WorldWideScience

Sample records for prerelease form extrapolation

  1. Chiral extrapolation of nucleon magnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Wang; D. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas; R.Young

    2007-04-01

    The extrapolation of nucleon magnetic form factors calculated within lattice QCD is investigated within a framework based upon heavy baryon chiral effective-field theory. All one-loop graphs are considered at arbitrary momentum transfer and all octet and decuplet baryons are included in the intermediate states. Finite range regularization is applied to improve the convergence in the quark-mass expansion. At each value of the momentum transfer (Q{sup 2}), a separate extrapolation to the physical pion mass is carried out as a function of m{sub {pi}} alone. Because of the large values of Q{sup 2} involved, the role of the pion form factor in the standard pion-loop integrals is also investigated. The resulting values of the form factors at the physical pion mass are compared with experimental data as a function of Q{sup 2} and demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the chiral extrapolation methods presented herein.

  2. Can Pearlite form Outside of the Hultgren Extrapolation of the Ae3 and Acm Phase Boundaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, M. M.; Rementeria, R.; Capdevila, C.; Hackenberg, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    It is usually assumed that ferrous pearlite can form only when the average austenite carbon concentration C 0 lies between the extrapolated Ae3 ( γ/ α) and Acm ( γ/ θ) phase boundaries (the "Hultgren extrapolation"). This "mutual supersaturation" criterion for cooperative lamellar nucleation and growth is critically examined from a historical perspective and in light of recent experiments on coarse-grained hypoeutectoid steels which show pearlite formation outside the Hultgren extrapolation. This criterion, at least as interpreted in terms of the average austenite composition, is shown to be unnecessarily restrictive. The carbon fluxes evaluated from Brandt's solution are sufficient to allow pearlite growth both inside and outside the Hultgren Extrapolation. As for the feasibility of the nucleation events leading to pearlite, the only criterion is that there are some local regions of austenite inside the Hultgren Extrapolation, even if the average austenite composition is outside.

  3. Electric form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JSC; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: CSSM and QCDSF/UKQCD Collaborations

    2014-03-15

    We apply a formalism inspired by heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization to dynamical 2+1-flavor CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice QCD simulation results for the electric form factors of the octet baryons. The electric form factor of each octet baryon is extrapolated to the physical pseudoscalar masses, after finite-volume corrections have been applied, at six fixed values of Q{sup 2} in the range 0.2-1.3 GeV{sup 2}. The extrapolated lattice results accurately reproduce the experimental form factors of the nucleon at the physical point, indicating that omitted disconnected quark loop contributions are small. Furthermore, using the results of a recent lattice study of the magnetic form factors, we determine the ratio μ{sub p}G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p}. This quantity decreases with Q{sup 2} in a way qualitatively consistent with recent experimental results.

  4. SHAKER Version 0.0/5 Pre-release Notes

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    SHAKER V0.0/5 is a pre-release of a simple cocktail central rapidity phase space event generator developed for the simulation of LHC Heavy Ion events. A modified version of JETSET 7.3 (the / LUJETS / common has been enlarged to 50000 particles and the LUEDIT routine has been modified to rearrange the particle weights vectors when called with MEDIT=1) is used to manage the events. All event information is included in / LUJETS / according to Lund conventions [1].

  5. Expected shortage based pre-release strategy for reservoir flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Frederick N.-F.; Wu, Chia-Wen

    2013-08-01

    In Taiwan, an increase in the frequency of severe flooding over the past decade has prompted demand for improved reservoir operation to control flood-related damage. Flood protection of reservoir can be enhanced by pre-releasing its storage to more adequately accommodate an impending flood. A procedure is proposed in this paper to evaluate the impact of pre-releases of flood control operation on water supply. A basic criterion used is that the pre-release of reservoir storage should not cause intolerable increment of water shortage risk. The shortage risks for different pre-release scenarios are simulated according to the uncertainties of storm rainfall and post-flood ordinary inflow till the end of next dry season. Two operational objectives are provided to help determining the target pre-released level. One of which identifies the minimum allowable pre-released threshold. The other seeks the pre-released level which maximizes the probability that the reservoir release during flood is below the non-damaging discharge and the end-of-operation storage target can still be achieved. This paper evaluated the operations of Tsengwen Reservoir of southern Taiwan during four typhoons from 2007 to 2012 to illustrate the significant contribution of pre-releases in reducing downstream flood potential.

  6. Mechanism of preventing coal and gas compression disseminated values outburst with stress pre-released hydraulically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhong-fei; Yu, Qi-xiang [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China). Center of Safety Engineering

    2007-01-15

    Based on the conditions of coal and gas outburst, the action mechanism for preventing coal and gas compression disseminated values outburst with stress pre-released hydraulically was analyzed. The accuracy of this mechanism was validated by measuring the gas emission before and after pre-releasing stress hydraulically, measuring the rupture failure by the electromagnetic radiation technique and the correlative practical datum. The results show that the electromagnetic radiation intensity and pulse count are increscent when taking the measure of stress pre-released hydraulically, which is propitious to prevent the coal and gas outburst. The action mechanism consists of three aspects: 1) Pre-releasing gas and increasing tangential stress and disseminated values friction resistance; 2) Pre-releaseing the radial effective geostress on high-tension side and reducing the radial stress difference of disseminated values chop motion for enhancing coal displacement; 3) Making the disseminated values and adjacent coal and rock felting by flooding water and increasing the disseminated values' friction resistance coefficients. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  7. RECIPROCAL POLYNOMIAL EXTRAPOLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SergioAmat; SoniaBusquier; VicenteF.Candela

    2004-01-01

    An alternative to the classical extrapolations is proposed. The stability and the accuracy are studied. The new extrapolation behaves better than the classical ones when there are problems of stability. This technique will be useful in those problems where the region of stability is very small and it forces to work with too fine scales.

  8. A Web Based Framework for Pre-release Testing of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abeer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming an integral part of daily life and of business’s marketing plan. They are helpful in promoting for the business, attracting and retaining customers. Software testing is vital to ensure the delivery of high quality mobile applications that could be accessed across different platforms and meet business and technical requirements. This paper proposes a web based tool, namely Pons, for the distribution of pre-release mobile applications for the purpose of manual testing. Pons facilities building, running, and manually testing Android applications directly in the browser. It gets the developers and end users engaged in testing the applications in one place, alleviates the tester’s burden of installing and maintaining testing environments, and provides a platform for developers to rapidly iterate on the software and integrate changes over time. Thus, it speeds up the pre-release testing process, reduces its cost and increases customer satisfaction.

  9. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  10. Cosmological extrapolation of MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, V V

    2011-01-01

    Regime of MOND, which is used in astronomy to describe the gravitating systems of island type without the need to postulate the existence of a hypothetical dark matter, is generalized to the case of homogeneous distribution of usual matter by introducing a linear dependence of the critical acceleration on the size of region under consideration. We show that such the extrapolation of MOND in cosmology is consistent with both the observed dependence of brightness on the redshift for type Ia supernovae and the parameters of large-scale structure of Universe in the evolution, that is determined by the presence of a cosmological constant, the ordinary matter of baryons and electrons as well as the photon and neutrino radiation without any dark matter.

  11. Uncertainties of Euclidean Time Extrapolation in Lattice Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lähde, Timo A; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Extrapolations in Euclidean time form a central part of Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory (NLEFT) calculations using the Projection Monte Carlo method, as the sign problem in many cases prevents simulations at large Euclidean time. We review the next-to-next-to-leading order NLEFT results for the alpha nuclei up to $^{28}$Si, with emphasis on the Euclidean time extrapolations, their expected accuracy and potential pitfalls. We also discuss possible avenues for improving the reliability of Euclidean time extrapolations in NLEFT.

  12. Research Note—Prerelease Demand Forecasting for Motion Pictures Using Functional Shape Analysis of Virtual Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Zhang Foutz; Wolfgang Jank

    2010-01-01

    Prerelease demand forecasting is one of the most crucial yet difficult tasks facing marketers in the $60 billion motion picture industry. We propose functional shape analysis (FSA) of virtual stock markets (VSMs) to address this long-standing challenge. In VSMs, prices of a movie's stock reflect the dynamic demand expectations prior to the movie's release. Using FSA, we identify a small number of distinguishing shapes, e.g., the last-moment velocity spurt, that carry information about a movie...

  13. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2013-02-01

    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  14. Local theory of extrapolation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Gennady

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the theory of one-step extrapolation methods applied both to ordinary differential equations and to index 1 semi-explicit differential-algebraic systems. The theoretical background of this numerical technique is the asymptotic global error expansion of numerical solutions obtained from general one-step methods. It was discovered independently by Henrici, Gragg and Stetter in 1962, 1964 and 1965, respectively. This expansion is also used in most global error estimation strategies as well. However, the asymptotic expansion of the global error of one-step methods is difficult to observe in practice. Therefore we give another substantiation of extrapolation technique that is based on the usual local error expansion in a Taylor series. We show that the Richardson extrapolation can be utilized successfully to explain how extrapolation methods perform. Additionally, we prove that the Aitken-Neville algorithm works for any one-step method of an arbitrary order s, under suitable smoothness.

  15. Infrared extrapolations for atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Furnstahl, R J; Papenbrock, T; Wendt, K A

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic oscillator model-space truncations introduce systematic errors to the calculation of binding energies and other observables. We identify the relevant infrared scaling variable and give values for this nucleus-dependent quantity. We consider isotopes of oxygen computed with the coupled-cluster method from chiral nucleon-nucleon interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order and show that the infrared component of the error is sufficiently understood to permit controlled extrapolations. By employing oscillator spaces with relatively large frequencies, well above the energy minimum, the ultraviolet corrections can be suppressed while infrared extrapolations over tens of MeVs are accurate for ground-state energies. However, robust uncertainty quantification for extrapolated quantities that fully accounts for systematic errors is not yet developed.

  16. Extrapolation methods theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    1991-01-01

    This volume is a self-contained, exhaustive exposition of the extrapolation methods theory, and of the various algorithms and procedures for accelerating the convergence of scalar and vector sequences. Many subroutines (written in FORTRAN 77) with instructions for their use are provided on a floppy disk in order to demonstrate to those working with sequences the advantages of the use of extrapolation methods. Many numerical examples showing the effectiveness of the procedures and a consequent chapter on applications are also provided - including some never before published results and applicat

  17. Universality of Mixed Action Extrapolation Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Mixed action theories with chirally symmetric valence fermions exhibit very desirable features both at the level of the lattice calculations as well as in the construction and implementation of the low energy mixed action effective field theory. In this work we show that when the mixed action effective field theory is projected onto the valence sector, both the Lagrangian and the extrapolation formulae become universal in form through next to leading order, for all variants of discretization methods used for the sea fermions. This implies that for all sea quark methods which are in the same universality class as QCD, the numerical values of the physical coefficients in the various mixed action chiral Lagrangians will be the same up to perturbative lattice spacing dependent corrections. This allows us to construct a prescription to determine the mixed action extrapolation formulae for a large class of hadronic correlation functions computed in partially quenched chiral perturbation theory at the one-loop level...

  18. Extrapolation Method for System Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jianjun; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents a new scheme for probability integral solution for system reliability analysis, which takes basis in the approaches by Naess et al. (2009) and Bucher (2009). The idea is to evaluate the probability integral by extrapolation, based on a sequence of MC approximations....... The scheme is extended so that it can be applied to cases where the asymptotic property may not be valid and/or the random variables are not normally distributed. The performance of the scheme is investigated by four principal series and parallel systems and some practical examples. The results indicate...... of integrals with scaled domains. The performance of this class of approximation depends on the approach applied for the scaling and the functional form utilized for the extrapolation. A scheme for this task is derived here taking basis in the theory of asymptotic solutions to multinormal probability integrals...

  19. UFOs: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetière, L; Ferrari, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Zimmermann, F; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Morón Ballester, R; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zerlauth, M; Fuster Martinez, N

    2012-01-01

    UFOs (“ Unidentified Falling Objects”) could be one of the major performance limitations for nominal LHC operation. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation in 2012 and beyond are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.

  20. Renyi extrapolation of Shannon entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, K

    2003-01-01

    Relations between Shannon entropy and Renyi entropies of integer order are discussed. For any N-point discrete probability distribution for which the Renyi entropies of order two and three are known, we provide an lower and an upper bound for the Shannon entropy. The average of both bounds provide an explicit extrapolation for this quantity. These results imply relations between the von Neumann entropy of a mixed quantum state, its linear entropy and traces.

  1. Extrapolation of acenocoumarol pharmacogenetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Varo, Enrique; Cañadas-Garre, Marisa; Garcés-Robles, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Pimentel, María José; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Ángel

    2015-11-01

    Acenocoumarol (ACN) has a narrow therapeutic range that is especially difficult to control at the start of its administration. Various dosing pharmacogenetic-guided dosing algorithms have been developed, but further work on their external validation is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extrapolation of pharmacogenetic algorithms for ACN as an alternative to the development of a specific algorithm for a given population. The predictive performance, deviation, accuracy, and clinical significance of five pharmacogenetic algorithms (EU-PACT, Borobia, Rathore, Markatos, Krishna Kumar) were compared in 189 stable ACN patients representing all indications for anticoagulant treatment. The correlation between the dose predictions of the five pharmacogenetic models ranged from 7.7 to 70.6% and the percentage of patients with a correct prediction (deviation ≤20% from actual ACN dose) ranged from 5.9 to 40.7%. EU-PACT and Borobia pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms were the most accurate in our setting and evidenced the best clinical performance. Among the five models studied, the EU-PACT and Borobia pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms demonstrated the best potential for extrapolation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Feeding Unpredictability and Classical Conditioning on Pre-Release Training of White-Lipped Peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Selene S. C.; Abreu, Shauana A.; Peregrino, Helderes; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3) and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled). The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2) than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3). The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1) and the following control phase (C2) than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2), also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild. PMID:24475072

  3. The effects of feeding unpredictability and classical conditioning on pre-release training of white-lipped peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene S C Nogueira

    Full Text Available Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3 and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled. The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2 than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3. The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1 and the following control phase (C2 than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2, also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild.

  4. Extrapolating Solar Dynamo Models Throughout the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B. T.; Miesch, M. S.; Augustson, K.; Featherstone, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are multiple theories that aim to explain the behavior of the solar dynamo, and their associated models have been fiercely contested. The two prevailing theories investigated in this project are the Convective Dynamo model that arises from the pure solving of the magnetohydrodynamic equations, as well as the Babcock-Leighton model that relies on sunspot dissipation and reconnection. Recently, the supercomputer simulations CASH and BASH have formed models of the behavior of the Convective and Babcock-Leighton models, respectively, in the convective zone of the sun. These models show the behavior of the models within the sun, while much less is known about the effects these models may have further away from the solar surface. The goal of this work is to investigate any fundamental differences between the Convective and Babcock-Leighton models of the solar dynamo outside of the sun and extending into the solar system via the use of potential field source surface extrapolations implemented via python code that operates on data from CASH and BASH. The use of real solar data to visualize supergranular flow data in the BASH model is also used to learn more about the behavior of the Babcock-Leighton Dynamo. From the process of these extrapolations it has been determined that the Babcock-Leighton model, as represented by BASH, maintains complex magnetic fields much further into the heliosphere before reverting into a basic dipole field, providing 3D visualisations of the models distant from the sun.

  5. Extrapolating future Arctic ozone losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Knudsen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Future increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases and water vapour are likely to cool the stratosphere further and to increase the amount of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. Future Arctic PSC areas have been extrapolated using the highly significant trends in the temperature record from 1958–2001. Using a tight correlation between PSC area and the total vortex ozone depletion and taking the decreasing amounts of ozone depleting substances into account we make empirical estimates of future ozone. The result is that Arctic ozone losses increase until 2010–2020 and only decrease slightly up to 2030. This approach is an alternative method of prediction to that based on the complex coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs.

  6. Extrapolation of scattering data to the negative-energy region

    CERN Document Server

    Blokhintsev, L D; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Savin, D A

    2016-01-01

    Explicit analytic expressions are derived for the effective-range function for the case when the interaction is represented by a sum of the short-range square-well and long-range Coulomb potentials. These expressions are then transformed into forms convenient for extrapolating to the negative-energy region and obtaining the information about bound-state properties. Alternative ways of extrapolation are discussed. Analytic properties of separate terms entering these expressions for the effective-range function and the partial-wave scattering amplitude are investigated.

  7. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2014-07-03

    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  8. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  9. Signal extrapolation based on wavelet representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiang-Gen; Kuo, C.-C. Jay; Zhang, Zhen

    1993-11-01

    The Papoulis-Gerchberg (PG) algorithm is well known for band-limited signal extrapolation. We consider the generalization of the PG algorithm to signals in the wavelet subspaces in this research. The uniqueness of the extrapolation for continuous-time signals is examined, and sufficient conditions on signals and wavelet bases for the generalized PG (GPG) algorithm to converge are given. We also propose a discrete GPG algorithm for discrete-time signal extrapolation, and investigate its convergence. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the discrete GPG algorithm.

  10. One-step lowrank wave extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Sindi, Ghada Atif

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a modified one-step lowrank wave extrapolation using Shanks transform in isotropic, and anisotropic media. Specifically, we utilize a velocity gradient term to add to the accuracy of the phase approximation function in the spectral implementation. With the higher accuracy, we can utilize larger time steps and make the extrapolation more efficient. Applications to models with strong inhomogeneity and considerable anisotropy demonstrates the utility of the approach.

  11. Frequency extrapolation by nonconvex compressive sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sidky, Emil Y [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Pan, Xiaochaun [UNIV OF CHICAGO

    2010-12-03

    Tomographic imaging modalities sample subjects with a discrete, finite set of measurements, while the underlying object function is continuous. Because of this, inversion of the imaging model, even under ideal conditions, necessarily entails approximation. The error incurred by this approximation can be important when there is rapid variation in the object function or when the objects of interest are small. In this work, we investigate this issue with the Fourier transform (FT), which can be taken as the imaging model for magnetic resonance imaging (MRl) or some forms of wave imaging. Compressive sensing has been successful for inverting this data model when only a sparse set of samples are available. We apply the compressive sensing principle to a somewhat related problem of frequency extrapolation, where the object function is represented by a super-resolution grid with many more pixels than FT measurements. The image on the super-resolution grid is obtained through nonconvex minimization. The method fully utilizes the available FT samples, while controlling aliasing and ringing. The algorithm is demonstrated with continuous FT samples of the Shepp-Logan phantom with additional small, high-contrast objects.

  12. Extrapolation procedures in Mott electron polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, T. J.; Khakoo, M. A.; Brand, J. A.; Furst, J. E.; Wijayaratna, W. M. K. P.; Meyer, W. V.; Dunning, F. B.

    1992-01-01

    In standard Mott electron polarimetry using thin gold film targets, extrapolation procedures must be used to reduce the experimentally measured asymmetries A to the values they would have for scattering from single atoms. These extrapolations involve the dependent of A on either the gold film thickness or the maximum detected electron energy loss in the target. A concentric cylindrical-electrode Mott polarimeter, has been used to study and compare these two types of extrapolations over the electron energy range 20-100 keV. The potential systematic errors which can result from such procedures are analyzed in detail, particularly with regard to the use of various fitting functions in thickness extrapolations, and the failure of perfect energy-loss discrimination to yield accurate polarizations when thick foils are used.

  13. Proposition of Improved Methodology in Creep Life Extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Park, Jae Young; Jang, Jin Sung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To design SFRs for a 60-year operation, it is desirable to have the experimental creep-rupture data for Gr. 91 steel close to 20 y, or at least rupture lives significantly higher than 10{sup 5} h. This requirement arises from the fact that, for the creep design, a factor of 3 times for extrapolation is considered to be appropriate. However, obtaining experimental data close to 20 y would be expensive and also take considerable time. Therefore, reliable creep life extrapolation techniques become necessary for a safe design life of 60 y. In addition, it is appropriate to obtain experimental longterm creep-rupture data in the range 10{sup 5} ∼ 2x10{sup 5} h to improve the reliability of extrapolation. In the present investigation, a new function of a hyperbolic sine ('sinh') form for a master curve in time-temperature parameter (TTP) methods, was proposed to accurately extrapolate the long-term creep rupture stress of Gr. 91 steel. Constant values used for each parametric equation were optimized on the basis of the creep rupture data. Average stress values predicted for up to 60 y were evaluated and compared with those of French Nuclear Design Code, RCC-MRx. The results showed that the master curve of the 'sinh' function was a wider acceptance with good flexibility in the low stress ranges beyond the experimental data. It was clarified clarified that the 'sinh' function was reasonable in creep life extrapolation compared with polynomial forms, which have been used conventionally until now.

  14. Standardised classification of pre-release development in male-brooding pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons (Family Syngnathidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the family Syngnathidae share a unique reproductive mode termed male pregnancy. Males carry eggs in specialised brooding structures for several weeks and release free-swimming offspring. Here we describe a systematic investigation of pre-release development in syngnathid fishes, reviewing available data for 17 species distributed across the family. This work is complemented by in-depth examinations of the straight-nosed pipefish Nerophis ophidion, the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster, and the potbellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Results We propose a standardised classification of early syngnathid development that extends from the activation of the egg to the release of newborn. The classification consists of four developmental periods – early embryogenesis, eye development, snout formation, and juvenile – which are further divided into 11 stages. Stages are characterised by morphological traits that are easily visible in live and preserved specimens using incident-light microscopy. Conclusions Our classification is derived from examinations of species representing the full range of brooding-structure complexity found in the Syngnathidae, including tail-brooding as well as trunk-brooding species, which represent independent evolutionary lineages. We chose conspicuous common traits as diagnostic features of stages to allow for rapid and consistent staging of embryos and larvae across the entire family. In view of the growing interest in the biology of the Syngnathidae, we believe that the classification proposed here will prove useful for a wide range of studies on the unique reproductive biology of these male-brooding fish.

  15. Typical object velocity influences motion extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Stewart, Andrew J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2009-02-01

    Previous work indicates that extrapolation of object motion during occlusion is affected by the velocity of the immediately preceding trial. Here we ask whether longer-term velocity representations can also influence motion extrapolation. Red, blue or green targets disappeared behind an occluder. Participants pressed a button when they thought the target had reached the other side. Red targets were slower (10-20 deg/s), blue targets moved at medium velocities (14-26 deg/s) and green targets were faster (20-30 deg/s). We compared responses on a subset of red and green trials which always travelled at 20 deg/s. Although trial velocities were identical, participants responded as if the green targets moved faster (M = 22.64 deg/s) then the red targets (M = 19.72 deg/s). This indicates that motion extrapolation is affected by longer-term information about the typical velocity of different categories of stimuli.

  16. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2012-01-01

    Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.

  17. The optimizied expansion method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2013-01-01

    Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wave-field extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media, because of its dispersion and artifact free, as well as highly accurate, solutions of the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain operator.In this abstract, we propose an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with its low rank representation. The rank defines the number of inverse FFT required per time extrapolation step, and thus, a lower rank admits faster extrapolations. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its low rank representation.Thus,we obtain more accurate wave-fields using lower rank representation, and thus cheaper extrapolations. The optimization operation to define the low rank representation depends only on the velocity model, and this is done only once, and valid for a full reverse time migration (many shots) or one iteration of full waveform inversion. Applications on the BP model yielded superior results than those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, the solutions were free of the shear wave artifacts, and does not require that eta>0.

  18. Array aperture extrapolation using sparse reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Rossum, W.L. van; Huizing, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present some preliminary results on antenna array extrapolation for Direction Of Arrival (DOA) estimation using Sparse Reconstruction (SR). The objective of this study is to establish wether it is possible to achieve with an array of a given physical length the performance (in terms

  19. Efficient and stable extrapolation of prestack wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2013-09-22

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields in time, nevertheless, is a big challenge because the radicand can be negative, thus reduce to a complex phase velocity, which will make the rank of the mixed domain matrix very high. Using the vertical offset between the sources and receivers, we introduce a method for deriving the DSR formulation, which gives us the opportunity to derive approximations for the mixed domain operator. The method extrapolates prestack wavefields by combining all data into one wave extrapolation procedure, allowing both upgoing and downgoing wavefields since the extrapolation is done in time, and doesn’t have the v(z) assumption in the offset axis of the media. Thus, the imaging condition is imposed by taking the zero-time and zero-offset slice from the multi-dimensional prestack wavefield. Unlike reverse time migration (RTM), no crosscorrelation is needed and we also have access to the subsurface offset information, which is important for migration velocity analysis. Numerical examples show the capability of this approach in dealing with complex velocity models and can provide a better quality image compared to RTM more efficiently.

  20. Statistically extrapolated nowcasting of summertime precipitation over the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Bica, Benedikt; Tüchler, Lukas; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a new multiple linear regression (MLR) approach to updating the hourly, extrapolated precipitation forecasts generated by the INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) system for the Eastern Alps. The generalized form of the model approximates the updated precipitation forecast as a linear response to combinations of predictors selected through a backward elimination algorithm from a pool of predictors. The predictors comprise the raw output of the extrapolated precipitation forecast, the latest radar observations, the convective analysis, and the precipitation analysis. For every MLR model, bias and distribution correction procedures are designed to further correct the systematic regression errors. Applications of the MLR models to a verification dataset containing two months of qualified samples, and to one-month gridded data, are performed and evaluated. Generally, MLR yields slight, but definite, improvements in the intensity accuracy of forecasts during the late evening to morning period, and significantly improves the forecasts for large thresholds. The structure-amplitude-location scores, used to evaluate the performance of the MLR approach, based on its simulation of morphological features, indicate that MLR typically reduces the overestimation of amplitudes and generates similar horizontal structures in precipitation patterns and slightly degraded location forecasts, when compared with the extrapolated nowcasting.

  1. Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Fomel, Sergey

    2012-04-30

    We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  2. Extrapolating spatial layout in scene representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S; Pollatsek, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Can the visual system extrapolate spatial layout of a scene to new viewpoints after a single view? In the present study, we examined this question by investigating the priming of spatial layout across depth rotations of the same scene (Sanocki & Epstein, 1997). Participants had to indicate which of two dots superimposed on objects in the target scene appeared closer to them in space. There was as much priming from a prime with a viewpoint that was 10° different from the test image as from a prime that was identical to the target; however, there was no reliable priming from larger differences in viewpoint. These results suggest that a scene's spatial layout can be extrapolated, but only to a limited extent.

  3. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.

    2014-07-18

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  4. Residual extrapolation operators for efficient wavefield construction

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-02-27

    Solving the wave equation using finite-difference approximations allows for fast extrapolation of the wavefield for modelling, imaging and inversion in complex media. It, however, suffers from dispersion and stability-related limitations that might hamper its efficient or proper application to high frequencies. Spectral-based time extrapolation methods tend to mitigate these problems, but at an additional cost to the extrapolation. I investigate the prospective of using a residual formulation of the spectral approach, along with utilizing Shanks transform-based expansions, that adheres to the residual requirements, to improve accuracy and reduce the cost. Utilizing the fact that spectral methods excel (time steps are allowed to be large) in homogeneous and smooth media, the residual implementation based on velocity perturbation optimizes the use of this feature. Most of the other implementations based on the spectral approach are focussed on reducing cost by reducing the number of inverse Fourier transforms required in every step of the spectral-based implementation. The approach here fixes that by improving the accuracy of each, potentially longer, time step.

  5. On extrapolation blowups in the scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yano's extrapolation theorem dated back to 1951 establishes boundedness properties of a subadditive operator acting continuously in for close to and/or taking into as and/or with norms blowing up at speed and/or , . Here we give answers in terms of Zygmund, Lorentz-Zygmund and small Lebesgue spaces to what happens if as . The study has been motivated by current investigations of convolution maximal functions in stochastic analysis, where the problem occurs for . We also touch the problem of comparison of results in various scales of spaces.

  6. Schroedinger's radial equation - Solution by extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorvitch, D.; Galant, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    A high-accuracy numerical method for the solution of a 1D Schroedinger equation that is suitable for a diatomic molecule, obtained by combining a finite-difference method with iterative extrapolation to the limit, is presently shown to have several advantages over more conventional methods. Initial guesses for the term values are obviated, and implementation of the algorithm is straightforward. The method is both less sensitive to round-off error, and faster than conventional methods for equivalent accuracy. These advantages are illustrated through the solution of Schroedinger's equation for a Morse potential function suited for HCl and a numerically derived Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential function for the X 1Sigma(+) state of CO.

  7. Universal properties of infrared oscillator basis extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    More, S N; Furnstahl, R J; Hagen, G; Papenbrock, T

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has shown that a finite harmonic oscillator basis in nuclear many-body calculations effectively imposes a hard-wall boundary condition in coordinate space, motivating infrared extrapolation formulas for the energy and other observables. Here we further refine these formulas by studying two-body models and the deuteron. We accurately determine the box size as a function of the model space parameters, and compute scattering phase shifts in the harmonic oscillator basis. We show that the energy shift can be well approximated in terms of the asymptotic normalization coefficient and the bound-state momentum, discuss higher-order corrections for weakly bound systems, and illustrate this universal property using unitarily equivalent calculations of the deuteron.

  8. Extrapolation methods for dynamic partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, E.

    1978-01-01

    Several extrapolation procedures are presented for increasing the order of accuracy in time for evolutionary partial differential equations. These formulas are based on finite difference schemes in both the spatial and temporal directions. On practical grounds the methods are restricted to schemes that are fourth order in time and either second, fourth or sixth order in space. For hyperbolic problems the second order in space methods are not useful while the fourth order methods offer no advantage over the Kreiss-Oliger method unless very fine meshes are used. Advantages are first achieved using sixth order methods in space coupled with fourth order accuracy in time. Computational results are presented confirming the analytic discussions.

  9. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E.; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1–4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost

  10. The extrapolated successive overrelaxation (ESOR method for consistently ordered matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Missirlis

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops the theory of the Extrapolated Successive Overrelaxation (ESOR method as introduced by Sisler in [1], [2], [3] for the numerical solution of large sparse linear systems of the form Au=b, when A is a consistently ordered 2-cyclic matrix with non-vanishing diagonal elements and the Jacobi iteration matrix B possesses only real eigenvalues. The region of convergence for the ESOR method is described and the optimum values of the involved parameters are also determined. It is shown that if the minimum of the moduli of the eigenvalues of B, μ¯ does not vanish, then ESOR attains faster rate of convergence than SOR when 1−μ¯2<(1−μ¯212, where μ¯ denotes the spectral radius of B.

  11. Bandlimited image extrapolation with faster convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahana, D.; Stark, H.

    1981-08-01

    Techniques for increasing the convergence rate of the extrapolation algorithm proposed by Gerchberg (1974) and Papoulis (1975) for image restoration applications are presented. The techniques involve the modification of the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm to include additional a priori data such as the low-pass projection of the image either by the inclusion of the data at the start of the recursion to reduce the starting-point error, or by use of the low-pass image in each iteration to correct twice in the frequency domain. The performance of the GP algorithm and the two modifications presented in the restorations of a signal consisting of widely separated spectral components of equal magnitude and a signal with spectral components grouped in passbands is compared, and it is found that while both modifications reduced the starting point error, the convergence rate of the second technique was not substantially greater than that of the first despite the additional iterative frequency-plane correction. A significant improvement in the starting-point errors and convergence rates of both modified algorithms is obtained, however, when they are combined with adaptive thresholding in the presence of low noise levels and a signal with relatively well spaced impulse-type spectral components.

  12. Analysis of extrapolation cascadic multigrid method(EXCMG)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on an asymptotic expansion of finite element,a new extrapolation formula and extrapolation cascadic multigrid method(EXCMG)are proposed,in which the new extrapolation and quadratic interpolation are used to provide a better initial value on refined grid.In the case of triple grids,the error of the new initial value is analyzed in detail.A larger scale computation is completed in PC.

  13. 3D Hail Size Distribution Interpolation/Extrapolation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2013-01-01

    Radar data can usually detect hail; however, it is difficult for present day radar to accurately discriminate between hail and rain. Local ground-based hail sensors are much better at detecting hail against a rain background, and when incorporated with radar data, provide a much better local picture of a severe rain or hail event. The previous disdrometer interpolation/ extrapolation algorithm described a method to interpolate horizontally between multiple ground sensors (a minimum of three) and extrapolate vertically. This work is a modification to that approach that generates a purely extrapolated 3D spatial distribution when using a single sensor.

  14. The chemistry side of AOP: implications for toxicity extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a structured representation of the biological events that lead to adverse impacts following a molecular initiating event caused by chemical interaction with a macromolecule. AOPs have been proposed to facilitate toxicity extrapolation across s...

  15. On the extrapolation of band-limited signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamzas, C. C.

    1980-12-01

    The determination of the Fourier Transform of a band-limited signal in terms of a finite segment is examined. The Papoulis' Extrapolation Algorithm is extended in a broader class of signals and its convergence is considerably improved by a multiplication with an adaptive constant, chosen to minimize the mean square error in the extrapolation interval. The discrete version of the iteration is examined and then modified in order to converge to the best linear mean square estimator of the unknown signal when noise is added to the given data. The problem of determining the frequencies, amplitudes and phases of a sinusoidal signal from incomplete noisy data, is considered and the extrapolation algorithm is properly modified to estimate these quantities. The obtained iteration is nonlinear and adaptively reduces the spectral components due to noise. The adaptive extrapolation technique is applied to the problem of image restoration for objects consisting of point or line sources, and to an ultrasonic problem.

  16. Multidimensional signal restoration and band-limited extrapolation, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J. L. C.; Huang, T. S.

    1982-12-01

    This technical report consists of three parts. The central problem is the extrapolation of band-limited signals. In part 1, several existing algorithms for band-limited extrapolation are compared: Two-step procedures appeared to give better reconstructions and require less computing time than iterative algorithms. In part 2, five basic procedures for iterative restoration are unified using a Hilbert Space approach. In particular, all known interative algorithms for extrapolation of band-limited signals are shown to be special cases of Bialy's iteration. The authors also obtained faster algorithms than that of Papoulis-Gerchberg. In part 3, the extrapolation problem is presented in a more general setting: Continuation of certain analytic functions. Presented are two steps procedures for finding the continuation of these functions. Some new procedures for band-limited continuation are also discussed as well as the case in which the signal is contaminated with noise.

  17. Extrapolating demography with climate, proximity and phylogeny: approach with caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Shaun R; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Csergő, Anna M; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2016-12-01

    Plant population responses are key to understanding the effects of threats such as climate change and invasions. However, we lack demographic data for most species, and the data we have are often geographically aggregated. We determined to what extent existing data can be extrapolated to predict population performance across larger sets of species and spatial areas. We used 550 matrix models, across 210 species, sourced from the COMPADRE Plant Matrix Database, to model how climate, geographic proximity and phylogeny predicted population performance. Models including only geographic proximity and phylogeny explained 5-40% of the variation in four key metrics of population performance. However, there was poor extrapolation between species and extrapolation was limited to geographic scales smaller than those at which landscape scale threats typically occur. Thus, demographic information should only be extrapolated with caution. Capturing demography at scales relevant to landscape level threats will require more geographically extensive sampling. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies : The scientific basis for extrapolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Huub; Lietzan, Erika; Faccin, Freddy; Venema, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Biosimilars are biologic products that receive authorization based on an abbreviated regulatory application containing comparative quality and nonclinical and clinical data that demonstrate similarity to a licensed biologic product. Extrapolation of safety and efficacy has emerged as a

  19. Wildlife toxicity extrapolations: Allometry versus physiologically-based toxicokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Berg, M. van den [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology

    1995-12-31

    Ecotoxicological assessments must rely on the extrapolation of toxicity data from a few indicator species to many species of concern. Data are available from laboratory studies (e.g., quail, mallards, rainbow trout, fathead minnow) and some planned or serendipitous field studies of a broader, but by no means comprehensive, suite of species. Yet all ecological risk assessments begin with an estimate of risk based on information gleaned from the literature. The authors are then confronted with the necessity of extrapolating toxicity information from a limited number of indicator species to all organisms of interest. This is a particularly acute problem when trying to estimate hazards to wildlife in terrestrial systems as there is an extreme paucity of data for most chemicals in all but a handful of species. The question arises of how interspecific extrapolations should be made. Should extrapolations be limited to animals within the same class, order, family or genus? Alteratively, should extrapolations be made along trophic levels or physiologic similarities rather than by taxonomic classification? In other words, is an avian carnivore more like a mammalian carnivore or an avian granivore in its response to a toxic substance? Can general rules be set or does the type of extrapolation depend upon the class of chemical and its mode of uptake and toxicologic effect?

  20. How to Appropriately Extrapolate Costs and Utilities in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojke, Laura; Manca, Andrea; Asaria, Miqdad; Mahon, Ronan; Ren, Shijie; Palmer, Stephen

    2017-05-03

    Costs and utilities are key inputs into any cost-effectiveness analysis. Their estimates are typically derived from individual patient-level data collected as part of clinical studies the follow-up duration of which is often too short to allow a robust quantification of the likely costs and benefits a technology will yield over the patient's entire lifetime. In the absence of long-term data, some form of temporal extrapolation-to project short-term evidence over a longer time horizon-is required. Temporal extrapolation inevitably involves assumptions regarding the behaviour of the quantities of interest beyond the time horizon supported by the clinical evidence. Unfortunately, the implications for decisions made on the basis of evidence derived following this practice and the degree of uncertainty surrounding the validity of any assumptions made are often not fully appreciated. The issue is compounded by the absence of methodological guidance concerning the extrapolation of non-time-to-event outcomes such as costs and utilities. This paper considers current approaches to predict long-term costs and utilities, highlights some of the challenges with the existing methods, and provides recommendations for future applications. It finds that, typically, economic evaluation models employ a simplistic approach to temporal extrapolation of costs and utilities. For instance, their parameters (e.g. mean) are typically assumed to be homogeneous with respect to both time and patients' characteristics. Furthermore, costs and utilities have often been modelled to follow the dynamics of the associated time-to-event outcomes. However, cost and utility estimates may be more nuanced, and it is important to ensure extrapolation is carried out appropriately for these parameters.

  1. Implicit extrapolation methods for multilevel finite element computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, M.; Ruede, U. [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz-Zwickau (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The finite element package FEMGP has been developed to solve elliptic and parabolic problems arising in the computation of magnetic and thermomechanical fields. FEMGP implements various methods for the construction of hierarchical finite element meshes, a variety of efficient multilevel solvers, including multigrid and preconditioned conjugate gradient iterations, as well as pre- and post-processing software. Within FEMGP, multigrid {tau}-extrapolation can be employed to improve the finite element solution iteratively to higher order. This algorithm is based on an implicit extrapolation, so that the algorithm differs from a regular multigrid algorithm only by a slightly modified computation of the residuals on the finest mesh. Another advantage of this technique is, that in contrast to explicit extrapolation methods, it does not rely on the existence of global error expansions, and therefore neither requires uniform meshes nor global regularity assumptions. In the paper the authors will analyse the {tau}-extrapolation algorithm and present experimental results in the context of the FEMGP package. Furthermore, the {tau}-extrapolation results will be compared to higher order finite element solutions.

  2. Do common systems control eye movements and motion extrapolation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    People are able to judge the current position of occluded moving objects. This operation is known as motion extrapolation. It has previously been suggested that motion extrapolation is independent of the oculomotor system. Here we revisited this question by measuring eye position while participants completed two types of motion extrapolation task. In one task, a moving visual target travelled rightwards, disappeared, then reappeared further along its trajectory. Participants discriminated correct reappearance times from incorrect (too early or too late) with a two-alternative forced-choice button press. In the second task, the target travelled rightwards behind a visible, rectangular occluder, and participants pressed a button at the time when they judged it should reappear. In both tasks, performance was significantly different under fixation as compared to free eye movement conditions. When eye movements were permitted, eye movements during occlusion were related to participants' judgements. Finally, even when participants were required to fixate, small changes in eye position around fixation (<2°) were influenced by occluded target motion. These results all indicate that overlapping systems control eye movements and judgements on motion extrapolation tasks. This has implications for understanding the mechanism underlying motion extrapolation.

  3. Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.

  4. Chiral extrapolation beyond the power-counting regime

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J M M; Leinweber, D B; Liu, K F; Mathur, N; Young, R D; Zhang, J B

    2011-01-01

    Chiral effective field theory can provide valuable insight into the chiral physics of hadrons when used in conjunction with non-perturbative schemes such as lattice QCD. In this discourse, the attention is focused on extrapolating the mass of the rho meson to the physical pion mass in quenched QCD (QQCD). With the absence of a known experimental value, this serves to demonstrate the ability of the extrapolation scheme to make predictions without prior bias. By using extended effective field theory developed previously, an extrapolation is performed using quenched lattice QCD data that extends outside the chiral power-counting regime (PCR). The method involves an analysis of the renormalization flow curves of the low energy coefficients in a finite-range regularized effective field theory. The analysis identifies an optimal regulator, which is embedded in the lattice QCD data themselves. This optimal regulator is the regulator value at which the renormalization of the low energy coefficients is approximately i...

  5. Submarine Magnetic Field Extrapolation Based on Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun-ji; LIU Da-ming; YAO Qiong-hui; ZHOU Guo-hua; YAN Hui

    2007-01-01

    In order to master the magnetic field distribution of submarines in the air completely and exactly and study the magnetic stealthy performance of submarine, a mathematic model of submarine magnetic field extrapolation is built based on the boundary element method (BEM). An experiment is designed to measure three components of magnetic field on the envelope surface surrounding a model submarine. The data in differentheights above the model submarine are obtained by use of tri-axial magnetometers. The results show that this extrapolation model has good stabilities and high accuracies compared the measured data with the extrapolated data. Moreover, the model can reflect the submarine magnetic field distribution in the air exactly, and is valuable in practical engineering.

  6. Rubio de Francia's extrapolation theory: estimates for the distribution function

    CERN Document Server

    Carro, María J; Torres, Rodolfo H

    2010-01-01

    Let $T$ be an arbitrary operator bounded from $L^{p_0}(w)$ into $L^{p_0, \\infty}(w)$ for every weight $w$ in the Muckenhoupt class $A_{p_0}$. It is proved in this article that the distribution function of $Tf$ with respect to any weight $u$ can be essentially majorized by the distribution function of $Mf$ with respect to $u$ (plus an integral term easy to control). As a consequence, well-known extrapolation results, including results in a multilinear setting, can be obtained with very simple proofs. New applications in extrapolation for two-weight problems and estimates on rearrangement invariant spaces are established too.

  7. Splitting extrapolation based on domain decomposition for finite element approximations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕涛; 冯勇

    1997-01-01

    Splitting extrapolation based on domain decomposition for finite element approximations is a new technique for solving large scale scientific and engineering problems in parallel. By means of domain decomposition, a large scale multidimensional problem is turned to many discrete problems involving several grid parameters The multi-variate asymptotic expansions of finite element errors on independent grid parameters are proved for linear and nonlin ear second order elliptic equations as well as eigenvalue problems. Therefore after solving smaller problems with similar sizes in parallel, a global fine grid approximation with higher accuracy is computed by the splitting extrapolation method.

  8. Functional differential equations with unbounded delay in extrapolation spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Adimy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence, regularity and stability of solutions for nonlinear partial neutral functional differential equations with unbounded delay and a Hille-Yosida operator on a Banach space X. We consider two nonlinear perturbations: the first one is a function taking its values in X and the second one is a function belonging to a space larger than X, an extrapolated space. We use the extrapolation techniques to prove the existence and regularity of solutions and we establish a linearization principle for the stability of the equilibria of our equation.

  9. Weights, Extrapolation and the Theory of Rubio de Francia

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz-Uribe, David; Perez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a systematic development of the Rubio de Francia theory of extrapolation, its many generalizations and its applications to one and two-weight norm inequalities. The book is based upon a new and elementary proof of the classical extrapolation theorem that fully develops the power of the Rubio de Francia iteration algorithm. This technique allows us to give a unified presentation of the theory and to give important generalizations to Banach function spaces and to two-weight inequalities. We provide many applications to the classical operators of harmonic analysis to illustrate

  10. Panel discussion on Chiral extrapolation of physical observables

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C; Leinweber, D B; Lepage, P; Pallante, E; Sharpe, S R; Wittig, H; Bernard, Claude; Hashimoto, Shoji; Leinweber, Derek B.; Lepage, Peter; Pallante, Elisabetta; Sharpe, Stephen R.; Wittig, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    This is an approximate reconstruction of the panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables. The session consisted of brief presentations from panelists, followed by responses from the panel, and concluded with questions and comments from the floor with answers from panelists. In the following, the panelists have summarized their statements, and the ensuing discussion has been approximately reconstructed from notes.

  11. Biosimilars and the extrapolation of indications for inflammatory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesser, John RP; Furst, Daniel E; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-01-01

    Extrapolation is the approval of a biosimilar for use in an indication held by the originator biologic not directly studied in a comparative clinical trial with the biosimilar. Extrapolation is a scientific rationale that bridges all the data collected (ie, totality of the evidence) from one indication for the biosimilar product to all the indications originally approved for the originator. Regulatory approval and marketing authorization of biosimilars in inflammatory indications are made on a case-by-case and agency-by-agency basis after evaluating the totality of evidence from the entire development program. This totality of the evidence comprises extensive comparative analytical, functional, nonclinical, and clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity studies used by regulators when evaluating whether a product can be considered a biosimilar. Extrapolation reduces or eliminates the need for duplicative clinical studies of the biosimilar but must be justified scientifically with appropriate data. Understanding the concept, application, and regulatory decisions based on the extrapolation of data is important since biosimilars have the potential to significantly impact patient care in inflammatory diseases. PMID:28255229

  12. Panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard, Claude; Hashimoto, Shoji; Leinweber, Derek B.; Lepage, Peter; Pallante, Elisabetta; Sharpe, Stephen R.; Wittig, Hartmut

    2003-01-01

    This is an approximate reconstruction of the panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables. The session consisted of brief presentations from panelists, followed by responses from the panel, and concluded with questions and comments from the floor with answers from panelists. In t

  13. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the flap bending moment of a wind turbine blade. For a Gaussian process an approx...

  14. How accurate are infrared luminosities from monochromatic photometric extrapolation?

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zesen; Kong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Template-based extrapolations from only one photometric band can be a cost-effective method to estimate the total infrared (IR) luminosities ($L_{\\mathrm{IR}}$) of galaxies. By utilizing multi-wavelength data that covers across 0.35--500\\,$\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ in GOODS-North and GOODS-South fields, we investigate the accuracy of this monochromatic extrapolated $L_{\\mathrm{IR}}$ based on three IR spectral energy distribution (SED) templates (\\citealt[CE01]{Chary2001}; \\citealt[DH02]{Dale2002}; \\citealt[W08]{Wuyts2008a}) out to $z\\sim 3.5$. We find that the CE01 template provides the best estimate of $L_{\\mathrm{IR}}$ in {\\it Herschel}/PACS bands, while the DH02 template performs best in {\\it Herschel}/SPIRE bands. To estimate $L_{\\mathrm{IR}}$, we suggest that extrapolations from the available longest wavelength PACS band based on the CE01 template can be a good estimator. Moreover, if PACS measurement is unavailable, extrapolations from SPIRE observations but based on the \\cite{Dale2002} template can also provide ...

  15. Panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard, Claude; Hashimoto, Shoji; Leinweber, Derek B.; Lepage, Peter; Pallante, Elisabetta; Sharpe, Stephen R.; Wittig, Hartmut

    2003-01-01

    This is an approximate reconstruction of the panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables. The session consisted of brief presentations from panelists, followed by responses from the panel, and concluded with questions and comments from the floor with answers from panelists. In t

  16. Genetic effects of radiation. [Extrapolation of mouse data to man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, P.B.

    1976-01-01

    Data are reviewed from studies on the genetic effects of x radiation in mice and the extrapolation of the findings for estimating genetic hazards in man is discussed. Data are included on the frequency of mutation induction following acute or chronic irradiation of male or female mice at various doses and dose rates.

  17. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei...

  18. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-04-30

    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  19. Parallel difference schemes with interface extrapolation terms for quasi-linear parabolic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-wei YUAN; Xu-deng HANG; Zhi-qiang SHENG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper some new parallel difference schemes with interface extrapolation terms for a quasi-linear parabolic system of equations are constructed. Two types of time extrapolations are proposed to give the interface values on the interface of sub-domains or the values adjacent to the interface points, so that the unconditional stable parallel schemes with the second accuracy are formed.Without assuming heuristically that the original boundary value problem has the unique smooth vector solution, the existence and uniqueness of the discrete vector solutions of the parallel difference schemes constructed are proved. Moreover the unconditional stability of the parallel difference schemes is justified in the sense of the continuous dependence of the discrete vector solution of the schemes on the discrete known data of the original problems in the discrete W2(2,1) (Q△) norms. Finally the convergence of the discrete vector solutions of the parallel difference schemes with interface extrapolation terms to the unique generalized solution of the original quasi-linear parabolic problem is proved. Numerical results are presented to show the good performance of the parallel schemes, including the unconditional stability, the second accuracy and the high parallelism.

  20. Phase unwrapping using an extrapolation-projection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marendic, Boris; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry

    2006-08-01

    We explore an approach to the unwrapping of two-dimensional phase functions using a robust extrapolation-projection algorithm. Phase unwrapping is essential for imaging systems that construct the image from phase information. Unlike some existing methods where unwrapping is performed locally on a pixel-by-pixel basis, this work approaches the unwrapping problem from a global point of view. The unwrapping is done iteratively by a modification of the Gerchberg-Papoulis extrapolation algorithm, and the solution is refined by projecting onto the available global data at each iteration. Robustness of the algorithm is demonstrated through its performance in a noisy environment, and in comparison with a least-squares algorithm well-known in the literature.

  1. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, Dick

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind-turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model, which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the out-of-plane bending moment of a wind-turbine blade. For a Gaussian process......, an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper, three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima, and the peak over....... By considering Gaussian processes for 12 mean wind speeds, the "fitting before aggregation" and "aggregation before fitting" approaches are studied. The results show that the fitting before aggregation approach gives the best results. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4003416]...

  2. Outlier robustness for wind turbine extrapolated extreme loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Verelst, David Robert

    2012-01-01

    Methods for extrapolating extreme loads to a 50 year probability of exceedance, which display robustness to the presence of outliers in simulated loads data set, are described. Case studies of isolated high extreme out-of-plane loads are discussed to emphasize their underlying physical reasons....... Stochastic identification of numerical artifacts in simulated loads is demonstrated using the method of principal component analysis. The extrapolation methodology is made robust to outliers through a weighted loads approach, whereby the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix obtained using the loads with its...... simulation is demonstrated and compared with published results. Further effects of varying wind inflow angles and shear exponent is brought out. Parametric fitting techniques that consider all extreme loads including ‘outliers’ are proposed, and the physical reasons that result in isolated high extreme loads...

  3. Temperature extrapolation of multicomponent grand canonical free energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahynski, Nathan A.; Errington, Jeffrey R.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2017-08-01

    We derive a method for extrapolating the grand canonical free energy landscape of a multicomponent fluid system from one temperature to another. Previously, we introduced this statistical mechanical framework for the case where kinetic energy contributions to the classical partition function were neglected for simplicity [N. A. Mahynski et al., J. Chem. Phys. 146, 074101 (2017)]. Here, we generalize the derivation to admit these contributions in order to explicitly illustrate the differences that result. Specifically, we show how factoring out kinetic energy effects a priori, in order to consider only the configurational partition function, leads to simpler mathematical expressions that tend to produce more accurate extrapolations than when these effects are included. We demonstrate this by comparing and contrasting these two approaches for the simple cases of an ideal gas and a non-ideal, square-well fluid.

  4. A regularization method for extrapolation of solar potential magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, G. A.; Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical basis of a Tikhonov regularization method for extrapolating the chromospheric-coronal magnetic field using photospheric vector magnetograms is discussed. The basic techniques show that the Cauchy initial value problem can be formulated for potential magnetic fields. The potential field analysis considers a set of linear, elliptic partial differential equations. It is found that, by introducing an appropriate smoothing of the initial data of the Cauchy potential problem, an approximate Fourier integral solution is found, and an upper bound to the error in the solution is derived. This specific regularization technique, which is a function of magnetograph measurement sensitivities, provides a method to extrapolate the potential magnetic field above an active region into the chromosphere and low corona.

  5. Interpolation and Extrapolation of Precipitation Quantities in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Stojsavljević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to indicate the problems with filling the missing data in precipitation database using interpolation and extrapolation methods. Investigated periods were from 1981 to 2010 for Northern (Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Proper Serbia and from 1971 to 2000 for Southern Serbia (Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohia. Database included time series from 78 meteorological stations that had less than 20% of missing data. Interpolation was performed if station had missing data for five consecutive months or less. If station had missing data for six consecutive months or more, extrapolation was performed. For every station with mising data correlation with at least three surrounding stations was performed. The lowest acceptable value of correlation coefficient for precipitation was set at 0,300

  6. An efficient extrapolation to the (T)/CBS limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S.; Barnes, Ericka C.

    2014-05-01

    We extrapolate to the perturbative triples (T)/complete basis set (CBS) limit using double ζ basis sets without polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-2ζ or "Wes1T-2Z") and triple ζ basis sets with a single level of polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-3ζ or "Wes1T-3Z"). These basis sets were optimized for 102 species representing the first two rows of the Periodic Table. The species include the entire set of neutral atoms, positive and negative atomic ions, as well as several homonuclear diatomic molecules, hydrides, rare gas dimers, polar molecules, such as oxides and fluorides, and a few transition states. The extrapolated Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples energies agree with (T)/CBS benchmarks to within ±0.65 mEh, while the rms deviations of comparable model chemistries W1, CBS-APNO, and CBS-QB3 for the same test set are ±0.23 mEh, ±2.37 mEh, and ±5.80 mEh, respectively. The Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples calculation time for the largest hydrocarbon in the G2/97 test set, C6H5Me+, is reduced by a factor of 25 when compared to W1. The cost-effectiveness of the Wes1T-(2,3)Z extrapolation validates the usefulness of the Wes1T-2Z and Wes1T-3Z basis sets which are now available for a more efficient extrapolation of the (T) component of any composite model chemistry.

  7. Revisiting Chiral Extrapolation by Studying a Lattice Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-Bin; SUN Wei-Min; L(U) Xiao-Fu; ZONG Hong-Shi

    2009-01-01

    The quark propagator in the Landau gauge is studied on the lattice,including the quenched and the unquenched results.No obvious unquenched effects are found by comparing the quenched quark propagator with the dynamical one.For the quenched and unquenched configurations,the results with different quark masses have been computed.For the quark mass function,a nonlinear chiral extrapolating behavior is found in the in/tared region for both the quenched and dynamical results.

  8. An efficient extrapolation to the (T)/CBS limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S; Barnes, Ericka C

    2014-05-14

    We extrapolate to the perturbative triples (T)/complete basis set (CBS) limit using double ζ basis sets without polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-2ζ or "Wes1T-2Z") and triple ζ basis sets with a single level of polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-3ζ or "Wes1T-3Z"). These basis sets were optimized for 102 species representing the first two rows of the Periodic Table. The species include the entire set of neutral atoms, positive and negative atomic ions, as well as several homonuclear diatomic molecules, hydrides, rare gas dimers, polar molecules, such as oxides and fluorides, and a few transition states. The extrapolated Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples energies agree with (T)/CBS benchmarks to within ±0.65 mEh, while the rms deviations of comparable model chemistries W1, CBS-APNO, and CBS-QB3 for the same test set are ±0.23 mEh, ±2.37 mEh, and ±5.80 mEh, respectively. The Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples calculation time for the largest hydrocarbon in the G2/97 test set, C6H5Me(+), is reduced by a factor of 25 when compared to W1. The cost-effectiveness of the Wes1T-(2,3)Z extrapolation validates the usefulness of the Wes1T-2Z and Wes1T-3Z basis sets which are now available for a more efficient extrapolation of the (T) component of any composite model chemistry.

  9. An efficient extrapolation to the (T)/CBS limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S. [Hall-Atwater Laboratories of Chemistry, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459-0180 (United States); Barnes, Ericka C., E-mail: barnese8@southernct.edu [Department of Chemistry, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06515-1355 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    We extrapolate to the perturbative triples (T)/complete basis set (CBS) limit using double ζ basis sets without polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-2ζ or “Wes1T-2Z”) and triple ζ basis sets with a single level of polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-3ζ or “Wes1T-3Z”). These basis sets were optimized for 102 species representing the first two rows of the Periodic Table. The species include the entire set of neutral atoms, positive and negative atomic ions, as well as several homonuclear diatomic molecules, hydrides, rare gas dimers, polar molecules, such as oxides and fluorides, and a few transition states. The extrapolated Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples energies agree with (T)/CBS benchmarks to within ±0.65 mE{sub h}, while the rms deviations of comparable model chemistries W1, CBS-APNO, and CBS-QB3 for the same test set are ±0.23 mE{sub h}, ±2.37 mE{sub h}, and ±5.80 mE{sub h}, respectively. The Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples calculation time for the largest hydrocarbon in the G2/97 test set, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Me{sup +}, is reduced by a factor of 25 when compared to W1. The cost-effectiveness of the Wes1T-(2,3)Z extrapolation validates the usefulness of the Wes1T-2Z and Wes1T-3Z basis sets which are now available for a more efficient extrapolation of the (T) component of any composite model chemistry.

  10. Effective Orthorhombic Anisotropic Models for Wave field Extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez Jacome, Wilson

    2013-05-01

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models, to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, I generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the first-arrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, I develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic one, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation that includes the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P-waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, which is done by explicitly solving the isotropic eikonal equation for the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. I extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the

  11. Line-of-sight extrapolation noise in dust polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poh, Jason; Dodelson, Scott

    2017-05-19

    The B-modes of polarization at frequencies ranging from 50-1000 GHz are produced by Galactic dust, lensing of primordial E-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by intervening large scale structure, and possibly by primordial B-modes in the CMB imprinted by gravitational waves produced during inflation. The conventional method used to separate the dust component of the signal is to assume that the signal at high frequencies (e.g., 350 GHz) is due solely to dust and then extrapolate the signal down to lower frequency (e.g., 150 GHz) using the measured scaling of the polarized dust signal amplitude with frequency. For typical Galactic thermal dust temperatures of about 20K, these frequencies are not fully in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit. Therefore, deviations in the dust cloud temperatures from cloud to cloud will lead to different scaling factors for clouds of different temperatures. Hence, when multiple clouds of different temperatures and polarization angles contribute to the integrated line-of-sight polarization signal, the relative contribution of individual clouds to the integrated signal can change between frequencies. This can cause the integrated signal to be decorrelated in both amplitude and direction when extrapolating in frequency. Here we carry out a Monte Carlo analysis on the impact of this line-of-sight extrapolation noise, enabling us to quantify its effect. Using results from the Planck experiment, we find that this effect is small, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the current uncertainties. However, line-of-sight extrapolation noise may be a significant source of uncertainty in future low-noise primordial B-mode experiments. Scaling from Planck results, we find that accounting for this uncertainty becomes potentially important when experiments are sensitive to primordial B-mode signals with amplitude r < 0.0015 .

  12. Biosimilars in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Facts and Fears of Extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Shomron; Vande Casteele, Niels; Schreiber, Stefan; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2016-12-01

    Biologic drugs such as infliximab and other anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibodies have transformed the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]). However, the complex manufacturing processes involved in producing these drugs mean their use in clinical practice is expensive. Recent or impending expiration of patents for several biologics has led to development of biosimilar versions of these drugs, with the aim of providing substantial cost savings and increased accessibility to treatment. Biosimilars undergo an expedited regulatory process. This involves proving structural, functional, and biological biosimilarity to the reference product (RP). It is also expected that clinical equivalency/comparability will be demonstrated in a clinical trial in one (or more) sensitive population. Once these requirements are fulfilled, extrapolation of biosimilar approval to other indications for which the RP is approved is permitted without the need for further clinical trials, as long as this is scientifically justifiable. However, such justification requires that the mechanism(s) of action of the RP in question should be similar across indications and also comparable between the RP and the biosimilar in the clinically tested population(s). Likewise, the pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and safety of the RP should be similar across indications and comparable between the RP and biosimilar in the clinically tested population(s). To date, most anti-tumor necrosis factor biosimilars have been tested in trials recruiting patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Concerns have been raised regarding extrapolation of clinical data obtained in rheumatologic populations to IBD indications. In this review, we discuss the issues surrounding indication extrapolation, with a focus on extrapolation to IBD.

  13. Efficient extrapolation methods for electro- and magnetoquasistatic field simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Clemens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In magneto- and electroquasi-static time domain simulations with implicit time stepping schemes the iterative solvers applied to the large sparse (non-linear systems of equations are observed to converge faster if more accurate start solutions are available. Different extrapolation techniques for such new time step solutions are compared in combination with the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Simple extrapolation schemes based on Taylor series expansion are used as well as schemes derived especially for multi-stage implicit Runge-Kutta time stepping methods. With several initial guesses available, a new subspace projection extrapolation technique is proven to produce an optimal initial value vector. Numerical tests show the resulting improvements in terms of computational efficiency for several test problems. In quasistatischen elektromagnetischen Zeitbereichsimulationen mit impliziten Zeitschrittverfahren zeigt sich, dass die iterativen Lösungsverfahren für die großen dünnbesetzten (nicht-linearen Gleichungssysteme schneller konvergieren, wenn genauere Startlösungen vorgegeben werden. Verschiedene Extrapolationstechniken werden für jeweils neue Zeitschrittlösungen in Verbindung mit dem präkonditionierten Konjugierte Gradientenverfahren vorgestellt. Einfache Extrapolationsverfahren basierend auf Taylorreihenentwicklungen werden ebenso benutzt wie speziell für mehrstufige implizite Runge-Kutta-Verfahren entwickelte Verfahren. Sind verschiedene Startlösungen verfügbar, so erlaubt ein neues Unterraum-Projektion- Extrapolationsverfahren die Konstruktion eines optimalen neuen Startvektors. Numerische Tests zeigen die aus diesen Verfahren resultierenden Verbesserungen der numerischen Effizienz.

  14. Effective ellipsoidal models for wavefield extrapolation in tilted orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair Bin

    2016-04-22

    Wavefield computations using the ellipsoidally anisotropic extrapolation operator offer significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for media of orthorhombic symmetry. Therefore, we propose the use of ‘effective ellipsoidally anisotropic’ models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. We compute effective velocities for the ellipsoidally anisotropic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield, obtained by solving the TOR eikonal equation. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper ellipsoidally anisotropic wave extrapolation operators. Although the effective models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The proposed methodology offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate anisotropic strength. Furthermore, the computed wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference based TOR wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate applicability and usefulness of our formulation through numerical tests on synthetic TOR models. © 2016 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i

  15. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2015-03-23

    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  16. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-06-10

    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented in the high-frequency asymptotic approximation by the eikonal equation, to develop effective isotropic models, which are used to efficiently and approximately extrapolate anisotropic wavefields using the isotropic, relatively cheaper, operators. These effective velocity models are source dependent and tend to embed the anisotropy in the inhomogeneity. Though this isotropically generated wavefield theoretically shares the same kinematic behavior as that of the first arrival anisotropic wavefield, it also has the ability to include all the arrivals resulting from a complex wavefield propagation. In fact, the effective models reduce to the original isotropic model in the limit of isotropy, and thus, the difference between the effective model and, for example, the vertical velocity depends on the strength of anisotropy. For reverse time migration (RTM), effective models are developed for the source and receiver fields by computing the traveltime for a plane wave source stretching along our source and receiver lines in a delayed shot migration implementation. Applications to the BP TTI model demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

  18. Extrapolation of vertical target motion through a brief visual occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Myrka; Iosa, Marco; Maffei, Vincenzo; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    It is known that arbitrary target accelerations along the horizontal generally are extrapolated much less accurately than target speed through a visual occlusion. The extent to which vertical accelerations can be extrapolated through an occlusion is much less understood. Here, we presented a virtual target rapidly descending on a blank screen with different motion laws. The target accelerated under gravity (1g), decelerated under reversed gravity (-1g), or moved at constant speed (0g). Probability of each type of acceleration differed across experiments: one acceleration at a time, or two to three different accelerations randomly intermingled could be presented. After a given viewing period, the target disappeared for a brief, variable period until arrival (occluded trials) or it remained visible throughout (visible trials). Subjects were asked to press a button when the target arrived at destination. We found that, in visible trials, the average performance with 1g targets could be better or worse than that with 0g targets depending on the acceleration probability, and both were always superior to the performance with -1g targets. By contrast, the average performance with 1g targets was always superior to that with 0g and -1g targets in occluded trials. Moreover, the response times of 1g trials tended to approach the ideal value with practice in occluded protocols. To gain insight into the mechanisms of extrapolation, we modeled the response timing based on different types of threshold models. We found that occlusion was accompanied by an adaptation of model parameters (threshold time and central processing time) in a direction that suggests a strategy oriented to the interception of 1g targets at the expense of the interception of the other types of tested targets. We argue that the prediction of occluded vertical motion may incorporate an expectation of gravity effects.

  19. Singularity-preserving image interpolation using wavelet transform extrema extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Guangtao; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Xiaoshi

    2003-09-01

    One common task of image interpolation is to enhance the resolution of the image, which means to magnify the image without loss in its clarity. Traditional methods often assume that the original images are smooth enough so as to possess continues derivatives, which tend to blur the edges of the interpolated image. A novel fast image interpolation algorithm based on wavelet transform and multi-resolution analysis is proposed in this paper. It uses interpolation and extrapolation polynomial to estimate the higher resolution informatoin of the image and generate a new sub-band of wavelet transform coefficients to get processed image with shaper edges and preserved singularities.

  20. Novel Extrapolation Method in the Monte Carlo Shell Model

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Noritaka; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Otsuka, Takaharu; Abe, Takashi; Honma, Michio

    2010-01-01

    We propose an extrapolation method utilizing energy variance in the Monte Carlo shell model in order to estimate the energy eigenvalue and observables accurately. We derive a formula for the energy variance with deformed Slater determinants, which enables us to calculate the energy variance efficiently. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for the full $pf$-shell calculation of $^{56}$Ni, and the applicability of the method to a system beyond current limit of exact diagonalization is shown for the $pf$+$g_{9/2}$-shell calculation of $^{64}$Ge.

  1. Mass extrapolation of quarks and leptons to higher generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N. (Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-05-01

    An empirical mass formula is tested for the basic fermion sequences of charged quarks and leptons. This relation is a generalization of Barut's mass formula for the lepton sequence (e, ..mu.., tau ....). It is found that successful mass extrapolation to the third and possibly to other higher generations (N > 2) can be obtained with the first and second generation masses as inputs, which predicts the top quark mass msub(t) to be around 20 GeV. This also leads to the mass ratios between members of two different sequences (i) and (i') corresponding to the same higher generations (N > 2).

  2. QCD thermodynamics with continuum extrapolated dynamical overlap fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Borsanyi, Sz; Lippert, T; Nogradi, D; Pittler, F; Szabo, K K; Toth, B C

    2015-01-01

    We study the finite temperature transition in QCD with two flavors of dynamical fermions at a pseudoscalar pion mass of about 350 MeV. We use lattices with temporal extent of $N_t$=8, 10 and 12. For the first time in the literature a continuum limit is carried out for several observables with dynamical overlap fermions. These findings are compared with results obtained within the staggered fermion formalism at the same pion masses and extrapolated to the continuum limit. The presented results correspond to fixed topology and its effect is studied in the staggered case. Nice agreement is found between the overlap and staggered results.

  3. Evidence for risk extrapolation in decision making by tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Adam L.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2017-01-01

    Through time, the activity patterns, morphology, and development of both predators and prey change, which in turn alter the relative vulnerability of prey to their coexisting predators. Recognizing these changes can thus allow prey to make optimal decisions by projecting risk trends into the future. We used tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus) to test the hypothesis that tadpoles can extrapolate information about predation risk from past information. We exposed tadpoles to an odour that represented either a temporally consistent risk or an increasing risk. When tested for their response to the odour, the initial antipredator behaviour of tadpoles did not differ, appearing to approach the limit of their maximum response, but exposure to increasing risk induced longer retention of these responses. When repeating the experiment using lower risk levels, heightened responses occurred for tadpoles exposed to increasing risk, and the strongest responses were exhibited by those that received an abrupt increase compared to a steady increase. Our results indicate that tadpoles can assess risk trends through time and adjust their antipredator responses in a way consistent with an extrapolated trend. This is a sophisticated method for prey to avoid threats that are becoming more (or less) dangerous over part of their lifespan. PMID:28230097

  4. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-05-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  5. Calculating excitation energies by extrapolation along adiabatic connections

    CERN Document Server

    Rebolini, Elisa; Teale, Andrew M; Helgaker, Trygve; Savin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative method to range-separated linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory and perturbation theory is proposed to improve the estimation of the energies of a physical system from the energies of a partially interacting system. Starting from the analysis of the Taylor expansion of the energies of the partially interacting system around the physical system, we use an extrapolation scheme to improve the estimation of the energies of the physical system at an intermediate point of the range-separated or linear adiabatic connection where either the electron--electron interaction is scaled or only the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction is included. The extrapolation scheme is first applied to the range-separated energies of the helium and beryllium atoms and of the hydrogen molecule at its equilibrium and stretched geometries. It improves significantly the convergence rate of the energies toward their exact limit with respect to the range-separation parameter. The range...

  6. Semigroup based neural network architecture for extrapolation of mass unbalance for rotating machines in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.H.; Velas, J.P.; Lee, K.Y [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented a mathematical method that power plant operators can use to estimate rotational mass unbalance, which is the most common source of vibration in turbine generators. An unbalanced rotor or driveshaft causes vibration and stress in the rotating part and in its supporting structure. As such, balancing the rotating part is important to minimize structural stress, minimize operator annoyance and fatigue, increase bearing life, or minimize power loss. The newly proposed method for estimating vibration on a turbine generator uses mass unbalance extrapolation based on a modified system-type neural network architecture, notably the semigroup theory used to study differential equations, partial differential equations and their combinations. Rather than relying on inaccurate vibration measurements, this method extrapolates a set of reliable mass unbalance readings from a common source of vibration. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, the authors first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis. The algebraic decomposition which was used to obtain the analytic description of empirical data in the semigroup form involved the product of a coefficient vector and a basis set of vectors. The proposed approach was simulated on empirical data. The concept can also be tested in many other engineering and non-engineering problems. 23 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Testing magnetofrictional extrapolation with the Titov-D\\'emoulin model of solar active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Valori, G; Török, T; Titov, V S

    2010-01-01

    We examine the nonlinear magnetofrictional extrapolation scheme using the solar active region model by Titov and D\\'emoulin as test field. This model consists of an arched, line-tied current channel held in force-free equilibrium by the potential field of a bipolar flux distribution in the bottom boundary. A modified version, having a parabolic current density profile, is employed here. We find that the equilibrium is reconstructed with very high accuracy in a representative range of parameter space, using only the vector field in the bottom boundary as input. Structural features formed in the interface between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade-"hyperbolic flux tube" and "bald patch separatrix surface"-are reliably reproduced, as are the flux rope twist and the energy and helicity of the configuration. This demonstrates that force-free fields containing these basic structural elements of solar active regions can be obtained by extrapolation. The influence of the chosen initial condition on the accuracy...

  8. Classification of future 5 MW turbines by extrapolation of current trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakoer, R.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.; Van Leeuwen, H.L.

    1999-09-01

    This report is part of the STABTOOL project. The goals of the STABTOOL project can be summarised as follows: (1) first establish the elastic configuration of the present megawatt scaled wind turbines, and making an inventory of the present design trends and trends for future wind turbine developments w.r.t changes in the elastic configuration; (2) to make an inventory of the different types of instabilities which can occur for the present and next generation wind turbines for both onshore and offshore applications; (3) to make an inventory of analysis and design methods and development or adjustment of calculation methods. The final objective of the STABTOOL project is to create STABility TOOLs: a simple set of calculation models and methods for specific forms of aeroelastic instabilities and vibration problems which are applicable for both present and future large wind turbines. This report concerns the up scaling of the selected elastic configurations described in ST-NW-1-004: 2-blade, (active)pitch controlled, fixed speed (Kvaerner WTS 80M); 3-blade, (active)stall controlled, fixed speed (Nedwind 62 ); 3-blade, pitch controlled variable speed (Lagerwey 50/1000). Based on scaling rules and extrapolation of trend figures, the characteristics of the future 5MW class of wind turbines is estimated. The Nedwind based extrapolation is considered to be an onshore turbine, whereas the others are offshore. 5 refs.

  9. The solution of coupled Schroedinger equations using an extrapolation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorvitch, D.; Galant, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, extrapolation to the limit in a finite-difference method is applied to solve a system of coupled Schroedinger equations. This combination results in a method that only requires knowledge of the potential energy functions for the system. This numerical procedure has several distinct advantages over the more conventional methods. Namely, initial guesses for the term values are not needed; assumptions need be made about the behavior of the wavefunctions, such as the slope or magnitude in the nonclassical region; and the algorithm is easy to implement, has a firm mathematical foundation, and provides error estimates. Moreover, the method is less sensitive to round-off error than other methods since a small number of mesh points is used and it can be implemented on small computers. A comparison of the method with another numerical method shows results agreeing within 1 part in 10 exp 4.

  10. Nuclear Lattice Simulations using Symmetry-Sign Extrapolation

    CERN Document Server

    Lähde, Timo A; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Rupak, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. We now introduce the technique of "symmetry-sign extrapolation" which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to control the sign oscillations without introducing unknown systematic errors. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the $^{12}$C, $^6$He and $^6$Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter.

  11. Nuclear lattice simulations using symmetry-sign extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Lee, Dean [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA - High Performance Computing, Juelich (Germany); Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Rupak, Gautam [Mississippi State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. Here, we introduce the ''symmetry-sign extrapolation'' method, which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to systematically extend the Projection Monte Carlo calculations to nuclear systems where the sign problem is severe. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the {sup 12}C, {sup 6}He and {sup 6}Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter. (orig.)

  12. UFOs in the LHC: Observations, studies and extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Holzer, EB; Jackson, S; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster, N

    2012-01-01

    Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented

  13. Spatial extrapolation of lysimeter results using thermal infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, B. R.; Bosveld, F. C.; Bartholomeus, R. P.; Witte, J. P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Measuring evaporation (E) with lysimeters is costly and prone to numerous errors. By comparing the energy balance and the remotely sensed surface temperature of lysimeters with those of the undisturbed surroundings, we were able to assess the representativeness of lysimeter measurements and to quantify differences in evaporation caused by spatial variations in soil moisture content. We used an algorithm (the so called 3T model) to spatially extrapolate the measured E of a reference lysimeter based on differences in surface temperature, net radiation and soil heat flux. We tested the performance of the 3T model on measurements with multiple lysimeters (47.5 cm inner diameter) and micro lysimeters (19.2 cm inner diameter) installed in bare sand, moss and natural dry grass. We developed different scaling procedures using in situ measurements and remotely sensed surface temperatures to derive spatially distributed estimates of Rn and G and explored the physical soundness of the 3T model. Scaling of Rn and G considerably improved the performance of the 3T model for the bare sand and moss experiments (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) increasing from 0.45 to 0.89 and from 0.81 to 0.94, respectively). For the grass surface, the scaling procedures resulted in a poorer performance of the 3T model (NSE decreasing from 0.74 to 0.70), which was attributed to effects of shading and the difficulty to correct for differences in emissivity between dead and living biomass. The 3T model is physically unsound if the field scale average air temperature, measured at an arbitrarily chosen reference height, is used as input to the model. The proposed measurement system is relatively cheap, since it uses a zero tension (freely draining) lysimeter which results are extrapolated by the 3T model to the unaffected surroundings. The system is promising for bridging the gap between ground observations and satellite based estimates of E.

  14. Border extrapolation using fractal attributes in remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolletti, M. P.; Delrieux, C. A.; Perillo, G. M. E.; Piccolo, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    In management, monitoring and rational use of natural resources the knowledge of precise and updated information is essential. Satellite images have become an attractive option for quantitative data extraction and morphologic studies, assuring a wide coverage without exerting negative environmental influence over the study area. However, the precision of such practice is limited by the spatial resolution of the sensors and the additional processing algorithms. The use of high resolution imagery (i.e., Ikonos) is very expensive for studies involving large geographic areas or requiring long term monitoring, while the use of less expensive or freely available imagery poses a limit in the geographic accuracy and physical precision that may be obtained. We developed a methodology for accurate border estimation that can be used for establishing high quality measurements with low resolution imagery. The method is based on the original theory by Richardson, taking advantage of the fractal nature of geographic features. The area of interest is downsampled at different scales and, at each scale, the border is segmented and measured. Finally, a regression of the dependence of the measured length with respect to scale is computed, which then allows for a precise extrapolation of the expected length at scales much finer than the originally available. The method is tested with both synthetic and satellite imagery, producing accurate results in both cases.

  15. Full waveform inversion with extrapolated low frequency data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yunyue Elita

    2016-01-01

    The availability of low frequency data is an important factor in the success of full waveform inversion (FWI) in the acoustic regime. The low frequencies help determine the kinematically relevant, low-wavenumber components of the velocity model, which are in turn needed to avoid convergence of FWI to spurious local minima. However, acquiring data below 2 or 3 Hz from the field is a challenging and expensive task. In this paper we explore the possibility of synthesizing the low frequencies computationally from high-frequency data, and use the resulting prediction of the missing data to seed the frequency sweep of FWI. As a signal processing problem, bandwidth extension is a very nonlinear and delicate operation. It requires a high-level interpretation of bandlimited seismic records into individual events, each of which is extrapolable to a lower (or higher) frequency band from the non-dispersive nature of the wave propagation model. We propose to use the phase tracking method for the event separation task. The...

  16. Delayed inhibition of an anticipatory action during motion extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riek Stephan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous visual information is important for movement initiation in a variety of motor tasks. However, even in the absence of visual information people are able to initiate their responses by using motion extrapolation processes. Initiation of actions based on these cognitive processes, however, can demand more attentional resources than that required in situations in which visual information is uninterrupted. In the experiment reported we sought to determine whether the absence of visual information would affect the latency to inhibit an anticipatory action. Methods The participants performed an anticipatory timing task where they were instructed to move in synchrony with the arrival of a moving object at a determined contact point. On 50% of the trials, a stop sign appeared on the screen and it served as a signal for the participants to halt their movements. They performed the anticipatory task under two different viewing conditions: Full-View (uninterrupted and Occluded-View (occlusion of the last 500 ms prior to the arrival at the contact point. Results The results indicated that the absence of visual information prolonged the latency to suppress the anticipatory movement. Conclusion We suggest that the absence of visual information requires additional cortical processing that creates competing demand for neural resources. Reduced neural resources potentially causes increased reaction time to the inhibitory input or increased time estimation variability, which in combination would account for prolonged latency.

  17. A NOTE ON RICHARDSON EXTRAPOLATION OF GALERKIN METHODS FOR EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS OF FREDHOLM INTEGRAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiumei Huang; Yidu Yang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce a new extrapolation formula by combining Richardson extrapolation and Sloan iteration algorithms.Using this extrapolation formula,we obtain some asymptotic expansions of the Galerkin finite element method for semi-simple eigenvalue problems of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind and improve the accuracy of the numerical approximations of the corresponding eigenvalues.Some numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of OUr new method and to confirm our theoretical results.

  18. Measurement of fatty acid oxidation: validation of isotopic equilibrium extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.P.; Jeevanandam, M.; Elwyn, D.H.; Askanazi, J.; Kinney, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of whole body substrate oxidation requires prolonged isotope infusion to attain plateau specific activity (SA) of expired CO/sub 2/. We have investigated in 13 hospitalized patients a technique whereby plateau /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ SA is extrapolated using computer curve fitting based upon the early exponential rise. A primed-constant infusion of albumin-bound 1-/sup 14/C-palmitate was continued for 260 minutes with isotope priming of the secondary bicarbonate pool at 70 minutes. Plasma free fatty acid (FFA) SA reached steady state by 40 minutes and was 91% +/- 4% (SE) of values obtained at 190 to 260 minutes. At 70 minutes /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ SA reached only 44% +/- 1% of the 190 to 260 minute values, which were consistently at plateau. The predicted steady state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ SA from the 40 to 70 minute curves and the FFA oxidation rates calculated from those values were 94% +/- 2% and 102% +/- 4%, respectively, of values measured at steady state (190 to 260 minutes). The relationship between predicted and measured values approximated the line of identity for /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ SA (y = 0.90x + 0.14, r = .98, P less than .001) and FFA oxidation (y = 1.02x, r = .98, P less than .001). The results suggest that FFA oxidation can be accurately calculated using a short infusion of labeled FFA without bicarbonate pool priming, thus avoiding overpriming or underpriming and possibly allowing multiple studies and diminished radioisotope exposure.

  19. Testing a Solar Coronal Magnetic Field Extrapolation Code with the Titov-Demoulin Magnetic Flux Rope Model

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    In the solar corona, magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of magnetic field from boundary data is the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information of the corona. As a result, the ability of reliable recovering coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code (CESE-MHD-NLFFF, Jiang & Feng 2012) is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Demoulin (1999), which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding an semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By using only the vector field in the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field is reconstructed with high accuracy. Especially, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rop...

  20. Extrapolating human judgments from skip-gram vector representations of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris; Lefsrud, Lianne

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing body of research in psychology that attempts to extrapolate human lexical judgments from computational models of semantics. This research can be used to help develop comprehensive norm sets for experimental research, it has applications to large-scale statistical modelling of lexical access and has broad value within natural language processing and sentiment analysis. However, the value of extrapolated human judgments has recently been questioned within psychological research. Of primary concern is the fact that extrapolated judgments may not share the same pattern of statistical relationship with lexical and semantic variables as do actual human judgments; often the error component in extrapolated judgments is not psychologically inert, making such judgments problematic to use for psychological research. We present a new methodology for extrapolating human judgments that partially addresses prior concerns of validity. We use this methodology to extrapolate human judgments of valence, arousal, dominance, and concreteness for 78,286 words. We also provide resources for users to extrapolate these human judgments for three million English words and short phrases. Applications for large sets of extrapolated human judgments are demonstrated and discussed.

  1. Load extrapolations based on measurements from an offshore wind turbine at alpha ventus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Sarah; Cheng, Po Wen

    2016-09-01

    Statistical extrapolations of loads can be used to estimate the extreme loads that are supposed to occur on average once in a given return period. Load extrapolations of extreme loads recorded for a period of three years at different measurement positions of an offshore wind turbine at the alpha ventus offshore test field have been performed. The difficulties that arise when using measured instead of simulated extreme loads in order to determine 50-year return loads will be discussed in detail. The main challenge are outliers in the databases that have a significant influence on the extrapolated extreme loads. Results of the short- and longterm extreme load extrapolations, comprising different methods for the extreme load extraction, the choice of the statistical distribution function as well as the fitting method are presented. Generally, load extrapolation with measurement data is possible, but care should be taken in terms of the selection of the database and the choice of the distribution function and fitting method.

  2. The value of remote sensing techniques in supporting effective extrapolation across multiple marine spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, James Asa; Elliott, Michael

    2017-03-15

    The reporting of ecological phenomena and environmental status routinely required point observations, collected with traditional sampling approaches to be extrapolated to larger reporting scales. This process encompasses difficulties that can quickly entrain significant errors. Remote sensing techniques offer insights and exceptional spatial coverage for observing the marine environment. This review provides guidance on (i) the structures and discontinuities inherent within the extrapolative process, (ii) how to extrapolate effectively across multiple spatial scales, and (iii) remote sensing techniques and data sets that can facilitate this process. This evaluation illustrates that remote sensing techniques are a critical component in extrapolation and likely to underpin the production of high-quality assessments of ecological phenomena and the regional reporting of environmental status. Ultimately, is it hoped that this guidance will aid the production of robust and consistent extrapolations that also make full use of the techniques and data sets that expedite this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the existence of the optimal order for wavefunction extrapolation in Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jun; Song, Haifeng; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Wavefunction extrapolation greatly reduces the number of self-consistent field (SCF) iterations and thus the overall computational cost of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) that is based on the Kohn-Sham density functional theory. Going against the intuition that the higher order of extrapolation possesses a better accuracy, we demonstrate, from both theoretical and numerical perspectives, that the extrapolation accuracy firstly increases and then decreases with respect to the order, and an optimal extrapolation order in terms of minimal number of SCF iterations always exists. We also prove that the optimal order tends to be larger when using larger MD time steps or more strict SCF convergence criteria. By example BOMD simulations of a solid copper system, we show that the optimal extrapolation order covers a broad range when varying the MD time step or the SCF convergence criterion. Therefore, we suggest the necessity for BOMD simulation packages to open the user interface and to provide more choice...

  4. Generalized Poincaré inequalities: Sharp self-improving propertiesTwo weight extrapolation via the maximal operator

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Uribe, David; Pérez Moreno, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    We give several extrapolation theorems for pairs of weights of the form (w, Mkw) and (w, (Mw/w)r w), where w is any non-negative function, r>1, and Mk is the kth iterate of the Hardy–Littlewood maximal operator. As an application we show that our results can be used to extend and sharpen results for square functions and singular integral operators by Chang et al. (1985, Comment. Math. Helv.60, 217–246), Chanillo and Wheeden (1987, Indiana Univ. Math. J.36, 277–294), Wilson (1987, Duke Math. J...

  5. Utility of intersystem extrapolation factors in early reaction phenotyping and the quantitative extrapolation of human liver microsomal intrinsic clearance using recombinant cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Liu, Liling; Nguyen, Khanh; Fretland, Adrian J

    2011-03-01

    Reaction phenotyping using recombinant human cytochromes P450 (P450) has great utility in early discovery. However, to fully realize the advantages of using recombinant expressed P450s, the extrapolation of data from recombinant systems to human liver microsomes (HLM) is required. In this study, intersystem extrapolation factors (ISEFs) were established for CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 using 11 probe substrates, based on substrate depletion and/or metabolite formation kinetics. The ISEF values for CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 determined using multiple substrates were similar across substrates. When enzyme kinetics of metabolite formation for CYP1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 were used, the ISEFs determined were generally within 2-fold of that determined on the basis of substrate depletion. Validation of ISEFs was conducted using 10 marketed drugs by comparing the extrapolated data with published data. The major isoforms responsible for the metabolism were identified, and the contribution of the predominant P450s was similar to that of previously reported data. In addition, phenotyping data from internal compounds, extrapolated using the rhP450-ISEF method, were comparable to those obtained using an HLM-based inhibition assay approach. Moreover, the intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) calculated from extrapolated rhP450 data correlated well with measured HLM CL(int). The ISEF method established in our laboratory provides a convenient tool in early reaction phenotyping for situations in which the HLM-based inhibition approach is limited by low turnover and/or unavailable metabolite formation. Furthermore, this method allows for quantitative extrapolation of HLM intrinsic clearance from rhP450 phenotyping data simultaneously to obtaining the participating metabolizing enzymes.

  6. Analog versus digital: extrapolating from electronics to neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    1998-10-01

    We review the pros and cons of analog and digital computation. We propose that computation that is most efficient in its use of resources is neither analog computation nor digital computation but, rather, a mixture of the two forms. For maximum efficiency, the information and information-processing resources of the hybrid form must be distributed over many wires, with an optimal signal-to-noise ratio per wire. Our results suggest that it is likely that the brain computes in a hybrid fashion and that an underappreciated and important reason for the efficiency of the human brain, which consumes only 12 W, is the hybrid and distributed nature of its architecture.

  7. An extrapolation scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shift calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-06-01

    Conventional quantum chemical and solid-state physical approaches include several problems to accurately calculate solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties. We propose a reliable computational scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shifts using an extrapolation scheme that retains the advantages of these approaches but reduces their disadvantages. Our scheme can satisfactorily yield solid-state NMR magnetic shielding constants. The estimated values have only a small dependence on the low-level density functional theory calculation with the extrapolation scheme. Thus, our approach is efficient because the rough calculation can be performed in the extrapolation scheme.

  8. Chiral extrapolation of nucleon axial charge gA in effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-na; Wang, P.

    2016-12-01

    The extrapolation of nucleon axial charge gA is investigated within the framework of heavy baryon chiral effective field theory. The intermediate octet and decuplet baryons are included in the one loop calculation. Finite range regularization is applied to improve the convergence in the quark-mass expansion. The lattice data from three different groups are used for the extrapolation. At physical pion mass, the extrapolated gA are all smaller than the experimental value. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475186) and Sino-German CRC 110 (NSFC 11621131001)

  9. Frequency Extrapolation by Floating Genetic Algorithm Based on GTD Model for Radar Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhenglong; FANG Dagang; SHENG Weixing; LIU Tiejun; ZHUANG Jing

    2001-01-01

    A frequency extrapolation scheme isdeveloped to effectively predict radar cross section us-ing floating genetic algorithm based on the GTD (ge-ometry theory of diffraction) model. The parameter-ized model to extrapolate the frequency response tohigher (or lower) frequency band is used and somepractical targets are calculated to test the effective-ness of the method. The influence of extrapolationon the range profile is studied. Furthermore, the re-lationship between the fitting precision and extrap-olation ability is considered. Different extrapolationprocedures are discussed.

  10. Convergence of the discrete dipole approximation. II. An extrapolation technique to increase the accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Yurkin, Maxim A; Hoekstra, Alfons G

    2006-01-01

    We propose an extrapolation technique that allows accuracy improvement of the discrete dipole approximation computations. The performance of this technique was studied empirically based on extensive simulations for 5 test cases using many different discretizations. The quality of the extrapolation improves with refining discretization reaching extraordinary performance especially for cubically shaped particles. A two order of magnitude decrease of error was demonstrated. We also propose estimates of the extrapolation error, which were proven to be reliable. Finally we propose a simple method to directly separate shape and discretization errors and illustrated this for one test case.

  11. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan;

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted......-of-plane bending moment and the tower mudline bending moment of a pitch-controlled wind turbine. In general, the results show that the method based on average conditional exceedance rates predicts the extrapolated characteristic response loads at the individual mean wind speeds well and results in more consistent...

  12. Extrapolation from , vector-valued inequalities and applications in the Schrödinger settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lin

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we generalize the A ∞ extrapolation theorem ( Cruz-Uribe-Martell-Pérez, Extrapolation from A ∞ weights and applications, J. Funct. Anal. 213 (2004), 412-439) and the A p extrapolation theorem of Rubio de Francia to Schrödinger settings. In addition, we also establish weighted vector-valued inequalities for Schrödinger-type maximal operators by using weights belonging to which includes A p . As applications, we establish weighted vector-valued inequalities for some Schrödinger-type operators.

  13. Multidimensional Signal Restoration and Band-Limited Extrapolation. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas of Argentina. Thomas S. Huang was supported by the Joint Services Electronic’s Program "- under...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS5 PAGE (M~en Date Entered)_________________ READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NUMBER...for his help in proving theorem 5. The work of J. San: was~ supported by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecuicas (CONICET). T

  14. Mass, Measurement, Materials, and Mathematical Modeling: The Nuts and Bolts of Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Sinex

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple activity is described which is appropriate for any class dealing with measurement. It introduces students to the important scientific process of mathematical modeling and online collaboration. Students, working in groups, determine the mass of a bolt indirectly by extrapolation from massing the bolt with one to five nuts on it and determining the equation of the line; the y-intercept being the mass of the bolt. Students gain experience with using a balance, graphing data, and analyzing results using algebraic skills. They calculate percent error after measuring the bolt’s mass directly and can compare this with the error limits from the least squares fit. Groups enter data into a web-based form and the data is examined by the class using Google Docs in a collaborative manner. After entering data in Google Docs, the students use an interactive Excel spreadsheet to compare their results to the best-fit line obtained by linear regression (pre-built into the spreadsheet for novices. In the spreadsheet, they further explore the model to gain an understanding and examine the influence of scatter (error in the data and material density.

  15. Evidence for Solar Tether-cutting Magnetic Reconnection from Coronal Field Extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chang; Lee, Jeongwoo; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Moore, Ronald L; Wang, Haimin

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering solar eruptive events, but direct observation of its rapid process has been of challenge. In this Letter we present, using a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation technique, a visualization of field line connectivity changes resulting from tether-cutting reconnection over about 30 minutes during the 2011 February 13 M6.6 flare in NOAA AR 11158. Evidence for the tether-cutting reconnection was first collected through multiwavelength observations and then by the analysis of the field lines traced from positions of four conspicuous flare 1700 A footpoints observed at the event onset. Right before the flare, the four footpoints are located very close to the regions of local maxima of magnetic twist index. Especially, the field lines from the inner two footpoints form two strongly twisted flux bundles (up to ~1.2 turns), which shear past each other and reach out close to the outer two footpoints, respectively. Immediately after the fl...

  16. Quality of the log-geometric distribution extrapolation for smaller undiscovered oil and gas pool size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenglin, L.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey procedure for the estimation of the general form of the parent distribution requires that the parameters of the log-geometric distribution be calculated and analyzed for the sensitivity of these parameters to different conditions. In this study, we derive the shape factor of a log-geometric distribution from the ratio of frequencies between adjacent bins. The shape factor has a log straight-line relationship with the ratio of frequencies. Additionally, the calculation equations of a ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary are deduced. For a specific log-geometric distribution, we find that the ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary is the same. We apply our analysis to simulations based on oil and gas pool distributions from four petroleum systems of Alberta, Canada and four generated distributions. Each petroleum system in Alberta has a different shape factor. Generally, the shape factors in the four petroleum systems stabilize with the increase of discovered pool numbers. For a log-geometric distribution, the shape factor becomes stable when discovered pool numbers exceed 50 and the shape factor is influenced by the exploration efficiency when the exploration efficiency is less than 1. The simulation results show that calculated shape factors increase with those of the parent distributions, and undiscovered oil and gas resources estimated through the log-geometric distribution extrapolation are smaller than the actual values. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  17. Application of a framework for extrapolating chemical effects across species in pathways controlled by estrogen receptor-á

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-species extrapolation of toxicity data from limited surrogate test organisms to all wildlife with potential of chemical exposure remains a key challenge in ecological risk assessment. A number of factors affect extrapolation, including the chemical exposure, pharmacokinetic...

  18. NLT and extrapolated DLT:3-D cinematography alternatives for enlarging the volume of calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, R N; McLean, S P

    1995-10-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of the direct linear transformation (DLT) and non-linear transformation (NLT) methods of 3-D cinematography/videography. A comparison of standard DLT, extrapolated DLT, and NLT calibrations showed the standard (non-extrapolated) DLT to be the most accurate, especially when a large number of control points (40-60) were used. The NLT was more accurate than the extrapolated DLT when the level of extrapolation exceeded 100%. The results indicated that when possible one should use the DLT with a control object, sufficiently large as to encompass the entire activity being studied. However, in situations where the activity volume exceeds the size of one's DLT control object, the NLT method should be considered.

  19. Melting of "non-magic" argon clusters and extrapolation to the bulk limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Florian; Wiebke, Jonas; Schumann, Ole; Gohr, Sebastian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Pahl, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The melting of argon clusters ArN is investigated by applying a parallel-tempering Monte Carlo algorithm for all cluster sizes in the range from 55 to 309 atoms. Extrapolation to the bulk gives a melting temperature of 85.9 K in good agreement with the previous value of 88.9 K using only Mackay icosahedral clusters for the extrapolation [E. Pahl, F. Calvo, L. Koči, and P. Schwerdtfeger, "Accurate melting temperatures for neon and argon from ab initio Monte Carlo simulations," Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 47, 8207 (2008)]. Our results for argon demonstrate that for the extrapolation to the bulk one does not have to restrict to magic number cluster sizes in order to obtain good estimates for the bulk melting temperature. However, the extrapolation to the bulk remains a problem, especially for the systematic selection of suitable cluster sizes.

  20. [Effects of spatial heterogeneity on spatial extrapolation of sampling plot data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; He, Hong-Shi; Hu, Yuan-Man; Bu, Ren-Cang

    2012-01-01

    By using model combination method, this paper simulated the changes of response variable (tree species distribution area at landscape level under climate change) under three scenarios of environmental spatial heterogeneous level, analyzed the differentiation of simulated results under different scenarios, and discussed the effects of environmental spatial heterogeneity on the larger spatial extrapolation of the tree species responses to climate change observed in sampling plots. For most tree species, spatial heterogeneity had little effects on the extrapolation from plot scale to class scale; for the tree species insensitive to climate warming and the azonal species, spatial heterogeneity also had little effects on the extrapolation from plot-scale to zonal scale. By contrast, for the tree species sensitive to climate warming, spatial heterogeneity had effects on the extrapolation from plot scale to zonal scale, and the effects could be varied under different scenarios.

  1. The extrapolation of creep rupture data by PD6605 - An independent case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J., E-mail: john.bolton@uwclub.net [65 Fisher Avenue, Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The worked example presented in BSI document PD6605-1:1998, to illustrate the selection, validation and extrapolation of a creep rupture model using statistical analysis, was independently examined. Alternative rupture models were formulated and analysed by the same statistical methods, and were shown to represent the test data more accurately than the original model. Median rupture lives extrapolated from the original and alternative models were found to diverge widely under some conditions of practical interest. The tests prescribed in PD6605 and employed to validate the original model were applied to the better of the alternative models. But the tests were unable to discriminate between the two, demonstrating that these tests fail to ensure reliability in extrapolation. The difficulties of determining when a model is sufficiently reliable for use in extrapolation are discussed and some proposals are made.

  2. Optimal channels of the Garvey-Kelson mass relations in extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Man; He, Zeng; Cheng, YiYuan; Zhao, YuMin; Arima, Akito

    2017-02-01

    Garvey-Kelson mass relations connect nuclear masses of neighboring nuclei within high accuracy, and provide us with convenient tools in predicting unknown masses by extrapolations from existent experimental data. In this paper we investigate optimal "channels" of the Garvey-Kelson relations in extrapolation to the unknown regions, and tabulate our predicted masses by using these optimized channels of the Garvey-Kelson relations.

  3. Clinical Drug Development in Epilepsy Revisited: A Proposal for a New Paradigm Streamlined Using Extrapolation

    OpenAIRE

    Wadsworth, Ian; Jaki, Thomas; Sills, Graeme J; Appleton, Richard; Cross, J Helen; Marson, Anthony G; Martland, Tim; McLellan, Ailsa; Smith, Philip E. M.; Pellock, John M; Hampson, Lisa V.

    2016-01-01

    Data from clinical trials in adults, extrapolated to predict benefits in paediatric patients, could result in fewer or smaller trials being required to obtain a new drug licence for paediatrics. This article outlines the place of such extrapolation in the development of drugs for use in paediatric epilepsies. Based on consensus expert opinion, a proposal is presented for a new paradigm for the clinical development of drugs for focal epilepsies. Phase I data should continue to be collected in ...

  4. In situ LTE exposure of the general public: Characterization and extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    In situ radiofrequency (RF) exposure of the different RF sources is characterized in Reading, United Kingdom, and an extrapolation method to estimate worst-case long-term evolution (LTE) exposure is proposed. All electric field levels satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels with a maximal total electric field value of 4.5 V/m. The total values are dominated by frequency modulation (FM). Exposure levels for LTE of 0.2 V/m on average and 0.5 V/m maximally are obtained. Contributions of LTE to the total exposure are limited to 0.4% on average. Exposure ratios from 0.8% (LTE) to 12.5% (FM) are obtained. An extrapolation method is proposed and validated to assess the worst-case LTE exposure. For this method, the reference signal (RS) and secondary synchronization signal (S-SYNC) are measured and extrapolated to the worst-case value using an extrapolation factor. The influence of the traffic load and output power of the base station on in situ RS and S-SYNC signals are lower than 1 dB for all power and traffic load settings, showing that these signals can be used for the extrapolation method. The maximal extrapolated field value for LTE exposure equals 1.9 V/m, which is 32 times below the ICNIRP reference levels for electric fields.

  5. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPORT TECHNIQUES Whole blood viscosity assessment issues I: Extrapolation chart and reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are many different methods for the assessment of whole blood viscosity, but not every pathology unit has equipment for any of the methods. However, a validated arithmetic method exists whereby whole blood viscosity can be extrapolated from haematocrit and total serum proteins. Aims: The objective of this work is to develop an algorithm in the form of a chart by which clinicians can easily extrapolate whole blood viscosity values in their consulting rooms or on the ward. Another objective is to suggest normal, subnormal and critical reference ranges applicable to this method. Materials and Methods: Whole blood viscosity at high shear stress was determined, from various possible pairs of haematocrit and total proteins. A chart was formulated so that whole blood viscosity can be extrapolated. After determination of two standard deviations from the mean and ascertainment of symmetric distribution, normal and abnormal reference ranges were defined. Results: The clinicians’ user-friendly chart is presented. Considering presumptive lower and upper limits, the continuum of ≤14.28, 14.29 – 15.00, 15.01 – 19.01, 19.02 – 19.39 and ≥19.40 (208 Sec-1 is obtained as reference ranges for critically low, subnormal low, normal, subnormal high and critically high whole blood viscosity levels respectively. Conclusion: This article advances a validated method to provide a user-friendly chart that would enable clinicians to assess whole blood viscosity for any patients who has results for full blood count and total proteins. It would make the assessment of whole blood viscosity costless and the neglect of a known cardiovascular risk factor less excusable.

  6. The cerebellum and visual perceptual learning: evidence from a motion extrapolation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, Cristina; Golzar, Ashkan; Santandrea, Elisa; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Eštočinová, Jana; Moretto, Giuseppe; Fiaschi, Antonio; Panzeri, Marta; Mariotti, Caterina; Tinazzi, Michele; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2014-09-01

    Visual perceptual learning is widely assumed to reflect plastic changes occurring along the cerebro-cortical visual pathways, including at the earliest stages of processing, though increasing evidence indicates that higher-level brain areas are also involved. Here we addressed the possibility that the cerebellum plays an important role in visual perceptual learning. Within the realm of motor control, the cerebellum supports learning of new skills and recalibration of motor commands when movement execution is consistently perturbed (adaptation). Growing evidence indicates that the cerebellum is also involved in cognition and mediates forms of cognitive learning. Therefore, the obvious question arises whether the cerebellum might play a similar role in learning and adaptation within the perceptual domain. We explored a possible deficit in visual perceptual learning (and adaptation) in patients with cerebellar damage using variants of a novel motion extrapolation, psychophysical paradigm. Compared to their age- and gender-matched controls, patients with focal damage to the posterior (but not the anterior) cerebellum showed strongly diminished learning, in terms of both rate and amount of improvement over time. Consistent with a double-dissociation pattern, patients with focal damage to the anterior cerebellum instead showed more severe clinical motor deficits, indicative of a distinct role of the anterior cerebellum in the motor domain. The collected evidence demonstrates that a pure form of slow-incremental visual perceptual learning is crucially dependent on the intact cerebellum, bearing the notion that the human cerebellum acts as a learning device for motor, cognitive and perceptual functions. We interpret the deficit in terms of an inability to fine-tune predictive models of the incoming flow of visual perceptual input over time. Moreover, our results suggest a strong dissociation between the role of different portions of the cerebellum in motor versus

  7. EXTRAPOLATION AND A-POSTERIORI ERROR ESTIMATORS OF PETROV-GALERKIN METHODS FOR NON-LINEAR VOLTERRA INTEGRO-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-hua Zhang; Tao Lin; Yan-ping Lin; Ming Rao

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will show that the Richardson extrapolation can be used to enhance the numerical solution generated by a Petrov-Galerkin finite element method for the initialvalue problem for a nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equation. As by-products, we will also show that these enhanced approximations can be used to form a class of aposteriori estimators for this Petrov-Galerkin finite element method. Numerical examples are supplied to illustrate the theoretical results.

  8. extrap: Software to assist the selection of extrapolation methods for moving-boat ADCP streamflow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2013-04-01

    Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity profiles from the entire cross section and multiple transects to determine a mean profile for the measurement. The use of an exponent derived from normalized data from the entire cross section is shown to be valid for application of the power velocity distribution law in the computation of the unmeasured discharge in a cross section. Selected statistics are combined with empirically derived criteria to automatically select the appropriate extrapolation methods. A graphical user interface (GUI) provides the user tools to visually evaluate the automatically selected extrapolation methods and manually change them, as necessary. The sensitivity of the total discharge to available extrapolation methods is presented in the GUI. Use of extrap by field hydrographers has demonstrated that extrap is a more accurate and efficient method of determining the appropriate extrapolation methods compared with tools currently (2012) provided in the ADCP manufacturers' software.

  9. Extrapolation of Calibration Curve of Hot-wire Spirometer Using a Novel Neural Network Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardekani, Mohammad Ali; Nafisi, Vahid Reza; Farhani, Foad

    2012-10-01

    Hot-wire spirometer is a kind of constant temperature anemometer (CTA). The working principle of CTA, used for the measurement of fluid velocity and flow turbulence, is based on convective heat transfer from a hot-wire sensor to a fluid being measured. The calibration curve of a CTA is nonlinear and cannot be easily extrapolated beyond its calibration range. Therefore, a method for extrapolation of CTA calibration curve will be of great practical application. In this paper, a novel approach based on the conventional neural network and self-organizing map (SOM) method has been proposed to extrapolate CTA calibration curve for measurement of velocity in the range 0.7-30 m/seconds. Results show that, using this approach for the extrapolation of the CTA calibration curve beyond its upper limit, the standard deviation is about -0.5%, which is acceptable in most cases. Moreover, this approach for the extrapolation of the CTA calibration curve below its lower limit produces standard deviation of about 4.5%, which is acceptable in spirometry applications. Finally, the standard deviation on the whole measurement range (0.7-30 m/s) is about 1.5%.

  10. Choice of order and extrapolation method in Aarseth-type N-body algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, William H.; Spergel, David N.

    1988-02-01

    The force-versus-time history of a typical particle in a 50-body King model is taken as input data, and its 'extrapolatability' is measured. Extrapolatability means how far the force can be extrapolated, measured in units of a locally defined rate-of-change time scale, and still be within a specified fractional accuracy of the true values. Greater extrapolatability means larger step size, hence greater efficiency, in an Aarseth-type N-body code. Extrapolatability is found to depend systematically on the order of the extrapolation method, but it goes to a finite limit in the limit of large order. A formula for choosing the optimal (most efficient) order for any desired accuracy is given; higher orders than are presently in use are indicated. Neither rational function extrapolation nor a somewhat vector-regularized polynomial method is found to be systematically better than component-wise polynomial extrapolation, indicating that extrapolatability can be viewed as an intrinsic property of the underlying N-body forces, independent of the extrapolation method.

  11. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form....... In general, students enter design education as far more skilled observers with regards to function than form. They are, in other words, predisposed to observe objects asking ‘what is?’, rather than ‘how is?’. This habit has not only cognitive implications. It is closely intertwined with a rudimentary...

  12. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form...... vocabulary of form. Even in cases in which teaching uses terms and phrases from everyday life (for instance, ‘intersection’), the meaning of the word cannot necessarily be transmitted directly from an ordinary vocabulary into a design context. And it is clearly a common issue for the contributions...

  13. The influence of an extrapolation chamber over the low energy X-ray beam radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanuri de F, M. T.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: mttf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    The extrapolation chambers are detectors whose sensitive volume can be modified by changing the distance between the electrodes and has been widely used for beta particles primary measurement system. In this work, was performed a PTW 23392 extrapolation chamber Monte Carlo simulation, by mean the MCNPX code. Although the sensitive volume of an extrapolation chamber can be reduced to very small size, their packaging is large enough to modify the radiation field and change the absorbed dose measurements values. Experiments were performed to calculate correction factors for this purpose. The validation of the Monte Carlo model was done by comparing the spectra obtained with a CdTe detector according to the ISO 4037 criteria. Agreements smaller than 5% for half value layers, 10% for spectral resolution and 1% for mean energy, were found. It was verified that the correction factors are dependent of the X-ray beam quality. (Author)

  14. Extrapolation of extreme response for different mooring line systems of floating wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Sterndorff, Martin; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) are a major cost driver. Failure of mooring systems often occurs due to extreme loads. This paper introduces an extrapolation method for extreme response which accounts for the control system of a WEC that controls the loads onto the stru......Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) are a major cost driver. Failure of mooring systems often occurs due to extreme loads. This paper introduces an extrapolation method for extreme response which accounts for the control system of a WEC that controls the loads onto...... the structure and the harvested power of the device as well as the fact that extreme loads may occur during operation and not at extreme wave states when the device is in storm protection mode. The extrapolation method is based on shortterm load time series and applied to a case study where up-scaled surge load...

  15. An extrapolation approach for aeroengine’s transient control law design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiangxing; Wang Xi; Tan Daoliang; He Ai; Liu Yue

    2013-01-01

    Transient control law ensures that the aeroengine transits to the command operating state rapidly and reliably. Most of the existing approaches for transient control law design have complicated principle and arithmetic. As a result, those approaches are not convenient for applica-tion. This paper proposes an extrapolation approach based on the set-point parameters to construct the transient control law, which has a good practicability. In this approach, the transient main fuel control law for acceleration and deceleration process is designed based on the main fuel flow on steady operating state. In order to analyze the designing feature of the extrapolation approach, the simulation results of several different transient control laws designed by the same approach are compared together. The analysis indicates that the aeroengine has a good performance in the transient process and the designing feature of the extrapolation approach conforms to the elements of the turbofan aeroengine.

  16. The optimized expansion based low-rank method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2014-03-01

    Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wavefield extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media because it tends to be dispersion and artifact free as well as highly accurate when solving the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain extrapolation operator efficiently. To solve this problem, we evaluated an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with a low-rank variable separation representation. The rank defines the number of inverse Fourier transforms for each time extrapolation step, and thus, the lower the rank, the faster the extrapolation. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its explicit low-rank representation. As a result, we obtain lower rank representations compared with the standard low-rank method within reasonable accuracy and thus cheaper extrapolations. Additional bounds set on the range of propagated wavenumbers to adhere to the physical wave limits yield unconditionally stable extrapolations regardless of the time step. An application on the BP model provided superior results compared to those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, because we used the pure P-wave dispersion relation, we obtained solutions that were free of the shear wave artifacts, and the algorithm does not require that n > 0. In addition, the required rank for the optimization approach to obtain high accuracy in anisotropic media was lower than that obtained by the decomposition approach, and thus, it was more efficient. A reverse time migration result for the BP tilted transverse isotropy model using this method as a wave propagator demonstrated the ability of the algorithm.

  17. Extra- and intracellular volume monitoring by impedance during haemodialysis using Cole-Cole extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrin, M Y; Maasrani, M; Le Gourrier, A; Boudailliez, B

    1997-05-01

    A method is presented for monitoring the relative variation of extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes using a multifrequency impedance meter and the Cole-Cole extrapolation technique. It is found that this extrapolation is necessary to obtain reliable data for the resistance of the intracellular fluid. The extracellular and intracellular resistances can be approached using frequencies of, respectively, 5 kHz and 1000 kHz, but the use of 100 kHz leads to unacceptable errors. In the conventional treatment the overall relative variation of intracellular resistance is found to be relatively small.

  18. An Extrapolation Method of Vector Magnetic Field via Surface Integral Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hui; XIAO Chang-han; ZHOU Guo-hua

    2009-01-01

    According to the integral relationship between the vector magnetic flux density on a spatial point and that over a closed surface around magnetic sources, a technique for the extrapolation of vector magnetic field of a ferromagnetic object is given without computing scalar potential and its gradient. The vector magnetic flux density on a remote spatial point can be extrapolated by surface integral from the vector values over a closed measureed surface around the ferromagnetic object. The correctness of the technique testified by a special example and simulation. The experimented result shows that its accuracy is satisfying and the execution time is less than 1 second.

  19. Enhanced radar imaging of object with extrapolation of Fourier transform of space-limited reflectivity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Gong; Corsini, G.; Dalle Mese, E.

    The method of extrapolation of frequency data based on the finite size property of the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm is used to address the problem of radar image enhancement. The rate of convergence of the algorithm and the behavior of noise-affected data are discussed. Simulation results show that the convergence rate can be very slow, depending on the ratio of the amount of extrapolated data to that of observed data. This behavior is due to the eigenvalues of the system matrix close to 1.

  20. Extrapolation of Extreme Response for Wind Turbines based on FieldMeasurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic loads on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. These parameters must be taken into account in the assessment of the characteristic load. The characteristic load...... extrapolation are presented. The first method is based on the same assumptions as the existing method but the statistical extrapolation is only performed for a limited number of mean wind speeds where the extreme load is likely to occur. For the second method the mean wind speeds are divided into storms which...

  1. Extrapolation of neutron-rich isotope cross-sections from projectile fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Mocko, M; Sun, Z Y; Andronenko, L; Andronenko, M; Delaunay, F; Famiano, M; Friedman, W A; Henzl, V; Henzlova, D; Hui, H; Liu, X D; Lukyanov, S; Lynch, W G; Rogers, A M; Wallace, M S

    2007-01-01

    Using the measured fragmentation cross sections produced from the 48Ca and 64Ni beams at 140 MeV per nucleon on 9Be and 181Ta targets, we find that the cross sections of unmeasured neutron rich nuclei can be extrapolated using a systematic trend involving the average binding energy. The extrapolated cross-sections will be very useful in planning experiments with neutron rich isotopes produced from projectile fragmentation. The proposed method is general and could be applied to other fragmentation systems including those used in other radioactive ion beam facilities.

  2. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  3. A least square extrapolation method for improving solution accuracy of PDE computations

    CERN Document Server

    Garbey, M

    2003-01-01

    Richardson extrapolation (RE) is based on a very simple and elegant mathematical idea that has been successful in several areas of numerical analysis such as quadrature or time integration of ODEs. In theory, RE can be used also on PDE approximations when the convergence order of a discrete solution is clearly known. But in practice, the order of a numerical method often depends on space location and is not accurately satisfied on different levels of grids used in the extrapolation formula. We propose in this paper a more robust and numerically efficient method based on the idea of finding automatically the order of a method as the solution of a least square minimization problem on the residual. We introduce a two-level and three-level least square extrapolation method that works on nonmatching embedded grid solutions via spline interpolation. Our least square extrapolation method is a post-processing of data produced by existing PDE codes, that is easy to implement and can be a better tool than RE for code v...

  4. Uncertainty in vertical extrapolation of wind statistics: shear-exponent and WAsP/EWA methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.

    for uncertainties inherent in determination of (wind) shear exponents, and subsequent vertical extrapolation of wind speeds. The report further outlines application of the theory and results of Kelly & Troen (2014-6) for gauging the uncertainty inherent in use of the European Wind Atlas (EWA) / WAsP method...

  5. Photon neutrino-production in a chiral EFT for nuclei and extrapolation to $E_{\

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xilin

    2013-01-01

    We carry out a series of studies on pion and photon productions in neutrino/electron/photon--nucleus scatterings. The low energy region is investigated by using a chiral effective field theory for nuclei. The results for the neutral current induced photon production ($\\gamma$-NCP) are then extrapolated to neutrino energy $E_{\

  6. Monte Carlo analysis: error of extrapolated thermal conductivity from molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, Anders David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-07

    In this short report, we give an analysis of the extrapolated thermal conductivity of UO2 from earlier molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [1]. Because almost all material properties are functions of temperature, e.g. fission gas release, the fuel thermal conductivity is the most important parameter from a model sensitivity perspective [2]. Thus, it is useful to perform such analysis.

  7. Extrapolation for exposure duration in oral toxicity: A quantitative analysis of historical toxicity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, C.N.; Hakkert, B.C.; Bos, P.M.J.; Heer, C.de

    2004-01-01

    For human risk assessment, experimental data often have to be extrapolated for exposure duration, which is generally done by means of default values. The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, to derive a statistical distribution for differences in exposure duration that can be used in a p

  8. Comparison of Extrapolation and Interpolation Methods for Estimating Daily Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Leeuw, de J.; Liu, X.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), which are indispensable for simulating plant growth and productivity, are generally very scarce. This study aimed to compare two extrapolation and one interpolation methods for estimating daily PAR reaching the earth surface within the Poyan

  9. Source-receiver two-way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding-reflector modelling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-10-08

    Most modern seismic imaging methods separate input data into parts (shot gathers). We develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield forward or backward in time. This approach has the potential for generating accurate images free of artiefacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high-order partial differential equations in the source-receiver time domain. The fourth-order nature of the extrapolation in time leads to four solutions, two of which correspond to the incoming and outgoing P-waves and reduce to the zero-offset exploding-reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. A challenge for implementing two-way time extrapolation is an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity can be avoided by limiting the range of wavenumbers treated in a spectral-based extrapolation. Using spectral methods based on the low-rank approximation of the propagation symbol, we extrapolate only the desired solutions in an accurate and efficient manner with reduced dispersion artiefacts. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach.

  10. Combining linear interpolation with extrapolation methods in range-separated ensemble density-functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Senjean, Bruno; Alam, Md Mehboob; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a recently proposed linear interpolation method (LIM) [Senjean et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 012518 (2015)], which enables the calculation of weight-independent excitation energies in range-separated ensemble density-functional approximations, with the extrapolation scheme of Savin [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A509 (2014)] is presented in this work. It is shown that LIM excitation energies vary quadratically with the inverse of the range-separation parameter mu when the latter is large. As a result, the extrapolation scheme, which is usually applied to long-range interacting energies, can be adapted straightforwardly to LIM. This extrapolated LIM (ELIM) has been tested on a small test set consisting of He, Be, H2 and HeH+. Relatively accurate results have been obtained for the first singlet excitation energies with the typical mu=0.4 value. The improvement of LIM after extrapolation is remarkable, in particular for the doubly-excited 2^1Sigma+g state in the stretched H2 molecule. Three-state ensemble ...

  11. Scaling and chiral extrapolation of pion mass and decay constant with maximally twisted mass QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, P; Herdoiza, G; Jansen, K; Michael, C; Urbach, C

    2008-01-01

    We present an update of the results for pion mass and pion decay constant as obtained by the ETM collaboration in large scale simulations with maximally twisted mass fermions and two mass degenerate flavours of light quarks. We discuss the continuum, chiral and infinite volume extrapolation of these quantities as well as the extraction of low energy constants, and investigate possible systematic uncertainties.

  12. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Wilm Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Sandom, Christopher; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-07-01

    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species' evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals ("MammalDIET"). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external

  13. Extrapolating from animal studies to the efficacy in humans of a pretreatment combination against organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Aharon; Cohen, Giora; Gilat, Eran; Kapon, Joseph; Dachir, Shlomit; Abraham, Shlomo; Herskovitz, Miriam; Teitelbaum, Zvi; Raveh, Lily

    2007-05-01

    The extrapolation from animal data to therapeutic effects in humans, a basic pharmacological issue, is especially critical in studies aimed to estimate the protective efficacy of drugs against nerve agent poisoning. Such efficacy can only be predicted by extrapolation of data from animal studies to humans. In pretreatment therapy against nerve agents, careful dose determination is even more crucial than in antidotal therapy, since excessive doses may lead to adverse effects or performance decrements. The common method of comparing dose per body weight, still used in some studies, may lead to erroneous extrapolation. A different approach is based on the comparison of plasma concentrations at steady state required to obtain a given pharmacodynamic endpoint. In the present study, this approach was applied to predict the prophylactic efficacy of the anticholinergic drug caramiphen in combination with pyridostigmine in man based on animal data. In two species of large animals, dogs and monkeys, similar plasma concentrations of caramiphen (in the range of 60-100 ng/ml) conferred adequate protection against exposure to a lethal-dose of sarin (1.6-1.8 LD(50)). Pharmacokinetic studies at steady state were required to achieve the correlation between caramiphen plasma concentrations and therapeutic effects. Evaluation of total plasma clearance values was instrumental in establishing desirable plasma concentrations and minimizing the number of animals used in the study. Previous data in the literature for plasma levels of caramiphen that do not lead to overt side effects in humans (70-100 ng/ml) enabled extrapolation to expected human protection. The method can be applied to other drugs and other clinical situations, in which human studies are impossible due to ethical considerations. When similar dose response curves are obtained in at least two animal models, the extrapolation to expected therapeutic effects in humans might be considered more reliable.

  14. Evaluation of extrapolation methods for actual state expenditures on health care in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Banin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting methods, extrapolation ones in particular, are used in health care for medical, biological and clinical research. The author, using accessible internet space, has not met a single publication devoted to extrapolation of financial parameters of health care activities. This determined the relevance of the material presented in the article: based on health care financing dynamics in Russia in 2000–2010 the author examined possibility of application of basic perspective extrapolation methods - moving average, exponential smoothing and least squares. It is hypothesized that all three methods can equally forecast actual public expenditures on health care in medium term in Russia’s current financial and economic conditions. The study result was evaluated in two time periods: within the studied interval and a five-year period. It was found that within the study period all methods have an average relative extrapolation error of 3–5%, which means high precision of the forecast. The study shown a specific feature of the least squares method which were gradually accumulating results so their economic interpretation became possible only in the end of the studied period. That is why the extrapolating results obtained by least squares method are not applicable in an entire study period and rather have a theoretical value. Beyond the study period, however, this feature was found to be the most corresponding to the real situation. It was the least squares method that proved to be the most appropriate for economic interpretation of the forecast results of actual public expenditures on health care. The hypothesis was not confirmed, the author received three differently directed results, while each method had independent significance and its application depended on evaluation study objectives and real social, economic and financial situation in Russian health care system.

  15. Nowcasting of deep convective clouds and heavy precipitation: Comparison study between NWP model simulation and extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr

    2017-02-01

    An evaluation of convective cloud forecasts performed with the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model COSMO and extrapolation of cloud fields is presented using observed data derived from the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). The present study focuses on the nowcasting range (1-5 h) for five severe convective storms in their developing stage that occurred during the warm season in the years 2012-2013. Radar reflectivity and extrapolated radar reflectivity data were assimilated for at least 6 h depending on the time of occurrence of convection. Synthetic satellite imageries were calculated using radiative transfer model RTTOV v10.2, which was implemented into the COSMO model. NWP model simulations of IR10.8 μm and WV06.2 μm brightness temperatures (BTs) with a horizontal resolution of 2.8 km were interpolated into the satellite projection and objectively verified against observations using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (CORR) and Fractions Skill Score (FSS) values. Naturally, the extrapolation of cloud fields yielded an approximately 25% lower RMSE, 20% higher CORR and 15% higher FSS at the beginning of the second forecasted hour compared to the NWP model forecasts. On the other hand, comparable scores were observed for the third hour, whereas the NWP forecasts outperformed the extrapolation by 10% for RMSE, 15% for CORR and up to 15% for FSS during the fourth forecasted hour and 15% for RMSE, 27% for CORR and up to 15% for FSS during the fifth forecasted hour. The analysis was completed by a verification of the precipitation forecasts yielding approximately 8% higher RMSE, 15% higher CORR and up to 45% higher FSS when the NWP model simulation is used compared to the extrapolation for the first hour. Both the methods yielded unsatisfactory level of precipitation forecast accuracy from the fourth forecasted hour onward.

  16. SU-D-204-02: BED Consistent Extrapolation of Mean Dose Tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, Z; Bortfeld, T; Hong, T; Wolfgang, J; Unkelbach, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The safe use of radiotherapy requires the knowledge of tolerable organ doses. For experimental fractionation schemes (e.g. hypofractionation) these are typically extrapolated from traditional fractionation schedules using the Biologically Effective Dose (BED) model. This work demonstrates that using the mean dose in the standard BED equation may overestimate tolerances, potentially leading to unsafe treatments. Instead, extrapolation of mean dose tolerances should take the spatial dose distribution into account. Methods: A formula has been derived to extrapolate mean physical dose constraints such that they are mean BED equivalent. This formula constitutes a modified BED equation where the influence of the spatial dose distribution is summarized in a single parameter, the dose shape factor. To quantify effects we analyzed 14 liver cancer patients previously treated with proton therapy in 5 or 15 fractions, for whom also photon IMRT plans were available. Results: Our work has two main implications. First, in typical clinical plans the dose distribution can have significant effects. When mean dose tolerances are extrapolated from standard fractionation towards hypofractionation they can be overestimated by 10–15%. Second, the shape difference between photon and proton dose distributions can cause 30–40% differences in mean physical dose for plans having the same mean BED. The combined effect when extrapolating proton doses to mean BED equivalent photon doses in traditional 35 fraction regimens resulted in up to 7–8 Gy higher doses than when applying the standard BED formula. This can potentially lead to unsafe treatments (in 1 of the 14 analyzed plans the liver mean dose was above its 32 Gy tolerance). Conclusion: The shape effect should be accounted for to avoid unsafe overestimation of mean dose tolerances, particularly when estimating constraints for hypofractionated regimens. In addition, tolerances established for a given treatment modality cannot

  17. An Efficient Method of Reweighting and Reconstructing Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation Data for Extrapolation to Different Temperature and Density Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shuyu

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces an efficient technique to generate new molecular simulation Markov chains for different temperature and density conditions, which allow for rapid extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages at a range of temperatures and densities different from the original conditions where a single simulation is conducted. Obtained information from the original simulation are reweighted and even reconstructed in order to extrapolate our knowledge to the new conditions. Our technique allows not only the extrapolation to a new temperature or density, but also the double extrapolation to both new temperature and density. The method was implemented for Lennard-Jones fluid with structureless particles in single-gas phase region. Extrapolation behaviors as functions of extrapolation ranges were studied. Limits of extrapolation ranges showed a remarkable capability especially along isochors where only reweighting is required. Various factors that could affect the limits of extrapolation ranges were investigated and compared. In particular, these limits were shown to be sensitive to the number of particles used and starting point where the simulation was originally conducted.

  18. Source‐receiver two‐way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding‐reflector modeling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2010-10-17

    While most of the modern seismic imaging methods perform imaging by separating input data into parts (shot gathers), we develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield backward in time. While computationally extensive, this approach has the potential of generating accurate images, free of artifacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high‐order partial differential equations in source‐receiver‐time domain. The fourth order nature of the extrapolation in time has four solutions two of which correspond to the ingoing and outgoing P‐waves and reduces to the zero‐offset exploding‐reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. Using asymptotic approximations, we develop an approach to extrapolating the full prestack wavefield forward or backward in time.

  19. Variational procedure for nuclear shell-model calculations and energy-variance extrapolation

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Noritaka; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Honma, Michio; Tsunoda, Yusuke; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a variational calculation for nuclear shell-model calculations and propose a new procedure for the energy-variance extrapolation (EVE) method using a sequence of the approximated wave functions obtained by the variational calculation. The wave functions are described as linear combinations of the parity, angular-momentum projected Slater determinants, the energy of which is minimized by the conjugate gradient method obeying the variational principle. The EVE generally works well using the wave functions, but we found some difficult cases where the EVE gives a poor estimation. We discuss the origin of the poor estimation concerning shape coexistence. We found that the appropriate reordering of the Slater determinants allows us to overcome this difficulty and to reduce the uncertainty of the extrapolation.

  20. Extrapolation of Nystrom solution for two dimensional nonlinear Fredholm integral equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoqiang, Han; Jiong, Wang

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the existence of asymptotic error expansion of the Nystrom solution for two-dimensional nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We show that the Nystrom solution admits an error expansion in powers of the step-size h and the step-size k. For a special choice of the numerical quadrature, the leading terms in the error expansion for the Nystrom solution contain only even powers of h and k, beginning with terms h2p and k2q. These expansions are useful for the application of Richardson extrapolation and for obtaining sharper error bounds. Numerical examples show that how Richardson extrapolation gives a remarkable increase of precision, in addition to faster convergence.

  1. {sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  2. Atomically resolved structural determination of graphene and its point defects via extrapolation assisted phase retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner [Physics Department, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-01-12

    Previously reported crystalline structures obtained by an iterative phase retrieval reconstruction of their diffraction patterns seem to be free from displaying any irregularities or defects in the lattice, which appears to be unrealistic. We demonstrate here that the structure of a nanocrystal including its atomic defects can unambiguously be recovered from its diffraction pattern alone by applying a direct phase retrieval procedure not relying on prior information of the object shape. Individual point defects in the atomic lattice are clearly apparent. Conventional phase retrieval routines assume isotropic scattering. We show that when dealing with electrons, the quantitatively correct transmission function of the sample cannot be retrieved due to anisotropic, strong forward scattering specific to electrons. We summarize the conditions for this phase retrieval method and show that the diffraction pattern can be extrapolated beyond the original record to even reveal formerly not visible Bragg peaks. Such extrapolated wave field pattern leads to enhanced spatial resolution in the reconstruction.

  3. Usage of Empirical-Statical-Dynamical (ESD method for data extrapolation in Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafirovski Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a methodology that shows how it is possible to integrate all these approaches in a problem for extrapolation of the parameters for hydrotechical tunnels. During the design process for tunnels in hydrotechics, one of the main problems is how to extrapolate the deformability and shear strentgh rock mass parameters from the zone of testing to the whole area (volume of interes for interaction analyses between structure abd natural environments. Computers development in recent decades has contributed to the development of numerical calculation method in rock mechanics which enabled new and wider possibilities of stress and deformation calculation. This had significantly stimulated the development of rock mechanics and tunneling as scientific and technical discipline as well as the wider application of research results into practice.

  4. The immunogenicity of biosimilar infliximab: can we extrapolate the data across indications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Shomron; Heap, Graham A; Ahmad, Tariq; Kim, HoUng; Kwon, TaekSang; Chowers, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals or 'biologics' have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases. However, some patients generate an immune response to such drugs, potentially limiting clinical efficacy and safety. Infliximab (Remicade(®)) is a monoclonal antibody used to treat several immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. A biosimilar of infliximab, CT-P13 (Remsima(®), Inflectra(®)), has recently been approved in Europe for all indications in which infliximab is approved. Approval of CT-P13 was based in part on extrapolation of clinical trial data from two indications (rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) to all other indications, including inflammatory bowel disease. This review discusses the validity of extrapolating immunogenicity data across indications - a process adopted by the EMA as part of their biosimilar approval process - with a focus on CT-P13.

  5. {sup 131}I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas. Lab. de Quimica de Proteinas

    2009-07-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's {sup 125}ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the {sup 131}I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I were considered. (author)

  6. Improving Predictions with Reliable Extrapolation Schemes and Better Understanding of Factorization

    CERN Document Server

    More, Sushant N

    2016-01-01

    We investigate two distinct sources of uncertainty in low-energy nuclear physics calculations and develop ways to account for them. Harmonic oscillator basis expansions are widely used in ab-initio nuclear structure calculations. Finite computational resources usually require that the basis be truncated before observables are fully converged, necessitating reliable extrapolation schemes. We show that a finite oscillator basis effectively imposes a hard-wall boundary condition. We accurately determine the position of the hard-wall as a function of oscillator space parameters, derive extrapolation formulas for the energy and other observables, and discuss the extension of this approach to higher angular momentum. Nucleon knockout reactions have been widely used to study and understand nuclear properties. Such an analysis implicitly assumes that the effects of the probe can be separated from the physics of the target nucleus. This factorization between nuclear structure and reaction components depends on the ren...

  7. Extrapolation modeling of aerosol deposition in human and laboratory rat lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martonen, T.B.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory test animals are often used as surrogates in exposure studies to assess the potential threat to human health following inhalation of airborne contaminants. To aid in the interpretation and extrapolation of data to man, dosimetric considerations need to be addressed. Therefore, a mathematical model describing the behavior and fate of inhaled particulate matter within the respiratory tracts of man and rats has been developed. In the computer simulations, the CO2 concentrations of inhalation exposure chamber atmospheres are controlled to produce desired breathing patterns in the rat which mimic human breathing patterns as functions of physical activity levels. Herein, deposition patterns in human and rat lung airways are specifically examined as functions of respiratory intensities and particle parameters. The model provides a basis for the re-evaluation of data from past experiments, and, perhaps most importantly, permits new inhalation exposure tests to be designed and conducted in a sound scientific manner regarding this endpoint: the extrapolation of results to human conditions.

  8. Understanding the biosimilar approval and extrapolation process-A case study of an epoetin biosimilar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit B; McBride, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization defines a biosimilar as "a biotherapeutic product which is similar in terms of quality, safety and efficacy to an already licensed reference biotherapeutic product." Biosimilars are biologic medical products that are very distinct from small-molecule generics, as their active substance is a biological agent derived from a living organism. Approval processes are highly regulated, with guidance issued by the European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration. Approval requires a comparability exercise consisting of extensive analytical and preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, and confirmatory clinical studies. Extrapolation of biosimilars from their original indication to another is a feasible but highly stringent process reliant on rigorous scientific justification. This review focuses on the processes involved in gaining biosimilar approval and extrapolation and details the comparability exercise undertaken in the European Union between originator erythropoietin-stimulating agent, Eprex(®), and biosimilar, Retacrit™.

  9. New allometric scaling relationships and applications for dose and toxicity extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qiming; Yu, Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2014-01-01

    Allometric scaling between metabolic rate, size, body temperature, and other biological traits has found broad applications in ecology, physiology, and particularly in toxicology and pharmacology. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was observed to scale with body size and temperature. However, the mass scaling exponent was increasingly debated whether it should be 2/3, 3/4, or neither, and scaling with body temperature also attracted recent attention. Based on thermodynamic principles, this work reports 2 new scaling relationships between BMR, size, temperature, and biological time. Good correlations were found with the new scaling relationships, and no universal scaling exponent can be obtained. The new scaling relationships were successfully validated with external toxicological and pharmacological studies. Results also demonstrated that individual extrapolation models can be built to obtain scaling exponent specific to the interested group, which can be practically applied for dose and toxicity extrapolations.

  10. Infrared length scale and extrapolations for the no-core shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Wendt, K A; Papenbrock, T; Sääf, D

    2015-01-01

    We precisely determine the infrared (IR) length scale of the no-core shell model (NCSM). In the NCSM, the $A$-body Hilbert space is truncated by the total energy, and the IR length can be determined by equating the intrinsic kinetic energy of $A$ nucleons in the NCSM space to that of $A$ nucleons in a $3(A-1)$-dimensional hyper-radial well with a Dirichlet boundary condition for the hyper radius. We demonstrate that this procedure indeed yields a very precise IR length by performing large-scale NCSM calculations for $^{6}$Li. We apply our result and perform accurate IR extrapolations for bound states of $^{4}$He, $^{6}$He, $^{6}$Li, $^{7}$Li. We also attempt to extrapolate NCSM results for $^{10}$B and $^{16}$O with bare interactions from chiral effective field theory over tens of MeV.

  11. Rarefaction and Extrapolation: Making Fair Comparison of Abundance-Sensitive Phylogenetic Diversity among Multiple Assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, T C; Chao, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Measures of phylogenetic diversity are basic tools in many studies of systematic biology. Faith’s PD (sum of branch lengths of a phylogenetic tree connecting all focal species) is the most widely used phylogenetic measure. Like species richness, Faith’s PD based on sampling data is highly dependent on sample size and sample completeness. The sample-size- and sample-coverage-based integration of rarefaction and extrapolation of Faith’s PD was recently developed to make fair comparison across multiple assemblages. However, species abundances are not considered in Faith’s PD. Based on the framework of Hill numbers, Faith’s PD was generalized to a class of phylogenetic diversity measures that incorporates species abundances. In this article, we develop both theoretical formulae and analytic estimators for seamless rarefaction and extrapolation for this class of abundance-sensitive phylogenetic measures, which includes simple transformations of phylogenetic entropy and of quadratic entropy. This work generalizes the previous rarefaction/extrapolation model of Faith’s PD to incorporate species abundance, and also extends the previous rarefaction/extrapolation model of Hill numbers to include phylogenetic differences among species. Thus a unified approach to assessing and comparing species/taxonomic diversity and phylogenetic diversity can be established. A bootstrap method is suggested for constructing confidence intervals around the phylogenetic diversity, facilitating the comparison of multiple assemblages. Our formulation and estimators can be extended to incidence data collected from multiple sampling units. We also illustrate the formulae and estimators using bacterial sequence data from the human distal esophagus and phyllostomid bat data from three habitats.

  12. On the problem of discrete extrapolation of a band-limited signal

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenti, Graziano; Volpi, Aldo

    1992-01-01

    Si considera il sistema lineare equivalente al problema della estrapolazione discreta di un segnale a banda limitata. Si dimostra che la matrice di iterazione del metodo di Gerchberg-Papoulis, metodo iterativo applicato a questo sistema, è una matrice convergente. Si verifica inoltre che la convergenza di tale metodo è cosi lenta da rendere tale metodo praticamente inutilizzabile. We consider the linear system equivalent to the problem of discrete extrapolation of a band-limited signal. We...

  13. Precise Numerical Results of IR-vertex and box integration with Extrapolation Method

    CERN Document Server

    Yuasa, F; Fujimoro, J; Hamaguchi, N; Ishikawa, T; Shimizu, Y

    2007-01-01

    We present a new approach for obtaining very precise integration results for infrared vertex and box diagrams, where the integration is carried out directly without performing any analytic integration of Feynman parameters. Using an appropriate numerical integration routine with an extrapolation method, together with a multi-precision library, we have obtained integration results which agree with the analytic results to 10 digits even for such a very small photon mass as $10^{-150}$ GeV in the infrared vertex diagram.

  14. -Error Estimates of the Extrapolated Crank-Nicolson Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations for Nonlinear Sobolev Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HyunYoung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.

  15. On the problem of discrete extrapolation of a band-limited signal

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenti, Graziano; Volpi, Aldo

    1992-01-01

    Si considera il sistema lineare equivalente al problema della estrapolazione discreta di un segnale a banda limitata. Si dimostra che la matrice di iterazione del metodo di Gerchberg-Papoulis, metodo iterativo applicato a questo sistema, è una matrice convergente. Si verifica inoltre che la convergenza di tale metodo è cosi lenta da rendere tale metodo praticamente inutilizzabile. We consider the linear system equivalent to the problem of discrete extrapolation of a band-limited signal. We...

  16. Multi-State Extrapolation of Uv/vis Absorption Spectra with Qm/qm Hybrid Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Sijin; Caricato, Marco

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we present a simple approach to obtain absorption spectra from hybrid QM/QM calculations. The goal is to obtain reliable spectra for compounds that are too large to be treated entirely at a high level of theory. The approach is based on the extrapolation of the entire absorption spectrum obtained by individual subcalculations. Our program locates the main spectral features in each subcalculation, e.g. band peaks and shoulders, and fits them to Gaussian functions. Each Gaussian is then extrapolated with a formula similar to that of ONIOM (Our own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital molecular Mechanics). However, information about individual excitations is not necessary so that difficult state-matching across subcalculations is avoided. This multi-state extrapolation thus requires relatively low implementation effort while affording maximum flexibility in the choice of methods to be combined in the hybrid approach. The test calculations show the efficacy and robustness of this methodology in reproducing the spectrum computed for the entire molecule at a high level of theory.

  17. A new extrapolation cascadic multigrid method for three dimensional elliptic boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kejia; He, Dongdong; Hu, Hongling; Ren, Zhengyong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we develop a new extrapolation cascadic multigrid method, which makes it possible to solve three dimensional elliptic boundary value problems with over 100 million unknowns on a desktop computer in half a minute. First, by combining Richardson extrapolation and quadratic finite element (FE) interpolation for the numerical solutions on two-level of grids (current and previous grids), we provide a quite good initial guess for the iterative solution on the next finer grid, which is a third-order approximation to the FE solution. And the resulting large linear system from the FE discretization is then solved by the Jacobi-preconditioned conjugate gradient (JCG) method with the obtained initial guess. Additionally, instead of performing a fixed number of iterations as used in existing cascadic multigrid methods, a relative residual tolerance is introduced in the JCG solver, which enables us to obtain conveniently the numerical solution with the desired accuracy. Moreover, a simple method based on the midpoint extrapolation formula is proposed to achieve higher-order accuracy on the finest grid cheaply and directly. Test results from four examples including two smooth problems with both constant and variable coefficients, an H3-regular problem as well as an anisotropic problem are reported to show that the proposed method has much better efficiency compared to the classical V-cycle and W-cycle multigrid methods. Finally, we present the reason why our method is highly efficient for solving these elliptic problems.

  18. Entropy Rate Estimates for Natural Language—A New Extrapolation of Compressed Large-Scale Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Takahira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental questions about human language is whether its entropy rate is positive. The entropy rate measures the average amount of information communicated per unit time. The question about the entropy of language dates back to experiments by Shannon in 1951, but in 1990 Hilberg raised doubt regarding a correct interpretation of these experiments. This article provides an in-depth empirical analysis, using 20 corpora of up to 7.8 gigabytes across six languages (English, French, Russian, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese, to conclude that the entropy rate is positive. To obtain the estimates for data length tending to infinity, we use an extrapolation function given by an ansatz. Whereas some ansatzes were proposed previously, here we use a new stretched exponential extrapolation function that has a smaller error of fit. Thus, we conclude that the entropy rates of human languages are positive but approximately 20% smaller than without extrapolation. Although the entropy rate estimates depend on the script kind, the exponent of the ansatz function turns out to be constant across different languages and governs the complexity of natural language in general. In other words, in spite of typological differences, all languages seem equally hard to learn, which partly confirms Hilberg’s hypothesis.

  19. A model for the data extrapolation of greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian hydroelectric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Aurélio dos Santos, Marco; Gesteira, Claudio; Elias Xavier, Adilson

    2016-06-01

    Hydropower reservoirs are artificial water systems and comprise a small proportion of the Earth’s continental territory. However, they play an important role in the aquatic biogeochemistry and may affect the environment negatively. Since the 90s, as a result of research on organic matter decay in manmade flooded areas, some reports have associated greenhouse gas emissions with dam construction. Pioneering work carried out in the early period challenged the view that hydroelectric plants generate completely clean energy. Those estimates suggested that GHG emissions into the atmosphere from some hydroelectric dams may be significant when measured per unit of energy generated and should be compared to GHG emissions from fossil fuels used for power generation. The contribution to global warming of greenhouse gases emitted by hydropower reservoirs is currently the subject of various international discussions and debates. One of the most controversial issues is the extrapolation of data from different sites. In this study, the extrapolation from a site sample where measurements were made to the complete set of 251 reservoirs in Brazil, comprising a total flooded area of 32 485 square kilometers, was derived from the theory of self-organized criticality. We employed a power law for its statistical representation. The present article reviews the data generated at that time in order to demonstrate how, with the help of mathematical tools, we can extrapolate values from one reservoir to another without compromising the reliability of the results.

  20. The 3D structure of an active region filament as extrapolated from photospheric and chromospheric observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chaouche, L Yelles; Pillet, V Martínez; Moreno-Insertis, F

    2012-01-01

    The 3D structure of an active region (AR) filament is studied using nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations based on simultaneous observations at a photospheric and a chromospheric height. To that end, we used the Si I 10827 \\AA\\ line and the He I 10830 \\AA\\ triplet obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at the VTT (Tenerife). The two extrapolations have been carried out independently from each other and their respective spatial domains overlap in a considerable height range. This opens up new possibilities for diagnostics in addition to the usual ones obtained through a single extrapolation from, typically, a photospheric layer. Among those possibilities, this method allows the determination of an average formation height of the He I 10830 \\AA\\ signal of \\approx 2 Mm above the surface of the sun. It allows, as well, to cross-check the obtained 3D magnetic structures in view of verifying a possible deviation from the force- free condition especially at the photosphere. The extrapolati...

  1. Establishing a new marketplace for biologic therapy with biosimilar agents: importance of extrapolation of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressler B

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brian Bressler,1 Theo Dingermann2 1St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Frankfurt, Germany Abstract: Despite their enormous value for our health care system, biopharmaceuticals have become a serious threat to the system itself due to their high cost. Costs may be warranted if the medicine is new and innovative; however, it is no longer an innovation when its patent protection expires. As patents and exclusivities expire on biological drugs, biosimilar products defined as highly similar to reference biologics are being marketed. The goal of biosimilar development is to establish a high degree of biosimilarity, not to reestablish clinical efficacy and safety. Current sophisticated analytical methods allow the detection of even small changes in quality attributes and can therefore enable sensitive monitoring of the batch-to-batch consistency and variability of the manufacturing process. The European Medicines Agency (EMA, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and Health Canada have determined that a reduced number of nonclinical and clinical comparative studies can be sufficient for approval with clinical data from the most sensitive indication extrapolated to other indications. Extrapolation of data is a scientifically based principle, guided by specific criteria, and if approved by the EMA, FDA, and/or Health Canada is appropriate. Enablement of extrapolation of data is a core principle of biosimilar development, based on principles of comparability and necessary to fully realize cost savings for these drugs. Keywords: biosimilars, Inflectra, infliximab, pharmacoeconomics, Canada, Europe 

  2. Uncertainty of the potential curve minimum for diatomic molecules extrapolated from Dunham type coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, T.; Iliev, I.; Pashov, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the traditional description of electronic states of diatomic molecules by means of molecular constants or Dunham coefficients, one of the important fitting parameters is the value of the zero point energy - the minimum of the potential curve or the energy of the lowest vibrational-rotational level - E00 . Their values are almost always the result of an extrapolation and it may be difficult to estimate their uncertainties, because they are connected not only with the uncertainty of the experimental data, but also with the distribution of experimentally observed energy levels and the particular realization of set of Dunham coefficients. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis based on Monte Carlo simulations, which aims to demonstrate the influence of all these factors on the uncertainty of the extrapolated minimum of the potential energy curve U (Re) and the value of E00 . The very good extrapolation properties of the Dunham coefficients are quantitatively confirmed and it is shown that for a proper estimate of the uncertainties, the ambiguity in the composition of the Dunham coefficients should be taken into account.

  3. Limitations of force-free magnetic field extrapolations: revisiting basic assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Peter, H; Chitta, L P; Cameron, R H

    2015-01-01

    Force-free extrapolations are widely used to study the magnetic field in the solar corona based on surface measurements. The extrapolations assume that the ratio of internal energy of the plasma to magnetic energy, the plasma-beta is negligible. Despite the widespread use of this assumption observations, models, and theoretical considerations show that beta is of the order of a few percent to more than 10%, and thus not small. We investigate what consequences this has for the reliability of extrapolation results. We use basic concepts starting with the force and the energy balance to infer relations between plasma-beta and free magnetic energy, to study the direction of currents in the corona with respect to the magnetic field, and to estimate the errors in the free magnetic energy by neglecting effects of the plasma (beta<<1). A comparison with a 3D MHD model supports our basic considerations. If plasma-beta is of the order of the relative free energy (the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the total...

  4. Extrapolation of IAPWS-IF97 data: The saturation pressure of H2O in the critical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustyuzhanin, E. E.; Ochkov, V. F.; Shishakov, V. V.; Rykov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Some literature sources and web sites are analyzed in this report. These sources contain an information about thermophysical properties of H2O including the vapor pressure Ps. (Ps,T)-data have a form of the international standard tables named as “IAPWS-IF97 data”. Our analysis shows that traditional databases represent (Ps,T)-data at t > 0.002, here t = (Tc - T)/Tc is a reduced temperature. It is an interesting task to extrapolate IAPWS-IF97 data in to the critical region and to get (Ps,T)-data at t laws of the scaling theory (ST). A combined model (CM) is chosen as a form, F(t,D,B), to express a function ln(Ps/Pc) in the critical region including t laws of ST are taken into account to elaborate F(t, D, B). Adjustable coefficients (B) are determined by fitting CM to input (Ps,T)-points those belong to IAPWS-IF97 data. Application results are got with a help of CM in the critical region including values of the first and the second derivatives for Ps(T). Some models Ps(T) are compared with CM.

  5. Further improvement of temporal resolution of seismic data by autoregressive (AR) spectral extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karslı, Hakan

    2006-08-01

    Seismic data have still no enough temporal resolution because of band-limited nature of available data even if it is deconvolved. However, lower and higher frequency information belonging to seismic data is missing and it is not directly recovered from seismic data. In this paper, a method originally applied by Honarvar et al. [Honarvar, F., Sheikhzadeh, H., Moles, M., Sinclair, A.N., 2004. Improving the time-resolution and signal-noise ratio of ultrasonic NDE signals. Ultrasonics 41, 755-763.] which is the combination of the most widely used Wiener deconvolution and AR spectral extrapolation in frequency domain is briefly reviewed and is applied to seismic data to improve temporal resolution further. The missing frequency information is optimally recovered by forward and backward extrapolation based on the selection of a high signal-noise ratio (SNR) of signal spectrum deconvolved in signal processing technique. The combination of the two methods is firstly tested on a variety of synthetic examples and then applied to a stacked real trace. The selection of necessary parameters in Wiener filtering and in extrapolation are discussed in detail. It is used an optimum frequency windows between 3 and 10 dB drops by comparing results from these drops, while frequency windows are used as standard between 2.8 and 3.2 dB drops in study of Honarvar et al. [Honarvar, F., Sheikhzadeh, H., Moles, M., Sinclair, A.N., 2004. Improving the time-resolution and signal-noise ratio of ultrasonic NDE signals. Ultrasonics 41, 755-763.]. The results obtained show that the application of the purposed signal processing technique considerably improves temporal resolution of seismic data when compared with the original seismic data. Furthermore, AR based spectral extrapolated data can be almost considered as reflectivity sequence of layered medium. Consequently, the combination of Wiener deconvolution and AR spectral extrapolation can reveal some details of seismic data that cannot be

  6. Collaborative form(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Gunn asks us to consider beauty as collaborative forms of action generated by moving between design by means of anthropology and anthropology by means of design. Specifically, she gives focus to play-like reflexions on practices of designing energy products, systems and infrastructure. Design...

  7. Parameter extrapolation to ungauged basins with a hydrological distributed model in a regional framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vélez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A Regional Water Resources study was performed at basins within and draining to the Basque Country Region (N of Spain, with a total area of approximately 8500 km2. The objective was to obtain daily and monthly long-term discharges in 567 points, most of them ungauged, with basin areas ranging from 0.25 to 1850 km2. In order to extrapolate the calibrations at gauged points to the ungauged ones, a distributed and conceptually based model called TETIS was used. In TETIS the runoff production is modelled using five linked tanks at the each cell with different outflow relationships at each tank, which represents the main hydrological processes as snowmelt, evapotranspiration, overland flow, interflow and base flow. The routing along the channels' network couples its geomorphologic characteristics with the kinematic wave approach. The parameter estimation methodology tries to distinguish between the effective parameter used in the model at the cell scale, and the watershed characteristic estimated from the available information, being the best estimation without losing its physical meaning. The relationship between them can be considered as a correction function or, in its simple form, a correction factor. The correction factor can take into account the model input errors, the temporal and spatial scale effects and the watershed characteristics. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume the correction factor is the same for each parameter to all cells within the watershed. This approach reduces drastically the number of parameter to be calibrated, because only the common correction factors are calibrated instead of parameter maps (number of parameters times the number of cells. In this way, the calibration can be performed using automatic methodologies. In this work, the Shuffled Complex Evolution – University of Arizona, SCE-UA algorithm was used. The available recent year's data was used to calibrate the model in 20 of

  8. Testing the suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic properties across regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Halford, Keith; Sweetkind, Don; Fenelon, Joe

    2016-08-01

    The suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic conductivity ( K) to length scales commensurate with hydraulic data is difficult to assess. A novel method is presented for evaluating assumed relations between K and geologic interpretations for regional-scale groundwater modeling. The approach relies on simultaneous interpretation of multiple aquifer tests using alternative geologic frameworks of variable complexity, where each framework is incorporated as prior information that assumes homogeneous K within each model unit. This approach is tested at Pahute Mesa within the Nevada National Security Site (USA), where observed drawdowns from eight aquifer tests in complex, highly faulted volcanic rocks provide the necessary hydraulic constraints. The investigated volume encompasses 40 mi3 (167 km3) where drawdowns traversed major fault structures and were detected more than 2 mi (3.2 km) from pumping wells. Complexity of the five frameworks assessed ranges from an undifferentiated mass of rock with a single unit to 14 distinct geologic units. Results show that only four geologic units can be justified as hydraulically unique for this location. The approach qualitatively evaluates the consistency of hydraulic property estimates within extents of investigation and effects of geologic frameworks on extrapolation. Distributions of transmissivity are similar within the investigated extents irrespective of the geologic framework. In contrast, the extrapolation of hydraulic properties beyond the volume investigated with interfering aquifer tests is strongly affected by the complexity of a given framework. Testing at Pahute Mesa illustrates how this method can be employed to determine the appropriate level of geologic complexity for large-scale groundwater modeling.

  9. Testing the suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic properties across regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Halford, Keith J.; Sweetkind, Donald; Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic conductivity (K) to length scales commensurate with hydraulic data is difficult to assess. A novel method is presented for evaluating assumed relations between K and geologic interpretations for regional-scale groundwater modeling. The approach relies on simultaneous interpretation of multiple aquifer tests using alternative geologic frameworks of variable complexity, where each framework is incorporated as prior information that assumes homogeneous K within each model unit. This approach is tested at Pahute Mesa within the Nevada National Security Site (USA), where observed drawdowns from eight aquifer tests in complex, highly faulted volcanic rocks provide the necessary hydraulic constraints. The investigated volume encompasses 40 mi3 (167 km3) where drawdowns traversed major fault structures and were detected more than 2 mi (3.2 km) from pumping wells. Complexity of the five frameworks assessed ranges from an undifferentiated mass of rock with a single unit to 14 distinct geologic units. Results show that only four geologic units can be justified as hydraulically unique for this location. The approach qualitatively evaluates the consistency of hydraulic property estimates within extents of investigation and effects of geologic frameworks on extrapolation. Distributions of transmissivity are similar within the investigated extents irrespective of the geologic framework. In contrast, the extrapolation of hydraulic properties beyond the volume investigated with interfering aquifer tests is strongly affected by the complexity of a given framework. Testing at Pahute Mesa illustrates how this method can be employed to determine the appropriate level of geologic complexity for large-scale groundwater modeling.

  10. Key to Opening Kidney for In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation Entrance in Health and Disease: Part II: Mechanistic Models and In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotcher, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Posada, Maria; Galetin, Aleksandra; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2016-09-01

    It is envisaged that application of mechanistic models will improve prediction of changes in renal disposition due to drug-drug interactions, genetic polymorphism in enzymes and transporters and/or renal impairment. However, developing and validating mechanistic kidney models is challenging due to the number of processes that may occur (filtration, secretion, reabsorption and metabolism) in this complex organ. Prediction of human renal drug disposition from preclinical species may be hampered by species differences in the expression and activity of drug metabolising enzymes and transporters. A proposed solution is bottom-up prediction of pharmacokinetic parameters based on in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE), mediated by recent advances in in vitro experimental techniques and application of relevant scaling factors. This review is a follow-up to the Part I of the report from the 2015 AAPS Annual Meeting and Exhibition (Orlando, FL; 25th-29th October 2015) which focuses on IVIVE and mechanistic prediction of renal drug disposition. It describes the various mechanistic kidney models that may be used to investigate renal drug disposition. Particular attention is given to efforts that have attempted to incorporate elements of IVIVE. In addition, the use of mechanistic models in prediction of renal drug-drug interactions and potential for application in determining suitable adjustment of dose in kidney disease are discussed. The need for suitable clinical pharmacokinetics data for the purposes of delineating mechanistic aspects of kidney models in various scenarios is highlighted.

  11. Linear extrapolation for prediction of tensile creep compliance of polyvinyl chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Gang

    2005-01-01

    The universal creep equation is successful in relating the creep (ε) to the aging time (te), coefficient of retardation time (β), and intrinsic time (to ). This relation was used to treat the creep experimental data for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) specimens at a given stress and different aging times. The βgs found by the "polynomial fitting" method in this work instead of the "middle -point" method reported in the literature. The unified master line was constructed with the treated data and curves according to the universal equation. The master line can be used to predict the long -term creep behavior and lifetime by extrapolating.

  12. Sur l'Extrapolation des Signoux d'Energie Finie a Band Limitee

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonniaud, A. L.; Crouzet, J-F.; Gay, R.

    1996-01-01

    We show that both Papoulis' method and Aizenberg's method for extrapolating finite energy and band limited signals are related to each other, provided that the same setting is used to describe both methods. We study such a setting and give some examples we comment. On montre que les méthodes d'Exploration de signaux d'énergie finie et à bande limitée de Papoulis et d'Aizenberg peuvent être reliées dans un cadre d'étude commun. On étudie ce cadre de travail et on donne quelques exemples com...

  13. Challenges for In vitro to in Vivo Extrapolation of Nanomaterial Dosimetry for Human Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.

    2013-11-01

    The proliferation in types and uses of nanomaterials in consumer products has led to rapid application of conventional in vitro approaches for hazard identification. Unfortunately, assumptions pertaining to experimental design and interpretation for studies with chemicals are not generally appropriate for nanomaterials. The fate of nanomaterials in cell culture media, cellular dose to nanomaterials, cellular dose to nanomaterial byproducts, and intracellular fate of nanomaterials at the target site of toxicity all must be considered in order to accurately extrapolate in vitro results to reliable predictions of human risk.

  14. Making the most of what we have: application of extrapolation approaches in wildlife transfer models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, Nicholas A.; Barnett, Catherine L.; Wells, Claire [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Brown, Justin E.; Hosseini, Ali [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Yankovich, Tamara L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400, Vienna (Austria); Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Willey, Neil [Centre for Research in Biosciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Radiological environmental protection models need to predict the transfer of many radionuclides to a large number of organisms. There has been considerable development of transfer (predominantly concentration ratio) databases over the last decade. However, in reality it is unlikely we will ever have empirical data for all the species-radionuclide combinations which may need to be included in assessments. To provide default values for a number of existing models/frameworks various extrapolation approaches have been suggested (e.g. using data for a similar organism or element). This paper presents recent developments in two such extrapolation approaches, namely phylogeny and allometry. An evaluation of how extrapolation approaches have performed and the potential application of Bayesian statistics to make best use of available data will also be given. Using a Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML) mixed-model regression we initially analysed a dataset comprising 597 entries for 53 freshwater fish species from 67 sites to investigate if phylogenetic variation in transfer could be identified. The REML analysis generated an estimated mean value for each species on a common scale after taking account of the effect of the inter-site variation. Using an independent dataset, we tested the hypothesis that the REML model outputs could be used to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in other species from the results of a species which had been sampled at a specific site. The outputs of the REML analysis accurately predicted {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in different species of fish from 27 lakes. Although initially investigated as an extrapolation approach the output of this work is a potential alternative to the highly site dependent concentration ratio model. We are currently applying this approach to a wider range of organism types and different ecosystems. An initial analysis of these results will be presented. The application of allometric, or mass

  15. Extrapolating Acceleration Algorithms for Finding B—Spline Intersections Using Recursive Subdivision Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀; 范刚; 等

    1994-01-01

    The new algorithms for finding B-Spline or Bezier curves and surfaces intersections using recursive subdivision techniques are presented,which use extrapolating acceleration technique,and have convergent precision of order 2.Matrix method is used to subdivide the curves or surfaces which makes the subdivision more concise and intuitive.Dividing depths of Bezier curves and surfaces are used to subdivide the curves or surfaces adaptively.Therefore the convergent precision and the computing efficiency of finding the intersections of curves and surfaces have been improved by the methods proposed in the paper.

  16. Study of an extrapolation chamber in a standard diagnostic radiology beam by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedovato, Uly Pita; Silva, Rayre Janaina Vieira; Neves, Lucio Pereira; Santos, William S.; Perini, Ana Paula, E-mail: anapaula.perini@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (INFIS/UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of the components of an extrapolation ionization chamber in its response. This study was undertaken using the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo code, and the standard diagnostic radiology quality for direct beams (RQR5). Using tally F6 and 2.1 x 10{sup 9} simulated histories, the results showed that the chamber design and material not alter significantly the energy deposited in its sensitive volume. The collecting electrode and support board were the components with more influence on the chamber response. (author)

  17. CUORE crystal validation runs: results on radioactive contamination and extrapolation to CUORE background

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandria, F; Ardito, R; Arnaboldi, C; Avignone, F T; Balata, M; Bandac, I; Banks, T I; Bari, G; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bersani, A; Biassoni, M; Bloxham, T; Brofferio, C; Bryant, A; Bucci, C; Cai, X Z; Canonica, L; Capelli, S; Carbone, L; Cardani, L; Carrettoni, M; Chott, N; Clemenza, M; Cosmelli, C; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Dafinei, I; Dally, A; De Biasi, A; Decowski, M P; Deninno, M M; de Waard, A; Di Domizio, S; Ejzak, L; Faccini, R; Fang, D Q; Farach, H; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Fiorini, E; Foggetta, L; Freedman, S; Frossati, G; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Gotti, C; Guardincerri, E; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Han, K; Heeger, K M; Huang, H Z; Ichimura, K; Kadel, R; Kazkaz, K; Keppel, G; Kogler, L; Kolomensky, Y G; Kraft, S; Lenz, D; Li, Y L; Liu, X; Longo, E; Ma, Y G; Maiano, C; Maier, G; Martinez, C; Martinez, M; Maruyama, R H; Moggi, N; Morganti, S; Newman, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; Orio, F; Orlandi, D; Ouellet, J; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pessina, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rampazzo, V; Rimondi, F; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Salvioni, C; Sangiorgio, S; Schaeffer, D; Scielzo, N D; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Stivanello, F; Taffarello, L; Terenziani, G; Tian, W D; Tomei, C; Trentalange, S; Ventura, G; Vignati, M; Wang, B; Wang, H W; Whitten, C A; Wise, T; Woodcraft, A; Xu, N; Zanotti, L; Zarra, C; Zhu, B X; Zucchelli, S

    2011-01-01

    The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performances and the radiopurity of the TeO$_2$ crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs are presented. Results have been obtained for bulk contaminations and surface contaminations from several nuclides. An extrapolation to the CUORE background has been performed.

  18. Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barettin, Daniele; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-05-16

    We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on In₀.₄₈Ga₀.₅₂ buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, [Formula: see text] bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband [Formula: see text] approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further verifications, which have clarified some aspects of the experimental

  19. Extrapolation of model tests measurements of whipping to identify the dimensioning sea states for container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storhaug, Gaute; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Whipping can contribute to increased fatigue and extreme loading of container ships, and guidelines have been made available by the leading class societies. Reports concerning the hogging collapse of MSC Napoli and MOL Comfort suggest that whipping contributed. The accidents happened in moderate...... to small storms. Model tests of three container ships have been carried out in different sea states under realistic assumptions. Preliminary extrapolation of the measured data suggested that moderate storms are dimensioning when whipping is included due to higher maximum speed in moderate storms...

  20. Visualization and Nowcasting for Aviation using online verified ensemble weather radar extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenboeck, Rudolf; Kerschbaum, Markus; Hennermann, Karin; Mayer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Nowcasting of precipitation events, especially thunderstorm events or winter storms, has high impact on flight safety and efficiency for air traffic management. Future strategic planning by air traffic control will result in circumnavigation of potential hazardous areas, reduction of load around efficiency hot spots by offering alternatives, increase of handling capacity, anticipation of avoidance manoeuvres and increase of awareness before dangerous areas are entered by aircraft. To facilitate this rapid update forecasts of location, intensity, size, movement and development of local storms are necessary. Weather radar data deliver precipitation analysis of high temporal and spatial resolution close to real time by using clever scanning strategies. These data are the basis to generate rapid update forecasts in a time frame up to 2 hours and more for applications in aviation meteorological service provision, such as optimizing safety and economic impact in the context of sub-scale phenomena. On the basis of tracking radar echoes by correlation the movement vectors of successive weather radar images are calculated. For every new successive radar image a set of ensemble precipitation fields is collected by using different parameter sets like pattern match size, different time steps, filter methods and an implementation of history of tracking vectors and plausibility checks. This method considers the uncertainty in rain field displacement and different scales in time and space. By validating manually a set of case studies, the best verification method and skill score is defined and implemented into an online-verification scheme which calculates the optimized forecasts for different time steps and different areas by using different extrapolation ensemble members. To get information about the quality and reliability of the extrapolation process additional information of data quality (e.g. shielding in Alpine areas) is extrapolated and combined with an extrapolation

  1. 3D Drop Size Distribution Extrapolation Algorithm Using a Single Disdrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2012-01-01

    Determining the Z-R relationship (where Z is the radar reflectivity factor and R is rainfall rate) from disdrometer data has been and is a common goal of cloud physicists and radar meteorology researchers. The usefulness of this quantity has traditionally been limited since radar represents a volume measurement, while a disdrometer corresponds to a point measurement. To solve that problem, a 3D-DSD (drop-size distribution) method of determining an equivalent 3D Z-R was developed at the University of Central Florida and tested at the Kennedy Space Center, FL. Unfortunately, that method required a minimum of three disdrometers clustered together within a microscale network (.1-km separation). Since most commercial disdrometers used by the radar meteorology/cloud physics community are high-cost instruments, three disdrometers located within a microscale area is generally not a practical strategy due to the limitations of these kinds of research budgets. A relatively simple modification to the 3D-DSD algorithm provides an estimate of the 3D-DSD and therefore, a 3D Z-R measurement using a single disdrometer. The basis of the horizontal extrapolation is mass conservation of a drop size increment, employing the mass conservation equation. For vertical extrapolation, convolution of a drop size increment using raindrop terminal velocity is used. Together, these two independent extrapolation techniques provide a complete 3DDSD estimate in a volume around and above a single disdrometer. The estimation error is lowest along a vertical plane intersecting the disdrometer position in the direction of wind advection. This work demonstrates that multiple sensors are not required for successful implementation of the 3D interpolation/extrapolation algorithm. This is a great benefit since it is seldom that multiple sensors in the required spatial arrangement are available for this type of analysis. The original software (developed at the University of Central Florida, 1998.- 2000) has

  2. Molecular Target Homology as a Basis for Species Extrapolation to Assess the Ecological Risk of Veterinary Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased identification of veterinary pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments has raised concerns regarding potential adverse effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for predictive species extrapolation ut...

  3. Molecular Target Homology as a Basis for Species Extrapolation to Assess the Ecological Risk of Veterinary Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased identification of veterinary pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments has raised concerns regarding potential adverse effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for predictive species extrapolation ut...

  4. Application of Two-Parameter Extrapolation for Solution of Boundary-Value Problem on Semi-Axis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhidkov, E P

    2000-01-01

    A method for refining approximate eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for a boundary-value problem on a half-axis is suggested. To solve the problem numerically, one has to solve a problem on a finite segment [0,R] instead of the original problem on the interval [0,\\infty). This replacement leads to eigenvalues' and eigenfunctions' errors. To choose R beforehand for obtaining their required accuracy is often impossible. Thus, one has to resolve the problem on [0,R] with larger R. If there are two eigenvalues or two eigenfunctions that correspond to different segments, the suggested method allows one to improve the accuracy of the eigenvalue and the eigenfunction for the original problem by means of extrapolation along the segment. This approach is similar to Richardson's method. Moreover, a two-parameter extrapolation is described. It is combination of the extrapolation along the segment and Richardson's extrapolation along a discretization step.

  5. Direct activity determination of Mn-54 and Zn-65 by a non-extrapolation liquid scintillation method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of Mn-54 and Zn-65 by liquid scintillation coincidence counting results in low detection efficiencies. The activity obtained from the extrapolation of efficiency data can therefore become problematic if curvature is present...

  6. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/Lα two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol-1. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol-1.

  7. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  8. Basic antenna transmitting characteristics using an extrapolation range measurement technique at a millimeter-wave band at NMIJ/AIST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2007-06-01

    A novel test fixture operating at a millimeter-wave band using an extrapolation range measurement technique was developed at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). Here I describe the measurement system using a Q-band test fixture. I measured the relative insertion loss as a function of antenna separation distance and observed the effects of multiple reflections between the antennas. I also evaluated the antenna gain at 33 GHz using the extrapolation technique.

  9. Accelerating Monte Carlo Molecular Simulations Using Novel Extrapolation Schemes Combined with Fast Database Generation on Massively Parallel Machines

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to extrapolate and interpolate normalized Canonical NVT ensemble averages like pressure and energy for Lennard-Jones (L-J) fluids. Preliminary results show promising applicability in oil and gas modeling, where accurate determination of thermodynamic properties in reservoirs is challenging. The thermodynamic interpolation and thermodynamic extrapolation schemes predict ensemble averages at different thermodynamic conditions from expensively simulated data points. The methods reweight and reconstruct previously generated database values of Markov chains at neighboring temperature and density conditions. To investigate the efficiency of these methods, two databases corresponding to different combinations of normalized density and temperature are generated. One contains 175 Markov chains with 10,000,000 MC cycles each and the other contains 3000 Markov chains with 61,000,000 MC cycles each. For such massive database creation, two algorithms to parallelize the computations have been investigated. The accuracy of the thermodynamic extrapolation scheme is investigated with respect to classical interpolation and extrapolation. Finally, thermodynamic interpolation benefiting from four neighboring Markov chains points is implemented and compared with previous schemes. The thermodynamic interpolation scheme using knowledge from the four neighboring points proves to be more accurate than the thermodynamic extrapolation from the closest point only, while both thermodynamic extrapolation and thermodynamic interpolation are more accurate than the classical interpolation and extrapolation. The investigated extrapolation scheme has great potential in oil and gas reservoir modeling.That is, such a scheme has the potential to speed up the MCMC thermodynamic computation to be comparable with conventional Equation of State approaches in efficiency. In particular, this makes it applicable to large-scale optimization of L

  10. The role of strange sea quarks in chiral extrapolations on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Descotes-Genon, S

    2004-01-01

    Since the strange quark has a light mass of order Lambda_QCD, fluctuations of sea s-s bar pairs may play a special role in the low-energy dynamics of QCD by inducing significantly different patterns of chiral symmetry breaking in the chiral limits N_f=2 (m_u=m_d=0, m_s physical) and N_f=3 (m_u=m_d=m_s=0). This effect of vacuum fluctuations of s-s bar pairs is related to the violation of the Zweig rule in the scalar sector, described through the two O(p^4) low-energy constants L_4 and L_6 of the three-flavour strong chiral lagrangian. In the case of significant vacuum fluctuations, three-flavour chiral expansions might exhibit a numerical competition between leading- and next-to-leading-order terms according to the chiral counting, and chiral extrapolations should be handled with a special care. We investigate the impact of the fluctuations of s-s bar pairs on chiral extrapolations in the case of lattice simulations with three dynamical flavours in the isospin limit. Information on the size of the vacuum fluct...

  11. Image reconstruction: a unifying model for resolution enhancement and data extrapolation. Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Hsin M.; Byrne, Charles L.; Fiddy, Michael A.

    2006-02-01

    In reconstructing an object function F(r) from finitely many noisy linear-functional values ∫F(r)Gn(r)dr we face the problem that finite data, noisy or not, are insufficient to specify F(r) uniquely. Estimates based on the finite data may succeed in recovering broad features of F(r), but may fail to resolve important detail. Linear and nonlinear, model-based data extrapolation procedures can be used to improve resolution, but at the cost of sensitivity to noise. To estimate linear-functional values of F(r) that have not been measured from those that have been, we need to employ prior information about the object F(r), such as support information or, more generally, estimates of the overall profile of F(r). One way to do this is through minimum-weighted-norm (MWN) estimation, with the prior information used to determine the weights. The MWN approach extends the Gerchberg-Papoulis band-limited extrapolation method and is closely related to matched-filter linear detection, the approximation of the Wiener filter, and to iterative Shannon-entropy-maximization algorithms. Nonlinear versions of the MWN method extend the noniterative, Burg, maximum-entropy spectral-estimation procedure.

  12. $$ Uncertainty from Extrapolation of Cosmic Ray Air Shower Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R U

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements at the LHC of the p-p total cross section have reduced the uncertainty in simulations of cosmic ray air showers. In particular of the depth of shower maximum, called $X_{max}$. However, uncertainties of other important parameters, in particular the multiplicity and elasticity of high energy interactions, have not improved, and there is a remaining uncertainty due to the total cross section. Uncertainties due to extrapolations from accelerator data, at a maximum energy of $\\sim$ one TeV in the p-p center of mass, to 250 TeV ($3\\times10^{19}$ eV in a cosmic ray proton's lab frame) introduce significant uncertainties in predictions of $$. In this paper we estimate a lower limit on these uncertainties. The result is that the uncertainty in $$ is larger than the difference among the modern models being used in the field. At the full energy of the LHC, which is equivalent to $\\sim 1\\times10^{17}$ eV in the cosmic ray lab frame, the extrapolation is not as extreme, and the uncertainty is approxim...

  13. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-08-01

    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  14. Counter-extrapolation method for conjugate interfaces in computational heat and mass transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guigao; Oulaid, Othmane; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a conjugate interface method is developed by performing extrapolations along the normal direction. Compared to other existing conjugate models, our method has several technical advantages, including the simple and straightforward algorithm, accurate representation of the interface geometry, applicability to any interface-lattice relative orientation, and availability of the normal gradient. The model is validated by simulating the steady and unsteady convection-diffusion system with a flat interface and the steady diffusion system with a circular interface, and good agreement is observed when comparing the lattice Boltzmann results with respective analytical solutions. A more general system with unsteady convection-diffusion process and a curved interface, i.e., the cooling process of a hot cylinder in a cold flow, is also simulated as an example to illustrate the practical usefulness of our model, and the effects of the cylinder heat capacity and thermal diffusivity on the cooling process are examined. Results show that the cylinder with a larger heat capacity can release more heat energy into the fluid and the cylinder temperature cools down slower, while the enhanced heat conduction inside the cylinder can facilitate the cooling process of the system. Although these findings appear obvious from physical principles, the confirming results demonstrates the application potential of our method in more complex systems. In addition, the basic idea and algorithm of the counter-extrapolation procedure presented here can be readily extended to other lattice Boltzmann models and even other computational technologies for heat and mass transfer systems.

  15. The Impacts of Atmospheric Stability on the Accuracy of Wind Speed Extrapolation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F. Newman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The building of utility-scale wind farms requires knowledge of the wind speed climatology at hub height (typically 80–100 m. As most wind speed measurements are taken at 10 m above ground level, efforts are being made to relate 10-m measurements to approximate hub-height wind speeds. One common extrapolation method is the power law, which uses a shear parameter to estimate the wind shear between a reference height and hub height. The shear parameter is dependent on atmospheric stability and should ideally be determined independently for different atmospheric stability regimes. In this paper, data from the Oklahoma Mesonet are used to classify atmospheric stability and to develop stability-dependent power law fits for a nearby tall tower. Shear exponents developed from one month of data are applied to data from different seasons to determine the robustness of the power law method. In addition, similarity theory-based methods are investigated as possible alternatives to the power law. Results indicate that the power law method performs better than similarity theory methods, particularly under stable conditions, and can easily be applied to wind speed data from different seasons. In addition, the importance of using co-located near-surface and hub-height wind speed measurements to develop extrapolation fits is highlighted.

  16. Counter-extrapolation method for conjugate interfaces in computational heat and mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guigao; Oulaid, Othmane; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a conjugate interface method is developed by performing extrapolations along the normal direction. Compared to other existing conjugate models, our method has several technical advantages, including the simple and straightforward algorithm, accurate representation of the interface geometry, applicability to any interface-lattice relative orientation, and availability of the normal gradient. The model is validated by simulating the steady and unsteady convection-diffusion system with a flat interface and the steady diffusion system with a circular interface, and good agreement is observed when comparing the lattice Boltzmann results with respective analytical solutions. A more general system with unsteady convection-diffusion process and a curved interface, i.e., the cooling process of a hot cylinder in a cold flow, is also simulated as an example to illustrate the practical usefulness of our model, and the effects of the cylinder heat capacity and thermal diffusivity on the cooling process are examined. Results show that the cylinder with a larger heat capacity can release more heat energy into the fluid and the cylinder temperature cools down slower, while the enhanced heat conduction inside the cylinder can facilitate the cooling process of the system. Although these findings appear obvious from physical principles, the confirming results demonstrates the application potential of our method in more complex systems. In addition, the basic idea and algorithm of the counter-extrapolation procedure presented here can be readily extended to other lattice Boltzmann models and even other computational technologies for heat and mass transfer systems.

  17. On Extrapolating Past the Range of Observed Data When Making Statistical Predictions in Ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B Conn

    Full Text Available Ecologists are increasingly using statistical models to predict animal abundance and occurrence in unsampled locations. The reliability of such predictions depends on a number of factors, including sample size, how far prediction locations are from the observed data, and similarity of predictive covariates in locations where data are gathered to locations where predictions are desired. In this paper, we propose extending Cook's notion of an independent variable hull (IVH, developed originally for application with linear regression models, to generalized regression models as a way to help assess the potential reliability of predictions in unsampled areas. Predictions occurring inside the generalized independent variable hull (gIVH can be regarded as interpolations, while predictions occurring outside the gIVH can be regarded as extrapolations worthy of additional investigation or skepticism. We conduct a simulation study to demonstrate the usefulness of this metric for limiting the scope of spatial inference when conducting model-based abundance estimation from survey counts. In this case, limiting inference to the gIVH substantially reduces bias, especially when survey designs are spatially imbalanced. We also demonstrate the utility of the gIVH in diagnosing problematic extrapolations when estimating the relative abundance of ribbon seals in the Bering Sea as a function of predictive covariates. We suggest that ecologists routinely use diagnostics such as the gIVH to help gauge the reliability of predictions from statistical models (such as generalized linear, generalized additive, and spatio-temporal regression models.

  18. Determination of the true null electrode spacing of an extrapolation chamber for X-ray dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, M.T.T.; Bastos, F.M.; Silva, T.A. da, E-mail: mttf@cdtn.br, E-mail: fmb@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia da Radiacao, Minerais e Materiais

    2015-07-01

    An accurate determination of the actual null distance is critical for the establishment of primary measurement method for absorbed dose in tissue, since the concept of the true null electrode spacing is used to define the sensitive volume of an extrapolation chamber. In this paper, a critical analysis of two methodologies for determining the true null electrode spacing of an extrapolation chamber was done. Firstly, the ionization current as a function of electrode spacing was measured in ISO 4037 low energy X-ray beams. In the second procedure, a LC Bridge was used to measure the capacitance between the electrodes of a 23392 Böhm model PTW ionization chamber and a reliable relationship between capacitance and relative distance was established. Results showed that the true null spacing values varied from 0.0015 to 0.38 mm. Since capacitance meters with high resolution are not always available in calibration laboratories, the second method showed values with large uncertainties. The first method proved to be highly sensitive to the quality of the X-ray beams used. (author)

  19. A Visual Basic Program to Generate Sediment Grain-Size Statistics and Extrapolate Particle Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L. J.; Eliason, A. E.; Hastings, M. E.

    2004-05-01

    Methods that describe and summarize grain-size distributions are important to geologists because of the large amount of information contained in textural data sets. Therefore, to facilitate reduction of sedimentologic data, we have written a computer program (GSSTAT) to generate grain-size statistics and extrapolate particle distributions. Our program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0, runs on Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP computers, provides a window to facilitate execution, and allows users to select options with mouse-click events or through interactive dialogue boxes. The program permits users to select output in either inclusive graphics or moment statistics, to extrapolate distributions to the colloidal-clay boundary by three methods, and to convert between frequency and cumulative frequency percentages. Detailed documentation is available within the program. Input files to the program must be comma-delimited ASCII text and have 20 fields that include: sample identifier, latitude, longitude, and the frequency or cumulative frequency percentages of the whole-phi fractions from 11 phi through -5 phi. Individual fields may be left blank, but the sum of the phi fractions must total 100% (+/- 0.2%). The program expects the first line of the input file to be a header showing attribute names; no embedded commas are allowed in any of the fields. Error messages warn the user of potential problems. The program generates an output file in the requested destination directory and allows the user to view results in a display window to determine the occurrence of errors. The output file has a header for its first line, but now has 34 fields; the original descriptor fields plus percentages of gravel, sand, silt and clay, statistics, classification, verbal descriptions, frequency or cumulative frequency percentages of the whole- phi fractions from 13 phi through -5 phi, and a field for error messages. If the user has selected extrapolation, the two additional phi

  20. Approximations to complete basis set-extrapolated, highly correlated non-covalent interaction energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Iain D.; DiLabio, Gino A.

    2011-10-01

    The first-principles calculation of non-covalent (particularly dispersion) interactions between molecules is a considerable challenge. In this work we studied the binding energies for ten small non-covalently bonded dimers with several combinations of correlation methods (MP2, coupled-cluster single double, coupled-cluster single double (triple) (CCSD(T))), correlation-consistent basis sets (aug-cc-pVXZ, X = D, T, Q), two-point complete basis set energy extrapolations, and counterpoise corrections. For this work, complete basis set results were estimated from averaged counterpoise and non-counterpoise-corrected CCSD(T) binding energies obtained from extrapolations with aug-cc-pVQZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. It is demonstrated that, in almost all cases, binding energies converge more rapidly to the basis set limit by averaging the counterpoise and non-counterpoise corrected values than by using either counterpoise or non-counterpoise methods alone. Examination of the effect of basis set size and electron correlation shows that the triples contribution to the CCSD(T) binding energies is fairly constant with the basis set size, with a slight underestimation with CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ compared to the value at the (estimated) complete basis set limit, and that contributions to the binding energies obtained by MP2 generally overestimate the analogous CCSD(T) contributions. Taking these factors together, we conclude that the binding energies for non-covalently bonded systems can be accurately determined using a composite method that combines CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ with energy corrections obtained using basis set extrapolated MP2 (utilizing aug-cc-pVQZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets), if all of the components are obtained by averaging the counterpoise and non-counterpoise energies. With such an approach, binding energies for the set of ten dimers are predicted with a mean absolute deviation of 0.02 kcal/mol, a maximum absolute deviation of 0.05 kcal/mol, and a mean percent

  1. Improvement of the Earthquake Early Warning System with Wavefield Extrapolation with Apparent Velocity and Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A.; Yomogida, K.

    2014-12-01

    The early warning system operated by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has been available in public since October 2007.The present system is still not effective in cases, that we cannot assume a nearly circular wavefront expansion from a source. We propose a new approach based on the extrapolation of the early observed wavefield alone without estimating its epicenter. The idea is similar to the migration method in exploration seismology, but we use not only the information of wave field at an early stage (i.e., at time T2 in Figure, but also its normal derivatives the difference between T1 and T2), that is, we utilize the apparent velocity and direction of early-stage wave propagation to predict the wavefield later (at T3 in Fig.). For the extrapolation of wavefield, we need a reliable Green's function from the observed point to a target point at which the wave arrives later. Since the complete 3-D wave propagation is extremely complex, particularly in and around Japan of highly heterogeneous structures, we shall consider a phenomenological 2-D Green's function, that is, a wavefront propagates on the surface with a certain apparent velocity and direction of P wave. This apparent velocity and direction may vary significantly depending on, for example, event depth and an area of propagation, so we examined those of P wave propagating in Japan in various situations. For example, the velocity of shallow events in Hokkaido is 7.1km/s while that in Nagano prefecture is about 5.5km/s. In addition, the apparent velocity depends on event depth, 7.1km/s for the depth of 10km and 8.9km/s for 100km in Hokkaido. We also conducted f-k array analyses of adjacent five or six stations where we can accurately estimate the apparent velocity and direction of P wave. For deep events with relatively simple waveforms, they are easily obtained, but we may need site corrections to enhance correlations of waveforms among stations for shallow ones. In the above extrapolation scheme, we can

  2. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal LTE radio base station exposure estimation: test and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloock, Leen; Joseph, Wout; Gati, Azeddine; Varsier, Nadège; Flach, Björn; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on downlink band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders.

  3. Removal of lipid artifacts in 1H spectroscopic imaging by data extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, C I; Schuff, N; Weiner, M W; Maudsley, A A

    1996-05-01

    Proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of human cerebral cortex is complicated by the presence of an intense signal from subcutaneous lipids, which, if not suppressed before Fourier reconstruction, causes ringing and signal contamination throughout the metabolite images as a result of limited k-space sampling. In this article, an improved reconstruction of the lipid region is obtained using the Papoulis-Gerchberg algorithm. This procedure makes use of the narrow-band-limited nature of the subcutaneous lipid signal to extrapolate to higher k-space values without alteration of the metabolite signal region. Using computer simulations and in vivo experimental studies, the implementation and performance of this algorithm were examined. This method was found to permit MRSI brain spectra to be obtained without applying any lipid suppression during data acquisition, at echo times of 50 ms and longer. When applied together with optimized acquisition methods, this provides an effective procedure for imaging metabolite distributions in cerebral cortical surface regions.

  4. Statistical validation of engineering and scientific models : bounds, calibration, and extrapolation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Hills, Richard Guy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)

    2005-04-01

    Numerical models of complex phenomena often contain approximations due to our inability to fully model the underlying physics, the excessive computational resources required to fully resolve the physics, the need to calibrate constitutive models, or in some cases, our ability to only bound behavior. Here we illustrate the relationship between approximation, calibration, extrapolation, and model validation through a series of examples that use the linear transient convective/dispersion equation to represent the nonlinear behavior of Burgers equation. While the use of these models represents a simplification relative to the types of systems we normally address in engineering and science, the present examples do support the tutorial nature of this document without obscuring the basic issues presented with unnecessarily complex models.

  5. Flow Forecasting in Drainage Systems with Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data and Auto Calibration on Flow Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Grum, M.; Rasmussen, Michael R.;

    2011-01-01

    in a small urban catchment has been developed. The forecast is based on application of radar rainfall data, which by a correlation based technique, is extrapolated with a lead time up to two hours. The runoff forecast in the drainage system is based on a fully distributed MOUSE model which is auto......Forecasting of flows, overflow volumes, water levels, etc. in drainage systems can be applied in real time control of drainage systems in the future climate in order to fully utilize system capacity and thus save possible construction costs. An online system for forecasting flows and water levels......-calibrated on flow measurements in order to produce the best possible forecast for the drainage system at all times. The system shows great potential for the implementation of real time control in drainage systems and forecasting flows and water levels....

  6. The polar profile of ancient proteins: a computational extrapolation from prebiotics to paleobiochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Vizcaíno, Gloria; Picciotto, Jacobo Levy

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the polar profile of ancient proteins using a comparative study of amino acids found in 25 000 000-year-old shells described in Abelson's work. We simulated the polar profile with a computer platform that represented an evolutionary computational toy model that mimicked the generation of small proteins starting from a pool of monomeric amino acids and that included several dynamic properties, such as self-replication and fragmentation-recombination of the proteins. The simulations were taken up to 15 generations and produced a considerable number of proteins of 25 amino acids in length. The computational model included the amino acids found in the ancient shells, the thermal degradation factor, and the relative abundance of the amino acids observed in the Miller-Urey experimental simulation of the prebiotic amino acid formation. We found that the amino acid polar profiles of the ancient shells and those simulated and extrapolated from the Miller-Urey abundances are coincident.

  7. Suppression of MRI Truncation Artifacts Using Total Variation Constrained Data Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Tobias Block

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite sampling of k-space in MRI causes spurious image artifacts, known as Gibbs ringing, which result from signal truncation at the border of k-space. The effect is especially visible for acquisitions at low resolution and commonly reduced by filtering at the expense of image blurring. The present work demonstrates that the simple assumption of a piecewise-constant object can be exploited to extrapolate the data in k-space beyond the measured part. The method allows for a significant reduction of truncation artifacts without compromising resolution. The assumption translates into a total variation minimization problem, which can be solved with a nonlinear optimization algorithm. In the presence of substantial noise, a modified approach offers edge-preserving denoising by allowing for slight deviations from the measured data in addition to supplementing data. The effectiveness of these methods is demonstrated with simulations as well as experimental data for a phantom and human brain in vivo.

  8. Continuum extrapolation of finite temperature meson correlation functions in quenched lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We explore the continuum limit $a\\rightarrow 0$ of meson correlation functions at finite temperature. In detail we analyze finite volume and lattice cut-off effects in view of possible consequences for continuum physics. We perform calculations on quenched gauge configurations using the clover improved Wilson fermion action. We present and discuss simulations on isotropic $N_\\sigma^3\\times 16$ lattices with $N_\\sigma=32,48,64,128$ and $128^3 \\times N_\\tau$ lattices with $N_\\tau=16,24,32,48$ corresponding to lattice spacings in the range of $0.01 fm \\lsim a \\lsim\\ 0.031 fm$ at $T\\simeq1.45T_c$. Continuum limit extrapolations of vector meson and pseudo scalar correlators are performed and their large distance expansion in terms of thermal moments is introduced. We discuss consequences of this analysis for the calculation of the electrical conductivity of the QGP at this temperature.

  9. Extrapolation of lattice QCD results beyond the power-counting regime

    CERN Document Server

    Leinweber, D B; Young, R D

    2005-01-01

    Resummation of the chiral expansion is necessary to make accurate contact with current lattice simulation results of full QCD. Resummation techniques including relativistic formulations of chiral effective field theory and finite-range regularization (FRR) techniques are reviewed, with an emphasis on using lattice simulation results to constrain the parameters of the chiral expansion. We illustrate how the chiral extrapolation problem has been solved and use FRR techniques to identify the power-counting regime (PCR) of chiral perturbation theory. To fourth-order in the expansion at the 1% tolerance level, we find $0 \\le m_\\pi \\le 0.18$ GeV for the PCR, extending only a small distance beyond the physical pion mass.

  10. Variance reduction technique in a beta radiation beam using an extrapolation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Ivón Oramas; Souza Santos, William; de Lara Antonio, Patrícia; Caldas, Linda V E

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to show how the variance reduction technique "Geometry splitting/Russian roulette" improves the statistical error and reduces uncertainties in the determination of the absorbed dose rate in tissue using an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation. The results show that the use of this technique can increase the number of events in the chamber cavity leading to a closer approximation of simulation result with the physical problem. There was a good agreement among the experimental measurements, the certificate of manufacture and the simulation results of the absorbed dose rate values and uncertainties. The absorbed dose rate variation coefficient using the variance reduction technique "Geometry splitting/Russian roulette" was 2.85%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of long-term creep behaviour and lifetime of polystyrene by linear extrapolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡立江; 赵树山

    2002-01-01

    The universal creep function derived from the kinetic equations is successful in relating the creep (ε) to the aging time (ta), coefficient of retardation time (β), and intrinsic time (t0). The relation was used to treat the creep experimental data for polystyrene (PS) specimens which were aged at a given temperature and different times (short-term) and tested at a certain temperature and different stress levels. Then unified master lines were constructed with the treated data and curves according to the universal equation. The master lines can be used to predict the long-term creep behaviour and lifetime by extrapolating to a required ultimate strain. The verifications of results obtained with this method were shown as well.

  12. Prediction of long-term creep behavior and lifetime of PPC pipe materials by linear extrapolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The universal creep equation relates creep behavior(ε/εo)to aging time(ta),coefficient of retardation time(β),and intrinsic time(to).The relation was used to treat the creep experimental data for pipe specimens of polypropylene block copelymer(PPC),which were aged for different days(short-term)and tested under different stress levels at a certain temperature.Then unified master lines were constructed with the treated data and curves according to the universal equation.The master straight lines can be used for extrapolation to predict the long-term creep behavior and lifetime of the pipe materials of PPC in the same way as plate materials.

