The 2-Hilbert Space of a Prequantum Bundle Gerbe
Bunk, Severin; Szabo, Richard J
2016-01-01
We construct a prequantum 2-Hilbert space for any line bundle gerbe whose Dixmier-Douady class is torsion. Analogously to usual prequantisation, this 2-Hilbert space has the category of sections of the line bundle gerbe as its underlying 2-vector space. These sections are obtained as certain morphism categories in Waldorf's version of the 2-category of line bundle gerbes. We show that these morphism categories carry a monoidal structure under which they are semisimple and abelian. We introduce a dual functor on the sections, which yields a closed structure on the morphisms between bundle gerbes and turns the category of sections into a 2-Hilbert space. We discuss how these 2-Hilbert spaces fit various expectations from higher prequantisation. We then extend the transgression functor to the full 2-category of bundle gerbes and demonstrate its compatibility with the additional structures introduced. We discuss various aspects of Kostant-Souriau prequantisation in this setting, including its dimensional reductio...
Quillen Bundle and Geometric Prequantization of Non-Abelian Vortices on a Riemann Surface
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rukmini Dey; Samir K Paul
2011-02-01
In this paper we prequantize the moduli space of non-abelian vortices. We explicitly calculate the symplectic form arising from 2 metric and we construct a prequantum line bundle whose curvature is proportional to this symplectic form. The prequantum line bundle turns out to be Quillen’s determinant line bundle with a modified Quillen metric. Next, as in the case of abelian vortices, we construct line bundles over the moduli space whose curvatures form a family of symplectic forms which are parametrized by $\\Psi_0$, a section of a certain bundle. The equivalence of these prequantum bundles are discussed.
Schreiber, Urs
2016-01-01
This is a survey of motivations, constructions and applications of higher prequantum geometry. In section 1 we highlight the open problem of prequantizing local field theory in a local and gauge invariant way, and we survey how a solution to this problem exists in higher differential geometry. In section 2 we survey examples and problems of interest. In section 3 we survey the abstract cohesive homotopy theory that serves to make all this precise and tractable.
Stable extensions by line bundles
Teixidor-i-Bigas, M
1997-01-01
Let C be an algebraic curve of genus g. Consider extensions E of a vector bundle F'' of rank n'' by a vector bundle F' of rank n'. The following statement was conjectured by Lange: If 0
On projective space bundle with nef normalized tautological line bundle
Yasutake, Kazunori
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study the structure of projective space bundles whose relative anti-canonical line bundle is nef. As an application, we get a characterization of abelian varieties up to finite etale covering.
Line bundles and flat connections
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
INDRANIL BISWAS; GEORG SCHUMACHER
2017-06-01
We prove that there are cocompact lattices $\\Gamma$ in $\\rm SL(2,\\mathbb C)$ with the property that there are holomorphic line bundles $L$ on $\\rm SL(2,\\mathbb C)/ \\Gamma$ with $c_{1}(L) = 0$ such that $L$ does not admit any unitary flat connection.
Principal Bundles on the Projective Line
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V B Mehta; S Subramanian
2002-08-01
We classify principal -bundles on the projective line over an arbitrary field of characteristic ≠ 2 or 3, where is a reductive group. If such a bundle is trivial at a -rational point, then the structure group can be reduced to a maximal torus.
Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groot Nibbelink, Stefan [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Ruehle, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2016-03-15
In heterotic string theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic string theories and SO(16) x SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.
Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories
Nibbelink, Stefan Groot
2016-01-01
In heterotic theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E_8 x E_8 or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic theories and SO(16) x SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.
Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories
Nibbelin, Stefan Groot; Ruehle, Fabian
2016-04-01
In heterotic string theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E8 × E8 or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic string theories and SO(16) × SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.
The Family Problem: Hints from Heterotic Line Bundle Models
Constantin, Andrei; Mishra, Challenger
2015-01-01
Within the class of heterotic line bundle models, we argue that N=1 vacua which lead to a small number of low-energy chiral families are preferred. By imposing an upper limit on the volume of the internal manifold, as required in order to obtain finite values of the four-dimensional gauge couplings, and validity of the supergravity approximation we show that, for a given manifold, only a finite number of line bundle sums are consistent with supersymmetry. By explicitly scanning over this finite set of line bundle models on certain manifolds we show that, for a sufficiently small volume of the internal manifold, the family number distribution peaks at small values, consistent with three chiral families. The relation between the maximal number of families and the gauge coupling is discussed, which hints towards a possible explanation of the family problem.
4d SCFTs from negative-degree line bundles
Nardoni, Emily
2016-01-01
We construct 4d $\\mathcal{N}=1$ quantum field theories by compactifying the (2,0) theories on a Riemann surface with genus $g$ and $n$ punctures, where the normal bundle decomposes into a sum of two line bundles with possibly negative degrees $p$ and $q$. Until recently, the only available field-theoretic constructions required the line bundle degrees to be nonnegative, although supergravity solutions were constructed in the literature for the zero-puncture case for all $p$ and $q$. Here, we provide field-theoretic constructions and computations of the central charges of 4d $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SCFTs that are the IR limit of M5-branes wrapping a surface with general $p$ or $q$ negative, for general genus $g$ and number of maximal punctures $n$.
Explicit presentations of nonspecial line bundles and secant spaces
Kim, Seonja
2012-01-01
A line bundle L on a smooth curve X is nonspecial if and only if L admits a presentation L=K_X -D +E for some effective divisors D and E>0 on X with gcd (D, E)=0 and h^0 (X, O_X (D))=1. In this work, we define a minimal presentation of L which is minimal with respect to the degree of E among the presentations. If L=K_X -D +E with degE>2 is a minimal, then L is very ample and any q-points of X with q
Bagger-Witten line bundles on moduli spaces of elliptic curves
Gu, W
2016-01-01
In this paper we discuss Bagger-Witten line bundles over moduli spaces of SCFTs. We review how in general they are `fractional' line bundles, not honest line bundles, twisted on triple overlaps. We discuss the special case of moduli spaces of elliptic curves in detail. There, the Bagger-Witten line bundles does not exist as an ordinary line bundle, but rather is necessarily fractional. As a fractional line bundle, it is nontrivial (though torsion) over the uncompactified moduli stack, and its restriction to the interior, excising corners with enhanced stabilizers, is also fractional. We review and compare to results of recent work arguing that well-definedness of the worldsheet metric implies that the Bagger-Witten line bundle is torsion, and give general arguments on the existence of universal structures on moduli spaces of SCFTs, in which superconformal deformation parameters are promoted to nondynamical fields ranging over the SCFT moduli space.
The wrapped Fukaya category of a negative line bundle
Ritter, Alexander F
2012-01-01
Let B be a closed monotone symplectic manifold with divisible first Chern class c_1(B) = Kc. Let E be the total space of the monotone negative line bundle over B with first Chern class kc for 0 < k < K. We prove that if the open-closed string map from the Hochschild homology of the Fukaya category of B to its quantum cohomology hits an invertible element, then the wrapped Fukaya category of E is split-generated by closed Lagrangians, hence is cohomologically finite. The proof combines quilt-maps on Hochschild homology, Abouzaid's generation criterion (which we extend from exact to monotone convex manifolds), and the quantum cohomology module structure of the open-closed string map. As illustrations, we show that when B is toric Fano, the wrapped category of E is split-generated by toric fibres (and is usually non-empty, in particular E contains a non-displaceable monotone Lagrangian torus), and we outline a proof (contingent upon forthcoming work of Ganatra and Abouzaid-Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono) that the Jaco...
The spectral density function for the Laplacian on high tensor powers of a line bundle
2001-01-01
For a symplectic manifold with quantizing line bundle, a choice of almost complex structure determines a Laplacian acting on tensor powers of the bundle. For high tensor powers Guillemin-Uribe showed that there is a well-defined cluster of low-lying eigenvalues, whose distribution is described by a spectral density function. We give an explicit computation of the spectral density function, by constructing certain quasimodes on the associated principle bundle.
The Moduli Space of Heterotic Line Bundle Models: a Case Study for the Tetra-Quadric
Buchbinder, Evgeny I; Lukas, Andre
2014-01-01
It has recently been realised that polystable, holomorphic sums of line bundles over smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds provide a fertile ground for heterotic model building. Large numbers of phenomenologically promising such models have been constructed for various classes of Calabi-Yau manifolds. In this paper we focus on a case study for the tetra-quadric - a Calabi-Yau hypersurface embedded in a product of four CP1 spaces. We address the question of finiteness of the class of consistent and physically viable line bundle models constructed on this manifold. Further, for a specific semi-realistic example, we explore the embedding of the line bundle sum into the larger moduli space of non-Abelian bundles, both by means of constructing specific polystable non-Abelian bundles and by turning on VEVs in the associated low-energy theory. In this context, we explore the fate of the Higgs doublets as we move in bundle moduli space. The non-Abelian compactifications thus constructed lead to SU(5) GUT models with an addit...
Study on galloping behavior of iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines
Zhou, Linshu; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Song
2016-02-01
Wind tunnel test was carried out to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of an eight bundle conductor accreted with crescent-shaped ice. A user-defined cable element with torsional degree of freedom is developed in ABAQUS software to capture the torsional deformation of the iced conductors during galloping. By means of the user-defined cable element, different damping ratios in in-plane, out-of-plane and torsional directions of the conductors can be defined and the aerodynamic forces varying with their motion status can be exerted on the conductors conveniently when ABAQUS is used to simulate galloping of transmission lines. A wind tunnel test to model galloping of an iced eight bundle conductor segment was carried out, and the validity of the numerical simulation method is demonstrated by the agreement of the galloping orbit of the bundle conductor segment model recorded in the test and that by the numerical simulation. Furthermore, galloping behavior, including dynamic responses, galloping orbits, frequencies, vibration modes and amplitudes, of typical iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines in the cases of different span lengths, initial tensions in sub-conductors, wind velocities, angles of wind attack and damping ratios is studied, and the galloping behavior of the lines with internal resonance conditions is discussed. The obtained results may provide a fundamental tool for the development of anti-galloping techniques of eight bundle conductor transmission lines.
Cohomology of line bundles on the flag variety for type G_2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
In the case of a simple algebraic group G of type G2 over a field of characteristic p>0 we study the cohomology modules of line bundles on the flag variety for G. Our main result is a complete determination of the vanishing behavior of such cohomology in the case where the line bundles in question...... are induced by characters from the lowest p2-alcoves. When Uq is the quantum group corresponding to G whose parameter q is a complex root of unity of order prime to 6 we give a complete (i.e. covering all characters) description of the vanishing behavior for the corresponding quantized cohomology modules....
Three-dimensional Effects of Turburlent Flow in an In-Line Tube Bundle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik
1998-01-01
Velocities have been measured with laser Doppler anemometry between tubes in cross-flow in a small in-line tube bundle with longitudinal to transverse pitches of 1.5Dx1.8D and a Reynolds number based on mean velocity in minimum flow section of Re=30000. At most locations a single recirculation zone...
Floer homology for negative line bundles and Reeb chords in pre-quantization spaces
Albers, Peter
2008-01-01
In this article we prove existence of Reeb orbits for Bohr-Sommerfeld Legendrians in certain pre-quantization spaces. We give a quantitative estimate from below. These estimates are obtained by studying Floer homology for fibre-wise quadratic Hamiltonian functions on negative line bundles.
Bochner-Hartogs type extension theorem for roots and logarithms of holomorphic line bundles
Ivashkovich, Sergey
2011-01-01
We prove an extension theorem for roots and logarithms of holomorphic line bundles across strictly pseudoconcave boundaries: they extend in all cases except one, when dimension and Morse index of a critical point is two. In that case we give an explicit description of obstructions to the extension.
Average modulation transfer function of line-array fiber-optic image bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hui Wang(王慧); Yang Xiang(向阳); Bingxi Yu(禹秉熙)
2004-01-01
The image quality evaluation in fiber-optic image bundles was addressed by the modulation transfer function(MTF).With the definition of the contrast transfer function(CTF),the MTF model of line-array fiber-optic image bundles was established and analyzed numerically.The average MTF was carefully evaluated by considering the influence of phase match on the MTF between input pattern and fiber-optic image bundles.In this paper,the average MTF is mean arithmetical value on the MTFs of eight different phases.The results show that,for certain fiber diameter and spatial frequency,the relationship between the core diameter and the average MTF is inverse proportion; for certain fiber cladding thickness,the relationship between the core diameter and the average MTF is also inverse proportion.And at Nyquist frequency,the MTF value is near 0.5.
Film condensation of R-113 on in-line bundles of horizontal finned tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honda, H. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Uchima, B.; Nozu, S.; Nakata, H.; Torigoe, E. (Okayama Univ. (Japan))
1991-05-01
Film condensation of R-113 on in-line bundles of horizontal finned tubes with vertical vapor downflow was experimentally investigated. Two tubes with flat-sided annular fins and four tubes with three-dimensional fins were tested. The test sections were 3 {times} 15 tube bundles with and without two rows of inundation tubes at the top. Heat transfer measurements were carried out on a row-by-row basis. The heat transfer enhancement due to vapor shear was much less for a finned tube bundle than for a smooth tube bundle. The decrease in heat transfer due to condensate inundation was more marked for a three-dimensional fin tube than for a flat-sided fin tube. The predictions of the previous theoretical model for a bundle of flat-sided fin tubes agreed well with the measured data for low vapor velocity and a small to medium condensate inundation rate. Among the six tubes tested, the highest heat transfer performance was provided by the flat-sided fin tube with fin dimensions close to the theoretically determined optimum values.
Schoen manifold with line bundles as resolved magnetized orbifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groot Nibbelink, Stefan [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-12-15
We give an alternative description of the Schoen manifold as the blow-up of a Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} orbifold in which one Z{sub 2} factor acts as a roto-translation. Since for this orbifold the fixed tori are only identified in pairs but not orbifolded, four-dimensional chirality can never be obtained using standard techniques alone. However, chirality is recovered when its tori become magnetized. To exemplify this, we construct an SU(5) GUT on the Schoen manifold with Abelian gauge fluxes, which becomes an MSSM with three generations after an appropriate Wilson line is associated to its freely acting involution. We reproduce this model as a standard orbifold CFT of the (partially) blown down Schoen manifold with a magnetic flux. Finally, in analogy to a proposal for non-perturbative heterotic models by Aldazabal et al. we suggest modifications to the heterotic orbifold spectrum formulae in the presence of magnetized tori.
Local heat transfer in an in-line tube bundle with asymmetrical flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik
1999-01-01
Measurements of the local heat transfer in themiddle of a small in-line tube bundle with longitudinal to transverse pitches of $1.5\\times 1.8$ are performed at a Reynolds number of $30\\,000$. Asymmetrical distributions of the local heat transfer are found. The distributions are in good agreement...... with earlier flow measurements. The mean heat transfer rate is only little affected bythe asymmetrical conditions....
On exceptional collections of line bundles and mirror symmetry for toric Del-Pezzo surfaces
Jerby, Yochay
2017-03-01
Let X be a toric Del-Pezzo surface and let C r i t (W ) ⊂(ℂ*)n be the solution scheme of the Landau-Ginzburg system of equations. Denote by X° the polar variety of X. Our aim in this work is to describe a map L :C r i t (W ) →F u kt r o p(X°) whose image under homological mirror symmetry corresponds to a full strongly exceptional collection of line bundles.
On-Line Life Monitoring Technique for Tube Bundles of Boiler High-Temperature Heating Surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Dong; Wang Zhongyuan
2005-01-01
High-temperature heating surface such as superheater and reheater of large-sized utility boiler all experiences a relatively severe working conditions. The failure of boiler tubes will directly impact the safe and economic operation of boiler. An on-line life monitoring model of high-temperature heating surface was set up according to the well-known L-M formula of the creep damages. The tube wall metal temperature and working stress was measured by on-line monitoring, and with this model, the real-time calculation of the life expenditure of the heating surface tube bundles were realized. Based on the technique the on-line life monitoring and management system of high-temperature heating surface was developed for a 300 MW utility boiler. An effective device was thus suggested for the implementation of the safe operation and the condition-based maintenance of utility boilers.
Experimental and numerical studies of turbulent flow in an in-line tube bundles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aounalah Mohamed
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In the present paper an experimental and a numerical simulation of the turbulent flow in an in-line tube bundles have been performed. The experiments were carried out using a subsonic wind tunnel. The pressure distributions along the tubes (22 circumferential pressure taping were determined for a variation of the azimuthal angle from 0 to 360deg. The drag and lift forces are measured using the TE 44 balance. The Navier-Stokes equations of the turbulent flow are solved using Reynolds Stress and K-ε, turbulence models (RANS provided by Fluent CFD code. An adapted grid using static pressure, pressure coefficient and velocity gradient, furthermore, a second order upwind scheme were used. The obtained results from the experimental and numerical studies show a satisfactory agreement.
Biswas, Indranil
2011-01-01
We construct projectivization of a parabolic vector bundle and a tautological line bundle over it. It is shown that a parabolic vector bundle is ample if and only if the tautological line bundle is ample. This allows us to generalize the notion of a k-ample bundle, introduced by Sommese, to the context of parabolic bundles. A parabolic vector bundle $E_*$ is defined to be k-ample if the tautological line bundle ${\\mathcal O}_{{\\mathbb P}(E_*)}(1)$ is $k$--ample. We establish some properties of parabolic k-ample bundles.
Bundle Block Adjustment of Airborne Three-Line Array Imagery Based on Rotation Angles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongjun Zhang
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In the midst of the rapid developments in electronic instruments and remote sensing technologies, airborne three-line array sensors and their applications are being widely promoted and plentiful research related to data processing and high precision geo-referencing technologies is under way. The exterior orientation parameters (EOPs, which are measured by the integrated positioning and orientation system (POS of airborne three-line sensors, however, have inevitable systematic errors, so the level of precision of direct geo-referencing is not sufficiently accurate for surveying and mapping applications. Consequently, a few ground control points are necessary to refine the exterior orientation parameters, and this paper will discuss bundle block adjustment models based on the systematic error compensation and the orientation image, considering the principle of an image sensor and the characteristics of the integrated POS. Unlike the models available in the literature, which mainly use a quaternion to represent the rotation matrix of exterior orientation, three rotation angles are directly used in order to effectively model and eliminate the systematic errors of the POS observations. Very good experimental results have been achieved with several real datasets that verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed adjustment models.
Film condensation of downward flowing R-113 vapor on in-line bundles of horizontal finned tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honda, Hiroshi; Uchima, Bunken; Nozu, Shigeru; Nakata, Hironori; Torigoe, Eiichi (Okayama Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Okayama, (Japan))
1989-08-25
The film condensation characteristics of a downward flowing R-113 vapor on in-line bundles of horizontal finned tubes were experimentally investigated using two tubes with flat-sided fins and four tubes with three-dimensional fins. The flow pattern of falling condensate on the finned tube bundle is similar to that on the smooth tube bundle, basically. The liquid filled position of tube with flat-sided fins is not affected by the vapor velocity. The effect of the vapor velocity on the film condensation in the finned tube bundle was considerably smaller than the case of the smooth tube bundle. The decrease of the heat transfer coefficient due to the condensate inundation was larger in case of the tubes with three-dimensional fins than in case of the tubes with flat-sided fins. While the tubes with three-dimensional fins showed contrary tendency against the tubes with flat-sided fins. Among six sample tubes, a tube with flat-sided fins of 0.5mm fin pitch and 1.3mm fin height showed the best heat transfer performance over the range of the whole experiment. 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Yan, Xingtao; Li, Fu; Ma, Xiaolong; Lv, Juan; He, Yinghong; Zhao, Yiyi; Bu, Fan
2016-10-01
The use of line-plane-switching infrared fiber bundle to achieve wide field of view push-broom infrared imaging has been studied with experiment. In this technology, the linear array end of the imaging fiber bundle is used as a long-linear array infrared detector, and the plane array end of the bundle is coupled by a mature small scale Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA). It can evade the difficulty of getting the long-linear array infrared detector directly, and has a signally significance to the development of internal infrared imaging technology. Based on the introduction of the composition, working principle of this novel infrared optical system, the system principle-demonstrating experiment has been accomplished. The line-plane-switching fiber bundle used in this experiment is 64×9 format plane array and 192×3 format linear array. It is made from chalcogenide glass fibers, possessing core (As40S59.5Se0.5) of 45 μm, cladding (As40S60) of 5 μm, and error of 1% in diameter. Perfect imaging results prove that this novel technology is feasibility and superiority. The analysis of the experiment makes a foundation for the subsequent further verification experiments.
Line bundle twisted chiral de Rham complex and bound states of D-branes on toric manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parkhomenko, S.E., E-mail: spark@itp.ac.ru [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141707 Dolgoprudny, Moscow region (Russian Federation)
2014-04-15
In this note we calculate elliptic genus in various examples of twisted chiral de Rham complex on two-dimensional toric compact manifolds and Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces in toric manifolds. At first the elliptic genus is calculated for the line bundle twisted chiral de Rham complex on a compact smooth toric manifold and K3 hypersurface in P{sup 3}. Then we twist chiral de Rham complex by sheaves localized on positive codimension submanifolds in P{sup 2} and calculate in each case the elliptic genus. In the last example the elliptic genus of chiral de Rham complex on P{sup 2} twisted by SL(N) vector bundle with instanton number k is calculated. In all the cases considered we find the infinite tower of open string oscillator contributions and identify directly the open string boundary conditions of the corresponding bound state of D-branes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Guo-dong; ZHOU Qiang-tai; TIAN Mao-cheng; CHENG Lin; YU Xiao-li
2005-01-01
An experimental study on heat transfer and resistance coefficients of linearly arranged smooth and spirally corrugated tube bundles in cross-flow was performed. The heat transfer and resistance coefficients are presented in this paper with transverse and longitudinal tube-pitch and tube geometries taken into account. The experiment's results can provide technical guidelines for application to horizontal air preheater with arranged in-line spirally corrugated tube bundles, especially to the air preheater for CFBCBs (Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers).
Wiersinga-Post, JEC; van Netten, SM
1998-01-01
Amiloride is a known blocker of the mechano-electrical transduction current in sensory hair cells. Measurements of cupular motion in the lateral line organ of fish now show that amiloride concurrently changes the micromechanical properties of the hair cell bundles. The effects of amiloride on the me
Wiersinga-Post, JEC; van Netten, SM
1998-01-01
Amiloride is a known blocker of the mechano-electrical transduction current in sensory hair cells. Measurements of cupular motion in the lateral line organ of fish now show that amiloride concurrently changes the micromechanical properties of the hair cell bundles. The effects of amiloride on the
Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-03-01
The idea that quantum randomness can be reduced to randomness of classical fields (fluctuating at time and space scales which are essentially finer than scales approachable in modern quantum experiments) is rather old. Various models have been proposed, e.g., stochastic electrodynamics or the semiclassical model. Recently a new model, so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), was developed. By this model a "quantum system" is just a label for (so to say "prequantum") classical random field. Quantum averages can be represented as classical field averages. Correlations between observables on subsystems of a composite system can be as well represented as classical correlations. In particular, it can be done for entangled systems. Creation of such classical field representation demystifies quantum entanglement. In this paper we show that quantum dynamics (given by Schrödinger's equation) of entangled systems can be represented as the stochastic dynamics of classical random fields. The "effect of entanglement" is produced by classical correlations which were present at the initial moment of time, cf. views of Albert Einstein.
Salama, Mona F; Jamal, Wafaa; Al Mousa, Haifa; Rotimi, Vincent
2016-01-01
Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSIs) is an important healthcare-associated infection in the critical care units. It causes substantial morbidity, mortality and incurs high costs. The use of central venous line (CVL) insertion bundle has been shown to decrease the incidence of CLABSIs. Our aim was to study the impact of CVL insertion bundle on incidence of CLABSI and study the causative microbial agents in an intensive care unit in Kuwait. Surveillance for CLABSI was conducted by trained infection control team using National Health Safety Network (NHSN) case definitions and device days measurement methods. During the intervention period, nursing staff used central line care bundle consisting of (1) hand hygiene by inserter (2) maximal barrier precautions upon insertion by the physician inserting the catheter and sterile drape from head to toe to the patient (3) use of a 2% chlorohexidine gluconate (CHG) in 70% ethanol scrub for the insertion site (4) optimum catheter site selection. (5) Examination of the daily necessity of the central line. During the pre-intervention period, there were 5367 documented catheter-days and 80 CLABSIs, for an incidence density of 14.9 CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days. After implementation of the interventions, there were 5052 catheter-days and 56 CLABSIs, for an incidence density of 11.08 per 1000 catheter-days. The reduction in the CLABSI/1000 catheter days was not statistically significant (P=0.0859). This study demonstrates that implementation of a central venous catheter post-insertion care bundle was associated with a reduction in CLABSI in an intensive care area setting.
Three-dimensional nanostructures on Ge/Si(100) wetting layers: Hillocks and pre-quantum dots
Ramalingam, Gopalakrishnan; Floro, Jerrold A.; Reinke, Petra
2016-05-01
The annealing of sub-critical Ge wetting layers (WL cake-type structure where the step edges run parallel to the ⟨110⟩ direction, are formed from thin wetting layers, while {105}-faceted structures, called pre-quantum dots (p-QDs), are formed from thicker layers. The wetting layer thickness and thus the misfit strain energy controls the type of structure. The crossover thickness between the hillock and p-QDs regime is between 1.6 and 2.1 ML. The hillocks have larger lateral dimensions and volumes than p-QDs, and the p-QDs are exceptionally small quantum dots with a lower limit of 10 nm in width. Our work opens a new pathway to the control of nanostructure morphology and size in the elastically strained Ge/Si system.
Orwoll, Benjamin; Diane, Shelley; Henry, Duncan; Tsang, Lisa; Chu, Kristin; Meer, Carrie; Hartman, Kevin; Roy-Burman, Arup
2017-05-01
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) cause major patient harm, preventable through attention to line care best practice standards. The objective was to determine if a digital self-assessment application (CLABSI App), bundling line care best practices with social gamification and in-context microlearning, could engage nurses in CLABSI prevention. Nurses caring for children with indwelling central venous catheters in 3 high-risk units were eligible to participate. All other units served as controls. The intervention was a 12-month nonrandomized quality improvement study of CLABSI App implementation with interunit competitions. Compared to the preceding year, the intervention group (9886 line days) CLABSI rate decreased by 48% ( P = .03). Controls (7879 line days) did not change significantly. In all, 105 unique intervention group nurses completed 673 self-assessments. Competitions were associated with increased engagement as measured by self-assessments and unique participants. This model could be extended to other health care-associated infections, and more broadly to process improvement within and across health care systems.
Reconnection of superfluid vortex bundles.
Alamri, Sultan Z; Youd, Anthony J; Barenghi, Carlo F
2008-11-21
Using the vortex filament model and the Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we show that bundles of quantized vortex lines in He II are structurally robust and can reconnect with each other maintaining their identity. We discuss vortex stretching in superfluid turbulence and show that, during the bundle reconnection process, kelvin waves of large amplitude are generated, in agreement with the finding that helicity is produced by nearly singular vortex interactions in classical Euler flows.
Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)
1996-12-31
The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy
Vector bundles on toric varieties
Gharib, Saman
2011-01-01
Following Sam Payne's work, we study the existence problem of nontrivial vector bundles on toric varieties. The first result we prove is that every complete fan admits a nontrivial conewise linear multivalued function. Such functions could potentially be the Chern classes of toric vector bundles. Then we use the results of Corti\\~nas, Haesemeyer, Walker and Weibel to show that the (non-equivariant) Grothendieck group of the toric 3-fold studied by Payne is large, so the variety has a nontrivial vector bundle. Using the same computation, we show that every toric 3-fold X either has a nontrivial line bundle, or there is a finite surjective toric morphism from Y to X, such that Y has a large Grothendieck group.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈金晶; 林玉娜
2016-01-01
考察(p,q)型权投射线的凝聚层范畴上的倾斜丛,证明了其上的 canonical 倾斜丛总是构成一个 slice,进而详细刻画了(p,q)型权投射线的向量丛子范畴的结构；进一步从不可分解对象,slice,level,domain等方面,阐述向量丛之间的一些重要性质,完全分类了所有的倾斜丛,即倾斜丛与向量丛范畴的 slice一一对应。%In this paper we investigate the behavior of tilting bundles in the category of coherent sheaves over weighted proj ective lines with weight type (p,q).We prove that the canonical tilting bundle always forms a slice in the Auslander quiver,and then we describe the struc-ture of the category of vector bundles.Furthermore we identify some properties of vector bundles from the aspects of indecomposable obj ects, slice,level,and domain among others.Finally it is shown that there is a bij ection between all tilting bundles and slices.
ACM Bundles on Del Pezzo surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joan Pons-Llopis
2009-11-01
Full Text Available ACM rank 1 bundles on del Pezzo surfaces are classified in terms of the rational normal curves that they contain. A complete list of ACM line bundles is provided. Moreover, for any del Pezzo surface X of degree less or equal than six and for any n ≥ 2 we construct a family of dimension ≥ n − 1 of non-isomorphic simple ACM bundles of rank n on X.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhuo CHEN; Zhang Ju LIU; Yun He SHENG
2014-01-01
In this paper, we construct a category of short exact sequences of vector bundles and prove that it is equivalent to the category of double vector bundles. Moreover, operations on double vector bundles can be transferred to operations on the corresponding short exact sequences. In particular, we study the duality theory of double vector bundles in term of the corresponding short exact sequences. Examples including the jet bundle and the Atiyah algebroid are discussed.
Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Zhangju; Sheng, Yunhe
2011-01-01
In this paper, we construct a category of short exact sequences of vector bundles and prove that it is equivalent to the category of double vector bundles. Moreover, operations on double vector bundles can be transferred to operations on the corresponding short exact sequences. In particular, we study the duality theory of double vector bundles in term of the corresponding short exact sequences. Examples including the jet bundle and the Atiyah algebroid are discussed.
Principal noncommutative torus bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve
2008-01-01
In this paper we study continuous bundles of C*-algebras which are non-commutative analogues of principal torus bundles. We show that all such bundles, although in general being very far away from being locally trivial bundles, are at least locally trivial with respect to a suitable bundle version...... of bivariant K-theory (denoted RKK-theory) due to Kasparov. Using earlier results of Echterhoff and Williams, we shall give a complete classification of principal non-commutative torus bundles up to equivariant Morita equivalence. We then study these bundles as topological fibrations (forgetting the group...... action) and give necessary and sufficient conditions for any non-commutative principal torus bundle being RKK-equivalent to a commutative one. As an application of our methods we shall also give a K-theoretic characterization of those principal torus-bundles with H-flux, as studied by Mathai...
Double Fell bundles and Spectral triples
Martins, Rachel A D
2007-01-01
As a natural and canonical extension of Kumjian's Fell bundles over groupoids \\cite{fbg}, we give a definition for a double Fell bundle (a double category) over a double groupoid. We show that finite dimensional double category Fell line bundles tensored with their dual with $S^o$-reality satisfy the finite real spectral triples axioms but not necessarily orientability. This means that these product bundles with noncommutative algebras can be regarded as noncommutative compact manifolds more general than real spectral triples as they are not necessarily orientable. By construction, they unify the noncommutative geometry axioms and hence provide an algebraic enveloping structure for finite spectral triples to give the Dirac operator $D$ new algebraic and geometric structures that are otherwise missing in the transition from Fredholm operator to Dirac operator. The Dirac operator in physical applications as a result becomes less ad hoc. The new noncommutative space we present is a complex line bundle over a dou...
Holomorphic Vector Bundle on Hopf Manifolds with Abelian Fundamental Groups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiang Yu ZHOU; Wei Ming LIU
2004-01-01
Let X be a Hopf manifolds with an Abelian fundamental group. E is a holomorphic vector bundle of rank r with trivial pull-back to W = Cn - {0}. We prove the existence of a non-vanishing section of L(×) E for some line bundle on X and study the vector bundles filtration structure of E. These generalize the results of D. Mall about structure theorem of such a vector bundle E.
Wang, Wei; Zhao, Chunling; Ji, Qinglian; Liu, Ying; Shen, Guirong; Wei, Lili
2015-06-18
Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are one of the severe complications of PICC placement. If treatment is not timely or correct, the incidence of infection and mortality rate can be high. A central line bundle (CLB) guideline was first proposed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, and included five key measures. Very low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs) have a low immune response and indistinct symptoms after infection compared with other populations (Costa P, Kimura AF, de Vizzotto MP, de Castro TE, West A, Dorea E. Prevalence and reasons for non-elective removal of peripherally inserted central catheter in neonates. Rev Gaucha Enferm. 2012;33:126-33). Some reviews have focused on the effect and safety of a CLB in VLBWIs and its preventive effect on bacterial colonization and infection. Fifty-seven VLBWIs who underwent PICC insertion at a hospital in Qingdao, China, between November 2012 and June 2013, and for whom a CLB guideline and a standard checklist were adopted, were included in the CLB group. In contrast, 53 VLBWIs who underwent PICC insertion, but for whom a CLB guideline and a standard checklist were not adopted, were included in the control group. The incidence of CRIs was compared between before and after the treatment. The incidence of infection showed a statistically significant reduction from 10.0 to 2.20 per 1000 catheter days in the control group (P control group and 31.9 ± 15.0 days in the study group (P < 0.05), and these values were significantly different. The use of a CLB guideline with a standard checklist could be effective and feasible for preventing CRIs in VLBWIs and prolonging indwelling catheter time.
The Determinant Bundle on the Moduli Space of Stable Triples over a Curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Biswas; N Raghavendra
2002-08-01
We construct a holomorphic Hermitian line bundle over the moduli space of stable triples of the form (1, 2, ), where 1 and 2 are holomorphic vector bundles over a fixed compact Riemann surface , and : 2 → 1 is a holomorphic vector bundle homomorphism. The curvature of the Chern connection of this holomorphic Hermitian line bundle is computed. The curvature is shown to coincide with a constant scalar multiple of the natural Kähler form on the moduli space. The construction is based on a result of Quillen on the determinant line bundle over the space of Dolbeault operators on a fixed ∞ Hermitian vector bundle over a compact Riemann surface.
Bundled Hybrid Offset Riser Global Strength Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
William C.Webster; Zhuang Kang; Wenzhou Liang; Youwei Kang; Liping Sun
2011-01-01
Bundled hybrid offset riser(BHOR)global strength analysis,which is more complex than single line offset riser global strength analysis,was carried out in this paper.At first,the equivalent theory is used to deal with BHOR,and then its global strength in manifold cases was analyzed,along with the use of a three-dimensional nonlinear time domain finite element program.So the max bending stress,max circumferential stress,and max axial stress in the BHOR bundle main section(BMS)were obtained,and the values of these three stresses in each riser were obtained through the "stress distribution method".Finally,the Max Von Mises stress in each riser was given and a check was made whether or not they met the demand.This paper provides a reference for strength analysis of the bundled hybrid offset riser and some other bundled pipelines.
The ABCDEF Implementation Bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annachiara Marra
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Long-term morbidity, long-term cognitive impairment and hospitalization-associated disability are common occurrence in the survivors of critical illness, with significant consequences for patients and for the caregivers. The ABCDEF bundle represents an evidence-based guide for clinicians to approach the organizational changes needed for optimizing ICU patient recovery and outcomes. The ABCDEF bundle includes: Assess, Prevent, and Manage Pain, Both Spontaneous Awakening Trials (SAT and Spontaneous Breathing Trials (SBT, Choice of analgesia and sedation, Delirium: Assess, Prevent, and Manage, Early mobility and Exercise, and Family engagement. The purpose of this review is to describe the core features of the ABCDEF bundle.
Abelian conformal field theory and determinant bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, K.
2007-01-01
Following [10], we study a so-called bc-ghost system of zero conformal dimension from the viewpoint of [14, 16]. We show that the ghost vacua construction results in holomorphic line bundles with connections over holomorphic families of curves. We prove that the curvature of these connections...... are up to a scale the same as the curvature of the connections constructed in [14, 16]. We study the sewing construction for nodal curves and its explicit relation to the constructed connections. Finally we construct preferred holomorphic sections of these line bundles and analyze their behaviour near...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱迪锋
2016-01-01
This paper describes the characteristics of replacement technology at height for conductor connect-ing pipe of quad-bundle EHV overhead transmission lines; besides, it analyzes the construction technology process. The construction technology is adopted in practical maintenance work, after which construction effi-ciency is enhanced, outage time of power lines is shortened, manpower and material resources for construc-tion work are reduced;besides, the impact on objects below the lines is reduced, and safety and efficiency of EHV transmission line maintenance are guaranteed.%叙述了四分裂超高压架空输电线路导线接续管的高空更换施工工艺特点，分析该施工工艺流程。在实际检修工作中运用后有效提高了施工效率，缩短线路停电时间，减少施工所需人力物力的投入，并对线路下方影响大大减少，确保了超高压输电线路检修工作的安全高效进行。
Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gurjar, Sudarshan
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically...... closed field k and let X be a smooth, projective variety over k together with a very ample line bundle O(1). The main result of the paper is that if E is a semistable (resp. stable) principal G-bundle on X w.r.t O(1), then the restriction of E to a general, high multi-degree, complete-intersection curve...
Subtleties Concerning Conformal Tractor Bundles
Graham, C Robin
2012-01-01
The realization of tractor bundles as associated bundles in conformal geometry is studied. It is shown that different natural choices of principal bundle with normal Cartan connection corresponding to a given conformal manifold can give rise to topologically distinct associated tractor bundles for the same inducing representation. Consequences for homogeneous models and conformal holonomy are described. A careful presentation is made of background material concerning standard tractor bundles and equivalence between parabolic geometries and underlying structures.
The Hodge bundle on Hurwitz spaces
van der Geer, G.; Kouvidakis, A.
2011-01-01
In 2009 Kokotov, Korotkin and Zograf gave in [7] a formula for the class of the Hodge bundle on the Hurwitz space of admissible covers of genus g and degree d of the projective line. They gave an analytic proof of it. In this note we give an algebraic proof and an extension of the result.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daiane Silva Resende
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Aim:We assessed late onset sepsis (LOS rates of neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU before and after implementing an evidence-based bundle to prevent these infections in a country with poor resources.Methods:We evaluate trends of LOS between October 2010 and August 2012 in a large tertiary hospital in Brazil. We designed a protocol based of CDC guidelines for insertion of maintenance of central venous catheter targeted to reduction of bloodstream infections. During this period two major events occurred: a great increase of LOS rates in January months and relocation of the unit to a provisory place. Additionally we evaluated the risk factors and etiology of these infections.Results:A total of 112 (20.3% cases deﬁned as LOS were found. The overall incidence rate of LOS in the study was 16.1/1000 patient/days and 23.0/1000 CVC-days. Our monthly rates data of LOS/1000 patient-day reveal ﬂuctuations over the studied period, with incidence rates of these infections in staff vacation period (January 2011 and 2012 signiﬁcantly higher (59.6/1000 patients-days than compared with the other months rates (16.6/1000 patients-days (IRR = 3.59; p< 0.001. As opposite, the incidence rates of LOS during relocation period was lower (10.3/1000 patients-days when compared with baseline period 26.7/1000 patients-days (IRR = 2.59; p= 0.007. After the intervention period, these rates decreased in the post intervention period, when compared with preintervention 14.7/1000 patients-days and 23.4/1000 patients-days, respectively (IRR = 1.59; p= 0.04.Conclusion:Through simple infection control measures, LOS can be successfully controlled especially in NICUs of limited resources countries such as ours.
Resende, Daiane Silva; Peppe, Anna Laura Gil; dos Reis, Heloisio; Abdallah, Vânia Olivetti Steffen; Ribas, Rosineide Marques; Gontijo Filho, Paulo Pinto
2015-01-01
We assessed late onset sepsis (LOS) rates of neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) before and after implementing an evidence-based bundle to prevent these infections in a country with poor resources. We evaluate trends of LOS between October 2010 and August 2012 in a large tertiary hospital in Brazil. We designed a protocol based of CDC guidelines for insertion of maintenance of central venous catheter targeted to reduction of bloodstream infections. During this period two major events occurred: a great increase of LOS rates in January months and relocation of the unit to a provisory place. Additionally we evaluated the risk factors and etiology of these infections. A total of 112 (20.3%) cases defined as LOS were found. The overall incidence rate of LOS in the study was 16.1/1000 patient/days and 23.0/1000 CVC-days. Our monthly rates data of LOS/1000 patient-day reveal fluctuations over the studied period, with incidence rates of these infections in staff vacation period (January 2011 and 2012) significantly higher (59.6/1000 patients-days) than compared with the other months rates (16.6/1000 patients-days) (IRR=3.59; p<0.001). As opposite, the incidence rates of LOS during relocation period was lower (10.3/1000 patients-days) when compared with baseline period 26.7/1000 patients-days (IRR=2.59; p=0.007). After the intervention period, these rates decreased in the post intervention period, when compared with preintervention 14.7/1000 patients-days and 23.4/1000 patients-days, respectively (IRR=1.59; p=0.04). Through simple infection control measures, LOS can be successfully controlled especially in NICUs of limited resources countries such as ours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse
2013-01-01
AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. W. Kitchen
1994-01-01
Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras π:A→X, where each fiber Ax=π−1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra Γ(π relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle π:A→X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.
Principal -bundles on Nodal Curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Usha N Bhosle
2001-08-01
Let be a connected semisimple affine algebraic group defined over . We study the relation between stable, semistable -bundles on a nodal curve and representations of the fundamental group of . This study is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles to principal -bundles on the desingularization of and using the correspondence between them and principal -bundles on . We give an isomorphism of the stack of generalized parabolic bundles on with a quotient stack associated to loop groups. We show that if is simple and simply connected then the Picard group of the stack of principal -bundles on is isomorphic to ⊕ , being the number of components of .
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommer, Stefan Horst; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads
2011-01-01
In the LDDMM framework, optimal warps for image registration are found as end-points of critical paths for an energy functional, and the EPDiff equations describe the evolution along such paths. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Kernel Bundle Mapping (LDDKBM) extension of LDDMM allows scale space...
Sepe, D.
2013-01-01
The obstruction to construct a Lagrangian bundle over a fixed integral affine manifold was constructed by Dazord and Delzant (J Differ Geom 26:223–251, 1987) and shown to be given by ‘twisted’ cup products in Sepe (Differ GeomAppl 29(6): 787–800, 2011). This paper uses the topology of universal Lagr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iosif DUMITRESCU
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.
Deformation quantization of principal bundles
Aschieri, Paolo
2016-01-01
We outline how Drinfeld twist deformation techniques can be applied to the deformation quantization of principal bundles into noncommutative principal bundles, and more in general to the deformation of Hopf-Galois extensions. First we twist deform the structure group in a quantum group, and this leads to a deformation of the fibers of the principal bundle. Next we twist deform a subgroup of the group of authomorphisms of the principal bundle, and this leads to a noncommutative base space. Considering both deformations we obtain noncommutative principal bundles with noncommutative fiber and base space as well.
Rudakov, A N
1990-01-01
This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).
Draper, Andrew
2011-04-01
Results of Medicare's ACE demonstration project and Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare initiative provide insight into the challenges hospitals will face as bundled payment proliferates. An early analysis of these results suggests that hospitals would benefit from bringing full automation using clinical IT tools to bear in their efforts to meet these challenges. Other important factors contributing to success include board and physician leadership, organizational structure, pricing methodology for bidding, evidence-based medical practice guidelines, supply cost management, process efficiency management, proactive and aggressive case management, business development and marketing strategy, and the financial management system.
Simplified modeling of EM field coupling to complex cable bundles
Schetelig, B.; J. Keghie; Kanyou Nana, R.; Fichte, L.-O.; S. Potthast; Dickmann, S.
2010-01-01
In this contribution, the procedure "Equivalent Cable Bundle Method" is used for the simplification of large cable bundles, and it is extended to the application on differential signal lines. The main focus is on the reduction of twisted-pair cables. Furthermore, the process presented here allows to take into account cables with wires that are situated quite close to each other. The procedure is based on a new approach to calculate the geometry of the simplified cable and us...
Differential calculi on noncommutative bundles
Pflaum, Markus J.; Schauenburg, Peter
1996-01-01
We introduce a category of noncommutative bundles. To establish geometry in this category we construct suitable noncommutative differential calculi on these bundles and study their basic properties. Furthermore we define the notion of a connection with respect to a differential calculus and consider questions of existence and uniqueness. At the end these constructions are applied to basic examples of noncommutative bundles over a coquasitriangular Hopf algebra.
Nefness of adjoint bundles for ample vector bundles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hidetoshi Maeda
1995-11-01
Full Text Available Let E be an ample vector bundle of rank >1 on a smooth complex projective variety X of dimension n. This paper gives a classification of pairs (X,E whose adjoint bundles K_X+det E are not nef in the case when r=n-2.
Balanced line bundles on Fano varieties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmann, Brian; Tanimoto, Sho; Tschinkel, Yuri
2017-01-01
A conjecture of Batyrev and Manin relates arithmetic properties of varieties with ample anticanonical class to geometric invariants. We analyze the geometry underlying these invariants using the Minimal Model Program and then apply our results to primitive Fano threefolds....
Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)
1997-12-01
The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)
Bundle Security Protocol for ION
Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher
2011-01-01
This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.
Friedman, R; Witten, Edward
1997-01-01
To understand in detail duality between heterotic string and F theory compactifications, it is important to understand the construction of holomorphic G bundles over elliptic Calabi-Yau manifolds, for various groups G. In this paper, we develop techniques to describe these bundles, and make several detailed comparisons between the heterotic string and F theory.
Friedman, Robert; Morgan, John; Witten, Edward
1997-01-01
To understand in detail duality between heterotic string and F theory compactifications, it is important to understand the construction of holomorphic G bundles over elliptic Calabi-Yau manifolds, for various groups G. In this paper, we develop techniques to describe the bundles, and make several detailed comparisons between the heterotic string and F theory.
