WorldWideScience

Sample records for preputial separation pps

  1. Hospital Outpatient PPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 4523 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) provides authority for CMS to implement a prospective payment system (PPS) under Medicare for hospital...

  2. Inpatient Psychiatric Facility PPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Since October 1, 1983, most hospitals have been paid under the hospital inpatient prospective payment system (PPS). However, certain types of specialty hospitals and...

  3. Preputial calculus in a neurologically-impaired child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataru, R I; Iozsa, D A; Ivanov, M

    2015-02-01

    Preputial calculi are rarely encountered in childhood. A 5-year-old boy with symptoms of chronic balanoposthitis. A preputial stone was documented and removed at circumcision. Uneventful postoperative recovery. In children, association between phimosis and neurologic impairment represent predisposing condition for preputial stone formation.

  4. An unusual foreign body in the preputial sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, A K

    1992-01-01

    A 28 year old Indian male presented with an unusual foreign body, a penicillin bottle containing tincture of iodine, in the preputial sac. The purpose of introducing the bottle was to tickle his glans penis as a form of masturbation. The bottle was so firmly impacted that it could be removed only under general anaesthesia. Images PMID:1427809

  5. The fairness of the PPS reimbursement methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, F D

    1990-01-01

    In FY 1984 the Medicare program implemented a new method of reimbursing hospitals for inpatient services, the Prospective Payment System (PPS). Under this system, hospitals are paid a predetermined amount per Medicare discharge, which varies according to certain patient and hospital characteristics. This article investigates the presence of systematic biases and other potential imperfections in the PPS reimbursement methodology as revealed by its effects on Medicare operating ratios. The study covers the first three years of the PPS (approximately 1984-1986) and is based on hospital data from the Medicare cost reports and other related sources. Regression techniques were applied to these data to determine how Medicare operating ratios were affected by specific aspects of the reimbursement methodology. Several possible imbalances were detected. The potential undercompensation relating to these can be harmful to certain classes of hospitals and to the Medicare populations that they serve. PMID:2109738

  6. Development on Vulnerability Assessment Methods of PPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO; Qiang; ZHANG; Wen-liang; BU; Li-xin; YIN; Hong-he; LI; Xin-jun; FANG; Xin

    2013-01-01

    Through investigating information from domestic and abroad,joint the domestic assessment experience,we present a set of physical protection system(PPS)vulnerability assessment methods for on-operating nuclear power plants and for on-designing nuclear facilities.The methods will help to strengthen and upgrade the security measures of the nuclear facilities,improve the effectiveness and

  7. Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilal Bhat

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions : Preputioplasty with TIP is feasible in proximal hypospadias with curvature without increasing the complication rate. Postoperative phimosis can be prevented by on-table testing of the adequacy of preputial skin by 3 stay sutures.

  8. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-PPS Survey Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a record of trips selected during pilot procedures for the PPS design project designed to track the port agents ability to follow the PPS design and...

  9. Cancer Treatment Measures – PPS-Exempt Cancer Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Prospective Payment System (PPS)-Exempt Cancer Hospital Quality Reporting (PCHQR) Program currently uses three cancer specific measures. The resulting PPS-Exempt...

  10. Surgical Management of Penile and Preputial Neoplasms in Equine with Special Reference to Partial Phallectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile and preputial neoplasia in horses occurs infrequently and represents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The present study was carried out on a total number of 21 equids (14 stallions and 7 donkeys suffered from different penile and preputial neoplasia. Diagnosis of neoplasms was based up on history of the case, clinical examination as well as histopathological evaluation. Animals with penile and preputial neoplasms were underwent local excision and partial phallectomy with a slightly modified version of the techniques described by William’s. The diagnosed neoplasms were penile and preputial squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; ; sarcoid (; a-fibrosarcoma; and a melanoma. Local excision was curative in all cases except 5 stallions with SCCs. These stallions had extensive damage of the glans penis, free part of the penis and the inner lamina of the internal fold of the prepuce, and they underwent a partial phallectomy with successful outcome. Follow-up information was obtained by visit and telephone inquiries. In conclusion, penile and preputial neoplasms are commonly encountered in elderly male horses and SCCs are the most common type affecting male external genitalia. Partial phallectomy is effective for management of equine neoplasia if they are confined to the glans and body of the penis and there is no proximal spread or involvement to regional lymph nodes.

  11. Collection of preputial material by scraping and aspiration for the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Irons

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and practicability of preputial scraping as a method of collecting preputial material from bulls infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. In the 1st trial, preputial material was collected by simultaneous scraping and aspiration from 3 infected and 1 uninfected bull 10 times over a 5-week period. In the 2nd trial, samples from 5 infected bulls were collected by both sheath washing and scraping on 6 occasions, while 8 uninfected animals were sampled 3 times. Samples were cultured using a modified Trichomonas culture medium (Oxoid. In the first trial, 29 of 30 samples from infected bulls were found to be positive. In the second trial, 83 % of samples collected by both methods tested positive. In neither trial were any samples from the control bulls found to be positive. Scraping was found to be quick and safe, and offered advantages over preputial washing in that urine contamination was easily avoided, samples were smaller and more concentrated and contamination was reduced. It may, however, be subject to greater operator variability than sheath washing. It is concluded that preputial scraping is as effective as washing and represents a suitable alternative for the collection of material for direct examination and culture of Tritrichomonas foetus.