  13. Top Background Extrapolation for $H \\to WW$ Searches at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kauer, N

    2004-01-01

    A leading order (LO) analysis is presented that demonstrates that key top backgrounds to H -> W^+W^- -> l^\\pm l^\\mp \\sla{p}_T decays in weak boson fusion (WBF) and gluon fusion (GF) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider can be extrapolated from experimental data with an accuracy of order 5% to 10%. If LO scale variation is accepted as proxy for the theoretical error, parton level results indicate that the tt~j background to the H -> WW search in WBF can be determined with a theoretical error of about 5%, while the tt~ background to the H -> WW search in GF can be determined with a theoretical error of better than 1%. Uncertainties in the parton distribution functions contribute an estimated 3% to 10% to the total error.

  14. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    , the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (“MammalDIET”). Diet information was digitized from two global......, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating...... that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet...

  15. Nucleon form factors and O(a) Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Capitani, S; Horsley, R; Klaus, B; Oelrich, H; Perlt, H; Petters, D; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Stephenson, P W

    1999-01-01

    Nucleon form factors have been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically for many years. We report here on new results of a high statistics quenched lattice QCD calculation of vector and axial-vector nucleon form factors at low momentum transfer within the Symanzik improvement programme. The simulations are performed at three kappa and three beta values allowing first an extrapolation to the chiral limit and then an extrapolation in the lattice spacing to the continuum limit. The computations are all fully non-perturbative. A comparison with experimental results is made.

  16. Böhm extrapolation chamber: Study of its behavior in beta radiation fields at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Patrícia L.; Xavier, Marcos; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2014-11-01

    The Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is going to establish a Böhm extrapolation chamber as a primary standard system for the dosimetry and calibration of beta radiation sources and detectors. This chamber was already tested in beta radiation beams with an aluminized Mylar entrance window, and now, it was characterized with an original Hostaphan entrance window. A comparison between the results of the extrapolation chamber with the two entrance windows was performed. The results showed that this extrapolation chamber presents the same effectiveness in beta radiation fields as a primary standard system with both entrance windows, showing that any one of them may be utilized.

  17. Extrapolated experimental critical parameters of unreflected and steel-reflected massive enriched uranium metal spherical and hemispherical assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-12-01

    Sixty-nine critical configurations of up to 186 kg of uranium are reported from very early experiments (1960s) performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory near Denver, Colorado. Enriched (93%) uranium metal spherical and hemispherical configurations were studied. All were thick-walled shells except for two solid hemispheres. Experiments were essentially unreflected; or they included central and/or external regions of mild steel. No liquids were involved. Critical parameters are derived from extrapolations beyond subcritical data. Extrapolations, rather than more precise interpolations between slightly supercritical and slightly subcritical configurations, were necessary because experiments involved manually assembled configurations. Many extrapolations were quite long; but the general lack of curvature in the subcritical region lends credibility to their validity. In addition to delayed critical parameters, a procedure is offered which might permit the determination of prompt critical parameters as well for the same cases. This conjectured procedure is not based on any strong physical arguments.

  18. Extrapolation from $A_\\fz^{\\rho,\\fz}$, vector-valued inequalities and applications in the Schr\\"odinger settings

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Lin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the $A_\\fz$ extrapolation theorem in \\cite{cmp} and the $A_p$ extrapolation theorem of Rubio de Francia to Schr\\"odinger settings. In addition, we also establish the weighted vector-valued inequalities for Schr\\"odinger type maximal operators by using weights belonging to $ A_p^{\\rho,\\tz}$ which includes $A_p$. As their applications, we establish the weighted vector-valued inequalities for some Sch\\"odinger type operators and pseudo-differential operators.

  19. Improving Predictions with Reliable Extrapolation Schemes and Better Understanding of Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sushant N.

    New insights into the inter-nucleon interactions, developments in many-body technology, and the surge in computational capabilities has led to phenomenal progress in low-energy nuclear physics in the past few years. Nonetheless, many calculations still lack a robust uncertainty quantification which is essential for making reliable predictions. In this work we investigate two distinct sources of uncertainty and develop ways to account for them. Harmonic oscillator basis expansions are widely used in ab-initio nuclear structure calculations. Finite computational resources usually require that the basis be truncated before observables are fully converged, necessitating reliable extrapolation schemes. It has been demonstrated recently that errors introduced from basis truncation can be taken into account by focusing on the infrared and ultraviolet cutoffs induced by a truncated basis. We show that a finite oscillator basis effectively imposes a hard-wall boundary condition in coordinate space. We accurately determine the position of the hard-wall as a function of oscillator space parameters, derive infrared extrapolation formulas for the energy and other observables, and discuss the extension of this approach to higher angular momentum and to other localized bases. We exploit the duality of the harmonic oscillator to account for the errors introduced by a finite ultraviolet cutoff. Nucleon knockout reactions have been widely used to study and understand nuclear properties. Such an analysis implicitly assumes that the effects of the probe can be separated from the physics of the target nucleus. This factorization between nuclear structure and reaction components depends on the renormalization scale and scheme, and has not been well understood. But it is potentially critical for interpreting experiments and for extracting process-independent nuclear properties. We use a class of unitary transformations called the similarity renormalization group (SRG) transformations to

  20. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schulz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  1. Root crack sizing using phased array inspections and autoregressive spectral extrapolation signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J.; Shakibi, B.; Moles, M.; Sinclair, A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Phased array inspection was conducted on a V-butt welded steel sample with multiple shallow flaws of varying depths. The inspection measurements were processed using Wiener filtering and Autoregressive Spectral Extrapolation (AS) to enhance the signals. Phased array inspections were conducted using multiple phased array probes of varying nominal central frequencies (2.25, 4, 5 and 10 MHz). This paper describes the measured results, which show high accuracy, typically in the range of 0.1-0.2 mm. The results concluded that: 1. There was no statistical difference between the calculated flaw depths from phased array inspections at different flaw tip angles. 2. There was no statistical difference in flaw depths calculated using phased array data collected from either side of the weld. 3. Flaws with depths less than the estimated probe signal shear wavelength could not be sized. 4. Finally, there was no statistical difference in the calculated flaw depths using phased array probes with different sampling frequencies and destructive measurements of the flaws.

  2. Octet baryon masses and sigma terms from an SU(3) chiral extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Ross; Thomas, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the consequences of the remarkable new results for octet baryon masses calculated in 2+1- avour lattice QCD using a low-order expansion about the SU(3) chiral limit. We demonstrate that, even though the simulation results are clearly beyond the power-counting regime, the description of the lattice results by a low-order expansion can be significantly improved by allowing the regularisation scale of the effective field theory to be determined by the lattice data itself. The model dependence of our analysis is demonstrated to be small compared with the present statistical precision. In addition to the extrapolation of the absolute values of the baryon masses, this analysis provides a method to solve the difficult problem of fine-tuning the strange-quark mass. We also report a determination of the sigma terms for all of the octet baryons, including an accurate value of the pion-nucleon sigma term and the first determination of the strangeness sigma term based on 2+1-flavour l

  3. The risk of extrapolation in neuroanatomy: the case of the mammalian vomeronasal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Salazar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell plays a crucial role in mammalian social and sexual behaviour, identification of food, and detection of predators. Nevertheless, mammals vary in their olfactory ability. One reason for this concerns the degree of development of their pars basalis rhinencephali, an anatomical feature that has has been considered in classifying this group of animals as macrosmatic, microsmatic or anosmatic. In mammals, different structures are involved in detecting odours: the main olfactory system, the vomeronasal system (VNS, and two subsystems, namely the ganglion of Grüneberg and the septal organ. Here, we review and summarise some aspects of the comparative anatomy of the VNS and its putative relationship to other olfactory structures. Even in the macrosmatic group, morphological diversity is an important characteristic of the VNS, specifically of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb. We conclude that it is a big mistake to extrapolate anatomical data of the VNS from species to species, even in the case of relatively close evolutionary proximity between them. We propose to study other mammalian VNS than those of rodents in depth as a way to clarify its exact role in olfaction. Our experience in this field leads us to hypothesise that the VNS, considered for all mammalian species, could be a system undergoing involution or regression, and could serve as one more integrated olfactory subsystem.

  4. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in rats, extrapolation to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Zhou, Y-F; Yu, Y; Zhao, D-H; Shi, W; Fang, B-H; Liu, Y-H

    2015-02-01

    A multi-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe the disposition of cyadox (CYX) and its metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) after a single oral administration was developed in rats (200 mg/kg b.w. of CYX). Considering interspecies differences in physiology and physiochemistry, the model efficiency was validated by pharmacokinetic data set in swine. The model included six compartments that were blood, muscle, liver, kidney, adipose, and a combined compartment for the rest of tissues. The model was parameterized using rat plasma and tissue concentration data that were generated from this study. Model simulations were achieved using a commercially available software program (ACSLXL ibero version 3.0.2.1). Results supported the validity of the model with simulated tissue concentrations within the range of the observations. The correlation coefficients of the predicted and experimentally determined values for plasma, liver, kidney, adipose, and muscles in rats were 0.98, 0.98, 0.98, 0.99, and 0.95, respectively. The rat model parameters were then extrapolated to pigs to estimate QCA disposition in tissues and validated by tissue concentration of QCA in swine. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and observed values were over 0.90. This model could provide a foundation for developing more reliable pig models once more data are available.

  5. Gaussian process model for extrapolation of scattering observables for complex molecules: From benzene to benzonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Li, Zhiying; Krems, Roman V

    2015-10-21

    We consider a problem of extrapolating the collision properties of a large polyatomic molecule A-H to make predictions of the dynamical properties for another molecule related to A-H by the substitution of the H atom with a small molecular group X, without explicitly computing the potential energy surface for A-X. We assume that the effect of the -H →-X substitution is embodied in a multidimensional function with unknown parameters characterizing the change of the potential energy surface. We propose to apply the Gaussian Process model to determine the dependence of the dynamical observables on the unknown parameters. This can be used to produce an interval of the observable values which corresponds to physical variations of the potential parameters. We show that the Gaussian Process model combined with classical trajectory calculations can be used to obtain the dependence of the cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He on the unknown parameters describing the interaction of the He atom with the CN fragment of the molecule. The unknown parameters are then varied within physically reasonable ranges to produce a prediction uncertainty of the cross sections. The results are normalized to the cross sections for He - C6H6 collisions obtained from quantum scattering calculations in order to provide a prediction interval of the thermally averaged cross sections for collisions of C6H5CN with He.

  6. Nonparametric reconstruction of the cosmic expansion with local regression smoothing and simulation extrapolation

    CERN Document Server

    Montiel, Ariadna; Sendra, Irene; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Salzano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a nonparametric approach, which works on minimal assumptions, to reconstruct the cosmic expansion of the Universe. We propose to combine a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing method and a simulation-extrapolation method. The first one (Loess) is a nonparametric approach that allows to obtain smoothed curves with no prior knowledge of the functional relationship between variables nor of the cosmological quantities. The second one (Simex) takes into account the effect of measurement errors on a variable via a simulation process. For the reconstructions we use as raw data the Union2.1 Type Ia Supernovae compilation, as well as recent Hubble parameter measurements. This work aims to illustrate the approach, which turns out to be a self-sufficient technique in the sense we do not have to choose anything by hand. We examine the details of the method, among them the amount of observational data needed to perform the locally weighted fit which will define the robustness of our reconstructio...

  7. Extrapolation of Galactic Dust Emission at 100 Microns to CMBR Frequencies Using FIRAS

    CERN Document Server

    Finkbeiner, D; Schlegel, D J; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc; Schlegel, David J.

    1999-01-01

    We present predicted full-sky maps of submillimeter and microwave emission from the diffuse interstellar dust in the Galaxy. These maps are extrapolated from the 100 micron emission and 100/240 micron flux ratio maps that Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (1998; SFD98) generated from IRAS and COBE/DIRBE data. Results are presented for a number of physically plausible emissivity models. We find that no power law emissivity function fits the FIRAS data from 200 - 2100 GHz. In this paper we provide a formalism for a multi-component model for the dust emission. A two-component model with a mixture of silicate and carbon-dominated grains (motivated by Pollack et al., 1994}) provides a fit to an accuracy of about 15% to all the FIRAS data over the entire high-latitude sky. Small systematic differences are found between the atomic and molecular phases of the ISM. Our predictions for the thermal (vibrational) emission from Galactic dust at made at the DIRBE resolution of 40' or at the higher resolution of 6.1 arcmin ...

  8. Caution warranted in extrapolating from Boston Naming Test item gradation construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattey, Robert A; Murphy, Hilary; Cornwell, Melinda; Braun, Thomas; Stein, Victoria; Goldstein, Martin; Bender, Heidi Allison

    2017-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was designed to present items in order of difficulty based on word frequency. Changes in word frequencies over time, however, would frustrate extrapolation in clinical and research settings based on the theoretical construct because performance on the BNT might reflect changes in ecological frequency of the test items, rather than performance across items of increasing difficulty. This study identifies the ecological frequency of BNT items at the time of publication using the American Heritage Word Frequency Book and determines changes in frequency over time based on the frequency distribution of BNT items across a current corpus, the Corpus of Contemporary American English. Findings reveal an uneven distribution of BNT items across 2 corpora and instances of negligible differentiation in relative word frequency across test items. As BNT items are not presented in order from least to most frequent, clinicians and researchers should exercise caution in relying on the BNT as presenting items in increasing order of difficulty. A method is proposed for distributing confrontation-naming items to be explicitly measured against test items that are normally distributed across the corpus of a given language.

  9. Employing Measures of Heterogeneity and an Object-Based Approach to Extrapolate Tree Species Distribution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G. Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Information derived from high spatial resolution remotely sensed data is critical for the effective management of forested ecosystems. However, high spatial resolution data-sets are typically costly to acquire and process and usually provide limited geographic coverage. In contrast, moderate spatial resolution remotely sensed data, while not able to provide the spectral or spatial detail required for certain types of products and applications, offer inexpensive, comprehensive landscape-level coverage. This study assessed using an object-based approach to extrapolate detailed tree species heterogeneity beyond the extent of hyperspectral/LiDAR flightlines to the broader area covered by a Landsat scene. Using image segments, regression trees established ecologically decipherable relationships between tree species heterogeneity and the spectral properties of Landsat segments. The spectral properties of Landsat bands 4 (i.e., NIR: 0.76–0.90 µm, 5 (i.e., SWIR: 1.55–1.75 µm and 7 (SWIR: 2.08–2.35 µm were consistently selected as predictor variables, explaining approximately 50% of variance in richness and diversity. Results have important ramifications for ongoing management initiatives in the study area and are applicable to wide range of applications.

  10. Comparison of Coronal Extrapolation Methods for Cycle 24 Using HMI Data

    CERN Document Server

    Arden, William M; Sun, Xudong; Zhao, Xuepu

    2016-01-01

    Two extrapolation models of the solar coronal magnetic field are compared using magnetogram data from the SDO/HMI instrument. The two models, a horizontal current-current sheet-source surface (HCCSSS) model and a potential field-source surface (PFSS) model differ in their treatment of coronal currents. Each model has its own critical variable, respectively the radius of a cusp surface and a source surface, and it is found that adjusting these heights over the period studied allows better fit between the models and the solar open flux at 1 AU as calculated from the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The HCCSSS model provides the better fit for the overall period from 2010 November to 2015 May as well as for two subsets of the period - the minimum/rising part of the solar cycle, and the recently-identified peak in the IMF from mid-2014 to mid-2015 just after solar maximum. It is found that a HCCSSS cusp surface height of 1.7 Rsun provides the best fit to the IMF for the overall period, while 1.7 & 1.9 Rsu...

  11. Resolution enhancement by extrapolation of coherent diffraction images: a quantitative study about the limits and a numerical study of non-binary and phase objects

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    In coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) the resolution with which the reconstructed object can be obtained is limited by the numerical aperture of the experimental setup. We present here a theoretical and numerical study for achieving super-resolution by post-extrapolation of coherent diffraction images, such as diffraction patterns or holograms. We proof that a diffraction pattern can unambiguously be extrapolated from just a fraction of the entire pattern and that the ratio of the extrapolated signal to the originally available signal, is linearly proportional to the oversampling ratio. While there could be in principle other methods to achieve extrapolation, we devote our discussion to employing phase retrieval methods and demonstrate their limits. We present two numerical studies; namely the extrapolation of diffraction patterns of non-binary and that of phase objects together with a discussion of the optimal extrapolation procedure.

  12. The reliability and validity of the Astrand nomogram and linear extrapolation for deriving VO2max from submaximal exercise data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsween, A

    2001-09-01

    While the accepted measure of aerobic power remains the VO2max this test is extremely demanding even for athletes. There are serious practical and ethical concerns in attempting such testing in non-athletic or patient populations. An alternative method of measuring aerobic power in such populations is required. A limited body of work exists evaluating the accuracy of the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and linear extrapolation of the heart rate/oxygen uptake plot. Issues exist in terms of both equipment employed and sample numbers. Twenty-five normal subjects (mean age 28.6, range 22-50) completed 52 trials (Bruce treadmill protocol) meeting stringent criteria for VO2max performance. Respiratory gases were measured with a portable gas analyser on a five-sec sample period. The data was analysed to allow comparison of the reliability and validity of linear extrapolations to three estimates of heart rate maximum with the Astrand nomogram prediction. Extrapolation was preferable yielding intraclass correlation co-efficients (ICC) of 0.9433 comparable to that of the observed VO2max at 0.9443 and a bias of -1.1 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) representing a 2.19 percent underestimate. This study provides empirical evidence that extrapolation of submaximal data can be employed with confidence for both clinical monitoring and research purposes. With the use of portable equipment and submaximal testing the scope for future research in numerous populations and non-laboratory environments is considerably increased.

  13. extrap: Software to assist the selection of extrapolation methods for moving-boat ADCP streamflow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity

  14. Mangrove litter fall: Extrapolation from traps to a large tropical macrotidal harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kristin N.; Franklin, Donald C.; McGuinness, Keith A.

    2011-11-01

    Mangrove litter is a major source of organic matter for detrital food chains in many tropical coastal ecosystems, but scant attention has been paid to the substantial challenges in sampling and extrapolation of rates of litter fall. The challenges arise due to within-stand heterogeneity including incomplete canopy cover, and canopy that is below the high tide mark. We sampled litter monthly for three years at 35 sites across eight mapped communities in the macrotidal Darwin Harbour, northern Australia. Totals were adjusted for mean community canopy cover and the occurrence of canopy below the high tide mark. The mangroves of Darwin Harbour generate an estimated average of 5.0 t ha -1 yr -1 of litter. This amount would have been overestimated by 32% had we not corrected for limited canopy cover and underestimated by 11% had we not corrected for foliage that is below the high tide mark. Had we made neither correction, we would have overestimated litter fall by 17%. Among communities, rates varied 2.6-fold per unit area of canopy, and 3.9-fold among unit area of community. Seaward fringe mangroves were the most productive per unit of canopy area but the canopy was relatively open; Tidal creek forest was the most productive per unit area of community. Litter fall varied 1.1-fold among years and 2.0-fold among months though communities exhibited a range of seasonalities. Our study may be the most extensively stratified and sampled evaluation of mangrove litter fall in a tropical estuary. We believe our study is also the first such assessment to explicitly deal with canopy discontinuities and demonstrates that failure to do so can result in considerable overestimation of mangrove productivity.

  15. Measurement of absorbed dose with a bone-equivalent extrapolation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, François; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan P; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2002-03-01

    A hybrid phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water and bone-equivalent material was used for determining absorbed dose in a bone-equivalent phantom irradiated with clinical radiation beams (cobalt-60 gamma rays; 6 and 18 MV x rays; and 9 and 15 MeV electrons). The dose was determined with the Spencer-Attix cavity theory, using ionization gradient measurements and an indirect determination of the chamber air-mass through measurements of chamber capacitance. The collected charge was corrected for ionic recombination and diffusion in the chamber air volume following the standard two-voltage technique. Due to the hybrid chamber design, correction factors accounting for scatter deficit and electrode composition were determined and applied in the dose equation to obtain absorbed dose in bone for the equivalent homogeneous bone phantom. Correction factors for graphite electrodes were calculated with Monte Carlo techniques and the calculated results were verified through relative air cavity dose measurements for three different polarizing electrode materials: graphite, steel, and brass in conjunction with a graphite collecting electrode. Scatter deficit, due mainly to loss of lateral scatter in the hybrid chamber, reduces the dose to the air cavity in the hybrid PEEC in comparison with full bone PEEC by 0.7% to approximately 2% depending on beam quality and energy. In megavoltage photon and electron beams, graphite electrodes do not affect the dose measurement in the Solid Water PEEC but decrease the cavity dose by up to 5% in the bone-equivalent PEEC even for very thin graphite electrodes (<0.0025 cm). In conjunction with appropriate correction factors determined with Monte Carlo techniques, the uncalibrated hybrid PEEC can be used for measuring absorbed dose in bone material to within 2% for high-energy photon and electron beams.

  16. The riskiness of extrapolating short term nutrient retention observations to long term trends in tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgand, F.; Etheridge, J. R.; Burchell, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal marshes are among the most dynamic aquatic systems in the world. While astronomical and wind driven tides are the major driver to displace water volumes, rainfall events and evapotranspiration move the overall balance towards water export or import, respectively. Until now, only glimpses of the associated biogeochemical functioning could be obtained, usually at one or several tidal cycles scale, because there was no obvious method to obtain long term water quality data at a high temporal frequency. We have successfully managed, using UV-Vis spectrophotometers in the field, to obtain water quality and flow data on a 15-min frequency for over 20 months in a restored brackish marsh in North Carolina. This marsh was designed to intercept water generated by subsurface drainage of adjacent agricultural land before discharge to the nearby estuary. It is particularly tempting in tidal systems where tides may look very similar from one to the next, to extrapolate results obtained possibly over several days or weeks to a ';seasonal biogeochemical functioning'. The lessons learned from high frequency data at the tidal scale are fascinating, but in the longer term, we have learned that a few and inherently rare rainfall events drove the overall nutrient balance in the marsh. Continuous water quality monitoring is thus essential for two reasons: 1) to observe the short term dynamics, as they are the key to unveil possibly misunderstood biogeochemical processes, and 2) to capture the rare yet essential events which drive the system's response. However, continuous water quality monitoring on a long term basis in harsh coastal environments is not without challenges.

  17. COnstrained Data Extrapolation (CODE): A new approach for high definition vascular imaging from low resolution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Hamtaei, Ehsan; Sethi, Sean K; Yang, Guang; Xie, Haibin; Mark Haacke, E

    2017-09-01

    To introduce a new approach to reconstruct high definition vascular images using COnstrained Data Extrapolation (CODE) and evaluate its capability in estimating vessel area and stenosis. CODE is based on the constraint that the full width half maximum of a vessel can be accurately estimated and, since it represents the best estimate for the width of the object, higher k-space data can be generated from this information. To demonstrate the potential of extracting high definition vessel edges using low resolution data, both simulated and human data were analyzed to better visualize the vessels and to quantify both area and stenosis measurements. The results from CODE using one-fourth of the fully sampled k-space data were compared with a compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction approach using the same total amount of data but spread out between the center of k-space and the outer portions of the original k-space to accelerate data acquisition by a factor of four. For a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) such as 16 (8), we found that objects as small as 3 voxels in the 25% under-sampled data (6 voxels when zero-filled) could be used for CODE and CS and provide an estimate of area with an error 200 (30) times faster for CODE compared to CS in the simulated (human) data. CODE was capable of producing sharp sub-voxel edges and accurately estimating stenosis to within 5% for clinically relevant studies of vessels with a width of at least 3pixels in the low resolution images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of a extrapolation chamber in standard X-ray beam, radiodiagnosis level; Caracterizacao de uma camara de extrapolacao em feixes padroes de raios X, nivel radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eric A.B. da; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: ebrito@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The extrapolation chamber is a ionization chamber used for detection low energy radiation and can be used as an standard instrument for beta radiation beams. This type of ionization chamber have as main characteristic the variation of sensible volume. This paper performs a study of characterization of a PTW commercial extrapolation chamber, in the energy interval of the qualities of conventional radiodiagnostic

  19. Time extrapolation of radiolytic degradation product kinetics: the case of polyurethane; Extrapolation dans le temps des cinetiques de production des produits de degradation radiolytique: application a un polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannoux, A

    2007-02-15

    The prediction of the environmental impact of organic materials in nuclear waste geological storage needs knowledge of radiolytic degradation mechanisms and kinetics in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In this framework, the effect of high doses (> MGy) and the variation of dose rate have to be considered. The material studied is a polyurethane composed of polyether soft segment and aromatic hard segments. Mechanisms were built on the analysis of material submitted to irradiations of simulation (high energy electrons and gamma radiation) by FTIR spectroscopy and gaseous and liquid degradation products by gas mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography. The electron paramagnetic resonance study of radical process and the determination of oxygen consumption and gas formation radiolytic yields allowed us to acquire kinetic data and to estimate dose rate and high doses effects. The polyurethane radio-oxidation mainly concerns soft segments and induced cross-linkings and production by scissions of oxidised compounds (esters, alcohols, carboxylic acids). The kinetic of radical termination is rapid and the dose rate effect is limited. After 10 MGy, branching and scission reactions are in equilibrium and low molecular weight products accumulate. At last, the degradation products release in water is influenced by the oxidation rate and the temperature. After 10 MGy, the soluble fraction is stabilised at 25%. The water soluble products identified by electro-spray ionisation mass spectrometry (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids) potentially formed complexes with radionuclides. (author)

  20. Extrapolated withdrawal-interval estimator (EWE) algorithm: a quantitative approach to establishing extralabel withdrawal times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Jiménez, Tomás; Baynes, Ronald E; Craigmill, Arthur; Riviere, Jim E

    2002-08-01

    The extralabel use of drugs can be defined as the use of drugs in a manner inconsistent with their FDA-approved labeling. The passage of the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act (AMDUCA) in 1994 and its implementation by the FDA-Center for Veterinary Medicine in 1996 has allowed food animal veterinarians to use drugs legally in an extralabel manner, as long as an appropriate withdrawal period is established. The present study introduces and validates with simulated and experimental data the Extrapolated Withdrawal-Period Estimator (EWE) Algorithm, a procedure aimed at predicting extralabel withdrawal intervals (WDIs) based on the label and pharmacokinetic literature data contained in the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD). This is the initial and first attempt at consistently obtaining WDI estimates that encompass a reasonable degree of statistical soundness. Data on the determination of withdrawal times after the extralabel use of the antibiotic oxytetracycline were obtained both with simulated disposition data and from the literature. A withdrawal interval was computed using the EWE Algorithm for an extralabel dose of 25 mg/kg (simulation study) and for a dose of 40 mg/kg (literature data). These estimates were compared with the withdrawal times computed with the simulated data and with the literature data, respectively. The EWE estimates of WDP for a simulated extralabel dose of 25 mg/kg was 39 days. The withdrawal time (WDT) obtained for this dose on a tissue depletion study was 39 days. The EWE estimate of WDP for an extralabel intramuscular dose of 40 mg/kg in cattle, based on the kinetic data contained in the FARAD database, was 48 days. The withdrawal time experimentally obtained for similar use of this drug was 49 days. The EWE Algorithm can obtain WDI estimates that encompass the same degree of statistical soundness as the WDT estimates, provided that the assumptions of the approved dosage regimen hold for the extralabel dosage regimen

  1. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Storm Water Runoff in Real-Time using Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Model based short-term forecasting of urban storm water runoff can be applied in realtime control of drainage systems in order to optimize system capacity during rain and minimize combined sewer overflows, improve wastewater treatment or activate alarms if local flooding is impending. A novel...... online system, which forecasts flows and water levels in real-time with inputs from extrapolated radar rainfall data, has been developed. The fully distributed urban drainage model includes auto-calibration using online in-sewer measurements which is seen to improve forecast skills significantly....... The radar rainfall extrapolation (nowcast) limits the lead time of the system to two hours. In this paper, the model set-up is tested on a small urban catchment for a period of 1.5 years. The 50 largest events are presented....

  2. Monte Carlo based approach to the LS–NaI 4πβ–γ anticoincidence extrapolation and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R

    2016-03-01

    The 4πβ–γ anticoincidence method is used for the primary standardization of β−, β+, electron capture (EC), α, and mixed-mode radionuclides. Efficiency extrapolation using one or more γ ray coincidence gates is typically carried out by a low-order polynomial fit. The approach presented here is to use a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of the detector system to analyze the efficiency extrapolation. New code was developed to account for detector resolution, direct γ ray interaction with the PMT, and implementation of experimental β-decay shape factors. The simulation was tuned to 57Co and 60Co data, then tested with 99mTc data, and used in measurements of 18F, 129I, and 124I. The analysis method described here offers a more realistic activity value and uncertainty than those indicated from a least-squares fit alone.

  3. Classification of stop place in consonant-vowel contexts using feature extrapolation of acoustic-phonetic features in telephone speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Won; Choi, Jeung-Yoon; Kang, Hong-Goo

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge-based speech recognition systems extract acoustic cues from the signal to identify speech characteristics. For channel-deteriorated telephone speech, acoustic cues, especially those for stop consonant place, are expected to be degraded or absent. To investigate the use of knowledge-based methods in degraded environments, feature extrapolation of acoustic-phonetic features based on Gaussian mixture models is examined. This process is applied to a stop place detection module that uses burst release and vowel onset cues for consonant-vowel tokens of English. Results show that classification performance is enhanced in telephone channel-degraded speech, with extrapolated acoustic-phonetic features reaching or exceeding performance using estimated Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). Results also show acoustic-phonetic features may be combined with MFCCs for best performance, suggesting these features provide information complementary to MFCCs.

  4. The extrapolated explicit midpoint scheme for variable order and step size controlled integration of the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exl, Lukas; Mauser, Norbert J.; Schrefl, Thomas; Suess, Dieter

    2017-10-01

    A practical and efficient scheme for the higher order integration of the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is presented. The method is based on extrapolation of the two-step explicit midpoint rule and incorporates adaptive time step and order selection. We make use of a piecewise time-linear stray field approximation to reduce the necessary work per time step. The approximation to the interpolated operator is embedded into the extrapolation process to keep in step with the hierarchic order structure of the scheme. We verify the approach by means of numerical experiments on a standardized NIST problem and compare with a higher order embedded Runge-Kutta formula. The efficiency of the presented approach increases when the stray field computation takes a larger portion of the costs for the effective field evaluation.

  5. Comparison of Temperate and Topical Saltwater Species' acute sensitivities distributions to chemicals: implication for deriving safe extrapolation factor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Z.; Kwok, KWH; Lui, GCS; Zhou, G; Lee, JS; Lam, MHW; Leung, KMY

    2015-01-01

    Due to a lack of saltwater toxicity data in tropical regions, toxicity data generated from temperate or cold water species endemic to North America and Europe are often adopted to derive water quality guidelines (WQG) for protecting tropical marine ecosystems. Given the differences in species composition and environmental attributes between tropical and temperate saltwater ecosystems, there are conceivable uncertainties in such ‘temperate-to-tropic’ extrapolations. This ...

  6. L2-Error Estimates of the Extrapolated Crank-Nicolson Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations for Nonlinear Sobolev Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Young Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal ℓ∞(L2 error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.

  7. A stabilized MFE reduced-order extrapolation model based on POD for the 2D unsteady conduction-convection problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong; Luo, Zhendong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we devote ourselves to establishing a stabilized mixed finite element (MFE) reduced-order extrapolation (SMFEROE) model holding seldom unknowns for the two-dimensional (2D) unsteady conduction-convection problem via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique, analyzing the existence and uniqueness and the stability as well as the convergence of the SMFEROE solutions and validating the correctness and dependability of the SMFEROE model by means of numerical simulations.

  8. Adsorption of pharmaceuticals onto activated carbon fiber cloths - Modeling and extrapolation of adsorption isotherms at very low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallou, Hélène; Cimetière, Nicolas; Giraudet, Sylvain; Wolbert, Dominique; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Activated carbon fiber cloths (ACFC) have shown promising results when applied to water treatment, especially for removing organic micropollutants such as pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, further investigations are required, especially considering trace concentrations, which are found in current water treatment. Until now, most studies have been carried out at relatively high concentrations (mg L(-1)), since the experimental and analytical methodologies are more difficult and more expensive when dealing with lower concentrations (ng L(-1)). Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate an extrapolation procedure from high to low concentrations, for four compounds (Carbamazepine, Diclofenac, Caffeine and Acetaminophen). For this purpose, the reliability of the usual adsorption isotherm models, when extrapolated from high (mg L(-1)) to low concentrations (ng L(-1)), was assessed as well as the influence of numerous error functions. Some isotherm models (Freundlich, Toth) and error functions (RSS, ARE) show weaknesses to be used as an adsorption isotherms at low concentrations. However, from these results, the pairing of the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model with Marquardt's percent standard of deviation was evidenced as the best combination model, enabling the extrapolation of adsorption capacities by orders of magnitude.

  9. A comparison of high-order explicit Runge–Kutta, extrapolation, and deferred correction methods in serial and parallel

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-06-13

    We compare the three main types of high-order one-step initial value solvers: extrapolation, spectral deferred correction, and embedded Runge–Kutta pairs. We consider orders four through twelve, including both serial and parallel implementations. We cast extrapolation and deferred correction methods as fixed-order Runge–Kutta methods, providing a natural framework for the comparison. The stability and accuracy properties of the methods are analyzed by theoretical measures, and these are compared with the results of numerical tests. In serial, the eighth-order pair of Prince and Dormand (DOP8) is most efficient. But other high-order methods can be more efficient than DOP8 when implemented in parallel. This is demonstrated by comparing a parallelized version of the wellknown ODEX code with the (serial) DOP853 code. For an N-body problem with N = 400, the experimental extrapolation code is as fast as the tuned Runge–Kutta pair at loose tolerances, and is up to two times as fast at tight tolerances.

  10. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaldo, S. R. [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: sirr@cdtn.br [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and -0.3% for the {sup 85}Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  11. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies: A Canadian regulatory perspective on the assessment of clinically relevant differences and indication extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bradley J; Klein, Agnes V; Wang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have become mainstays of treatment for many diseases. After more than a decade on the Canadian market, a number of authorized monoclonal antibody products are facing patent expiry. Given their success, most notably in the areas of oncology and autoimmune disease, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are eager to produce their own biosimilar versions and have begun manufacturing and testing for a variety of monoclonal antibody products. In October of 2013, the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody products were approved by the European Medicines Agency (Remsima™ and Inflectra™). These products were authorized by Health Canada shortly after; however, while the EMA allowed for extrapolation to all of the indications held by the reference product, Health Canada limited extrapolation to a subset of the indications held by the reference product, Remicade®. The purpose of this review is to discuss the Canadian regulatory framework for the authorization of biosimilar mAbs with specific discussion around the clinical requirements for establishing (bio)-similarity and to present the principles that are used in the clinical assessment of New Drug Submissions for intended biosimilar monoclonal antibodies. Health Canada's current views regarding indication extrapolation, product interchangeability, and post-market surveillance are discussed as well.

  12. Ground state energy of the δ-Bose and Fermi gas at weak coupling from double extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolhac, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    We consider the ground state energy of the Lieb–Liniger gas with δ interaction in the weak coupling regime γ \\to 0 . For bosons with repulsive interaction, previous studies gave the expansion {{e}\\text{B}}≤ft(γ \\right)≃ γ -4{γ3/2}/3π +≤ft(1/6-1/{π2}\\right){γ2} . Using a numerical solution of the Lieb–Liniger integral equation discretized with M points and finite strength γ of the interaction, we obtain very accurate numerics for the next orders after extrapolation on M and γ. The coefficient of {γ5/2} in the expansion is found to be approximately equal to -0.001 587 699 865 505 944 989 29 , accurate within all digits shown. This value is supported by a numerical solution of the Bethe equations with N particles, followed by extrapolation on N and γ. It was identified as ≤ft(3\\zeta (3)/8-1/2\\right)/{π3} by G Lang. The next two coefficients are also guessed from the numerics. For balanced spin 1/2 fermions with attractive interaction, the best result so far for the ground state energy has been {{e}\\text{F}}≤ft(γ \\right)≃ {π2}/12-γ /2+{γ2}/6 . An analogue double extrapolation scheme leads to the value -\\zeta (3)/{π4} for the coefficient of {γ3} .

  13. Extrapolated intermediate Hamiltonian coupled-cluster approach: theory and pilot application to electron affinities of alkali atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliav, Ephraim; Vilkas, Marius J; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kaldor, Uzi

    2005-06-08

    The intermediate Hamiltonian (IH) coupled-cluster method makes possible the use of very large model spaces in coupled-cluster calculations without running into intruder states. This is achieved at the cost of approximating some of the IH matrix elements, which are not taken at their rigorous effective Hamiltonian (EH) value. The extrapolated intermediate Hamiltonian (XIH) approach proposed here uses a parametrized IH and extrapolates it to the full EH, with model spaces larger by several orders of magnitude than those possible in EH coupled-cluster methods. The flexibility and resistance to intruders of the IH approach are thus combined with the accuracy of full EH. Various extrapolation schemes are described. A pilot application to the electron affinities (EAs) of alkali atoms is presented, where converged EH results are obtained by XIH for model spaces of approximately 20,000 determinants; direct EH calculations converge only for a one-dimensional model space. Including quantum electrodynamic effects, the average XIH error for the EAs is 0.6 meV and the largest error is 1.6 meV. A new reference estimate for the EA of Fr is proposed at 486+/-2 meV.

  14. 76 FR 58197 - Pre-Release Community Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... of duration sufficient to optimize the likelihood of successful reintegration into the community... the greatest likelihood of successful reintegration into the community.'' Section 570.22 reflects the... likelihood of successful reintegration into the community, within the time-frames set forth in this...

  15. Narrative form

    CERN Document Server

    Keen, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This revised and expanded handbook concisely introduces narrative form to advanced students of fiction and creative writing, with refreshed references and new discussions of cognitive approaches to narrative, nonfiction, and narrative emotions.

  16. Patient-bounded extrapolation using low-dose priors for volume-of-interest imaging in C-arm CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Y.; Maier, A.; Berger, M.; Hornegger, J. [Pattern Recognition Lab, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Bauer, S. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim 91301 (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging with C-arm systems provides anatomical information in a predefined 3D target region at a considerably low x-ray dose. However, VOI imaging involves laterally truncated projections from which conventional reconstruction algorithms generally yield images with severe truncation artifacts. Heuristic based extrapolation methods, e.g., water cylinder extrapolation, typically rely on techniques that complete the truncated data by means of a continuity assumption and thus appear to be ad-hoc. It is our goal to improve the image quality of VOI imaging by exploiting existing patient-specific prior information in the workflow. Methods: A necessary initial step prior to a 3D acquisition is to isocenter the patient with respect to the target to be scanned. To this end, low-dose fluoroscopic x-ray acquisitions are usually applied from anterior–posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) views. Based on this, the patient is isocentered by repositioning the table. In this work, we present a patient-bounded extrapolation method that makes use of these noncollimated fluoroscopic images to improve image quality in 3D VOI reconstruction. The algorithm first extracts the 2D patient contours from the noncollimated AP and ML fluoroscopic images. These 2D contours are then combined to estimate a volumetric model of the patient. Forward-projecting the shape of the model at the eventually acquired C-arm rotation views gives the patient boundary information in the projection domain. In this manner, we are in the position to substantially improve image quality by enforcing the extrapolated line profiles to end at the known patient boundaries, derived from the 3D shape model estimate. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on eight clinical datasets with different degrees of truncation. The proposed algorithm achieved a relative root mean square error (rRMSE) of about 1.0% with respect to the reference reconstruction on

  17. Improving in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by incorporating toxicokinetic measurements: A case study of lindane-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croom, Edward L.; Shafer, Timothy J.; Evans, Marina V.; Mundy, William R.; Eklund, Chris R.; Johnstone, Andrew F.M.; Mack, Cina M.; Pegram, Rex A., E-mail: pegram.rex@epa.gov

    2015-02-15

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane cell and media concentrations in vitro, together with in vitro concentration-response data for lindane effects on neuronal network firing rates, were compared to in vivo data and model simulations as an exercise in extrapolation for chemical-induced neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Time- and concentration-dependent lindane dosimetry was determined in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons in vitro using “faux” (without electrodes) microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In vivo data were derived from literature values, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to extrapolate from rat to human. The previously determined EC{sub 50} for increased firing rates in primary cultures of cortical neurons was 0.6 μg/ml. Media and cell lindane concentrations at the EC{sub 50} were 0.4 μg/ml and 7.1 μg/ml, respectively, and cellular lindane accumulation was time- and concentration-dependent. Rat blood and brain lindane levels during seizures were 1.7–1.9 μg/ml and 5–11 μg/ml, respectively. Brain lindane levels associated with seizures in rats and those predicted for humans (average = 7 μg/ml) by PBPK modeling were very similar to in vitro concentrations detected in cortical cells at the EC{sub 50} dose. PBPK model predictions matched literature data and timing. These findings indicate that in vitro MEA results are predictive of in vivo responses to lindane and demonstrate a successful modeling approach for IVIVE of rat and human neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for lindane neurotoxicity was performed. • Dosimetry of lindane in a micro-electrode array (MEA) test system was assessed. • Cell concentrations at the MEA EC

  18. Full-disk nonlinear force-free field extrapolation of SDO/HMI and SOLIS/VSM magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Wiegelmann, T.; Inhester, B.; MacNeice, P.; Pevtsov, A.; Sun, X.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The magnetic field configuration is essential for understanding solar explosive phenomena, such as flares and coronal mass ejections. To overcome the unavailability of coronal magnetic field measurements, photospheric magnetic field vector data can be used to reconstruct the coronal field. Two complications of this approach are that the measured photospheric magnetic field is not force-free and that one has to apply a preprocessing routine to achieve boundary conditions suitable for the force-free modeling. Furthermore the nonlinear force-free extrapolation code should take uncertainties into account in the photospheric field data. They occur due to noise, incomplete inversions, or azimuth ambiguity-removing techniques. Aims: Extrapolation codes in Cartesian geometry for modeling the magnetic field in the corona do not take the curvature of the Sun's surface into account and can only be applied to relatively small areas, e.g., a single active region. Here we apply a method for nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field modeling and preprocessing of photospheric vector magnetograms in spherical geometry using the optimization procedure to full disk vector magnetograms. We compare the analysis of the photospheric magnetic field and subsequent force-free modeling based on full-disk vector maps from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the solar dynamics observatory (SDO) and Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS). Methods: We used HMI and VSM photospheric magnetic field measurements to model the force-free coronal field above multiple solar active regions, assuming magnetic forces to dominate. We solved the nonlinear force-free field equations by minimizing a functional in spherical coordinates over a full disk and excluding the poles. After searching for the optimum modeling parameters for the particular data sets, we compared the resulting nonlinear force-free model fields. We compared

  19. Hyperon decay form factors in chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lacour, Andre; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2007-01-01

    We present a complete calculation of the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon vector form factors up to O(p^4) in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. Partial higher-order contributions are obtained, and we discuss chiral extrapolations of the vector form factor at zero momentum transfer. In addition we derive low-energy theorems for the subleading moments in hyperon decays, the weak Dirac radii and the weak anomalous magnetic moments, up to O(p^4).

  20. Fri form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Dette Kompendiun er lavet i forbindelse med en workshop i møbeldesign. En række af form-Z's værktøjer til konstruktion af dobbeltkrumme flader gennemgås. Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie.......Dette Kompendiun er lavet i forbindelse med en workshop i møbeldesign. En række af form-Z's værktøjer til konstruktion af dobbeltkrumme flader gennemgås. Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie....

  1. Chiral analysis of baryon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail, T.A.

    2007-11-08

    This work presents an extensive theoretical investigation of the structure of the nucleon within the standard model of elementary particle physics. In particular, the long range contributions to a number of various form factors parametrizing the interactions of the nucleon with an electromagnetic probe are calculated. The theoretical framework for those calculations is chiral perturbation theory, the exact low energy limit of Quantum Chromo Dynamics, which describes such long range contributions in terms of a pion-cloud. In this theory, a nonrelativistic leading one loop order calculation of the form factors parametrizing the vector transition of a nucleon to its lowest lying resonance, the {delta}, a covariant calculation of the isovector and isoscalar vector form factors of the nucleon at next to leading one loop order and a covariant calculation of the isoscalar and isovector generalized vector form factors of the nucleon at leading one loop order are performed. In order to perform consistent loop calculations in the covariant formulation of chiral perturbation theory an appropriate renormalization scheme is defined in this work. All theoretical predictions are compared to phenomenology and results from lattice QCD simulations. These comparisons allow for a determination of the low energy constants of the theory. Furthermore, the possibility of chiral extrapolation, i.e. the extrapolation of lattice data from simulations at large pion masses down to the small physical pion mass is studied in detail. Statistical as well as systematic uncertainties are estimated for all results throughout this work. (orig.)

  2. Automorphic Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Flemming Brændgaard

    systems. For automorphic forms wrt. Hecke triangle groups and Fuchsian groups with no elliptic elements and genus 0, we show that some logarithms of multiplier systems can be interpreted as a linking number. Finally we show a "twisted" version of the prime geodesics theorem, and logarithms of multiplier...

  3. Cosmic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    The continuous 1D defects of an isotropic homogeneous material in an Euclidean 3D space are classified by a construction method, the Volterra process (VP). We employ the same method to classify the continuous 2D defects (which we call \\textit{cosmic forms}) of a vacuum in a 4D maximally symmetric spacetime. These defects fall into three different classes: i)- $m$-forms, akin to 3D space disclinations, related to ordinary rotations and analogous to Kibble's global cosmic strings (except that being continuous any deficit angle is allowed); ii)- $t$-forms, related to Lorentz boosts (hyperbolic rotations); iii)- $r$-forms, never been considered so far, related to null rotations. A detailed account of their metrics is presented. Their inner structure in many cases appears as a non-singular \\textit{core} separated from the outer part by a timelike hypersurface with distributional curvature and/or torsion, yielding new types of geometrical interactions with cosmic dislocations and other cosmic disclinations. Whereas...

  4. Is the climate right for pleistocene rewilding? Using species distribution models to extrapolate climatic suitability for mammals across continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orien M W Richmond

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are increasingly used for extrapolation, or predicting suitable regions for species under new geographic or temporal scenarios. However, SDM predictions may be prone to errors if species are not at equilibrium with climatic conditions in the current range and if training samples are not representative. Here the controversial "Pleistocene rewilding" proposal was used as a novel example to address some of the challenges of extrapolating modeled species-climate relationships outside of current ranges. Climatic suitability for three proposed proxy species (Asian elephant, African cheetah and African lion was extrapolated to the American southwest and Great Plains using Maxent, a machine-learning species distribution model. Similar models were fit for Oryx gazella, a species native to Africa that has naturalized in North America, to test model predictions. To overcome biases introduced by contracted modern ranges and limited occurrence data, random pseudo-presence points generated from modern and historical ranges were used for model training. For all species except the oryx, models of climatic suitability fit to training data from historical ranges produced larger areas of predicted suitability in North America than models fit to training data from modern ranges. Four naturalized oryx populations in the American southwest were correctly predicted with a generous model threshold, but none of these locations were predicted with a more stringent threshold. In general, the northern Great Plains had low climatic suitability for all focal species and scenarios considered, while portions of the southern Great Plains and American southwest had low to intermediate suitability for some species in some scenarios. The results suggest that the use of historical, in addition to modern, range information and randomly sampled pseudo-presence points may improve model accuracy. This has implications for modeling range shifts of

  5. Is the climate right for pleistocene rewilding? Using species distribution models to extrapolate climatic suitability for mammals across continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Orien M W; McEntee, Jay P; Hijmans, Robert J; Brashares, Justin S

    2010-09-22

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used for extrapolation, or predicting suitable regions for species under new geographic or temporal scenarios. However, SDM predictions may be prone to errors if species are not at equilibrium with climatic conditions in the current range and if training samples are not representative. Here the controversial "Pleistocene rewilding" proposal was used as a novel example to address some of the challenges of extrapolating modeled species-climate relationships outside of current ranges. Climatic suitability for three proposed proxy species (Asian elephant, African cheetah and African lion) was extrapolated to the American southwest and Great Plains using Maxent, a machine-learning species distribution model. Similar models were fit for Oryx gazella, a species native to Africa that has naturalized in North America, to test model predictions. To overcome biases introduced by contracted modern ranges and limited occurrence data, random pseudo-presence points generated from modern and historical ranges were used for model training. For all species except the oryx, models of climatic suitability fit to training data from historical ranges produced larger areas of predicted suitability in North America than models fit to training data from modern ranges. Four naturalized oryx populations in the American southwest were correctly predicted with a generous model threshold, but none of these locations were predicted with a more stringent threshold. In general, the northern Great Plains had low climatic suitability for all focal species and scenarios considered, while portions of the southern Great Plains and American southwest had low to intermediate suitability for some species in some scenarios. The results suggest that the use of historical, in addition to modern, range information and randomly sampled pseudo-presence points may improve model accuracy. This has implications for modeling range shifts of organisms in response

  6. Direct extrapolation of radial profile data to a self-ignited fusion reactor based on the gyro-Bohm model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, J., E-mail: miyazawa@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Goto, T.; Morisaki, T.; Goto, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Motojima, G.; Peterson, B.J.; Suzuki, C.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.; Sagara, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DPE method predicts temperature and density profiles in a fusion reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method is based on the gyro-Bohm type parameter dependence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of fusion reactor is determined to fulfill the power balance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reactor size is proportional to a factor and -4/3 power of the magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This factor can be a measure of plasma performance like the fusion triple product. - Abstract: A new method named direct profile extrapolation (DPE) has been developed to estimate the radial profiles of temperature and density in a fusion reactor. This method directly extrapolates the radial profiles observed in present experiments to the fusion reactor condition assuming gyro-Bohm type parameter dependence. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium that fits the experimental profile data is used to determine the plasma volume. Four enhancement factors for the magnetic field strength, the density, the plasma beta, and the energy confinement are assumed. Then, the plasma size is determined so as to fulfill the power balance in the reactor plasma. The plasma performance can be measured by an index, C{sub exp}, introduced in the DPE method. The minimum magnetic stored energy of the fusion reactor to achieve self-ignition is shown to be proportional to the cube of C{sub exp} and inversely proportional to the square of magnetic field strength. Using this method, the design window of a self-ignited fusion reactor that can be extrapolated from recent experimental results in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is considered. Also discussed is how large an enhancement is needed for the LHD experiment to ensure the helical reactor design of FFHR2m2.

  7. Choroid plexus papilloma-A case highlighting the challenges of extrapolating pediatric chemotherapy regimens to adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Stephen L; Jean, Gary W; Dinsfriend, William M; Gerber, David E

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of adults who present with rare pediatric tumors is not characterized well in the literature. We report an instance of a 40-year-old African American woman with a diagnosis of choroid plexus carcinoma admitted to the intensive care unit for severe sepsis seven days after receiving chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin (350 mg/m(2) on Days 1 and 2 plus etoposide 100 mg/m(2) on Days 1-5). Her laboratory results were significant for an absolute neutrophil count of 0/µL and blood cultures positive for Capnocytophagia species. She was supported with broad spectrum antibiotics and myeloid growth factors. She eventually recovered and was discharged in stable condition. The management of adults with malignancies most commonly seen in pediatric populations presents substantial challenges. There are multiple age-specific differences in renal and hepatic function that explain the need for higher dosing in pediatric patients without increasing the risk of toxicity. Furthermore, differences in pharmacokinetic parameters such as absorption, distribution, and clearance are present but are less likely to affect patients. It is expected that the pediatric population will have more bone marrow reserve and, therefore, less susceptible to myelosuppression. The extrapolation of pediatric dosing to an adult presents a problematic situation in treating adults with malignancies that primarily effect pediatric patients. We recommend extrapolating from adult treatment regimens with similar agents rather than extrapolating from pediatric treatment regimens to reduce the risk of toxicity. We also recommend the consideration of adding myeloid growth factors. If the treatment is tolerated without significant toxicity, dose escalation can be considered.

  8. Extrapolation chamber mounted on perspex for calibration of high energy photon and electron beams from a clinical linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to establish radiation standards for absorbed doses, for clinical high energy linear accelerator beams. In the nonavailability of a cobalt-60 beam for arriving at Nd, water values for thimble chambers, we investigated the efficacy of perspex mounted extrapolation chamber (EC used earlier for low energy x-rays and beta dosimetry. Extrapolation chamber with facility for achieving variable electrode separations 10.5mm to 0.5mm using micrometer screw was used for calibrations. Photon beams 6 MV and 15 MV and electron beams 6 MeV and 15 MeV from Varian Clinac linacs were calibrated. Absorbed Dose estimates to Perspex were converted into dose to solid water for comparison with FC 65 ionisation chamber measurements in water. Measurements made during the period December 2006 to June 2008 are considered for evaluation. Uncorrected ionization readings of EC for all the radiation beams over the entire period were within 2% showing the consistency of measurements. Absorbed doses estimated by EC were in good agreement with in-water calibrations within 2% for photons and electron beams. The present results suggest that extrapolation chambers can be considered as an independent measuring system for absorbed dose in addition to Farmer type ion chambers. In the absence of standard beam quality (Co-60 radiations as reference Quality for Nd,water the possibility of keeping EC as Primary Standards for absorbed dose calibrations in high energy radiation beams from linacs should be explored. As there are neither Standard Laboratories nor SSDL available in our country, we look forward to keep EC as Local Standard for hospital chamber calibrations. We are also participating in the IAEA mailed TLD intercomparison programme for quality audit of existing status of radiation dosimetry in high energy linac beams. The performance of EC has to be confirmed with cobalt-60 beams by a separate study, as linacs are susceptible for minor

  9. Axial Nucleon form factors from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Carbonell, J; Constantinou, M; Harraud, P A; Guichon, P; Jansen, K; Korzec, T; Papinutto, M

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length $L=2.1$ fm and $L=2.8$ fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely $a=0.089$ fm, $a=0.070$ fm and $a=0.056$ fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.

  10. Interpolation and extrapolation problems of multivariate regression in analytical chemistry: benchmarking the robustness on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V

    2012-04-07

    Modern analytical chemistry of industrial products is in need of rapid, robust, and cheap analytical methods to continuously monitor product quality parameters. For this reason, spectroscopic methods are often used to control the quality of industrial products in an on-line/in-line regime. Vibrational spectroscopy, including mid-infrared (MIR), Raman, and near-infrared (NIR), is one of the best ways to obtain information about the chemical structures and the quality coefficients of multicomponent mixtures. Together with chemometric algorithms and multivariate data analysis (MDA) methods, which were especially created for the analysis of complicated, noisy, and overlapping signals, NIR spectroscopy shows great results in terms of its accuracy, including classical prediction error, RMSEP. However, it is unclear whether the combined NIR + MDA methods are capable of dealing with much more complex interpolation or extrapolation problems that are inevitably present in real-world applications. In the current study, we try to make a rather general comparison of linear, such as partial least squares or projection to latent structures (PLS); "quasi-nonlinear", such as the polynomial version of PLS (Poly-PLS); and intrinsically non-linear, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), support vector regression (SVR), and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM/LSSVM), regression methods in terms of their robustness. As a measure of robustness, we will try to estimate their accuracy when solving interpolation and extrapolation problems. Petroleum and biofuel (biodiesel) systems were chosen as representative examples of real-world samples. Six very different chemical systems that differed in complexity, composition, structure, and properties were studied; these systems were gasoline, ethanol-gasoline biofuel, diesel fuel, aromatic solutions of petroleum macromolecules, petroleum resins in benzene, and biodiesel. Eighteen different sample sets were used in total. General

  11. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  12. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: Measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaldo, S R; Benavente, J A; Da Silva, T A

    2016-11-01

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (BSS 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, the reliability of the CDTN BSS2 system was verified through measurements in the (90)Sr/(90)Y and (85)Kr beta radiation fields. Absorbed dose rates and their angular variation were measured with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. The feasibility of using both methods was analyzed.

  13. Terahertz in-line digital holography of dragonfly hindwing: amplitude and phase reconstruction at enhanced resolution by extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xun; Huang, Haochong; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-07-14

    We report here on terahertz (THz) digital holography on a biological specimen. A continuous-wave (CW) THz in-line holographic setup was built based on a 2.52 THz CO(2) pumped THz laser and a pyroelectric array detector. We introduced novel statistical method of obtaining true intensity values for the pyroelectric array detector's pixels. Absorption and phase-shifting images of a dragonfly's hindwing were reconstructed simultaneously from single in-line hologram. Furthermore, we applied phase retrieval routines to eliminate twin image and enhanced the resolution of the reconstructions by hologram extrapolation beyond the detector area. The finest observed features are 35 μm width cross veins.

  14. Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: III. Minimum datasets, core parameters, and application of the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin, Jack W.; Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene

    2017-03-01

    In Part 2 of these articles, an extensive analysis of pinning-force curves and raw scaling data was used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE). This is a parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) that has the extrapolation capability of fundamental unified scaling, coupled with the application ease of a simple fitting equation. Here in Part 3, the accuracy of the ESE relation to interpolate and extrapolate limited critical-current data to obtain complete I c(B,T,ε) datasets is evaluated and compared with present fitting equations. Accuracy is analyzed in terms of root mean square (RMS) error and fractional deviation statistics. Highlights from 92 test cases are condensed and summarized, covering most fitting protocols and proposed parameterizations of the USL. The results show that ESE reliably extrapolates critical currents at fields B, temperatures T, and strains ε that are remarkably different from the fitted minimum dataset. Depending on whether the conductor is moderate-J c or high-J c, effective RMS extrapolation errors for ESE are in the range 2–5 A at 12 T, which approaches the I c measurement error (1–2%). The minimum dataset for extrapolating full I c(B,T,ε) characteristics is also determined from raw scaling data. It consists of one set of I c(B,ε) data at a fixed temperature (e.g., liquid helium temperature), and one set of I c(B,T) data at a fixed strain (e.g., zero applied strain). Error analysis of extrapolations from the minimum dataset with different fitting equations shows that ESE reduces the percentage extrapolation errors at individual data points at high fields, temperatures, and compressive strains down to 1/10th to 1/40th the size of those for extrapolations with present fitting equations. Depending on the conductor, percentage fitting errors for interpolations are also reduced to as little as 1/15th the size. The extrapolation accuracy of the ESE relation offers the prospect of straightforward implementation

  15. FDEXTR, a program for the finite-difference solution of the coupled-channel Schrödinger equation using Richardson extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrashkevich, A. G.; Abrashkevich, D. G.

    1994-09-01

    A FORTRAN-77 program is presented which solves the Sturm-Liouville problem for a system of coupled second-order differential equations by the finite difference method of the second order using the iterative Richardson extrapolation of the difference eigensolutions on a sequence of doubly condensed meshes. The same extrapolational procedure and error estimations are applied to the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Zero-value (Dirichlet) or zero-gradient (Neumann) boundary conditions are considered.

  16. Enhancement of low quality reconstructed digital hologram images based on frequency extrapolation of large objects under the diffraction limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Chen, Xiaohong; Yang, Chao

    2016-11-01

    During the reconstruction of a digital hologram, the reconstructed image is usually degraded by speckle noise, which makes it hard to observe the original object pattern. In this paper, a new reconstructed image enhancement method is proposed, which first reduces the speckle noise using an adaptive Gaussian filter, then calculates the high frequencies that belong to the object pattern based on a frequency extrapolation strategy. The proposed frequency extrapolation first calculates the frequency spectrum of the Fourier-filtered image, which is originally reconstructed from the +1 order of the hologram, and then gives the initial parameters for an iterative solution. The analytic iteration is implemented by continuous gradient threshold convergence to estimate the image level and vertical gradient information. The predicted spectrum is acquired through the analytical iteration of the original spectrum and gradient spectrum analysis. Finally, the reconstructed spectrum of the restoration image is acquired from the synthetic correction of the original spectrum using the predicted gradient spectrum. We conducted our experiment very close to the diffraction limit and used low quality equipment to prove the feasibility of our method. Detailed analysis and figure demonstrations are presented in the paper.

  17. Enhancement of low-quality reconstructed digital hologram images based on frequency extrapolation of large objects under the diffraction limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Li, Weiliang; Zhao, Dongxue

    2016-06-01

    During the reconstruction of a digital hologram, the reconstructed image is usually degraded by speckle noise, which makes it hard to observe the original object pattern. In this paper, a new reconstructed image enhancement method is proposed, which first reduces the speckle noise using an adaptive Gaussian filter, then calculates the high frequencies that belong to the object pattern based on a frequency extrapolation strategy. The proposed frequency extrapolation first calculates the frequency spectrum of the Fourier-filtered image, which is originally reconstructed from the +1 order of the hologram, and then gives the initial parameters for an iterative solution. The analytic iteration is implemented by continuous gradient threshold convergence to estimate the image level and vertical gradient information. The predicted spectrum is acquired through the analytical iteration of the original spectrum and gradient spectrum analysis. Finally, the reconstructed spectrum of the restoration image is acquired from the synthetic correction of the original spectrum using the predicted gradient spectrum. We conducted our experiment very close to the diffraction limit and used low-quality equipment to prove the feasibility of our method. Detailed analysis and figure demonstrations are presented in the paper.

  18. Human plasma concentrations of cytochrome P450 probes extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Satomi; Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    1. Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used in preclinical studies as non-human primate species. Pharmacokinetics of human cytochrome P450 probes determined in cynomolgus monkeys after single oral or intravenous administrations were extrapolated to give human plasma concentrations. 2. Plasma concentrations of slowly eliminated caffeine and R-/S-warfarin and rapidly eliminated omeprazole and midazolam previously observed in cynomolgus monkeys were scaled to human oral biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Results of the simplified human PBPK models were consistent with reported experimental PK data in humans or with values simulated by a fully constructed population-based simulator (Simcyp). 3. Oral administrations of metoprolol and dextromethorphan (human P450 2D probes) in monkeys reportedly yielded plasma concentrations similar to their quantitative detection limits. Consequently, ratios of in vitro hepatic intrinsic clearances of metoprolol and dextromethorphan determined in monkeys and humans were used with simplified PBPK models to extrapolate intravenous PK in monkeys to oral PK in humans. 4. These results suggest that cynomolgus monkeys, despite their rapid clearance of some human P450 substrates, could be a suitable model for humans, especially when used in conjunction with simple PBPK models.

  19. submitter Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: II. Parameter testing, scaling constants, and the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Ekin, Jack W; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2016-01-01

    A scaling study of several thousand Nb3Sn critical-current $(I_c)$ measurements is used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE), a relation that can quickly and accurately extrapolate limited datasets to obtain full three-dimensional dependences of I c on magnetic field (B), temperature (T), and mechanical strain (ε). The relation has the advantage of being easy to implement, and offers significant savings in sample characterization time and a useful tool for magnet design. Thorough data-based analysis of the general parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) shows the existence of three universal scaling constants for practical Nb3Sn conductors. The study also identifies the scaling parameters that are conductor specific and need to be fitted to each conductor. This investigation includes two new, rare, and very large I c(B,T,ε) datasets (each with nearly a thousand I c measurements spanning magnetic fields from 1 to 16 T, temperatures from ~2.26 to 14 K, and intrinsic strains from –...

  20. An Efficient Compensation Method for Limited-View Photoacoustic Imaging Reconstruction Based on Gerchberg–Papoulis Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction for limited-view scanning, though often the case in practice, has remained a difficult issue for photoacoustic imaging (PAI. The incompleteness of sampling data will cause serious artifacts and fuzziness in those missing views and it will heavily affect the quality of the image. To solve the problem of limited-view PAI, a compensation method based on the Gerchberg–Papoulis (GP extrapolation is applied into PAI. Based on the known data, missing detectors elements are estimated and the image in the missing views is then compensated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. To accelerate the convergence speed of the algorithm, the total variation (TV-based iterative algorithm is incorporated into the GP extrapolation-based FFT-utilized compensation method (TV-GPEF. The effective variable splitting and Barzilai–Borwein based method is adopted to solve the optimization problem. Simulations and in vitro experiments for both limited-angle circular scanning and straight-line scanning are conducted to validate the proposed algorithm. Results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly suppress the artifacts caused by the missing views and enhance the edges and the details of the image. It can be indicated that the proposed TV-GPEF algorithm is efficient for limited-view PAI.

  1. Extrapolating soil redistribution rates estimated from 137Cs to catchment scale in a complex agroforestry landscape using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Leticia; López-Vicente, Manuel; Palazón, Leticia; Quijano, Laura; Navas, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The use of fallout radionuclides, particularly 137Cs, in soil erosion investigations has been successfully used over a range of different landscapes. This technique provides mean annual values of spatially distributed soil erosion and deposition rates for the last 40-50 years. However, upscaling the data provided by fallout radionuclides to catchment level is required to understand soil redistribution processes, to support catchment management strategies, and to assess the main soil erosion factors like vegetation cover or topography. In recent years, extrapolating field scale soil erosion rates estimated from 137Cs data to catchment scale has been addressed using geostatistical interpolation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). This study aims to assess soil redistribution in an agroforestry catchment characterized by abrupt topography and an intricate mosaic of land uses using 137Cs data and GIS. A new methodological approach using GIS is presented as an alternative of interpolation tools to extrapolating soil redistribution rates in complex landscapes. This approach divides the catchment into Homogeneous Physiographic Units (HPUs) based on unique land use, hydrological network and slope value. A total of 54 HPUs presenting specific land use, strahler order and slope combinations, were identified within the study area (2.5 km2) located in the north of Spain. Using 58 soil erosion and deposition rates estimated from 137Cs data, we were able to characterize the predominant redistribution processes in 16 HPUs, which represent the 78% of the study area surface. Erosion processes predominated in 6 HPUs (23%) which correspond with cultivated units in which slope and strahler order is moderate or high, and with scrubland units with high slope. Deposition was predominant in 3 HPUs (6%), mainly in riparian areas, and to a lesser extent in forest and scrubland units with low slope and low and moderate strahler order. Redistribution processes, both erosion and

  2. Tidal Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla Pittaluga, M.; Seminara, G.; Tambroni, N.

    2003-04-01

    We give an overview of some recent investigations on the mechanics of the processes whereby forms develop in tidal environments. The viewpoint taken here is mechanistic. Some of the questions which deserve an answer may be summarised as follows: i) do tidal channels tend to some altimetric long term equilibrium? ii) why are they typically convergent and weakly meandering? iii) how is such equilibrium affected by the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of tidal inlets? iv) what is the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic role played by tidal flats adjacent to the channels? Some of the above questions have received a considerable attention in the last few years. Schuttelaars and de Swart (1996), Lanzoni and Seminara (2002) and, more recently, Bolla Pittaluga (2003) have investigated the first problem. In particular, the latter two contributions have shown that a straight tidal channel connected to a tidal sea at one end and closed at the other end tends to reach a long term equilibrium profile, which is slightly concave seaward and convex landward where a beach forms. The equilibrium profile is strongly sensitive to the harmonic content of the tidal forcing as well as to the value of sediment concentration established by the coastal hydrodynamics in the far field of the inlet region. Less important are the effect of channel convergence and the role of settling lag in the transport of suspended load. Insufficient attention has been devoted to the understanding of what mechanisms control channel convergence and meandering, though some similarities and differences between tidal and fluvial channels have emerged from some recent works. In particular, free bars form in tidal channels due to an instability mechanism essentially similar to that occurring under steady conditions though the oscillatory character of the flow field makes the bar pattern non migrating (Seminara and Tubino, 2001). Similarly, forced bars in curved tidal channels are driven by the development of

  3. Propagation of internal errors in explicit Runge–Kutta methods and internal stability of SSP and extrapolation methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-04-11

    In practical computation with Runge--Kutta methods, the stage equations are not satisfied exactly, due to roundoff errors, algebraic solver errors, and so forth. We show by example that propagation of such errors within a single step can have catastrophic effects for otherwise practical and well-known methods. We perform a general analysis of internal error propagation, emphasizing that it depends significantly on how the method is implemented. We show that for a fixed method, essentially any set of internal stability polynomials can be obtained by modifying the implementation details. We provide bounds on the internal error amplification constants for some classes of methods with many stages, including strong stability preserving methods and extrapolation methods. These results are used to prove error bounds in the presence of roundoff or other internal errors.

  4. An ADI extrapolated Crank-Nicolson orthogonal spline collocation method for nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems: a computational study

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Ryan I

    2012-01-01

    An alternating direction implicit (ADI) orthogonal spline collocation (OSC) method is described for the approximate solution of a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. Its efficacy is demonstrated on the solution of well-known examples of such systems, specifically the Brusselator, Gray-Scott, Gierer-Meinhardt and Schnakenberg models, and comparisons are made with other numerical techniques considered in the literature. The new ADI method is based on an extrapolated Crank-Nicolson OSC method and is algebraically linear. It is efficient, requiring at each time level only $O({\\cal N})$ operations where ${\\cal N}$ is the number of unknowns. Moreover,it is shown to produce approximations which are of optimal global accuracy in various norms, and to possess superconvergence properties.

  5. Terahertz in-line digital holography of dragonfly hindwing: amplitude and phase reconstruction at enhanced resolution by extrapolation

    CERN Document Server

    Rong, Lu; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xun; Huang, Haochong; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-01-01

    We report here on terahertz (THz) digital holography on a biological specimen. A continuous-wave (CW) THz in-line holographic setup was built based on a 2.52 THz CO2 pumped THz laser and a pyroelectric array detector. We introduced novel statistical method of obtaining true intensity values for the pyroelectric array detector's pixels. Absorption and phase-shifting images of a dragonfly's hind wing were reconstructed simultaneously from single in-line hologram. Furthermore, we applied phase retrieval routines to eliminate twin image and enhanced the resolution of the reconstructions by hologram extrapolation beyond the detector area. The finest observed features are 35 {\\mu}m width cross veins.

  6. How to optimize nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolations from SDO/HMI vector magnetograms?

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegelmann, T; Inhester, B; Tadesse, T; Sun, X; Hoeksema, J T

    2012-01-01

    The SDO/HMI instruments provide photospheric vector magnetograms with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Our intention is to model the coronal magnetic field above active regions with the help of a nonlinear force-free extrapolation code. Our code is based on an optimization principle and has been tested extensively with semi-analytic and numeric equilibria and been applied before to vector magnetograms from Hinode and ground based observations. Recently we implemented a new version which takes measurement errors in photospheric vector magnetograms into account. Photospheric field measurements are often due to measurement errors and finite nonmagnetic forces inconsistent as a boundary for a force-free field in the corona. In order to deal with these uncertainties, we developed two improvements: 1.) Preprocessing of the surface measurements in order to make them compatible with a force-free field 2.) The new code keeps a balance between the force-free constraint and deviation from the photospheric field m...

  7. The application of metal artifact reduction (MAR) in CT scans for radiation oncology by monoenergetic extrapolation with a DECT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwahofer, Andrea [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Clinical Center Vivantes, Neukoelln (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology; Baer, Esther [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Kuchenbecker, Stefan; Kachelriess, Marc [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiology; Grossmann, J. Guenter [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Sterzing, Florian [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2015-07-01

    Metal artifacts in computed tomography CT images are one of the main problems in radiation oncology as they introduce uncertainties to target and organ at risk delineation as well as dose calculation. This study is devoted to metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on the monoenergetic extrapolation of a dual energy CT (DECT) dataset. In a phantom study the CT artifacts caused by metals with different densities: aluminum (ρ{sub Al} = 2.7 g/cm{sup 3}), titanium (ρ{sub Ti} = 4.5 g/cm{sup 3}), steel (ρ{sub steel} = 7.9 g/cm{sup 3}) and tungsten (ρ{sub W} = 19.3 g/cm{sup 3}) have been investigated. Data were collected using a clinical dual source dual energy CT (DECT) scanner (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with tube voltages of 100 kV and 140 kV (Sn). For each tube voltage the data set in a given volume was reconstructed. Based on these two data sets a voxel by voxel linear combination was performed to obtain the monoenergetic data sets. The results were evaluated regarding the optical properties of the images as well as the CT values (HU) and the dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans. A data set without metal substitute served as the reference. Also, a head and neck patient with dental fillings (amalgam ρ = 10 g/cm{sup 3}) was scanned with a single energy CT (SECT) protocol and a DECT protocol. The monoenergetic extrapolation was performed as described above and evaluated in the same way. Visual assessment of all data shows minor reductions of artifacts in the images with aluminum and titanium at a monoenergy of 105 keV. As expected, the higher the densities the more distinctive are the artifacts. For metals with higher densities such as steel or tungsten, no artifact reduction has been achieved. Likewise in the CT values, no improvement by use of the monoenergetic extrapolation can be detected. The dose was evaluated at a point 7 cm behind the isocenter of a static field. Small improvements (around 1%) can be seen with 105 ke

  8. Understanding the Larson-Miller parameter. [for extrapolating stress rupture and creep properties of steels and superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furillo, F. T.; Purushothaman, S.; Tien, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    The Larson-Miller (L-M) method of extrapolating stress rupture and creep results is based on the contention that the absolute temperature-compensated time function should have a unique value for a given material. This value should depend only on the applied stress level. The L-M method has been found satisfactory in the case of many steels and superalloys. The derivation of the L-M relation is discussed, taking into account a power law creep relationship considered by Dorn (1965) and Barrett et al. (1964), a correlation expression reported by Garofalo et al. (1961), and relations concerning the constant C. Attention is given to a verification of the validity of the considered derivation with the aid of suitable materials.

  9. The application of metal artifact reduction (MAR) in CT scans for radiation oncology by monoenergetic extrapolation with a DECT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwahofer, Andrea; Bär, Esther; Kuchenbecker, Stefan; Grossmann, J Günter; Kachelrieß, Marc; Sterzing, Florian

    2015-12-01

    Metal artifacts in computed tomography CT images are one of the main problems in radiation oncology as they introduce uncertainties to target and organ at risk delineation as well as dose calculation. This study is devoted to metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on the monoenergetic extrapolation of a dual energy CT (DECT) dataset. In a phantom study the CT artifacts caused by metals with different densities: aluminum (ρ Al=2.7 g/cm(3)), titanium (ρ Ti=4.5 g/cm(3)), steel (ρ steel=7.9 g/cm(3)) and tungsten (ρ W=19.3g/cm(3)) have been investigated. Data were collected using a clinical dual source dual energy CT (DECT) scanner (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with tube voltages of 100 kV and 140 kV(Sn). For each tube voltage the data set in a given volume was reconstructed. Based on these two data sets a voxel by voxel linear combination was performed to obtain the monoenergetic data sets. The results were evaluated regarding the optical properties of the images as well as the CT values (HU) and the dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans. A data set without metal substitute served as the reference. Also, a head and neck patient with dental fillings (amalgam ρ=10 g/cm(3)) was scanned with a single energy CT (SECT) protocol and a DECT protocol. The monoenergetic extrapolation was performed as described above and evaluated in the same way. Visual assessment of all data shows minor reductions of artifacts in the images with aluminum and titanium at a monoenergy of 105 keV. As expected, the higher the densities the more distinctive are the artifacts. For metals with higher densities such as steel or tungsten, no artifact reduction has been achieved. Likewise in the CT values, no improvement by use of the monoenergetic extrapolation can be detected. The dose was evaluated at a point 7 cm behind the isocenter of a static field. Small improvements (around 1%) can be seen with 105 keV. However, the dose uncertainty remains of the order of 10

  10. Effects of unionised ammonia on tropical freshwater organisms: Implications on temperate-to-tropic extrapolation and water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2015-10-01

    Unionised ammonia (NH3) is highly toxic to freshwater organisms. Yet, most of the available toxicity data on NH3 were predominantly generated from temperate regions, while toxicity data on NH3 derived from tropical species were limited. To address this issue, we first conducted standard acute toxicity tests on NH3 using ten tropical freshwater species. Subsequently, we constructed a tropical species sensitivity distribution (SSD) using these newly generated toxicity data and available tropical toxicity data of NH3, which was then compared with the corresponding temperate SSD constructed from documented temperate acute toxicity data. Our results showed that tropical species were generally more sensitive to NH3 than their temperate counterparts. Based on the ratio between temperate and tropical hazardous concentration 10% values, we recommend an extrapolation factor of four to be applied when surrogate temperate toxicity data or temperate water quality guidelines of NH3 are used for protecting tropical freshwater ecosystems.

  11. Measured and modeled toxicokinetics in cultured fish cells and application to in vitro-in vivo toxicity extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita; Tanneberger, Katrin; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Effect concentrations in the toxicity assessment of chemicals with fish and fish cells are generally based on external exposure concentrations. External concentrations as dose metrics, may, however, hamper interpretation and extrapolation of toxicological effects because it is the internal concentration that gives rise to the biological effective dose. Thus, we need to understand the relationship between the external and internal concentrations of chemicals. The objectives of this study were to: (i) elucidate the time-course of the concentration of chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties in the compartments of an in vitro test system, (ii) derive a predictive model for toxicokinetics in the in vitro test system, (iii) test the hypothesis that internal effect concentrations in fish (in vivo) and fish cell lines (in vitro) correlate, and (iv) develop a quantitative in vitro to in vivo toxicity extrapolation method for fish acute toxicity. To achieve these goals, time-dependent amounts of organic chemicals were measured in medium, cells (RTgill-W1) and the plastic of exposure wells. Then, the relation between uptake, elimination rate constants, and log KOW was investigated for cells in order to develop a toxicokinetic model. This model was used to predict internal effect concentrations in cells, which were compared with internal effect concentrations in fish gills predicted by a Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic model. Our model could predict concentrations of non-volatile organic chemicals with log KOW between 0.5 and 7 in cells. The correlation of the log ratio of internal effect concentrations in fish gills and the fish gill cell line with the log KOW was significant (r>0.85, p = 0.0008, F-test). This ratio can be predicted from the log KOW of the chemical (77% of variance explained), comprising a promising model to predict lethal effects on fish based on in vitro data.

  12. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  13. Comparison of Extrapolation and Interpolation Methods for Estimating Daily Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)——A Case Study of the Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guofeng; Jan de Leeuw; Andrew K. Skidmore; LIU Yaolin; Herbert H. T. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), which are indispensable for simulating plant growth and productivity, are generally very scarce. This study aimed to compare two extrapolation and one interpolation methods for estimating daily PAR reaching the earth surface within the Poyang Lake national nature reserve, China. The daily global solar radiation records at Nanchang meteorological station and daily sunshine duration measurements at nine meteorological stations around Poyang Lake were obtained to achieve the objective. Two extrapolation methods of PARs using recorded and estimated global solar radiation at Nanchang station and three stations (Yongxiu, Xingzi and Duchang) near the nature reserve were carried out, respectively, and a spatial interpolation method combining triangulated irregular network (TIN) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) was implemented to estimate daily PAR. The performance evaluation of the three methods using the PARs measured at Dahuchi Conservation Station (day number of measurement = 105 days) revealed that: (1) the spatial interpolation method achieved the best PAR estimation (R2 = 0.89, s.e. = 0.99, F = 830.02, P < 0.001=; (2) the extrapolation method from Nanchang station obtained an unbiased result (R2 = 0.88, s.e. = 0.99, F = 745.29, P < 0.001=; however, (3) the extrapolation methods from Yongxiu, Xingzi and Duchang stations were not suitable for this specific site for their biased estimations. Considering the assumptions and principles supporting the extrapolation and interpolation methods, the authors conclude that the spatial interpolation method produces more reliable results than the extrapolation methods and holds the greatest potential in all tested methods, and more PAR measurements should be recorded to evaluate the seasonal, yearly and spatial stabilities of these models for their application to the whole nature reserve of Poyang Lake.

  14. Radar prediction of absolute rain fade distributions for earth-satellite paths and general methods for extrapolation of fade statistics to other locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1982-01-01

    The first absolute rain fade distribution method described establishes absolute fade statistics at a given site by means of a sampled radar data base. The second method extrapolates absolute fade statistics from one location to another, given simultaneously measured fade and rain rate statistics at the former. Both methods employ similar conditional fade statistic concepts and long term rain rate distributions. Probability deviations in the 2-19% range, with an 11% average, were obtained upon comparison of measured and predicted levels at given attenuations. The extrapolation of fade distributions to other locations at 28 GHz showed very good agreement with measured data at three sites located in the continental temperate region.

  15. Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: II. Parameter testing, scaling constants, and the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin, Jack W.; Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2016-12-01

    A scaling study of several thousand Nb3Sn critical-current (I c) measurements is used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE), a relation that can quickly and accurately extrapolate limited datasets to obtain full three-dimensional dependences of I c on magnetic field (B), temperature (T), and mechanical strain (ɛ). The relation has the advantage of being easy to implement, and offers significant savings in sample characterization time and a useful tool for magnet design. Thorough data-based analysis of the general parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) shows the existence of three universal scaling constants for practical Nb3Sn conductors. The study also identifies the scaling parameters that are conductor specific and need to be fitted to each conductor. This investigation includes two new, rare, and very large I c(B,T,ɛ) datasets (each with nearly a thousand I c measurements spanning magnetic fields from 1 to 16 T, temperatures from ˜2.26 to 14 K, and intrinsic strains from -1.1% to +0.3%). The results are summarized in terms of the general USL parameters given in table 3 of Part 1 (Ekin J W 2010 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 23 083001) of this series of articles. The scaling constants determined for practical Nb3Sn conductors are: the upper-critical-field temperature parameter v = 1.50 ± 0.04 the cross-link parameter w = 3.0 ± 0.3 and the strain curvature parameter u = 1.7 ± 0.1 (from equation (29) for b c2(ɛ) in Part 1). These constants and required fitting parameters result in the ESE relation, given by I c ( B , T , ɛ ) B = C [ b c 2 ( ɛ ) ] s ( 1 - t 1.5 ) η - μ ( 1 - t 2 ) μ b p ( 1 - b ) q with reduced magnetic field b ≡ B/B c2*(T,ɛ) and reduced temperature t ≡ T/T c*(ɛ), where: B c 2 * ( T , ɛ ) = B c 2 * ( 0 , 0 ) ( 1 - t 1.5 ) b c 2 ( ɛ ) T c * ( ɛ ) = T c * ( 0 ) [ b c 2 ( ɛ ) ] 1/3 and fitting parameters: C, B c2*(0,0), T c*(0), s, either η or μ (but not both), plus the parameters in the strain function b c2

  16. Quantitative cross-species extrapolation between humans and fish: the case of the anti-depressant fluoxetine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci

    Full Text Available Fish are an important model for the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of human pharmaceuticals in drug discovery, drug safety assessment and environmental toxicology. However, do fish respond to pharmaceuticals as humans do? To address this question, we provide a novel quantitative cross-species extrapolation approach (qCSE based on the hypothesis that similar plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals cause comparable target-mediated effects in both humans and fish at similar level of biological organization (Read-Across Hypothesis. To validate this hypothesis, the behavioural effects of the anti-depressant drug fluoxetine on the fish model fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas were used as test case. Fish were exposed for 28 days to a range of measured water concentrations of fluoxetine (0.1, 1.0, 8.0, 16, 32, 64 µg/L to produce plasma concentrations below, equal and above the range of Human Therapeutic Plasma Concentrations (H(TPCs. Fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, were quantified in the plasma of individual fish and linked to behavioural anxiety-related endpoints. The minimum drug plasma concentrations that elicited anxiolytic responses in fish were above the upper value of the H(TPC range, whereas no effects were observed at plasma concentrations below the H(TPCs. In vivo metabolism of fluoxetine in humans and fish was similar, and displayed bi-phasic concentration-dependent kinetics driven by the auto-inhibitory dynamics and saturation of the enzymes that convert fluoxetine into norfluoxetine. The sensitivity of fish to fluoxetine was not so dissimilar from that of patients affected by general anxiety disorders. These results represent the first direct evidence of measured internal dose response effect of a pharmaceutical in fish, hence validating the Read-Across hypothesis applied to fluoxetine. Overall, this study demonstrates that the qCSE approach, anchored to internal drug concentrations, is a powerful tool

  17. J-85 jet engine noise measured in the ONERA S1 wind tunnel and extrapolated to far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Julienne, Alain; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Noise from a J-85 turbojet with a conical, convergent nozzle was measured in simulated flight in the ONERA S1 Wind Tunnel. Data are presented for several flight speeds up to 130 m/sec and for radiation angles of 40 to 160 degrees relative to the upstream direction. The jet was operated with subsonic and sonic exhaust speeds. A moving microphone on a 2 m sideline was used to survey the radiated sound field in the acoustically treated, closed test section. The data were extrapolated to a 122 m sideline by means of a multiple-sideline source-location method, which was used to identify the acoustic source regions, directivity patterns, and near field effects. The source-location method is described along with its advantages and disadvantages. Results indicate that the effects of simulated flight on J-85 noise are significant. At the maximum forward speed of 130 m/sec, the peak overall sound levels in the aft quadrant were attentuated approximately 10 dB relative to sound levels of the engine operated statically. As expected, the simulated flight and static data tended to merge in the forward quadrant as the radiation angle approached 40 degrees. There is evidence that internal engine or shock noise was important in the forward quadrant. The data are compared with published predictions for flight effects on pure jet noise and internal engine noise. A new empirical prediction is presented that relates the variation of internally generated engine noise or broadband shock noise to forward speed. Measured near field noise extrapolated to far field agrees reasonably well with data from similar engines tested statically outdoors, in flyover, in a wind tunnel, and on the Bertin Aerotrain. Anomalies in the results for the forward quadrant and for angles above 140 degrees are discussed. The multiple-sideline method proved to be cumbersome in this application, and it did not resolve all of the uncertainties associated with measurements of jet noise close to the jet. The

  18. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwaring, John, E-mail: manwaring.jd@pg.com [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Rothe, Helga [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany); Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A. [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Hewitt, Nicola J. [SWS, Erzhausen (Germany); Goebel, Carsten [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human

  19. Extrapolating an Euler class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kallen, Wilberd

    2015-01-01

    Let R be a noetherian ring of dimension d and let n be an integer so that n≤d≤2n-3. Let (a1,..., an+1) be a unimodular row so that the ideal J=(a1,..., an) has height n. Jean Fasel has associated to this row an element [(J, ωJ)] in the Euler cla

  20. Enhanced Confinement Scenarios Without Large Edge Localized Modes in Tokamaks: Control, Performance, and Extrapolability Issues for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R [PPPL

    2014-07-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. The two baseline strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R & D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely Quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and Enhanced Pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.

  1. Comparison of tropical and temperate freshwater animal species' acute sensitivities to chemicals: implications for deriving safe extrapolation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Kevin W H; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lui, Gilbert S G; Chu, S Vincent K H; Lam, Paul K S; Morritt, David; Maltby, Lorraine; Brock, Theo C M; Van den Brink, Paul J; Warne, Michael St J; Crane, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Toxicity data for tropical species are often lacking for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, tropical and subtropical countries use water quality criteria (WQC) derived from temperate species (e.g., United States, Canada, or Europe) to assess ecological risks in their aquatic systems, leaving an unknown margin of uncertainty. To address this issue, we use species sensitivity distributions of freshwater animal species to determine whether temperate datasets are adequately protective of tropical species assemblages for 18 chemical substances. The results indicate that the relative sensitivities of tropical and temperate species are noticeably different for some of these chemicals. For most metals, temperate species tend to be more sensitive than their tropical counterparts. However, for un-ionized ammonia, phenol, and some pesticides (e.g., chlorpyrifos), tropical species are probably more sensitive. On the basis of the results from objective comparisons of the ratio between temperate and tropical hazardous concentration values for 10% of species, or the 90% protection level, we recommend that an extrapolation factor of 10 should be applied when such surrogate temperate WQCs are used for tropical or subtropical regions and a priori knowledge on the sensitivity of tropical species is very limited or not available.

  2. Application of the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM) to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region

    CERN Document Server

    Ducasse, Q; Mathieu, L; Marini, P; Morillon, B; Aiche, M; Tsekhanovich, I

    2015-01-01

    The study of transfer-induced gamma-decay probabilities is very useful for understanding the surrogate-reaction method and, more generally, for constraining statistical-model calculations. One of the main difficulties in the measurement of gamma-decay probabilities is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. In [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 700, 59 (2013)] we developed the Extrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM), a new method to measure this quantity. In this work, we have applied, for the first time, the EXEM to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region. In particular, we have considered the 238U(d,p)239U and 238U(3He,d)239Np reactions. We have performed Hauser-Feshbach calculations to interpret our results and to verify the hypothesis on which the EXEM is based. The determination of fission and gamma-decay probabilities of 239Np below the neutron separation energy allowed us to validate the EXEM.

  3. Precision measurements of ionization and dissociation energies by extrapolation of Rydberg series: from H2 to larger molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, D; Beyer, M; Merkt, F

    2013-01-01

    Recent experiments are reviewed which have led to the determination of the ionization and dissociation energies of molecular hydrogen with a precision of 0.0007 cm(-)1 (8 mJ/mol or 20 MHz) using a procedure based on high-resolution spectroscopic measurements of high Rydberg states and the extrapolation of the Rydberg series to the ionization thresholds. Molecular hydrogen, with only two protons and two electrons, is the simplest molecule with which all aspects of a chemical bond, including electron correlation effects, can be studied. Highly precise values of its ionization and dissociation energies provide stringent tests of the precision of molecular quantum mechanics and of quantum-electrodynamics calculations in molecules. The comparison of experimental and theoretical values for these quantities enable one to quantify the contributions to a chemical bond that are neglected when making the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, i.e. adiabatic, nonadiabatic, relativistic, and radiative corrections. Ionization energies of a broad range of molecules can now be determined experimentally with high accuracy (i.e. about 0.01 cm(-1)). Calculations at similar accuracies are extremely challenging for systems containing more than two electrons. The combination of precision measurements of molecular ionization energies with highly accurateab initio calculations has the potential to provide, in future, fully reliable sets of thermochemical quantities for gas-phase reactions.

  4. Searching for Inflationary B-modes: Can dust emission properties be extrapolated from 350 GHz to 150 GHz?

    CERN Document Server

    Tassis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Recent Planck results have shown that the path to isolating an inflationary B-mode signal in microwave polarization passes through understanding and modeling the interstellar dust polarized emission foreground, even in regions of the sky with the lowest level of dust emission. One of the most commonly used ways to remove the dust foreground is to extrapolate the polarized dust emission signal from frequencies where it dominates (e.g., 350 GHz) to frequencies commonly targeted by cosmic microwave background experiments (e.g., 150 GHz). We show, using a simple 2-cloud model, that if more than one cloud is present along the line-of-sight, with even mildly different temperature and dust column density, but severely misaligned magnetic field, then the 350 GHz polarized sky map is not predictive of that at 150 GHz. This problem is intrinsic to all microwave experiments and is due to information loss due to line-of-sight integration. However, it can be alleviated through interstellar medium tomography: a reconstruct...

  5. RESEARCH FOR THE STRAIN ENERGY RELEASE RATE OF COMPLEX CRACKS BY USING POINT-BY-POINT CLOSED EXTRAPOLATION APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭茂林; 孟庆元; 王彪

    2003-01-01

    A new extrapolation approach was proposed to calculate the strain energy release rates of complex cracks. The point-by-point closed method was used to calculate the closed energy, thus the disadvantage of self inconsistency in some published papers can be avoided. The disadvantage is that the closed energy is repeatedly calculated: when closed nodal number along radial direction is more than two, the displacement of nodes behind the crack tip that is multiplied by nodal forces, the closed energy has been calculated and the crack surfaces have been closed, and that closed energy of middle point is calculated repeatedly. A DCB ( double cantilever beam) specimen was calculated and compared with other theoretical results, it is shown that a better coincidence is obtained. In addition the same results are also obtained for compact tension specimen, three point bend specimen and single edge cracked specinen. In comparison with theoretical results, the error can be limited within 1 per cent. This method can be extended to analyze the fracture of composite laminates with various delamination cracks.

  6. A covariant extrapolation of the noncovariant two particle Wheeler-Feynman Hamiltonian from the Todorov equation and Dirac's constraint mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crater, Horace; Yang, Dujiu

    1991-09-01

    A semirelativistic expansion in powers of 1/c2 is canonically matched through order (1/c4) of the two-particle total Hamiltonian of Wheeler-Feynman vector and scalar electrodynamics to a similar expansion of the center of momentum (c.m.) total energy of two interacting particles obtained from covariant generalized mass shell constraints derived with the use of the classical Todorov equation and Dirac's Hamiltonian constraint mechanics. This determines through order 1/c4 the direct interaction used in the covariant Todorov constraint equation. We show that these interactions are momentum independent in spite of the extensive and complicated momentum dependence of the potential energy terms in the Wheeler-Feynman Hamiltonian. The invariant expressions for the relativistic reduced mass and energy of the fictitious particle of relative motion used in the Todorov equation are also dynamically determined through this order by this same procedure. The resultant covariant Todorov equation then not only reproduces the noncovariant Wheeler-Feynman dynamics through order 1/c4 but also implicitly provides a rather simple covariant extrapolation of it to all orders of 1/c2.

  7. In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation of Intestinal Availability for Carboxylesterase Substrates Using Portal Vein-Cannulated Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapa, Patrick E; Beaumont, Kevin; Atkinson, Karen; Eng, Heather; King-Ahmad, Amanda; Scott, Dennis O; Maurer, Tristan S; Di, Li

    2017-03-01

    Prediction of intestinal availability (FaFg) of carboxylesterase (CES) substrates is of critical importance in designing oral prodrugs with optimal properties, projecting human pharmacokinetics and dose, and estimating drug-drug interaction potentials. A set of ester prodrugs were evaluated using in vitro permeability (parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line-low efflux) and intestinal stability (intestine S9) assays, as well as in vivo portal vein-cannulated cynomolgus monkey. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of FaFg was developed with a number of modeling approaches, including a full physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model as well as a simplified competitive-rate analytical solution. Both methods converged as in the PBPK simulations enterocyte blood flow behaved as a sink, a key assumption in the competitive-rate analysis. For this specific compound set, the straightforward analytical solution therefore can be used to generate in vivo predictions. Strong IVIVE of FaFg was observed for cynomolgus monkey with R(2) of 0.71-0.93. The results suggested in vitro assays can be used to predict in vivo FaFg for CES substrates with high confidence. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. II. Minor improvements to the protocol and a vital simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomble, Yannick J.; Vázquez, Juana; Kállay, Mihály; Michauk, Christine; Szalay, Péter G.; Császár, Attila G.; Gauss, Jürgen; Stanton, John F.

    2006-08-01

    The recently developed high-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry method for theoretical thermochemistry, which is intimately related to other high-precision protocols such as the Weizmann-3 and focal-point approaches, is revisited. Some minor improvements in theoretical rigor are introduced which do not lead to any significant additional computational overhead, but are shown to have a negligible overall effect on the accuracy. In addition, the method is extended to completely treat electron correlation effects up to pentuple excitations. The use of an approximate treatment of quadruple and pentuple excitations is suggested; the former as a pragmatic approximation for standard cases and the latter when extremely high accuracy is required. For a test suite of molecules that have rather precisely known enthalpies of formation {as taken from the active thermochemical tables of Ruscic and co-workers [Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by M. Parashar (Springer, Berlin, 2002), Vol. 2536, pp. 25-38; J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 9979 (2004)]}, the largest deviations between theory and experiment are 0.52, -0.70, and 0.51kJmol-1 for the latter three methods, respectively. Some perspective is provided on this level of accuracy, and sources of remaining systematic deficiencies in the approaches are discussed.

  9. Enhanced confinement scenarios without large edge localized modes in tokamaks: control, performance, and extrapolability issues for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingi, R.

    2014-11-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. Two strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R&D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and enhanced pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.