Bundle Formation in Biomimetic Hydrogels
Jaspers, Maarten; Pape, A C H; Voets, Ilja K; Rowan, Alan E; Portale, Giuseppe; Kouwer, Paul H J
2016-01-01
Bundling of single polymer chains is a crucial process in the formation of biopolymer network gels that make up the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. This bundled architecture leads to gels with distinctive properties, including a large-pore-size gel formation at very low concentrations and
Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror
Ward, Benjamin G.
2012-05-01
An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.
Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ivan Kausz
2005-05-01
Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich’s and Vistoli’s twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.
Vertical, Bubbly, Cross-Flow Characteristics over Tube Bundles
Iwaki, C.; Cheong, K. H.; Monji, H.; Matsui, G.
2005-12-01
Two-phase flow over tube bundles is commonly observed in shell and tube-type heat exchangers. However, only limited amount of data concerning flow pattern and void fraction exists due to the flow complexity and the difficulties in measurement. The detailed flow structure in tube bundles needs to be understood for reliable and effective design. Therefore, the objective of this study was to clarify the two-phase structure of cross-flow in tube bundles by PIV. Experiments were conducted using two types of models, namely in-line and staggered arrays with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.5. Each test section contains 20 rows of five 15 mm O.D. tubes in each row. The experiment’s data were obtained under very low void fraction (αtube bundles were described in terms of the velocity vector field, turbulence intensity and void fraction.
Film condensation of R-113 on staggered bundles of horizontal finned tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honda, H. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Uchima, B. (Kagawa Technical Coll., Marugame (Japan)); Nozu, S.; Torigoe, E.; Imai, S. (Okayama Univ., Tsushima (Japan))
1992-05-01
Film condensation of R-113 on staggered bundles of horizontal finned tubes with vertical vapor downflow was experimentally investigated. Two tubes with flat-sided annular fins and four tubes with three-dimensional fins were tested. The condensate flow and heat transfer characteristics were compared with the previous results for in-line bundles of the same test tubes and a staggered bundle of smooth tubes. The decrease in heat transfer characteristics were compared with the previous results for in-line bundles of the same test tubes and a staggered bundle of smooth tubes. The decrease in heat transfer due to condensate inundation was most significant for the in-line bundles of the three-dimensional fin tubes, whereas the decrease was very slow for both the staggered and in-line bundles of the flat-sided fin tubes. The predictions of the previous theoretical model for a bundle of flat-sided fin tubes agreed fairly well with the measured data at a low vapor velocity. The highest heat transfer performance was provided by the staggered bundle of flat-sided fin tubes with fin dimensions close to the theoretically determined optimum values.
Semiflexible Biopolymers in Bundled Arrangements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jörg Schnauß
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Bundles and networks of semiflexible biopolymers are key elements in cells, lending them mechanical integrity while also enabling dynamic functions. Networks have been the subject of many studies, revealing a variety of fundamental characteristics often determined via bulk measurements. Although bundles are equally important in biological systems, they have garnered much less scientific attention since they have to be probed on the mesoscopic scale. Here, we review theoretical as well as experimental approaches, which mainly employ the naturally occurring biopolymer actin, to highlight the principles behind these structures on the single bundle level.
Evaluating big deal journal bundles.
Bergstrom, Theodore C; Courant, Paul N; McAfee, R Preston; Williams, Michael A
2014-07-01
Large commercial publishers sell bundled online subscriptions to their entire list of academic journals at prices significantly lower than the sum of their á la carte prices. Bundle prices differ drastically between institutions, but they are not publicly posted. The data that we have collected enable us to compare the bundle prices charged by commercial publishers with those of nonprofit societies and to examine the types of price discrimination practiced by commercial and nonprofit journal publishers. This information is of interest to economists who study monopolist pricing, librarians interested in making efficient use of library budgets, and scholars who are interested in the availability of the work that they publish.
The Atiyah Bundle and Connections on a Principal Bundle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Biswas
2010-06-01
Let be a ∞ manifold and a Lie a group. Let $E_G$ be a ∞ principal -bundle over . There is a fiber bundle $\\mathcal{C}(E_G)$ over whose smooth sections correspond to the connections on $E_G$. The pull back of $E_G$ to $\\mathcal{C}(E_G)$ has a tautological connection. We investigate the curvature of this tautological connection.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter
2013-01-01
The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...
Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith;
2014-01-01
We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services...... to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;
2013-01-01
The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...
Fabrication of electrospun nanofibers bundles
Ye, Junjun; Sun, Daoheng
2007-12-01
Aligned nanofibers, filament bundle composed of large number of nanofibers have potential applications such as bio-material, composite material etc. A series of electrospinning experiments have been conducted to investigate the electrospinning process,in which some parameters such as polymer solution concentration, bias voltage, distance between spinneret and collector, solution flow rate etc have been setup to do the experiment of nanofibers bundles construction. This work firstly reports electrospun nanofiber bundle through non-uniform electrical field, and nanofibers distributed in different density on electrodes from that between them. Thinner nanofibers bundle with a few numbers of nanofiber is collected for 3 seconds; therefore it's also possible that the addressable single nanofiber could be collected to bridge two electrodes.
Experimental investigation of the coolability of blocked hexagonal bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hózer, Zoltán, E-mail: zoltan.hozer@energia.mta.hu; Nagy, Imre; Kunstár, Mihály; Szabó, Péter; Vér, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Trosztel, István; Vimi, András
2017-06-15
Highlights: • Experiments were performed with electrically heated hexagonal fuel bundles. • Coolability of ballooned VVER-440 type bundle was confirmed up to high blockage rate. • Pellet relocation effect causes delay in the cool-down of the bundle. • The bypass line does not prevent the reflood of ballooned fuel rods. - Abstract: The CODEX-COOL experimental series was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of ballooning and pellet relocation in hexagonal bundles on the coolability of fuel rods after a LOCA event. The effects of blockage geometry, coolant flowrate, initial temperature and axial profile were investigated. The experimental results confirmed that a VVER bundle up to 80% blockage rate remains coolable after a LOCA event under design basis conditions. The ballooned section creates some obstacles for the cooling water during reflood of the bundle, but this effect causes only a short delay in the cooling down of the hot fuel rods. The accumulation of fuel pellet debris in the ballooned volume results in a local power peak, which leads to further slowing down of quench front.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira e Silva, Romero de; Lacerda, Lenildo J.B.; L. Filho, Maviael Xavier [Companhia Hidroeletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Projeto e Construcao de Linhas de Transmissao
1997-12-31
This paper presents the adapted design criteria, the performed construction aspects and the operational performance obtained with the bundle expansion applied in the 2 x 230 kV TL Banabuiu/Fortaleza. The basic project conception was supported by the principles developed for the High Surge Impedance Loading Lines (HSIL), which natural capacity improvements, for the electrical system are found with the electrical parameters changes, yielded by the conductor cables geometry modify. As a pioneer apply and technological adequacy unpublished in the world, the matter has raised great interest in the technical, scientific and business community. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
BUNDLE ADJUSTMENTS CCD CAMERA CALIBRATION BASED ON COLLINEARITY EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Changying; Yu Zhijing; Che Rensheng; Ye Dong; Huang Qingcheng; Yang Dingning
2004-01-01
The solid template CCD camera calibration method of bundle adjustments based on collinearity equation is presented considering the characteristics of space large-dimension on-line measurement. In the method, a more comprehensive camera model is adopted which is based on the pinhole model extended with distortions corrections. In the process of calibration, calibration precision is improved by imaging at different locations in the whole measurement space, multi-imaging at the same location and bundle adjustments optimization. The calibration experiment proves that the calibration method is able to fulfill calibration requirement of CCD camera applied to vision measurement.
Bundle Formation in Biomimetic Hydrogels.
Jaspers, Maarten; Pape, A C H; Voets, Ilja K; Rowan, Alan E; Portale, Giuseppe; Kouwer, Paul H J
2016-08-08
Bundling of single polymer chains is a crucial process in the formation of biopolymer network gels that make up the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. This bundled architecture leads to gels with distinctive properties, including a large-pore-size gel formation at very low concentrations and mechanical responsiveness through nonlinear mechanics, properties that are rarely observed in synthetic hydrogels. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we study the bundle formation and hydrogelation process of polyisocyanide gels, a synthetic material that uniquely mimics the structure and mechanics of biogels. We show how the structure of the material changes at the (thermally induced) gelation point and how factors such as concentration and polymer length determine the architecture, and with that, the mechanical properties. The correlation of the gel mechanics and the structural parameters obtained from SAXS experiments is essential in the design of future (synthetic) mimics of biopolymer networks.
Principal bundles the classical case
Sontz, Stephen Bruce
2015-01-01
This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles. While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢辉春; 崔翔; 刘华钢; 陈豫朝
2016-01-01
The 8×630 mm2 bundle conductor is currently employed in Chinese 1 000 kV UHV double-circuit transmission lines, and the sub-conductor number of bundle conductor plays an important role in electromagnetic environment.To further reduce the conductor cross-section so as to improve engineering economy without exceeding the electromagnetic environment requirements, we investigated the radio frequency interference(RI), audible noise(AN), and corona ioss(CL) of (8+2)×400 mm2 compared with normal 8×630mm2 and 10×400 mm2 bundle conductors.Firstly, we used the finite element method to study the optimization arrangement position of 2 sub-conductors of (8+2)×400 mm2 bundle type.Secondly, we calculated RI, AN, and CL of above bundle types with different prediction methods.Finally, we tested RI, AN, and CL of above conductors by UHV corona test cage.The calculation and experimental results show that it is rational that the arrangement position of 2 sub-conductors with (8+2)×400 mm2 bundle type is at the bottom of the bundle.In terms of RI and AN, (8+2)×400 mm2 wire is about 2 dB less than common 8×630 mm2 wire, which is hardly different from 10×400 mm2 wire.The total cross-sectional area of (8+2)×400 mm2 wire is smaller, which is of some engineering promotion value.%目前特高压同塔双回路采用常规8×630 mm2导线,由于线路分裂数对高压线路电磁环境参数影响较大,考虑在确保电磁环境满足要求的前提下,进一步减小导线截面提高工程经济性,为此对比(8+2)×400 mm2、8×630 mm2及10×400 mm2等常规分裂型式导线的同塔双回路无线电干扰、可听噪声、电晕损失.首先通过有限元方法对(8+2)×400 mm2方式新增2根子导线优化排列位置进行了研究,再利用各预测方法对各种导线形式进行了全面对比计算,最后利用特高压交流电晕笼进行了相关对比试验.计算与试验结果均表明:新增2根子导线优化排列位置位于分裂圆底部比较合理;
Creep rupture of fiber bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linga, G.; Ballone, P.; Hansen, Alex
2015-01-01
The creep deformation and eventual breaking of polymeric samples under a constant tensile load F is investigated by molecular dynamics based on a particle representation of the fiber bundle model. The results of the virtual testing of fibrous samples consisting of 40000 particles arranged on Nc=4...
Vector Bundles over Elliptic Fibrations
Friedman, R; Witten, Edward; Friedman, Robert; Morgan, John W.; Witten, Edward
1997-01-01
This paper gives various methods for constructing vector bundles over elliptic curves and more generally over families of elliptic curves. We construct universal families over generalized elliptic curves via spectral cover methods and also by extensions, and then give a relative version of the construction in families. We give various examples and make Chern class computations.
Quantum principal bundles and corresponding gauge theories
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
A generalization of classical gauge theory is presented, in the framework of a noncommutative-geometric formalism of quantum principal bundles over smooth manifolds. Quantum counterparts of classical gauge bundles, and classical gauge transformations, are introduced and investigated. A natural differential calculus on quantum gauge bundles is constructed and analyzed. Kinematical and dynamical properties of corresponding gauge theories are discussed.
Strategic and welfare implications of bundling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martin, Stephen
1999-01-01
A standard oligopoly model of bundling shows that bundling by a firm with a monopoly over one product has a strategic effect because it changes the substitution relationships between the goods among which consumers choose. Bundling in appropriate proportions is privately profitable, reduces rival......' profits and overall welfare, and may drive rivals from the market...
Higher order jet prolongations type gauge natural bundles over vector bundles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Kurek
2004-05-01
Full Text Available Let $rgeq 3$ and $mgeq 2$ be natural numbers and $E$ be a vector bundle with $m$-dimensional basis. We find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the $r$-jet prolongation bundle $J^rE$ of $E$. We also find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the vector $r$-tangent bundle $(J^r_{fl}(E,R_0^*$ of $E$.
Multipath packet switch using packet bundling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berger, Michael Stubert
2002-01-01
The basic concept of packet bundling is to group smaller packets into larger packets based on, e.g., quality of service or destination within the packet switch. This paper presents novel applications of bundling in packet switching. The larger packets created by bundling are utilized to extend...... switching capacity by use of parallel switch planes. During the bundling operation, packets will experience a delay that depends on the actual implementation of the bundling and scheduling scheme. Analytical results for delay bounds and buffer size requirements are presented for a specific scheduling...
The Analysis of SBWR Critical Power Bundle Using Cobrag Code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yohannes Sardjono
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The coolant mechanism of SBWR is similar with the Dodewaard Nuclear Power Plant (NPP in the Netherlands that first went critical in 1968. The similarity of both NPP is cooled by natural convection system. These coolant concept is very related with same parameters on fuel bundle design especially fuel bundle length, core pressure drop and core flow rate as well as critical power bundle. The analysis was carried out by using COBRAG computer code. COBRAG computer code is GE Company proprietary. Basically COBRAG computer code is a tool to solve compressible three-dimensional, two fluid, three field equations for two phase flow. The three fields are the vapor field, the continuous liquid field, and the liquid drop field. This code has been applied to analyses model flow and heat transfer within the reactor core. This volume describes the finitevolume equations and the numerical solution methods used to solve these equations. This analysis of same parameters has been done i.e.; inlet sub cooling 20 BTU/lbm and 40 BTU/lbm, 1000 psi pressure and R-factor is 1.038, mass flux are 0.5 Mlb/hr.ft2, 0.75 Mlb/hr.ft2, 1.00 Mlb/hr.ft2 and 1.25 Mlb/hr.ft2. Those conditions based on history operation of some type of the cell fuel bundle line at GE Nuclear Energy. According to the results, it can be concluded that SBWR critical power bundle is 10.5 % less than current BWR critical power bundle with length reduction of 12 ft to 9 ft.
Dimensional Measurements of Fresh CANDU Fuel Bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jun, Ji Su; Jo, Chang Keun; Jung, Jong Yeob; Koo, Dae Seo; Cho, Moon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2005-07-01
This paper intends to provide the dimensional measurements of fresh CANDU fuel (37-element) bundle for the estimation of deformation of post-irradiated (PI) bundle. It is expensive and difficult to measure the fretting wear of bearing pad, the element bowing and the waviness of endplate at the two-phase high flow condition (above 24 kg/s) of out-of-reactor test. So, it is recommended to compare the geometry of fresh bundle with that of PI bundle to estimate the integrity of fuel bundle in the CANDU-6 fuel channel with two-phase flow condition. The measurement system has been developed to provide the visual inspection and the dimensional measurements within the accuracy of 10 {mu}m. It is applicable in-air and underwater to the CANDU bundle as well as the CANFLEX bundle. The in-air measurements of the 36 fresh CANDU bundles (S/N: B400892 {approx} B400927) are done by this system from February 2004 to March 2004 in the PHWR fresh fuel storage building of KNFC. These bundles are produced by KNFC manufacturing procedure and are waiting for the delivery to the Wolsong-3 plant, and are planned to load into the proposed test channels. The detail measurements contain the outer rod profile (including the bearing pad), the diameter of bundle, the bowing of bundle, the rod length and the surface profile of end plate (waviness)
Mathematical modelling for nanotube bundle oscillators
Thamwattana, Ngamta; Cox, Barry J.; Hill, James M.
2009-07-01
This paper investigates the mechanics of a gigahertz oscillator comprising a nanotube oscillating within the centre of a uniform concentric ring or bundle of nanotubes. The study is also extended to the oscillation of a fullerene inside a nanotube bundle. In particular, certain fullerene-nanotube bundle oscillators are studied, namely C60-carbon nanotube bundle, C60-boron nitride nanotube bundle, B36N36-carbon nanotube bundle and B36N36-boron nitride nanotube bundle. Using the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approach, we obtain a relation between the bundle radius and the radii of the nanotubes forming the bundle, as well as the optimum bundle size which gives rise to the maximum oscillatory frequency for both the fullerene and the nanotube bundle oscillators. While previous studies in this area have been undertaken through molecular dynamics simulations, this paper emphasizes the use of applied mathematical modelling techniques which provides considerable insight into the underlying mechanisms. The paper presents a synopsis of the major results derived in detail by the present authors in [1, 2].
Photonic bandgap fiber bundle spectrometer
Hang, Qu; Syed, Imran; Guo, Ning; Skorobogatiy, Maksim
2010-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber spectrometer consisting of a photonic bandgap fiber bundle and a black and white CCD camera. Photonic crystal fibers used in this work are the large solid core all-plastic Bragg fibers designed for operation in the visible spectral range and featuring bandgaps of 60nm - 180nm-wide. 100 Bragg fibers were chosen to have complimentary and partially overlapping bandgaps covering a 400nm-840nm spectral range. The fiber bundle used in our work is equivalent in its function to a set of 100 optical filters densely packed in the area of ~1cm2. Black and white CCD camera is then used to capture spectrally "binned" image of the incoming light at the output facet of a fiber bundle. To reconstruct the test spectrum from a single CCD image we developed an algorithm based on pseudo-inversion of the spectrometer transmission matrix. We then study resolution limit of this spectroscopic system by testing its performance using spectrally narrow test peaks (FWHM 5nm-25nm) centered at va...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minas Bakalchev
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.
General frame structures on quantum principal bundles
Durdevic, M
1996-01-01
A noncommutative-geometric generalization of the classical formalism of frame bundles is developed, incorporating into the theory of quantum principal bundles the concept of the Levi-Civita connection. The construction of a natural differential calculus on quantum principal frame bundles is presented, including the construction of the associated differential calculus on the structure group. General torsion operators are defined and analyzed. Illustrative examples are presented.
Entropy for frame bundle systems and Grassmann bundle systems induced by a diffeomorphism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN; Weniang(孙文祥)
2002-01-01
ALiao hyperbolic diffeomorphism has equal measure entropy and topological entropy to that ofits induced systems on frame bundles and Grassmann bundles. This solves a problem Liao posed in 1996 forLiao hyperbolic diffeomorphisms.
Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)
Thermal Hydraulic Performance of Tight Lattice Bundle
Yamamoto, Yasushi; Akiba, Miyuki; Morooka, Shinichi; Shirakawa, Kenetsu; Abe, Nobuaki
Recently, the reduced moderation spectrum BWR has been studied. The fast neutron spectrum is obtained through triangular tight lattice fuel. However, there are few thermal hydraulic test data and thermal hydraulic correlation applicable to critical power prediction in such a tight lattice bundle. This study aims to enhance the database of the thermal hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle whose rod gap is about 1mm. Therefore, thermal hydraulic performance measurement tests of tight lattice bundles for the critical power, the pressure drop and the counter current flow limiting were performed. Moreover, the correlations to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle were developed.
Principal $G$-bundles over elliptic curves
Friedman, R; Witten, Edward; Friedman, Robert; Morgan, John W.; Witten, Edward
1997-01-01
Let $G$ be a simple and simply connected complex Lie group. We discuss the moduli space of holomorphic semistable principal $G$-bundles over an elliptic curve $E$. In particular, we give a new proof of a theorem of Looijenga and Bernshtein-Shvartsman, that the moduli space is a weighted projective space. The method of proof is to study the deformations of certain unstable bundles coming from special maximal parabolic subgroups of $G$. We also discuss the associated automorphism sheaves and universal bundles, as well as the relation between various universal bundles and spectral covers.
Statistical Constitutive Equation of Aramid Fiber Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊杰; 顾伯洪; 王善元
2003-01-01
Tensile impact tests of aramid (Twaron) fiber bundles were carried om under high strain rates with a wide range of 0. 01/s～1000/s by using MTS and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus. Based on the statistical constitutive model of fiber bundles, statistical constitutive equations of aramid fiber bundles are derived from statistical analysis of test data at different strain rates. Comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental data indicates statistical constitutive equations fit well with the experimental data, and statistical constitutive equations of fiber bundles at different strain rates are valid.
LVRF fuel bundle manufacture for Bruce
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pant, A. [Zircatec Precision Industries, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)
2005-12-15
In response to the Power Uprate program at Bruce Power, Zircatec has committed to introduce, by Spring 2006 a new manufacturing line for the production of 43 element Bruce LVRF bundles containing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) with a centre pin of blended dysprosia/urania (BDU). This is a new fuel design and is the first change in fuel design since the introduction of the current 37-element fuel over 20 years ago. Introduction of this new line has involved the introduction of significant changes to an environment that is not used to rapid changes with significant impact. At ZPI we have been able to build on our innovative capabilities in new fuel manufacturing, the strength and experience of our core team, and on our prevailing management philosophy of 'support the doer'. The presentation will discuss some of the novel aspects of this fuel introduction and the mix of innovative and classical project management methods that are being used to ensure that project deliveries are being met. Supporting presentations will highlight some of the issues in more detail. (author)
Jacobi Structures on Affine Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J. GRABOWSKI; D. IGLESIAS; J. C. MARRERO; E. PADR(O)N; P. URBA(N)SKI
2007-01-01
We study affine Jacobi structures (brackets) on an affine bundle π: A→M, i.e. Jacobi brackets that close on affine functions. We prove that if the rank of A is non-zero, there is a one-to- one correspondence between affine Jacobi structures on A and Lie algebroid structures on the vector bundle A+=∪p∈M Aff(Ap, R) of affine functionals. In the case rank A = 0, it is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between affins Jacobi structures on A and local Lie algebras on A+. Some examples and applications, also for the linear case, are discussed. For a special type of affine Jacobi structures which are canonically exhibited (strongly-affine or affine-homogeneous Jacobi structures) over a real vector space of finite dimension, we describe the leaves of its characteristic foliation as the orbits of an affine representation. These afline Jacobi structures can be viewed as an analog of the Kostant-Arnold-LiouviUe linear Poisson structure on the dual space of a real finite-dimensional Lie algebra.
Anatomic Double-bundle ACL Reconstruction
V.M. Schreiber; C.F. van Eck; F.H. Fu
2010-01-01
Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequent forms of knee trauma. The traditional surgical treatment for ACL rupture is single-bundle reconstruction. However, during the past few years there has been a shift in interest toward double-bundle reconstruction to closely r
The Verlinde formula for Higgs bundles
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Pei, Du
2016-01-01
We propose and prove the Verlinde formula for the quantization of the Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks for any simple and simply-connected group. This generalizes the equivariant Verlinde formula for the case of $SU(n)$ proposed previously by the second and third author. We further establish a Verlinde formula for the quantization of parabolic Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks.
Requirements for disordered actomyosin bundle contractility
Lenz, Martin
2011-01-01
Actomyosin contractility is essential for biological force generation, and is well understood in highly ordered structures such as striated muscle. In vitro experiments have shown that non-sarcomeric bundles comprised only of F-actin and myosin thick filaments can also display contractile behavior, which cannot be described by standard muscle models. Here we investigate the microscopic symmetries underlying this process in large non-sarcomeric bundles with long actin filaments. We prove that contractile behavior requires non-identical motors that generate large enough forces to probe the nonlinear elastic behavior of F-actin. A simple disordered bundle model demonstrates a contraction mechanism based on these assumptions and predicts realistic bundle deformations. Recent experimental observations of F-actin buckling in in vitro contractile bundles support our model.
Composite spinor bundles in gravitation theory
Sardanashvily, G
1995-01-01
In gravitation theory, the realistic fermion matter is described by spinor bundles associated with the cotangent bundle of a world manifold X. In this case, the Dirac operator can be introduced. There is the 1:1 correspondence between these spinor bundles and the tetrad gravitational fields represented by sections of the quotient \\Si of the linear frame bundle over X by the Lorentz group. The key point lies in the fact that different tetrad fields imply nonequivalent representations of cotangent vectors to X by the Dirac's matrices. It follows that a fermion field must be regarded only in a pair with a certain tetrad field. These pairs can be represented by sections of the composite spinor bundle S\\to\\Si\\to X where values of tetrad fields play the role of parameter coordinates, besides the familiar world coordinates.
On Harder–Narasimhan Reductions for Higgs Principal Bundles
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arijit Dey; R Parthasarathi
2005-05-01
The existence and uniqueness of – reduction for the Higgs principal bundles over nonsingular projective variety is shown. We also extend the notion of – reduction for (, )-bundles and ramified -bundles over a smooth curve.
Functional bundles of the medial patellofemoral ligament.
Kang, Hui Jun; Wang, Fei; Chen, Bai Cheng; Su, Yan Ling; Zhang, Zhan Chi; Yan, Chang Bao
2010-11-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the anatomy and evaluate the function of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Anatomical dissection was performed on 12 fresh-frozen knee specimens. The MPFL is a condensation of capsular fibers, which originates at the medial femoral condyle. It runs transversely and inserts to the medial edge of the patella. With the landmark of the medial femur epicondyle (MFE), the femoral origination was located: just 8.90 ± 3.27 mm proximally and 13.47 ± 3.68 mm posteriorly to the MFE. The most interesting finding in present study was functional bundles of its patellar insertion. Approximately from the femoral origination point, fibers of the MPFL form two relatively concentrated fiber bundles: the inferior-straight bundle and the superior-oblique bundle. The whole length of each was 71.78 ± 5.51 and 73.67 ± 5.40 mm, respectively. The included angle between bundles was 15.1° ± 2.1°. Although the superior-oblique bundle and the inferior-straight bundle run on the patellar MPFL inferiorly and superiorly, respectively, as their name indicates, the two bundles are not entirely separated, which make MPFL one intact structure. The inferior-straight bundle is the main static soft tissue restraints where the superior-oblique bundle associated with vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) is to serve as the main dynamic soft tissue restraints. So this finding may provide the theoretical foundation for the anatomical reconstruction of the MPFL and shed lights on the future researchers.
Higgs bundles and the real symplectic group
Gothen, Peter B
2011-01-01
We give an overview of the work of Corlette, Donaldson, Hitchin and Simpson leading to the non-abelian Hodge theory correspondence between representations of the fundamental group of a surface and the moduli space of Higgs bundles. We then explain how this can be generalized to a correspondence between character varieties for representations of surface groups in real Lie groups G and the moduli space of G-Higgs bundles. Finally we survey recent joint work with Bradlow, Garc\\'ia-Prada and Mundet i Riera on the moduli space of maximal Sp(2n,R)-Higgs bundles.
Mobility of Taxol in Microtubule Bundles
Ross, J.
2003-06-01
Mobility of taxol inside microtubules was investigated using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on flow-aligned bundles. Bundles were made of microtubules with either GMPCPP or GTP at the exchangeable site on the tubulin dimer. Recovery times were sensitive to bundle thickness and packing, indicating that taxol molecules are able to move laterally through the bundle. The density of open binding sites along a microtubule was varied by controlling the concentration of taxol in solution for GMPCPP samples. With > 63% sites occupied, recovery times were independent of taxol concentration and, therefore, inversely proportional to the microscopic dissociation rate, k_{off}. It was found that 10*k_{off} (GMPCPP) ~ k_{off} (GTP), consistent with, but not fully accounting for, the difference in equilibrium constants for taxol on GMPCPP and GTP microtubules. With taxol along the microtubule interior is hindered by rebinding events when open sites are within ~7 nm of each other.
Noncommutative principal bundles through twist deformation
Aschieri, Paolo; Pagani, Chiara; Schenkel, Alexander
2016-01-01
We construct noncommutative principal bundles deforming principal bundles with a Drinfeld twist (2-cocycle). If the twist is associated with the structure group then we have a deformation of the fibers. If the twist is associated with the automorphism group of the principal bundle, then we obtain noncommutative deformations of the base space as well. Combining the two twist deformations we obtain noncommutative principal bundles with both noncommutative fibers and base space. More in general, the natural isomorphisms proving the equivalence of a closed monoidal category of modules and its twist related one are used to obtain new Hopf-Galois extensions as twists of Hopf-Galois extensions. A sheaf approach is also considered, and examples presented.
Design requirements of ACR-1000 fuel bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gossain, D.; Reid, P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)
2008-07-01
The design process for ACR-1000 fuel bundle is being undertaken in accordance with the CSA standard N286.2. As an element of the process, the design requirements were established early in the design phase and compiled in the ACR-1000 Fuel Design Requirements (DR) document. The ACR-1000 fuel bundle design is being developed to meet these requirements. This paper discusses the sources for the requirements such as the ACR project requirements, the plant specifications and regulatory requirements. It also discusses considerations of reactor design decisions and operational decisions in establishing functional, performance, safety and other design requirements for the fuel bundle. The design requirements for the ACR-1000 fuel bundle are summarized and the relationship of the requirements to the plant states of Normal Operation, Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOOs) and Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) are discussed. Structure of the document to capture all the requirements in addition to functional, performance and safety requirements is presented. (author)
Liquid Flow in Shaped Fiber Bundle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yan; WANG Hua-ping; CHEN Yue-hua
2006-01-01
By computation and comparison of the critical spreading coefficient parameter, it was found that shaped fiber bundle is better for wetting. Liquid-air interface tension of liquid arising the shaped fiber bundle body is considered as one critical factor besides liquid viscosity, inertia force and liquid-fiber interface tension. Experimental result simulation demonstrated that the liquid-air interface tension is correlated with the geometric size of the liquid arising in body, φ0 (x) and which is affected by the cross sectional shape of fiber and the radius of single fiber. The shaped fiber bundle model is introduced to investigate liquid flow in fiber assembly. The model is generated based on a random function for stochastic forming of fibers in bundle and it is necessary to combine this fundamental model with physical explanation for investigation of liquid flow in fiber assembly.
Dynamic bi-product bundle pricing problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafiei Hamed
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses bundle pricing problem of two products in a stochastic environment so as to maximize net profit of a retailer. In the considered problem, it is assumed that customers are received upon a Poisson distribution and their demands follow a bi-variant distribution function. Also, it is assumed that products are sold individually or in the form of a bundle, which are offered from an initial stock of the products. To tackle the problem, a stochastic dynamic program is developed in which optimum values of the initial stock and order quantities of every planning period are determined. Moreover, prices of the individual products and their bundle are optimized. Also, the proposed dynamic program tackles bundling/ unbundling decisions taken in every planning period. A numerical example of a two planning period horizon is considered to validate the proposed model.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Wei-dong; YAN Hao-jing; Ron Postle; Yang Shouren
2002-01-01
Due to the effects of samples and testing conditions on fibre-bundle tensile behaviour, it is necessary to investigate the relationships between experimental factors and tensile properties for the fibre-bumdle tensile tester (TENSOR). The effects of bundle sample preparation, fibre bundle mass and fibre alignment have been tested. The experimental results indicated that (1) the low damage in combing and no free-end fibres in the cut bundle are most important for the sample preparation; (2) the reasonable bundle mass is 400- 700tex, but the tensile properties measured should bemodified with the bundle mass because a small amount of bundle mass causes the scatter results, while the larger is the bundle mass, the more difficult to comb fibres parallel and to clamp fibre evenly; and (3) the fibre irregular arrangement forms a slack bundle resulting in interaction between fibres, which will affect the reproducibility and accuracy of the tensile testing.
Manufacturing of 37-element fuel bundles for PHWR 540 - new approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arora, U.K.; Sastry, V.S.; Banerjee, P.K.; Rao, G.V.S.H.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. Atomic Energy, Government of India, Hyderabad (India)
2003-07-01
Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in early seventies, is a major industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy. NFC is responsible for the supply of fuel bundles to all the 220 MWe PHWRs presently in operation. For supplying fuel bundles for the forthcoming 540 MWe PHWRs, NEC is dovetailing 37-element fuel bundle manufacturing facilities in the existing plants. In tune with the philosophy of self-reliance, emphasis is given to technology upgradation, higher customer satisfaction and application of modern quality control techniques. With the experience gained over the years in manufacturing 19-element fuel bundles, NEC has introduced resistance welding of appendages on fuel tubes prior to loading of UO{sub 2} pellets, use of bio-degradable cleaning agents, simple diagnostic tools for checking the equipment condition, on line monitoring of variables, built-in process control methods and total productive maintenance concepts in the new manufacturing facility. Simple material handling systems have been contemplated for handling of the fuel bundles. This paper highlights the flow-sheet adopted for the process, design features of critical equipment and the methodology for fabricating the 37-element fuel bundles, 'RIGHT FIRST TIME'. (author)
A Geometric Approach to Noncommutative Principal Bundles
Wagner, Stefan
2011-01-01
From a geometrical point of view it is, so far, not sufficiently well understood what should be a "noncommutative principal bundle". Still, there is a well-developed abstract algebraic approach using the theory of Hopf algebras. An important handicap of this approach is the ignorance of topological and geometrical aspects. The aim of this thesis is to develop a geometrically oriented approach to the noncommutative geometry of principal bundles based on dynamical systems and the representation theory of the corresponding transformation group.
Supporting the Secure Deployment of OSGi Bundles
Parrend, Pierre; Frénot, Stéphane
2007-01-01
International audience; The OSGi platform is a lightweight management layer over a Java virtual machine that makes runtime extensi- bility and multi-application support possible in mobile and constraint environments. This powerfull capability opens a particular attack vector against mobile platforms: the in- stallation of malicious OSGi bundles. The first countermea- sure is the digital signature of the bundles. We developed a tool suite that supports the signature, the publication and the va...
Is It Complete Left Bundle Branch Block? Just Ablate the Right Bundle.
Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo
2017-03-01
Complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) is established according to standard electrocardiographic criteria. However, functional LBBB may be rate-dependent or can perpetuate during tachycardia due to repetitive concealed retrograde penetration of impulses through the contralateral bundle "linking phenomenon." In this brief article, we present two patients with basal complete LBBB in whom ablating the right bundle unmasked the actual antegrade conduction capabilities of the left bundle. These cases highlight intriguing overlap between electrophysiological concepts of complete block, linking, extremely slow, and concealed conduction.
Stability of rank-3 Lazarsfeld-Mukai bundles on K3 surfaces
Lelli-Chiesa, Margherita
2011-01-01
Given an ample line bundle L on a K3 surface S, we study the slope stability with respect to L of rank-3 Lazarsfeld-Mukai bundles associated with complete, base point free nets of type g^2_d on curves C in the linear system |L|. When d is large enough and C is general, we obtain a dimensional statement for the variety W^2_d(C). If the Brill-Noether number is negative, we prove that any g^2_d on any smooth, irreducible curve in |L| is contained in a g^r_e which is induced from a line bundle on S, thus answering a conjecture of Donagi and Morrison. Applications towards transversality of Brill-Noether loci and higher rank Brill-Noether theory are then discussed.
Effective action of heterotic compactification on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schasny, Martin
2012-10-15
In this thesis we study the heterotic string compactified on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles. We focus on two backgrounds, the well-known standard embedding and abelian line bundles. Using a Kaluza-Klein reduction, the six-dimensional effective action is computed up to terms of order {alpha}'{sup 2} with special attention on the hypermultiplet sector. We compute the moduli dependent couplings of the matter fields and analyze the geometry of the hyperscalar sigma model. Moreover, we prove the consistency with six-dimensional supergravity and derive the appropriate D-term scalar potential. For the line bundle backgrounds we show that the gauge flux stabilizes some geometrical moduli and renders some abelian vector multiplets massive.
Twisted Bundle on Noncommutative Space and U(1) Instanton
Ho, P M
2000-01-01
We study the notion of twisted bundles on noncommutative space. Due to theexistence of projective operators in the algebra of functions on thenoncommutative space, there are twisted bundles with non-constant dimension.The U(1) instanton solution of Nekrasov and Schwarz is such an example. As amathematical motivation for not excluding such bundles, we find gaugetransformations by which a bundle with constant dimension can be equivalent toa bundle with non-constant dimension.
Compactifications of the Heterotic string with unitary bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weigand, T.
2006-05-23
In this thesis we investigate a large new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric string vacua defined as compactifications of the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and the SO(32) heterotic string on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with unitary gauge bundles and heterotic five-branes. The first part of the thesis discusses the implementation of this idea into the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} heterotic string. After specifying a large class of group theoretic embeddings featuring unitary bundles, we analyse the effective four-dimensional N=1 supergravity upon compactification. From the gauge invariant Kaehler potential for the moduli fields we derive a modification of the Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms arising at one-loop in string perturbation theory. From this we conjecture a one-loop deformation of the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation and introduce the idea of {lambda}-stability as the perturbatively correct stability concept generalising the notion of Mumford stability valid at tree-level. We then proceed to a definition of SO(32) heterotic vacua with unitary gauge bundles in the presence of heterotic five-branes and find agreement of the resulting spectrum with the S-dual framework of Type I/Type IIB orientifolds. A similar analysis of the effective four-dimensional supergravity is performed. Further evidence for the proposed one-loop correction to the stability condition is found by identifying the heterotic corrections as the S-dual of the perturbative part of {pi}-stability as the correct stability concept in Type IIB theory. After reviewing the construction of holomorphic stable vector bundles on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds via spectral covers, we provide semi-realistic examples for SO(32) heterotic vacua with Pati-Salam and MSSM-like gauge sectors. We finally discuss the construction of realistic vacua with flipped SU(5) GUT and MSSM gauge group within the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} framework, based on the embedding of line bundles into both E{sub 8} factors. Some of the appealing
LWR nuclear fuel bundle data for use in fuel bundle handling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weihermiller, W.B.; Allison, G.S.
1979-09-01
Although increasing numbers of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel bundles are moved into storage, no handling equipment is set up to manipulate all of the various types of fuel bundles. This report summarizes fuel bundle information of interest to the designer of such handling equipment. Dimensional descriptions are included with discussions of assembly procedure and manufacturer provisions for handling equipment. No attempt is made to make a complete compilation of dimensional information; the number of fuel bundle designs and design revisions makes it impractical. Because the fuel bundle designs are so varied, any equipment intended for handling all types of bundles will have to be designed with flexibility in mind. Besides the ability to manipulate fuel bundles in space, handling equipment may be required to locate an external surface or to position a cutting operation to avoid breaking a fuel rod pressure boundary. Even with the most sophisticated and flexible handling equipment, some situations will require use of the manufacturers' as-built descriptions of individual fuel bundles.
The histology of retinal nerve fiber layer bundles and bundle defects.
Radius, R L; Anderson, D R
1979-05-01
The fiber bundle striations recognized clinically in normal monkey eyes appear to be bundles of axons compartmentalized within glial tunnels formed by Müller's-cell processes, when viewed histologically. The dark boundaries that separate individual bundles are the broadened foot endings of these cells near the inner surface of the retina. Within one week after focal retinal photocoagulation, characteristic fundus changes could be seen in experimental eyes. In histologic sections of the involved retina, there was marked cystic degeneration of the retinal nerve fiber layer. Within one month, atrophy of distal axon segments was complete. With the drop-out of damaged axons and thinning of individual fiber bundles, retinal striations became less prominent. The resulting fundus picture in these experimental eyes is similar to fiber bundle defects that can be seen clinically in various neuro-ophthalmic disorders.
Cohomological characterization of universal bundles of the Grassmannian of lines
2015-01-01
La tesis Caracterización Cohomológica de los Fibrados Universales de la Grasmanniana de Rectas se dedica a dar una caracterización mediante anulaciones de cohomología de los productos simétricos de uno de los fibrados de la Grassmanniana de rectas, en particular, del fibrado cociente que tiene rango 2. Probablemente uno de los resultados más importantes sobre fibrados vectoriales sobre un espacio proyectivo es el criterio de Horrocks que dice que un fibrado vectorial sobre el espacio proyecti...
Powers of the space forms curvature operator and geodesics of the tangent bundle
Saharova, Yelena; Yampolsky, Alexander
2005-01-01
It is well-known that if a curve is a geodesic line of the tangent (sphere) bundle with Sasaki metric of a locally symmetric Riemannian manifold then the projected curve has all its geodesic curvatures constant. In this paper we consider the case of tangent (sphere) bundle over the real, complex and quaternionic space form and give a unified proof of the following property: all geodesic curvatures of projected curve are zero starting from k_3,k_6 and k_{10} for the real, complex and quaternio...
Holomorphic Principal Bundles Over Elliptic Curves III: Singular Curves and Fibrations
2001-01-01
Let G be a simple and simply connected complex linear algebraic group. In this paper, we discuss the generalization of the parabolic construction of holomorphic principal G-bundles over a smooth elliptic curve to the case of a singular curve of arithmetic genus one and to a fibration of Weierstrass cubics over a base B. Except for G of type E_8, the method gives a family of weighted projective spaces associated to a sum of line bundles over B. Working with the universal family of Weierstrass ...
Tangent bundle formulation of a charged gas
Sarbach, Olivier
2013-01-01
We discuss the relativistic kinetic theory for a simple, collisionless, charged gas propagating on an arbitrary curved spacetime geometry. Our general relativistic treatment is formulated on the tangent bundle of the spacetime manifold and takes advantage of its rich geometric structure. In particular, we point out the existence of a natural metric on the tangent bundle and illustrate its role for the development of the relativistic kinetic theory. This metric, combined with the electromagnetic field of the spacetime, yields an appropriate symplectic form on the tangent bundle. The Liouville vector field arises as the Hamiltonian vector field of a natural Hamiltonian. The latter also defines natural energy surfaces, called mass shells, which turn out to be smooth Lorentzian submanifolds. A simple, collisionless, charged gas is described by a distribution function which is defined on the mass shell and satisfies the Liouville equation. Suitable fibre integrals of the distribution function define observable fie...
Classical Higgs fields on gauge gluon bundles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palese Marcella
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Classical Higgs fields and related canonical conserved quantities are defined by invariant variational problems on suitably defined gauge gluon bundles. We consider Lagrangian field theories which are assumed to be invariant with respect to the action of a gauge-natural group. As an illustrative example we exploit the ‘gluon Lagrangian’, i.e. a Yang-Mills Lagrangian on the (1, 1-order gauge-natural bundle of SU(3-principal connections. The kernel of the gauge-natural Jacobi morphism for such a Lagrangian, by inducing a reductive split structure, canonically defines a ‘gluon classical Higgs field’.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yubao Ma
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The present study sought to determine the influences of single-bundle (SB, single-bundle augmentation (SBA, and double-bundle (DB reconstructions on balance ability and proprioceptive function. Methods. 67 patients who underwent a single- or double-bundle ACL reconstruction or a SBA using multistranded autologous hamstring tendons were included in this study with a 1-year follow-up. Body sway and knee kinesthesia (using the threshold to detect passive motion test (TTDPM were measured to indicate balance ability and proprioceptive function, respectively. Additionally, within-subject differences in anterior-posterior stability of the tibia and lower extremity muscle strength were evaluated before and after surgery. Results. At 6 and 12 months after surgery, DB reconstruction resulted in better balance and proprioceptive function than SB reconstruction (P<0.05. Although no significant difference was observed in balance ability or proprioceptive function between the SBA and DB reconstructions, knee stability was significantly better with SBA and DB reconstructions than SB reconstruction (P<0.05. No significant differences were found in quadriceps and hamstrings strength among the three reconstruction techniques. Conclusions. Our findings consider that joint stability, proprioceptive function, and balance ability were superior with SBA and DB reconstructions compared to SB reconstruction at 6 and 12 months after surgery.
Mohan, Vandana; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Kubicki, Marek; Terry, Douglas; Tannenbaum, Allen
2010-03-01
We propose a novel framework for population analysis of DW-MRI data using the Tubular Surface Model. We focus on the Cingulum Bundle (CB) - a major tract for the Limbic System and the main connection of the Cingulate Gyrus, which has been associated with several aspects of Schizophrenia symptomatology. The Tubular Surface Model represents a tubular surface as a center-line with an associated radius function. It provides a natural way to sample statistics along the length of the fiber bundle and reduces the registration of fiber bundle surfaces to that of 4D curves. We apply our framework to a population of 20 subjects (10 normal, 10 schizophrenic) and obtain excellent results with neural network based classification (90% sensitivity, 95% specificity) as well as unsupervised clustering (k-means). Further, we apply statistical analysis to the feature data and characterize the discrimination ability of local regions of the CB, as a step towards localizing CB regions most relevant to Schizophrenia.
PIV measurement of the vertical cross-flow structure over tube bundles
Iwaki, C.; Cheong, K. H.; Monji, H.; Matsui, G.
Shell and tube heat exchangers are among the most commonly used types of heat exchangers. Shell-side cross-flow in tube bundles has received considerable attention and has been investigated extensively. However, the microscopic flow structure including velocity distribution, wake, and turbulent structure in the tube bundles needs to be determined for more effective designs. Therefore, in this study, in order to clarify the detailed structure of cross-flow in tube bundles with particle image velocimetry (PIV), experiments were conducted using two types of model; in-line and staggered bundles with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.5, containing 20 rows of five 15 mm O.D. tubes in each row. The velocity data in the whole flow field were measured successfully by adjusting the refractive index of the working fluid to that of the tube material. The flow features were characterized in different tube bundles with regards to the velocity vector field, vortex structure, and turbulent intensity.
Computations in intersection rings of flag bundles
Grayson, Daniel R; Stillman, Michael E
2012-01-01
Intersection rings of flag varieties and of isotropic flag varieties are generated by Chern classes of the tautological bundles modulo the relations coming from multiplicativity of total Chern classes. In this paper we describe the Groebner bases of the ideals of relations and give applications to computation of intersections, as implemented in Macaulay2.