  12. Preputial Demodex species in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in eastern Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankton, Julia S; Chapman, Alycia; Ramsay, Edward C; Kania, Stephen A; Newkirk, Kimberly M

    2013-03-01

    The presence of preputial Demodex species in four captive, wild-caught big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in eastern Tennessee, USA, examined between 2008 and 2010 is reported. In three of four cases, there was associated folliculitis, dermatitis, or preputial adenitis. There were no clinical signs directly attributable to the mites, although penile prolapse was present in one case. Mites were retrieved from preputial skin samples of other archival big brown bats by potassium hydroxide digestion and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 99.6% homology to Demodex canis, although morphologic differences distinguish the two species. Mites of this report differ in anatomic location from Demodex spp. previously reported in bats and represent a species unreported to public databases.

  13. Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram

    2010-10-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plication was added according to the severity of curvature. Feasibility of preputial reconstruction was assessed by applying 3 stay sutures-the first to fix the skin at the corona, the second at the junction of the inner and outer preputial skin for pulling up the skin over the glans, and the third stay on penile skin at the level of the corona for retracting the skin. Preputial reconstruction consisted of a standard 3 layered re-approximation of the margins of the dorsal hood. Age of the patients varied from 10 months to 21 years with an average of 6 years and 4 months. Ventral curvature (mild 10, moderate 13, and severe 4 cases) was corrected by the mobilization of the urethral plate and spongiosum in 14 patients, 11 cases had mobilization of the proximal urethra in addition and 2 patients required single stitch dorsal plication with the above-mentioned steps. Two patients developed urethral fistula and 1 had preputial dehiscence. Preputioplasty with TIP is feasible in proximal hypospadias with curvature without increasing the complication rate. Postoperative phimosis can be prevented by on-table testing of the adequacy of preputial skin by 3 stay sutures.

  14. Combined preputial advancement and phallopexy as a revision technique for treating paraphimosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, S M; Wallace, A M

    2014-11-01

    A 7-year-old neutered male Jack Russell terrier-cross was presented for signs of recurrent paraphimosis, despite previous surgical enlargement of the preputial ostium. Revision surgery was performed using a combination of preputial advancement and phallopexy, which resulted in complete and permanent coverage of the glans penis by the prepuce, and at 1 year postoperatively, no recurrence of paraphimosis had been observed. The combined techniques allow preservation of the normal penile anatomy, are relatively simple to perform and provide a cosmetic result. We recommend this combination for the treatment of paraphimosis in the dog, particularly when other techniques have failed. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. A rare case of preputial calculi in a child with balanitis xerotica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.A. Kekre

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... muscle power and has been bladder/bowel incontinent since his birth. The patient had not been ... pulse, low-grade fever, loss of mus- cle power in both lower limbs and bladder and bowel incontinence. ... fibrotic preputial skin with palpable hard nodular structures under- neath (Fig. 1). Continuous urine ...

  16. Dual role of preputial gland secretion and its major components in sex recognition of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing

    2008-10-20

    This study was aimed at validating the sexual attractiveness of hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate, two putative pheromone compounds, from preputial gland secretion of mice. These two compounds have been reported to be among the major components of preputial gland secretion in both sexes but higher in quantity in males than females. In this study, we show that castration suppressed the production of the two compounds, further suggesting their association with maleness. Adding preputial gland secretion and the synthetic analogs of the two compounds to castrated male urine at their physiological levels in intact males increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to female mice, showing that the two compounds were indeed male pheromones. Furthermore, their sexual attractiveness disappeared upon removing the vomeronasal organs (VNOs) from female recipients. Replenishing castrated male urine with preputial gland secretion and the two compounds at their physiological levels in females increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to males. Such a reversal of sexual attractiveness for hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate suggests that they had opposing dual effects in sexual attractiveness in a dosage-dependent manner.

  17. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  18. Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram

    2010-01-01

    Aims : Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Materials and Methods : Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plica...

  19. Use of preputial skin for coverage of post-burn contractures of fingers in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Zaroo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hand burns are common injuries. Children frequently sustain burn injuries, especially to their hands. Contractures are a common sequel of severe burns around joints. The prepuce, or foreskin, has been used as a skin graft for a number of indications. We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of utilising the preputial skin for the management of post-burn contractures of fingers in uncircumcised male children. Materials and Methods: Preputial skin was used for the coverage of released contractures of fingers in 12 patients aged 2-6 years. The aetiology of burns was "Kangri" burn in eight patients and scalding in four patients. Six patients had contracture in two fingers, four patients in one finger, and two patients had contractures in three fingers. Results: None of the patients had graft loss, and all the wounds healed within 2 weeks. All patients had complete release of contractures without any recurrence. Hyperpigmentation of the grafts was observed over a period of time, which was well accepted by the parents. Conclusions: Preputial skin can be used successfully for male children with mild-to-moderate contractures of 2-3 fingers for restoration of the hand function, minimal donor site morbidity.

  20. Preputial skin free graft as dorsal onlay urethroplasty: Our experience of 73 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivadeo S Bapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the outcome of dorsal onlay urethroplasty in 73 patients for stricture urethra over a period of eight years. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three patients of stricture urethra have undergone dorsal onlay urethroplasty from July 1998 to February 2006. Age distribution: 14-58 years. Etiology: Trauma 20/73 (27.39%, Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans 2/73 (2.73%, Iatrogenic 26/73(35.61%, Infection 3/73 (4.10%, