rıses Up From The Coat Of Gogol: In The Rooms

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    Mehmet BAŞTÜRK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the leading names and the work of arts in literature are the most significant representatives of a tradition/ way/ movement/ comprehension, influenced the authors and the works of art of theseauthors following them. One of these leading Works of art is Earth andThe Coat which is accepted as milestone work in Russian literature ofGogol. “We all rises from The Coat of Gogol” statement of Dostoyevski,was said to determine the importance of this pioneer long story. It ispossible to find examples fort he Works of art rise up from the Coat inTurkish literature. One of them is In The Rooms, the first novelpublished in 1960 by Erdal Öz. Öz states that, in the preface of thenovel, Dostoyevski and Camus are emphasised in the writings about thebook based on the introduction writ of Yaşar Nabi on the back of thefirst press from Varlık Publication (Öz 1999, 11. Thus, little officerwhose name is not stated in the novel, bears traces of AkakiyAkakiyeviç who is presented as equivalent of “little man” in The Coat ofGogol. In Öz's art of work as a sub-text; with "Palto"; it isestablished direct or indirect relationship through "referent" and"allusion".In this article, it is aimed to analyze the intertextuality between InThe Rooms of Erdal Öz and The Coat of Gogol, and it is determined onthe similarities and the differences between these two works, and theprotagonists, by using comperative literature method. In this way, theissues such as how the Coat effect in In The Rooms, which is said byÖz, to begin the writing beginning from the protagonist in The Coat, andwhether this effect turns into individuality or not, are examined. Edebiyatta öncü isimler ve eserler, bir geleneğin/yolun/akımın/anlayışın ilk önemli temsilcisi oldukları için kendisinden sonra gelen kalemleri ve kalem mahsullerini bir şekilde etkilemiştir. Bu öncü eserlerden biri, Dünya ve Rus edebiyatında önemli bir yere sahip Gogol’ün kilometre taşı kabul

  12. Konya İli Beyşehir İlçesi Fasıllar Köyü Mezar Taşları Tombstones of Village Fasıllar in District Beyşehir of Konya City

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    Hüseyin MUSMAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study consist of tombstones which are from ottoman era inthe graveyard of Fasillar village in district beyşehir of konya. In thisstudy 28 headstones and 19 footstones which were written by ottomanturkish with arabic letter were ascertained and analized in terms ofhistorical and art history. In this study all tombstones have beendiscussed separetely and a general evaluationhas been done via thesetombstone. But while we were writting the text part, firstly we made ageneral evaluation and at the end of this study tombstones that wereinvestigated, handled individually (one by one as a catalogue. Villagefasillar which is bounded up Beyşehir district of konya was establishedtwo great hills that consist of rock. The region in which includedFasillar falso, had a great importance in Hittite Empire era. FasillarMonument which belongs to Hittite era and was known by historianand archaeologist, and researching seval speciality of this region.Having the processable stone resources of the region provideed tooccour a custom on stonework. When the qualities, quantities, typesand features are investigated, it iş understood that inhabitants of villageFasillar sustainedthis custom throughout 20th century. The shapes andornamentations of tombstones, and expressions and templates showthat inhabitants have different ial skils from other settlements as socialeconomical and cultural. Konya İli Beyşehir İlçesi Fasıllar Köyü Mezarlığı’nda bulunan Osmanlı dönemine ait mezar taşları bu çalışmanın inceleme konusunu oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmamızda Fasıllar Köyü mezarlığında tespit edilen Arap harfleri ile Osmanlı Türkçesi kullanılarak yazılmış 28 baş taşı ve 19 ayak taşı, tarih ve sanat tarihi ölçütlerine göre incelenmektedir. Çalışmada her bir mezar taşı ayrı ayrı ele alınmış ve bu taşlar üzerinden genel bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Ancak çalışmamızın metin bölümü oluşturulurken,

  13. Editor’s foreword to the first issue of "Libellarium"

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    Zoran Velagić

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Among many literary terms found in the Lexicon Latinum (1742 by Andrija Jambrešić and Franjo Sušnik (auctor and scriptor — book writer; impressio — printing; libellus — booklet; typographeum — print house; typographia — to know how to set and print letters etc. we can also find the term libellarium — bookcase, bookshelf, for keeping different letters and papers. This descriptive definition of libellarium sums up all the three areas this journal is dedicated to — the history of the writting, the history of books, and the history of memory institutions, which is the reason why this term was selected as the name of the journal. The main aims of Libellarium are motivating and promoting the research of the history of the written word, books and heritage institutions. The Croatian written and printed heritage offers infinite possibilities of research using the most current research methodology, which has not been applied in earlier research. The editorial board of Libellarium therefore invites research papers that will throw more light on the Croatian written and printed heritage, as well as papers that will promote research in line with the prevailing and the most current research paradigms. Such a blend of source and methodology is supposed to improve research methods, increase the interest in investigating the history of the written word, books and heritage institutions, and eventually result in their establishment as modern scientific disciplines in Croatian scholarship. This especially refers to the history of books, which has, in the past 50 years (starting with the pioneering book by Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin L’Apparition du livre published in 1958 evolved as a discrete scientific discipline with a developed research methodology that leans on the achievements of the history of literature, history in the narrow sense, cultural anthropology, sociology, librarianship, and many other sciences. There is only a handful of