Capacity efficiency of recovery request bundling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert
2010-01-01
This paper presents a comparison of recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated against traditional recovery methods. Our simulation results show that Shortcut Span...... Protection uses more capacity than the unbundled related methods, but this is compensated by easier control and management of the recovery actions....
η-Invariant and Flat Vector Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
We present an alternate definition of the mod Z component of the AtiyahPatodi-Singer η invariant associated to (not necessary unitary) fiat vector bundles, which identifies explicitly its real and imaginary parts. This is done by combining a deformation of flat connections introduced in a previous paper with the analytic continuation procedure appearing in the original article of Atiyah, Parodi and Singer.
Lazarsfeld-Mukai bundles and applications
Aprodu, Marian
2012-01-01
We survey the development of the notion of Lazarsfeld-Mukai bundles together with various applications, from the classification of Mukai manifolds to Brill-Noether theory and syzygies of $K3$ sections. To see these techniques at work, we present a short proof of a result of M. Reid on the existence of elliptic pencils.
Meromorphic Higgs bundles And Related Geometries
Dalakov, Peter
2016-01-01
The present note is mostly a survey on the generalised Hitchin integrable system and moduli spaces of meromorphic Higgs bundles. We also fill minor gaps in the existing literature, outline a calculation of the infinitesimal period map and review briefly some related geometries.
Meromorphic Higgs bundles and related geometries
Dalakov, Peter
2016-11-01
The present note is mostly a survey on the generalised Hitchin integrable system and moduli spaces of meromorphic G-Higgs bundles. We also fill minor gaps in the existing literature, outline a calculation of the infinitesimal period map and review some related geometries.
Capacity efficiency of recovery request bundling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert
2010-01-01
This paper presents a comparison of recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated against traditional recovery methods. Our simulation results show that Shortcut Span...
Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell
Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jülicher, F.
2009-02-01
The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.
Goyal, Tanu; Majumder, Manoj Kumar; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar
2015-06-01
Through-silicon vias (TSVs) have provided an attractive solution for three-dimensional (3D) integrated devices and circuit technologies with reduced parasitic losses and power dissipation, higher input-output (I/O) density and improved system performance. This paper investigates the propagation delay and average power dissipation of single-walled carbon nanotube bundled TSVs having different via radius and height. Depending on the physical configuration, a comprehensive and accurate analytical model of CNT bundled TSV is employed to represent the via (vertical interconnect access) line of a driver-TSV-load (DTL) system. The via radius and height are used to estimate the bundle aspect ratio (AR) and the cross-sectional area. For a fixed via height, the delay and the power dissipation are reduced up to 96.2% using a SWCNT bundled TSV with AR = 300 : 1 in comparison to AR = 6 : 1.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIULUOFEI
1996-01-01
The author proves several embedding theorems for finite covering maps,principal G-bundies into bundles.The main results are 1. Let π：E→X be a finite covering map, and X a connected locally path-connected paracompact space. If cat X≤k, then the finite covering space π:E→X can be embedded into the trivial real k-plane bundle. 2. Let π：E→X be a principal G-bundle over a paracompact space. If there exists a linera action of Gon F(F=R or C)and cat X≤k ,then π：E→X can be embedded into ξ1 … ξn for any F-vector bundles ξi,i=1,…k.
Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAI Xue-song
2012-01-01
Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the early results of anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare with the results of native ACL of the contralateral knee.Methods: The results of a consecutive series of 118 patients receiving arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were evaluated.Eight patients were lost to the latest follow-up,leaving a total of 110 patients available for study within at least 3 years' clinical follow-up.Among them,63 patients underwent postoperative MRI and CT scan,as well as clinical evaluation.Results: After reconstruction,the knees were stable and pain-free.Mean postoperative Lysholm score was 95.54 in 110 patients after 3 years.CT and MRI assessment showed that the reconstruction centered in the femoral footprint of ACL (n=63).The sagittal ACL angle in the reconstructed ACL (52.16°±2.45°) was much close to that in the contralateral intact ACL (51.31 °±2.18°,P＞0.05).By ACL-Blumensaat line angle analysis,there was no difference between doublebundle reconstructed knees and their contralateral normal knees (4.67°±0.43° vs.4.62°±0.60°,P＞0.05).Conclusion:Anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction can place grafts more precisely in the anatomic footprint of the ACL and better restore knee kinematics.
Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation
Burleigh, Scott C.
2011-01-01
The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.
Bundling Revisited: Substitute Products and Inter-Firm Discounts
Armstrong, Mark
2011-01-01
This paper extends the standard model of bundling to allow products to be substitutes and for products to be supplied by separate sellers. Whether integrated or separate, firms have an incentive to introduce bundling discounts when demand for the bundle is elastic relative to demand for stand-alone products. When products are partial substitutes, this typically gives an integrated firm a greater incentive to offer a bundle discount (relative to the standard model with additive preferences), w...
Yoo, Yon-Sik; Song, Si Young; Yang, Cheol Jung; Ha, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Sang
2016-01-01
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anatomical double bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either selective anteromedial (AM) or posterolateral (PL) bundle reconstruction while preserving a relatively healthy ACL bundle. Materials and Methods The authors evaluated 98 patients with a mean follow-up of 30.8±4.0 months who had undergone DB or selective bundle ACL reconstructions. Of these, 34 cases underwent DB ACL reconstruction (group A), 34 underwent selective AM bundle reconstruction (group B), and 30 underwent selective PL bundle reconstructions (group C). These groups were compared with respect to Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, side-to-side differences of anterior laxity measured by KT-2000 arthrometer at 30 lbs, and stress radiography and Lachman and pivot shift test results. Pre- and post-operative data were objectively evaluated using a statistical approach. Results The preoperative anterior instability measured by manual stress radiography at 90° of knee flexion in group A was significantly greater than that in groups B and C (all pACL tears offers comparable clinical results to DB reconstruction in complete ACL tears. PMID:27401652
VECTOR BUNDLE, KILLING VECTOR FIELD AND PONTRYAGIN NUMBERS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周建伟
1991-01-01
Let E be a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold M. We construct a natural metric on the bundle space E and discuss the relationship between the killing vector fields of E and M. Then we give a proof of the Bott-Baum-Cheeger Theorem for vector bundle E.
Heat exchanger with helical bundles of finned tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eyking, H.J.
1975-01-23
The invention applies to a heat exchanger with helical bundles of tubes consisting of finned tubes separated by spacers. The spacers are designed as closed holding cylinders with holding devices for the tube bundles, each ot which surrounds a bundle of tubes. This construction serves to simplify the production process and to enable the use of the heat exchanger at higher loads.
Gauge bundles and Born-Infeld on the noncommutative torus
Hofman, C.; Verlinde, E.
1998-01-01
In this paper, we describe non-abelian gauge bundles with magnetic and electric uxes on higher dimensional noncomm utative tori. We give an explicit construction of a large class of bundles with nonzero magnetic 't Hooft uxes. W e discuss Morita equiv alence between these bundles. The action of
QTLs analysis of rice peduncle vascular bundle and panicle traits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
@@The vascular bundle in plants plays an important role in transportation of photosynthetic products, mineral nutrients, water, and so on. Significant positive correlations were found between grain yield, panicle traits and the No. Of peduncle vascular bundles. So, it is very important to study the inheritance of peduncle vascular bundle, which is a quantitative trait.
Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two Over a Curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Biswas; Tomás L Gómez
2001-08-01
Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.
Productivity and costs of slash bundling in Nordic conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaerhae, K.; Vartiamaeki, T. [Metsaeteho Oy, P.O. Box 101, FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland)
2006-12-15
The number of slash bundlers and the volume of slash bundling have been rapidly increasing during the last few years in Finland. However, no comprehensive time or follow-up studies have been carried out on slash bundling technology in Finland or in any other country. Metsateho Oy carried out studies on the productivity and costs of slash bundling in different Nordic recovering conditions. The study methods included both time and follow-up studies. Data were collected during the summer and winter period primarily in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) dominated clear cutting sites. The bundling techniques performed by different types of bundler (Fiberpac 370, Timberjack 1490D, Pika RS 2000, Valmet WoodPac) were studied. The average productivity of slash bundling was 18.1 bundles per operating (E{sub 15}, including delays shorter than 15min) hour with the Timberjack 1490D and Fiberpac 370 bundlers in the follow-up study. The operator of the slash bundler had the greatest effect on the productivity of bundling. The prerequisite for increased bundling volumes is a reduction in the costs of the most expensive sub-stage of the bundling supply chain, i.e. bundling itself. This requires improved recovery conditions at bundling sites, increased bundling productivity, larger sized bundles, and the execution of bundling operations in two work shifts using an efficient bundler and effective operator working methods. Implementation of these development measures will bring the bundling supply chain up to a speed that makes it the most competitive supply chain for forest chips in terms of total supply costs for long-distance transportation distances of more than 60km. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.
1996-12-31
The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable
Design of electric control system for automatic vegetable bundling machine
Bao, Yan
2017-06-01
A design can meet the requirements of automatic bale food structure and has the advantages of simple circuit, and the volume is easy to enhance the electric control system of machine carrying bunch of dishes and low cost. The bundle of vegetable machine should meet the sensor to detect and control, in order to meet the control requirements; binding force can be adjusted by the button to achieve; strapping speed also can be adjusted, by the keys to set; sensors and mechanical line connection, convenient operation; can be directly connected with the plug, the 220V power supply can be connected to a power source; if, can work, by the transmission signal sensor, MCU to control the motor, drive and control procedures for small motor. The working principle of LED control circuit and temperature control circuit is described. The design of electric control system of automatic dish machine.
Phase Slips in Oscillatory Hair Bundles
Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Shlomovitz, Roie; Bruinsma, Robijn; Bozovic, Dolores
2013-01-01
Hair cells of the inner ear contain an active amplifier that allows them to detect extremely weak signals. As one of the manifestations of an active process, spontaneous oscillations arise in fluid immersed hair bundles of in vitro preparations of selected auditory and vestibular organs. We measure the phase-locking dynamics of oscillatory bundles exposed to low-amplitude sinusoidal signals, a transition that can be described by a saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle. The transition is characterized by the occurrence of phase slips, at a rate that is dependent on the amplitude and detuning of the applied drive. The resultant staircase structure in the phase of the oscillation can be described by the stochastic Adler equation, which reproduces the statistics of phase slip production. PMID:25167040
Care bundles reduce readmissions for COPD.
Matthews, Healther; Tooley, Cathy; Nicholls, Carol; Lindsey-Halls, Anna
In 2011, the respiratory nursing team at the James Paget University Hospital Foundation Trust were considering introducing a discharge care bundle for patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. At the same time, the trust was asking for applications for Commissioning for Quality and Innovation schemes (CQUINs). These are locally agreed packages of quality improvement goals and indicators, which, if achieved in total, enable the provider to earn its full CQUIN payment. A CQUIN scheme should address the three domains of quality, safety and effectiveness, patient experience and also show innovation. This article discusses how the care bundle was introduced and how, over a 12-month period, it showed tangible results in improving the care pathway for COPD patients as well as reducing readmissions and saving a significant amount of money.
Muñoz, C Sánchez; Del Valle, E; Tudela, A González; Müller, K; Lichtmannecker, S; Kaniber, M; Tejedor, C; Finley, J J; Laussy, F P
2014-07-01
Controlling the ouput of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks of photonics, with landmarks such as the laser and single-photon sources. The development of quantum applications makes it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity QED scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups, or "bundles" of N photons, for integer N. Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state of the art samples. The emission can be tuned with system parameters so that the device behaves as a laser or as a N-photon gun. The theoretical formalism to characterize such emitters is developed, with the bundle statistics arising as an extension of the fundamental correlation functions of quantum optics. These emitters will be useful for quantum information processing and for medical applications.
Client Provider Collaboration for Service Bundling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LETIA, I. A.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The key requirement for a service industry organization to reach competitive advantages through product diversification is the existence of a well defined method for building service bundles. Based on the idea that the quality of a service or its value is given by the difference between expectations and perceptions, we draw the main components of a frame that aims to support the client and the provider agent in an active collaboration meant to co-create service bundles. Following e3-value model, we structure the supporting knowledge around the relation between needs and satisfying services. We deal with different perspectives about quality through an ontological extension of Value Based Argumentation. The dialog between the client and the provider takes the form of a persuasion whose dynamic object is the current best configuration. Our approach for building service packages is a demand driven approach, allowing progressive disclosure of private knowledge.
Non-abelian higher gauge theory and categorical bundle
Viennot, David
2016-12-01
A gauge theory is associated with a principal bundle endowed with a connection permitting to define horizontal lifts of paths. The horizontal lifts of surfaces cannot be defined into a principal bundle structure. An higher gauge theory is an attempt to generalize the bundle structure in order to describe horizontal lifts of surfaces. A such attempt is particularly difficult for the non-abelian case. Some structures have been proposed to realize this goal (twisted bundle, gerbes with connection, bundle gerbe, 2-bundle). Each of them uses a category in place of the total space manifold of the usual principal bundle structure. Some of them replace also the structure group by a category (more precisely a Lie crossed module viewed as a category). But the base space remains still a simple manifold (possibly viewed as a trivial category with only identity arrows). We propose a new principal categorical bundle structure, with a Lie crossed module as structure groupoid, but with a base space belonging to a bigger class of categories (which includes non-trivial categories), that we called affine 2-spaces. We study the geometric structure of the categorical bundles built on these categories (which are a more complicated structure than the 2-bundles) and the connective structures on these bundles. Finally we treat an example interesting for quantum dynamics which is associated with the Bloch wave operator theory.
Quantum principal bundles and their characteristic classes
Durdevic, M
1996-01-01
A brief exposition of the general theory of characteristic classes of quantum principal bundles is given. The theory of quantum characteristic classes incorporates ideas of classical Weil theory into the conceptual framework of non-commutative differential geometry. A purely cohomological interpretation of the Weil homomorphism is given, together with a standard geometrical interpretation via quantum invariant polynomials. A natural spectral sequence is described. Some quantum phenomena appearing in the formalism are discussed.
Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berta Martín-López
Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.
Uncontrolled inexact information within bundle methods
Malick, Jérôme; Welington De Oliveira, ·; Zaourar-Michel, Sofia
2016-01-01
International audience; We consider convex nonsmooth optimization problems where additional information with uncontrolled accuracy is readily available. It is often the case when the objective function is itself the output of an optimization solver, as for large-scale energy optimization problems tackled by decomposition. In this paper, we study how to incorporate the uncontrolled linearizations into (proximal and level) bundle algorithms in view of generating better iterates and possibly acc...
On Complex Supermanifolds with Trivial Canonical Bundle
Groeger, Josua
2016-01-01
We give an algebraic characterisation for the triviality of the canonical bundle of a complex supermanifold in terms of a certain Batalin-Vilkovisky superalgebra structure. As an application, we study the Calabi-Yau case, in which an explicit formula in terms of the Levi-Civita connection is achieved. Our methods include the use of complex integral forms and the recently developed theory of superholonomy.
Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences
Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos
2012-01-01
Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006
Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences
Berta Martín-López; Irene Iniesta-Arandia; Marina García-Llorente; Ignacio Palomo; Izaskun Casado-Arzuaga; David García Del Amo; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Elisa Oteros-Rozas; Igone Palacios-Agundez; Bárbara Willaarts; González, José A.; Fernando Santos-Martín; Miren Onaindia; Cesar López-Santiago; Carlos Montes
2012-01-01
11 p. Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 d...
Deformations of Fell bundles and twisted graph algebras
Raeburn, Iain
2016-11-01
We consider Fell bundles over discrete groups, and the C*-algebra which is universal for representations of the bundle. We define deformations of Fell bundles, which are new Fell bundles with the same underlying Banach bundle but with the multiplication deformed by a two-cocycle on the group. Every graph algebra can be viewed as the C*-algebra of a Fell bundle, and there are are many cocycles of interest with which to deform them. We thus obtain many of the twisted graph algebras of Kumjian, Pask and Sims. We demonstate the utility of our approach to these twisted graph algebras by proving that the deformations associated to different cocycles can be assembled as the fibres of a C*-bundle.
Development of Strengthened Bundle High Temperature Superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Demko, J.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Tomsic, M. [Plastronic, Inc., Troy, OH (United States); Sinha, U. [Southwire Company, Carollton, GA (United States)
1997-12-31
In the process of developing high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables, it was found that mechanical strength of the superconducting tape is the most crucial property that needs to be improved. It is also desirable to increase the current carrying capacity of the conductor so that fewer layers are needed to make the kilo-amp class cables required for electric utility usage. A process has been developed by encapsulating a stack of Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a silver or non-silver sheath to form a strengthened bundle superconductor. This process was applied to HTS tapes made by the Continuous Tube Forming and Filling (CTFF) technique pursued by Plastronic Inc. and HTS tapes obtained from other manufacturers. Conductors with a bundle of 2 to 6 HTS tapes have been made. The bundled conductor is greatly strengthened by the non-silver sheath. No superconductor degradation as compared to the sum of the original critical currents of the individual tapes was seen on the finished conductors.
An analytical fiber bundle model for pullout mechanics of root bundles
Cohen, D.; Schwarz, M.; Or, D.
2011-09-01
Roots in soil contribute to the mechanical stability of slopes. Estimation of root reinforcement is challenging because roots form complex biological networks whose geometrical and mechanical characteristics are difficult to characterize. Here we describe an analytical model that builds on simple root descriptors to estimate root reinforcement. Root bundles are modeled as bundles of heterogeneous fibers pulled along their long axes neglecting root-soil friction. Analytical expressions for the pullout force as a function of displacement are derived. The maximum pullout force and corresponding critical displacement are either derived analytically or computed numerically. Key model inputs are a root diameter distribution (uniform, Weibull, or lognormal) and three empirical power law relations describing tensile strength, elastic modulus, and length of roots as functions of root diameter. When a root bundle with root tips anchored in the soil matrix is pulled by a rigid plate, a unique parameter, ?, that depends only on the exponents of the power law relations, dictates the order in which roots of different diameters break. If ? 1, large roots break first. When ? = 1, all fibers break simultaneously, and the maximum tensile force is simply the roots' mean force times the number of roots in the bundle. Based on measurements of root geometry and mechanical properties, the value of ? is less than 1, usually ranging between 0 and 0.7. Thus, small roots always fail first. The model shows how geometrical and mechanical characteristics of roots and root diameter distribution affect the pullout force, its maximum and corresponding displacement. Comparing bundles of roots that have similar mean diameters, a bundle with a narrow variance in root diameter will result in a larger maximum force and a smaller displacement at maximum force than a bundle with a wide diameter distribution. Increasing the mean root diameter of a bundle without changing the distribution's shape increases
Sankararamakrishnan, R; Sansom, M S
1995-11-01
The transbilayer pore of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is formed by a pentameric bundle of M2 helices. Models of pentameric bundles of M2 helices have been generated using simulated annealing via restrained molecular dynamics. The influence of: (a) the initial C alpha template; and (b) screening of sidechain electrostatic interactions on the geometry of the resultant M2 helix bundles is explored. Parallel M2 helices, in the absence of sidechain electrostatic interactions, pack in accordance with simple ridges-in-grooves considerations. This results in a helix crossing angle of ca. +12 degrees, corresponding to a left-handed coiled coil structure for the bundle as a whole. Tilting of M2 helices away from the central pore axis at their C-termini and/or inclusion of sidechain electrostatic interactions may perturb such ridges-in-grooves packing. In the most extreme cases right-handed coiled coils are formed. An interplay between inter-helix H-bonding and helix bundle geometry is revealed. The effects of changes in electrostatic screening on the dimensions of the pore mouth are described and the significance of these changes in the context of models for the nAChR pore domain is discussed.
Resolutions of C^n/Z_n Orbifolds, their U(1) Bundles, and Applications to String Model Building
Nibbelink, S G; Walter, M
2007-01-01
We describe blowups of C^n/Z_n orbifolds as complex line bundles over CP^{n-1}. We construct some gauge bundles on these resolutions. Apart from the standard embedding, we describe U(1) bundles and an SU(n-1) bundle. Both blowups and their gauge bundles are given explicitly. We investigate ten dimensional SO(32) super Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity on these backgrounds. The integrated Bianchi identity implies that there are only a finite number of U(1) bundle models. We describe how the orbifold gauge shift vector can be read off from the gauge background. In this way we can assert that in the blow down limit these models correspond to heterotic C^2/Z_2 and C^3/Z_3 orbifold models. (Only the Z_3 model with unbroken gauge group SO(32) cannot be reconstructed in blowup without torsion.) This is confirmed by computing the charged chiral spectra on the resolutions. The construction of these blowup models implies that the mismatch between type-I and heterotic models on T^6/Z_3 does not signal a complica...
van der Honing, Hannie S; Kieft, Henk; Emons, Anne Mie C; Ketelaar, Tijs
2012-03-01
In plant cells, actin filament bundles serve as tracks for myosin-dependent organelle movement and play a role in the organization of the cytoplasm. Although virtually all plant cells contain actin filament bundles, the role of the different actin-bundling proteins remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the actin-bundling protein villin in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We used Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion lines to generate a double mutant in which VILLIN2 (VLN2) and VLN3 transcripts are truncated. Leaves, stems, siliques, and roots of vln2 vln3 double mutant plants are twisted, which is caused by local differences in cell length. Microscopy analysis of the actin cytoskeleton showed that in these double mutant plants, thin actin filament bundles are more abundant while thick actin filament bundles are virtually absent. In contrast to full-length VLN3, truncated VLN3 lacking the headpiece region does not rescue the phenotype of the vln2 vln3 double mutant. Our results show that villin is involved in the generation of thick actin filament bundles in several cell types and suggest that these bundles are involved in the regulation of coordinated cell expansion.
An Alternative Bundle-to-Bundle Suturing Technique for Repairing Fresh Achilles Tendon Rupture.
Zhao, Jingjing; Yu, Bin; Xie, Ming; Huang, Ruokun; Xiao, Kai
2016-01-01
The main concern about conventional Achilles tendon repair surgical techniques is how to maintain the initial strength of the ruptured Achilles tendon through complicated suturing methods. The primary surgical problem lies in the properties of the soft tissue; the deterioration of the Achilles tendon, especially in its elasticity; and the surface lubricity of the local tissues. In the present study, we describe an innovative bundle-to-bundle suturing method that addresses these potential problems. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Estimation of Single-fibre Tensile Properties from the Bundle Tensile Curve of Polyester Fibres
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于伟东
2004-01-01
Fibre bundle tensile curves can be used to characterise fibre processing properties and end-use performance directly and to predict single-fibre properties in theory. In this paper, the tensile behaviour of polyester fibre-bundles has been analysed in characteristic values and diagramming. The characteristic distributions which include the symmetry distribution on right part, SRBS′ (e), on left part, SLBS′(e) and the curve on base-line modification, MBS′ (e),based on the modulus distribution, BS′ (e), as well as the frequency density function of broken fibres, B′ (e), have been derived from the tail of bundle tensile curves. The theoretical and measured results show that the most important curves are MBS′ ( e ) and B′ ( e ) and can be used to estimate the breaking-extension distribution of single fibres. Especially for MBS′(e), the modulus distribution can accurately characterize single-fibre tensile properties and is no limitation as the calculation of B′(e) because the bundle specific stress Y(e) of no fibre breaking at extension e should be found at first.
Section Extension from Hyperbolic Geometry of Punctured Disk and Holomorphic Family of Flat Bundles
Siu, Yum-Tong
2011-01-01
We study the problem of constructing pluricanonical sections from flatly twisted pluricanonical sections and prove that, for a compact complex algebraic manifold X and positive integers m and q, the subvariety of flat line bundles F on X such that the complex dimension of the space of all holomorphic sections of the sum of F and the m-canonical line bundle of X is at least q is regular and is a finite union of translates of abelian subvarieties by torsion elements in the abelian variety of all flat line bundles on X. The proof uses a new extension result of Ohsawa-Takegoshi type, where the curvature current is not even semi-positive but with only mild controllable negativity. We also give a new approach to the original theorem of Ohsawa-Takegoshi. Our approach considers the origin of the open unit 1-disk as the infinite point of the hyperbolic geometry of the punctured open unit 1-disk and reduces the original theorem of Ohsawa-Takegoshi to just a simple straightforward application of the standard method of c...
Amplitude death of coupled hair bundles with stochastic channel noise
Kim, Kyung-Joong
2014-01-01
Hair cells conduct auditory transduction in vertebrates. In lower vertebrates such as frogs and turtles, due to the active mechanism in hair cells, hair bundles(stereocilia) can be spontaneously oscillating or quiescent. Recently, the amplitude death phenomenon has been proposed [K.-H. Ahn, J. R. Soc. Interface, {\\bf 10}, 20130525 (2013)] as a mechanism for auditory transduction in frog hair-cell bundles, where sudden cessation of the oscillations arises due to the coupling between non-identical hair bundles. The gating of the ion channel is intrinsically stochastic due to the stochastic nature of the configuration change of the channel. The strength of the noise due to the channel gating can be comparable to the thermal Brownian noise of hair bundles. Thus, we perform stochastic simulations of the elastically coupled hair bundles. In spite of stray noisy fluctuations due to its stochastic dynamics, our simulation shows the transition from collective oscillation to amplitude death as inter-bundle coupling str...
Monopoles and Modifications of Bundles over Elliptic Curves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey M. Levin
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Modifications of bundles over complex curves is an operation that allows one to construct a new bundle from a given one. Modifications can change a topological type of bundle. We describe the topological type in terms of the characteristic classes of the bundle. Being applied to the Higgs bundles modifications establish an equivalence between different classical integrable systems. Following Kapustin and Witten we define the modifications in terms of monopole solutions of the Bogomolny equation. We find the Dirac monopole solution in the case R × (elliptic curve. This solution is a three-dimensional generalization of the Kronecker series. We give two representations for this solution and derive a functional equation for it generalizing the Kronecker results. We use it to define Abelian modifications for bundles of arbitrary rank. We also describe non-Abelian modifications in terms of theta-functions with characteristic.
A Tannakian approach to dimensional reduction of principal bundles
Álvarez-Cónsul, Luis; García-Prada, Oscar
2016-01-01
Let $P$ be a parabolic subgroup of a connected simply connected complex semisimple Lie group $G$. Given a compact K\\"ahler manifold $X$, the dimensional reduction of $G$-equivariant holomorphic vector bundles over $X\\times G/P$ was carried out by the first and third authors. This raises the question of dimensional reduction of holomorphic principal bundles over $X\\times G/P$. The method used for equivariant vector bundles does not generalize to principal bundles. In this paper, we adapt to equivariant principal bundles the Tannakian approach of Nori, to describe the dimensional reduction of $G$-equivariant principal bundles over $X\\times G/P$, and to establish a Hitchin--Kobayashi type correspondence. In order to be able to apply the Tannakian theory, we need to assume that $X$ is a complex projective manifold.
The avalanche process of the fiber bundle model with defect
Hao, Da-Peng; Tang, Gang; Xia, Hui; Xun, Zhi-Peng; Han, Kui
2017-04-01
In order to explore the impacts of defect on the tensile fracture process of materials, the fiber bundle model with defect is constructed based on the classical fiber bundle model. In the fiber bundle model with defect, the two key parameters are the mean size and the density of defects. In both uniform and Weibull threshold distributions, the mean size and density all bring impacts on the threshold distribution of fibers. By means of analytical approximation and numerical simulation, we show that the two key parameters of the model have substantial effects on the failure process of the bundle. From macroscopic view, the defect described by the altering of threshold distribution of fibers will has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the bundle. While in microscopic scale, the statistical properties of the model are still harmonious with the classical fiber bundle model.
Cosmic multimuon bundles detected by DELPHI
Rídky, J
2004-01-01
The DELPHI detector located at LEP accelerator has been used also to measure multimuon bundles originated from cosmic ray interactions. Two subdetectors-hadron calorimeter and time projection chamber, are used for this purpose. The 1999 and 2000 data are analyzed over wide range of multiplicities. The multiplicity distribution is compared with prediction of Monte Carlo simulation based on CORSIKA/QGSJET. The Monte-Carlo does not describe the large multiplicity part of data. Even the extreme assumption on the cosmic ray composition (pure iron nuclei) hardly predicts comparable number of high-multiplicity events.
Differential geometry of complex vector bundles
Kobayashi, Shoshichi
2014-01-01
Holomorphic vector bundles have become objects of interest not only to algebraic and differential geometers and complex analysts but also to low dimensional topologists and mathematical physicists working on gauge theory. This book, which grew out of the author's lectures and seminars in Berkeley and Japan, is written for researchers and graduate students in these various fields of mathematics. Originally published in 1987. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeto
Higher order mechanics on graded bundles
Bruce, Andrew James; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz
2015-05-01
In this paper we develop a geometric approach to higher order mechanics on graded bundles in both, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, via the recently discovered weighted algebroids. We present the corresponding Tulczyjew triple for this higher order situation and derive in this framework the phase equations from an arbitrary (also singular) Lagrangian or Hamiltonian, as well as the Euler-Lagrange equations. As important examples, we geometrically derive the classical higher order Euler-Lagrange equations and analogous reduced equations for invariant higher order Lagrangians on Lie groupoids.
Bundling Products and Services Through Modularization Strategies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi;
2012-01-01
Modularity has been recognized as a powerful tool in improving the efficiency and management of product design and manufacturing. However, the integrated view on covering both, product and service modularity for product-service systems (PSS), is under researched. Therefore, in this paper our...... objective is to contribute to the PSS modularity. Thus, we describe configurations of PSSs and the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies. So far there have not been tools to analyze and determine the correct combinations of degrees of product and service modularities....
Compression of a bundle of light rays.
Marcuse, D
1971-03-01
The performance of ray compression devices is discussed on the basis of a phase space treatment using Liouville's theorem. It is concluded that the area in phase space of the input bundle of rays is determined solely by the required compression ratio and possible limitations on the maximum ray angle at the output of the device. The efficiency of tapers and lenses as ray compressors is approximately equal. For linear tapers and lenses the input angle of the useful rays must not exceed the compression ratio. The performance of linear tapers and lenses is compared to a particular ray compressor using a graded refractive index distribution.
Vector bundles on complex projective spaces
Okonek, Christian; Spindler, Heinz
1980-01-01
This expository treatment is based on a survey given by one of the authors at the Séminaire Bourbaki in November 1978 and on a subsequent course held at the University of Göttingen. It is intended to serve as an introduction to the topical question of classification of holomorphic vector bundles on complex projective spaces, and can easily be read by students with a basic knowledge of analytic or algebraic geometry. Short supplementary sections describe more advanced topics, further results, and unsolved problems.
Depth-Dependent Halos : Illustrative Rendering of Dense Line Data
Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Henk; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Isenberg, Tobias
2009-01-01
We present a technique for the illustrative rendering of 3D line data at interactive frame rates. We create depth-dependent halos around lines to emphasize tight line bundles while less structured lines are de-emphasized. Moreover, the depth-dependent halos combined with depth cueing via line width
Heat transfer in bundles of finned tubes in crossflow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stasiulevicius, J.; Skrinska, A.; Zukauskas, A.; Hewitt, G.F.
1986-01-01
This book provides correlations of heat transfer and hydraulic data for bundles of finned tubes in crossflow at high Reynolds numbers. Results of studies of the effectiveness of the fin, local, and mean heat transfer coefficients are presented. The effect of geometric parameters of the fins and of the location of tubes in the bundle on heat transfer and hydraulic drag are described. The resistance of the finned tube bundles under study and other factors are examined.
Coolability of ballooned VVER bundles with pellet relocation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hozer, Z.; Nagy, I.; Windberg, P.; Vimi, A. [AEKI, P.O.box 49, Budapest, H-1525 (Hungary)
2009-06-15
During a LOCA incident the high pressure in the fuel rods can lead to clad ballooning and the debris of fuel pellets can fill the enlarged volume. The evaluation of the role of these two effects on the coolability of VVER type fuel bundles was the main objective of the experimental series. The tests were carried out in the modified configuration of the CODEX facility. 19-rod electrically heated VVER type bundle was used. The test section was heated up to 600 deg. C in steam atmosphere and the bundle was quenched from the bottom by cold water. Three series of tests were performed: 1. Reference bundle with fuel rods without ballooning, with uniform power profile. 2. Bundle with 86% blockage rate and with uniform power profile. The blockage rate was reached by superimposing hollow sleeves on all 19 fuel rods. 3. Bundle with 86% blockage rate and with local power peak in the ballooned area. The local power peak was produced by the local reduction the cross section of the internal heater bar inside of the fuel rods. In all three bundle configurations three different cooling water flow-rates were applied. The experimental results confirmed that a VVER bundle with even 86% blockage rate remains coolable after a LOCA event. The ballooned section creates some obstacles for the cooling water during reflood of the bundle, but this effect causes only a short delay in the cooling down of the hot fuel rods. Earlier tests on the coolability of ballooned bundles were performed only with Western type bundles with square fuel lattice. The present test series was the first confirmation of the coolability of VVER type bundles with triangular lattice. The accumulation of fuel pellet debris in the ballooned volume results in a local power peak, which leads to further slowing down of quench front. The first tests indicated that the effect of local power peak was less significant on the delay of cooling down than the effect of ballooning. (authors)
Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles
Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.
2016-01-01
Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.
Isothermal microcalorimetry, a tool for probing SWNT bundles.
Marquis, Renaud; Greco, Carla; Schultz, Patrick; Meunier, Stéphane; Mioskowski, Charles
2009-11-01
The bundling state of several dry single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) samples is compared using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). So as to get different dry samples with various bundling states, the pristine SWNTs were pretreated with a solution of an aromatic amphiphile with or without sonication, washed and dried before being studied by IMC. The bundling state of the different SWNT samples, which was first analyzed by TEM, was then correlated to the obtained IMC data thanks to the interpretation of the observed energy transfer phenomena. From our results, IMC appears to be an interesting technique for the surface probing of dry SWNT samples, and herein for the evaluation of the bundling state.
Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)
Treatment of ras-induced cancers by the F-actin-bundling drug MKT-077.
Tikoo, A; Shakri, R; Connolly, L; Hirokawa, Y; Shishido, T; Bowers, B; Ye, L H; Kohama, K; Simpson, R J; Maruta, H
2000-01-01
A rhodacyanine dye called MKT-077 has shown a highly selective toxicity toward several distinct human malignant cell lines, including bladder carcinoma EJ, and has been subjected to clinical trials for cancer therapy. In the pancreatic carcinoma cell line CRL-1420, but not in normal African green monkey kidney cell line CV-1, it is selectively accumulated in mitochondria. However, both the specific oncogenes responsible for its selective toxicity toward cancer cells, and its target proteins in these cancer cells, still remain to be determined. This study was conducted using normal and ras-transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to determine whether oncogenic ras mutants such as v-Ha-ras are responsible for the selective toxicity of MKT-077 and also to identify its targets, using its derivative called "compound 1" as a specific ligand. We have found that v-Ha-ras is responsible for the selective toxicity of MKT-077 in both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we have identified and affinity purified at least two distinct proteins of 45 kD (p45) and 75 kD (p75), which bind MKT-077 in v-Ha-ras-transformed cells but not in parental normal cells. Microsequencing analysis has revealed that the p45 is a mixture of beta- and gamma-actin, whereas the p75 is HSC70, a constitutive member of the Hsp70 heat shock adenosine triphosphatase family, which inactivates the tumor suppressor p53. MKT-077 binds actin directly, bundles actin filaments by cross-linking, and blocks membrane ruffling. Like a few F-actin-bundling proteins such as HS1, alpha-actinin, and vinculin as well as F-actin cappers such as tensin and chaetoglobosin K (CK), the F-actin-bundling drug MKT-077 suppresses ras transformation by blocking membrane ruffling. These findings suggest that other selective F-actin-bundling/capping compounds are also potentially useful for the chemotherapy of ras-associated cancers.
LVRF fuel bundle manufacture for Bruce - project update
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pant, A. [Zircatec Precision Industries, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)
2005-07-01
In response to the Power Uprate program at Bruce Power, Zircatec has committed to introduce, by Spring 2006 a new manufacturing line for the production of 43 element Bruce LVRF bundles containing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) with a centre pin of blended dysprosia/urania (BDU). This is a new fuel design and is the first change in fuel design since the introduction of the current 37 element fuel over 20 years ago. Introduction of this new line has involved the introduction of significant changes to an environment that is not used to rapid changes with significant impact. At ZPI we have been able to build on our innovative capabilities in new fuel manufacturing, the strength and experience of our core team, and on our prevailing management philosophy of 'support the doer'. The presentation will discuss some of the novel aspects of this fuel introduction and the mix of innovative and classical project management methods that are being used to ensure that project deliverables are being met. Supporting presentations will highlight some of the issues in more detail. (author)
Bundled capillary electrophoresis using microstructured fibres.
Rogers, Benjamin; Gibson, Graham T T; Oleschuk, Richard D
2011-01-01
Joule heating, arising from the electric current passing through the capillary, causes many undesired effects in CE that ultimately result in band broadening. The use of narrow-bore capillaries helps to solve this problem as smaller cross-sectional area results in decreased Joule heating and the rate of heat dissipation is increased by the larger surface-to-volume ratio. Issues arising from such small capillaries, such as poor detection sensitivity, low loading capacity and high flow-induced backpressure (complicating capillary loading) can be avoided by using a bundle of small capillaries operating simultaneously that share buffer reservoirs. Microstructured fibres, originally designed as waveguides in the telecommunication industry, are essentially a bundle of parallel ∼5 μm id channels that extend the length of a fibre having otherwise similar dimensions to conventional CE capillaries. This work presents the use of microstructured fibres for CZE, taking advantage of their relatively high surface-to-volume ratio and the small individual size of each channel to effect highly efficient separations, particularly for dye-labelled peptides.
Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kracík Petr
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes’ interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.
Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle
Kracík, Petr; Pospíšil, Jiří
2016-03-01
This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes' interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.
Student assessment of teaching effectiveness of "bundle of changes"-A paired, controlled trial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seema Kalra
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Background : Inching toward optimum patient safety by training personnel is the prime aim of the ongoing medical education. Aims : To assess whether lectures targeted to improve quality care in ICU could improve ICU practitioners′ knowledge levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching. Settings and Design : In this paired controlled trial, 50 ICU practitioners, i.e., anesthesia and medicine residents and nursing staff of our hospital attended a series of four lectures. Materials and Methods : Participants enrolled in the study attended lectures on "bundles of changes" in ICU, namely, introduction, ventilator bundle, central line bundle, and catheter-related blood stream infections and severe sepsis bundle. They were given a questionnaire of 15 multiple choice questions prior to and after the lectures. We evaluated their immediate knowledge acquisition and retention recall. Subsequently, they evaluated the effectiveness of the teaching programme by a questionnaire of 10 multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis used: Data for statistical analysis were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS-Pc 11.5 version software. Results : Fifty study participants completed all three questionnaires. There was an increase in the overall mean score in the post-lecture test (4.58 + 1.51 SD (P < 0.001. Overall mean score increased significantly from 8.30 + 1.34 SD in THE pre-lecture test - to 12.02 + 1.61 SD in the postlecture re-test (3.72 + 1.39 SD (P < 0.001. In the evaluation of teaching effectiveness 88% respondents agreed to most of the questions, signifying the effectiveness of the lectures. However, there were 10% who disagreed to the questions and only 2% strongly disagreed to all the questions. Conclusions : Teaching programmes such as the "bundle of changes" are effective in improving immediate knowledge acquisition and retention recall of the participants if designed keeping the target audience in mind.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nichita, E., E-mail: Eleodor.Nichita@uoit.ca; Haroon, J., E-mail: Jawad.Haroon@uoit.ca
2016-10-15
Highlights: • A 37-element fuel bundle modified for {sup 99}Mo production in CANDU reactors is presented. • The modified bundle is neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard bundle. • The modified bundle satisfies all safety criteria satisfied by the standard bundle. - Abstract: {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used radioisotope in diagnostic nuclear medicine, results from the radioactive decay of {sup 99}Mo which is currently being produced at various research reactors around the globe. In this study, the potential use of CANDU power reactors for the production of {sup 99}Mo is investigated. A modified 37-element fuel bundle, suitable for the production of {sup 99}Mo in existing CANDU-type reactors is proposed. The new bundle is specifically designed to be neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard 37-element CANDU fuel bundle in normal, steady-state operation and, at the same time, be able to produce significant quantities of {sup 99}Mo when irradiated in a CANDU reactor. The proposed bundle design uses fuel pins consisting of a depleted-uranium centre surrounded by a thin layer of low-enriched uranium. The new molybdenum-producing bundle is analyzed using the lattice transport code DRAGON and the diffusion code DONJON. The proposed design is shown to produce 4081 six-day Curies of {sup 99}Mo activity per bundle when irradiated in the peak-power channel of a CANDU core, while maintaining the necessary reactivity and power rating limits. The calculated {sup 99}Mo yield corresponds to approximately one third of the world weekly demand. A production rate of ∼3 bundles per week can meet the global demand of {sup 99}Mo.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masataka Deie
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL injuries are not rare in acute knee injuries, and several recent anatomical studies of the PCL and reconstructive surgical techniques have generated improved patient results. Now, we have evaluated PCL reconstructions performed by either the single-bundle or double-bundle technique in a patient group followed up retrospectively for more than 10 years. Methods. PCL reconstructions were conducted using the single-bundle (27 cases or double-bundle (13 cases method from 1999 to 2002. The mean age at surgery was 34 years in the single-bundle group and 32 years in the double-bundle group. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 years. Patients were evaluated by Lysholm scoring, the gravity sag view, and knee arthrometry. Results. The Lysholm score after surgery was 89.1±5.6 points for the single-bundle group and 91.9±4.5 points for the double-bundle group. There was no significant difference between the methods in the side-to-side differences by gravity sag view or knee arthrometer evaluation, although several cases in both groups showed a side-to-side difference exceeding 5 mm by the latter evaluation method. Conclusions. We found no significant difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstructions during more than 10 years of follow-up.
Safety assessment for the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles with respect to the 37-element fuel bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suk, H. C.; Lim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)
1999-11-01
The KAERI and AECL have jointly developed an advanced CANDU fuel, called CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle. CANFLEX 43-element bundle has some improved features of increased operating margin and enhanced safety compared to the existing 37-element bundle. Since CANFLEX fuel bundle is designed to be compatible with the CANDU-6 reactor design, the behaviour in the thermalhydraulic system will be nearly identical with 37-element bundle. But due to different element design and linear element power distribution between the two bundles, it is expected that CANFLEX fuel behaviour would be different from the behaviour of the 37-element fuel. Therefore, safety assessments on the design basis accidents which result if fuel failures are performed. For all accidents selected, it is observed that the loading of CANFLEX bundle in an existing CANDU-6 reactor would not worsen the reactor safety. It is also predicted that fission product release for CANFLEX fuel bundle generally is lower than that for 37-element bundle. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)
Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for thermal imaging.
Gal, Udi; Harrington, James; Ben-David, Moshe; Bledt, Carlos; Syzonenko, Nicholas; Gannot, Israel
2010-09-01
There has been very little work done in the past to extend the wavelength range of fiber image bundles to the IR range. This is due, in part, to the lack of IR transmissive fibers with optical and mechanical properties analogous to the oxide glass fibers currently employed in the visible fiber bundles. Our research is aimed at developing high-resolution hollow-core coherent IR fiber bundles for transendoscopic infrared imaging. We employ the hollow glass waveguide (HGW) technology that was used successfully to make single-HGWs with Ag/AgI thin film coatings to form coherent bundles for IR imaging. We examine the possibility of developing endoscopic systems to capture thermal images using hollow waveguide fiber bundles adjusted to the 8-10?mum spectral range and investigate the applicability of such systems. We carried out a series of measurements in order to characterize the optical properties of the fiber bundles. These included the attenuation, resolution, and temperature response. We developed theoretical models and simulation tools that calculate the light propagation through HGW bundles, and which can be used to calculate the optical properties of the fiber bundles. Finally, the HGW fiber bundles were used to transmit thermal images of various heated objects; the results were compared with simulation results. The experimental results are encouraging, show an improvement in the resolution and thermal response of the HGW fiber bundles, and are consistent with the theoretical results. Nonetheless, additional improvements in the attenuation of the bundles are required in order to be able to use this technology for medical applications.
Correction of Airborne Pushbroom Images Orientation Using Bundle Adjustment of Frame Images
Barbieux, K.; Constantin, D.; Merminod, B.
2016-06-01
To compute hyperspectral orthophotos of an area, one may proceed like for standard RGB orthophotos : equip an aircraft or a drone with the appropriate camera, a GPS and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The position and attitude data from the navigation sensors, together with the collected images, can be input to a bundle adjustment which refines the estimation of the parameters and allows to create 3D models or orthophotos of the scene. But most of the hyperspectral cameras are pushbrooms sensors : they acquire lines of pixels. The bundle adjustment identifies tie points (using their 2D neighbourhoods) between different images to stitch them together. This is impossible when the input images are lines. To get around this problem, we propose a method that can be used when both a frame RGB camera and a hyperspectral pushbroom camera are used during the same flight. We first use the bundle adjustment theory to obtain corrected navigation parameters for the RGB camera. Then, assuming a small boresight between the RGB camera and the navigation sensors, we can estimate this boresight as well as the corrected position and attitude parameters for the navigation sensors. Finally, supposing that the boresight between these sensors and the pushbroom camera is constant during the flight, we can retrieve it by matching manually corresponding pairs of points between the current projection and a reference. Comparison between the direct georeferencing and the georeferencing with our method on three flights performed during the Leman-Baikal project shows great improvement of the ground accuracy.