  10. Geographic bias of field observations of soil carbon stocks with tropical land-use changes precludes spatial extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer S; Corre, Marife D; Twine, Tracy E; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2011-04-12

    Accurately quantifying changes in soil carbon (C) stocks with land-use change is important for estimating the anthropogenic fluxes of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and for implementing policies such as REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) that provide financial incentives to reduce carbon dioxide fluxes from deforestation and land degradation. Despite hundreds of field studies and at least a dozen literature reviews, there is still considerable disagreement on the direction and magnitude of changes in soil C stocks with land-use change. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies that quantified changes in soil C stocks with land use in the tropics. Conversion from one land use to another caused significant increases or decreases in soil C stocks for 8 of the 14 transitions examined. For the three land-use transitions with sufficient observations, both the direction and magnitude of the change in soil C pools depended strongly on biophysical factors of mean annual precipitation and dominant soil clay mineralogy. When we compared the distribution of biophysical conditions of the field observations to the area-weighted distribution of those factors in the tropics as a whole or the tropical lands that have undergone conversion, we found that field observations are highly unrepresentative of most tropical landscapes. Because of this geographic bias we strongly caution against extrapolating average values of land-cover change effects on soil C stocks, such as those generated through meta-analysis and literature reviews, to regions that differ in biophysical conditions.

  11. Application of the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM) to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducasse, Q. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); CEA-Cadarache, DEN/DER/SPRC/LEPh, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Jurado, B., E-mail: jurado@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Mathieu, L.; Marini, P. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Morillon, B. [CEA DAM DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Aiche, M.; Tsekhanovich, I. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2016-08-01

    The study of transfer-induced gamma-decay probabilities is very useful for understanding the surrogate-reaction method and, more generally, for constraining statistical-model calculations. One of the main difficulties in the measurement of gamma-decay probabilities is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. In Boutoux et al. (2013) [10] we developed the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM), a new method to measure this quantity. In this work, we have applied, for the first time, the EXEM to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region. In particular, we have considered the {sup 238}U(d,p){sup 239}U and {sup 238}U({sup 3}He,d){sup 239}Np reactions. We have performed Hauser–Feshbach calculations to interpret our results and to verify the hypothesis on which the EXEM is based. The determination of fission and gamma-decay probabilities of {sup 239}Np below the neutron separation energy allowed us to validate the EXEM.

  12. Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlimme B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm−1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm−1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.

  13. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  14. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  15. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  16. Bias analysis and the simulation-extrapolation method for survival data with covariate measurement error under parametric proportional odds models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Grace Y; He, Wenqing

    2012-05-01

    It has been well known that ignoring measurement error may result in substantially biased estimates in many contexts including linear and nonlinear regressions. For survival data with measurement error in covariates, there has been extensive discussion in the literature with the focus on proportional hazards (PH) models. Recently, research interest has extended to accelerated failure time (AFT) and additive hazards (AH) models. However, the impact of measurement error on other models, such as the proportional odds model, has received relatively little attention, although these models are important alternatives when PH, AFT, or AH models are not appropriate to fit data. In this paper, we investigate this important problem and study the bias induced by the naive approach of ignoring covariate measurement error. To adjust for the induced bias, we describe the simulation-extrapolation method. The proposed method enjoys a number of appealing features. Its implementation is straightforward and can be accomplished with minor modifications of existing software. More importantly, the proposed method does not require modeling the covariate process, which is quite attractive in practice. As the precise values of error-prone covariates are often not observable, any modeling assumption on such covariates has the risk of model misspecification, hence yielding invalid inferences if this happens. The proposed method is carefully assessed both theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, we establish the asymptotic normality for resulting estimators. Numerically, simulation studies are carried out to evaluate the performance of the estimators as well as the impact of ignoring measurement error, along with an application to a data set arising from the Busselton Health Study. Sensitivity of the proposed method to misspecification of the error model is studied as well.

  17. Denitrification in sediments as a major nitrogen sink in the Baltic Sea: an extrapolation using sediment characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deutsch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rates of denitrification in sediments were measured with the isotope pairing technique at different sites in the southern and central Baltic Sea. They varied between 0.5 μmol m−2 h−1 in sands and 28.7 μmol m−2 h−1 in muddy sediments and showed a good correlation to the organic carbon contents of the surface sediments. N-removal rates via sedimentary denitrification were estimated for the entire Baltic Sea calculating sediment specific denitrification rates and interpolating them to the whole Baltic Sea area. Another approach was carried out by using the relationship between the organic carbon content and the rate of denitrification. For the entire Baltic Sea the N-removal by denitrification in sediments varied between 426–652 kt N a−1, which is around 48–73% of the external N inputs delivered via rivers, coastal point sources and atmospheric deposition. Moreover, an expansion of the anoxic bottom areas was considered under the assumption of a rising oxycline from 100 to 80 m water depth. This leads to an increase of the area with anoxic conditions and an overall decrease in sedimentary denitrification by 14%. Overall we can show here that this type of data extrapolation is a powerful tool to estimate the nitrogen losses for a whole coastal sea and may be applicable to other coastal regions and enclosed seas, too.

  18. Cross-species extrapolation of prediction model for lead transfer from soil to corn grain under stress of exogenous lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaojun; Yang, Hua; Li, Yupeng; Long, Jian; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing concern in recent years regarding lead (Pb) transfer in the soil-plant system. In this study the transfer of Pb (exogenous salts) was investigated from a wide range of Chinese soils to corn grain (Zhengdan 958). Prediction models were developed with combination of the Pb bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zhengdan 958, and soil pH, organic matter (OM) content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) through multiple stepwise regressions. Moreover, these prediction models from Zhengdan 958 were applied to other non-model corn species through cross-species extrapolation approach. The results showed that the soil pH and OM were the major factors that controlled Pb transfer from soil to corn grain. The lower pH and OM could improve the bioaccumulation of Pb in corn grain. No significant differences were found between two prediction models derived from the different exogenous Pb contents. When the prediction models were applied to other non-model corn species, the ratio ranges between the predicted BCF values and the measured BCF values were within an interval of 2-fold and close to the solid line of 1∶1 relationship. Moreover, the prediction model i.e. Log[BCF] = -0.098 pH-0.150 log[OM] -1.894 at the treatment of high Pb can effectively reduce the measured BCF intra-species variability for all non-model corn species. These suggested that this prediction model derived from the high Pb content was more adaptable to be applied to other non-model corn species to predict the Pb bioconcentration in corn grain and assess the ecological risk of Pb in different agricultural soils.

  19. Computational modeling of serum-binding proteins and clearance in extrapolations across life stages and species for endocrine active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Barton, Hugh A

    2004-06-01

    One measure of the potency of compounds that lead to the effects through ligand-dependent gene transcription is the relative affinity for the critical receptor. Endocrine active compounds that are presumed to act principally through binding to the estrogen receptor (e.g., estradiol, genistein, bisphenol A, and octylphenol) comprise one class of such compounds. For making simple comparisons, receptor-binding affinity has been equated to in vivo potency, which consequently defines the dose-response characteristics for the compound. Direct extrapolation of in vitro estimated affinities to the corresponding in vivo system and to specific species or life stages (e.g., neonatal, pregnancy) can be misleading. Accurate comparison of the potency of endocrine active compounds requires characterization of biochemical and pharmacokinetic factors that affect their free concentration. Quantitative in vitro and in vivo models were developed for integrating pharmacokinetics factors (e.g., serum protein and receptor-binding affinities, clearance) that affect potency. Data for parameterizing these models for several estrogenic compounds were evaluated and the models exercised. While simulations of adult human or rat sera were generally successful, difficulties in describing early life stages were identified. Exogenous compounds were predicted to be largely ineffective at competing estradiol off serum-binding proteins, suggesting this was unlikely to be physiologically significant. Discrepancies were identified between relative potencies based upon modeling in vitro receptor-binding activity versus in vivo activity in the presence of clearance and serum-binding proteins. The examples illustrate the utility of this approach for integrating available experimental data from in vitro and in vivo studies to estimate the relative potency of these compounds.

  20. The magnetic moments and electromagnetic form factors of the decuplet baryons in chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hao-Song; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the magnetic moments and magnetic form factors of the decuplet baryons to the next-to-next-leading order in the framework of the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. Our calculation includes the contributions from both the intermediate decuplet and octet baryon states in the loops. We also calculate the charge and magnetic dipole form factors of the decuplet baryons. Our results may be useful to the chiral extrapolation of the lattice simulations of the decuplet electromagnetic properties.

  1. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, B.; Marcolli, C.; Pedernera, D. A.; Koop, T.

    2008-09-01

    A new process is presented by which water soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline) solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg, homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures, Thom, and ice melting temperatures, Tm, of various aqueous inorganic, organic and multi-component solutions are investigated with a differential scanning calorimeter. The investigated solutes are: various polyols, glucose, raffinose, levoglucosan, an aromatic compound, sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate and mixtures of dicarboxylic acids (M5), of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate (M5AS), of two polyols, of glucose and ammonium nitrate, and of raffinose and M5AS. The results indicate that aqueous solutions of the investigated inorganic solutes show Tg values that are too low to be of atmospheric importance. In contrast, aqueous organic and multi-component solutions readily form glasses at low but atmospherically relevant temperatures (≤230 K). To apply the laboratory data to the atmospheric situation, the measured phase transition temperatures were transformed from a concentration to a water activity scale by extrapolating water activities determined between 252 K and 313 K to lower temperatures. The obtained state diagrams reveal that the higher the molar mass of the aqueous organic or multi-component solutes, the higher Tg of their respective solutions at a given water activity. To a lesser extent, Tg also depends on the hydrophilicity of the organic solutes. Therefore, aerosol particles containing larger (≳150 g mol-1) and more hydrophobic organic molecules are more likely to form glasses at intermediate to high relative humidities in the upper troposphere

  2. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Pedernera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new process is presented by which water soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg, homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures, Thom, and ice melting temperatures, Tm, of various aqueous inorganic, organic and multi-component solutions are investigated with a differential scanning calorimeter. The investigated solutes are: various polyols, glucose, raffinose, levoglucosan, an aromatic compound, sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate and mixtures of dicarboxylic acids (M5, of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate (M5AS, of two polyols, of glucose and ammonium nitrate, and of raffinose and M5AS. The results indicate that aqueous solutions of the investigated inorganic solutes show Tg values that are too low to be of atmospheric importance. In contrast, aqueous organic and multi-component solutions readily form glasses at low but atmospherically relevant temperatures (≤230 K. To apply the laboratory data to the atmospheric situation, the measured phase transition temperatures were transformed from a concentration to a water activity scale by extrapolating water activities determined between 252 K and 313 K to lower temperatures. The obtained state diagrams reveal that the higher the molar mass of the aqueous organic or multi-component solutes, the higher Tg of their respective solutions at a given water activity. To a lesser extent, Tg also depends on the hydrophilicity of the organic solutes. Therefore, aerosol particles containing larger (≳150 g mol−1 and

  3. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zobrist

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new process is presented by which water-soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg, homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures, Thom, and ice melting temperatures, Tm, of various aqueous inorganic, organic and multi-component solutions are investigated with a differential scanning calorimeter. The investigated solutes are: various polyols, glucose, raffinose, levoglucosan, an aromatic compound, sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulphate and mixtures of dicarboxylic acids (M5, of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate (M5AS, of two polyols, of glucose and ammonium nitrate, and of raffinose and M5AS. The results indicate that aqueous solutions of the investigated inorganic solutes show Tg-values that are too low to be of atmospheric importance. In contrast, aqueous organic and multi-component solutions readily form glasses at low but atmospherically relevant temperatures (≤230 K. To apply the laboratory data to the atmospheric situation, the measured phase transition temperatures were transformed from a concentration to a water activity scale by extrapolating water activities determined between 252 K and 313 K to lower temperatures. The obtained state diagrams reveal that the higher the molar mass of the aqueous organic or multi-component solutes, the higher Tg of their respective solutions at a given water activity. To a lesser extent, Tg also depends on the hydrophilicity of the organic solutes. Therefore, aerosol particles containing larger and more hydrophobic organic

  4. High order eigenvalues for the Helmholtz equation in complicated non-tensor domains through Richardson Extrapolation of second order finite differences

    CERN Document Server

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M; Rösler, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We apply second order finite difference to calculate the lowest eigenvalues of the Helmholtz equation, for complicated non-tensor domains in the plane, using different grids which sample exactly the border of the domain. We show that the results obtained applying Richardson and Pad\\'e-Richardson extrapolation to a set of finite difference eigenvalues corresponding to different grids allows to obtain extremely precise values. When possible we have assessed the precision of our extrapolations comparing them with the highly precise results obtained using the method of particular solutions. Our empirical findings suggest an asymptotic nature of the FD series. In all the cases studied, we are able to report numerical results which are more precise than those available in the literature.

  5. Lattice calculation of the pion transition form factor $\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma^* \\gamma^*$

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, Gérardin; Nyffeler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the pion transition form factor ${\\cal F}_{\\pi^0\\gamma^*\\gamma^*}(q_1^2,q_2^2)$, which describe the interaction of an on-shell pion with two off-shell photons, using lattice QCD simulations with two degenerate flavors of dynamical quarks. This form factor is the main ingredient in the calculation of the pion-pole contribution to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the muon $g-2$, $a_\\mu^{\\mathrm{HLbL}; \\pi^0}$. We focus our study on the spacelike region with photon virtualities up to $1.5~\\mathrm{GeV}^2$, not yet measured experimentally. Several lattice spacings and pion masses are used to extrapolate the results to the physical point and a comparison with different phenomenological models is performed. Finally, we use our extrapolated form factor to provide a lattice determinaiton of $a_\\mu^{\\mathrm{HLbL}; \\pi^0}$.

  6. On extrapolation blowups in the scale

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Yano's extrapolation theorem dated back to 1951 establishes boundedness properties of a subadditive operator acting continuously in for close to and/or taking into as and/or with norms blowing up at speed and/or , . Here we give answers in terms of Zygmund, Lorentz-Zygmund and small Lebesgue spaces to what happens if as . The study has been motivated by current investigations of convolution maximal functions in stochastic analysis, where the problem occurs for . We also touch the ...

  7. Methodological Analysis of Extrapolating Input-Output Tables of China%中国投入产出序列表外推方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马向前; 任若恩

    2004-01-01

    This paper compared the estimating precision and applicability for extrapolating China's Input-Output tables series based on Kuroda and RAS approach, respectively. The statistic results showed that Kuroda approach was slightly prior to RAS methlod and both estimates had large errorsin the case that time periods were longer than five years,which ascrbed to significant continued changes in China's industry structure. However, the modified Kuroela approach will be applicable for updating Input-Output tables of China.

  8. Identification of the viscoelastic properties of soft materials at low frequency: performance, ill-conditioning and extrapolation capabilities of fractional and exponential models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambella, J; Paolone, A; Vidoli, S

    2014-09-01

    We report about the experimental identification of viscoelastic constitutive models for frequencies ranging within 0-10Hz. Dynamic moduli data are fitted forseveral materials of interest to medical applications: liver tissue (Chatelin et al., 2011), bioadhesive gel (Andrews et al., 2005), spleen tissue (Nicolle et al., 2012) and synthetic elastomer (Osanaiye, 1996). These materials actually represent a rather wide class of soft viscoelastic materials which are usually subjected to low frequencies deformations. We also provide prescriptions for the correct extrapolation of the material behavior at higher frequencies. Indeed, while experimental tests are more easily carried out at low frequency, the identified viscoelastic models are often used outside the frequency range of the actual test. We consider two different classes of models according to their relaxation function: Debye models, whose kernel decays exponentially fast, and fractional models, including Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole, Nutting and Havriliak-Negami, characterized by a slower decay rate of the material memory. Candidate constitutive models are hence rated according to the accurateness of the identification and to their robustness to extrapolation. It is shown that all kernels whose decay rate is too fast lead to a poor fitting and high errors when the material behavior is extrapolated to broader frequency ranges.

  9. EXTRAPOLATION TECHNIQUES EVALUATING 24 HOURS OF AVERAGE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EMITTED BY RADIO BASE STATION INSTALLATIONS: SPECTRUM ANALYZER MEASUREMENTS OF LTE AND UMTS SIGNALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossetti, Stefano; de Bartolo, Daniela; Veronese, Ivan; Cantone, Marie Claire; Cosenza, Cristina; Nava, Elisa

    2016-12-01

    International and national organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure at high-frequency fields. Italian legislation fixed 20 V/m as a limit for public protection from exposure to EMFs in the frequency range 0.1 MHz-3 GHz and 6 V/m as a reference level. Recently, the law was changed and the reference level must now be evaluated as the 24-hour average value, instead of the previous highest 6 minutes in a day. The law refers to a technical guide (CEI 211-7/E published in 2013) for the extrapolation techniques that public authorities have to use when assessing exposure for compliance with limits. In this work, we present measurements carried out with a vectorial spectrum analyzer to identify technical critical aspects in these extrapolation techniques, when applied to UMTS and LTE signals. We focused also on finding a good balance between statistically significant values and logistic managements in control activity, as the signal trend in situ is not known. Measurements were repeated several times over several months and for different mobile companies. The outcome presented in this article allowed us to evaluate the reliability of the extrapolation results obtained and to have a starting point for defining operating procedures.

  10. Hadronic Form Factors in Asymptotically Free Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D. J.; Treiman, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    The breakdown of Bjorken scaling in asymptotically free gauge theories of the strong interactions is explored for its implications on the large q{sup 2} behavior of nucleon form factors. Duality arguments of Bloom and Gilman suggest a connection between the form factors and the threshold properties of the deep inelastic structure functions. The latter are addressed directly in an analysis of asymptotically free theories; and through the duality connection we are then led to statements about the form factors. For very large q{sup 2} the form factors are predicted to fall faster than any inverse power of q{sup 2}. For the more modest range of q{sup 2} reached in existing experiments the agreement with data is fairly good, though this may well be fortuitous. Extrapolations beyond this range are presented.

  11. Rare $B$ decays using lattice QCD form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Horgan, R R; Meinel, S; Wingate, M

    2015-01-01

    In this write-up we review and update our recent lattice QCD calculation of $B \\to K^*$, $B_s \\to \\phi$, and $B_s \\to K^*$ form factors [arXiv:1310.3722]. These unquenched calculations, performed in the low-recoil kinematic regime, provide a significant improvement over the use of extrapolated light cone sum rule results. The fits presented here include further kinematic constraints and estimates of additional correlations between the different form factor shape parameters. We use these form factors along with Standard Model determinations of Wilson coefficients to give Standard Model predictions for several observables [arXiv:1310.3887]. The modest improvements to the form factor fits lead to improved determinations of $F_L$, the fraction of longitudinally polarized vector mesons, but have little effect on most other observables.

  12. Baryon octet electromagnetic form factors in a confining NJL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Carrillo-Serrano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet are studied using a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model which utilizes the proper-time regularization scheme to simulate aspects of colour confinement. In addition, the model also incorporates corrections to the dressed quarks from vector meson correlations in the t-channel and the pion cloud. Comparison with recent chiral extrapolations of lattice QCD results shows a remarkable level of consistency. For the charge radii we find the surprising result that rEp

  13. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in twisted mass lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Carbonell, J; Constantinou, M; Harraud, P A; Guichon, P; Jansen, K; Korzec, T; Papinutto, M

    2011-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon magnetic moment, Dirac and Pauli radii are obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass allowing for a comparison with experiment.

  14. Nucleon form factors with Nf=2 dynamical twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Koutsou, G; Baron, R; Guichon, P; Brinet, M; Carbonell, J; Harraud, P -A; Jansen, K

    2009-01-01

    We present results on the electromagnetic and axial nucleon form factors using two degenerate flavors of twisted mass fermions on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm and 2.7 fm and a lattice spacing of about 0.09 fm. We consider pion masses in the range of 260-470 MeV. We chirally extrapolate results on the nucleon axial ch arge, the isovector Dirac and Pauli root mean squared radii and magnetic moment to the physical point and co mpare to experiment.

  15. Careers (A Course of Study). Unit V: Forms, Forms, Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Kay

    Designed to enable special needs students to understand and complete various job-related forms, this set of activities devoted to forms encountered before and after one obtains a job is the fifth in a nine-unit secondary level careers course intended to provide handicapped students with the knowledge and tools necessary to succeed in the world of…

  16. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  17. Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.

  18. Kaon semileptonic decay form factors with HISQ valence quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Gamiz, E; Bazavov, A; Bernard, C; Bouchard, C; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Foley, J; Freeland, E D; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Kim, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Oktay, M B; Qiu, Si-Wei; Simone, J N; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R

    2012-01-01

    We report on the status of our kaon semileptonic form factor calculations using the highly-improved staggered quark (HISQ) formulation to simulate the valence fermions. We present results for the form factor f_+^{K \\pi}(0) on the asqtad N_f=2+1 MILC configurations, discuss the chiral-continuum extrapolation, and give a preliminary estimate of the total error. We also present a more preliminary set of results for the same form factor but with the sea quarks also simulated with the HISQ action; these results include data at the physical light quark masses. The improvements that we expect to achieve with the use of the HISQ configurations and simulations at the physical quark masses are briefly discussed.

  19. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  20. Extrapolate well logs based on the constrained interpolation algorithm%基于约束插值算法的井资料外推

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红伟; 刘洪; 秦月霜; 首皓

    2008-01-01

    Based on a detailed analysis of differences between seismic data and well logs, we discuss the problem of matching seismic traces and well logs and present a new matching method based on event search in instantaneous phase which greatly improves seismic resolution. The method is based on flattening events in instantaneous phase to compare the seismic traces to the well log traces with the same phase. We calculate the coefficients using the singular value decomposition method to extrapolate the well logs. As a result, the events in the seismic profile are continuous and match well with well logs. We apply this method to the Mao-2 well in Daqing Oilfield with good results.

  1. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  2. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  3. FDEXTR 2.1: A new version of a program for the finite-difference solution of the coupled-channel Schrödinger equation using the Richardson extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrashkevich, A. G.; Abrashkevich, D. G.

    1998-09-01

    A FORTRAN program is presented which solves the Sturm-Liouville problem for a system of coupled second-order differential equations by the finite difference method of the second order using the iterative Richardson extrapolation of the difference eigensolutions on a sequence of doubly condensed meshes. The same extrapolational procedure and error estimations are applied to the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Zero-value (Dirichlet) or zero-gradient (Neumann) boundary conditions are considered.

  4. Study of energy dependence of a extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays beams; Estudo da dependencia energetica de uma camara de extrapolacao em feixes de raios-X de baixa energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Fernanda M.; Silva, Teogenes A. da, E-mail: fernanda_mbastos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimeto da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work was with the main objective to study the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays to determine the value of the uncertainty associated with the variation of the incident radiation energy in the measures in which it is used. For studying the dependence of energy, were conducted comparative ionization current measurements between the extrapolation chamber and two ionization chambers: a chamber mammography, RC6M model, Radcal with energy dependence less than 5% and a 2575 model radioprotection chamber NE Technology; both chambers have very thin windows, allowing its application in low power beams. Measurements were made at four different depths of 1.0 to 4.0 mm extrapolation chamber, 1.0 mm interval, for each reference radiation. The study showed that there is a variable energy dependence on the volume of the extrapolation chamber. In other analysis, it is concluded that the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber becomes smaller when using the slope of the ionization current versus depth for the different radiation reference; this shows that the extrapolation technique, used for the absorbed dose calculation, reduces the uncertainty associated with the influence of the response variation with energy radiation.

  5. Measured Copper Toxicity to Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae and Predicted by Biotic Ligand Model in Pilcomayo River Water: A Step for a Cross-Fish-Species Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Casares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine copper toxicity (LC50 to a local species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus in the South American Pilcomayo River water and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of Biotic Ligand Model, a 96 h acute copper toxicity test was performed. The dissolved copper concentrations tested were 0.05, 0.19, 0.39, 0.61, 0.73, 1.01, and 1.42 mg Cu L-1. The 96 h Cu LC50 calculated was 0.655 mg L-1 (0.823-0.488. 96-h Cu LC50 predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.722 mg L-1. Analysis of the inter-seasonal variation of the main water quality parameters indicates that a higher protective effect of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulphate, and chloride is expected during the dry season. The very high load of total suspended solids in this river might be a key factor in determining copper distribution between solid and solution phases. A cross-fish-species extrapolation of copper BLM is valid within the water quality parameters and experimental conditions of this toxicity test.

  6. Conservative Non-equlibrium Extrapolation Boundary Condition in Lattice Boltzmann Method%格子Boltzmann守恒型非平衡态的外推边界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟旭军; 赵凯

    2012-01-01

    针对非平衡态外推边界处理方法在某些条件下发生质量泄漏的问题,结合质量守恒定律对其进行修正,建立一种新的质量守恒型的边界处理格式.其基本思想是在边界处定义一个虚拟密度来修正平衡态分布函数,使得系统质量守恒.以重力作用下的密度场及磁流体模拟问题为例,利用该格式进行分析,讨论质量泄露问题的本质及各种因素的影响.通过对三种典型的流动:二维Poiseuille流、Couette流、Womersley流的模拟,验证该边界格式的计算精度和稳定性.%Removing mass leakage in non-equilibrium extrapolation method, a mass conservative boundary condition is proposed with improving non-equilibrium extrapolation method based on conservation of mass. Mass conservation of a system is ensured by defining an artificial density at solid boundary. Precision and stability of the new boundary condition are validated by simulating three classical flows (Poiseuille, Couette and Womersley).

  7. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa; Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (ε, σ) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  8. Calculation of extrapolation curves in the 4π(LS)β-γ coincidence technique with the Monte Carlo code Geant4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, C; Thiam, C; Bouchard, J

    2016-03-01

    At LNE-LNHB, a liquid scintillation (LS) detection setup designed for Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) measurements is also used in the β-channel of a 4π(LS)β-γ coincidence system. This LS counter based on 3 photomultipliers was first modeled using the Monte Carlo code Geant4 to enable the simulation of optical photons produced by scintillation and Cerenkov effects. This stochastic modeling was especially designed for the calculation of double and triple coincidences between photomultipliers in TDCR measurements. In the present paper, this TDCR-Geant4 model is extended to 4π(LS)β-γ coincidence counting to enable the simulation of the efficiency-extrapolation technique by the addition of a γ-channel. This simulation tool aims at the prediction of systematic biases in activity determination due to eventual non-linearity of efficiency-extrapolation curves. First results are described in the case of the standardization (59)Fe. The variation of the γ-efficiency in the β-channel due to the Cerenkov emission is investigated in the case of the activity measurements of (54)Mn. The problem of the non-linearity between β-efficiencies is featured in the case of the efficiency tracing technique for the activity measurements of (14)C using (60)Co as a tracer.

  9. Extrapolating the Trends of Test Drop Data with Opening Shock Factor Calculations: the Case of the Orion Main and Drogue Parachutes Inflating to 1st Reefed Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Jean; Ray, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new calculation of the opening shock factor C (sub k) characterizing the inflation performance of NASA's Orion spacecraft main and drogue parachutes opening under a reefing constraint (1st stage reefing), as currently tested in the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) program. This calculation is based on an application of the Momentum-Impulse Theorem at low mass ratio (R (sub m) is less than 10 (sup -1)) and on an earlier analysis of the opening performance of drogues decelerating point masses and inflating along horizontal trajectories. Herein we extend the reach of the Theorem to include the effects of payload drag and gravitational impulse during near-vertical motion - both important pre-requisites for CPAS parachute analysis. The result is a family of C (sub k) versus R (sub m) curves which can be used for extrapolating beyond the drop-tested envelope. The paper proves this claim in the case of the CPAS Mains and Drogues opening while trailing either a Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle or a Parachute Test Vehicle (an Orion capsule boiler plate). It is seen that in all cases the values of the opening shock factor can be extrapolated over a range in mass ratio that is at least twice that of the test drop data.

  10. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system\\'s potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (ε, σ) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Maass Forms and Quantum Modular Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolen, Larry

    This thesis describes several new results in the theory of harmonic Maass forms and related objects. Maass forms have recently led to a flood of applications throughout number theory and combinatorics in recent years, especially following their development by the work of Bruinier and Funke the modern understanding Ramanujan's mock theta functions due to Zwegers. The first of three main theorems discussed in this thesis concerns the integrality properties of singular moduli. These are well-known to be algebraic integers, and they play a beautiful role in complex multiplication and explicit class field theory for imaginary quadratic fields. One can also study "singular moduli" for special non-holomorphic functions, which are algebraic but are not necessarily algebraic integers. Here we will explain the phenomenon of integrality properties and provide a sharp bound on denominators of symmetric functions in singular moduli. The second main theme of the thesis concerns Zagier's recent definition of a quantum modular form. Since their definition in 2010 by Zagier, quantum modular forms have been connected to numerous different topics such as strongly unimodal sequences, ranks, cranks, and asymptotics for mock theta functions. Motivated by Zagier's example of the quantum modularity of Kontsevich's "strange" function F(q), we revisit work of Andrews, Jimenez-Urroz, and Ono to construct a natural vector-valued quantum modular form whose components. The final chapter of this thesis is devoted to a study of asymptotics of mock theta functions near roots of unity. In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. The theory of mock theta functions has been brought to fruition using the framework of harmonic Maass forms, thanks to Zwegers. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan's original definition. Here we prove that Ramanujan's examples do indeed satisfy his

  12. Nucleon form factors on the lattice with light dynamical fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik T39; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics] (and others)

    2007-09-15

    The electromagnetic form factors provide important insight into the internal structure of the nucleon and continue to be of major interest for experiment and phenomenology. For an intermediate range of momenta the form factors can be calculated on the lattice. However, the reliability of the results is limited by systematic errors mostly due to the required extrapolation to physical quark masses. Chiral effective field theories predict a rather strong quark mass dependence in a range which was yet inaccessible for lattice simulations. We give an update on recent results from the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with dynamical N{sub f}=2, non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions at pion masses as low as 350 MeV. (orig.)

  13. Octet baryon electromagnetic form factors in a relativistic quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2011-01-01

    We study the octet baryon electromagnetic properties by applying the covariant spectator quark model, and provide covariant parametrization that can be used to study baryon electromagnetic reactions. While we use the lattice QCD data in the large pion mass regime (small pion cloud effects) to determine the parameters of the model in the valence quark sector, we use the nucleon physical and octet baryon magnetic moment data to parameterize the pion cloud contributions. The valence quark contributions for the octet baryon electromagnetic form factors are estimated by extrapolating the lattice parametrization in the large pion mass regime to the physical regime. As for the pion cloud contributions, we parameterize them in a covariant, phenomenological manner, combined with SU(3) symmetry. We also discuss the impact of the pion cloud effects on the octet baryon electromagnetic form factors and their radii.

  14. Octet Baryon Electromagnetic Form Factors in a Relativistic Quark Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilberto Ramalho, Kazuo Tsushima

    2011-09-01

    We study the octet baryon electromagnetic properties by applying the covariant spectator quark model, and provide covariant parametrization that can be used to study baryon electromagnetic reactions. While we use the lattice QCD data in the large pion mass regime (small pion cloud effects) to determine the parameters of the model in the valence quark sector, we use the nucleon physical and octet baryon magnetic moment data to parameterize the pion cloud contributions. The valence quark contributions for the octet baryon electromagnetic form factors are estimated by extrapolating the lattice parametrization in the large pion mass regime to the physical regime. As for the pion cloud contributions, we parameterize them in a covariant, phenomenological manner, combined with SU(3) symmetry. We also discuss the impact of the pion cloud effects on the octet baryon electromagnetic form factors and their radii.

  15. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in two-flavour QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Capitani, S; Djukanovic, D; von Hippel, G; Hua, J; Knippschild, B Jäger B; Meyer, H B; Rae, T D; Wittig, H

    2015-01-01

    We present results for the nucleon electromagnetic form factors, including the momentum transfer dependence and derived quantities (charge radii and magnetic moment). The analysis is performed using O(a) improved Wilson fermions in Nf=2 QCD measured on the CLS ensembles. Particular focus is placed on a systematic evaluation of the influence of excited states in three-point correlation functions, which lead to a biased evaluation, if not accounted for correctly. We argue that the use of summed operator insertions and fit ans\\"atze including excited states allow us to suppress and control this effect. We employ a novel method to perform joint chiral and continuum extrapolations, by fitting the form factors directly to the expressions of covariant baryonic chiral effective field theory. The final results for the charge radii and magnetic moment from our lattice calculations include, for the first time, a full error budget. We find that our estimates are compatible with experimental results within their overall u...

  16. Form factors for semi-leptonic B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Ran; Bailey, Jon A; Du, Daping; El-Khadra, Aida X; Jain, R D; Kronfeld, Andreas S; Van de Water, Ruth S; Liu, Yuzhi; Meurice, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    We report on form factors for the B->K l^+ l^- semi-leptonic decay process. We use several lattice spacings from a=0.12 fm down to 0.06 fm and a variety of dynamical quark masses with 2+1 flavors of asqtad quarks provided by the MILC Collaboration. These ensembles allow good control of the chiral and continuum extrapolations. The b-quark is treated as a clover quark with the Fermilab interpretation. We update our results for f_\\parallel and f_\\perp, or, equivalently, f_+ and f_0. In addition, we present new results for the tensor form factor f_T. Model independent results are obtained based upon the z-expansion.

  17. Fornemmelse for form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skude, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Om den arkitektoniske forms afhængighed af aerodynamik, solens nedbrydning og optimering af materialers holdbarhed.......Om den arkitektoniske forms afhængighed af aerodynamik, solens nedbrydning og optimering af materialers holdbarhed....

  18. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  19. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  20. Forms in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Uses the work of M. C. Escher to instruct upper elementary students in the transformation of flat shape into three-dimensional form. Outlines the lesson as a series of sections: (1) reviewing form drawing; (2) creating three-dimensional effects; (3) imagining the forms in an inhabited world; and (4) using color and shading. (DSK)

  1. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  2. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omelyan, Igor, E-mail: omelyan@ualberta.ca, E-mail: omelyan@icmp.lviv.ua [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, Lviv 79011 (Ukraine); Kovalenko, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.kovalenko@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada)

    2013-12-28

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics

  3. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human; Modelizacion de la retencion sistemica del berilio en la rata. Extrapolacion al Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de

    1994-07-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs.

  4. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics joined with in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of ADME: a marriage under the arch of systems pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Hodjegan, A

    2012-07-01

    Classic pharmacokinetics (PK) rarely takes into account the full knowledge of physiology and biology of the human body. However, physiologically based PK (PBPK) is built mainly from drug-independent "system" information. PBPK is not a new concept, but it has shown a very rapid rise in recent years. This has been attributed to a greater connectivity to in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) techniques for predicting drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and their variability in humans. The marriage between PBPK and IVIVE under the overarching umbrella of "systems biology" has removed many constraints related to cutoff approaches on prediction of ADME. PBPK-IVIVE linked models have repeatedly shown their value in guiding decisions when predicting the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on PK of drugs. A review of the achievements and shortcomings of the models might suggest better strategies in extending the success of PBPK-IVIVE to pharmacodynamics (PD) and drug safety.

  5. Static $\\bar{Q}Q$ pair free energy and screening masses from correlators of Polyakov loops: continuum extrapolated lattice results at the QCD physical point

    CERN Document Server

    Borsányi, Szabolcs; Katz, Sándor D; Pásztor, Attila; Szabó, Kálmán K; Török, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    We study the correlators of Polyakov loops, and the corresponding gauge invariant free energy of a static quark-antiquark pair in 2+1 flavor QCD at finite temperature. Our simulations were carried out on $N_t$ = 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 lattices using Symanzik improved gauge action and a stout improved staggered action with physical quark masses. The free energies calculated from the Polyakov loop correlators are extrapolated to the continuum limit. For the free energies we use a two step renormalization procedure that only uses data at finite temperature. We also measure correlators with definite Euclidean time reversal and charge conjugation symmetry to extract two different screening masses, one in the magnetic, and one in the electric sector, to distinguish two different correlation lengths in the full Polyakov loop correlator.

  6. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  7. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  8. Forming of superplastic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-05-01

    Superplasticity in ceramics has now advanced to the stage that technologically viable superplastic deformation processing can be performed. In this paper, examples of superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of ceramic components are given. Recent work in biaxial gas-pressure forming of several ceramics is provided. These include yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia (YTZP), a 20% alumina/YTZP composite, and silicon. In addition, the concurrent superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of a hybrid ceramic-metal structure are presented. These forming processes offer technological advantages of greater dimensional control and increased variety and complexity of shapes than is possible with conventional ceramic shaping technology.

  9. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  10. Baryon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, B; Meißner, Ulf G; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the form factors of the baryon octet in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculated charge radius of the show that kaon loop effects can play a significant role in the neutron electric form factor. Furthermore. we derive generalized Caldi-Pagels relations between various charge radii which are free of chiral loop effects.

  11. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  12. PowerForms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Ricky, Mikkel

    2000-01-01

    All uses of HTML forms may benefit from validation of the specified input field values. Simple validation matches individual values against specified formats, while more advanced validation may involve interdependencies of form fields. There is currently no standard for specifying or implementing...

  13. Mastering HTML5 forms

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial will show you how to create stylish forms, not only visually appealing, but interactive and customized, in order to gather valuable user inputs and information.Enhance your skills in building responsive and dynamic web forms using HTML5, CSS3, and related technologies. All you need is a basic understanding of HTML and PHP.

  14. The ISO View of Star Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, George

    1999-01-01

    ISO studies of normal galaxies in the local Universe have revealed basic new properties whose significant implications for the star formation process and cosmology are only starting to be understood. This review will touch on the general results of a statistical nature, and provide a quick summary of the profusion of exciting results on individual objects. In the mid-infrared, PHT-S has established that the spectra of star forming galaxies between 6 and-13microns are dominated by the Aromatic Features in Emission (AFE), and show little variation as a function of the heating intensity. The Carriers of the AFE (CAFE) are thus a universal component of dust with standard properties, and contribute between 10 and 25% of the total dust luminosity. In addition to AFE, the spectra show a low-level continuum detectable at wavelengths longer than 3.5microns whose origin is still under investigation. The mid-infrared colors formed as the ratio of flux densities in the 6.75micron and the 15micron bands of ISO-CAM remain essentially constant and near unity for quiescent and mildly active galaxies. As dust heating increases further, the 15micron flux increases steeply compared to 6.75microns, indicating that dust heated to 100Kgalaxy become more active in star formation, its [CII] flux weakens relative to total dust emission while the [OI] does not. This behavior has attracted much interest because it extrapolates to the most active galaxies, making them weaker in [CII] than previously expected. Several explanations for the effect have been advanced, and will be discussed in this review. Spectroscopy with SWS has measured molecular hydrogen in galaxies, providing a powerful handle on the warm molecular gas content. SWS and CAM-CVF studies targeting ionic fine-structure lines have demonstrated their value as diagnostics of the radiation field.

  15. Spin forming development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equipment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  16. Laser assisted forming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratky, Alexander

    2007-05-01

    During forming processes high deformations rates can lead to cracks and rupture very easily. Especially brittle materials like titanium or magnesium make difficulties in forming. Due to the dependence of the yield strength on temperature, forming at elevated temperatures eases processing of such materials. Since forming takes place only at localized areas of the work piece selective heating is suffcient and advantageous in most cases. Selective Laser heating offers a possibility to heat only the areas of the work piece where strongest deformations are required. For this purpose several laser sources have been tested like CO II, Diode and Nd:YAG Lasers and their advantages and disadvantages in localized heating of the work pieces will be discussed. The work presented here summarizes research activities at the Institute for Forming and High Power Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology, on laser assisted deep drawing, laser assisted bending, wire drawing and so on during the last decade. Recent developments like roll profiling, incremental forming processes and hydro forming are discussed briefly.

  17. Circle of Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2012-01-01

    a common professional language like in mathematics, colour and music. The result is a weaker professionalism in the aesthetic competences compared to the professionalism and competences in other areas. A research project [1] on contrasts or opposites in form investigated the phenomenon in the fields...... by this model, and using the knowledge gathered from the other areas, especially perception psychology, it showed to be a possible way to organize contrasts in form, a system of 4 different opposites, geometric, organic, mass and structure: The Circle of Form....

  18. Forms of matter and forms of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    The theory of defects in ordered and ill-ordered media is a well-advanced part of condensed matter physics. Concepts developed in this field also occur in the study of spacetime singularities, namely: i)- the topological theory of quantized defects (Kibble's cosmic strings) and ii)- the Volterra process for continuous defects, used to classify the Poincar\\'e symmetry breakings. We reassess the classification of Minkowski spacetime defects in the same theoretical frame, starting from the conjecture that these defects fall into two classes, as on they relate to massive particles or to radiation. This we justify on the empirical evidence of the Hubble's expansion. We introduce timelike and null congruences of geodesics treated as ordered media, viz. 'm'-crystals of massive particles and 'r'-crystals of massless particles, with parallel 4-momenta in M^4. Classifying their defects (or 'forms') we find (i) 'm'- and 'r'- Volterra continuous line defects and (ii) quantized topologically stable 'r'-defects, these latt...

  19. Strange Baryon Electromagnetic Form Factors and SU(3) Flavor Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huey-Wen; Orginos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    We study the nucleon, Sigma and cascade octet baryon electromagnetic form factors and the effects of SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking from 2+1-flavor lattice calculations. We find that electric and magnetic radii are similar; the maximum discrepancy is about 10\\%. In the pion-mass region we explore, both the quark-component and full-baryon moments have small SU(3) symmetry breaking. We extrapolate the charge radii and the magnetic moments using three-flavor heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBXPT). The systematic errors due to chiral and continuum extrapolations remain significant, giving rise to charge radii for $p$ and $\\Sigma^-$ that are 3--4 standard deviations away from the known experimental ones. Within these systematics the predicted $\\Sigma^+$ and $\\Xi^-$ radii are 0.67(5) and 0.306(15)~fm$^2$ respectively. When the next-to-next-to-leading order of HBXPT is included, the extrapolated magnetic moments are less than 3 standard deviations away from PDG values, and the d

  20. THE BORDERS OF THE RIDGE FORMS OF SEDIMENT MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodzinskaya Anna Gennadievna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the active equilibrium motion of bed forms, which occurs in rivers during high water periods. The authors consider the relation between an average size of the particles of which little bed-forms (rifles are formed and an average size of non-cohesive material in case of which armoring is formed in a river. These particles have a diameter of 0.5…0.6 mm. This boundary is associated with different mechanisms of stability loss for smaller particles, for which the probability of weighing is greater than for the larger particles. The article offers the extrapolation of the dependence of the ratio of average speed to critical speed received by V.N. Goncharov at small depths (up to 0.2 m at the depth of 5 m on the basis of the experiments presented by V. Rijn. It is shown that the ratio of the dynamic speed to its critical value decreases with the increase in the size of alluvial particles, for bed formation and wash moments. For the moments of bed formation reaching the maximum bed height (maximum resistance in the channel and erosion of the bed-forms was well confirmed by the values of the dimensionless parameter (the ratio of average velocity to hydraulic size taking into account the flow regime for a particle size of about 1 mm.

  1. FormCalc 7

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, S; Mirabella, E

    2011-01-01

    We present additions and improvements in Version 7 of FormCalc, most notably analytic tensor reduction, choice of OPP methods, and MSSM initialization via FeynHiggs, as well as a parallelized Cuba library for numerical integration.

  2. Transplant Center Search Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Your Story Give Us Feedback - A + A Transplant Center Search Form Welcome to the Blood & Marrow ... transplant centers for patients with a particular disease. Transplant Center login Username: * Password: * Request new password Join ...

  3. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  4. Fannish form and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue showcases a variety of investigations into a myriad of platforms, featuring several essays that switch the focus from content to form and illustrate the importance of a range of different fan engagements.

  5. NOAA Form 370 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains information from submitted NOAA Form 370s, also known as the Fisheries Certificate of Origin, for imported shipments of frozen and/or processed...

  6. FORM, Diagrams and Topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Franz; Ueda, Takahiro; Vermaseren, J A M; Vogt, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a number of FORM features that are essential in the automatic processing of very large numbers of diagrams as used in the Forcer program for 4-loop massless propagator diagrams. Most of these features are new.

  7. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  8. Getting in-formed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    det vi undersøger på form gennem vores beskrivelser. Paperet tager afsæt i empiriske eksempler fra et postdoc projekt om et såkaldt 'serious game' - Mingoville. Projektet følger circuleringer og etableringer af Mingoville 'på en global markedsplads'. I paperet diskuteres hvordan vi som forskere samler....../performer de fænomener vi forsker i. Aktør-Netværks-Teoretiker Bruno Latour (2005) pointerer at enhver beskrivelse også er en form for forklaring. En form for forklaring, der putter ting ind i et skript og dermed også putter ting på form. Paperet diskuterer to tilgange til at gøre serious games og derved skabe viden om...... engagementer med disse fænomener i serious games forskning: experimentel og etnografisk....

  9. form-Z

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Kompendiet gennemgår 3d-modellering, lyssætning og rendering med form-Z. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie.......Kompendiet gennemgår 3d-modellering, lyssætning og rendering med form-Z. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie....

  10. Achieving form in autobiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas (Nick Meihuizen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that, unlike biographies which tend to follow patterns based on conventional expectations, salient autobiographies achieve forms unique to themselves. The article draws on ideas from contemporary formalists such as Peter McDonald and Angela Leighton but also considers ideas on significant form stemming from earlier writers and critics such as P.N. Furbank and Willa Cather. In extracting from these writers the elements of what they consider comprise achieved form, the article does not seek to provide a rigid means of objectively testing the formal attributes of a piece of writing. It rather offers qualitative reminders of the need to be alert to the importance of form, even if the precise nature of this importance is not possible to define. Form is involved in meaning, and this continuously opens up possibilities regarding the reader’s relationship with the work in question. French genetic critic Debray Genette distinguishes between ‘semantic effect’ (the direct telling involved in writing and ‘semiological effect’ (the indirect signification involved. It is the latter, the article argues in summation, which gives a work its singular nature, producing a form that is not predictable but suggestive, imaginative.

  11. FormFlavor Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the usage and structure of FormFlavor, a Mathematica-based tool for computing a broad list of flavor and CP observables in general new physics models. Based on the powerful machinery of FeynArts and FormCalc, FormFlavor calculates the one-loop Wilson coefficients of the dimension 5 and 6 Standard Model effective Lagrangian entirely from scratch. These Wilson coefficients are then evolved down to the low scale using one-loop QCD RGEs, where they are transformed into flavor and CP observables. The last step is accomplished using a model-independent, largely stand-alone package called FFObservables that is included with FormFlavor. The SM predictions in FFObservables include up-to-date references and accurate current predictions. Using the functions and modular structure provided by FormFlavor, it is straightforward to add new observables. Currently, FormFlavor is set up to perform these calculations for the general, non-MFV MSSM, but in principle it can be generalized to arbitrary FeynArts...

  12. [Increase in uro-oncological health care needs due to demographic change: Extrapolation of cancer incidence numbers through 2030 as a basis for directed regional planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A; Vohmann, C; Wawroschek, F; Kieschke, J

    2015-09-01

    In Germany a considerable increase in the number of urological cancers is expected due to demographic change. Small-scale analyses are important for directed planning of uro-oncological health care due to significant regional variability in the demographic development. In this study the number of new urological cancer cases was extrapolated on the county level for Lower Saxony. The incidence rates for penile (C60), prostate (C61), testis (C62), kidney (C64), renal pelvis/ureter (C65-66) and bladder cancer (C67, D09.0, D41.4) were extrapolated for counties and urban communes from 2010 to 2020 and to 2030 based on the regional population forecast of the State Office for Statistics of Lower Saxony (2009-2031) and gender- and 5-year age-specific incidence rates for Lower Saxony (averaged for 2006-2010). From 2010 (n=12.668) to 2020 and 2030, increases of 15% (n = 14.519; men: 15%, women: 10%) and 28% (n=16.201; men: 29%, women: 20%) are expected in urological cancers for Lower Saxony. The greatest rise is predicted for prostate cancer (2030: 31%, n = 9.732; C67 + D09.0 + D41.4: 30%; C60: 28%; C65-66: 27%; C64: 19%). Only testicular carcinomas are expected to decrease (-13%). The increase varies considerably between regions. In the counties the rates range from 7% (2030; C61: 10%) in Osterode am Harz to 63% in Vechta (C61: 70%). In the urban communes the greatest increase is predicted for Oldenburg (total: 40%; C61: 45%) and the lowest increase for Wolfsburg (total: 3%; C61: 3%). Demographic change is expected to lead to a sharp increase in urological cancers. In health care planning (e.g. specialist care) regionally very heterogeneous developments and in particular high growth and close to home care of more and more older and less mobile cancer sufferers, respectively, must be considered for rural areas.

  13. Neural Network Model for Survival and Growth of Salmonella enterica Serotype 8,20:-:z6 in Ground Chicken Thigh Meat during Cold Storage: Extrapolation to Other Serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2015-10-01

    Mathematical models that predict the behavior of human bacterial pathogens in food are valuable tools for assessing and managing this risk to public health. A study was undertaken to develop a model for predicting the behavior of Salmonella enterica serotype 8,20:-:z6 in chicken meat during cold storage and to determine how well the model would predict the behavior of other serotypes of Salmonella stored under the same conditions. To develop the model, ground chicken thigh meat (0.75 cm(3)) was inoculated with 1.7 log Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 and then stored for 0 to 8 -8 to 16°C. An automated miniaturized most-probable-number (MPN) method was developed and used for the enumeration of Salmonella. Commercial software (Excel and the add-in program NeuralTools) was used to develop a multilayer feedforward neural network model with one hidden layer of two nodes. The performance of the model was evaluated using the acceptable prediction zone (APZ) method. The number of Salmonella in ground chicken thigh meat stayed the same (P > 0.05) during 8 days of storage at -8 to 8°C but increased (P < 0.05) during storage at 9°C (+0.6 log) to 16°C (+5.1 log). The proportion of residual values (observed minus predicted values) in an APZ (pAPZ) from -1 log (fail-safe) to 0.5 log (fail-dangerous) was 0.939 for the data (n = 426 log MPN values) used in the development of the model. The model had a pAPZ of 0.944 or 0.954 when it was extrapolated to test data (n = 108 log MPN per serotype) for other serotypes (S. enterica serotype Typhimurium var 5-, Kentucky, Typhimurium, and Thompson) of Salmonella in ground chicken thigh meat stored for 0 to 8 days at -4, 4, 12, or 16°C under the same experimental conditions. A pAPZ of ≥0.7 indicates that a model provides predictions with acceptable bias and accuracy. Thus, the results indicated that the model provided valid predictions of the survival and growth of Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 in ground chicken thigh meat stored for 0 to 8 days at -8 to

  14. Extrapolation Ionization Chamber Dosimetry of Fluorescent X-Ray Energies from 4.5 to 19.6 keV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, Joseph T; Tucker, Mark A; Snyder, Michael G; Makar, Simon P; Yudele, Mark; Burmeister, Jay; Joiner, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    Characteristic X rays of energies less than approximately 20 keV are of interest in radiobiology and radiation oncology. There is evidence that these low-energy photons produce higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and lower oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) relative to higher energies. Lower energy X rays also offer the advantage of healthy tissue sparing beyond the target treatment depth. Electronic brachytherapy systems that can deliver characteristic and bremsstrahlung X rays of varying energy are in clinical use as well as under development. We performed low-energy extrapolation ionization chamber dosimetry using two methods: 1. the exposure-to-dose method; and 2. the Burlin theory method combined with the extrapolation chamber method of Klevenhagen. We investigated fluorescent X rays emitted from seven metals: titanium (Ti, Z = 22); chromium (Cr, Z = 24); iron (Fe, Z = 26); cobalt (Co, Z = 27); copper (Cu, Z = 29); zinc (Zn, Z = 30); and molybdenum (Mo, Z = 42). X rays were produced by irradiation of the metals with a 55 kVp, 45 mA silver anode spectrum. The data obtained were air kerma rate (cGy/min), and radiation dose rate (cGy/min) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution and water. Air kerma rates ranged from 3.55 ± 0.10 to 14.36 ± 0.39 cGy/min. Dose rates ranged from 3.85 ± 0.10 to 16.96 ± 0.46 cGy/min in PBS and 3.59 ± 0.10 to 16.06 ± 0.43 cGy/min in water. Dose-rate energy dependence of both models was examined by taking a ratio of measured to Monte Carlo calculated dose rates. Dosimetry method 1 exhibited a linear relationship across all energies with a slope of 0.0127 keV(-1) and R(2) of 0.9276. Method 2 exhibited a linear relationship across all energies with a slope of 0.0467 keV(-1) and R(2) of 0.9933. Method 1 or 2 may be used as a relative dosimetry system to derive dose rates to water by using a second reference ion chamber with a NIST-traceable calibration for the molybdenum spectrum.

  15. Local initiative extrapolated to nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper; Brøgger, Morten

    In the municipality of Sønderborg, in the southern part of Jutland, there is a shining example initiated in 2007, ProjectZero, of a local initiative that have resulted in extensive energy savings in residential buildings and at the same time created local workplaces. The intension with the pilot ...

  16. Comparative waste forms study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  17. Efficient numerical methods for the random-field Ising model: Finite-size scaling, reweighting extrapolation, and computation of response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytas, Nikolaos G; Martín-Mayor, Víctor

    2016-06-01

    It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 227201 (2013)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.110.227201] that the critical behavior of the random-field Ising model in three dimensions is ruled by a single universality class. This conclusion was reached only after a proper taming of the large scaling corrections of the model by applying a combined approach of various techniques, coming from the zero- and positive-temperature toolboxes of statistical physics. In the present contribution we provide a detailed description of this combined scheme, explaining in detail the zero-temperature numerical scheme and developing the generalized fluctuation-dissipation formula that allowed us to compute connected and disconnected correlation functions of the model. We discuss the error evolution of our method and we illustrate the infinite limit-size extrapolation of several observables within phenomenological renormalization. We present an extension of the quotients method that allows us to obtain estimates of the critical exponent α of the specific heat of the model via the scaling of the bond energy and we discuss the self-averaging properties of the system and the algorithmic aspects of the maximum-flow algorithm used.

  18. [Financial impact of smoking on health systems in Latin America: A study of seven countries and extrapolation to the regional level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon-Riviere, Andrés; Bardach, Ariel; Augustovski, Federico; Alcaraz, Andrea; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Pinto, Márcia Teixeira; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Torres, Esperanza Peña; Osorio, Diana Isabel; Huayanay, Leandro; Munarriz, César Loza; de Miera-Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Gallegos-Rivero, Verónica; Puente, Catherine De La; Navia-Bueno, María Del Pilar; Caporale, Joaquín

    2016-10-01

    Estimate smoking-attributable direct medical costs in Latin American health systems. A microsimulation model was used to quantify financial impact of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, lung cancer, and nine other neoplasms. A systematic search for epidemiological data and event costs was carried out. The model was calibrated and validated for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, countries that account for 78% of Latin America's population; the results were then extrapolated to the regional level. Every year, smoking is responsible for 33 576 billion dollars in direct costs to health systems. This amounts to 0.7% of the region's gross domestic product (GDP) and 8.3% of its health budget. Cardiovascular disease, COPD, and cancer were responsible for 30.3%, 26.9%, and 23.7% of these expenditures, respectively. Smoking-attributable costs ranged from 0.4% (Mexico and Peru) to 0.9% (Chile) of GDP and from 5.2% (Brazil) to 12.7% (Bolivia) of health expenditures. In the region, tax revenues from cigarette sales barely cover 37% of smoking-attributable health expenditures (8.1% in Bolivia and 67.3% in Argentina). Smoking is responsible for a significant proportion of health spending in Latin America, and tax revenues from cigarette sales are far from covering it. The region's countries should seriously consider stronger measures, such as an increase in tobacco taxes.

  19. Solving the 1-, 2-, and 3-Dimensional Schröodinger Equation for Multiminima Potentials Using the Numerov-Cooley Method. An Extrapolation Formula for Energy Eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Michael

    1989-05-01

    As demonstrated with examples the Numerov-Cooley algorithm can be applied to more complicated potentials (especially multiminima potentials). There are no stability problems in the classically forbidden regions. An extrapolation formula for energy eigenvalues is deduced, which gets an additional accuracy of 2 ⋯ 4 digits for energy eigenvalues. This formula is checked as follows: For one state of a double minimum potential (which is used to approximate hydrogen bond potentials) an analytical solution is given. This solution is compared with numerical results. Also the accuracy of the eigenfunctions is checked. Computer-dependent rounding errors (CDC Cyber 995) are estimated. The eigenfunctions corresponding to 1-dimensional potentials Vx( x) and Vy( y) are used as basis functions for a perturbed 2-dimensional multiminima potential Vx( x)+ Vy( y)+ δV( x, y). For a 63-minima potential as an example, the accuracy of the eigenvalues is 4 ⋯ 6 digits depending on the perturbation ΔV( x, y). The computer time, depending on the accuracy, is tabulated for different potentials.

  20. The inverse dose-rate effect and the extrapolation of radon risk estimates from exposures of miners to low-level exposures in homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushkin, J.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

    1994-04-01

    This letter is written in response to a paper in which the author discusses the inverse dose-rate dependence of oncogenic transformation by high-LET radiation. The author asserts that, as a consequence, the extrapolation of results from miners exposed to high levels of radon daughters could overestimate the risk due to environmental exposures. By using a model increased cell sensitivity in one part of the cell cycle, the author assumes an inverse dose-rate effect should occur only at high doses, but the author of this letter points out that this does not imply a lower risk per unit dose at low doses. According to this letter, the existence of an inverse dose-rate effect for high-LET radiation provides no grounds for projecting lower lung cancer risks per unit exposure at environmental radon levels than at the higher radon level in mines. Failure to adjust for any inverse dose-rate effect in the studies of miners can only lead to an underestimation of the environmental risk.

  1. Human plasma concentrations of five cytochrome P450 probes extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in dogs and minipigs using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Satomi; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cytochrome P450 probes in humans can be extrapolated from corresponding data in cynomolgus monkeys using simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. In the current study, despite some species difference in drug clearances, this modeling methodology was adapted to estimate human plasma concentrations of P450 probes based on data from commonly used medium-sized experimental animals, namely dogs and minipigs. Using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data, the observed plasma concentrations of slowly eliminated caffeine and warfarin and rapidly eliminated omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam in two young dogs were scaled to human oral monitoring equivalents. Using the same approach, the previously reported pharmacokinetics of the five P450 probes in minipigs was also scaled to human monitoring equivalents. The human plasma concentration profiles of the five P450 probes estimated by the simplified human PBPK models based on observed/reported pharmacokinetics in dogs/minipigs were consistent with previously published pharmacokinetic data in humans. These results suggest that dogs and minipigs, in addition to monkeys, could be suitable models for humans during research into new drugs, especially when used in combination with simple PBPK models.

  2. Turbulent flux modelling with a simple 2-layer soil model and extrapolated surface temperature applied at Nam Co Lake basin on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gerken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a surface model with two soil-layers for use in a high-resolution circulation model that has been modified with an extrapolated surface temperature, to be used for the calculation of turbulent fluxes. A quadratic temperature profile based on the layer mean and base temperature is assumed in each layer and extended to the surface. The model is tested at two sites on the Tibetan Plateau near Nam Co Lake during four days during the 2009 Monsoon season. In comparison to a two-layer model without explicit surface temperature estimate, there is a greatly reduced delay in diurnal flux cycles and the modelled surface temperature is much closer to observations. Comparison with a SVAT model and eddy covariance measurements shows an overall reasonable model performance based on RMSD and cross correlation comparisons between the modified and original model. A potential limitation of the model is the need for careful initialisation of the initial soil temperature profile, that requires field measurements. We show that the modified model is capable of reproducing fluxes of similar magnitudes and dynamics when compared to more complex methods chosen as a reference.

  3. Out-of-Sample Extrapolation utilizing Semi-Supervised Manifold Learning (OSE-SSL): Content Based Image Retrieval for Histopathology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Rachel; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-06-06

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) retrieves database images most similar to the query image by (1) extracting quantitative image descriptors and (2) calculating similarity between database and query image descriptors. Recently, manifold learning (ML) has been used to perform CBIR in a low dimensional representation of the high dimensional image descriptor space to avoid the curse of dimensionality. ML schemes are computationally expensive, requiring an eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) for every new query image to learn its low dimensional representation. We present out-of-sample extrapolation utilizing semi-supervised ML (OSE-SSL) to learn the low dimensional representation without recomputing the EVD for each query image. OSE-SSL incorporates semantic information, partial class label, into a ML scheme such that the low dimensional representation co-localizes semantically similar images. In the context of prostate histopathology, gland morphology is an integral component of the Gleason score which enables discrimination between prostate cancer aggressiveness. Images are represented by shape features extracted from the prostate gland. CBIR with OSE-SSL for prostate histology obtained from 58 patient studies, yielded an area under the precision recall curve (AUPRC) of 0.53 ± 0.03 comparatively a CBIR with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to learn a low dimensional space yielded an AUPRC of 0.44 ± 0.01.

  4. Robust extrapolation scheme for fast estimation of 3D ising field partition functions: application to within-subject fMRI data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Laurent; Vincent, Thomas; Ciuciu, Philippe; Idier, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fast numerical scheme to estimate Partition Functions (PF) of 3D Ising fields. Our strategy is applied to the context of the joint detection-estimation of brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data, where the goal is to automatically recover activated regions and estimate region-dependent hemodynamic filters. For any region, a specific binary Markov random field may embody spatial correlation over the hidden states of the voxels by modeling whether they are activated or not. To make this spatial regularization fully adaptive, our approach is first based upon a classical path-sampling method to approximate a small subset of reference PFs corresponding to prespecified regions. Then, the proposed extrapolation method allows us to approximate the PFs associated with the Ising fields defined over the remaining brain regions. In comparison with preexisting approaches, our method is robust to topological inhomogeneities in the definition of the reference regions. As a result, it strongly alleviates the computational burden and makes spatially adaptive regularization of whole brain fMRI datasets feasible.

  5. Robust extrapolation scheme for fast estimation of 3D Ising field partition functions: application to within subject fMRI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risser, L.; Vincent, T.; Ciuciu, Ph. [NeuroSpin CEA, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Risser, L.; Vincent, T. [Laboratoire de Neuroimagerie Assistee par Ordinateur (LNAO) CEA - DSV/I2BM/NEUROSPIN (France); Risser, L. [Institut de mecanique des fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), CNRS: UMR5502 - Universite Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III - Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT (France); Idier, J. [Institut de Recherche en Communications et en Cybernetique de Nantes (IRCCyN) CNRS - UMR6597 - Universite de Nantes - ecole Centrale de Nantes - Ecole des Mines de Nantes - Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite de Nantes (France)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present a first numerical scheme to estimate Partition Functions (PF) of 3D Ising fields. Our strategy is applied to the context of the joint detection-estimation of brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data, where the goal is to automatically recover activated regions and estimate region-dependent, hemodynamic filters. For any region, a specific binary Markov random field may embody spatial correlation over the hidden states of the voxels by modeling whether they are activated or not. To make this spatial regularization fully adaptive, our approach is first based upon it, classical path-sampling method to approximate a small subset of reference PFs corresponding to pre-specified regions. Then, file proposed extrapolation method allows its to approximate the PFs associated with the Ising fields defined over the remaining brain regions. In comparison with preexisting approaches, our method is robust; to topological inhomogeneities in the definition of the reference regions. As a result, it strongly alleviates the computational burden and makes spatially adaptive regularization of whole brain fMRI datasets feasible. (authors)

  6. Forms of Inattentiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and kept out of sight in the decision processes by looking at a specific case study involving the construction of a model intended to control, and render transparent, the quality of health services in Denmark. This paper outlines the forms of inattentiveness which make communication blind to information...... that could question the quality model. Five forms of inattentiveness are identified that function as answers to the question of how communication avoids actualizing relevant but also potentially destructive information. This study documents a considerable amount of blindness to potentially relevant themes...... and it points to activities that produce this blindness as they reduce the probability that potentially destructive subjects are actualized. Information is not only something organizations need, but may also be something they protect themselves against. In that case, the forms of inattentiveness may...

  7. Physical forms of MIPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffis, Andrea; Dvorakova, Gita; Falcimaigne-Cordin, Aude

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art in the development of methodologies for the preparation of MIPs in predetermined physical forms is critically reviewed, with particular attention being paid to the forms most widely employed in practical applications, such as spherical beads in the micro- to nanometer range, microgels, monoliths, membranes. Although applications of the various MIP physical forms are mentioned, the focus of the paper is mainly on the description of the various preparative methods. The aim is to provide the reader with an overview of the latest achievements in the field, as well as with a mean for critically evaluating the various proposed methodologies towards an envisaged application. The review covers the literature up to early 2010, with special emphasis on the developments of the last 10 years.

  8. Methods for forming particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  9. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  10. Incentive to Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Madsen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Projektet ’Incitament til Form' har identificeret en række tematiske angreb på formstudier - i stærkt papir – som skaber nye former, hvor af en eller flere ofte indeholder stærkere kvaliteter end udgangspunktet. Incitamenter er, i denne sammenhæng, former skabt ved foldning over variationer af lige...... af hans formstudierne gennem dialog og præsentation af incitamenter. Dialogen om form og læringsrums aktiviteter der var centrale for Lynges pædagogik. Dialogen og formeksperimenter kombineres med opfordringer til at søge inspiration i naturen og videnskabelige udredninger. De tematiske angreb er...

  11. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  12. Regression models in the determination of the absorbed dose with extrapolation chamber for ophthalmological applicators; Modelos de regresion en la determinacion de la dosis absorbida con camara de extrapolacion para aplicadores oftalmologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Morales P, R

    1992-06-15

    The absorbed dose for equivalent soft tissue is determined,it is imparted by ophthalmologic applicators, ({sup 90} Sr/{sup 90} Y, 1850 MBq) using an extrapolation chamber of variable electrodes; when estimating the slope of the extrapolation curve using a simple lineal regression model is observed that the dose values are underestimated from 17.7 percent up to a 20.4 percent in relation to the estimate of this dose by means of a regression model polynomial two grade, at the same time are observed an improvement in the standard error for the quadratic model until in 50%. Finally the global uncertainty of the dose is presented, taking into account the reproducibility of the experimental arrangement. As conclusion it can infers that in experimental arrangements where the source is to contact with the extrapolation chamber, it was recommended to substitute the lineal regression model by the quadratic regression model, in the determination of the slope of the extrapolation curve, for more exact and accurate measurements of the absorbed dose. (Author)

  13. Criminally Committed Inpatients in a Residential Forensic Pre-Release Treatment Program: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetting, Mark G.; Grabarek, Joanna; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Hazelwood, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation was conducted into the demographic, psychopathological, and offense characteristics of forensic psychiatric patients in residential treatment program. Descriptive findings, including victim variables, are presented. Select case vignettes, including offense profiles, are described. Clinical implications for risk assessment and…

  14. Prerelease Planning and Practices for Youth with Disabilities in Juvenile Detention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Clark, Heather Griller

    2013-01-01

    Many youth in detention facilities come from vulnerable home environments where factors such as economic pressures, abuse, neglect, and parental incarceration are constantly operating within the family system. A vast majority of these youth have not had positive school experiences and many of them experience special needs and mental health issues.…

  15. SHARP pre-release v1.0 - Current Status and Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Vijay S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rahaman, Ronald O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The NEAMS Reactor Product Line effort aims to develop an integrated multiphysics simulation capability for the design and analysis of future generations of nuclear power plants. The Reactor Product Line code suite’s multi-resolution hierarchy is being designed to ultimately span the full range of length and time scales present in relevant reactor design and safety analyses, as well as scale from desktop to petaflop computing platforms. In this report, building on a several previous report issued in September 2014, we describe our continued efforts to integrate thermal/hydraulics, neutronics, and structural mechanics modeling codes to perform coupled analysis of a representative fast sodium-cooled reactor core in preparation for a unified release of the toolkit. The work reported in the current document covers the software engineering aspects of managing the entire stack of components in the SHARP toolkit and the continuous integration efforts ongoing to prepare a release candidate for interested reactor analysis users. Here we report on the continued integration effort of PROTEUS/Nek5000 and Diablo into the NEAMS framework and the software processes that enable users to utilize the capabilities without losing scientific productivity. Due to the complexity of the individual modules and their necessary/optional dependency library chain, we focus on the configuration and build aspects for the SHARP toolkit, which includes capability to autodownload dependencies and configure/install with optimal flags in an architecture-aware fashion. Such complexity is untenable without strong software engineering processes such as source management, source control, change reviews, unit tests, integration tests and continuous test suites. Details on these processes are provided in the report as a building step for a SHARP user guide that will accompany the first release, expected by Mar 2016.

  16. Metal forming and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Lubrication is essential in most metal forming processes. The lubricant film has two basic functions, [1]: i. to separate the work piece and tool surfaces and ii. to cool the workpiece and the tool. Separation of the two surfaces implies lower friction facilitating deformation and lowering the tool...... deformation step to avoid overheating and breakdown of the lubricant....

  17. Geodiversity and land form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  18. Measuring urban form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghauser Pont, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    For many, the notion of ‘measuring urban form’ will sound disturbing. Urban form is about visual images of cities, experiences, feelings, memories of place, thoughts and intellectual constructs anchored in the realm of the arts and the humanities. Anne Vernez Moudon however gives in the paper Urbani

  19. Supercongruences via modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Osburn, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We prove two supercongruences for the coefficients of power series expansions in t of modular forms where t is a modular function. As a result, we settle two recent conjectures of Chan, Cooper and Sica. Additionally, we provide a table of supercongruences for numbers which appear in similar power series expansions and in the study of integral solutions of Apery-like differential equations.

  20. Forming of Thermoplastic Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, S.P.; Sachs, U.; Thije, ten R.H.W.; Rietman, A.D.; Akkerman, R.

    2012-01-01

    Design and production guidelines for UD reinforced thermoplastic composites are highly desirable. Therefore, forming experiments and simulations with a realistic complex shaped product were conducted. Thermoforming experiments with quasi-isotropic UD carbon/PEEK and 8HS woven glass/PPS composites sh

  1. Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  2. On Quadratic Differential Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.C.; Trentelman, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a theory around the notion of quadratic differential forms in the context of linear differential systems. In many applications, we need to not only understand the behavior of the system variables but also the behavior of certain functionals of these variables. The obvious cases w

  3. eta ' transition form factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amo Sanchez, del P.; Raven, H.G.; Snoek, H.; BaBar, Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    eta((')) transition form factors in the momentum-transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV(2). The analysis is based on 469 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  4. Three-form cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, Tomi S., E-mail: T.Koivisto@ThPhys.Uni-Heidelberg.d [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany); Nunes, Nelson J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Cosmology of self-interacting three-forms is investigated. The minimally coupled canonical theory can naturally generate a variety of isotropic background dynamics, including scaling, possibly transient acceleration and phantom crossing. An intuitive picture of the cosmological dynamics is presented employing an effective potential. Numerical solutions and analytical approximations are provided for scenarios which are potentially important for inflation or dark energy.

  5. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  6. Tube-Forming Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  7. The Form of Gentrification

    CERN Document Server

    Venerandi, Alessandro; Romice, Ombretta; Porta, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Many socioeconomic studies have been carried out to explain the phenomenon of gentrification. Although results of these works shed light on the process around this phenomenon, a perspective which focuses on the relationship between city form and gentrification is still missing. With this paper we try to address this gap by studying and comparing, through classic methods of mathematical statistics, morphological features of five London gentrified neighbourhoods. Outcomes confirm that areas which have undergone gentrification display similar and recognizable morphological patterns in terms of urban type and geographical location of main and local roads as well as businesses. These initial results confirm findings from previous research in urban sociology, and highlight the role of urban form in contributing to shape dynamics of non-spatial nature in cities.

  8. Feasibility of Multiple Examinations Using 68Ga-Labelled Collagelin Analogues: Organ Distribution in Rat for Extrapolation to Human Organ and Whole-Body Radiation Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Velikyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fibrosis is involved in many chronic diseases. It affects the functionality of vital organs, such as liver, lung, heart and kidney. Two novel imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET imaging of fibrosis have previously pre-clinically demonstrated promising target binding and organ distribution characteristics. However, the relevant disease monitoring in the clinical setup would require multiple repetitive examinations per year. Thus, it is of paramount importance to investigate the absorbed doses and total effective doses and thus, the potential maximum number of examinations per year. Methods: Two cyclic peptide (c[CPGRVMHGLHLGDDEGPC] analogues coupled via an ethylene glycol linker (EG2 to either 2-(4,7-bis(2-(tert-butoxy-2-oxoethyl-1,4,7-triazonan-1-ylacetic acid (NO2A-Col or 4-(4,7-bis(2-(tert-butoxy-2-oxoethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl-5-(tert-butoxy-5-oxopentanoic acid (NODAGA-Col were labelled with 68Ga. The resulting agents, [68Ga]Ga-NO2A-Col and [68Ga]Ga-NODAGA-Col, were administered in the tail vein of male and female Sprague–Dawley rats (N = 24. An ex vivo organ distribution study was performed at the 5-, 10-, 20-, 40-, 60- and 120-min time points. The resulting data were extrapolated for the estimation of human organ and total body absorbed and total effective doses using Organ Level Internal Dose Assessment Code software (OLINDA/EXM 1.1 assuming a similar organ distribution pattern between the species. Time-integrated radioactivity in each organ was calculated by trapezoidal integration followed by a single-exponential fit to the data points extrapolated to infinity. The resulting values were used for the residence time calculation. Results: Ex vivo organ distribution data revealed fast blood clearance and washout from most of the organs. Although the highest organ absorbed dose was found for kidneys (0.1 mGy/MBq, this organ was not the dose-limiting one and would allow for the administration of over 1460

  9. Feasibility of Multiple Examinations Using (68)Ga-Labelled Collagelin Analogues: Organ Distribution in Rat for Extrapolation to Human Organ and Whole-Body Radiation Dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikyan, Irina; Rosenström, Ulrika; Bulenga, Thomas N; Eriksson, Olof; Antoni, Gunnar

    2016-06-06

    Fibrosis is involved in many chronic diseases. It affects the functionality of vital organs, such as liver, lung, heart and kidney. Two novel imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of fibrosis have previously pre-clinically demonstrated promising target binding and organ distribution characteristics. However, the relevant disease monitoring in the clinical setup would require multiple repetitive examinations per year. Thus, it is of paramount importance to investigate the absorbed doses and total effective doses and thus, the potential maximum number of examinations per year. Two cyclic peptide (c[CPGRVMHGLHLGDDEGPC]) analogues coupled via an ethylene glycol linker (EG₂) to either 2-(4,7-bis(2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)-1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl)acetic acid (NO2A-Col) or 4-(4,7-bis(2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl)-5-(tert-butoxy)-5-oxopentanoic acid (NODAGA-Col) were labelled with (68)Ga. The resulting agents, [(68)Ga]Ga-NO2A-Col and [(68)Ga]Ga-NODAGA-Col, were administered in the tail vein of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 24). An ex vivo organ distribution study was performed at the 5-, 10-, 20-, 40-, 60- and 120-min time points. The resulting data were extrapolated for the estimation of human organ and total body absorbed and total effective doses using Organ Level Internal Dose Assessment Code software (OLINDA/EXM 1.1) assuming a similar organ distribution pattern between the species. Time-integrated radioactivity in each organ was calculated by trapezoidal integration followed by a single-exponential fit to the data points extrapolated to infinity. The resulting values were used for the residence time calculation. Ex vivo organ distribution data revealed fast blood clearance and washout from most of the organs. Although the highest organ absorbed dose was found for kidneys (0.1 mGy/MBq), this organ was not the dose-limiting one and would allow for the administration of over 1460 MBq per year for both [(68)Ga

  10. Sleep disorders - resistant forms

    OpenAIRE

    Koláčková, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate: Pavla Koláčková Supervisor: Doc. RNDr. Vladimír Semecký, CSc. Name of dissertation: Sleep disorders - resistant forms The diploma thesis is about sleep disorders. Sleep disorders are a global problem, lots of people have these problems. This diploma thesis focuses on American International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) and its application in clinical practice...

  11. Parking and Urban Form

    OpenAIRE

    Brueckner, Jan K.; Franco, Sofia F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the provision of residential parking in a monocentric city, with the ultimate goal of appraising the desirability and effects of regulations such as a minimum-parking requirement (MPR) per dwelling. The analysis considers three different regimes for provision of parking space: surface parking, underground parking, and structural parking, with the latter two regimes involving capital investment either in the form of an underground parking garage or an above-ground parking s...

  12. The pion form factor from lattice QCD with two dynamical flavours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broemmel, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie]|[Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik; Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2006-08-15

    We compute the electromagnetic form factor of the pion using non-perturbatively O(a) improved Wilson fermions. The calculations are done for pion masses down to 400 MeV and for lattice spacings of 0.07-0.11 fm. We check for finite size effects by repeating some of the measurements on smaller lattices. The large number of lattice parameters we use allows us to extrapolate to the physical point. For the square of the charge radius we find left angle r{sup 2} right angle =0.440(19) fm{sup 2}, in good agreement with experiment. (orig.)

  13. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kees de Jager

    2004-08-01

    Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.

  14. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of Long Chain Free Fatty Acid concentration in oily wastewater using the double wavenumber extrapolation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zisu; Malyala, Divya; Dean, Lisa; Ducoste, Joel

    2017-04-01

    Long Chain Free Fatty Acids (LCFFAs) from the hydrolysis of fat, oil and grease (FOG) are major components in the formation of insoluble saponified solids known as FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer pipes and lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). A Double Wavenumber Extrapolative Technique (DWET) was developed to simultaneously measure LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in oily wastewater suspensions. This method is based on the analysis of the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectrum, in which the absorbance of carboxyl bond (1710cm(-1)) and triglyceride bond (1745cm(-1)) were selected as the characteristic wavenumbers for total LCFFAs and FOG, respectively. A series of experiments using pure organic samples (Oleic acid/Palmitic acid in Canola oil) were performed that showed a linear relationship between the absorption at these two wavenumbers and the total LCFFA. In addition, the DWET method was validated using GC analyses, which displayed a high degree of agreement between the two methods for simulated oily wastewater suspensions (1-35% Oleic acid in Canola oil/Peanut oil). The average determination error of the DWET approach was ~5% when the LCFFA fraction was above 10wt%, indicating that the DWET could be applied as an experimental method for the determination of both LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in oily wastewater suspensions. Potential applications of this DWET approach includes: (1) monitoring the LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in grease interceptor (GI) effluents for regulatory compliance; (2) evaluating alternative LCFFAs/FOG removal technologies; and (3) quantifying potential FOG deposit high accumulation zones in the sewer collection system.

  15. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Agbovon, Césaire; Laurier, Dominique; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-08-01

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10(-4) person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10(-4) person-years/Gy(2)) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards.

  16. Real-time damage estimations of 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes extrapolated by the Japan Real-time Information System for earthquake (J-RISQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohei, N.; Nakamura, H.; Takahashi, I.; Fujiwara, H.

    2016-12-01

    It is crucial to develop methods grasping the situation soon after the earthquake, both in terms of supporting initial reactions, and enhancing social systems more resilient. For those reasons, we have been developing J-RISQ. Promptly after an earthquake, it estimates damages by combining methods for predicting ground motion using subsurface data, information about population and buildings, damage assessment methods for building using different fragility functions, and real-time observation data obtained by NIED, municipalities and JMA. In this study, we describe about estimations of 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes extrapolated by J-RISQ. In 2016, Kumamoto have faced 2 large jolts, the foreshock (M6.5) occurred on April 14, the main shock (M7.3) came on April 16. J-RISQ published a first report in 29 seconds after the foreshock and generated a total of seven reports within 10 minutes. Finally, it estimated that the number of completely collapsed buildings was between 5,000 and 14,000. In case of the main shock, a first report in 29 seconds, then 8 reports within 11 minutes. Finally, estimated numbers of completely collapsed buildings was between 15,000 and 38,000. The count of completely collapsed residences is approximately 8,300 according to the announcement by FDMA at July 19. In this regard, J-RISQ seems to be overestimated, however, the spatial distribution of estimation indicates a belt of destructive area adjacent to Mashiki town, and this result is correspond approximately to actual damaged area. For verification, we have performed field investigations of building damage in Kumamoto. On the other hand, the damage after the main shock includes the effect of the foreshock, so we are going to develop estimation methods considering about reduction of building caused by continuous earthquakes. *This work was supported by the CSTI through the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), titled "Enhancement of societal resiliency against natural

  17. The importance of protein binding for the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE)-example of ibuprofen, a highly protein-bound substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, H; Di Consiglio, E; Kreutz, R; Partosch, F; Testai, E; Gundert-Remy, U

    2017-04-01

    A physiologically based human kinetic model (PBHKM) was used to predict the in vivo ibuprofen dose leading to the same concentration-time profile as measured in cultured human hepatic cells (Truisi et al. in Toxicol Lett 233(2):172-186, 2015). We parameterized the PBHKM with data from an in vivo study. Tissue partition coefficients were calculated by an algorithm and also derived from the experimental in vitro data for the liver. The predicted concentration-time profile in plasma was in excellent agreement with human experimental data when the liver partition coefficient was calculated by the algorithm (3.01) demonstrating values in line with findings obtained from human postmortem tissues. The results were less adequate when the liver partition coefficient was based on the experimental in vitro data (11.1). The in vivo doses necessary to reach the in vitro concentrations in the liver cells were 3610 mg using the best fitting model with a liver partition coefficient of 3.01 compared to 2840 mg with the in vitro liver partition coefficient of 11.1. We found that this difference is possibly attributable to the difference between protein binding in vivo (99.9 %) and in vitro (nearly zero) as the partition coefficient is highly dependent on protein binding. Hence, the fraction freely diffusible in the liver tissue is several times higher in vitro than in vivo. In consequence, when extrapolating from in vitro to in vivo liver toxicity, it is important to consider non-intended in vitro/in vivo differences in the tissue concentration which may occur due to a low protein content of the medium.

  18. Innovation Forms and Mechanisms of Forming the Conception of Effective Municipal Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Aleksandrovna Mikhaylova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic, uncertain external environment increases the dependence of the objectives of the system of state and municipal government on the conditions and the actions of environmental factors that entail a change in the behavior of the subjects of management, improving the ability of government to carry out strategic management and interaction of bodies of state and municipal authorities with the city-forming enterprises. The article revealed the lack of alternative mechanisms, based on an integrated management system industries and areas of the municipality and to improve the efficiency of the municipal administration in general. The use of innovative methods and mechanisms is important in the municipal administration. The analysis of innovative technologies and concepts of effective management of a municipality, such as: the “smart city” or high-tech city; “open city” or “open municipality”; city corporation or a city as in excess of corporation; city management is based on the model “contract manager”; quality management technology built into the system of municipal management based on the quality management system model. The analysis showed that the state and municipal institutions in many developed countries and in Russia are converted in order to improve its efficiency, ensuring higher service levels and transparency of its operations, giving a positive example for the extrapolation of the municipalities that have not yet using innovative forms and mechanisms management. In general, the application of innovative developments in the formation of the concept of effective municipal administration should be maintained as the regional and municipal authorities, as well as at the federal level, as innovation is the key to the further development of state and municipal management system.

  19. Nucleon Structure and Hyperon Form Factors from Lattice QCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin,H.W.

    2007-06-11

    In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point. to be 1.23(5), consistent with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(2G), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon {Sigma} and {Xi} axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, g{sub {Sigma}{Sigma}} = 0.441(14) and g{sub {Xi}{Xi}} = -0.277(11).

  20. Nucleon Structure and hyperon form factors from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huey-Wen

    2007-06-11

    In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point to be 1.23(5), consistant with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(26), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon Sigma and Xi axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, g_SigmaSigma = 0.441(14) and g_XiXi = -0.277(11).

  1. 78 FR 58605 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-EMP, Form 8453-F, Form 8453-FE, Form 8879-F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-EMP, Form 8453-F, Form 8453-FE, Form 8879-F, and 8879-EMP. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request...- file Return; Form 8453-EMP, Employment Tax Declaration for an IRS e- file Return; Form 8879-EMP, IRS...

  2. 基于Richardson外推的定步长Adams-Cowell改进积分方法%An Improved Fixed-Stepsize Adams-Cowell Numerical Integration Algorithm Based on Richardson Extrapolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慨; 何爱林; 杨敏

    2015-01-01

    Aimming at the numerical solution of ordinary differential equations of the satellite, a fixed⁃stepsize Adams⁃Cowell numerical integration algorithm based on Richardson extrapolation is presented, Adams algorithm and Cowell algorithm is improved respectively. A detailed theoretical derivation is also proposed, and the general laws of the integration equations� coefficients with different orders are given in tabular form, which facilitates the engineering practice. Finally, spe⁃cific single differential equation and satellite orbit two⁃body equations are taken as examples to test this improved method, ac⁃cording to the simulation result, when compared with the un⁃improved method, the improved method presented here can reach to a higher precise, nearly one order of magnitude with some specific steps, the effectiveness of the improved method can be proved, this improved method can be used in engineering practice.%针对卫星轨道微分方程组的数值解法,提出了一种基于Richardson外推思想的定步长Adams⁃Cowell积分方法,分别对Adams方法和Cowell方法的PECE格式进行外推改进。结合外推改进的详细理论推导,总结出了不同阶积分公式的系数的数学规律,并以表格的形式给出,方便了工程实践。最后,利用卫星轨道二体运动方程对8阶改进的方法进行了仿真分析,由仿真结果可知,和未改进的算法相比,改进后的算法计算精度有了明显改进,在某些特定积分步长下的计算精度能提高一个数量级,证明了改进算法的有效性,此8阶改进的方法可用于工程实践。

  3. Form factors for B --> $\\pi$l$\\overline{\

    CERN Document Server

    Burford, D R; Flynn, J M; Gough, B J; Hazel, N M; Nieves, J; Shanahan, H P; Burford, D R; Duong, H D; Flynn, J M; Gough, B J; Hazel, N M; Nieves, J; Shanahan, H P

    1995-01-01

    We present a unified method for analysing form factors in B -> pi l nu-bar_l and B -> K* gamma decays. The analysis provides consistency checks on the q^2 and 1/M extrapolations necessary to obtain the physical decay rates. For the first time the q^2 dependence of the form factors is obtained at the B scale. In the B -> pi l nu-bar_l case, we show that pole fits to f^+ may not be consistent with the q^2 behaviour of f^0, leading to a possible factor of two uncertainty in the decay rate and hence in the value of |V_{ub}|^2 deduced from it. For B -> K* gamma, from the combined analysis of form factors T_1 and T_2, we find the hadronisation ratio R_{K^*} of the exclusive B -> K* gamma to the inclusive b -> s gamma rates is of order 35% or 15% for constant and pole-type behaviour of T_2 respectively.

  4. [Adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafiţanu, E; Matei, I; Mungiu, O C; Pavelescu, M; Mîndreci, I; Apostol, I; Ionescu, G

    1989-01-01

    The adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms aimed to local action release the drug substance in view of a dermatological, traumatological, antirheumatic, cosmetic action. Two such preparations were obtained and their stability, consistency and pH were determined. The "in vitro" tests of their bioavailability revealed the dynamics of calcium ions release according to the associations of each preparation. The bioavailability determined by evaluating the pharmacological response demonstrated the antiinflammatory action obtained by the association of calcium ions with the components extracted from poplar muds. The therapeutical efficiency of the studied preparations has proved in the treatment of some sport injuries.

  5. Advanced forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kliber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Forming is usually the final stage of metallurgical production of steel (90 % of the 1,7 billion tons of total steel production in the world and traditionally also largely of the products made of non-ferrous metals. Many procedures and methods exist and we will focus only on some of them. The aim is usually to achieve ultra-fine grained structure, the proper microstructure and (mechanical / electrical properties in innovative materials. The presented article mentions only some examples.

  6. Code Optimization in FORM

    CERN Document Server

    Kuipers, J; Vermaseren, J A M

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of output code optimization in the open source computer algebra system FORM. This implementation is based on recently discovered techniques of Monte Carlo tree search to find efficient multivariate Horner schemes, in combination with other optimization algorithms, such as common subexpression elimination. For systems for which no specific knowledge is provided it performs significantly better than other methods we could compare with. Because the method has a number of free parameters, we also show some methods by which to tune them to different types of problems.

  7. Do naked singularities form?

    CERN Document Server

    Vaz, C; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    1995-01-01

    A naked singularity is formed by the collapse of a Sine-Gordon soliton in 1+1 dimensional dilaton gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We examine the quantum stress tensor resulting from the formation of the singularity. Consistent boundary conditions require that the incoming soliton is accompanied by a flux of incoming radiation across past null infinity, but neglecting the back reaction of the spacetime leads to the absurd conclusion that the total energy entering the system by the time the observer is able to receive information from the singularity is infinite. We conclude that the back reaction must prevent the formation of the naked singularity.

  8. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  9. Kaon semileptonic decay form factors from N{sub f} = 2 non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broemmel, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Morozov, S.M. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nakamura, Y.; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnik Berlin (ZIB) (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We present first results from the QCDSF collaboration for the kaon semileptonic decay form factors at zero momentum transfer, using two flavours of non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson quarks. A lattice determination of these form factors is of particular interest to improve the accuracy on the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke. Calculations are performed on lattices with lattice spacing of about 0.08 fm with different values of light and strange quark masses, which allows us to extrapolate to chiral limit. Employing double ratio techniques, we are able to get small statistical errors. (orig.)

  10. The forms of prophecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayco González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prophecy is a kind of text holding therefore its own textual marks, differing from other kinds of texts. In order to do a discursive analysis of it, we must bring a semiotic study of its own possible forms. It includes its intertextual connections, as well as the use of typical tropos and topoi. Our aim is to describe the features of a kind of text that seems to appear in every well-known culture. Our analysis is limited to religious prophecies, showing mainly several examples from Judeo-Christian tradition, but also from other cultures, according to our line of argument. Amongst its features we find the use of allusion, forcing to any addressee to expand all possible interpretations. Likewise the prophecy seems to fulfill the double function of threat/promise, depending on each addressee.

  11. Le forme del fondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Non è vero che la natura ha paura del vuoto. Forse addirittura si completa. Il vuoto è anche una modalità dell'essere. È possibile nidificarvisi, avvolgersi pigramente e, così, proteggersi dall'angoscia del tempo che passa. Il vuoto delle apparenze è, in alcuni momenti, una delle forme d'espressione della vita sociale. Oltretutto occorre saperle riconoscere. Certamente, abbiamo tutti un'esistenza personale, ma siamo, ugualmente, i rappresentanti, a volte anche le vittime, di uno "spirito comune", forse anche di un "inconscio collettivo" che si è costituito di secolo in secolo. E, molto spesso, quando crediamo di esprimere le nostre idee, siamo soltanto dei portavoce, comparse di un vasto "theatrum mundi" dalle dimensioni infinite.

  12. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  13. Paramodular Cusp Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, Cris

    2009-01-01

    We classify Siegel modular cusp forms of weight two for the paramodular group K(p) for primes p< 600. We find that weight two Hecke eigenforms beyond the Gritsenko lifts correspond to certain abelian varieties defined over the rationals of conductor p. The arithmetic classification is in a companion article by A. Brumer and K. Kramer. The Paramodular Conjecture, supported by these computations and consistent with the Langlands philosophy and the work of H. Yoshida, is a partial extension to degree 2 of the Shimura-Taniyama Conjecture. These nonlift Hecke eigenforms share Euler factors with the corresponding abelian variety $A$ and satisfy congruences modulo \\ell with Gritsenko lifts, whenever $A$ has rational \\ell-torsion.

  14. Pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  15. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  16. Weird past tense forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Pinker, S

    1995-10-01

    It is often assumed that children go through a stage in which they systematically overapply irregular past tense patterns to inappropriate verbs, as in wipe-wope, bring-brang, trick-truck, walk-has walken. Such errors have been interpreted both as reflecting over-use of minor grammatical rules (e.g. 'change i to a'), and as reflecting the operation of a connectionist pattern associator network that superimposes and blends patterns of various degrees of generality. But the actual rate, time course, and nature of these errors have never been documented. We analysed 20,000 past tense and participle usages from nine children in the CHILDES database, looking for overapplications of irregular vowel-change patterns, as in brang, blends, as in branged, productive suffixations of -en, as in walken, gross distortions, as in mail-membled, and double-suffixation, as in walkeded. These errors were collectively quite rare; children made them in about two tenths of one per cent of the opportunities, and with few stable patterns: the errors were not predominantly word-substitutions, did not occur predominantly with irregular stems, showed no consistency across verbs or ages, and showed no clear age trend. Most (though not all) of the errors were based closely on existing irregular verbs; gross distortions never occurred. We suggest that both rule-theories and connectionist theories have tended to overestimate the predominance of such errors. Children master irregular forms quite accurately, presumably because irregular forms are just a special case of the arbitrary sound-meaning pairings that define words, and because children are good at learning words.

  17. Combining empirical approaches and error modelling to enhance predictive uncertainty estimation in extrapolation for operational flood forecasting. Tests on flood events on the Loire basin, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Lionel; Marty, Renaud; Bourgin, François; Viatgé, Julie; Piotte, Olivier; Perrin, Charles

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of operational flood forecasting centres assess the predictive uncertainty associated with their forecasts and communicate it to the end users. This information can match the end-users needs (i.e. prove to be useful for an efficient crisis management) only if it is reliable: reliability is therefore a key quality for operational flood forecasts. In 2015, the French flood forecasting national and regional services (Vigicrues network; www.vigicrues.gouv.fr) implemented a framework to compute quantitative discharge and water level forecasts and to assess the predictive uncertainty. Among the possible technical options to achieve this goal, a statistical analysis of past forecasting errors of deterministic models has been selected (QUOIQUE method, Bourgin, 2014). It is a data-based and non-parametric approach based on as few assumptions as possible about the forecasting error mathematical structure. In particular, a very simple assumption is made regarding the predictive uncertainty distributions for large events outside the range of the calibration data: the multiplicative error distribution is assumed to be constant, whatever the magnitude of the flood. Indeed, the predictive distributions may not be reliable in extrapolation. However, estimating the predictive uncertainty for these rare events is crucial when major floods are of concern. In order to improve the forecasts reliability for major floods, an attempt at combining the operational strength of the empirical statistical analysis and a simple error modelling is done. Since the heteroscedasticity of forecast errors can considerably weaken the predictive reliability for large floods, this error modelling is based on the log-sinh transformation which proved to reduce significantly the heteroscedasticity of the transformed error in a simulation context, even for flood peaks (Wang et al., 2012). Exploratory tests on some operational forecasts issued during the recent floods experienced in

  18. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  19. Variational Stability Form for the Capacitance of an Arbitrarily Shaped Conducting Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGChanghong; LILong; ZHAIHuiqing

    2004-01-01

    A new analytical method for finding the capacitance of an arbitrarily shaped conducting plate is presented in this paper. If the charge density suitable to fringe conditions and the appropriate charge barycenter are supposed, the variational stability form with high accuracy for the capacitance C can be achieved by simple curve integrals or the superposition of basic triangles. In this paper, some analytical examples such as an elliptical plate, a regular polygonal plate and a rectangular plate are given. It is worth pointing out that the analytical closed-form for an elliptical plate is accurate. Comparing the result of the analytical closed-form for the square plate and the numerical result of Richardson's extrapolation, the relative error is less than 1.7%. Furthermore, the relationship between the charge barycenter and the variational stability is discussed.

  20. 用NRTL方程推算高压汽液平衡并同时描述过量焓%Extrapolation of High Pressure VLE Data and Simultaneous Representation of Excess Enthalpies by Using NRTL Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计伟荣; E.Stiebing

    2005-01-01

    The non-random two liquids (NRTL) equation together with the Pitzer/Curl Virial equation of state are used to investigate the simultaneous representation of excess enthalpies (hE) and vapour-liquid equilibria (VLE) and the VLE prediction from hE data. The calculation strategy for properly determining NRTL parameters and the effect of their temperature dependence on the simultaneous correlation of hE and VLE data and the VLE extrapolation are analysed in detail.