  14. 西北地区农村留守儿童心理健康状况%Status of Mental Health in the Rural Left-behind Children in Northwest Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭智慧; 杨丽丽; 上官青云; 段晓鹏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate rural left-behind children'mental health status and its characteristics ,and provide reference for the mental health education of rural primary and secondary schools .Methods Using the middle school student mental health scale writ-ten by Wang Jisheng to survey 618 rural left-behind children's mental health survey in 4 regions of 15 schools.Results Rural left-behind children'mental health problem detection rate was 52%(non left-behind children was 41.13%);Rural rear with the left-behind children in the mental health level of force(t=2.22,P<0.05),paranoia(t=4.27,P<0.01),hostility (t=2.96,P<0.01)and interpersonal relationship(t=2.21,P<0.05),maladjustment(t=3.50,P<0.01),six factors such as psychological imbalance (t=2.65,P<0.05) existed significant difference;In the left-behind children,boys were lower in paranoid(t=2.44,P<0.05)and emotional stability(t=2.70,P<0.01)obviously than girls.Parents both care of children'mental health was better than single guardianship ,single-parent custo-dy of left-behind children's mental health is better than that whose parents both go out .Conclusion Mental health is not optimistic a-mong left-behind children ,which call for more attention to the mental health education of left-be-hind children .%目的:调查农村留守儿童心理健康状况及其特点,对农村中小学开展心理健康教育提供参考。方法采用王极盛编写的《中学生心理健康量表》对陕西省宝鸡市4个地区15所学校的618名农村留守儿童的心理健康水平进行测查。结果农村留守儿童的心理健康问题的检出率为52%(非留守儿童为41.13%);农村留守与非留守儿童在的强迫(t=2.22,P<0.05)、偏执(t=4.27,P<0.01)、敌对(t=2.96,P<0.01)、人际关系(t=2.21,P<0.05)、适应不良(t=3.50,P<0.01)、心理不平衡(t=2.65,P<0.05)等6个因子上存在显著性差异;留守儿

  15. Editor’s foreword to the first issue of "Libellarium"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velagić

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Among many literary terms found in the Lexicon Latinum (1742 by Andrija Jambrešić and Franjo Sušnik (auctor and scriptor — book writer; impressio — printing; libellus — booklet; typographeum — print house; typographia — to know how to set and print letters etc. we can also find the term libellarium — bookcase, bookshelf, for keeping different letters and papers. This descriptive definition of libellarium sums up all the three areas this journal is dedicated to — the history of the writting, the history of books, and the history of memory institutions, which is the reason why this term was selected as the name of the journal. The main aims of Libellarium are motivating and promoting the research of the history of the written word, books and heritage institutions. The Croatian written and printed heritage offers infinite possibilities of research using the most current research methodology, which has not been applied in earlier research. The editorial board of Libellarium therefore invites research papers that will throw more light on the Croatian written and printed heritage, as well as papers that will promote research in line with the prevailing and the most current research paradigms. Such a blend of source and methodology is supposed to improve research methods, increase the interest in investigating the history of the written word, books and heritage institutions, and eventually result in their establishment as modern scientific disciplines in Croatian scholarship. This especially refers to the history of books, which has, in the past 50 years (starting with the pioneering book by Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin L’Apparition du livre published in 1958 evolved as a discrete scientific discipline with a developed research methodology that leans on the achievements of the history of literature, history in the narrow sense, cultural anthropology, sociology, librarianship, and many other sciences. There is only a handful of

  16. Narrative Tools,Truth,and Fast Thinking in National Memory:A Mnemonic Standoff between Russia and the West over Ukraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James V Wertsch; Bai Meifei; TranslatorZhou Hong

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the U. S. and Europe found themselves in a surprisingly tense face -off with Russia over events in Ukraine. As these events unfolded, it became clear that what was involved went beyond the kind of realpolitik dispute over re-sources or ideology that had long vexed the rela-tionship between Russia and the West. Instead, much of what Putin said during the tense standoff with the West over Ukraine was a straightforward reflection of an underlying national narrative that has been part of Russian culture for centuries. In order to understand Putin’s stance—and why it is wildly popular with large segments of the Russian population, it is crucial to understand the “social language”(Wertsch,2002)that they share as mem-bers of a “mnemonic community” ( Zerubavel, 2003) . This is a social language built around a set of narrative tools that shape the speaking and thinking about the past and the present and that distinguish this mnemonic community from others. We need to examine the narrative tools that shape Putin’s thinking, and need to consider how his thinking reflects his membership in the Russian mnemonic community. In many respects the deep divide that separates Putin from Western leaders reflects a more general divide between mnemonic communities and the narrative tools they employ. The approach that I take to symbolic media-tion draws on the writings of Vygotsky ( 1934 , 1978,1982),but it important to contextualize Vy-gotsky in a broader discussion that was going on in Russia,Germany,and Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. At several points in his writ-ings,Vygotsky was quite explicit about the centrali-ty of mediation( oposredstvovanie) in his thinking, and a focus on mediation,especially as it concerns“signs,” or “psychological tools,” can be found throughout his writings. Vygotsky’s ideas echo Cassirer’s in several important respects, and draw-ing on both yields some useful synergies. A crucial point where Cassirer

  17. The Multi-Constructionist Concept of Gender---Taking the Mosuo People in Yongning as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ruijuan

    2015-01-01

    The Mosuo are an ethnic group who live at the juncture of Yunnan and Sichuan prov-inces in southwest China. The study of gender a-mong the Mosuo has been a hot topic for ethnolo-gists and anthropologists at home and abroad. At different times, scholars have expressed different interests. However, no unanimous conclusion can be drawn from their research findings. Within the different conclusions of the scholars, what comes closest to the truth about Mosuo culture? An open discussionon this question is the intention for writ-ing this article. For a long time,it was widely believed in the field of cultural anthropology that women held a subordinate position in society. However, the con-struction of gender in Mosuo society might provide us with a unique and precious example of some-thing to the contrary. In addition, gender studies, instead focusing on the issue from a single perspec-tive,should do so from a multi-perpsective angle. This article gives a multi-perspective analysis on the gender relationships in Mosuo society in order to have a clear understanding of the construction of gender for women. 1 . The Spatial Construction of Gender for Mo-suo Women The family house is the most basic and impor-tant social unit of the Mosuo,and also the basis for the identity of the Mosuo. The spatial arrangements of the Mosuo family house reflect their unique con-struction of gender. The living pattern reflects the family members’ rights and position within the fam-ily,and the use and occupation of the house space reflect the society’s cultural rules and the cultural meaning of gender. The construction of gender in Mosuo society, with its rule of “respecting the mother and the female”, and “women stay within the family house while the man walks to the partner’s house”,is fully reflected in the spatial al-location of the family house. 2 . The Linguistic Construction of Gender for Mosuo Women Language has a close relationship with the construction of gender

  18. Linguistic Contact, Religious Interaction and Cultural Integration Between the Naxi and Tibetans-Annotations to the Mani Stones Engraved with Naxi Dongba Pictographs found in a Mani Stone Pile in Jiaqu Village, Muli County, Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiquan

    2014-01-01

    Yihua has given an introduction to the pile of Mani stones at Jiabo Vil-lage of Yiji Township .Compared with the data dis-covered in the past , the document mentioned in this article contains more characters , its structure is more complete and its content is richer .There-fore, it adds a new genre of material for Naxi Dongba documents . 3 .Its Value for Philological Studies There are altogether 128 Dongba pictographs found on the three Mani stones in this pile .They are written from left to right , and altogether there are 9 lines.In some places of each of the lines , two or three pictographs are on top of each other written going from top to bottom .The phenomenon of writing two pictographs on top of each other within a line appears in 16 places; and, that of writing three pictographs on top of each other hap-pens in one place .Except for these places , the rest of the lines are written with as single picto-graphs in a single line .In general , the pictographs on these stones are arranged in a linear fashion . This differs from other Dongba religious manu-scripts where most of the pictographs are not writ-ten linearly . Generally speaking , except for the relation-ship between the words and expressions and the ar-rangement of the pictographs , the Dongba picto-graphs on these Mani stones reflect the characteris-tics of early Dongba pictographs-either from the perspective of the characteristics of the font , or from the usage rules of the characters .In addition, the regional characteristics of these pictographs are also very obvious .This document can be regarded as a reference for conducting comparative studies on the use of the vertical and horizontal writing structure of Dongba documents from other periods and regions .By doing so , we can explore the de-velopment and change of Dongba characters .