Non-abelian higher gauge theory and categorical bundle
Viennot, David
2012-01-01
A gauge theory is associated with a principal bundle endowed with a connection permitting to define horizontal lifts of paths. The horizontal lifts of surfaces cannot be defined into a principal bundle structure. An higher gauge theory is an attempt to generalize the bundle structure in order to describe horizontal lifts of surfaces. A such attempt is particularly difficult for the non-abelian case. Some structures have been proposed to realize this goal (twisted bundle, gerbes with connection, bundle gerbe, 2-bundle). Each of them uses a category in place of the total space manifold of the usual principal bundle structure. Some of them replace also the structure group by a category (more precisely a Lie crossed module viewed as a category). But the base space remains still a simple manifold (possibly viewed as a trivial category with only identity arrows). We propose a new principal categorical bundle structure, with a Lie crossed module as structure groupoid, but with a base space belonging to a bigger clas...
Presenting Lexical Bundles for Explicit Noticing with Schematic Linguistic Representation
Thomson, Haidee Elizabeth
2016-01-01
Lexical bundles are essential for fluency, but their incompleteness is a stumbling block for learners. In this study, two presentation methods to increase awareness of lexical bundles through explicit noticing are explored and compared with incidental exposure. The three conditions in this study were as follows: noticing with schematic linguistic…
Smooth Bundling of Large Streaming and Sequence Graphs
Hurter, C.; Ersoy, O.; Telea, A.
2013-01-01
Dynamic graphs are increasingly pervasive in modern information systems. However, understanding how a graph changes in time is difficult. We present here two techniques for simplified visualization of dynamic graphs using edge bundles. The first technique uses a recent image-based graph bundling met
Helical twist controls the thickness of F-actin bundles
Claessens, M.M.A.E.; Semmrich, C.; Ramos, L.; Bausch, A.R.
2008-01-01
In the presence of condensing agents such as nonadsorbing polymer, multivalent counter ions, and specific bundling proteins, chiral biopolymers typically form bundles with a finite thickness, rather than phase-separating into a polymer-rich phase. Although short-range repulsive interactions or geome
Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing
Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul
2010-01-01
This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…
Lexical Bundles: Facilitating University "Talk" in Group Discussions
Heng, Chan Swee; Kashiha, Hadi; Tan, Helen
2014-01-01
Group discussion forms an integral language experience for most language learners, providing them with an opportunity to express themselves in a naturalistic setting. Multi-word expressions are commonly used and one of them is lexical bundles. Lexical bundles are types of extended collocations that occur more commonly than we expect; they are…
Vector bundles of rank 2 computing Clifford indices
Lange, H
2010-01-01
Clifford indices of vector bundles on algebraic curves were introduced in a previous paper of the authors. In this paper we study bundles of rank 2 which compute these Clifford indices. This is of particular interest in the light of recently discovered counterexamples to a conjecture of Mercat.
On the general elephant conjecture for Mori conic bundles
Prokhorov, Yu G
1996-01-01
Let $f:X\\to S$ be an extremal contraction from a threefolds with terminal singularities onto a surface (so called Mori conic bundle). We study some particular cases of such contractions: quotients of usual conic bundles and index two contractions. Assuming Reid's general elephants conjecture we also obtain a rough classification. We present many examples.
Subanalytic Bundles and Tubular Neighbourhoods of Zero-Loci
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vishwambhar Pati
2003-08-01
We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle (with a finite dimensional vector space of sections) on a subanalytic subset of a real analytic manifold , and prove that when is compact, there is a Baire subset of sections in whose zero-loci in have tubular neighbourhoods, homeomorphic to the restriction of the given bundle to these zero-loci.
Computational imaging through a fiber-optic bundle
Lodhi, Muhammad A.; Dumas, John Paul; Pierce, Mark C.; Bajwa, Waheed U.
2017-05-01
Compressive sensing (CS) has proven to be a viable method for reconstructing high-resolution signals using low-resolution measurements. Integrating CS principles into an optical system allows for higher-resolution imaging using lower-resolution sensor arrays. In contrast to prior works on CS-based imaging, our focus in this paper is on imaging through fiber-optic bundles, in which manufacturing constraints limit individual fiber spacing to around 2 μm. This limitation essentially renders fiber-optic bundles as low-resolution sensors with relatively few resolvable points per unit area. These fiber bundles are often used in minimally invasive medical instruments for viewing tissue at macro and microscopic levels. While the compact nature and flexibility of fiber bundles allow for excellent tissue access in-vivo, imaging through fiber bundles does not provide the fine details of tissue features that is demanded in some medical situations. Our hypothesis is that adapting existing CS principles to fiber bundle-based optical systems will overcome the resolution limitation inherent in fiber-bundle imaging. In a previous paper we examined the practical challenges involved in implementing a highly parallel version of the single-pixel camera while focusing on synthetic objects. This paper extends the same architecture for fiber-bundle imaging under incoherent illumination and addresses some practical issues associated with imaging physical objects. Additionally, we model the optical non-idealities in the system to get lower modelling errors.
Parabolic stable Higgs bundles over complete noncompact Riemann surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李嘉禹; 王友德
1999-01-01
Let M be an open Riemann surface with a finite set of punctures, a complete Poincar(?)-like metric is introduced near the punctures and the equivalence between the stability of an indecomposable parabolic Higgs bundle, and the existence of a Hermitian-Einstein metric on the bundle is established.
Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing
Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul
2010-01-01
This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…
An integral Riemann-Roch theorem for surface bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Ib Henning
2010-01-01
This paper is a response to a conjecture by T. Akita about an integral Riemann–Roch theorem for surface bundles.......This paper is a response to a conjecture by T. Akita about an integral Riemann–Roch theorem for surface bundles....
On the Classification of Complex Vector Bundles of Stable Rank
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Constantin Bǎnicǎ; Mihai Putinar
2006-08-01
One describes, using a detailed analysis of Atiyah–Hirzebruch spectral sequence, the tuples of cohomology classes on a compact, complex manifold, corresponding to the Chern classes of a complex vector bundle of stable rank. This classification becomes more effective on generalized flag manifolds, where the Lie algebra formalism and concrete integrability conditions describe in constructive terms the Chern classes of a vector bundle.
AgInCd control rod failure in the QUENCH-13 bundle test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sepold, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung, Nuclear Safety Program (NUKLEAR), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)], E-mail: leo.sepold@imf.fzk.de; Lind, T. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Thermalhydralics (LTH), Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety (NES), 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Csordas, A. Pinter [Fuel Materials Department, HAS KFKI AEKI, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Stegmaier, U.; Steinbrueck, M.; Stuckert, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung, Nuclear Safety Program (NUKLEAR), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)
2009-09-15
The QUENCH off-pile experiments performed at the Karlsruhe Research Center are to investigate the high-temperature behavior of Light Water Reactor (LWR) core materials under transient conditions and in particular the hydrogen source term resulting from the water injection into an uncovered LWR core. The typical LWR-type QUENCH test bundle, which is electrically heated, consists of 21 fuel rod simulators with a total length of approximately 2.5 m. The Zircaloy-4 rod claddings and the grid spacers are identical to those used in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) whereas the fuel is represented by ZrO{sub 2} pellets. In the QUENCH-13 experiment the single unheated fuel rod simulator in the center of the test bundle was replaced by a PWR-type control rod. The QUENCH-13 experiment consisting of pre-oxidation, transient, and quench water injection at the bottom of the test section investigated the effect of an AgInCd/stainless steel/Zircaloy-4 control rod assembly on early-phase bundle degradation and on reflood behavior. Furthermore, in the frame of the EU 6th Framework Network of Excellence SARNET, release and transport of aerosols of a failed absorber rod were to be studied in QUENCH-13, which was accomplished with help of aerosol measurements performed by PSI-Switzerland and AEKI-Hungary. Control rod failure was initiated by eutectic interaction of steel cladding and Zircaloy-4 guide tube and was indicated at about 1415 K by axial peak absorber and bundle temperature responses and additionally by the on-line aerosol monitoring system. Significant releases of aerosols and melt relocation from the control rod were observed at an axial peak bundle temperature of 1650 K. At a maximum bundle temperature of 1820 K reflood from the bottom was initiated with cold water at a flooding rate of 52 g/s. There was no noticeable temperature escalation during quenching. This corresponds to the small amount of about 1 g in hydrogen production during the quench phase (compared to 42 g
Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.
Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang
2013-01-01
This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.
Habibi, Somayeh
2011-01-01
Let $G$ be a reductive algebraic group over a perfect field $k$ and $\\mathcal{G}$ a $G$-bundle over a scheme $X/k$. The main aim of this article is to study the motive associated with $\\mathcal{G}$, inside the Veovodsky Motivic categories. We consider the case that $\\charakt k=0$ (resp. $\\charakt k\\geq 0$), the motive associated to $X$ is geometrically mixed Tate (resp. geometrically cellular) and $\\mathcal{G}$ is locally trivial for the Zariski (resp. \\'etale) topology on $X$ and show that the motive of $\\mathcal{G}$ is a geometrically mixed Tate motive. Moreover for a general $X$ we construct a filtration on the motive associated to $\\mathcal{G}$ in terms of weight polytopes. Along the way we give some applications and examples.
Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure
Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas
2016-03-01
Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting.
Artificial ciliary bundles with nano fiber tip links
Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael
2015-01-01
Mechanosensory ciliary bundles in fishes are the inspiration for carefully engineered artificial flow sensors. We report the development of a new class of ultrasensitive MEMS flow sensors that mimic the intricate morphology of the ciliary bundles, including the stereocilia, tip links, and the cupula, and thereby achieve threshold detection limits that match the biological example. An artificial ciliary bundle is achieved by fabricating closely-spaced arrays of polymer micro-pillars with gradiating heights. Tip links that form the fundamental sensing elements are realized through electrospinning aligned PVDF piezoelectric nano-fibers that link the distal tips of the polymer cilia. An optimized synthesis of hyaluronic acid-methacrylic anhydride hydrogel that results in properties close to the biological cupula, together with drop-casting method are used to form the artificial cupula that encapsulates the ciliary bundle. In testing, fluid drag force causes the ciliary bundle to slide, stretching the flexible nan...
HORIZONTAL LAPLACE OPERATOR IN REAL FINSLER VECTOR BUNDLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A vector bundle F over the tangent bundle TM of a manifold M is said to be a Finsler vector bundle if it is isomorphic to the pull-back π*E of a vector bundle E over M([1]). In this article the authors study the h-Laplace operator in Finsler vector bundles.An h-Laplace operator is defined, first for functions and then for horizontal Finsler forms on E. Using the h-Laplace operator, the authors define the h-harmonic function and h-harmonic horizontal Finsler vector fields, and furthermore prove some integral formulas for the h-Laplace operator, horizontal Finsler vector fields, and scalar fields on E.
Bundles over Quantum RealWeighted Projective Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Brzeziński
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The algebraic approach to bundles in non-commutative geometry and the definition of quantum real weighted projective spaces are reviewed. Principal U(1-bundles over quantum real weighted projective spaces are constructed. As the spaces in question fall into two separate classes, the negative or odd class that generalises quantum real projective planes and the positive or even class that generalises the quantum disc, so do the constructed principal bundles. In the negative case the principal bundle is proven to be non-trivial and associated projective modules are described. In the positive case the principal bundles turn out to be trivial, and so all the associated modules are free. It is also shown that the circle (coactions on the quantum Seifert manifold that define quantum real weighted projective spaces are almost free.
A geometric approach to noncommutative principal torus bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Stefan
2013-01-01
for noncommutative algebras and say that a dynamical system (A, 핋n,α) is called a noncommutative principal 핋n-bundle, if localization leads to a trivial noncommutative principal 핋n-bundle. We prove that this approach extends the classical theory of principal torus bundles and present a bunch of (nontrivial......A (smooth) dynamical system with transformation group 핋n is a triple (A, 핋n,α), consisting of a unital locally convex algebra A, the n-torus 핋n and a group homomorphism α:핋n→Aut(A), which induces a (smooth) continuous action of 핋n on A. In this paper, we present a new, geometrically oriented...... approach to the noncommutative geometry of principal torus bundles based on such dynamical systems. Our approach is inspired by the classical setting: In fact, after recalling the definition of a trivial noncommutative principal torus bundle, we introduce a convenient (smooth) localization method...
Morse theory for the space of Higgs G-bundles
Biswas, Indranil
2010-01-01
Fix a $C^\\infty$ principal $G$--bundle $E^0_G$ on a compact connected Riemann surface $X$, where $G$ is a connected complex reductive linear algebraic group. We consider the gradient flow of the Yang--Mills--Higgs functional on the cotangent bundle of the space of all smooth connections on $E^0_G$. We prove that this flow preserves the subset of Higgs $G$--bundles, and, furthermore, the flow emanating from any point of this subset has a limit. Given a Higgs $G$--bundle, we identify the limit point of the integral curve passing through it. These generalize the results of the second named author on Higgs vector bundles.
[Bundle-branch block depending on the heart rate].
Apostolov, L
1975-01-01
Five patients are reported, admitted to the hospital, with diseases predominantly of the cardio-vascular system. During the electrocardiographic examinations bundle branch block was established, depending on heart rate. It fluctuated within the physiological limits from 50 to 90/min. In three of the patients, the bundle branch block appeared with the quickening of the heart rate (tachycardia-depending bundle branch block) and in two of the patients--the bundle branch block appeared during the slowing down of the heart action and disappeared with its quickening (bradicardia-depending bundle branch block). A brief literature review is presented and attention is paid to the possible diagnostic errors and the treatment mode of those patients with cardiac tonic and antiarrhythmic medicaments.
Voltage- and calcium-dependent motility of saccular hair bundles
Quiñones, Patricia M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.; Bozovic, Dolores
2015-12-01
Active bundle motility, which is hypothesized to supply feedback for mechanical amplification of signals, is thought to enhance sensitivity and sharpen tuning in vestibular and auditory organs. To study active hair bundle motility, we combined high-speed camera recordings of bullfrog sacculi, which were mounted in a two-compartment chamber, and voltage-clamp of the hair cell membrane potential. Using this paradigm, we measured three types of bundle motions: 1) spontaneous oscillations which can be analyzed to measure the physiological operating range of the transduction channel; 2) a sustained quasi-static movement of the bundle that depends on membrane potential; and 3) a fast, transient and asymmetric movement that resets the bundle position and depends on changes in the membrane potential. These data support a role for both calcium and voltage in the transduction-channel function.
Superconductivity in an Inhomogeneous Bundle of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanotubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilya Grigorenko
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism for inhomogeneous systems, we have studied superconducting properties of a bundle of packed carbon nanotubes, making a triangular lattice in the bundle's transverse cross-section. The bundle consists of a mixture of metallic and doped semiconducting nanotubes, which have different critical transition temperatures. We investigate how a spatially averaged superconducting order parameter and the critical transition temperature depend on the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes in the bundle. Our simulations suggest that the superconductivity in the bundle will be suppressed when the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes will be less than 0.5, which is the percolation threshold for a two-dimensional triangular lattice.
CHF Enhancement of Advanced 37-Element Fuel Bundles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joo Hwan Park
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A standard 37-element fuel bundle (37S fuel bundle has been used in commercial CANDU reactors for over 40 years as a reference fuel bundle. Most CHF of a 37S fuel bundle have occurred at the elements arranged in the inner pitch circle for high flows and at the elements arranged in the outer pitch circle for low flows. It should be noted that a 37S fuel bundle has a relatively small flow area and high flow resistance at the peripheral subchannels of its center element compared to the other subchannels. The configuration of a fuel bundle is one of the important factors affecting the local CHF occurrence. Considering the CHF characteristics of a 37S fuel bundle in terms of CHF enhancement, there can be two approaches to enlarge the flow areas of the peripheral subchannels of a center element in order to enhance CHF of a 37S fuel bundle. To increase the center subchannel areas, one approach is the reduction of the diameter of a center element, and the other is an increase of the inner pitch circle. The former can increase the total flow area of a fuel bundle and redistributes the power density of all fuel elements as well as the CHF. On the other hand, the latter can reduce the gap between the elements located in the middle and inner pitch circles owing to the increasing inner pitch circle. This can also affect the enthalpy redistribution of the fuel bundle and finally enhance CHF or dry-out power. In this study, the above two approaches, which are proposed to enlarge the flow areas of the center subchannels, were considered to investigate the impact of the flow area changes of the center subchannels on the CHF enhancement as well as the thermal characteristics by applying a subchannel analysis method.
Schalk, S.
1999-01-01
In contrast to the neo-classical theory of Arrow and Debreu, a model of a private ownership economy is presented, in which production and consumption bundles are treated separately. Each of the two types of bundles is assumed to establish a con- vex cone. Production technologies can convert producti
Schalk, S.
1999-01-01
In contrast to the neo-classical theory of Arrow and Debreu, a model of a private ownership economy is presented, in which production and consumption bundles are treated separately. Each of the two types of bundles is assumed to establish a con- vex cone. Production technologies can convert
Bundling Actin Filaments From Membranes: Some Novel Players
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clément eThomas
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Progress in live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton has significantly extended our knowledge about the organization and dynamics of actin filaments near the plasma membrane of plant cells. Noticeably, two populations of filamentous structures can be distinguished. On the one hand, fine actin filaments which exhibit an extremely dynamic behavior basically characterized by fast polymerization and prolific severing events, a process referred to as actin stochastic dynamics. On the other hand, thick actin bundles which are composed of several filaments and which are comparatively more stable although they constantly remodel as well. There is evidence that the actin cytoskeleton plays critical roles in trafficking and signaling at both the cell cortex and organelle periphery but the exact contribution of actin bundles remains unclear. A common view is that actin bundles provide the long-distance tracks used by myosin motors to deliver their cargo to growing regions and accordingly play a particularly important role in cell polarization. However, several studies support that actin bundles are more than simple passive highways and display multiple and dynamic roles in the regulation of many processes, such as cell elongation, polar auxin transport, stomatal and chloroplast movement, and defense against pathogens. The list of identified plant actin-bundling proteins is ever expanding, supporting that plant cells shape structurally and functionally different actin bundles. Here I review the most recently characterized actin-bundling proteins, with a particular focus on those potentially relevant to membrane trafficking and/or signaling.
Bostelmann, J.; Heipke, C.
2016-06-01
The photogrammetric bundle adjustment of line scanner image data requires a precise description of the time-dependent image orientation. For this task exterior orientation parameters of discrete points are used to model position and viewing direction of a camera trajectory via polynomials. This paper investigates the influence of the distance between these orientation points on the quality of trajectory modeling. A new method adapts the distance along the trajectory to the available image information. Compared to a constant distance as used previously, a better reconstruction of the exterior orientation is possible, especially when image quality changes within a strip. In our research we use image strips of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), taken to map the Martian surface. Several experiments on the global image data set have been carried out to investigate how the bundle adjustment improves the image orientation, if the new method is employed. For evaluation the forward intersection errors of 3D points derived from HRSC images, as well as their remaining height differences to the MOLA DTM are used. In 13.5 % (515 of 3,828) of the image strips, taken during this ongoing mission over the last 12 years, high frequency image distortions were found. Bundle adjustment with a constant orientation point distance was able to reconstruct the orbit in 239 (46.4 %) cases. A variable orientation point distance increased this number to 507 (98.6 %).
Bondage Numbers of C4 Bundles over a Cycle Cn
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moo Young Sohn
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Graph bundles generalize the notion of covering graphs and graph products. Graph bundles have been applied in computer architecture and communication networks. The bondage number is an important parameter for measuring the vulnerability and stability of the network domination under link failure. The bondage number b(G of a graph G is the minimum number of edges whose removal enlarges the domination number. In this paper, we show that the bondage number of every C4 bundles over a cycle Cn (n≥4 is equal to 4.
The Born rule as structure of spectral bundles (extended abstract
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bertfried Fauser
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Topos approaches to quantum foundations are described in a unified way by means of spectral bundles, where the base space is a space of contexts and each fibre is its spectrum. Differences in variance are due to the bundle being a fibration or opfibration. Relative to this structure, the probabilistic predictions of the Born rule in finite dimensional settings are then described as a section of a bundle of valuations. The construction uses in an essential way the geometric nature of the valuation locale monad.
—Impact of Customer Knowledge Heterogeneity on Bundling Strategy
Amiya Basu; Padmal Vitharana
2009-01-01
We consider a marketer of components who can select one of three alternative pricing strategies: (1) a pure component strategy (i.e., the customer can only buy the components individually), (2) a pure bundling strategy (i.e., the components must be purchased together), or (3) a mixed bundling strategy (i.e., the customer may buy a component individually, or buy the bundle). We consider a market where customer knowledge of components varies and propose that a high-knowledge customer can determ...
Systematic evaluation of bundled SPC water for biomolecular simulations.
Gopal, Srinivasa M; Kuhn, Alexander B; Schäfer, Lars V
2015-04-07
In bundled SPC water models, the relative motion of groups of four water molecules is restrained by distance-dependent potentials. Bundled SPC models have been used in hybrid all-atom/coarse-grained (AA/CG) multiscale simulations, since they enable to couple atomistic SPC water with supra-molecular CG water models that effectively represent more than a single water molecule. In the present work, we systematically validated and critically tested bundled SPC water models as solvent for biomolecular simulations. To that aim, we investigated both thermodynamic and structural properties of various biomolecular systems through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Potentials of mean force of dimerization of pairs of amino acid side chains as well as hydration free energies of single side chains obtained with bundled SPC and standard (unrestrained) SPC water agree closely with each other and with experimental data. Decomposition of the hydration free energies into enthalpic and entropic contributions reveals that in bundled SPC, this favorable agreement of the free energies is due to a larger degree of error compensation between hydration enthalpy and entropy. The Ramachandran maps of Ala3, Ala5, and Ala7 peptides are similar in bundled and unrestrained SPC, whereas for the (GS)2 peptide, bundled water leads to a slight overpopulation of extended conformations. Analysis of the end-to-end distance autocorrelation times of the Ala5 and (GS)2 peptides shows that sampling in more viscous bundled SPC water is about two times slower. Pronounced differences between the water models were found for the structure of a coiled-coil dimer, which is instable in bundled SPC but not in standard SPC. In addition, the hydration of the active site of the serine protease α-chymotrypsin depends on the water model. Bundled SPC leads to an increased hydration of the active site region, more hydrogen bonds between water and catalytic triad residues, and a significantly slower exchange of water
Shatz, L F
2000-03-01
The relationship between size and shape of the hair bundle of a hair cell in the inner ear and its sensitivity at asymptotically high and low frequencies was determined, thereby extending the results of an analysis of hair bundle hydrodynamics in two dimensions (Freeman and Weiss, 1990. Hydrodynamic analysis of a two-dimensional model for micromechanical resonance of free-standing hair bundles. Hear. Res. 48, 37-68) to three dimensions. A hemispheroid was used to represent the hair bundle. The hemispheroid had a number of advantages: it could represent shapes that range from thin, pencil-like shapes, to wide, flat, disk-like shapes. Also analytic methods could be used in the high frequency range to obtain an exact solution to the equations of motion. In the low frequency range, where an approximate solution was found using boundary element methods, the sensitivity of the responses of hair cells was mainly proportional to the cube of the heights of their hair bundles, and at high frequencies, the sensitivity of the hair cells was mainly proportional to the inverse of their heights. An excellent match was obtained between measurements of sensitivity curves in the basillar papilla of the alligator and bobtail lizards and the model's predictions. These results also suggest why hair bundles of hair cells in vestibular organs which are sensitive to low frequencies have ranges of heights that are an order of magnitude larger than the range of heights of hair bundles of hair cells found in auditory organs.
A study of bacterial flagellar bundling.
Flores, Heather; Lobaton, Edgar; Méndez-Diez, Stefan; Tlupova, Svetlana; Cortez, Ricardo
2005-01-01
Certain bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), use multiple flagella often concentrated at one end of their bodies to induce locomotion. Each flagellum is formed in a left-handed helix and has a motor at the base that rotates the flagellum in a corkscrew motion. We present a computational model of the flagellar motion and their hydrodynamic interaction. The model is based on the equations of Stokes flow to describe the fluid motion. The elasticity of the flagella is modeled with a network of elastic springs while the motor is represented by a torque at the base of each flagellum. The fluid velocity due to the forces is described by regularized Stokeslets and the velocity due to the torques by the associated regularized rotlets. Their expressions are derived. The model is used to analyze the swimming motion of a single flagellum and of a group of three flagella in close proximity to one another. When all flagellar motors rotate counterclockwise, the hydrodynamic interaction can lead to bundling. We present an analysis of the flow surrounding the flagella. When at least one of the motors changes its direction of rotation, the same initial conditions lead to a tumbling behavior characterized by the separation of the flagella, changes in their orientation, and no net swimming motion. The analysis of the flow provides some intuition for these processes.
Nursing Care Management: Influence on Bundled Payments.
Lentz, Shaynie; Luther, Brenda
Fragmented and uncoordinated care is the third highest driver of U.S. healthcare costs. Although less than 10% of patients experience uncoordinated care, these patients represent 36% of total healthcare costs; care management interaction makes a significant impact on the utilization of healthcare dollars. A literature search was conducted to construct a model of care coordination for elective surgical procedures by collecting best practices for acute, transitions, and post-acute care periods. A case study was used to demonstrate the model developed. Care management defines care coordination as a model of care to address improving patient and caregiver engagement, communication across settings of care, and ultimately improved patient outcomes of care. Nurse-led care coordination in the presurgical, inpatient, and post-acute care settings requires systems change and administrative support to effectively meet the goals of the Affordable Care Act of reducing redundancy and costs while improving the patient experience. Nursing is the lynchpin of care management processes in all settings of care; thus, this model of care coordination for elective surgical admissions can provide nursing care management leaders a comprehensive view of coordinating care for these patient across settings of care during the predetermined time period of care. As bundled payment structures increasingly affect hospital systems, nursing leaders need to be ready to create or improve their care management processes; care coordination is one such process requiring immediate attention.
Zeta Functions for Elliptic Curves I. Counting Bundles
Weng, Lin
2012-01-01
To count bundles on curves, we study zetas of elliptic curves and their zeros. There are two types, i.e., the pure non-abelian zetas defined using moduli spaces of semi-stable bundles, and the group zetas defined for special linear groups. In lower ranks, we show that these two types of zetas coincide and satisfy the Riemann Hypothesis. For general cases, exposed is an intrinsic relation on automorphism groups of semi-stable bundles over elliptic curves, the so-called counting miracle. All this, together with Harder-Narasimhan, Desale-Ramanan and Zagier's result, gives an effective way to count semi-stable bundles on elliptic curves not only in terms of automorphism groups but more essentially in terms of their $h^0$'s. Distributions of zeros of high rank zetas are also discussed.
Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie
2015-09-01
Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors.
Design and synthesis of DNA four-helix bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rangnekar, Abhijit; Gothelf, Kurt V [Department of Chemistry, Centre for DNA Nanotechnology (CDNA) and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); LaBean, Thomas H, E-mail: kvg@chem.au.dk, E-mail: thl@cs.duke.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)
2011-06-10
The field of DNA nanotechnology has evolved significantly in the past decade. Researchers have succeeded in synthesizing tile-based structures and using them to form periodic lattices in one, two and three dimensions. Origami-based structures have also been used to create nanoscale structures in two and three dimensions. Design and construction of DNA bundles with fixed circumference has added a new dimension to the field. Here we report the design and synthesis of a DNA four-helix bundle. It was found to be extremely rigid and stable. When several such bundles were assembled using appropriate sticky-ends, they formed micrometre-long filaments. However, when creation of two-dimensional sheet-like arrays of the four-helix bundles was attempted, nanoscale rings were observed instead. The exact reason behind the nanoring formation is yet to be ascertained, but it provides an exciting prospect for making programmable circular nanostructures using DNA.
CANFLEX fuel bundle cross-flow endurance test (test report)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Sung Deok; Chung, C. H.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.
1997-04-01
As part of the normal refuelling sequence of CANDU nuclear reactor, both new and irradiated bundles can be parked in the cross-flow region of the liner tubes. This situation occurs normally for a few minutes. The fuel bundle which is subjected to the cross-flow should be capable of withstanding the consequences of cross flow for normal periods, and maintain its mechanical integrity. The cross-flow endurance test was conducted for CANFLEX bundle, latest developed nuclear fuel, at CANDU-Hot Test Loop. The test was carried out during 4 hours at the inlet cross-flow region. After the test, the bundle successfully met all acceptance criteria after the 4 hours cross-flow test. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs.
On exact triangles consisting of stable vector bundles on tori
Kobayashi, Kazushi
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider the exact triangles consisting of stable holomorphic vector bundles on one-dimensional complex tori, and discuss their relations with the corresponding Fukaya category via the homological mirror symmetry.
Steric effects induce geometric remodeling of actin bundles in filopodia
Dobramysl, Ulrich; Erban, Radek
2016-01-01
Filopodia are ubiquitous fingerlike protrusions, spawned by many eukaryotic cells, to probe and interact with their environments. Polymerization dynamics of actin filaments, comprising the structural core of filopodia, largely determine their instantaneous lengths and overall lifetimes. The polymerization reactions at the filopodial tip require transport of G-actin, which enter the filopodial tube from the filopodial base and diffuse toward the filament barbed ends near the tip. Actin filaments are mechanically coupled into a tight bundle by cross-linker proteins. Interestingly, many of these proteins are relatively short, restricting the free diffusion of cytosolic G-actin throughout the bundle and, in particular, its penetration into the bundle core. To investigate the effect of steric restrictions on G-actin diffusion by the porous structure of filopodial actin filament bundle, we used a particle-based stochastic simulation approach. We discovered that excluded volume interactions result in partial and the...
Mechanical Models of Microtubule Bundle Collapse in Alzheimer's Disease
Sendek, Austin; Singh, Rajiv; Cox, Daniel
2013-03-01
Amyloid-beta aggregates initiate Alzheimer's disease, and downstream trigger degradation of tau proteins that act as microtubule bundle stabilizers and mechanical spacers. Currently it is unclear which of tau cutting by proteases, tau phosphorylation, or tau aggregation are responsible for cytoskeleton degradation., We construct a percolation simulation of the microtubule bundle using a molecular spring model for the taus and including depletion force attraction between microtubules and membrane/actin cytoskeletal surface tension. The simulation uses a fictive molecular dynamics to model the motion of the individual microtubules within the bundle as a result of random tau removal, and calculates the elastic modulus of the bundle as the tau concentration falls. We link the tau removal steps to kinetic tau steps in various models of tau degradation. Supported by US NSF Grant DMR 1207624
Introductory lectures on fibre bundles and topology for physicists
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, G.H.
1978-05-01
These lectures may provide useful background material for understanding gauge theories, particularly the nonperturbative effects such as instantons and monopoles. The mathematical language of topology and fibre bundles is introduced.
Improved Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment of Dunhuang Wall Painting Images
Hu, K.; Huang, X.; You, H.
2017-09-01
Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA) method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.
IMPROVED CONJUGATE GRADIENT BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT OF DUNHUANG WALL PAINTING IMAGES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Hu
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.
National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus Bundle on Obstetric Hemorrhage.
Main, Elliott K; Goffman, Dena; Scavone, Barbara M; Low, Lisa Kane; Bingham, Debra; Fontaine, Patricia L; Gorlin, Jed B; Lagrew, David C; Levy, Barbara S
2015-07-01
Hemorrhage is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity and preventable maternal mortality and therefore is an ideal topic for the initial national maternity patient safety bundle. These safety bundles outline critical clinical practices that should be implemented in every maternity unit. They are developed by multidisciplinary work groups of the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care. The safety bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition and Prevention, Response, and Reporting and System Learning. Although the bundle components may be adapted to meet the resources available in individual facilities, standardization within an institution is strongly encouraged. References contain sample resources and "Potential Best Practices" to assist with implementation.
National Partnership for Maternal Safety Consensus Bundle on Obstetric Hemorrhage.
Main, Elliott K; Goffman, Dena; Scavone, Barbara M; Low, Lisa Kane; Bingham, Debra; Fontaine, Patricia L; Gorlin, Jed B; Lagrew, David C; Levy, Barbara S
2015-01-01
Hemorrhage is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity and preventable maternal mortality and therefore is an ideal topic for the initial national maternity patient safety bundle. These safety bundles outline critical clinical practices that should be implemented in every maternity unit. They are developed by multidisciplinary work groups of the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care. The safety bundle is organized into 4 domains: Readiness, Recognition and Prevention, Response, and Reporting and Systems Learning. Although the bundle components may be adapted to meet the resources available in individual facilities, standardization within an institution is strongly encouraged. References contain sample resources and "Potential Best Practices" to assist with implementation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To study the effects of increasing and decreasing flow velocities on the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles, the responses of an elastically mounted tube in a rigid parallel triangular tube bundle with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.67 were tested in a water tunnel subjected to crossflow. Aluminum and stainless steel tubes were tested, respectively. In the in-line and transverse directions, the amplitudes, power spectrum density functions, response frequencies, added mass coefficients, and other results were obtained and compared. Results show that the nonlinear hysteresis phenomenon occurred in both tube bundle vibrations. When the flow velocity is decreasing, the tubes which have been in the state of fluid-elastic instability can keep on this state for a certain flow velocity range. During this process, the response frequencies of the tubes will decrease. Furthermore, the response frequencies of the aluminum tube can decrease much more than those of the stainless steel tube. The fluid-elastic instability constants fitted for these experiments were obtained from experimental data. A deeper insight into the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles was also obtained by synthesizing the results. This study is beneficial for designing and operating equipment with tube bundles inside, as well as for further research on the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles.
Performance-based bundled payments: potential benefits and burdens.
Satin, David J; Miles, Justin
2009-10-01
Performance-based bundled payments have emerged as the most recent iteration of pay for performance. These are programs in which providers are paid a single fee for a set of evidenced-based services related to a diagnosis. The payments are typically linked to outcomes as well as other quality measures. This paper reviews two prominent bundled payment programs--PROMETHEUS and ProvenCare--and discusses the potential pitfalls of these approaches.
Identity-Based Cryptosystems for Enhanced Deployment of OSGi Bundles
Parrend, Pierre; Galice, Samuel; Frénot, Stéphane; Ubéda, Stéphane
2007-01-01
International audience; The OSGi platform is designed to make Java soft- ware extensible at runtime. This undeniably presents a great interest in several domains like embedded plat- forms or enterprise application servers. However, se- curing the deployment of the OSGi components, or bundles, proves to be a major challenge. The current approach consists in digitally signing the bundles and certifying the signature through a Public Key Infras- tructure. We propose to replace this technology wi...
Codimension-Three Bundle Singularities in F-Theory
Candelas, Philip; Florea, B; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Rajesh, G; Candelas, Philip; Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; Florea, Bogdan; Morrison, David R.; Rajesh, Govindan
2002-01-01
We study new nonperturbative phenomena in N=1 heterotic string vacua corresponding to pointlike bundle singularities in codimension three. These degenerations result in new four-dimensional infrared physics characterized by light solitonic states whose origin is explained in the dual F-theory model. We also show that such phenomena appear generically in $E_7 \\to E_6$ Higgsing and describe in detail the corresponding bundle transition.
Generalized holomorphic bundles and the B-field action
Hitchin, Nigel
2010-01-01
On a generalized complex manifold there is an associated definition of a generalized holomorphic bundle, introduced by Gualtieri. This notion in the case of an ordinary complex structure yields an object which we call a co-Higgs bundle and we consider the B-field action of a closed form of type (1,1), both local and global. The effect makes contact with both Nahm's equations and holomorphic gerbes.
Generalized holomorphic bundles and the B-field action
Hitchin, Nigel
2011-01-01
On a generalized complex manifold, there is an associated definition of a generalized holomorphic bundle, introduced by Gualtieri. In the case of an ordinary complex structure, this notion yields an object which we call a co-Higgs bundle, and we consider the B-field action of a closed form of type (1,1), both local and global. The effect makes contact with both Nahm's equations and holomorphic gerbes.
Dunkl Operators as Covariant Derivatives in a Quantum Principal Bundle
Micho Đurđevich; Stephen Bruce Sontz
2011-01-01
A quantum principal bundle is constructed for every Coxeter group acting on a finite-dimensional Euclidean space $E$, and then a connection is also defined on this bundle. The covariant derivatives associated to this connection are the Dunkl operators, originally introduced as part of a program to generalize harmonic analysis in Euclidean spaces. This gives us a new, geometric way of viewing the Dunkl operators. In particular, we present a new proof of the commutativity of these operators amo...
BiSet: Semantic Edge Bundling with Biclusters for Sensemaking.
Sun, Maoyuan; Mi, Peng; North, Chris; Ramakrishnan, Naren
2016-01-01
Identifying coordinated relationships is an important task in data analytics. For example, an intelligence analyst might want to discover three suspicious people who all visited the same four cities. Existing techniques that display individual relationships, such as between lists of entities, require repetitious manual selection and significant mental aggregation in cluttered visualizations to find coordinated relationships. In this paper, we present BiSet, a visual analytics technique to support interactive exploration of coordinated relationships. In BiSet, we model coordinated relationships as biclusters and algorithmically mine them from a dataset. Then, we visualize the biclusters in context as bundled edges between sets of related entities. Thus, bundles enable analysts to infer task-oriented semantic insights about potentially coordinated activities. We make bundles as first class objects and add a new layer, "in-between", to contain these bundle objects. Based on this, bundles serve to organize entities represented in lists and visually reveal their membership. Users can interact with edge bundles to organize related entities, and vice versa, for sensemaking purposes. With a usage scenario, we demonstrate how BiSet supports the exploration of coordinated relationships in text analytics.
Oscillation of carbon molecules inside carbon nanotube bundles
Thamwattana, Ngamta; Cox, Barry J.; Hill, James M.
2009-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the mechanics of a nanoscaled gigahertz oscillator comprising a carbon molecule oscillating within the centre of a uniform concentric ring or bundle of carbon nanotubes. Two kinds of oscillating molecules are considered, which are a carbon nanotube and a C60 fullerene. Using the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approach, we obtain a relation between the bundle radius and the radii of the nanotubes forming the bundle, as well as the optimum bundle size which gives rise to the maximum oscillatory frequency for both the nanotube-bundle and the C60-bundle oscillators. While previous studies in this area have been undertaken through molecular dynamics simulations, this paper emphasizes the use of applied mathematical modelling techniques, which provides considerable insight into the underlying mechanisms of the nanoscaled oscillators. The paper presents a synopsis of the major results derived in detail by the present authors (Cox et al 2007 Proc. R. Soc. A 464 691-710 and Cox et al 2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 13197-208).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raglione, T.V.; Hartwick, R.A.
1986-11-01
An on-line LC-GC system is presented. HPLC peak volume reduction was accomplished through the use of microbore (1.0 mm) columns. Further volume reduction was accomplished by use of a novel bundled multicapillary stream splitter between the LC detector and the GC. Applications of the system for the separation of solvent-refined coal samples are presented. Reproducibilities of the direct and split systems were 13% and 9% relative standard deviation, respectively.
Combustor having mixing tube bundle with baffle arrangement for directing fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, Michael John; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin
2016-08-23
A combustor includes a tube bundle that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor. The tube bundle includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and a plurality of tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface to provide fluid communication through the tube bundle. A barrier extends radially inside the tube bundle between the upstream and downstream surfaces, and a baffle extends axially inside the tube bundle between the upstream surface and the barrier.
Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.
Blotnick, Edna; Sol, Asaf; Muhlrad, Andras
2017-01-01
Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III) and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.
Börlin, Niclas; Grussenmeyer, Pierre
2016-06-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Matlab-based Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT) can be used to provide independent verification of the BA computation of two popular software—PhotoModeler (PM) and PhotoScan (PS). For frame camera data sets with lens distortion, DBAT is able to reprocess and replicate subsets of PM results with high accuracy. For lens-distortion-free data sets, DBAT can furthermore provide comparative results between PM and PS. Data sets for the discussed projects are available from the authors. The use of an external verification tool such as DBAT will enable users to get an independent verification of the computations of their software. In addition, DBAT can provide computation of quality parameters such as estimated standard deviations, correlation between parameters, etc., something that should be part of best practice for any photogrammetric software. Finally, as the code is free and open-source, users can add computations of their own.
Bundling Strategies in Global Supply Chains
M. Acciaro (Michele)
2010-01-01
textabstractThe development of logistics has offered a wide range of new business opportunities for transport operators. Shipping lines have been taking advantage of these opportunities and have expanded their business scope beyond the movement of cargo, to include, for example, coordination among t
Bundling Strategies in Global Supply Chains
M. Acciaro (Michele)
2010-01-01
textabstractThe development of logistics has offered a wide range of new business opportunities for transport operators. Shipping lines have been taking advantage of these opportunities and have expanded their business scope beyond the movement of cargo, to include, for example, coordination among
Bundling Strategies in Global Supply Chains
M. Acciaro (Michele)
2010-01-01
textabstractThe development of logistics has offered a wide range of new business opportunities for transport operators. Shipping lines have been taking advantage of these opportunities and have expanded their business scope beyond the movement of cargo, to include, for example, coordination among t
Model simulation of the SPOC wave in a bundle of striated myofibrils.
Nakagome, Koutaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Shintani, Seine A; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi
2016-01-01
SPOC (spontaneous oscillatory contraction) is a phenomenon observed in striated muscle under intermediate activation conditions. Recently, we constructed a theoretical model of SPOC for a sarcomere, a unit sarcomere model, which explains the behavior of SPOC at each sarcomere level. We also constructed a single myofibril model, which visco-elastically connects the unit model in series, and explains the behaviors of SPOC at the myofibril level. In the present study, to understand the SPOC properties in a bundle of myofibrils, we extended the single myofibril model to a two-dimensional (2D) model and a three-dimensional (3D) model, in which myofibrils were elastically connected side-by-side through cross-linkers between the Z-lines and M-lines. These 2D and 3D myofibril models could reproduce various patterns of SPOC waves experimentally observed in a 2D sheet and a 3D bundle of myofibrils only by choosing different values of elastic constants of the cross-linkers and the external spring. The results of these 2D and 3D myofibril models provide insight into the SPOC properties of the higher-ordered assembly of myofibrils.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Umeda Sasaki
2008-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are frequent, especially in sports. Surgical reconstruction with autologous grafts is widely employed in the international literature. Controversies remain with respect to technique variations as continuous research for improvement takes place. One of these variations is the anatomical double bundle technique, which is performed instead of the conventional single bundle technique. More recently, there has been a tendency towards positioning the two bundles through double bone tunnels in the femur and tibia (anatomical reconstruction. OBJECTIVES: To compare, through biomechanical tests, the practice of anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar graft to conventional single bundle reconstruction with the same amount of patellar graft in a paired experimental cadaver study. METHODS: Nine pairs of male cadaver knees ranging in age from 44 to 63 years were randomized into two groups: group A (single bundle and group B (anatomical reconstruction. Each knee was biomechanically tested under three conditions: intact anterior cruciate ligament, reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament, and injured anterior cruciate ligament. Maximum anterior dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibia rotation were recorded with knees submitted to a 100 N horizontal anterior dislocation force applied to the tibia with the knees at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two techniques for any of the measurements by ANOVA tests. CONCLUSION: The technique of anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft has a similar biomechanical behavior with regard to anterior tibial dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibial rotation.
Improvements to Wire Bundle Thermal Modeling for Ampacity Determination
Rickman, Steve L.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Shariff, Khadijah
2017-01-01
Determining current carrying capacity (ampacity) of wire bundles in aerospace vehicles is critical not only to safety but also to efficient design. Published standards provide guidance on determining wire bundle ampacity but offer little flexibility for configurations where wire bundles of mixed gauges and currents are employed with varying external insulation jacket surface properties. Thermal modeling has been employed in an attempt to develop techniques to assist in ampacity determination for these complex configurations. Previous developments allowed analysis of wire bundle configurations but was constrained to configurations comprised of less than 50 elements. Additionally, for vacuum analyses, configurations with very low emittance external jackets suffered from numerical instability in the solution. A new thermal modeler is presented allowing for larger configurations and is not constrained for low bundle infrared emissivity calculations. Formulation of key internal radiation and interface conductance parameters is discussed including the effects of temperature and air pressure on wire to wire thermal conductance. Test cases comparing model-predicted ampacity and that calculated from standards documents are presented.
Variable recruitment in bundles of miniature pneumatic artificial muscles.
DeLaHunt, Sylvie A; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Wereley, Norman M
2016-09-13
The natural compliance and force generation properties of pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) allow them to operate like human muscles in anthropomorphic robotic manipulators. Traditionally, manipulators use a single PAM or multiple PAMs actuated in unison in place of a human muscle. However, these standard manipulators can experience significant efficiency losses when operated outside their target performance ranges at low actuation pressures. This study considers the application of a variable recruitment control strategy to a parallel bundle of miniature PAMs as an attempt to mimic the selective recruitment of motor units in a human muscle. Bundles of miniature PAMs are experimentally characterized, their actuation behavior is modeled, and the efficiency gains and losses associated with the application of a variable recruitment control strategy are assessed. This bio-inspired control strategy allows muscle bundles to operate the fewest miniature PAMs necessary to achieve a desired performance objective, improving the muscle bundle's operating efficiency over larger ranges of force generation and displacement. The study also highlights the need for improved PAM fabrication techniques to facilitate the production of identical miniature PAMs for inclusion in muscle bundles.
Thermal hydraulics of rod bundles: The effect of eccentricity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chauhan, Amit K., E-mail: amit_fmlab@yahoo.co.in [Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Prasad, B.V.S.S.S., E-mail: prasad@iitm.ac.in [Thermal Turbomachines Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Patnaik, B.S.V., E-mail: bsvp@iitm.ac.in [Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)
2013-10-15
Highlights: • Present CFD investigation explores, whole bundle eccentricity for the first time. • Fluid flow and thermal characteristics in various subchannels are analyzed. • Mass flux distribution is particularly analyzed to study eccentricity effect. • Higher eccentricity resulted in a shoot up in rod surface temperature distribution. • Both tangential and radial flow in rod bundles has resulted due to eccentricity. -- Abstract: The effect of eccentricity on the fluid flow and heat transfer through a 19-rod bundle is numerically carried out. When the whole bundle shifts downwards with respect to the outer (pressure) tube, flow redistribution happens. This in turn is responsible for changes in mass flux, pressure and differential flow development in various subchannels. The heat flux imposed on the surface of the fuel rods and the mass flux through the subchannels determines the coolant outlet temperatures. The simulations are performed for a coolant flow Reynolds number of 4 × 10{sup 5}. For an eccentricity value of 0.7, the mass flux in the bottom most subchannel (l) was found to decrease by 10%, while the surface temperature of the fuel rod in the vicinity of this subchannel increased by 250% at the outlet section. Parameters of engineering interest including skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, etc., have been systematically explored to study the effect of eccentricity on the rod bundle.
Dynamic response of fiber bundle under transverse impact.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Wei-Yang; Song, Bo
2010-03-01
There has been a very high demand in developing efficient soft body armors to protect the military and law enforcement personnel from ballistic or explosive attack. As a basic component in the soft body armor, fibers or fiber bundles play a key role in the performance against ballistic impact. In order to study the ballistic-resistant mechanism of the soft body armor, it is desirable to understand the dynamic response of the fiber bundle under transverse impact. Transverse wave speed is one important parameter because a faster transverse wave speed can make the impact energy dissipate more quickly. In this study, we employed split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) to generate constant high-speed impact on a Kevlar fiber bundle in the transverse direction. The deformation of the fiber bundle was photographed with high-speed digital cameras. The transverse wave speeds were experimentally measured at various transverse impact velocities. The experimental results can also be used to quantitatively verify the current analytical models or to develop new models to describe the dynamic response of fiber bundle under transverse impact.
Pressure Loss across Tube Bundles in Two-phase Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sim, Woo Gun; Banzragch, Dagdan [Hannam Univ., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-03-15
An analytical model was developed by Sim to estimate the two-phase damping ratio for upward two-phase flow perpendicular to horizontal tube bundles. The parameters of two-phase flow, such as void fraction and pressure loss evaluated in the model, were calculated based on existing experimental formulations. However, it is necessary to implement a few improvements in the formulations for the case of tube bundles. For the purpose of the improved formulation, we need more information about the two-phase parameters, which can be found through experimental test. An experiment is performed with a typical normal square array of cylinders subjected to the two-phase flow of air-water in the tube bundles, to calculate the two-phase Euler number and the two-phase friction multiplier. The pitch-to-diameter ratio is 1.35 and the diameter of cylinder is 18mm. Pressure loss along the flow direction in the tube bundles is measured with a pressure transducer and data acquisition system to calculate the two-phase Euler number and the two-phase friction multiplier. The void fraction model by Feenstra et al. is used to estimate the void fraction of the two-phase flow in tube bundles. The experimental results of the two phase friction multiplier and two-phase Euler number for homogeneous and non-homogeneous two-phase flows are compared and evaluated against the analytical results given by Sim's model.
Ecosystem service bundles for analyzing tradeoffs in diverse landscapes
Raudsepp-Hearne, C.; Peterson, G. D.; Bennett, E. M.
2010-01-01
A key challenge of ecosystem management is determining how to manage multiple ecosystem services across landscapes. Enhancing important provisioning ecosystem services, such as food and timber, often leads to tradeoffs between regulating and cultural ecosystem services, such as nutrient cycling, flood protection, and tourism. We developed a framework for analyzing the provision of multiple ecosystem services across landscapes and present an empirical demonstration of ecosystem service bundles, sets of services that appear together repeatedly. Ecosystem service bundles were identified by analyzing the spatial patterns of 12 ecosystem services in a mixed-use landscape consisting of 137 municipalities in Quebec, Canada. We identified six types of ecosystem service bundles and were able to link these bundles to areas on the landscape characterized by distinct social–ecological dynamics. Our results show landscape-scale tradeoffs between provisioning and almost all regulating and cultural ecosystem services, and they show that a greater diversity of ecosystem services is positively correlated with the provision of regulating ecosystem services. Ecosystem service-bundle analysis can identify areas on a landscape where ecosystem management has produced exceptionally desirable or undesirable sets of ecosystem services. PMID:20194739
Failure of a MEA reclaimer tube bundle due to corrosion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaban, H.; Abdo, M.S.E.; Lal, D.P.
1988-08-01
The removal of sulphur compounds from natural gas used in ammonia production is carried out by scrubbing with monoethanol amine (MEA). To avoid build up of corrosion and degradation products, a portion of the circulating MEA solution is passed through a reclaimer. This is essentially a kettle-type reboiler with a tube bundle made of 316L stainless steel. Occasional failures of the tube bundle due to pitting corrosion have been reported. It is suggested that the excessive pitting corrosion observed on the upper rows of the tube bundle could be partly due to high steam temperature but mainly due to the liquid level falling below the tubes leaving an accumulation of corrosive degradation products on the exposed surfaces, normally these corrosive products remain diluted in the MEA solution and cause little corrosion of the covered tubes. Their concentration on the dry upper layers of the hot metal tubes, however, leads to excessive corrosion. (U.K.).
On the motives of moduli of chains and Higgs bundles
García-Prada, Oscar; Schmitt, Alexander
2011-01-01
We take another approach to Hitchin's strategy of computing the cohomology of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles by localization with respect to the circle-action. Our computation is done in the dimensional completion of the Grothendieck ring of varieties and starts by describing the classes of moduli stacks of chains rather than their coarse moduli spaces. As an application we show that the n-torsion of the Jacobian acts trivially on the middle dimensional cohomology of the moduli space of twisted SL_n-Higgs-bundles of degree coprime to n and we give an explicit formula for the motive of the moduli space of Higgs bundles of rank 4 and odd degree. This provides new evidence for a conjecture of Hausel and Rodr\\'iguez-Villegas. Along the way we find explicit recursion formulas for the motives of several types of moduli spaces of stable chains.
Rheology of semiflexible bundle networks with transient linkers.
Müller, Kei W; Bruinsma, Robijn F; Lieleg, Oliver; Bausch, Andreas R; Wall, Wolfgang A; Levine, Alex J
2014-06-13
We present a theoretical and computational analysis of the rheology of networks made up of bundles of semiflexible filaments bound by transient cross-linkers. Such systems are ubiquitous in the cytoskeleton and can be formed in vitro using filamentous actin and various cross-linkers. We find that their high-frequency rheology is characterized by a scaling behavior that is quite distinct from that of networks of the well-studied single semiflexible filaments. This regime can be understood theoretically in terms of a length-scale-dependent bending modulus for bundles. Next, we observe new dissipative dynamics associated with the shear-induced disruption of the network at intermediate frequencies. Finally, at low frequencies, we encounter a region of non-Newtonian rheology characterized by power-law scaling. This regime is dominated by bundle dissolution and large-scale rearrangements of the network driven by equilibrium thermal fluctuations.
DTI Image Registration under Probabilistic Fiber Bundles Tractography Learning
Lei, Tao; Fan, Yangyu; Zhang, Xiuwei
2016-01-01
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) image registration is an essential step for diffusion tensor image analysis. Most of the fiber bundle based registration algorithms use deterministic fiber tracking technique to get the white matter fiber bundles, which will be affected by the noise and volume. In order to overcome the above problem, we proposed a Diffusion Tensor Imaging image registration method under probabilistic fiber bundles tractography learning. Probabilistic tractography technique can more reasonably trace to the structure of the nerve fibers. The residual error estimation step in active sample selection learning is improved by modifying the residual error model using finite sample set. The calculated deformation field is then registered on the DTI images. The results of our proposed registration method are compared with 6 state-of-the-art DTI image registration methods under visualization and 3 quantitative evaluation standards. The experimental results show that our proposed method has a good comprehensive performance.
Narrow muon bundles from muon pair production in rock
Kudryavtsev, V A; Spooner, N J C
1999-01-01
We revise the process of muon pair production by high-energy muons in rock using the recently published cross-section. The three- dimensional Monte Carlo code MUSIC has been used to obtain the characteristics of the muon bundles initiated via this process. We have compared them with those of conventional muon bundles initiated in the atmosphere and shown that large underground detectors, capable of collecting hundreds of thousands of multiple muon events, can discriminate statistically muon induced bundles from conventional ones. However, we find that the enhancement of the measured muon decoherence function over that predicted at small distances, recently reported by the MACRO experiment, cannot be explained by the effect of muon pair production alone, unless its cross-section is underestimated by a factor of 3. (20 refs).
Narrow muon bundles from muon pair production in rock
Kudryavtsev, V A; Spooner, N J C; 10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01378-7
2009-01-01
We revise the process of muon pair production by high-energy muons in rock using the recently published cross-section. The three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MUSIC has been used to obtain the characteristics of the muon bundles initiated via this process. We have compared them with those of conventional muon bundles initiated in the atmosphere and shown that large underground detectors, capable of collecting hundreds of thousands of multiple muon events, can discriminate statistically muon induced bundles from conventional ones. However, we find that the enhancement of the measured muon decoherence function over that predicted at small distances, recently reported by the MACRO experiment, cannot be explained by the effect of muon pair production alone, unless its cross-section is underestimated by a factor of 3.
High-order synchronization of hair cell bundles
Levy, Michael; Molzon, Adrian; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Wook; Cheon, Jinwoo; Bozovic, Dolores
2016-12-01
Auditory and vestibular hair cell bundles exhibit active mechanical oscillations at natural frequencies that are typically lower than the detection range of the corresponding end organs. We explore how these noisy nonlinear oscillators mode-lock to frequencies higher than their internal clocks. A nanomagnetic technique is used to stimulate the bundles without an imposed mechanical load. The evoked response shows regimes of high-order mode-locking. Exploring a broad range of stimulus frequencies and intensities, we observe regions of high-order synchronization, analogous to Arnold Tongues in dynamical systems literature. Significant areas of overlap occur between synchronization regimes, with the bundle intermittently flickering between different winding numbers. We demonstrate how an ensemble of these noisy spontaneous oscillators could be entrained to efficiently detect signals significantly above the characteristic frequencies of the individual cells.
Symposium on Singularities, Representation of Algebras, and Vector Bundles
Trautmann, Günther
1987-01-01
It is well known that there are close relations between classes of singularities and representation theory via the McKay correspondence and between representation theory and vector bundles on projective spaces via the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand construction. These relations however cannot be considered to be either completely understood or fully exploited. These proceedings document recent developments in the area. The questions and methods of representation theory have applications to singularities and to vector bundles. Representation theory itself, which had primarily developed its methods for Artinian algebras, starts to investigate algebras of higher dimension partly because of these applications. Future research in representation theory may be spurred by the classification of singularities and the highly developed theory of moduli for vector bundles. The volume contains 3 survey articles on the 3 main topics mentioned, stressing their interrelationships, as well as original research papers.
Simulation of bundle test Quench-12 with integral code MELCOR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duspiva, J. [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez plc (Czech Republic)
2011-07-01
The past NRI analyses cover the Quench-01, Quench-03 and Quench-06 with version MELCOR 1.8.5 (including reflood model), and Quench-01 and Quench-11 tests with the latest version MELCOR 1.8.6. The Quench-12 test is specific, because it has different bundle configuration related to the VVER bundle configuration with hexagonal grid of pins and also used E110 cladding material. Specificity of Quench-12 test is also in the used material of fuel rod cladding - E110. The test specificities are a reason for the highest concern, because the VVER reactors are operated in the Czech Republic. The new input model was developed with the taking into account all experience from previous simulations of the Quench bundle tests. The recent version MELCOR 1.8.6 YU{sub 2}911 was used for the simulation with slightly modified ELHEAT package. Sensitivity studies on input parameters and oxidation kinetics were performed. (author)
Lesson Eleven Transient and intermittent left bundle branch block
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
鲁端; 王劲
2004-01-01
@@ In transient left bundle branch block,normal intraventricular conduction subsequently returns,if only1temporarily.The condition has also been called paroxysmal,unstable,or temporary left bundle branch block. Its etiology is similar to that of the stable variety2, with the great majority of the patients having ischemic or hypertensive heart disease or both. Transient bundle branch block may complicate acute myocardial infarction or may occur during attacks of angina. It may appear during an episode of congestive heart failure and disappear with improvement of the cardiac status. Most patients eventually develop permanent block. Occasionally,however, the patient may revert to normal conduction even years after consistently demonstrating the block.
Multi-scale strain-stiffening of semiflexible bundle networks
Piechocka, I K; Broedersz, C P; Kurniawan, N A; MacKintosh, F C; Koenderink, G H
2015-01-01
Bundles of polymer filaments are responsible for the rich and unique mechanical behaviors of many biomaterials, including cells and extracellular matrices. In fibrin biopolymers, whose nonlinear elastic properties are crucial for normal blood clotting, protofibrils self-assemble and bundle to form networks of semiflexible fibers. Here we show that the extraordinary strain-stiffening response of fibrin networks is a direct reflection of the hierarchical architecture of the fibrin fibers. We measure the rheology of networks of unbundled protofibrils and find excellent agreement with an affine model of extensible wormlike polymers. By direct comparison with these data, we show that physiological fibrin networks composed of thick fibers can be modeled as networks of tight protofibril bundles. We demonstrate that the tightness of coupling between protofibrils in the fibers can be tuned by the degree of enzymatic intermolecular crosslinking by the coagulation Factor XIII. Furthermore, at high stress, the protofibri...
Real Parabolic Vector Bundles over a Real Curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sanjay Amrutiya
2014-02-01
We define real parabolic structures on real vector bundles over a real curve. Let $(X, _X)$ be a real curve, and let $S\\subset X$ be a non-empty finite subset of such that $_X(S) = S$. Let ≥ 2 be an integer. We construct an -fold cyclic cover : $Y→ X$ in the category of real curves, ramified precisely over each point of , and with the property that for any element of the Galois group , and any $y\\in Y$, one has $_Y(gy) = g^{-1}_Y(y)$. We established an equivalence between the category of real parabolic vector bundles on $(X,_X)$ with real parabolic structure over , all of whose weights are integral multiples of 1/, and the category of real -equivariant vector bundles on $(Y, _Y)$.
Magnetic Propulsion of Microswimmers with DNA-Based Flagellar Bundles.
Maier, Alexander M; Weig, Cornelius; Oswald, Peter; Frey, Erwin; Fischer, Peer; Liedl, Tim
2016-02-10
We show that DNA-based self-assembly can serve as a general and flexible tool to construct artificial flagella of several micrometers in length and only tens of nanometers in diameter. By attaching the DNA flagella to biocompatible magnetic microparticles, we provide a proof of concept demonstration of hybrid structures that, when rotated in an external magnetic field, propel by means of a flagellar bundle, similar to self-propelling peritrichous bacteria. Our theoretical analysis predicts that flagellar bundles that possess a length-dependent bending stiffness should exhibit a superior swimming speed compared to swimmers with a single appendage. The DNA self-assembly method permits the realization of these improved flagellar bundles in good agreement with our quantitative model. DNA flagella with well-controlled shape could fundamentally increase the functionality of fully biocompatible nanorobots and extend the scope and complexity of active materials.
Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding
Morgenstern, Amanda
2016-01-01
The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...
Chern-Simons functional under gauge transformations on flat bundles
Byun, Yanghyun; Kim, Joohee
2017-01-01
We describe the effect of a gauge transformation on the Chern-Simons functional in a thorough and unifying manner. We use the assumptions that the structure group is compact and connected and, in particular, that the principal bundle is flat. The Chern-Simons functional we consider is the one defined by choosing a flat reference connection. The most critical step in arriving at the main result is to show both the existence and the uniqueness of a cohomology class on the adjoint bundle such that it is the class of the so-called Maurer-Cartan 3-form when restricted to each fiber.
Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;
2011-01-01
A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...
Dialytic Separation of Bundled, Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes from Carbonaceous Impurities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Justin Mulvey
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Separating functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs from functionalized amorphous carbon is challenging, due to their polydispersity and similar physicochemical properties. We describe a single-step, dialytic separation method that takes advantage of the ability of heavily functionalized SWCNTs to bundle in a polar environment while maintaining their solubility. Experiments on functionalized SWCNTs were compared with functionalized, C60 fullerenes (buckyballs to probe the general applicability of the method and further characterize the bundling process. This approach may simultaneously be used to purify a functionalization reaction mixture of unreacted small molecules and of residual solvents, such as dimethylformamide.
Milnor-Wood type inequalities for Higgs bundles
Hartnick, Tobias
2011-01-01
We explain how the generalized Milnor-Wood inequality of Burger and Iozzi for reductive representations of a cocompact complex-hyperbolic lattice into a Hermitian Lie group translates under Simpson's non-abelian Hodge correspondence into an inequality for topological invariants of the corresponding Higgs bundles. In this way, we obtain an inequality that holds for all Hermitian Lie groups, generalizing the Milnor-Wood type inequalities for Higgs bundles that have been proved for the classical Hermitian Lie groups by Bradlow, Garcia-Prada, and Gothen and by Koziarz and Maubon.
Einstein Manifolds, Abelian Instantons, Bundle Reduction, and the Cosmological Constant
Soo, C P
2001-01-01
The anti-self-dual projection of the spin connections of certain four-dimensional Einstein manifolds can be Abelian in nature. These configurations signify bundle reductions. By a theorem of Kobayashi and Nomizu such a process is predicated on the existence of a covariantly constant field. It turns out that even without fundamental Higgs fields and other physical matter, gravitational self-interactions can generate this mechanism if the cosmological constant is non-vanishing. This article identifies the order parameter, and clarifies how these Abelian instanton solutions are associated with a Higgs triplet which causes the bundle reduction from SO(3) gauge group to U(1).
Arthroscopic double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgical technique.
Fanelli, Gregory C; Beck, John D; Edson, Craig J
2010-06-01
The keys to successful posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction are to identify and treat all pathology, use strong graft material, accurately place tunnels in anatomic insertion sites, minimize graft bending, use a mechanical graft tensioning device, use primary and back-up graft fixation, and use the appropriate postoperative rehabilitation program. Adherence to these technical principles results in successful single-bundle and double-bundle arthroscopic transtibial tunnel PCL reconstruction based on stress radiography, arthrometer, knee ligament rating scales, and patient satisfaction measurements.
Capillary Micro-Flow Through a Fiber Bundle(Ⅰ)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Ying-dan; WANG Ji-hui; TAN Hua; GAO Guo-qiang
2004-01-01
The present work considered the capillary micro-flow through a fiber bundle. The resin heights in the fiber bundle as a function of time were used to determine the experimental values of capillary pressure and the permeability by the nonlinear regression fitting method. The fitting curves showed a good agreement with experiments. However, these values of capillary pressure from short- time experiments were much lower than the theoretical results from the Yang-Laplace Equation. More accurate capillary pressure was predicted from the presented long-run experiment.
Dunkl Operators as Covariant Derivatives in a Quantum Principal Bundle
Durdevich, Micho; Sontz, Stephen Bruce
2013-05-01
A quantum principal bundle is constructed for every Coxeter group acting on a finite-dimensional Euclidean space E, and then a connection is also defined on this bundle. The covariant derivatives associated to this connection are the Dunkl operators, originally introduced as part of a program to generalize harmonic analysis in Euclidean spaces. This gives us a new, geometric way of viewing the Dunkl operators. In particular, we present a new proof of the commutativity of these operators among themselves as a consequence of a geometric property, namely, that the connection has curvature zero.
Dunkl Operators as Covariant Derivatives in a Quantum Principal Bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Micho Đurđevich
2013-05-01
Full Text Available A quantum principal bundle is constructed for every Coxeter group acting on a finite-dimensional Euclidean space E, and then a connection is also defined on this bundle. The covariant derivatives associated to this connection are the Dunkl operators, originally introduced as part of a program to generalize harmonic analysis in Euclidean spaces. This gives us a new, geometric way of viewing the Dunkl operators. In particular, we present a new proof of the commutativity of these operators among themselves as a consequence of a geometric property, namely, that the connection has curvature zero.
Dunkl Operators as Covariant Derivatives in a Quantum Principal Bundle
evich, Micho Đurđ
2011-01-01
A quantum principal bundle is constructed for every Coxeter group acting on a finite-dimensional Euclidean space E, and then a connection is also defined on this bundle. The covariant derivatives associated to this connection are the Dunkl operators, originally introduced as part of a program to generalize harmonic analysis in Euclidean spaces. This gives us a new, geometric way of viewing the Dunkl operators. In particular, we present a new proof of the commutivity of these operators among themselves as a consequence of a geometric property, namely, that the connection has curvature zero.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, K.M.; Torii, K.; Nishino, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan)
2002-11-01
The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of longitudinal vortices that can be applied to the heat transfer enhancement for fin-tube heat exchangers such as air-cooled condensers. A multichannel test core was designed and fabricated for the determination of overall heat transfer and pressure loss with circular tubes and winglet vortex generators. Heat transfer results were obtained using a transient method referred to as the modified single-blow method. For a three-row tube bundle in an in-line arrangement without winglets, the heat transfer and the pressure loss were 72% and 210% higher, respectively, than for a multichannel test core without any built-in tube or winglet. These increases were caused by vortices around the tube banks. The corresponding increases for a staggered tube bundle are 95% and 310%, respectively. The triangular winglets recommended by the previous studies in a fin-tube bundle in an in-line arrangement increase the overall heat transfer 10-25% and the pressure loss 20-35% for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 300 to 2700. (orig.)
Logging residue bundling at the roadside in mountain operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spinelli, Raffaele; Magagnotti, Natascia (NR IVALSA, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy))
2009-04-15
The recovery of logging residue offers many benefits, and can be effectively performed with several techniques. This study presents the results of four distinct trials conducted on the Italian Alps with a truck-mounted bundler, and compares them with the figures obtained by the Austrian and German colleagues on the other side of the Alps. Average productivity varied between 14 and 22 bundles per productive machine hour (PMH), or between 10 and 15 bundles per scheduled machine hour (SMH). Mass production ranged from 3.1 to 4.3 oven-dry tonnes /SMH. If the machine is used for at least 800 SMH/year bundling costs will range between Euro 7 and 9/MWh, which is within the profitability limit indicated in Nordic studies. Although bundling may represent an additional cost in the slash-to-chip chain, it offers the important benefit of efficient outdoor winter storage, which is crucial in a region where the supply and demand of fuel biomass are often diachronic. The truck-mounted bundler used on the Alps adopts the same mechanism and achieves the same performance of the Nordic forwarder-mounted application. The main difference lies in its superior road mobility, which is crucial when covering scattered landings
Dendritic bundles, minicolumns, columns, and cortical output units
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giorgio Innocenti
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The search for the fundamental building block of the cerebral cortex has highlighted three structures, perpendicular to the cortical surface: i columns of neurons with radially invariant response properties, e.g., receptive field position, sensory modality, stimulus orientation or direction, frequency tuning etc. ii minicolumns of radially aligned cell bodies and iii bundles, constituted by the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons with cell bodies in different layers. The latter were described in detail, and sometimes quantitatively, in several species and areas. It was recently suggested that the dendritic bundles consist of apical dendrites belonging to neurons projecting their axons to specific targets. We review the concept above and suggest that another structural and computational unit of cerebral cortex is the cortical output unit (COU, i.e. an assembly of bundles of apical dendrites and their parent cell bodies including each of the outputs to distant cortical or subcortical structures, of a given cortical locus (area or part of an area. This somato-dendritic assembly receives inputs some of which are common to the whole assembly and determine its radially invariant response properties, others are specific to one or more dendritic bundles, and determine the specific response signature of neurons in the different cortical layers and projecting to different targets.
Euler-Lagrange Forms and Cohomology Groups on Jet Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jing-Bo
2005-01-01
@@ Using the language of jet bundles, we generalize the definitions of Euler-Lagrange one-form and the associated cohomology which were introduced by Guo et al. [Commun. Theor. Phys. 37(2002)1]. Continuous and discreteLagrange mechanics and field theory are presented. Higher order Euler-Lagrange cohomology groups are also introduced.
Get ready: Bundled payments are in your future.
2015-09-01
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS') mandatory bundled payment pilot project makes clear that the agency intends to reform Medicare reimbursement. Hospitals in 75 geographic areas are required to participate in a five-year pilot project that puts them at risk for the cost of hip and knee replacements from the time of surgery until 90 days after discharge. Already, more than 6,500 providers are participating in the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement project, a voluntary program where participants can choose from 48 clinical episodes and four models. Even if they won't be part of a bundled payments arrangement, case managers need to shift their thinking to prepare for the future of reimbursement by developing close working relationships with post-acute providers, knowing the services and quality delivered by post-acute providers, and being aware of the costs for the entire episode of care. Case managers will not be able to handle all the responsibilities necessary in a bundled payment arrangement if they have large caseloads.
Hair Cells: Bundles, Tuning, Transduction—A Moderated Discussion
Karavitaki, K. Domenica; Ricci, Anthony J.
2011-11-01
A discussion moderated by the authors on the topic "Hair Cells: Bundles, Tuning, Transduction" was held on 17 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the session.
AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...
Geometric Description of Fibre Bundle Surface for Birkhoff System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Li-Mei; SUN Hua-Fei; ZHANG Zhen-Ning
2009-01-01
A fibre bundle surface for the BirkhofT system is constructed.The metric and the Riemannian connection of the surface are defined and the representation of the Gaussian curvature of this surface is presented.Finally,three examples for the Birkhoff system are given to illustrate our results.
Self-adjointness of the Gaffney Laplacian on Vector Bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandara, Lashi, E-mail: lashi.bandara@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Mathematical Sciences (Sweden); Milatovic, Ognjen, E-mail: omilatov@unf.edu [University of North Florida, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (United States)
2015-12-15
We study the Gaffney Laplacian on a vector bundle equipped with a compatible metric and connection over a Riemannian manifold that is possibly geodesically incomplete. Under the hypothesis that the Cauchy boundary is polar, we demonstrate the self-adjointness of this Laplacian. Furthermore, we show that negligible boundary is a necessary and sufficient condition for the self-adjointness of this operator.
Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan
2010-01-01
. By considering the case of full flags, we get a Grothendieck–Springer resolution for all other flag types, in particular for the moduli spaces of twisted Higgs bundles, as studied by Markman and Bottacin and used in the recent work of Laumon–Ngô. We discuss the Hitchin system, and demonstrate that all...
Heat transfer from a tube bundle in a bubble column
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saxena, S.C.; Vadivel, R.
1988-09-01
Heat transfer coefficient for an immersed five tube bundle in a two-phase (air-water) bubble column is measured as a function of air velocity and other relevant parameters. Average and local air holdup are also measured under identical conditions to characterize the system uniquely.
Chest drain care bundle: Improving documentation and safety.
Hutton, Joe; Graham, Selina
2015-01-01
Chest drain insertion is a common advanced procedure with a significant associated risk of pain, distress, and complications. Nationally, audit and recommendations from leading bodies have highlighted a number of safety concerns around chest drain insertion. Audit work has demonstrated poor levels of documentation; particularly around use of premedication, use of ultrasound guidance and consent. This has obvious potential consequences for patient safety and thus is an important target for improvement work. This project quantifies current standards of documentation and aims to improve this through a combination of accessible and easy to read guidelines, education, and the introduction of a chest drain insertion bundle. National best practice standards were identified through review of national guidance. Drain insertion was prospectively analysed over a three month period to establish baseline standards of documentation. This initial work was presented and a bundle and clinical guidelines produced. Chest drain insertion was then reaudited and assessed for improvement. Results demonstrated an improvement in many areas of documentation, pushing local results above the national average. However, only 40% of cases used the new bundle due to a mixture of staff rotation and an unexpectedly high proportion of drains inserted in non targeted areas including the emergency department, theatre, and intensive care. Despite this, the introduction of accessible guidance and bundle has significantly improved chest drain insertion documentation to the benefit of all.
Formation and Dissociation of Sperm Bundles in Monotremes.
Nixon, Brett; Ecroyd, Heath; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Dacheux, Francoise; Labas, Valerie; Johnston, Steve D; Jones, Russell C
2016-10-01
Because monotremes are the earliest offshoot of the mammalian lineage, the platypus and short-beaked echidna were studied as model animals to assess the origin and biological significance of adaptations considered unique to therian mammals: epididymal sperm maturation and subsequent capacitation. We show that spermatozoa from both species assemble into bundles of approximately 100 cells during passage through the epididymis and that an epididymal protein-secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin; SPARC)-is involved in bundle formation. The bundles persisted during incubation in vitro for at least 1 h under conditions that capacitate therian spermatozoa, and then underwent a time-dependent dissociation to release spermatozoa capable of fertilization. Only after this dissociation could the spermatozoa bind to the perivitelline membrane of a hen's egg, display an altered form of motility reminiscent of hyperactivation, and be induced to undergo an acrosome reaction. It is concluded that the development of sperm bundles in the monotreme epididymis mandates that they require a time-dependent process to be capable of fertilizing an ovum. However, because this functional end point was achieved without overt changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation (a hallmark of capacitation in therians), it is concluded that the process in monotremes is distinctly different from capacitation in therian mammals. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.
MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. N. Pavlyukova
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.
The Roach muscle bundle and umbilical cord coiling
de Laat, Monique W. M.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Franx, Arie; Visser, Gerard H. A.
2007-01-01
Objective: To determine if presence of the Roach muscle, a small muscle bundle tying just beside the umbilical artery, contributes to umbilical cord coiling. Methods: 251 umbilical cords were examined. The umbilical coiling index (UCI) was calculated as the number of coils divided by the cord length
Thermal conversion of bundled carbon nanotubes into graphitic ribbons.
Gutiérrez, H R; Kim, U J; Kim, J P; Eklund, P C
2005-11-01
High temperature heat treatment (HTT) of bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in vacuum ( approximately 10(-5) Torr) has been found to lead to the formation of two types of graphitic nanoribbons (GNRs), as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Purified SWNT bundles were first found to follow two evolutionary steps, as reported previously, that is, tube coalescence (HTT approximately 1400 degrees C) and then massive bond rearrangement (HTT approximately 1600 degrees C), leading to the formation of bundled multiwall nanotubes (MWNTs) with 3-12 shells. At HTT > 1800 degrees C, we find that these MWNTs collapse into multishell GNRs. The first type of GNR we observed is driven by the collapse of diameter-doubled single-wall nanotubes, and their production is terminated at HTT approximately 1600 degrees C when the MWNTs also start to form. We propose that the collapse is driven by van der Waals forces between adjacent tubes in the same bundle. For HTT > 2000 degrees C, the heat-treated material is found to be almost completely in the multishell GNR form.
On $(k,l)$-stable vector bundles over algebraic curves
Mata-Gutiérrez, Osbaldo
2012-01-01
In this paper, we study the $(k,l)$-stable vector bundles over non-singular projective curve $X$ of genus $g\\geq 2,$ its relation with stability and Segre invariants. For rank 2 and 3, we give an explicit description and relation of $(k,l)$-stability and Brill-Noether loci.
Almost Lie structures on an anchored Banach bundle
Cabau, Patrick
2011-01-01
Under appropriate assumptions, we generalize the concept of linear almost Poisson struc- tures, almost Lie algebroids, almost differentials in the framework of Banach anchored bundles and the relation between these objects. We then obtain an adapted formalism for mechanical systems which is illustrated by the evolutionary problem of the "Hilbert snake"
Frame-independent mechanics:geometry on affine bundles
Grabowska, K.; Grabowski, J.; Urbanski, P.
2005-01-01
Main ideas of the differential geometry on affine bundles are presented. Affine counterparts of Lie algebroid and Poisson structures are introduced and discussed. The developed concepts are applied in a frame-independent formulation of the time-dependent and the Newtonian mechanics.
Fission yeast Scp3 potentially maintains microtubule orientation through bundling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanako Ozaki
Full Text Available Microtubules play important roles in organelle transport, the maintenance of cell polarity and chromosome segregation and generally form bundles during these processes. The fission yeast gene scp3+ was identified as a multicopy suppressor of the cps3-81 mutant, which is hypersensitive to isopropyl N-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC, a poison that induces abnormal multipolar spindle formation in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we investigated the function of Scp3 along with the effect of CIPC in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Microscopic observation revealed that treatment with CIPC, cps3-81 mutation and scp3+ gene deletion disturbed the orientation of microtubules in interphase cells. Overexpression of scp3+ suppressed the abnormal orientation of microtubules by promoting bundling. Functional analysis suggested that Scp3 functions independently from Ase1, a protein largely required for the bundling of the mitotic spindle. A strain lacking the ase1+ gene was more sensitive to CIPC, with the drug affecting the integrity of the mitotic spindle, indicating that CIPC has a mitotic target that has a role redundant with Ase1. These results suggested that multiple systems are independently involved to ensure microtubule orientation by bundling in fission yeast.
Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina
Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n...
Multicell slug flow heat transfer analysis of finite LMFBR bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeung, M.K.; Wolf, L.
1978-12-01
An analytical two-dimensional, multi-region, multi-cell technique has been developed for the thermal analysis of LMFBR rod bundles. Local temperature fields of various unit cells were obtained for 7, 19, and 37-rod bundles of different geometries and power distributions. The validity of the technique has been verified by its excellent agreement with the THTB calculational result. By comparing the calculated fully-developed circumferential clad temperature distribution with those of the experimental measurements, an axial correction factor has been derived to account for the entrance effect for practical considerations. Moreover, the knowledge of the local temperature field of the rod bundle leads to the determination of the effective mixing lengths L/sub ij/ for adjacent subchannels of various geometries. It was shown that the implementation of the accurately determined L/sub ij/ into COBRA-IIIC calculations has fairly significant effects on intersubchannel mixing. In addition, a scheme has been proposed to couple the 2-D distributed and lumped parameter calculation by COBRA-IIIC such that the entrance effect can be implanted into the distributed parameter analysis. The technique has demonstrated its applicability for a 7-rod bundle and the results of calculation were compared to those of three-dimensional analyses and experimental measurements.
Temperature response of bundle-sheath conductance in maize leaves
Yin, Xinyou; Putten, Van Der Peter E.L.; Struik, Paul C.; Driever, Steven M.
2016-01-01
A small bundle-sheath conductance (g _{bs}) is essential for the C_{4} CO_{2}-concentrating mechanism to suppress photorespiration effectively. To predict the productivity of C_{4} crops accurately under global warming, it is necessary to examine whether and how g
Negotiating over bundles and prices using aggregate knowledge
Somefun, D.J.A.; Klos, T.B.; La Poutré, J.A.
2004-01-01
Combining two or more items and selling them as one good, a practice called bundling, can be a very effective strategy for reducing the costs of producing, marketing, and selling goods. In this paper, we consider a form of multi-issue negotiation where a shop negotiates both the contents and the pri
A note on stochastic calculus in vector bundles
Catuogno, Pedro J; Ruffino, Paulo R
2011-01-01
The aim of these notes is to relate covariant stochastic integration in a vector bundle $E$ (as in Norris \\cite{Norris}) with the usual Stratonovich calculus via the connector $\\K:TE \\rightarrow E$ (cf. e.g. Paterson \\cite{Paterson} or Poor \\cite{Poor}) which carries the connection dependence.
Exposure Control Using Adaptive Multi-Stage Item Bundles.
Luecht, Richard M.
This paper presents a multistage adaptive testing test development paradigm that promises to handle content balancing and other test development needs, psychometric reliability concerns, and item exposure. The bundled multistage adaptive testing (BMAT) framework is a modification of the computer-adaptive sequential testing framework introduced by…
Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds with Flat Normal Bundle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hai-Ping Fu
2010-09-01
Let $M^n(n≥ 3)$ be an -dimensional complete immersed $\\frac{n-2}{n}$-superstable minimal submanifold in an $(n+p)$-dimensional Euclidean space $\\mathbb{R}^{n+p}$ with flat normal bundle. We prove that if the second fundamental form of satisfies some decay conditions, then is an affine plane or a catenoid in some Euclidean subspace.
Robustness of power systems under a democratic fiber bundle-like model
Yağan, Osman
2015-01-01
We consider a power system with $N$ transmission lines whose initial loads (i.e., power flows) $L_1, \\ldots, L_N$ are independent and identically distributed with $P_L(x)$. The capacity $C_i$ defines the maximum flow allowed on line $i$, and is assumed to be given by $C_i=(1+\\alpha)L_i$, with $\\alpha>0$. We study the robustness of this power system against random attacks (or, failures) that target a $p$-{\\em fraction} of the lines, under a democratic fiber bundle-like model. Namely, when a line fails, the load it was carrying is redistributed equally among the remaining lines. Our contributions are as follows: i) we show analytically that the final breakdown of the system always takes place through a first-order transition at the critical attack size $p^{\\star}=1-\\frac{E[L]}{\\max\\{P(L>x)(\\alpha x + E[L ~|~ L>x])\\}}~~~$; ii) we derive conditions on the distribution $P_L(x)$ for which the first order break down of the system occurs abruptly without any preceding diverging rate of failure; iii) we provide a deta...
Chordee repair utilizing a novel technique ensuring neurovascular bundle preservation.
Dean, G E; Burno, D K; Zaontz, M R
2000-03-01
Penile chordee, with and without hypospadias, is amenable to surgical correction. The Nesbit technique of dorsal plication of the ventral tunica albuginea is effective in correcting most cases of corporal disproportion. A hazard with this approach is the potential inclusion of the dorsal neurovascular bundle, with resultant erectile and sensory dysfunction. We developed a simple technique using the Freer elevator to isolate the neurovascular bundle prior to plication. This ensures that no injury occurs to the neurovascular bundle during plication. Since 1994, 37 boys with chordee have been repaired using this approach. Their ages at the time of operation ranged from 5 months to 28 years (mean 9 months). Following standard degloving of the penis, an incision through Buck's fascia is made lateral and parallel to the neurovascular bundle at the maximum level of the chordee. A similar incision is carried out on the contralateral side. A 4-mm-wide Freer elevator is positioned under Buck's fascia while hugging the tunica albuginea. The Freer elevator slides across the midline to the contralateral side, separating Buck's fascia and underlying layers from the tunica albuginea. Following isolation of the bundle, each corporal body is plicated by creating a longitudinal incision through the tunica albuginea, which then is closed transversely with a 5-0 polydioxanone suture. Buck's fascia subsequently is closed with an absorbable suture following confirmation of chordee correction. No complications have been encountered during a mean follow-up of 21 months (range 5-51 months). No patients have required reoperation for persistent chordee. We developed a technique that elevates the neurovascular bundle prior to plication, thereby ensuring no injury to this structure. We have successfully used this modified Nesbit technique since 1994 and have had no complications. Utilization of the Freer elevator adds an estimated 5 minutes to chordee correction compared to a standard
A comprehensive comparison on vibration and heat transfer of two elastic heat transfer tube bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闫柯; 葛培琪; 翟强
2015-01-01
Elastic heat transfer tube bundles are widely used in the field of flow-induced vibration heat transfer enhancement. Two types of mainly used tube bundles, the planar elastic tube bundle and the conical spiral tube bundle were comprehensively compared in the condition of the same shell side diameter. The natural mode characteristics, the effect of fluid−structure interaction, the stress distribution, the comprehensive heat transfer performance and the secondary fluid flow of the two elastic tube bundles were all concluded and compared. The results show that the natural frequency and the critical velocity of vibration buckling of the planar elastic tube bundle are larger than those of the conical spiral tube bundle, while the stress distribution and the comprehensive heat transfer performance of the conical spiral tube bundle are relatively better.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honda, H.; Takamatsu, H.; Takada, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study; Makishi, O. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sejimo, H. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1995-03-25
Experiments were conducted to obtain row-by-row heat transfer data during condensation of downward flowing HCFC-123 vapor in staggered bundles of horizontal two-dimensional fin tubes. Two conventional low fin tubes and two finned tubes with fin shapes close to that of a new high-performance fin proposed by Zhu and Honda were tested. The latter tubes had fin dimensions that were optimized by theoretical analysis. The heat transfer characteristics were compared with previous results for in-line bundles of the same test tubes and with theoretical predictions for stagnant vapor. The decrease in heat transfer due to condensate inundation was less significant for the staggered tube bundle. The highest heat transfer coefficient was provided by the staggered bundle of one of the new finned tubes. The theoretical predictions compared well with experimental data at a low vapor velocity and a low to medium condensate inundation rate. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Temperature-Dependent Modeling and Crosstalk Analysis in Mixed Carbon Nanotube Bundle Interconnects
Rai, Mayank Kumar; Garg, Harsh; Kaushik, B. K.
2017-08-01
The temperature-dependent circuit modeling and performance analysis in terms of crosstalk in capacitively coupled mixed carbon nanotube bundle (MCB) interconnects, at the far end of the victim line, have been analyzed with four different structures of MCBs (MCB-1, MCB-2, MCB-3 and MCB-4) constituted under case 1 and case 2 at the 22-nm technology node. The impact of tunneling and intershell coupling between adjacent shells on temperature-dependent equivalent circuit parameters of a multi-walled carbon nanotube bundle are also critically analyzed and employed for different MCB structures under case 1. A similar analysis is performed for copper interconnects and comparisons are made between results obtained through these analyses over temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K. The simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis simulation results reveals that, compared with all MCB structures under case 1 and case 2, with rise in temperature from 300 K to 500 K, crosstalk-induced noise voltage levels at the far end of the victim line are found to be significantly large in copper. It is also observed that due to the dominance of larger temperature-dependent resistance and ground capacitance in case 1, the MCB-2 is of lower crosstalk-induced noise voltage levels than other structures of MCBs. On the other hand, the MCB-1 has smaller time duration of victim output. Results further reveal that, compared with case 2 of MCB, with rise in temperatures, the victim line gets less prone to crosstalk-induced noise in MCB interconnects constituted under case 1, due to tunneling effects and intershell coupling between adjacent shells. Based on these comparative results, a promising MCB structure (MCB-2) has been proposed among other structures under the consideration of tunneling effects and intershell coupling (case 1).
CFD study of isothermal water flow in rod bundle with split-type spacer grid
Batta, A.; Class, A. G.
2014-06-01
The design of rod bundles in nuclear application nowadays is assessed by CFD (computational fluid dynamics). The accuracy of CFD models need validation. Within the OECD/NEA benchmark MATiS-H (Measurement and Analysis of Turbulent Mixing in Sub-channels - Horizontal) a single-phase water flow in a 5x5 rod bundle is studied. In the benchmark, two types of spacer grids are tested, the swirl type and the split type, where the current study focuses on the split type spacer grid. Comparison of CFD results obtained at Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT) with experimental results of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) are presented. In the benchmark velocities components along selected lines downstream of the spacer grid are measured and compared to CFD results. The CFD code STAR CCM+ with the Realized k-ɛ model is used. Comparisons with experimental results show quantitative and qualitative agreement for the averaged values of velocity components. Comparisons of results to other benchmark partners using different modeling show that the selected mesh size and models for the analysis of the current case gives relatively accurate results. However, the used turbulent model (Realized k-ɛ does not capture the turbulent intensity correctly. Computation shows that the flow has very high mixing due to the spacer grid, which does not decay within the measurements domain (z/ DH =0-10 downstream of spacer grid). The same conclusion can be drawn from experimental data.
Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Demet Pepele
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.
Infinitesimal moduli of G2 holonomy manifolds with instanton bundles
de la Ossa, Xenia; Larfors, Magdalena; Svanes, Eirik E.
2016-11-01
We describe the infinitesimal moduli space of pairs ( Y, V) where Y is a manifold with G 2 holonomy, and V is a vector bundle on Y with an instanton connection. These structures arise in connection to the moduli space of heterotic string compactifications on compact and non-compact seven dimensional spaces, e.g. domain walls. Employing the canonical G 2 cohomology developed by Reyes-Carrión and Fernández and Ugarte, we show that the moduli space decomposes into the sum of the bundle moduli {H}_{{overset{ěe }{d}}_A}^1(Y,End(V)) plus the moduli of the G 2 structure preserving the instanton condition. The latter piece is contained in {H}_{overset{ěe }{d}θ}^1(Y,TY) , and is given by the kernel of a map overset{ěe }{F} which generalises the concept of the Atiyah map for holomorphic bundles on complex manifolds to the case at hand. In fact, the map overset{ěe }{F} is given in terms of the curvature of the bundle and maps {H}_{overset{ěe }{d}θ}^1(Y,TY) into {H}_{{overset{ěe }{d}}_A}^2(Y,End(V)) , and moreover can be used to define a cohomology on an extension bundle of TY by End( V). We comment further on the resemblance with the holomorphic Atiyah algebroid and connect the story to physics, in particular to heterotic compactifications on ( Y, V) when α' = 0.
78 FR 29139 - Medicare Program; Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Model 1 Open Period
2013-05-17
... participation in Model 1 of the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative. DATES: Model 1 of the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Deadline: Interested organizations must submit a Model 1 Open Period... regarding Model 1 of the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative. For additional information...
Delayed hydride cracking properties of the endplate resistance welds of CANDU fuel bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shek, G.K.; Wasiluk, B.S., E-mail: Gordon.Shek@kinectrics.com [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Freire-Canosa, J. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lampman, T. [AMEC NSS, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
2010-07-01
In order to assess the susceptibility of CANDU fuel bundles endplate resistance welds to Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) during long term dry storage, the threshold stress intensity factor (KIH) and crack velocity of DHC in endplate welds of three unirradiated fuel bundles were determined. The three bundles tested covered the 28-element and 37-element designs and two Canadian manufacturers. The range of KIH values and DHC velocities obtained from the endplate welds of the three bundles are consistent with previous results obtained from a 37-element bundle produced by one of the manufacturers. (author)
Catastrophic Failure and Critical Scaling Laws of Fiber Bundle Material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengwang Hao
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation of, and damage to the fiber bundle with respect to the boundary controlling displacement ε0 exhibit universal power law behavior near the catastrophic point, with a critical exponent of −1/2. The proportion of the rate of response with respect to acceleration exhibits a linear relationship with increasing displacement in the vicinity of the catastrophic point. This allows for the prediction of catastrophic failure immediately prior to failure by extrapolating the trajectory of this relationship as it asymptotes to zero. Monte Carlo simulations are completed and these two critical scaling laws are confirmed.
Infinitesimal moduli of G2 holonomy manifolds with instanton bundles
de la Ossa, Xenia; Svanes, Eirik Eik
2016-01-01
We describe the infinitesimal moduli space of pairs $(Y, V)$ where $Y$ is a manifold with $G_2$ holonomy, and $V$ is a vector bundle on $Y$ with an instanton connection. These structures arise in connection to the moduli space of heterotic string compactifications on compact and non-compact seven dimensional spaces, e.g. domain walls. Employing the canonical $G_2$ cohomology $H^*_{{\\check{\\rm d}}_E}(Y,E)$ developed by Reyes-Carri\\'on and Fern\\'andez and Ugarte, we show that the moduli space decomposes into the sum of the bundle moduli $H^1_{{\\check{\\rm d}}_A}(Y,{\\rm End}(V))$ plus the moduli of the $G_2$ structure preserving the instanton condition. The latter piece is contained in $H^1_{{\\check{\\rm d}}_\
The special linear version of the projective bundle theorem
Ananyevskiy, Alexey
2012-01-01
A special linear Grassmann variety SGr(k,n) is the complement to the zero section of the determinant of the tautological vector bundle over Gr(k,n). For a representable ring cohomology theory A(-) with a special linear orientation and invertible stable Hopf map \\eta, including Witt groups and MSL[\\eta^{-1}], we have A(SGr(2,2n+1))=A(pt)[e]/(e^{2n}), and A(SGr(2,2n)) is a truncated polynomial algebra in two variables over A(pt). A splitting principle for such theories is established. We use the computations for the special linear Grassmann varieties to calculate A(BSL_n) in terms of the homogeneous power series in certain characteristic classes of the tautological bundle.
Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina
Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n......Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components...
Analyses of bundle experiment data using MATRA-h
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, In Cheol; Chea, Hee Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)
1998-06-01
When the construction and operation license for HANARO was renewed in 1995, 25% of CHF penalty was imposed. The reason for this was that the validation work related to the CHF design calculation was not enough for the assurance of CHF margin. As a part of the works to recover this CHF penalty, MATRA-h was developed by implementing the new correlations for the heat transfer, CHF prediction, subcooled void to the MATRA-a, which is the modified version of COBRA-IV-I done by KAERI. Using MATRA-h, the subchannel analyses for the bundle experiment data were performed. The comparison of the code predictions with the experimental results, it was found that the code would give the conservative predictions as far as the CHF in the bundle geometry is concerned. (author). 12 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.
Giambelli-type formula for subbundles of the tangent bundle
Kazarian, M E
1996-01-01
Let us consider a generic $n$-dimensional subbundle $\\CV$ of the tangent bundle $TM$ on some given manifold $M$. Given $\\CV$ one can define different degeneracy loci $\\Si_{\\bold r}(\\CV),\\;\\bold r=(r_1\\leq r_2\\leq r_3 dimension of the subspace $\\CV^j(x)\\subset TM(x)$ spanned by all length $\\leq j$ commutators of vector fields tangent to $\\CV$ at $x$ is less than or equal to $r_j$. We calculate 'explicitly' the cohomology classes dual to $\\Si_{\\bold r}(\\CV)$ using determinantal formulas due to W.~Fulton and the expression for the Chern classes of the associated bundle of free Lie algebras in terms of the Chern classes of $\\CV$.
Implementing strategic bundles for infection prevention and management.
Kaier, K; Wilson, C; Hulscher, M; Wollersheim, H; Huis, A; Borg, M; Scicluna, E; Lambert, M-L; Palomar, M; Tacconelli, E; De Angelis, G; Schumacher, M; Wolkewitz, M; Kleissle, E-M; Frank, U
2012-04-01
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are considered to be the most frequent adverse event in healthcare delivery. Active efforts to curb HAI have increased across Europe thanks to the growing emphasis on patient safety and quality of care. Recently, there has been dramatic success in improving the quality of patient care by focusing on the implementation of a group or "bundle" of evidenced-based preventive practices to achieve a better outcome than when implemented individually. The project entitled IMPLEMENT is designed to spread and test knowledge on how to implement strategic bundles for infection prevention and management in a diverse sample of European hospitals. The general goal of this project is to provide evidence on how to decrease the incidence of HAI and to improve antibiotic use under routine conditions.
Heat transfer in a bundle cooled with supercritical Freon-12
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peiman, W.; Milner, A.; Pascoe, C.; Patel, H.; Richards, G.; Pioro, I., E-mail: wargha.peiman@mycampus.uoit.ca, E-mail: igor.pioro@uoit.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)
2010-07-01
This paper focuses on analyzing experimental data on Freon-12 at a supercritical pressure of 4.65 MPa. Experiments were conducted at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Russia. The test section consisted of a pressure tube, ceramic inserts, a hexagonal flow tube and a vertical 7-element bundle installed inside the flow tube. The seven elements of the bundle were made of stainless steel and had an outer diameter of 9.5 mm and a heated length of one meter. Bulk-fluid temperature of the coolant at the inlet and the outlet of the test section and the temperature profile of the central heated element were recorded using thermocouples. For comparison, bulk-fluid, and sheath temperature profiles were calculated using various correlations and results were compared with the experimental values. (author)
Through silicon vias filled with planarized carbon nanotube bundles.
Wang, Teng; Jeppson, Kjell; Olofsson, Niklas; Campbell, Eleanor E B; Liu, Johan
2009-12-02
The feasibility of using carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles as the fillers of through silicon vias (TSVs) has been demonstrated. CNT bundles are synthesized directly inside TSVs by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD). The growth of CNTs in vias is found to be highly dependent on the geometric dimensions and arrangement patterns of the vias at atmospheric pressure. The CNT-Si structure is planarized by a combined lapping and polishing process to achieve both a high removal rate and a fine surface finish. Electrical tests of the CNT TSVs have been performed and their electrical resistance was found to be in the few hundred ohms range. The reasons for the high electrical resistance have been discussed and possible methods to decrease the electrical resistance have been proposed.
Pressure effects on single wall carbon nanotube bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teredesai, P.V. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Physics; Sood, A.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Physics; Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur Campus, Jakkur (India); Sharma, S.M.; Karmakar, S.; Sikka, S.K. [High Pressure Physics Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C.N.R. [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur Campus, Jakkur (India)
2001-01-01
We report high pressure Raman studies on single wall carbon nanotube bundles under hydrostatic conditions using two different pressure transmitting media, alcohol mixture and pure water. The radial and tangential modes show a blue shift when SWNT bundle is immersed in the liquids at ambient pressures. The pressure dependence of the radial modes is the same in both liquids. However, the pressure derivatives d{omega}/dP of the tangential modes are slightly higher for the water medium. Raman results are compared with studies under non-hydrostatic conditions and with recent high-pressure X-ray studies. It is seen that the mode frequencies of the recovered sample after pressure cycling from 26 GPa are downshifted by {proportional_to}7-10 cm{sup -1} as compared to the starting sample. (orig.)
Bundle adjustment with raw inertial observations in UAV applications
Cucci, Davide Antonio; Rehak, Martin; Skaloud, Jan
2017-08-01
It is well known that accurate aerial position and attitude control is beneficial for image orientation in airborne photogrammetry. The aerial control is traditionally obtained by Kalman filtering/smoothing inertial and GNSS observations prior to the bundle-adjustment. However, in Micro Aerial Vehicles this process may result in poor attitude determination due to the limited quality of the inertial sensors, large alignment uncertainty and residual correlations between sensor biases and initial attitude. We propose to include the raw inertial observations directly into the bundle-adjustment instead of as position and attitude weighted observations from a separate inertial/GNSS fusion step. The necessary observation models are derived in detail within the context of the so called ;Dynamic Networks;. We examine different real world cases and we show that the proposed approach is superior to the established processing pipeline in challenging scenarios such as mapping in corridors and in areas where the reception of GNSS signals is denied.
An improved partial bundle method for linearly constrained minimax problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunming Tang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved partial bundle method for solving linearly constrained minimax problems. In order to reduce the number of component function evaluations, we utilize a partial cutting-planes model to substitute for the traditional one. At each iteration, only one quadratic programming subproblem needs to be solved to obtain a new trial point. An improved descent test criterion is introduced to simplify the algorithm. The method produces a sequence of feasible trial points, and ensures that the objective function is monotonically decreasing on the sequence of stability centers. Global convergence of the algorithm is established. Moreover, we utilize the subgradient aggregation strategy to control the size of the bundle and therefore overcome the difficulty of computation and storage. Finally, some preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is effective.
Curved Space-Times by Crystallization of Liquid Fiber Bundles
Hélein, Frédéric; Vey, Dimitri
2017-01-01
Motivated by the search for a Hamiltonian formulation of Einstein equations of gravity which depends in a minimal way on choices of coordinates, nor on a choice of gauge, we develop a multisymplectic formulation on the total space of the principal bundle of orthonormal frames on the 4-dimensional space-time. This leads quite naturally to a new theory which takes place on 10-dimensional manifolds. The fields are pairs of ((α ,ω ),π), where (α ,ω ) is a 1-form with coefficients in the Lie algebra of the Poincaré group and π is an 8-form with coefficients in the dual of this Lie algebra. The dynamical equations derive from a simple variational principle and imply that the 10-dimensional manifold looks locally like the total space of a fiber bundle over a 4-dimensional base manifold. Moreover this base manifold inherits a metric and a connection which are solutions of a system of Einstein-Cartan equations.
Frobenius Pull Backs of Vector Bundles in Higher Dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V Trivedi
2012-11-01
We prove that for a smooth projective variety of arbitrary dimension and for a vector bundle over , the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of and the slope of the destabilizing sheaf of the cotangent bundle of ). We also recall some examples, due to Raynaud and Monsky, to show that some lower bound on is necessary. We also give a bound on the instability degree of the Frobenius pull back of in terms of the instability degree of and well defined invariants of .
Wu, Jing; Wang, Heng; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jiong
2016-08-15
The actin bundle is an array of linear actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling proteins, but its assembly and dynamics are not as well understood as those of the branched actin network. Here we used the Drosophila bristle as a model system to study actin bundle formation. We found that cofilin, a major actin disassembly factor of the branched actin network, promotes the formation and positioning of actin bundles in the developing bristles. Loss of function of cofilin or AIP1, a cofactor of cofilin, each resulted in increased F-actin levels and severe defects in actin bundle organization, with the defects from cofilin deficiency being more severe. Further analyses revealed that cofilin likely regulates actin bundle formation and positioning by the following means. First, cofilin promotes a large G-actin pool both locally and globally, likely ensuring rapid actin polymerization for bundle initiation and growth. Second, cofilin limits the size of a nonbundled actin-myosin network to regulate the positioning of actin bundles. Third, cofilin prevents incorrect assembly of branched and myosin-associated actin filament into bundles. Together these results demonstrate that the interaction between the dynamic dendritic actin network and the assembling actin bundles is critical for actin bundle formation and needs to be closely regulated.
HYDRODISSECTION FOR PRESERVATION OF NEUROVASCULAR BUNDLE DURING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. S. Gevorgyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy is one of the high-tech operations in urology, and the challenge of the surgeon is not only to remove the prostate tumor, but also to provide a high quality of life. The fact that most questions devoted from patients in a conversation with the surgeon before the operation are devoted to this issue, shows the importance and relevance. At present, the diagnostic methods allow significantly more likely to detect early prostate cancer, making finding and treatment of these patients more affordable and allows to apply this operation.Lately, it seems urgent to explore the possibility of water jet dissection in the field of urology, in particular, for nerve-sparing prostatectomy. Preservation of erectile function depends largely on the quality of separating the neurovascular bundle. Standard use of electrocautery is associated with damage to the neurovascular bundle. When performing operations using water-jet mobilization of prostate the selective dissection of tissue is performed. This avoids injury of neurovascular bundle and further postoperative complications. The use of this technique may allow the surgeon to provide a more accurate mobilization prostate and selectively controlled intersection vessels heading to the prostate from the neurovascular bundle, reduce intraoperative blood loss, maintaining continence, erectile function.This literature review is considered by the experience of using nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy using a water-jet dissector, estimated intraoperative parameters using this method.However, we have the lack of extensive research capabilities of this technique when performing nerve-preserving radical prostatectomy, that does not allow to make a comprehensive presentation on the benefits of this technique and its effects on erectile function and quality of urination, further study of this issue in such a difficult category of patients.
A review on saturated boiling of liquids on tube bundles
Swain, Abhilas; Das, Mihir Kumar
2014-05-01
A review of recent investigation on boiling of saturated liquids over plain and enhanced tube bundles has been carried out taking the earlier review works as reference point. The experimental observations of various geometry and performance parameters studied by researchers are analyzed keeping current demand of industries in design and development of compact, efficient heat exchanging devices. The study shows that tube spacing plays an important role in determination of compactness of the heat exchanger.
Input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)
1998-06-01
This report describs the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundle using CASS(Candu thermalhydraulic Analysis by Subchannel approacheS) code which has been developed for subchannel analysis of CANDU fuel channel. CASS code can give the different calculation results according to users' input modelling. Hence, the objective of this report provide the background information of input modelling, the accuracy of input data and gives the confidence of calculation results. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.
Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis
Spracklen, Andrew J.; Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Tootle, Tina L.
2014-01-01
Prostaglandins (PGs)—lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes—regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton—temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin ...
ETA INVARIANTS, DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS AND FLAT VECTOR BUNDLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J.M.BISMUT
2005-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to give a refinement of the Atiyah-Singer families index theorem at the level of differential characters. Also a Riemann-Roch-Grothendieck theorem for the direct image of flat vector bundles by proper submersions is proved,with Chern classes with coefficients in C/Q. These results are much related to prior work of Gillet-Soule, Bismut-Lott and Lott.
Double bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: surgical technique and results.
Fanelli, Gregory C; Beck, John D; Edson, Craig J
2010-12-01
The keys to successful posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are to identify and treat all pathology, use strong graft material, accurately place tunnels in anatomic insertion sites, minimize graft bending, use a mechanical graft tensioning device, use primary and back-up graft fixation, and use the appropriate postoperative rehabilitation program. Adherence to these technical principles results in successful single and double-bundle arthroscopic transtibial tunnel posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction based upon stress radiography, arthrometer, knee ligament rating scales, and patient satisfaction measurements.
Image processing for cameras with fiber bundle image relay.
Olivas, Stephen J; Arianpour, Ashkan; Stamenov, Igor; Morrison, Rick; Stack, Ron A; Johnson, Adam R; Agurok, Ilya P; Ford, Joseph E
2015-02-10
Some high-performance imaging systems generate a curved focal surface and so are incompatible with focal plane arrays fabricated by conventional silicon processing. One example is a monocentric lens, which forms a wide field-of-view high-resolution spherical image with a radius equal to the focal length. Optical fiber bundles have been used to couple between this focal surface and planar image sensors. However, such fiber-coupled imaging systems suffer from artifacts due to image sampling and incoherent light transfer by the fiber bundle as well as resampling by the focal plane, resulting in a fixed obscuration pattern. Here, we describe digital image processing techniques to improve image quality in a compact 126° field-of-view, 30 megapixel panoramic imager, where a 12 mm focal length F/1.35 lens made of concentric glass surfaces forms a spherical image surface, which is fiber-coupled to six discrete CMOS focal planes. We characterize the locally space-variant system impulse response at various stages: monocentric lens image formation onto the 2.5 μm pitch fiber bundle, image transfer by the fiber bundle, and sensing by a 1.75 μm pitch backside illuminated color focal plane. We demonstrate methods to mitigate moiré artifacts and local obscuration, correct for sphere to plane mapping distortion and vignetting, and stitch together the image data from discrete sensors into a single panorama. We compare processed images from the prototype to those taken with a 10× larger commercial camera with comparable field-of-view and light collection.
The Business of Bundling: Joining Forces on Joint Replacement.
Kaldy, Joanne
2016-03-01
A mandated bundled-payment program for joint replacement is in place in several regions across the country, and practitioners such as pharmacists are still sorting out their roles in this federal initiative. To get involved, pharmacists need to establish connections with area hospitals and physician groups to promote and document their ability to manage medications, reduce and eliminate medication-related problems and rehospitalizations, and work with patients to maximize adherence and improve communication for those undergoing hip and knee replacement.
"Bundle Data" Approach at GES DISC Targeting Natural Hazards
Shie, C. L.; Shen, S.; Kempler, S. J.
2015-12-01
Severe natural phenomena such as hurricane, volcano, blizzard, flood and drought have the potential to cause immeasurable property damages, great socioeconomic impact, and tragic loss of human life. From searching to assessing the "Big", i.e., massive and heterogeneous scientific data (particularly, satellite and model products) in order to investigate those natural hazards, it has, however, become a daunting task for Earth scientists and applications researchers, especially during recent decades. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has served "Big" Earth science data, and the pertinent valuable information and services to the aforementioned users of diverse communities for years. In order to help and guide our users to online readily (i.e., with a minimum effort) acquire their requested data from our enormous resource at GES DISC for studying their targeted hazard/event, we have thus initiated a "Bundle Data" approach in 2014, first targeting the hurricane event/topic. We have recently worked on new topics such as volcano and blizzard. The "bundle data" of a specific hazard/event is basically a sophisticated integrated data package consisting of a series of proper datasets containing a group of relevant ("knowledge-based") data variables readily accessible to users via a system-prearranged table linking those data variables to the proper datasets (URLs). This online approach has been developed by utilizing a few existing data services such as Mirador as search engine; Giovanni for visualization; and OPeNDAP for data access, etc. The online "Data Cookbook" site at GES DISC is the current host for the "bundle data". We are now also planning on developing an "Automated Virtual Collection Framework" that shall eventually accommodate the "bundle data", as well as further improve our management in "Big Data".
Cerebrocerebellar system and Arnold's bundle: A tractographic study: preliminary results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliasz Engelhardt
Full Text Available Abstract The cerebellum, traditionally considered a structure involved in balance and movement control, was more recently recognized as important in cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions. These functions appear to be related to the more recent parts of the cerebellum that belong to the cerebrocerebellar system. One of the key segments of this system is the (prefronto-[penduncule]-pontine projection that represents the Arnold's bundle. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography (DTI-TR has permitted in vivo virtual dissection of white matter tracts, including those of the cerebellar. Objective: To study the fronto-[peduncule]-pontine projection (Arnold's bundle, with DTI-TR. Methods: Ten normal subjects were included (mean age 30 years. Standard acquisitions in three planes were obtained with a 1.5T GE Signa Horizon scanner, complemented with DTI acquisitions. Post-processing and analysis was performed using an ADW 4.3 workstation running Functool 4.5.3 (GE Medical Systems. A single ROI was placed on the medial third of the cerebral peduncle base, considered the site of convergence of the fibers of Arnold's bundle, bilaterally. Results: Twenty tractograms were obtained. All were constituted by a significant number of fibers in correspondence to the frontal lobe, and part of them anterior to the coronal plane at the anterior commissure, which characterizes them as associated to the prefrontal region. Conclusions: For the first time, frontal lobe related projections were systematically revealed with DTI-TR seeded from cerebral peduncle base ROIs. They showed anatomic coherence with Arnold's bundle, which includes the prefrontopontine segment of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar path, one of the components of the cerebrocerebellar system, acknowledged as fundamental for non-motor functions such as cognition, emotion and behavior.
Topological Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Pseudo-Particle Bundles
Payandeh, Farrin
2016-10-01
Exploiting a topological approach, we discuss the outstanding Aharonov-Bohm effect and try to explain it in the context of the principal P(M, U(1)) bundle. We show that this could be done by excluding a specific region from the main manifold which acts as the solenoid around which the effect is observed. Moreover, we discuss the impacts of pseudo-particles in this topological approach.
Bundle Data Approach at GES DISC Targeting Natural Hazards
Shie, Chung-Lin; Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.
2015-01-01
Severe natural phenomena such as hurricane, volcano, blizzard, flood and drought have the potential to cause immeasurable property damages, great socioeconomic impact, and tragic loss of human life. From searching to assessing the Big, i.e., massive and heterogeneous scientific data (particularly, satellite and model products) in order to investigate those natural hazards, it has, however, become a daunting task for Earth scientists and applications researchers, especially during recent decades. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has served Big Earth science data, and the pertinent valuable information and services to the aforementioned users of diverse communities for years. In order to help and guide our users to online readily (i.e., with a minimum effort) acquire their requested data from our enormous resource at GES DISC for studying their targeted hazard event, we have thus initiated a Bundle Data approach in 2014, first targeting the hurricane event topic. We have recently worked on new topics such as volcano and blizzard. The bundle data of a specific hazard event is basically a sophisticated integrated data package consisting of a series of proper datasets containing a group of relevant (knowledge--based) data variables readily accessible to users via a system-prearranged table linking those data variables to the proper datasets (URLs). This online approach has been developed by utilizing a few existing data services such as Mirador as search engine; Giovanni for visualization; and OPeNDAP for data access, etc. The online Data Cookbook site at GES DISC is the current host for the bundle data. We are now also planning on developing an Automated Virtual Collection Framework that shall eventually accommodate the bundle data, as well as further improve our management in Big Data.
Analysis of Subchannel and Rod Bundle PSBT Experiments with CATHARE 3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Valette
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of CATHARE 3 against PWR subchannel and rod bundle tests of the PSBT benchmark. Noticeable measurements were the following: void fraction in single subchannel and rod bundle, multiple liquid temperatures at subchannel exit in rod bundle, and DNB power and location in rod bundle. All these results were obtained both in steady and transient conditions. Void fraction values are satisfactory predicted by CATHARE 3 in single subchannels with the pipe module. More dispersed predictions of void values are obtained in rod bundles with the CATHARE 3 3D module at subchannel scale. Single-phase liquid mixing tests and DNB tests in rod bundle are also analyzed. After calibrating the mixing in liquid single phase with specific tests, DNB tests using void mixing give mitigated results, perhaps linked to inappropriate use of CHF lookup tables in such rod bundles with many spacers.
Mass Transport Through Carbon Nanotube-Polystyrene Bundles
Lin, Rongzhou; Tran, Tuan
2016-05-01
Carbon nanotubes have been widely used as test channels to study nanofluidic transport, which has been found to have distinctive properties compared to transport of fluids in macroscopic channels. A long-standing challenge in the study of mass transport through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is the determination of flow enhancement. Various experimental investigations have been conducted to measure the flow rate through CNTs, mainly based on either vertically aligned CNT membranes or individual CNTs. Here, we proposed an alternative approach that can be used to quantify the mass transport through CNTs. This is a simple method relying on the use of carbon nanotube-polystyrene bundles, which are made of CNTs pulled out from a vertically aligned CNT array and glued together by polystyrene. We experimentally showed by using fluorescent tagging that the composite bundles allowed measureable and selective mass transport through CNTs. This type of composite bundle may be useful in various CNT research areas as they are simple to fabricate, less likely to form macroscopic cracks, and offer a high density of CNT pores while maintaining the aligned morphology of CNTs.
Fabrication of CANFLEX bundle kit for irradiation test in NRU
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Moon Sung; Kwon, Hyuk Il; Ji, Chul Goo; Chang, Ho Il; Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun
1997-10-01
CANFLEX bundle kit was prepared at KAERI for the fabrication of complete bundle at AECL. Completed bundle will be used for irradiation test in NRU. Provisions in the `Quality Assurance Manual for HWR Fuel Projects,` `Manufacturing Plan` and `Quality Verification, Inspection and Test Plan` were implemented as appropriately for the preparation of CANFLEX kit. A set of CANFLEX kit consist of 43 fuel sheath of two different sizes with spacers, bearing pads and buttons attached, 2 pieces of end plates and 86 pieces of end caps with two different sizes. All the documents utilized as references for the fabrication such as drawings, specifications, operating instructions, QC instructions and supplier`s certificates are specified in this report. Especially, suppliers` certificates and inspection reports for the purchased material as well as KAERI`s inspection report are integrated as attachments to this report. Attached to this report are supplier`s certificates and KAERI inspection reports for the procured materials and KAERI QC inspection reports for tubes, pads, spacers, buttons, end caps, end plates and fuel sheath. (author). 37 refs.
Conservation of helical bundle structure between the exocyst subunits.
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Nicole J Croteau
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exocyst is a large hetero-octomeric protein complex required for regulating the targeting and fusion of secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. Although the sequence identity between the eight different exocyst subunits is less than 10%, structures of domains of four of the subunits revealed a similar helical bundle topology. Characterization of several of these subunits has been hindered by lack of soluble protein for biochemical and structural studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using advanced hidden Markov models combined with secondary structure predictions, we detect significant sequence similarity between each of the exocyst subunits, indicating that they all contain helical bundle structures. We corroborate these remote homology predictions by identifying and purifying a predicted domain of yeast Sec10p, a previously insoluble exocyst subunit. This domain is soluble and folded with approximately 60% alpha-helicity, in agreement with our predictions, and capable of interacting with several known Sec10p binding partners. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although all eight of the exocyst subunits had been suggested to be composed of similar helical bundles, this has now been validated by our hidden Markov model structure predictions. In addition, these predictions identified protein domains within the exocyst subunits, resulting in creation and characterization of a soluble, folded domain of Sec10p.
Real bundle gerbes, orientifolds and twisted KR-homology
Hekmati, Pedram; Szabo, Richard J; Vozzo, Raymond F
2016-01-01
We introduce a notion of Real bundle gerbes on manifolds equipped with an involution. We elucidate their relation to Jandl gerbes and prove that they are classified by their Real Dixmier-Douady class in Grothendieck's equivariant sheaf cohomology. We show that the Grothendieck group of Real bundle gerbe modules is isomorphic to twisted KR-theory for a torsion Real Dixmier-Douady class. Building on the Baum-Douglas model for K-homology and the orientifold construction in string theory, we introduce geometric cycles for twisted KR-homology groups using Real bundle gerbe modules. We prove that this defines a real-oriented generalised homology theory dual to twisted KR-theory for Real closed manifolds, and more generally for Real finite CW-complexes, for any Real Dixmier-Douady class. This is achieved by defining an explicit natural transformation to analytic twisted KR-homology and proving that it is an isomorphism. Our constructions give a new framework for the classification of orientifolds in string theory, p...
An elastic model for bioinspired design of carbon nanotube bundles
Sun, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Zuoqi; Xu, Yuanjie; Zhang, Yongwei
2015-04-01
Collagen fibers provide a good example of making strong micro- or mesoscale fibers from nanoscale tropocollagen molecules through a staggered and cross-linked organization in a bottom-up manner. Mimicking the architectural features of collagen fibers has been shown to be a promising approach to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers of high performance. In the present work, an elastic model is developed to describe the load transfer and failure propagation within the bioinspired CNT bundles, and to establish the relations of the mechanical properties of the bundles with a number of geometrical and physical parameters such as the CNT aspect ratio and longitudinal gap, interface cross-link density, and the functionalization-induced degradation in CNTs, etc. With the model, the stress distributions along the CNT-CNT interface as well as in every individual CNT are well captured, and the failure propagation along the interface and its effects on the mechanical properties of the CNT bundles are predicted. The work may provide useful guidelines for the design of novel CNT fibers in practice.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Hao; AO Ying-fang; ZHANG Wei-guang; LIU Sheng-yong; ZHANG Ji-ying; YU Jia-kuo
2012-01-01
Background Several techniques have been described for posterior cruciate ligament(PCL)reconstruction.However,double-bundle PCL reconstruction using the quadruple bone-tunnel technique has been seldom reported.The current study investigated this technique,focusing on the anatomy of the femoral and tibial insertions of the anterolateral(AL)and posteromedial(PM)bundles of the PCL.Methods Twenty-two fresh,healthy adult cadaveric knees were dissected and measured.The PCL was divided into the AL bundle and PM bundle at the insertion footprint.The insertion footprints of the AL and PM bundles,their location,size,and the clock positions were measured and described.Results On the femur,the clock position of the footprint of the AL bundle was 11:21±0:23(left)or 0:39±0:23(right),and the PM bundle was 9:50±0:18(left)or 2:10±0:18(right),with the knee flexed at 90 degrees.The distances from the center of the femoral insertions of the AL and PM bundles to the anterior cartilage margins of the medial femoral condyle were(7.79±1.22)mm and(8.36±1.63)mm,respectively.On the tibia,the vertical distances from the center of the tibial insertions of the AL and PM bundles to the tibial articular surface were(3.25±1.20)mm and(6.91±1.57)mm,respectively.Conclusions These results have led to a better definition of the anatomy of the AL and PM bundle footprint of the PCL.The technique of double-bundle PCL reconstruction using quadruple bone-tunnel is feasible.Application of these data during PCL reconstruction using the quadruple bone-tunnel technique may help optimize knee stability.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PAN Yu; ZHANG Li-quan; CHEN Xu-qing; XIE Hua; DENG Lei; LI Xiang-long; ZHANG Xiao-dong; HAN Li-xin; YANG Feng-ping; XUE Jing
2015-01-01
Thebsd-pg (bundle sheath defective pale green) mutant is a novel maize mutation, controled by a single recessive gene, which was isolated from offspring of maize plantlets regenerated from tissue calus of the maize inbred line 501. The char-acterization was that the biogenesis and development of the chloroplasts was mainly interfered in bundle sheath cels rather than in mesophyl cels. For mapping thebsd-pg, an F2 population was derived from a cross between the mutant bsd-pg and an inbred line Xianzao 17. Using speciifc locus ampliifed fragment sequencing (SLAF-Seq) technology, a total of 5783 polymorphic SLAFs were analysed with 1771 homozygous aleles between maternal and paternal parents. There were 49 SLAFs, which had a ratio of paternal to maternal aleles of 2:1 in bulked normal lines, and three trait-related candidate regions were obtained on chromosome 1 with a size of 3.945 Mb. For the ifne mapping, new simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were designed by utilizing information of the B73 genome and the candidate regions were localized a size of 850934 bp on chromosome 1 between umc1603 and umc1395, including 35 candidate genes. These results provide a foundation for the cloning ofbsd-pg by map-based strategy, which is essential for revealing the functional differentiation and coordination of the two cel types, and helps to elucidate a comprehensive understanding of the C4 photosynthesis pathway and related processes in maize leaves.
Umbilic Lines in Orientational Order
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Thomas Machon
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Three-dimensional orientational order in systems whose ground states possess nonzero gradients typically exhibits linelike structures or defects: λ lines in cholesterics or Skyrmion tubes in ferromagnets, for example. Here, we show that such lines can be identified as a set of natural geometric singularities in a unit vector field, the generalization of the umbilic points of a surface. We characterize these lines in terms of the natural vector bundles that the order defines and show that they give a way to localize and identify Skyrmion distortions in chiral materials—in particular, that they supply a natural representative of the Poincaré dual of the cocycle describing the topology. Their global structure leads to the definition of a self-linking number and helicity integral which relates the linking of umbilic lines to the Hopf invariant of the texture.
Robustness of power systems under a democratic-fiber-bundle-like model
Yaǧan, Osman
2015-06-01
We consider a power system with N transmission lines whose initial loads (i.e., power flows) L1,...,LN are independent and identically distributed with PL(x ) =P [L ≤x ] . The capacity Ci defines the maximum flow allowed on line i and is assumed to be given by Ci=(1 +α ) Li , with α >0 . We study the robustness of this power system against random attacks (or failures) that target a p fraction of the lines, under a democratic fiber-bundle-like model. Namely, when a line fails, the load it was carrying is redistributed equally among the remaining lines. Our contributions are as follows. (i) We show analytically that the final breakdown of the system always takes place through a first-order transition at the critical attack size p=1 -E/[L ] maxx(P [L >x ](α x +E [L |L >x ]) ) , where E [.] is the expectation operator; (ii) we derive conditions on the distribution PL(x ) for which the first-order breakdown of the system occurs abruptly without any preceding diverging rate of failure; (iii) we provide a detailed analysis of the robustness of the system under three specific load distributions—uniform, Pareto, and Weibull—showing that with the minimum load Lmin and mean load E [L ] fixed, Pareto distribution is the worst (in terms of robustness) among the three, whereas Weibull distribution is the best with shape parameter selected relatively large; (iv) we provide numerical results that confirm our mean-field analysis; and (v) we show that p is maximized when the load distribution is a Dirac delta function centered at E [L ] , i.e., when all lines carry the same load. This last finding is particularly surprising given that heterogeneity is known to lead to high robustness against random failures in many other systems.
HLM fuel pin bundle experiments in the CIRCE pool facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martelli, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.martelli@ing.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Pisa (Italy); Forgione, Nicola [University of Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Pisa (Italy); Di Piazza, Ivan; Tarantino, Mariano [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone (Italy)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • The experimental results represent the first set of values for LBE pool facility. • Heat transfer is investigated for a 37-pin electrical bundle cooled by LBE. • Experimental data are presented together with a detailed error analysis. • Nu is computed as a function of the Pe and compared with correlations. • Experimental Nu is about 25% lower than Nu derived from correlations. - Abstract: Since Lead-cooled Fast Reactors (LFR) have been conceptualized in the frame of GEN IV International Forum (GIF), great interest has focused on the development and testing of new technologies related to HLM nuclear reactors. In this frame the Integral Circulation Experiment (ICE) test section has been installed into the CIRCE pool facility and suitable experiments have been carried out aiming to fully investigate the heat transfer phenomena in grid spaced fuel pin bundles providing experimental data in support of European fast reactor development. In particular, the fuel pin bundle simulator (FPS) cooled by lead bismuth eutectic (LBE), has been conceived with a thermal power of about 1 MW and a uniform linear power up to 25 kW/m, relevant values for a LFR. It consists of 37 fuel pins (electrically simulated) placed on a hexagonal lattice with a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.8. The FPS was deeply instrumented by several thermocouples. In particular, two sections of the FPS were instrumented in order to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient along the bundle as well as the cladding temperature in different ranks of sub-channels. Nusselt number in the central sub-channel was therefore calculated as a function of the Peclet number and the obtained results were compared to Nusselt numbers obtained from convective heat transfer correlations available in literature on Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM). Results reported in the present work, represent the first set of experimental data concerning fuel pin bundle behaviour in a heavy liquid metal pool, both in forced and
Sadoghi, Patrick; Mueller, Peter E.; Jansson, Volkmar; van Griensven, Martin; Kroepfl, Albert; Fischmeister, Martin F.
2011-01-01
The study hypothesis was that the outcome of semitendinosus gracilis double bundle (STG-DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is advantageous in terms of clinical results and restoration of anterior-posterior and rotational laxity in comparison to bone-patellar tendon-bone single-bundl
Double-bundle depiction of the anterior cruciate ligament at 3 Tesla
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adriaensen, M.E.A.P.M. [Atrium Medical Center Parkstad, Department of Radiology, Heerlen (Netherlands); Hogan, B. [Sports Surgery Clinic, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Al-Bulushi, H.I.J. [Armed Forces Hospital, Department of Radiology, Muscat (Oman); Kavanagh, E.C. [Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland)
2012-07-15
Magnetic resonance imaging on 3 Tesla (3T MRI) with arthroscopic correlation has proven to adequately identify the anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB) in cadaver knees. The purpose of this study was to describe the depiction of ACL bundle anatomy on 3T MRI in daily practice. In a retrospective cohort study, we included 50 consecutive patients who underwent standard 3T MRI of the knee and had an intact ACL. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed all scans for depiction of ACL bundle anatomy using standardized forms. Descriptive statistics were used. Twenty-three right knees (46%) and 27 left knees (54%) were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 35 years (range 12 to 68 years); 37 patients were male (74%). ACL bundle anatomy was best depicted in the axial plane in 44 knees (88%) and in the coronal plane in six knees (12%). Two bundles were seen in 47 knees (94%). The AMB was completely seen in 45 knees (90%). The PLB was completely seen in 40 knees (80%). Both bundles were completely seen in 37 knees (76%). The double-bundle anatomy of the ACL is visualized in 94% of patients on 3T MRI. Because of potentially associated clinical benefits, we advocate to report separately on the anteromedial bundle and posterolateral bundle in case of anterior cruciate ligament injury of the knee. (orig.)
Devarapally, Santhosh R; Arora, Sameer; Ahmad, Ali; Sood, Mike; El Sergany, Amaar; Sacchi, Terrence; Saul, Barry; Gaglani, Rahul; Heitner, John
2016-10-01
Right ventricular (RV) failure has proven to be independently associated with adverse outcomes. Electrocardiographic parameters assessing RV function are largely unknown, making echocardiography the first line for RV function assessment. It is however, limited by geometrical assumptions and is inferior to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) which is widely regarded as the most accurate tool for assessing RV function. We seek to determine the correlation of ECG parameters of right bundle branch block (RBBB) with RV ejection fraction (EF) and RV dimensions using the CMRI. QRS duration, R amplitude and R' duration were obtained from precordial lead V1; S duration and amplitude were obtained from lead I and AVL. RV systolic dysfunction was defined as RV EF diagrams between individual CMRI parameters and ECG parameters were done using medcalc for windows, version 12.5. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. RV systolic dysfunction group was found to have larger RV end systolic volumes (90±42 vs. 59±40 mL, P=0.02). ECG evaluation of RV dysfunction group revealed longer R' duration (103±22 vs. 84±18 msec, P=0.005) as compared to the control group. The specificity of R' duration >100 msec to detect RV systolic dysfunction was found to be 93%. R' duration was found to have an inverse correlation with RV EF (r=-0.49, P=0.007). Larger RV end systolic volumes seen with RV dysfunction can affect the latter part of right bundle branch leading to prolonged R' duration. We here found prolonged R' duration in lead V1 to have a highly specific inverse correlation to RV systolic function. ECG can be used as an inexpensive tool for RV function assessment and should be used alongside echocardiography to evaluate RV dysfunction when CMRI is not available.
Extensional bundle waveguide techniques for measuring flow of hot fluids.
Lynnworth, Lawrence C; Liu, Yi; Umina, John A
2005-04-01
A bundle of acoustically slender metal rods, each thin compared to wavelength, tightly packed within a sheath, and welded closed at each end, provides a dispersion-free waveguide assembly that acts as a thermal buffer between a transducer and the hot fluid medium the flow of which is to be measured. Gas and steam flow applications have ranged up to 600 degrees C. Liquid applications have ranged from cryogenic (-160 degrees C) to 500 degrees C and include intermittent two-phase flows. The individual rods comprising the bundle usually are approximately one millimeter in diameter. The sheath, made of a pipe or tube, typically has an outside diameter of 12.7 to about 33 mm and usually is about 300 mm long. Materials for the sheath and bundle are selected to satisfy requirements of compatibility with the fluid as well as for acoustic properties. Corrosion-resistant alloys such as 316SS and titanium are commonly used. The buffers are used with transducers that are metal-encapsulated and certified for use in hazardous areas. They operate at a frequency in the range of 0.1 to 1 MHz. The radiating end of the buffer is usually flat and perpendicular to the buffer's main axis. In some cases the end of the buffer is stepped or angled. Angling the radiating faces at approximately 2 degrees to overcome beam drift at Mach 0.1 recently contributed to solving a high-temperature high-velocity flow measurement problem. The temperature in this situation was 300 degrees C, and the gas molecular weight was about 95, with pressure 0.9 to 1.1 bar.
"Bundle" Practices and Ventilator-Associated Events: Not Enough.
O'Horo, John C; Lan, Haitao; Thongprayoon, Charat; Schenck, Louis; Ahmed, Adil; Dziadzko, Mikhail
2016-12-01
OBJECTIVE Ventilator-associated events (VAEs) are nosocomial events correlated with length of stay, costs, and mortality. Current ventilator bundle practices target the older definition of ventilator-associated pneumonia and have not been systematically evaluated for their impact on VAEs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Tertiary medical center between January 2012 and August 2014. PARTICIPANTS All adult patients ventilated for at least 24 hours at our institution. INTERVENTIONS We conducted univariate analyses for compliance with each element; we focused on VAEs occurring within a 2-day window of failure to meet any ventilator bundle element. We used Cox proportional hazard models to assess the effect of stress ulcer prophylaxis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis, oral care, and sedation breaks on VAEs. We adjusted models for gender, age, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scores. RESULTS Our cohort comprised 2,660 patients with 16,858 ventilator days and 77 VAEs. Adjusting for APACHE score and gender, only oral care was associated with a reduction in the risk of VAE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.77). The DVT prophylaxis and sedation breaks did not show any significant impact on VAEs. Stress ulcer prophylaxis trended toward an increased risk of VAE (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.00-2.56). CONCLUSION Although limited by a low baseline rate of VAEs, existing ventilator bundle practices do not appear to target VAEs well. Oral care is clearly important, but the impact of DVT prophylaxis, sedation breaks, and especially stress ulcer prophylaxis are questionable at best. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1453-1457.
Early Lessons on Bundled Payment at an Academic Medical Center.
Jubelt, Lindsay E; Goldfeld, Keith S; Blecker, Saul B; Chung, Wei-Yi; Bendo, John A; Bosco, Joseph A; Errico, Thomas J; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony K; Iorio, Richard; Slover, James D; Horwitz, Leora I
2017-09-01
Orthopaedic care is shifting to alternative payment models. We examined whether New York University Langone Medical Center achieved savings under the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative. This study was a difference-in-differences study of Medicare fee-for-service patients hospitalized from April 2011 to June 2012 and October 2013 to December 2014 for lower extremity joint arthroplasty, cardiac valve procedures, or spine surgery (intervention groups), or for congestive heart failure, major bowel procedures, medical peripheral vascular disorders, medical noninfectious orthopaedic care, or stroke (control group). We examined total episode costs and costs by service category. We included 2,940 intervention episodes and 1,474 control episodes. Relative to the trend in the control group, lower extremity joint arthroplasty episodes achieved the greatest savings: adjusted average episode cost during the intervention period decreased by $3,017 (95% confidence interval [CI], -$6,066 to $31). For cardiac procedures, the adjusted average episode cost decreased by $2,999 (95% CI, -$8,103 to $2,105), and for spinal fusion, it increased by $8,291 (95% CI, $2,879 to $13,703). Savings were driven predominantly by shifting postdischarge care from inpatient rehabilitation facilities to home. Spinal fusion index admission costs increased because of changes in surgical technique. Under bundled payment, New York University Langone Medical Center decreased total episode costs in patients undergoing lower extremity joint arthroplasty. For patients undergoing cardiac valve procedures, evidence of savings was not as strong, and for patients undergoing spinal fusion, total episode costs increased. For all three conditions, the proportion of patients referred to inpatient rehabilitation facilities upon discharge decreased. These changes were not associated with an increase in index hospital length of stay or readmission rate
Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle. [LMFBR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.
1977-06-01
The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers.
Testing the BUNDLE Experiment for Microgravity Disturbance Characterization
Gattis, Christy; Engberg, Bob
2000-01-01
A primary objective of the International Space Station is to provide a premier facility for microgravity research. There are many disturbances on board the Station that can disturb the quality of the microgravity environment, including disturbances caused by both system and payload hardware. Disturbances within experiments themselves can also affect the quality of their own environment. The primary functions of the Bridgman Unidirectional Dendrites in Liquids Experiment (BUNDLE) are to melt, directionally solidify, and perform in-situ quench of metallic alloys, providing data to aid in understanding the effects of the microgravity environment on the characteristics of these processed metals. Quenching of the samples in the BUNDLE furnace is accomplished by rapidly introducing high pressure helium into the furnace chamber. This type of quench will induce sample vibrations which may be large enough to adversely affect sample quality. The primary objective of the test described in this presentation was to determine the acceleration imparted on the BUNDLE sample during helium quench. From this information, the science community can better assess whether this method of quench will allow them to obtain the data they need. Utilizing breadboard hardware, the sample quench sequence was conducted. Data was collected from accelerometers located on the breadboard hardware and inside the sample cartridge. The test data indicated that the maximum acceleration achieved by the sample was 0.325 g, which is much higher than the desired microgravity (10(exp -6) g) environment. However, this acceleration level occurred over a time period of less than 0.1 second. Because this time period is so short, there should be no detrimental effects to dendrite growth. This result was consistent with the observations of the experiment scientists, who are satisfied with the results of previous dendrite growth in this breadboard unit.
Aseptic insertion of central venous lines to reduce bacteraemia.
Burrell, Anthony R; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Murgo, Margherita; Calabria, Eda; Pantle, Annette C; Herkes, Robert
2011-06-06
To reduce the rate of central line-associated bacteraemia (CLAB). A collaborative quality improvement project in intensive care units (ICUs) to promote aseptic insertion of central venous lines (CVLs). A checklist was used to record compliance with all aspects of aseptic CVL insertion, with maximal sterile barrier precautions for clinicians ("clinician bundle") and patients ("patient bundle"). CLAB was identified and reported using a standard surveillance definition. Patients and clinicians in 37 ICUs in New South Wales, July 2007-December 2008. Compliance with aseptic CVL insertion; rates of CLAB. 10 890 CVL checklists were reviewed for compliance with the clinician and patient bundles: compliance with aseptic CVL insertion improved significantly (P improvement and audit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JONG-YOUL PARK
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In terms of safety and the efficient management of spent fuel storage, detecting failed fuel is one of the most important tasks in a CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU reactor operation. It has been successfully demonstrated that in a CANDU reactor, on-power failed fuel detection and location systems, along with alarm area gamma monitors, can detect and locate defective and suspect fuel bundles before discharging them from the reactor to the spent fuel storage bay. In the reception bay, however, only visual inspection has been used to identify suspect bundles. Gaseous fission product and delayed neutron monitoring systems cannot precisely distinguish failed fuel elements from each fuel bundle. This study reports the use of a sipping system in a CANDU reactor for the integrity assessment of spent fuel bundles. The integrity assessment of spent fuel bundles using this sipping system has shown promise as a nondestructive test for detecting a defective fuel bundle in a CANDU reactor.
BEAM 1.7: development for modelling fuel element and bundle buckling strength
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, G.; Xu, S.; Xu, Z.; Paul, U.K. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)
2010-07-01
This paper describes BEAM, an AECL developed computer program, used to assess mechanical integrity of CANDU fuel bundles. The BEAM code has been developed to satisfy the need for buckling strength analysis of fuel bundles. Buckling refers to the phenomenon where a compressive axial load is large enough that a small lateral load can cause large lateral deflections. The buckling strength refers to the critical compressive axial load at which lateral instability is reached. The buckling strength analysis has practical significance for the design of fuel bundles, where the buckling strength of a fuel element/bundle is assessed so that the conditions leading to bundle jamming in the pressure tube are excluded. This paper presents the development and qualification of the BEAM code, with emphasis on the theoretical background and code implementation of the newly developed fuel element/bundle buckling strength model. (author)
Semistable vector bundles and Tannaka duality from a computational point of view
Kaid, Almar
2011-01-01
We develop a semistability algorithm for vector bundles which are given as a kernel of a surjective morphism between splitting bundles on the projective space over an algebraically closed field K. This class of bundles is a generalization of syzygy bundles. We show how to implement this algorithm in a computer algebra system. Further we give applications, mainly concerning the computation of Tannaka dual groups of stable vector bundles of degree 0 on the projective space and on certain smooth complete intersection curves. We also use our algorithm to close a gap in a recent work of L. Costa, P. Macias Marques and R. M. Miro-Roig regarding the stability of the syzygy bundle of general forms. Finally, we apply our algorithm to provide a computational approach to tight closure. All algorithms are implemented in the computer algebra system CoCoA
Gauge Theories and Fiber Bundles: Definitions, Pictures, and Results
Marsh, Adam
2016-01-01
A pedagogical but concise overview of fiber bundles and their connections is provided, in the context of gauge theories in physics. The emphasis is on defining and visualizing concepts and relationships between them, as well as listing common confusions, alternative notations and jargon, and relevant facts and theorems. Special attention is given to detailed figures and geometric viewpoints, some of which would seem to be novel to the literature. Topics are avoided which are well covered in textbooks, such as historical motivations, proofs and derivations, and tools for practical calculations. The present paper is best read in conjunction with the similar paper on Riemannian geometry cited herein.
A Universal Family of Deformations for the Uniformising Higgs bundle
Dalakov, Peter
2011-01-01
Fix a simple complex Lie group G and a principal sl(2,C) subalgebra of Lie(G). Then the moduli space of semi-stable, topologically trivial G-Higgs bundles on a hyperbolic, spin Riemann surface acquires a marked point. This is the unique C*-fixed point on the Hitchin section. We describe a universal analytic family of deformations which provides holomorphic Darboux coordinates in a neighbourhood of the section. This is a special case of a more general deformation-theoretic construction in the spirit of Kuranishi theory. As a toy example of the latter we consider the tautological family of centralisers over the Kostant slice.
Vector-valued automorphic forms and vector bundles
Saber, Hicham
2013-01-01
For an arbitrary discrete group $\\Gamma$ and an $n$-dimensional complex representation $R$ of $\\Gamma$, we prove the existence of $n$ linearly independent vector-valued automorphic forms for $\\Gamma$ with multiplier $R$. To this end, we realize these automorphic forms as sections of a rank $n$ vector bundle attached to a 1-cocycle with coefficients in the sheaf $\\mbox{GL}(n,{\\mathcal O}_X)$, $X$ being the quotient of the Poincar\\'e half-plane by $\\Gamma$ completed with the cusps of $\\Gamma$.
Principal Bundles whose Restrictions to a Curve are Isomorphic
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sudarshan Rajendra Gurjar
2011-05-01
Let be a normal projective variety defined over an algebraically closed field . Let $|O_X(1)|$ be a very ample invertible sheaf on . Let be an affine algebraic group defined over . Let $E_G$ and $F_G$ be two principal -bundles on . Then there exists an integer $n \\gg 0$ (depending on $E_G$ and $F_G$) such that if the restrictions of $E_G$ and $F_G$ to a curve $C\\in |O_X(n)|$ are isomorphic, then they are isomorphic on all of .
On bundles of rank 3 computing Clifford indices
Lange, H
2012-01-01
Let $C$ be a smooth irreducible projective algebraic curve defined over the complex numbers. The notion of the Clifford index of $C$ was extended a few years ago to semistable bundles of any rank. Recent work has been focussed mainly on the rank-2 Clifford index, although interesting results have also been obtained for the case of rank 3. In this paper we extend this work, obtaining improved lower bounds for the rank-3 Clifford index. This allows the first computations of the rank-3 index in non-trivial cases and examples for which the rank-3 index is greater than the rank-2 index.
Visualization of the medial forebrain bundle using diffusion tensor imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ardian eHana
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging is a technique that enables physicians the portrayal of white matter tracts in vivo. We used this technique in order to depict the medial forebrain bundle in 15 consecutive patients between 2012 and 2015. Men and women of all ages were included. There were 6 women and 9 men. The mean age was 58,6 years (39-77. Nine patients were candidates for an eventual deep brain stimulation. Eight of them suffered from Parkinson`s disease and one had multiple sclerosis. The remaining 6 patients suffered from different lesions which were situated in the frontal lobe. These were 2 metastasis, 2 meningiomas, 1 cerebral bleeding and 1 glioblastoma. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI- sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 x 200 mm², slice thickness 2 mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 x 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 x 2 x 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-value was 800 s/mm². The maximal angle was 50°. Additional scanning time was less than 9 minutes. We were able to visualize the medial forebrain bundle in 12 of our patients bilaterally and in the remaining 3 patients we depicted the medial forebrain bundle on one side. It was the contralateral side of the lesion. These were 2 meningiomas and one metastasis. Portrayal of the medial forebrain bundle is possible for everyday routine for neurosurgical interventions. As part of the reward circuitry it might be of substantial importance for neurosurgeons during deep brain stimulation in patients with psychiatric disorders. Furthermore it might explain at a certain extent character changes in patients with lesions in the frontal lobe. Surgery in this part of the brain should always take the preservation of this white matter tract into account.
Bundle adjustment for data processing of theodolite industrial surveying system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹峥嵘; 丁晓利; 曾卓乔; 何凭宗
2001-01-01
The photogrammetric bundle adjustment was used in data processing of electronic theodolite industrial surveying system by converting angular observations into virtual photo coordinates. The developed algorithm has ability of precision estimation and data-snooping, do not need initial values of exterior orientation elements and object point coordinates. The form of control condition for the system is quite flexible. Neither centering nor leveling is the theodolite needed and the lay-out of theodolite position is flexible when the system is used for precise survey. Experiments carried out in test field verify the validity of the data processing method.
Left bundle branch block: a rare ECG manifestation of hyperkalemia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Venkata Madhav M
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A 20-year-old female patient with chronic kidney disease was brought to our emergency medical department with symptoms of pain in chest and abdomen, vomitings. Laboratory testing revealed serum potassium 7.7 mEq/L, serum creatinine 9.1 mg/dL. Electrocardiogram (ECG showed left bundle branch block (LBBB pattern with left axis deviation, tall T waves and ST elevation. Among ECG alterations in hyperkalemia, LBBB is rare and is being reported in our case.
Natural Diagonal Riemannian Almost Product and Para-Hermitian Cotangent Bundles
Druta-Romaniuc, Simona-Luiza
2011-01-01
We obtain the natural diagonal almost product and locally product structures on the total space of the cotangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold. We find the Riemannian almost product (locally product) and the (almost) para-Hermitian cotangent bundles of natural diagonal lift type. We prove the characterization theorem for the natural diagonal (almost) para-K\\"ahlerian structures on the total spaces of the cotangent bundle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devaru, C.B. [Jayachamaraja College of Engineering, Mysore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kolar, A.K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1995-12-31
Steady state average heat transfer coefficient measurements were made by the local thermal simulation technique in a cold, square, bubbling air-fluidized bed (0.305 m x 0.305 m) with immersed horizontal finned tube bundles (in-line and staggered) with integral 60{degree} V-thread. Studies were conducted using beds of small (average particle diameter less than 1 mm) sand particles and of large (average particle diameter greater thin 1 mm) particles (raagi, mustard, millet and coriander). The fin pitch varied from 0.8 to 5.0 mm and the fin height varied from 0.69 to 4.4 mm. The tube pitch ratios used were 1.75 and 3.5. The influence of bed particle diameter, fluidizing velocity, fin pitch, and tube pitch ratio on average heat transfer coefficient was studied. Fin pitch and bed particle diameter are the most significant parameters affecting heat transfer coefficient within the range of experimental conditions. Bed pressure drop depends only on static bed height. New direct correlations, incorporating easily measurable quantities, for average heat transfer coefficient for finned tube bundles (in-line and staggered) are proposed.
Hussein, Mohsen; van Eck, Carola F; Cretnik, Andrej; Dinevski, Dejan; Fu, Freddie H
2012-03-01
Three different techniques of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction--conventional (transtibial) single bundle (CSB), anatomic single bundle (ASB), and anatomic double bundle (ADB)--have been described. To determine if double-bundle reconstruction is needed to restore rotational stability or if anatomic placement of a single bundle can yield similar results. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. From December 2005 to December 2007, 320 patients were prospectively randomized into 3 groups: ADB, ASB, and CSB reconstruction. The average follow-up was 51.15 months (range, 39-63 months). At the final follow-up, 281 patients were available. In all groups, hamstring tendons were used with suspensory fixation on the femoral side and bioabsorbable interference screw fixation on the tibial side. The outcomes were evaluated by an independent blinded observer using the Lysholm score and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form. The KT-1000 arthrometer was used to evaluate anteroposterior stability, and the pivot-shift test was used to determine rotational stability. Anatomic single-bundle reconstruction resulted in better anteroposterior and rotational stability than CSB reconstruction (average side-to-side difference for anterior tibial translation was 1.6 mm in the ASB group vs 2.0 mm in the CSB group; P = .002). Negative pivot shift was 66.7% vs 41.7% (P = .003). In other parameters, the differences between groups were not statistically significant. The results of the ADB group were also superior to the ASB group for anteroposterior and rotational stability (average side-to-side difference for anterior tibial translation was 1.2 mm in the ADB group vs 1.6 mm in the ASB group; P = .002). Negative pivot shift was 93.1% vs 66.7%, respectively (P ADB groups, respectively. The difference was significant only when we compared ADB and CSB (P = .025). Subjective IKDC scores were 90.2, 90.6, and 92.1 in the CSB, ASB, and ADB groups
Overview of methods to increase dryout power in CANDU fuel bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groeneveld, D.C., E-mail: degroeneveld@gmail.com [Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, Chalk River (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ottawa (Canada); Leung, L.K.H. [Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, Chalk River (Canada); Park, J.H. [Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-06-15
Highlights: • Small changes in bundle geometry can have noticeable effects on the bundle CHF. • Rod spacing devices can results in increases of over 200% in CHF. • CHF enhancement decays exponentially downstream from spacers. • CHF-enhancing bundle appendages also increase the post-CHF heat transfer. - Abstract: In CANDU reactors some degradation in the CCP (critical channel power, or power corresponding to the first occurrence of CHF in any fuel channel) will occur with time because of ageing effects such as pressure-tube diametral creep, increase in reactor inlet-header temperature, increased hydraulic resistance of feeders. To compensate for the ageing effects, various options for recovering the loss in CCP are described in this paper. They include: (i) increasing the bundle heated perimeter, (ii) optimizing the bundle configuration, (iii) optimizing core flow and flux distribution, (iv) reducing the bundle hydraulic resistance, (v) use of CHF-enhancing bundle appendages, (vi) more precise experimentation, and (vii) redefining CHF. The increase in CHF power has been quantified based on experiments on full-scale bundles and subchannel code predictions. The application of several of these CHF enhancement principles has been used in the development of the 43-rod CANFLEX bundle.
Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Weatherby, T. M.; Waller, R. G.; Gates, R. D.
2011-06-01
The majority of scleractinian corals are hermaphrodites that broadcast spawn their gametes separately or packaged as egg-sperm bundles during spawning events that are timed to the lunar cycle. The egg-sperm bundle is an efficient way of transporting gametes to the ocean surface where fertilization takes place, while minimizing sperm dilution and maximizing the opportunity for gamete encounters during a spawning event. To date, there are few studies that focus on the formation and structure of egg-sperm bundle. This study explores formation, ultrastructure, and longevity of the egg-sperm bundle in Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral in Hawai`i. Our results show that the egg-sperm bundle is formed by a mucus layer secreted by the oocytes. The sperm package is located at the center of each bundle, possibly reflecting the development of male and female gametes in different mesenteries. Once the egg-sperm bundle has reached the ocean surface, it breaks open within 10-35 min, depending on the environmental conditions (i.e., wind, water turbulence). Although the bundle has an ephemeral life span, the formation of an egg-sperm bundle is a fundamental part of the reproductive process that could be strongly influenced by climate change and deterioration of water quality (due to anthropogenic effects) and thus requires further investigation.
Designing variable height carbon nanotube bundle for enhanced electron field emission
Khaneja, Mamta; Ghosh, Santanu; Chaudhury, P. K.; Vankar, V. D.; Kumar, Vikram
2015-05-01
A variable height model has been implemented in order to improve the emission performance from a nanotube bundle. A Gaussian distribution of nanotube heights has been considered. This resulted in a nearly uniform electric field distribution across all the nanotubes and consequently an enhanced emission current in comparison to a nanotube bundle with all the nanotubes having the same height. Simulation results from linear as well as area nanotube bundles are reported. The analysis helped in providing a better understanding of the previously reported experimental results on enhanced field emission from plasma treated nanotube bundles having CNTs of variable heights.
Geometry of moduli stacks of (k , l) -stable vector bundles over algebraic curves
Mata-Gutiérrez, O.; Neumann, Frank
2017-01-01
We study the geometry of the moduli stack of vector bundles of fixed rank and degree over an algebraic curve by introducing a filtration made of open substacks build from (k , l) -stable vector bundles. The concept of (k , l) -stability was introduced by Narasimhan and Ramanan to study the geometry of the coarse moduli space of stable bundles. We will exhibit the stacky picture and analyse the geometric and cohomological properties of the moduli stacks of (k , l) -stable vector bundles. For particular pairs (k , l) of integers we also show that these moduli stacks admit coarse moduli spaces and we discuss their interplay.
Heat Transfer Modeling of Staggered Bundle with Round Tubes Screened by Mesh
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Dymo B.V.
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of CFD modeling of heat transfer and aerodynamic drag for the first three rows of cross-flowed staggered bundle consisting of round tubes screened by wire mesh. Geometric model of this bundle was developed. Selection of optimal parameters of the bundle finite element model realizes on the base of transition shear stress transport model. Two separate geometric models for even and odd rows of bundle have been elaborated for the scope of computational resources optimization. The results of numerical modeling of heat transfer for the first three rows of the bundle were approximated with the criteria dependences. It has been established that heat transfer stabilization occurs from the second row of the bundle. Stabilized heat transfer is 15 % higher than that for the first row of the bundle and 1.2 … 1.7 times as large in comparison with equivalent bare-tube bundle in a range of Reynolds number from 5000 to 35000. Aerodynamic drag data for the first three rows of the bundle have been obtained.
Sperm competition promotes diversity of sperm bundles in Ohomopterus ground beetles
Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji
2007-07-01
Diversification of sperm morphology has been investigated in the context of sperm competition, but the adaptive significance of sperm bundles is still unclear. In analyzing 10 taxa of the genus Carabus subgenus Ohomopterus and one related Carabus ground beetles, we found that dimorphic sperm bundles occurred in most species with varied degrees of bimodality, whereas sperm were generally monomorphic. Comparative analyses with phylogenetically independent contrasts revealed that the sizes of large and small sperm bundles evolved more rapidly than, and were not correlated with, the length of sperm, suggesting more intense selection on sperm bundle sizes and their independent responses to different evolutionary forces. The size of large sperm bundles was positively correlated with male genital morphology (pertinent to displacement of rival spermatophores) and postcopulatory guarding duration as well as male body length, suggesting that larger sperm bundles have been favored when the risk of spermatophore displacement is high. Larger sperm bundles may be advantageous because of their ability to migrate more rapidly into the spermatheca. In contrast, no clear association was detected between the small sperm bundle size and mating traits despite its rapid diversification. The present study provides the first record of heteromorphic sperm bundles, the diversity of which may be promoted by sperm competition.
Numerical model for thermal and mechanical behaviour of a CANDU 37-element bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, L.; MacKay, K. [Martec Limited, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Gibb, R. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)
2010-07-01
Prediction of transient fuel bundle deformations is important for assessing the integrity of fuel and the surrounding structural components under different operating conditions including accidents. For numerical simulation of the interactions between fuel bundle and pressure tube, a reliable numerical bundle model is required to predict thermal and mechanical behaviour of the fuel bundle assembly under different thermal loading conditions. To ensure realistic representations of the bundle behaviour, this model must include all of the important thermal and mechanical features of the fuel bundle, such as temperature-dependent material properties, thermal viscoplastic deformation in sheath, fuel-to-sheath interactions, endplate constraints and contacts between fuel elements. In this paper, we present a finite element based numerical model for predicting macroscopic transient thermal-mechanical behaviour of a complete 37-element CANDU nuclear fuel bundle under accident conditions and demonstrate its potential for being used to investigate fuel bundle to pressure tube interaction in future nuclear safety analyses. This bundle model has been validated against available experimental and numerical solutions and applied to various simulations involving steady-state and transient loading conditions. (author)
Kerr, I. D.; Sankararamakrishnan, R; Smart, O.S.; Sansom, M S
1994-01-01
A parallel bundle of transmembrane (TM) alpha-helices surrounding a central pore is present in several classes of ion channel, including the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). We have modeled bundles of hydrophobic and of amphipathic helices using simulated annealing via restrained molecular dynamics. Bundles of Ala20 helices, with N = 4, 5, or 6 helices/bundle were generated. For all three N values the helices formed left-handed coiled coils, with pitches ranging from 160 A (N = 4) to...
Significance of the resting angles of hair-cell bundles for Hopf bifurcation criticality
Kim, Kyung-Joong; Ahn, Kang-Hun
2016-08-01
We investigate the significance of the inclined angle of a hair bundle at equilibrium. We find that, while the angle gives a geometrical conversion factor between the bundle deflection and the ion channel displacement, it also controls the dynamics of the bundle. We show that a Hopf bifurcation, which enhances sensitivity, can be driven by the geometrical factor. However, existing experimental data indicate that mammalian auditory hair-cell bundles are located far away from the Hopf bifurcation point, suggesting that the high sensitivity of mammalian hearing might come from other mechanisms.
Tautological ring of the moduli space of generalised parabolic line bundles on a curve
Iyer, Jaya NN
2012-01-01
In this paper, we consider the tautological ring containing the extended Brill-Noether algebraic classes on the normalization of the compactified Jacobian of a complex nodal projective curve (with one node). This smallest $\\Q$-subalgebra of algebraic classes under algebraic equivalence, stable under extensions of the maps induced by multiplication maps, Pontrayagin product and Fourier transform, is shown to be generated by pullback of the Brill-Noether classes of the Jacobian of the normalized curve and some natural classes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kang, Liping; Jiang, Yishu; Tang, Xiuhua; Yang, Mingyang; Liu, Zonghuai
2012-01-01
One-dimensional manganese oxide nanobelt bundles with birnessite-type structure have been synthesized by a hydrothermal process in a NaOH solution employing K-type layered manganese oxide as a precursor. The obtained manganese oxide nanobelt bundles exhibit excellent discharge properties and cycle stability. The initial capacity is 376 mAh-g-1 and the reversible capacity of 243 mAhog-1 is maintained after the 50th cycle at a current density of 20 mA·g-t. Meanwhile, the manganese oxide nanobelt bundles show an excellent cycle performance even if at relative high current density.
Motor-free actin bundle contractility driven by molecular crowding
Schnauß, Jörg; Schuldt, Carsten; Schmidt, B U Sebastian; Glaser, Martin; Strehle, Dan; Heussinger, Claus; Käs, Josef A
2015-01-01
Modeling approaches of suspended, rod-like particles and recent experimental data have shown that depletion forces display different signatures depending on the orientation of these particles. It has been shown that axial attraction of two rods yields contractile forces of 0.1pN that are independent of the relative axial shift of the two rods. Here, we measured depletion-caused interactions of actin bundles extending the phase space of single pairs of rods to a multi-particle system. In contrast to a filament pair, we found forces up to 3pN . Upon bundle relaxation forces decayed exponentially with a mean decay time of 3.4s . These different dynamics are explained within the frame of a mathematical model by taking pairwise interactions to a multi-filament scale. The macromolecular content employed for our experiments is well below the crowding of cells. Thus, we propose that arising forces can contribute to biological force generation without the need to convert chemical energy into mechanical work.
Hair cell bundles: flexoelectric motors of the inner ear.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kathryn D Breneman
Full Text Available Microvilli (stereocilia projecting from the apex of hair cells in the inner ear are actively motile structures that feed energy into the vibration of the inner ear and enhance sensitivity to sound. The biophysical mechanism underlying the hair bundle motor is unknown. In this study, we examined a membrane flexoelectric origin for active movements in stereocilia and conclude that it is likely to be an important contributor to mechanical power output by hair bundles. We formulated a realistic biophysical model of stereocilia incorporating stereocilia dimensions, the known flexoelectric coefficient of lipid membranes, mechanical compliance, and fluid drag. Electrical power enters the stereocilia through displacement sensitive ion channels and, due to the small diameter of stereocilia, is converted to useful mechanical power output by flexoelectricity. This motor augments molecular motors associated with the mechanosensitive apparatus itself that have been described previously. The model reveals stereocilia to be highly efficient and fast flexoelectric motors that capture the energy in the extracellular electro-chemical potential of the inner ear to generate mechanical power output. The power analysis provides an explanation for the correlation between stereocilia height and the tonotopic organization of hearing organs. Further, results suggest that flexoelectricity may be essential to the exquisite sensitivity and frequency selectivity of non-mammalian hearing organs at high auditory frequencies, and may contribute to the "cochlear amplifier" in mammals.
Resolving bundled microtubules using anti-tubulin nanobodies.
Mikhaylova, Marina; Cloin, Bas M C; Finan, Kieran; van den Berg, Robert; Teeuw, Jalmar; Kijanka, Marta M; Sokolowski, Mikolaj; Katrukha, Eugene A; Maidorn, Manuel; Opazo, Felipe; Moutel, Sandrine; Vantard, Marylin; Perez, Frank; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Ewers, Helge; Kapitein, Lukas C
2015-08-11
Microtubules are hollow biopolymers of 25-nm diameter and are key constituents of the cytoskeleton. In neurons, microtubules are organized differently between axons and dendrites, but their precise organization in different compartments is not completely understood. Super-resolution microscopy techniques can detect specific structures at an increased resolution, but the narrow spacing between neuronal microtubules poses challenges because most existing labelling strategies increase the effective microtubule diameter by 20-40 nm and will thereby blend neighbouring microtubules into one structure. Here we develop single-chain antibody fragments (nanobodies) against tubulin to achieve super-resolution imaging of microtubules with a decreased apparent diameter. To test the resolving power of these novel probes, we generate microtubule bundles with a known spacing of 50-70 nm and successfully resolve individual microtubules. Individual bundled microtubules can also be resolved in different mammalian cells, including hippocampal neurons, allowing novel insights into fundamental mechanisms of microtubule organization in cell- and neurobiology.
Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis.
Spracklen, Andrew J; Kelpsch, Daniel J; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Tootle, Tina L
2014-02-01
Prostaglandins (PGs)--lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes--regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton--temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin remodeling, including actin filaments and aggregates, within the posterior nurse cells of S9 follicles; wild-type follicles exhibit similar structures at a low frequency. Hu li tai shao (Hts-RC) and Villin (Quail), an actin bundler, localize to all early actin structures, whereas Enabled (Ena), an actin elongation factor, preferentially localizes to those in pxt mutants. Reduced Ena levels strongly suppress early actin remodeling in pxt mutants. Furthermore, loss of Pxt results in reduced Ena localization to the sites of bundle formation during S10B. Together these data lead to a model in which PGs temporally regulate actin remodeling during Drosophila oogenesis by controlling Ena localization/activity, such that in S9, PG signaling inhibits, whereas at S10B, it promotes Ena-dependent actin remodeling.
[Unstable angina pectoris in intermittent left bundle branch block].
Albert, S; Flury, G
1997-11-19
We present a case report of a 57 year old woman with recurrent chest pain, initially exclusively at exercise and later also at rest. This led to an emergency hospitalization for suspected myocardial infarction. As there were no enzymatic and electrocardiographic signs of acute infarction she was treated, as unstable angina pectoris. Coronary angiography revealed but a modest coronary atheromatosis without significant coronary stenosis. Therefore her symptoms were interpreted as primary manifestation of an intermittant Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB) with changing heart-rate dependency. A majority of patients with LBBB and chest pain have a relevant Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). There is a small number of reports in literature about patients with intermittant LBBB without significant CAD but with both typical (exercise-induced) and atypical (at rest) chest pain. Special features of our case are presentation of LBBB as unstable angina, documentation of an intermittant LBBB with changing heart-rate dependency and heart-rate-dependent supranormal conduction in the left bundle branch. We review some important aspects of LBBB with regard to this case.
Synergetic driving concepts for bundled miniature ultrasonic linear motors.
Mracek, Maik; Hemsel, Tobias
2006-12-22
Rotary ultrasonic motors have found broad industrial application in camera lens drives and other systems. Linear ultrasonic motors in contrast have only found limited applications. The main reason for the limited range of application of these very attractive devices seems to be their small force and power range. Attempts to build linear ultrasonic motors for high forces and high power applications have not been truly successful yet. To achieve larger force and higher power, multiple miniaturized motors can be combined. This approach, however, is not as simple as it appears at first glance. The electromechanical behaviour of the individual motors differs slightly due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. The individual motor characteristics are strongly dependent on the driving parameters (frequency, voltage, temperature, pre-stress, etc.) and the driven load and the collective behaviour of the swarm of motors is not just the linear superposition of the individual drive's forces. Thus, the bundle of motors has to be synchronized and controlled appropriately in order to obtain an optimized drive that is not oversized and costly. We have investigated driving and control strategies of a set of linear ultrasonic motors. Our contribution will be divided into three main parts. In part I ultrasonic linear motors will be introduced. In part II driving strategies for a single motor as well as for a bundle of motors will be presented. These concepts will be verified by simulation results and experimental data. In part III a simplified model for the motor's electromechanical behaviour will be given.
Cortactin Adopts a Globular Conformation and Bundles Actin into Sheets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cowieson, Nathan P.; King, Gordon; Cookson, David; Ross, Ian; Huber, Thomas; Hume, David A.; Kobe, Bostjan; Martin, Jennifer L. (Queensland); (Aust. Synch.)
2008-08-21
Cortactin is a filamentous actin-binding protein that plays a pivotal role in translating environmental signals into coordinated rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. The dynamic reorganization of actin in the cytoskeleton drives processes including changes in cell morphology, cell migration, and phagocytosis. In general, structural proteins of the cytoskeleton bind in the N-terminal region of cortactin and regulatory proteins in the C-terminal region. Previous structural studies have reported an extended conformation for cortactin. It is therefore unclear how cortactin facilitates cross-talk between structural proteins and their regulators. In the study presented here, circular dichroism, chemical cross-linking, and small angle x-ray scattering are used to demonstrate that cortactin adopts a globular conformation, thereby bringing distant parts of the molecule into close proximity. In addition, the actin bundling activity of cortactin is characterized, showing that fully polymerized actin filaments are bundled into sheet-like structures. We present a low resolution structure that suggests how the various domains of cortactin interact to coordinate its array of binding partners at sites of actin branching.
Modern Methods of Bundle Adjustment on the Gpu
Hänsch, R.; Drude, I.; Hellwich, O.
2016-06-01
The task to compute 3D reconstructions from large amounts of data has become an active field of research within the last years. Based on an initial estimate provided by structure from motion, bundle adjustment seeks to find a solution that is optimal for all cameras and 3D points. The corresponding nonlinear optimization problem is usually solved by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm combined with conjugate gradient descent. While many adaptations and extensions to the classical bundle adjustment approach have been proposed, only few works consider the acceleration potentials of GPU systems. This paper elaborates the possibilities of time and space savings when fitting the implementation strategy to the terms and requirements of realizing a bundler on heterogeneous CPUGPU systems. Instead of focusing on the standard approach of Levenberg-Marquardt optimization alone, nonlinear conjugate gradient descent and alternating resection-intersection are studied as two alternatives. The experiments show that in particular alternating resection-intersection reaches low error rates very fast, but converges to larger error rates than Levenberg-Marquardt. PBA, as one of the current state-of-the-art bundlers, converges slower in 50 % of the test cases and needs 1.5-2 times more memory than the Levenberg- Marquardt implementation.
Cardiac pacing in left bundle branch/ bifascicular block patients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maddali Madan
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The primary concern in patients with bifascicular block is the increased risk of progression to complete heart block. Further, an additional first-degree A-V block in patients with bifascicular block or LBBB might increase the risk of block progression. Anesthesia, monitoring and surgical techniques can induce conduction defects and bradyarrhythmias in patients with pre-existing bundle branch block. In the setting of an acute MI, several different types of conduction disturbance may become manifest and complete heart block occurs usually in patients with acute myocardial infarction more commonly if there is pre-existing or new bundle branch block. The question that arises is whether it is necessary to insert a temporary pacing catheter in patients with bifascicular block undergoing anesthesia. It is important that an anesthesiologist should be aware of the indications for temporary cardiac pacing as well as the current recommendations for permanent pacing in patients with chronic bifascicular and trifascicular block. This article also highlights the recent guidelines for temporary transvenous pacing in the setting of acute MI and the different pacing modalities that are available for an anesthesiologist.
Research on the Pricing of Bundling Information Commodity%信息产品的捆绑定价问题研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
毛彦妮; 王刊良; 王龙伟
2003-01-01
This article studies the characteristics of low marginal cost of information commodity and points out that bundling information commodity is surprisingly profitable. After an analysis of the three factors affecting the sales income of bundling information commodity, that is, marginal cost, distribution of consumer' s valuation of bundling commodity and bundling size, a marketing strategy for bundling information commodity is proposed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zinnbauer, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)
2001-07-01
As most of the electric utilities in Germany have decided by now to adopt the multi-utility strategy for sales promotion in the open electricity market, a questionnaire has been distributed to 1 000 households in order to find out whether product bundling or cross selling in combination with the low-interest product 'electricity' is a good strategy to enlarge the customer basis. EFOplan (Munic University) and the consulting firm Accenture have been in charge of the survey. The results show the current status of insight of household customers and their motives to change supplier, as well as the pattern of demand for product bundling. (orig./CB) [German] Da mittlerweile die meisten EVUs eine Multi-Utility-Strategie anstreben, wurde mittels einer schriftlichen Befragung von 1 000 deutschen Haushalten untersucht, ob die Vermarktung von Zusatz- bzw. Buendelprodukten in Kombination mit dem Low-Interest-Produkt Strom erfolgsversprechend ist. Die Befragung, die von EFOplan (Universitaet Muenchen) in Kooperation mit der Unternehmensberatung Accenture durchgefuehrt wurde, zeigt einerseits den aktuellen Status von Informationsstand und Wechselmotiven beim Stromkauf und andererseits die Bedarfsstruktur im Hinblick auf moegliche Buendelprodukte. (orig.)
Incorporating Endmember Variability into Spectral Mixture Analysis Through Endmember Bundles
Bateson, C. Ann; Asner, Gregory P.; Wessman, Carol A.
1998-01-01
Variation in canopy structure and biochemistry induces a concomitant variation in the top-of-canopy spectral reflectance of a vegetation type. Hence, the use of a single endmember spectrum to track the fractional abundance of a given vegetation cover in a hyperspectral image may result in fractions with considerable error. One solution to the problem of endmember variability is to increase the number of endmembers used in a spectral mixture analysis of the image. For example, there could be several tree endmembers in the analysis because of differences in leaf area index (LAI) and multiple scatterings between leaves and stems. However, it is often difficult in terms of computer or human interaction time to select more than six or seven endmembers and any non-removable noise, as well as the number of uncorrelated bands in the image, limits the number of endmembers that can be discriminated. Moreover, as endmembers proliferate, their interpretation becomes increasingly difficult and often applications simply need the aerial fractions of a few land cover components which comprise most of the scene. In order to incorporate endmember variability into spectral mixture analysis, we propose representing a landscape component type not with one endmember spectrum but with a set or bundle of spectra, each of which is feasible as the spectrum of an instance of the component (e.g., in the case of a tree component, each spectrum could reasonably be the spectral reflectance of a tree canopy). These endmember bundles can be used with nonlinear optimization algorithms to find upper and lower bounds on endmember fractions. This approach to endmember variability naturally evolved from previous work in deriving endmembers from the data itself by fitting a triangle, tetrahedron or, more generally, a simplex to the data cloud reduced in dimension by a principal component analysis. Conceptually, endmember variability could make it difficult to find a simplex that both surrounds the data
Frequency and prognosis of new bundle branch block induced by surgical aortic valve replacement.
Poels, T.T.; Houthuizen, P.; Garsse, L.A. van; Soliman Hamad, M.A.; Maessen, J.G.; Prinzen, F.W.; Straten, A.H. Van
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVES: Recently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been introduced, but one of its complications is left bundle branch block (LBBB), a conduction disturbance that has been associated with increased mortality. We investigated the incidence and fate of both right bundle branch block
Characterization of midrib vascular bundles of selected medicinal species in Rubiaceae
Nurul-Syahirah, M.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.
2016-11-01
An anatomical study was carried out on mature leaves of five selected medicinal species of Rubiaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. The chosen medicinal species were Aidia densiflora, Aidia racemosa, Chasallia chartacea, Hedyotis auricularia and Ixora grandifolia. The objective of this study is to determine the taxonomic value of midrib anatomical characteristics. Leaves samples were collected from Taman Paku Pakis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor and Kledang Saiong Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Leaves samples then were fixed in spirit and acetic acid (3:1), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, cleared using Clorox, stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, mounted in Euparal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown all species have collateral bundles. The midrib vascular bundles characteristics that can be used as tool to differentiate between species or genus are vascular bundles system (opened or closed), shape and arrangement of main vascular bundles, presence of both additional and medullary vascular bundles, position of additional vascular bundles, shape of medullary vascular bundles, presence of sclerenchyma cells ensheathed the vascular bundles. As a conclusion, midrib anatomical characteristics can be used to identify and discriminate medicinal plants species studied in the Rubiaceae.
A Synthesis of the Peer-Reviewed Differential Bundle Functioning Research
Banks, Kathleen
2013-01-01
The purpose of this article was to present a synthesis of the peer-reviewed differential bundle functioning (DBF) research that has been conducted to date. A total of 16 studies were synthesized according to the following characteristics: tests used and learner groups, organizing principles used for developing bundles, DBF detection methods used,…
Relationships between the Tensile Properties and Tenacity extension Behaviour of Fibre-bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Wei-dong
2002-01-01
Fibre bundle testing is different from single-fibre measurement, not only in testing methods and instruments, but in the results obtained. For wool fibres, Sirolan-TENSOR can supply fibre-bundle tenacity (BS) and bundle extension (BE), but has some limitations on the analysis of the measured tensile curves of fibre bundles. It has not only raised new parameters,such as initial modulus (BM) and specific work of rupture (BW), as well as the specific work before or after the peak-point(WBP or WAP) and the ratios of WAP/WBP and WAP/BW, but also compared the tensile behaviour of different fibre-bundles, e.g. wool,polyester and viscose rayon fibre- bundles. The experimental results from 32 lots of wool tops show that there are correlations between bundle tensile properties,such as BS-BE, BS-BM, BS-BW, BE-BW and BM-BW.However, the variables of coefficients of variance (CV)are almost independent of each other and have no correlation with the average values of fibre bundle tensile parameters, except for BS-CVBM and CVBM-BW.
To Be or Not To Be: The Existential Issue for National Governance Bundles
Millar, C.C.J.M.
2014-01-01
Research Question/Issue The article addresses the issue of whether governance bundles which include both formal and informal governance mechanisms should be classified and compared on the basis of national identity. Research Findings/Insights The governance bundle affecting each firm has formal co
Textbook-Bundled Metacognitive Tools: A Study of LearnSmart's Efficacy in General Chemistry
Thadani, Vandana; Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.
2016-01-01
College textbook publishers increasingly bundle sophisticated technology-based study tools with their texts. These tools appear promising, but empirical work on their efficacy is needed. We examined whether LearnSmart, a study tool bundled with McGraw-Hill's textbook "Chemistry" (Chang & Goldsby, 2013), improved learning in an…
Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse
Csomay, Eniko
2013-01-01
The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…
Parabolic Bundles on Algebraic Surfaces I -- The Donaldson-Uhlenbeck Compactification
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V Balaji; A Dey; R Parthasarathi
2008-02-01
The aim of this paper is to construct the parabolic version of the Donaldson-Uhlenbeck compactification for the moduli space of parabolic stable bundles on an algebraic surface with parabolic structures along a divisor with normal crossing singularities. We prove the non-emptiness of the moduli space of parabolic stable bundles of rank 2.
GPU acceleration of the stochastic grid bundling method for early-exercise options
A. Leitao Rodriguez (Álvaro); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)
2015-01-01
htmlabstractIn this work, a parallel graphics processing units (GPU) version of the Monte Carlo stochastic grid bundling method (SGBM) for pricing multi-dimensional early-exercise options is presented. To extend the method’s applicability, the problem dimensions and the number of bundles will be inc
An Empirical Study on Content Bundling in BitTorrent Swarming System
Han, Jinyoung; Kim, Seungbae; Kim, Hyun-chul; Kwon, Ted "Taekyoung"; Choi, Yanghee
2010-01-01
Despite the tremendous success of BitTorrent, its swarming system suffers from a fundamental limitation: lower or no availability of unpopular contents. Recently, Menasche et al. has shown that bundling is a promising solution to mitigate this availability problem; it improves the availability and reduces download times for unpopular contents by combining multiple files into a single swarm. There also have been studies on bundling strategies and performance issues in bundled swarms. In spite of the recent surge of interest in the benefits of and strategies for bundling, there are still little empirical grounding for understanding, describing, and modeling it. This is the first empirical study that measures and analyzes how prevalent contents bundling is in BitTorrent and how peers access the bundled contents, in comparison to the other non-bundled (i.e., single-filed) ones. To our surprise, we found that around 70% of BitTorrent swarms contain multiple files, which indicate that bundling has become widespread...
On the non-existence of orthogonal instanton bundles on P^{2n+1}
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Łucja Farnik
2009-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we prove that there do not exist orthogonal instanton bundles on P^{2n+1} . In order to demonstrate this fact, we propose a new way of representing the invariant, introduced by L. Costa and G. Ottaviani, related to a rank 2n instanton bundle on P^{2n+1}.
On the noncommutative geometry of the endomorphism algebra of a vector bundle
Masson, Thierry
1999-09-01
In this paper we investigate some aspects of the noncummutative differential geometry based on derivations of the algebra of endomorphism of an oriented complex formation vector bundle. We relate it, in a natural way, to the geometry of the underlying principal bundle, we introduce on it a notion of metric and we study the cohomology of its complex of noncummutative differential forms.
Lexical bundles in an advanced INTOCSU writing class and engineering texts: A functional analysis
Alquraishi, Mohammed Abdulrahman
The purpose of this study is to investigate the functions of lexical bundles in two corpora: a corpus of engineering academic texts and a corpus of IEP advanced writing class texts. This study is concerned with the nature of formulaic language in Pathway IEPs and engineering texts, and whether those types of texts show similar or distinctive formulaic functions. Moreover, the study looked into lexical bundles found in an engineering 1.26 million-word corpus and an ESL 65000-word corpus using a concordancing program. The study then analyzed the functions of those lexical bundles and compared them statistically using chi-square tests. Additionally, the results of this investigation showed 236 unique frequent lexical bundles in the engineering corpus and 37 bundles in the pathway corpus. Also, the study identified several differences between the density and functions of lexical bundles in the two corpora. These differences were evident in the distribution of functions of lexical bundles and the minimal overlap of lexical bundles found in the two corpora. The results of this study call for more attention to formulaic language at ESP and EAP programs.
Overview of flowline bundle technology from concept selection to offshore installation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Song Ruxin; Xia Qiuling
2013-01-01
Flowline bundle system consisting of carrier pipe,sleeve pipe and internal flowlines offers innovative solution for the infield transportation of oil and gas.Due to its features,flowline bundle offers a couple of advantages over conventional flowline in particular for cases where multi-flowlines and high thermal performance is of great interest.The main benefits and advantages of such system include excellent thermal performance to prevent wax formation and hydrates,multiple bundled flowlines,mechanical and corrosion protection,potential reuse,etc.With the developments of offshore oil and gas industries,more and more hydrocarbon resources are being explored and discovered from shallow to deep water.Pipeline bundle system can be a smart solution for certain applications,which can be safe and cost effective solution.The objective of this paper is to overview pipeline bundle technology,outline detailed engineering design issue and procedure.Focus is given to its potential application in offshore for infield transportation.Engineering design principles and procedures for pipeline bundle system are highlighted.Construction methods of flowline bundle onshore are reviewed.Offshore towing and installation of pipeline bundle procedure is outlined.
GPU acceleration of the stochastic grid bundling method for early-exercise options
Leitao Rodriguez, A.; Oosterlee, C.W.
2015-01-01
In this work, a parallel graphics processing units (GPU) version of the Monte Carlo stochastic grid bundling method (SGBM) for pricing multi-dimensional early-exercise options is presented. To extend the method’s applicability, the problem dimensions and the number of bundles will be increased drast
Equivalence and Disintegration Theorems for Fell Bundles and their C*-algebras
Muhly, Paul S
2008-01-01
We study the C*-algebras of Fell bundles. In particular, we prove the analogue of Renault's disintegration theorem for groupoids. As in the groupoid case, this result is the key step in proving a deep equivalence theorem for the C*-algebras of Fell bundles.
A retracting wire knife for cutting fiber bundles and making sheet lesions of brain tissue.
Shibata, M; Russell, I S
1979-07-01
A retracting knife which has two cutting wires for the transection of fiber bundles is described. The knife holds the fiber bundles of the stria terminalis between the two cutting wires and transects them by a shearing movement as the wires close. In addition, the feasability of such a knife producing a sheet lesion around the n. caudatus is also described.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guan-Yu Zheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Natural fiber bundle like hemp fiber bundle usually includes many small lumens embedded in solid region; thus, it can present lower thermal conduction than that of conventional fibers. In the paper, characteristic of anisotropic transverse thermal conductivity of unidirectional natural hemp fiber bundle was numerically studied to determine the dependence of overall thermal property of the fiber bundle on that of the solid region phase. In order to efficiently predict its thermal property, the fiber bundle was embedded into an imaginary matrix to form a unit composite cell consisting of the matrix and the fiber bundle. Equally, another unit composite cell including an equivalent solid fiber was established to present the homogenization of the fiber bundle. Next, finite element thermal analysis implemented by ABAQUS was conducted in the two established composite cells by applying proper thermal boundary conditions along the boundary of unit cell, and influences of the solid region phase and the equivalent solid fiber on the composites were investigated, respectively. Subsequently, an optional relationship of thermal conductivities of the natural fiber bundle and the solid region was obtained by curve fitting technique. Finally, numerical results from the obtained fitted curves were compared with the analytic Hasselman-Johnson’s results and others to verify the present numerical model.
Type Ii/heterotic Duality And Mirror Symmetry (bundle Deformation, String Duality)
Perevalov, E V
1998-01-01
Toric geometry is used to systematically construct Type II compactifications dual to Heterotic models in six dimensions involving singular K3 surfaces as well as vector bundles. Reflexive polyhedra are shown to encode the spectra of the resulting low-energy theories. Finally, the connection between mirror symmetry and deformation of bundles on K3 surfaces is exhibited via string duality.
Liquid-like bundles of crosslinked actin filaments contract without motors
Weirich, Kimberly
The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic, structural material that drives cellular-scale deformations during processes such as cell migration and division. Motor proteins are responsible for actively driving many deformations by buckling and translocating actin filaments. However, there is evidence that deformations, such as the constriction of the actin bundle that drives the separation of cells during division, can occur without motors, mediated instead by crosslinker proteins. How might crosslinkers, independent of motors, drive contraction of a bundle? Using a model system of purified proteins, we show that crosslinkers, analogous to molecular cohesion, create an effective surface tension that induces bundle contraction. Crosslinked short actin filaments form micron-sized spindle-shaped bundles. Similar to tactoid granules found at the isotropic-nematic phase transition in liquid crystals, these bundles coarsen and coalesce like liquid droplets. In contrast, crosslinked long filaments coarsen into a steady state of bundles that are frozen in a solid-like network. Near the liquid-solid boundary, filaments of intermediate length initially form bundles that spontaneously contract into tactoid droplets. Our results, that crosslinked actin bundles are liquid-like with an effective surface tension, provide evidence for a mechanism of motor-independent contractility in biological materials.
Cortes, Viviana
2013-01-01
This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…
Textbook-Bundled Metacognitive Tools: A Study of LearnSmart's Efficacy in General Chemistry
Thadani, Vandana; Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.
2016-01-01
College textbook publishers increasingly bundle sophisticated technology-based study tools with their texts. These tools appear promising, but empirical work on their efficacy is needed. We examined whether LearnSmart, a study tool bundled with McGraw-Hill's textbook "Chemistry" (Chang & Goldsby, 2013), improved learning in an…
Bundled Slash: A Potential New Biomass Resource for Fuels and Chemicals
Steele, Philip H.; Mitchell, Brian K.; Cooper, Jerome E.; Arora, S.
Postharvest residues for southern pine species have not previously been quantified to compare volumes produced from both thinnings and clearcut volumes. A John Deere 1490 Slash Bundler bundled postharvest residues following a first thinning of a 14-year-old stand, a second thinning of a 25-year-old stand, and a clearcut of a naturally regenerated mature stand of 54 years of age. Regardless of stand type, nearly one-fifth of merchantable volume harvested was collected as postharvest residue. Initial bundle moisture contents were 127.3, 81.1, and 49.4% dry basis (db) for the first and second thinnings and mature stands, respectively. Bundle needles content was found to significantly influence the relative moisture contents of the bundles by stand type due to the high moisture content of needles compared to other bundle components. Bundles were stored outside and exposed to very hot and dry conditions and dried very rapidly to lowest moisture contents of 22.8, 14.5, and 13.5% (db) for first and second thinnings and mature stands, respectively. Response to moderating temperatures and higher precipitation resulted in rapid moisture content increase to 69.9, 46.2, and 38.1% (db) for the first and second thinnings and mature stand bundles by the end of the study. Temperature and precipitation and bundle percentage needles content all significantly influenced the rapid moisture content variations observed over the study periods.
Unwrapping the Bundle: An Examination of Research Libraries and the "Big Deal"
Strieb, Karla L.; Blixrud, Julia C.
2014-01-01
This study presents and analyzes the findings of a 2012 survey of member libraries belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) about publishers' large journal bundles and compares the results to earlier surveys. The data illuminate five research questions: market penetration, journal bundle construction, collection format shifts,…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Wei-dong; Ron Postle; YANG Shou-ren; YAN Hao-jing
2002-01-01
The testing conditions of a fibre bundle tensile tester (TENSOR) are elongation speed (ES), gauge length (GL), pretension, jaw pressure, environmental temperature and relative humidity, instrument linearity and sensitivity. The effects on fibre-bundle tensile properties at different GL and ES have been discussed in detail and compared with Peirce's theories on the weaklinks and the breaking time effect. The experimental results indicate that the tensile properties of fibre bundles are strongly affected by GL and vary with different GL. The reasonable GL should be 5-15mm rather than 3.2mm for wool bundle measurements. The ES ranging from 20mm/min to 40mm/min is beneficial for obtaining comparatively stable and accurate tensile values, whereas 20 mm/min used in current testing for wool fibre bundles is at the lower limit of the suggested range. For bundle modulus measurement, the sampling interval must be selected appropriately. The new calculation of the sampling interval has been established.
Modified Einstein and Finsler Like Theories on Tangent Lorentz Bundles
Stavrinos, Panayiotis; Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2014-01-01
We study modifications of general relativity, GR, with nonlinear dispersion relations which can be geometrized on tangent Lorentz bundles. Such modified gravity theories, MGTs, can be modeled by gravitational Lagrange density functionals $f(\\mathbf{R},\\mathbf{T},F)$ with generalized/ modified scalar curvature $\\mathbf{R}$, trace of matter field tensors $\\mathbf{T}$ and modified Finsler like generating function $F$. In particular, there are defined extensions of GR with extra dimensional "velocity/ momentum" coordinates. For four dimensional models, we prove that it is possible to decouple and integrate in very general forms the gravitational fields for $f(\\mathbf{R},\\mathbf{T},F)$--modified gravity using nonholonomic 2+2 splitting and nonholonomic Finsler like variables $F$. We study the modified motion and Newtonian limits of massive test particles on nonlinear geodesics approximated with effective extra forces orthogonal to the four-velocity. We compute the constraints on the magnitude of extra-acceleration...
Anticommons, the Coase Theorem and the problem of bundling inefficiency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Major
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The Coase theorem is most often formulated in terms of bi-lateral monopoly, for instance between a polluting factory and an affected neighbour. Instead, we introduce multiple affected neighbours and the concept of anticommons, in which autonomous actors with separate yet necessarily complementary inputs each has the right to deny but not to permit use. Once we posit multiple owners possessing complementary rights, strategically maximizing against each other as well as against the actor who wishes to purchase a portion of that right, the outcome is neither efficient nor invariant. Our finding, based on non-cooperative game theory, is sustained even under the restrictive Coase assumptions regarding complete information, perfect rationality, and zero transaction costs. The implication is that suboptimal bundling agreements in cases of multiple stakeholders is not the mere product of market imperfection, but instead is a systematic result.
OPTIMAL DESIGN OF HIGH-RISE BUILDING BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hojat Allah Ghasemi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The primary objectives of this study are to investigate effects of varying design parameters on the tube action and shear lag behavior of a typical reinforced concrete bundled tube building, and propose optimal design approaches for similar structures. A parametric study was conducted with selected key design variables on the performance of a 41 story building. The design variables considered for the parametric study include the column depth, beam depth, column width and beam width of the moment frames. The performance of each model was assessed in terms of overall and critical (maximum story drifts, and shear lag behavior. Overall, the effects of the column depth on the tube action and shear lag behavior were more prominent than the other member dimensions.
Direct His-bundle pacing: present and future.
Deshmukh, Pramod M; Romanyshyn, Mary
2004-06-01
Direct His-bundle pacing (DHBP) produces rapid sequential multisite synchronous ventricular activation and, therefore, would be an ideal alternative to right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing. In 54 patients with cardiomyopathy, ejection fraction (EF) 0.23 +/- 0.11, persistent atrial fibrillation, and normal QRS Treppe effect) was investigated. Twelve patients who also received a RVA lead underwent cardiopulmonary testing. After a mean follow-up of 42 months, 29 patients are still alive with EF improving from 0.23 +/- 0.11 to 0.33 +/- 0.15. Functional class improved from 3.5 to 2.2. DP/dt increased at each pacing site (P Treppe effect and increased cardiopulmonary reserve when compared to RVA pacing.
Cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Westmoreland, III, James Harold; Flanagan, James Scott
2016-04-26
A cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector includes an impingement plate and an aft plate that is disposed downstream from the impingement plate. The aft plate includes a forward side that is axially separated from an aft side. A tube passage extends through the impingement plate and the aft plate. A tube sleeve extends through the impingement plate within the tube passage towards the aft plate. The tube sleeve includes a flange at a forward end and an aft end that is axially separated from the forward end. A retention plate is positioned upstream from the impingement plate. A spring is disposed between the retention plate and the flange. The spring provides a force so as to maintain contact between at least a portion of the aft end of the tube sleeve and the forward side of the aft plate.
Komzák, M; Hart, R; Smíd, P; Puskeiler, M
2014-01-01
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY A comparison of the efficacy of central anatomical single-bundle (CASB) reconstruction with that of double-bundle (DB) repair of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in relation to knee stability in anteroposterior translation (APT), internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) of the joint. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 40 patients were evaluated; 20 had ACL reconstruction by the CASB technique using hamstrings and 20 underwent DB repair surgery. The average age was 31.3 years, and the group included 22 men and 18 women with 19 right and 21 left knees. The KT-1000 test was used to assess the amount of APT in the knee and rotational deviations were measured by the Rolimeter. In the DB patients, measurements were performed before surgery (on joints with ACL injury), then after reconstruction of the anteromedial (AM) or the posterolateral (PL) bundle and subsequently after repair of both ACL bundles. The CASB patients were assessed before and after graft insertion. RESULTS The average APT value was 18.5 mm for the pre-operative knees and it fell to 8.9 mm after AM bundle reconstruction. However, when the PL bundle was inserted in the first place, the average APT value was 13.1 mm only. The average values recorded after the DB and CASB reconstructions were 6.1 mm and 9.1 mm, respectively. The average IR range of motion in the pre-operative joints was 18.6 degrees. After AM bundle reconstruction it was 13.9 degrees and after PL bundle repair it was 15.3 degrees. In DB reconstruction the average IR value achieved 10.4 degrees, and in CASB repair surgery it was 13.7 degrees. The average ER range of motion in the pre-operative joints was 17.8 degrees. After AM bundle reconstruction it was 14.5 degrees and after PL bundle repair it was 14.9 degrees. In DB reconstruction the average ER value achieved 11.4 degrees, and in CASB repair surgery it was 14.5 degrees. DISCUSSION Rotational stability of the knee after ACL reconstruction is one of the
Fracture process of a fiber bundle with strong disorder
Danku, Zsuzsa; Kun, Ferenc
2016-07-01
We investigate the effect of the amount of disorder on the fracture process of heterogeneous materials in the framework of a fiber bundle model. The limit of high disorder is realized by introducing a power law distribution of fiber strength over an infinite range. We show that on decreasing the amount of disorder by controlling the exponent of the power law the system undergoes a transition from the quasi-brittle phase where fracture proceeds in bursts to the phase of perfectly brittle failure where the first fiber breaking triggers a catastrophic collapse. For equal load sharing in the quasi-brittle phase the fat tailed disorder distribution gives rise to a homogeneous fracture process where the sequence of breaking bursts does not show any acceleration as the load increases quasi-statically. The size of bursts is power law distributed with an exponent smaller than the usual mean field exponent of fiber bundles. We demonstrate by means of analytical and numerical calculations that the quasi-brittle to brittle transition is analogous to continuous phase transitions and determine the corresponding critical exponents. When the load sharing is localized to nearest neighbor intact fibers the overall characteristics of the failure process prove to be the same, however, with different critical exponents. We show that in the limit of the highest disorder considered the spatial structure of damage is identical with site percolation—however, approaching the critical point of perfect brittleness spatial correlations play an increasing role, which results in a different cluster structure of failed elements.
Ultrasonographic evaluation of displaced neurovascular bundle in Dupuytren disease.
Uehara, Kosuke; Miura, Toshiki; Morizaki, Yutaka; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Ohe, Takashi; Tanaka, Sakae
2013-01-01
Neurovascular injury is a serious complication after surgery for Dupuytren disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the cord and the neurovascular bundle ultrasonographically. We included 22 healthy volunteers and 14 Dupuytren disease patients (25 fingers) in this study. We evaluated the cord and the digital artery with high-resolution ultrasound. We first investigated the effect of the angle of metacarpophalangeal joint on the position of the radial and ulnar digital arteries in volunteers without evidence of Dupuytren disease. We compared 3 parameters of the radial and ulnar digital arteries, including differences in depth, differences in lateral shift, and the shape of the cross-section of the artery, between volunteers and patients with Dupuytren disease. None of these parameters changed with flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of 0°, 30°, and 60°. Digital arteries and cords could be identified ultrasonographically in all patients, and we confirmed ultrasonographic findings by operative findings in 13 fingers. We classified the fingers into 3 subgroups based on the ultrasonographic findings: type A (n = 13), in which the cord was above the artery; type B (n = 5), in which the cord was below the artery; and type C (n = 7), in which the cord was located between the radial and ulnar digital arteries. Types A, B, and C corresponded to natatory cord/abductor digiti minimi cord, spiral cord, and central cord, respectively. Comparisons among volunteers and patient subgroups showed that the difference in depth in type B patients was significantly larger than that of the other groups. When we set the cutoff point of the difference in depth to 3 mm, sensitivity and specificity to detect the spiral cord were 80% and 76%, respectively. The relationship between the neurovascular bundle and the type of Dupuytren disease cord can be evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for
Load sharing in the growth of bundled biopolymers
Wang, Ruizhe; Carlsson, A. E.
2014-01-01
To elucidate the nature of load sharing in the growth of multiple biopolymers, we perform stochastic simulations of the growth of biopolymer bundles against obstacles under a broad range of conditions and varying assumptions. The obstacle motion due to thermal fluctuations is treated explicitly. We assume the “Perfect Brownian Ratchet” (PBR) model, in which the polymerization rate equals the free-filament rate as soon as the filament-obstacle distance exceeds the monomer size. Accurate closed-form formulas are obtained for the case of a rapidly moving obstacle. We find the following: (1) load sharing is usually sub-perfect in the sense that polymerization is slower than for a single filament carrying the same average force; (2) the sub-perfect behavior becomes significant at a total force proportional to the logarithm or the square root of the number of filaments, depending on the alignment of the filaments; (3) for the special case of slow barrier diffusion and low opposing force, an enhanced obstacle velocity for an increasing number of filaments is possible; (4) the obstacle velocity is very sensitive to the alignment of the filaments in the bundle, with a staggered alignment being an order of magnitude faster than an unstaggered one at forces of only 0.5 pN per filament for 20 filaments; (5) for large numbers of filaments, the power is maximized at a force well below 1 pN per filament; (6) for intermediate values of the obstacle diffusion coefficient, the shape of the force velocity relation is very similar to that for rapid obstacle diffusion. PMID:25489273
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moradian, Rostam [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Science, Computational Physical Science Research Laboratory, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: moradian.rostam@gmail.com; Behzad, Somayeh; Chegel, Raad [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2008-10-01
By using ab initio density functional theory the structural and electronic properties of isolated and bundled (8,0) and (6,6) silicon carbide nanotubes (SiCNTs) are investigated. Our results show that for such small diameter nanotubes the inter-tube interaction causes a very small radial deformation, while band splitting and reduction of the semiconducting energy band gap are significant. We compared the equilibrium interaction energy and inter-tube separation distance of (8,0) SiCNT bundle with (10,0) carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle where they have the same radius. We found that there is a larger inter-tube separation and weaker inter-tube interaction in the (8,0) SiCNT bundle with respect to (10,0) CNT bundle, although they have the same radius.
THE COCHLEAR AMPLIFIER：IS IT HAIR BUNDLE MOTION OF OUTER HAIR CELLS?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yi; He David Z
2014-01-01
Cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) are involved in a mechanical feedback loop in which the fast somatic motility of OHCs is required for cochlear amplification. Alternatively, amplification is thought to arise from active hair bundle movements ob-served in non-mammalian hair cells. We measured the voltage-evoked hair bundle motions in the gerbil cochlea to determine if such movements are also present in mammalian OHCs. The OHCs displayed a large hair bundle movement that was not based on mechanotransducer channels but based on somatic motility. Significantly, bundle movements were able to generate radial motion of the tectorial membrane in situ. This result implies that the motility-associated hair bundle motion may be part of the cochlear amplifier.
The dual specificity phosphatase Cdc14B bundles and stabilizes microtubules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plumley, Hyekyung [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL; Gomez, Marla V [ORNL; Wang, Yisong [ORNL
2005-01-01
The Cdc14 dual-specificity phosphatases regulate key events in the eukaryotic cell cycle. However, little is known about the function of mammalian CDC14B family members. Here, we demonstrate that subcellular localization of CDC14B protein is cell cycle regulated. CDC14B can bind, bundle, and stabilize microtubules in vitro independently of its catalytic activity. Basic amino acid residues within the nucleolar targeting domain are important for both retaining CDC14B in the nucleolus and preventing microtubule bundling. Overexpression of CDC14B resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic CDC14B and microtubule bundles in interphase cells. These microtubule bundles were resistant to microtubule depolymerization reagents and enriched in acetylated -tubulin. Expression of cytoplasmic forms of CDC14B impaired microtubule nucleation from the microtubule organization center. CDC14B is thus a novel microtubule-bundling and -stabilizing protein, whose regulated subcellular localization may help modulate spindle and microtubule dynamics in mitosis.
Numerical Hermitian Yang-Mills connections and vector bundle stability in heterotic theories
Anderson, Lara B.; Braun, Volker; Karp, Robert L.; Ovrut, Burt A.
2010-06-01
A numerical algorithm is presented for explicitly computing the gauge connection on slope-stable holomorphic vector bundles on Calabi-Yau manifolds. To illustrate this algorithm, we calculate the connections on stable monad bundles defined on the K3 twofold and Quintic threefold. An error measure is introduced to determine how closely our algorithmic connection approximates a solution to the Hermitian Yang-Mills equations. We then extend our results by investigating the behavior of non slope-stable bundles. In a variety of examples, it is shown that the failure of these bundles to satisfy the Hermitian Yang-Mills equations, including field-strength singularities, can be accurately reproduced numerically. These results make it possible to numerically determine whether or not a vector bundle is slope-stable, thus providing an important new tool in the exploration of heterotic vacua.
Hecke Transformations of Conformal Blocks in WZW Theory. I. KZB Equations for Non-trivial Bundles
Levin, A; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A
2012-01-01
We describe new families of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard (KZB) equations related to the WZW-theory corresponding to the adjoint G-bundles over complex curves \\Sigma_{g,n} of genus g with n marked points. The bundles are defined by their characteristic classes - elements of H^2(\\Sigma_{g,n}, Z(G)), where Z(G) is a center of the simple complex Lie group G. The KZB equations are the horizontality condition for the projectively flat connection (the KZB connection) defined on the bundle of conformal blocks over the moduli space of curves. The space of conformal blocks has been known to be decomposed into a few sectors corresponding to the characteristic classes of the underlying bundles. The KZB connection preserves these sectors. In this paper we construct the connection explicitly and prove its flatness for elliptic curves with marked points. For the trivial bundles our construction provides the KZB connection proposed by Felder-Wieczerkowski.
Numerical Hermitian Yang-Mills Connections and Vector Bundle Stability in Heterotic Theories
Anderson, Lara B; Karp, Robert L; Ovrut, Burt A
2010-01-01
A numerical algorithm is presented for explicitly computing the gauge connection on slope-stable holomorphic vector bundles on Calabi-Yau manifolds. To illustrate this algorithm, we calculate the connections on stable monad bundles defined on the K3 twofold and Quintic threefold. An error measure is introduced to determine how closely our algorithmic connection approximates a solution to the Hermitian Yang-Mills equations. We then extend our results by investigating the behavior of non slope-stable bundles. In a variety of examples, it is shown that the failure of these bundles to satisfy the Hermitian Yang-Mills equations, including field-strength singularities, can be accurately reproduced numerically. These results make it possible to numerically determine whether or not a vector bundle is slope-stable, thus providing an important new tool in the exploration of heterotic vacua.
Field Emission Study of Carbon Nanotubes: High Current Density from Nanotube Bundle Arrays
Bronikowski, Micheal J.; Manohara, Harish M.; Siegel, Peter H.; Hunt, Brian D.
2004-01-01
We have investigated the field emission behavior of lithographically patterned bundles of multiwalled carbon nanotubes arranged in a variety of array geometries. Such arrays of nanotube bundles are found to perform significantly better in field emission than arrays of isolated nanotubes or dense, continuous mats of nanotubes, with the field emission performance depending on the bundle diameter and inter-bundle spacing. Arrays of 2-micrometers diameter nanotube bundles spaced 5 micrometers apart (edge-to-edge spacing) produced the largest emission densities, routinely giving 1.5 to 1.8 A/cm(sup 2) at approximately 4 V/micrometer electric field, and greater than 6 A/cm(sup 2) at 20 V/micrometers.
Hung, Yung-Jr; Huang, Yung-Jui; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Lee, San-Liang
2014-01-01
A fabrication strategy is proposed to enable precise coverage of as-grown carbon nanotube (CNT) mats atop vertically aligned silicon nanowire (VA-SiNW) bundles in order to realize a uniform bundle array of CNT-SiNW heterojunctions over a large sample area. No obvious electrical degradation of as-fabricated SiNWs is observed according to the measured current-voltage characteristic of a two-terminal single-nanowire device. Bundle arrangement of CNT-SiNW heterojunctions is optimized to relax the electrostatic screening effect and to maximize the field enhancement factor. As a result, superior field emission performance and relatively stable emission current over 12 h is obtained. A bright and uniform fluorescent radiation is observed from CNT-SiNW-based field emitters regardless of its bundle periodicity, verifying the existence of high-density and efficient field emitters on the proposed CNT-SiNW bundle arrays.
Cracks in random brittle solids:. From fiber bundles to continuum mechanics
Patinet, S.; Vandembroucq, D.; Hansen, A.; Roux, S.
2014-10-01
Statistical models are essential to get a better understanding of the role of disorder in brittle disordered solids. Fiber bundle models play a special role as a paradigm, with a very good balance of simplicity and non-trivial effects. We introduce here a variant of the fiber bundle model where the load is transferred among the fibers through a very compliant membrane. This Soft Membrane fiber bundle mode reduces to the classical Local Load Sharing fiber bundle model in 1D. Highlighting the continuum limit of the model allows to compute an equivalent toughness for the fiber bundle and hence discuss nucleation of a critical defect. The computation of the toughness allows for drawing a simple connection with crack front propagation (depinning) models.
Single and two-phase flow pressure drop for CANFLEX bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)
1998-12-31
Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier for a CANFLEX bundle are newly developed and presented in this paper. CANFLEX as a 43-element fuel bundle has been developed jointly by AECL/KAERI to provide greater operational flexibility for CANDU reactor operators and designers. Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier have been developed by using the experimental data of pressure drops obtained from two series of Freon-134a (R-134a) CHF tests with a string of simulated CANFLEX bundles in a single phase and a two-phase flow conditions. The friction factor for a CANFLEX bundle is found to be about 20% higher than that of Blasius for a smooth circular pipe. The pressure drop predicted by using the new correlations of friction factor and two-phase frictional multiplier are well agreed with the experimental pressure drop data of CANFLEX bundle within {+-} 5% error. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)
Dalia integrated production bundle (IPB): an innovative riser solution for deep water fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reals, Th Boscals de; Gloaguen, M.; Roche, F. [Total E and P (Angola); Marion, A.; Poincheval, A. [Technip, Paris (France)
2008-07-01
The Dalia field is located 210 km north west of Luanda (Angola), about 140 km from shore in 1400 meter water-depth. It was the second major discovery out of 15 made in the block 17 operated by Total. The Dalia Umbilical, Flow lines and Risers EPCI Contract was awarded in 2003. The sea-line network to connect and control the 71 wells and 9 manifolds consist of the following: 40 km of insulated pipe in pipe (12 inches into 17 inches) production flow lines; 45 km of 12 inches water and gas injection lines; 6 off 1.7 km flexible water and gas injection risers; 8 off 1.65 km flexible Integrated Production Bundle (IPB) risers; 75 km of control umbilicals. The flow assurance and associated insulation requirement of the production transport system was one of the main challenges of the project. With a crude temperature of 45 deg C at the wellhead and the required minimum temperature of 35 deg C on arrival at the FPSO, this problem was complex. Understanding that, due to the Joule Thompson effect of the riser gas lift, a 'built in' loss of about 5 deg C is induced and together with further losses through the sub sea pipelines, some up to 6 km long, the agreed solution was 'pipe in pipe' for the production flow lines. The innovative flexible IPB riser, incorporating gas lift and heating to keep the fluid temperature above hydrate formation zone, was the selected riser solution. The IPB is new technology for deep water, developed by Technip for Dalia, and consists of a 12 inches nominal central flexible, surrounded by layers of heat tracing cables, small bore gas lift lines, optical fibres and many insulation layers with an Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient of approximately 3,4 W/m{sup 2}K. After an earlier research and development programme, a further extensive qualification programme was conducted during the course of the project, culminating with the deep water testing phase offshore Brazil. The IPB was then approved for fabrication and installation
Compressive nonlinearity in the hair bundle's active response to mechanical stimulation.
Martin, P; Hudspeth, A J
2001-12-04
The auditory system's ability to interpret sounds over a wide range of amplitudes rests on the nonlinear responsiveness of the ear. Whether measured by basilar-membrane vibration, nerve-fiber activity, or perceived loudness, the ear is most sensitive to small signals and grows progressively less responsive as stimulation becomes stronger. Seeking a correlate of this behavior at the level of mechanoelectrical transduction, we examined the responses of hair bundles to direct mechanical stimulation. As reported by the motion of an attached glass fiber, an active hair bundle from the bullfrog's sacculus oscillates spontaneously. Sinusoidal movement of the fiber's base by as little as +/-1 nm, corresponding to the application at the bundle's top of a force of +/-0.3 pN, causes detectable phase-locking of the bundle's oscillations to the stimulus. Although entrainment increases as the stimulus grows, the amplitude of the hair-bundle movement does not rise until phase-locking is nearly complete. A bundle is most sensitive to stimulation at its frequency of spontaneous oscillation. Far from that frequency, the sensitivity of an active hair bundle resembles that of a passive bundle. Over most of its range, an active hair bundle's response grows as the one-third power of the stimulus amplitude; the bundle's sensitivity declines accordingly in proportion to the negative two-thirds power of the excitation. This scaling behavior, also found in the response of the mammalian basilar membrane to sound, signals the operation of an amplificatory process at the brink of an oscillatory instability, a Hopf bifurcation.
Evidence for two populations of hair bundles in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.
Menard, Shelcie S; Watson, Glen M
2017-06-01
Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length. Immediately after CD treatment, when only CD-resistant hair bundles are present, nematocyst discharge is normal into targets touched to tentacles in the absence of vibrations (i.e., baseline) but fails to increase normally in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz, a key frequency. After CD treatment, the abundance of hair bundles recovers to control levels within three hours. At 2h after CD treatment, when CD-resistant and CD-sensitive hair bundles are both present, but a full-recovery is not yet complete, somewhat enhanced discharge of nematocysts occurs into targets touched to tentacles in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz (at least as compared to the response of CD-treated animals to contact with test probes in the absence of vibrations). Additionally, at 2h after CD-treatment, prey capture recovers to normal. Thus, two populations of hair bundles may be present on tentacles of sea anemones: those that are CD-resistant and those that are CD-sensitive. The functions of these hair bundles may be distinct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bundling in Place: Translating the NGSS into Place-Based Earth-System Science Curricula
Semken, S. C.
2016-12-01
Bundling is the process of grouping Performance Expectations (PEs) from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into coherent units based on a defined topic, idea, question, or phenomenon. Bundling sorts the PEs for a given grade or grade band into a teachable narrative: a key stage in building curriculum, instruction, and assessment from the NGSS. To encourage and facilitate this, bundling guidelines have recently been released on the NGSS website (nextgenscience.org/glossary/bundlesbundling), and example bundles for different grade bands and disciplines are also being developed and posted there. According to these guidelines the iterative process of bundling begins with organization of PEs according to natural connections among them, and alignment of the three NGSS dimensions (Disciplinary Core Ideas, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Science and Engineering Practices) that underpin each PE. Bundles are grouped by coherence and increasing complexity into courses, and courses into course sets that should encompass all PEs for a grade band. Bundling offers a natural way to translate the NGSS into highly contextualized curricula such as place-based (PB) teaching, which is situated in specific places or regions and focused on natural and cultural features, processes, phenomena, history, and challenges to sustainability therein. Attributes of place and our individual and collective connections to place (sense of place) directly inform PB curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. PEs can be bundled by their relevance to these themes. Following the NGSS guidelines, I model the process for PB instruction by bundling PEs around the themes of Paleozoic geology and carbonate deposition and their relationships to mining and calcining of limestone in Anthropocene cement production for developing communities. The bundles integrate aspects of Earth history, the carbon cycle, mineral resources, climate change, and sustainability using specific local examples and narratives. They are
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wolf, L.
1981-02-01
Four tasks are reported: bundle geometry (wrapped and bare rods), subchannel geometry (bare rods), subchannel geometry (bare rods), LMFBR outlet plenum flow mixing, and theoretical determination of local temperature fields in LMFBR fuel rod bundles. (DLC)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wolf, L.
1976-01-01
Progress is summarized in the following areas: wrapped and bare rod bundle geometry, bare rod subchannel geometry, outlet plenum flow mixing, and theoretical determination of local temperature fields in rod bundles. (DG)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wolf, L.
1976-01-01
Progress is reported for the following tasks: bundle geometry studies; subchannel geometry studies; outlet plenum flow mixing studies; and the theoretical determination of local temperature fields in rod bundles.
Topological Strings, Two-Dimensional Yang-Mills Theory and Chern-Simons Theory on Torus Bundles
Caporaso, N; Griguolo, L; Pasquetti, S; Seminara, D; Szabó, R J
2006-01-01
We study the relations between two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on the torus, topological string theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold whose local geometry is the sum of two line bundles over the torus, and Chern-Simons theory on torus bundles. The chiral partition function of the Yang-Mills gauge theory in the large N limit is shown to coincide with the topological string amplitude computed by topological vertex techniques. We use Yang-Mills theory as an efficient tool for the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants and derive explicitly their relation with Hurwitz numbers of the torus. We calculate the Gopakumar-Vafa invariants, whose integrality gives a non-trivial confirmation of the conjectured nonperturbative relation between two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory and topological string theory. We also demonstrate how the gauge theory leads to a simple combinatorial solution for the Donaldson-Thomas theory of the Calabi-Yau background. We match the instanton representation of Yang-Mills theory on the torus with ...
A preliminary result of self-calibration bundle adjustment of Chang'E-2 stereo imagery
Liu, Yiliang; Liu, Bin; Peng, Man; Di, Kaichang
2014-05-01
The high resolution lunar global images acquired by Chang'E-2 (CE-2) CCD camera orbiter are of great importance for lunar science research as well as preparation of the landing and surface operation of Chang'E-3 (CE-3) lunar rover. In this paper, a rigorous geometric model of CE-2 CCD camera is developed based on the push-broom imaging principle. A self-calibration bundle adjustment (SCBA) method is proposed to eliminate the inconsistencies between forward- and backward-looking images, which are caused by the inaccuracy of exterior orientation (EO) parameters and the uncertain relationship between the two CCD line arrays of the camera. The interior orientation (IO) model is refined by adding several additional parameters and the EO parameters are fitted by a third-order polynomial model. Strategies for ensuring the robustness and reliability of the solution are also adopted, including EO pseudo observations selection, reasonable weight determination, and truncated singular value decomposition method. After adjustment, the inconsistencies between the forward- and backward-looking images are eliminated effectively by reducing the image-space residuals from around 20 pixels to sub-pixel. Based on the adjustment, high precision DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and DOM (Digital Ortho Map) of a local area at Sinus Iridum (pre-selected CE-3 landing site) are generated automatically.
Tunable wideband-directive thermal emission from SiC surface using bundled graphene sheets
Inampudi, Sandeep; Mosallaei, Hossein
2017-09-01
Coherent thermal radiation emitters based on diffraction gratings inscribed on surface of a polar material, such as silicon carbide, always possess high angular dispersion resulting in wideband-dispersive or monochromatic-directive emission. In this paper, we identify roots of the high angular dispersion as the rapid surface phonon polariton (SPhP) resonance of the material surface and the misalignment of the dispersion curve of the diffraction orders of the grating with respect to light line. We minimize the rapid variation of SPhP resonance by compensating the material dispersion using bundled graphene sheets and mitigate the misalignment by a proper choice of the grating design. Utilizing a modified form of rigorous coupled wave analysis to simultaneously incorporate atomic-scale graphene sheets and bulk diffraction gratings, we accurately compute the emissivity profiles of the composite structure and demonstrate reduction in the angular dispersion of thermal emission from as high as 30∘ to as low as 4∘ in the SPhP dominant wavelength range of 11-12 μ m . In addition, we demonstrate that the graphene sheets via their tunable optical properties allow a fringe benefit of dynamical variation of the angular dispersion to a wide range.
Araki, Daisuke; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kubo, Seiji; Fujita, Norifumi; Tei, Katsumasa; Nishimoto, Koji; Hoshino, Yuichi; Matsushita, Takehiko; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Nagamune, Koki; Kurosaka, Masahiro
2011-03-01
We conducted a prospective randomised study of anatomical single-bundle (A-SB group) versus double-bundle (A-DB group) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the hamstrings tendons. Twenty patients with unilateral ACL deficiency were randomised into two groups. We created the bone tunnels at the position of the original insertion of the anteromedial bundle footprint and posterolateral bundle footprint in the A-DB group and at the central position between these two bundles in the A-SB group. All of the patients were tested before ACL reconstruction and one year after surgery. The KT-1000 measurements, isokinetic muscle peak torque and heel-height difference were evaluated and the general knee condition was assessed by Lysholm score. For pre- and postoperative stability assessment, we used the six-degrees-of-freedom of knee kinematic measurement system using an electromagnetic device (the EMS) for quantitative assessment during the Lachman test and the pivot shift test. There were no significant differences in the KT-1000 measurements, isokinetic muscle peak torque, heel-height difference, and Lysholm score at one-year follow-up between these two groups. The EMS data showed there were significant differences in the acceleration of the pivot shift test between the operated knee and the contralateral normal knees in the A-SB group. In conclusion, clinical outcomes were equally good in both groups. However, the EMS data showed the anatomical double-bundle ACL reconstruction tended to be biomechanically superior to the single-bundle reconstruction.
The button effect of CANFLEX bundle on the critical heat flux and critical channel power
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Jisu; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E.; Inch, W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)
1997-12-31
A CANFLEX (CANdu FLEXible fuelling) 43-element bundle has developed for a CANDU-6 reactor as an alternative of 37-element fuel bundle. The design has two diameter elements (11.5 and 13.5 mm) to reduce maximum element power rating and buttons to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF), compared with the standard 37-element bundle. The freon CHF experiments have performed for two series of CANFLEX bundles with and without buttons with a modelling fluid as refrigerant R-134a and axial uniform heat flux condition. Evaluating the effects of buttons of CANFLEX bundle on CHF and Critical Channel Power (CCP) with the experimental results, it is shown that the buttons enhance CCP as well as CHF. All the CHF`s for both the CANFLEX bundles are occurred at the end of fuel channel with the high dryout quality conditions. The CHF enhancement ratio are increased with increase of dryout quality for all flow conditions and also with increase of mass flux only for high pressure conditions. It indicates that the button is a useful design for CANDU operating condition because most CHF flow conditions for CANDU fuel bundle are ranged to high dryout quality conditions. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)
Microtubule anchoring by cortical actin bundles prevents streaming of the oocyte cytoplasm.
Wang, Ying; Riechmann, Veit
2008-01-01
The localisation of the determinants of the body axis during Drosophila oogenesis is dependent on the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. Mutations in the actin binding proteins Profilin, Cappuccino (Capu) and Spire result in premature streaming of the cytoplasm and a reorganisation of the oocyte MT network. As a consequence, the localisation of axis determinants is abolished in these mutants. It is unclear how actin regulates the organisation of the MTs, or what the spatial relationship between these two cytoskeletal elements is. Here, we report a careful analysis of the oocyte cytoskeleton. We identify thick actin bundles at the oocyte cortex, in which the minus ends of the MTs are embedded. Disruption of these bundles results in cortical release of the MT minus ends, and premature onset of cytoplasmic streaming. Thus, our data indicate that the actin bundles anchor the MTs minus ends at the oocyte cortex, and thereby prevent streaming of the cytoplasm. We further show that actin bundle formation requires Profilin but not Capu and Spire. Thus, our results support a model in which Profilin acts in actin bundle nucleation, while Capu and Spire link the bundles to MTs. Finally, our data indicate how cytoplasmic streaming contributes to the reorganisation of the MT cytoskeleton. We show that the release of the MT minus ends from the cortex occurs independently of streaming, while the formation of MT bundles is streaming dependent.
Two-dimensional evaluation of 3D needled Cf/SiC composite fiber bundle surface
Wei, Jinhua; Lin, Bin; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Fang, Sheng
2015-11-01
The variations of fiber bundle surface microstructure have direct influence on the material performance, especially the friction and wear properties. Therefore, fiber bundle is the smallest evaluation unit of Cf/SiC composite surface. However, due to the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of Cf/SiC composite, it is difficult to evaluate the surface characteristics. Researchers think that two-dimensional evaluation is not suitable for the composites surface assessment any more because of its complex composition and varied surface structure. In this paper, a novel method is introduced for the evaluation of 3D needled Cf/SiC composite fiber bundle surface. On the level of Cf/SiC composite fiber bundle surface, two-dimensional evaluation method is adopted, with which the fiber bundle surface quality can be quantitatively evaluated by the two-dimensional surface roughness Ra. As long as the extracted surface profiles averagely distributed on Cf/SiC composite fiber bundle surface, with appropriate sampling length and sampling number, the mean value of Ra can estimate the whole surface roughness, thus reflecting the roughness degree of surface accurately. This study not only benefits the detection of 3D needled Cf/SiC composite fiber bundle surface quality, and lays a foundation on the evaluation of material functional features in further. And it corresponds to the convenient application in engineering practice.
Uniform versus Nonuniform Axial Power Distribution in Rod Bundle CHF Experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baowen Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Rod bundle experiments with axially uniform and nonuniform heat fluxes are examined to explore the potential limitations of using uniform rod bundle CHF data for CHF correlation development of light water reactors with nonuniform axial power distribution (APD. The case of upstream burnout is presented as an example of unique phenomena associated with nonuniform rod bundle CHF experiments. It is a result from combined effect of axial nonuniform power shape and different interchannel mixing mechanisms. In addition, several key parameters are investigated with respect to their potential impacts on the thermal-hydraulic behaviors between rod bundles with uniform and nonuniform APDs. This type of misrepresentation cannot be amended or compensated through the use of correction factors due to the lack of critical information in the uniform rod bundle CHF testing as well as the fundamental difference in the underlining driving mechanisms. Other potential issues involved with the use of uniform rod bundle CHF data for nonuniform APD system applications also present strong evidence concerning the limitations and inadequacy of using uniform rod bundle CHF data for the correlation, prediction, and design limit calculation for safety analysis.
Performance of a Novel PMMA Polymer Imaging Bundle for Field Acquisition and Wavefront Sensing
Richards, S. N.; Leon-Saval, S.; Goodwin, M.; Zheng, J.; Lawrence, J. S.; Bryant, J. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Norris, B.; Cvetojevic, N.; Argyros, A.
2017-01-01
Imaging bundles provide a convenient way to translate a spatially coherent image, yet conventional imaging bundles made from silica fibre optics typically remain expensive with large losses due to poor filling factors ( 40%). We present the characterisation of a novel polymer imaging bundle made from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) that is considerably cheaper and a better alternative to silica imaging bundles over short distances ( 1 m; from the middle to the edge of a telescope's focal plane). The large increase in filling factor (92% for the polymer imaging bundle) outweighs the large increase in optical attenuation from using PMMA (1 dB/m) instead of silica (10-3 dB/m). We present and discuss current and possible future multi-object applications of the polymer imaging bundle in the context of astronomical instrumentation including: field acquisition, guiding, wavefront sensing, narrow-band imaging, aperture masking, and speckle imaging. The use of PMMA limits its use in low-light applications (e.g., imaging of galaxies); however, it is possible to fabricate polymer imaging bundles from a range of polymers that are better suited to the desired science.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Shen; SUN Feng-zhong; SHI Yue-tao
2012-01-01
To develop an excellent heat transfer element under the vacuum condition,experiments about the heat transfer performance of horizontal tube bundles of different materials under various vacuum conditions were carried out,including the stainless steel tube,the brass tube,the Ni-based implanted steel tube and the ion implanted brass tube.The relative trends show that the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the overall heat transfer coefficient of bundles of four materials all increase with the vacuum degree,especially,those of the Ni-based implanted steel tube and the ion implanted brass tube.Under a high vacuum condition (0.07 MPa),the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the Ni-based implanted steel tube bundle is about 1.4 times of that of the stainless steel tube bundle,the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the ion implanted brass tube bundle is found to be about 1.3 times of that of the common brass tube bundle.Therefore,according to the condensation heat transfer characteristics studied under high vacuum conditions,it is believed that a dropwise condensation is partly achieved on the surface of these two implanted tube bundles,and the ion implantation is shown to be an effective method to achieve the dropwise condensation.Based on this study,it is believed that the Ni-based steel tube may replace the brass tube,which is more expensive as a heat transfer component.
OPTIMIZING THE DISTRIBUTION OF TIE POINTS FOR THE BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT OF HRSC IMAGE MOSAICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Bostelmann
2017-07-01
Full Text Available For a systematic mapping of the Martian surface, the Mars Express orbiter is equipped with a multi-line scanner: Since the beginning of 2004 the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC regularly acquires long image strips. By now more than 4,000 strips covering nearly the whole planet are available. Due to the nine channels, each with different viewing direction, and partly with different optical filters, each strip provides 3D and color information and allows the generation of digital terrain models (DTMs and orthophotos. To map larger regions, neighboring HRSC strips can be combined to build DTM and orthophoto mosaics. The global mapping scheme Mars Chart 30 is used to define the extent of these mosaics. In order to avoid unreasonably large data volumes, each MC-30 tile is divided into two parts, combining about 90 strips each. To ensure a seamless fit of these strips, several radiometric and geometric corrections are applied in the photogrammetric process. A simultaneous bundle adjustment of all strips as a block is carried out to estimate their precise exterior orientation. Because size, position, resolution and image quality of the strips in these blocks are heterogeneous, also the quality and distribution of the tie points vary. In absence of ground control points, heights of a global terrain model are used as reference information, and for this task a regular distribution of these tie points is preferable. Besides, their total number should be limited because of computational reasons. In this paper, we present an algorithm, which optimizes the distribution of tie points under these constraints. A large number of tie points used as input is reduced without affecting the geometric stability of the block by preserving connections between strips. This stability is achieved by using a regular grid in object space and discarding, for each grid cell, points which are redundant for the block adjustment. The set of tie points, filtered by the
Optimizing the Distribution of Tie Points for the Bundle Adjustment of HRSC Image Mosaics
Bostelmann, J.; Breitkopf, U.; Heipke, C.
2017-07-01
For a systematic mapping of the Martian surface, the Mars Express orbiter is equipped with a multi-line scanner: Since the beginning of 2004 the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) regularly acquires long image strips. By now more than 4,000 strips covering nearly the whole planet are available. Due to the nine channels, each with different viewing direction, and partly with different optical filters, each strip provides 3D and color information and allows the generation of digital terrain models (DTMs) and orthophotos. To map larger regions, neighboring HRSC strips can be combined to build DTM and orthophoto mosaics. The global mapping scheme Mars Chart 30 is used to define the extent of these mosaics. In order to avoid unreasonably large data volumes, each MC-30 tile is divided into two parts, combining about 90 strips each. To ensure a seamless fit of these strips, several radiometric and geometric corrections are applied in the photogrammetric process. A simultaneous bundle adjustment of all strips as a block is carried out to estimate their precise exterior orientation. Because size, position, resolution and image quality of the strips in these blocks are heterogeneous, also the quality and distribution of the tie points vary. In absence of ground control points, heights of a global terrain model are used as reference information, and for this task a regular distribution of these tie points is preferable. Besides, their total number should be limited because of computational reasons. In this paper, we present an algorithm, which optimizes the distribution of tie points under these constraints. A large number of tie points used as input is reduced without affecting the geometric stability of the block by preserving connections between strips. This stability is achieved by using a regular grid in object space and discarding, for each grid cell, points which are redundant for the block adjustment. The set of tie points, filtered by the algorithm, shows a more
A contribution to understanding the structure of amphivasal secondary bundles in monocotyledons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joanna Jura-Morawiec
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Secondary growth of monocotyledonous plants is connected with the activity of the monocot cambium that accumulates most of the derivatives inner to the cambial cylinder. These derivatives differentiate into (a secondary bundles with the amphivasal arrangement, i.e. xylem composed of tracheids surrounds the phloem cells and (b the parenchymatous secondary conjunctive tissue in which the bundles are embedded. The amphivasal secondary bundles differ in the arrangement of xylem cells as visible on single cross sections through the secondary body of the monocots. Apart from the bundles with typical ring of tracheids also the bundles where tracheids do not quite surround the phloem are present. We aimed to elucidate the cross sectional anatomy of the amphivasal secondary bundles with the use of the serial sectioning method which allowed us to follow very precisely the bundle structure along its length. The studies were carried out with the samples of secondary tissues collected from the stem of Dracaena draco L. growing in the greenhouses of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden – CBDC in Powsin and the Adam Mickiewicz University Botanical Garden. The material was fixed in a mixture of glycerol and ethanol (1:1; v/v, dehydrated stepwise with graded ethanol series and finally embedded in epon resin. Afterwards, the material was sectioned with microtome into continuous series of thin (3 μm sections, stained with PAS/toluidine blue and examined under the light microscope. The results, described in details in Jura‑Morawiec & Wiland-Szymańska (2014, revealed novel facts about tracheids arrangement. Each amphivasal bundle is composed of sectors where tracheids form a ring as well as of such where tracheids are separated by vascular parenchyma cells. We hypothesize that strands of vascular parenchyma cells locally separating the tracheids enable radial transport of assimilates from sieve elements of the bundle towards the sink tissues, e
Coupling and elastic loading affect the active response by the inner ear hair cell bundles.
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Clark Elliott Strimbu
Full Text Available Active hair bundle motility has been proposed to underlie the amplification mechanism in the auditory endorgans of non-mammals and in the vestibular systems of all vertebrates, and to constitute a crucial component of cochlear amplification in mammals. We used semi-intact in vitro preparations of the bullfrog sacculus to study the effects of elastic mechanical loading on both natively coupled and freely oscillating hair bundles. For the latter, we attached glass fibers of different stiffness to the stereocilia and observed the induced changes in the spontaneous bundle movement. When driven with sinusoidal deflections, hair bundles displayed phase-locked response indicative of an Arnold Tongue, with the frequency selectivity highest at low amplitudes and decreasing under stronger stimulation. A striking broadening of the mode-locked response was seen with increasing stiffness of the load, until approximate impedance matching, where the phase-locked response remained flat over the physiological range of frequencies. When the otolithic membrane was left intact atop the preparation, the natural loading of the bundles likewise decreased their frequency selectivity with respect to that observed in freely oscillating bundles. To probe for signatures of the active process under natural loading and coupling conditions, we applied transient mechanical stimuli to the otolithic membrane. Following the pulses, the underlying bundles displayed active movement in the opposite direction, analogous to the twitches observed in individual cells. Tracking features in the otolithic membrane indicated that it moved in phase with the bundles. Hence, synchronous active motility evoked in the system of coupled hair bundles by external input is sufficient to displace large overlying structures.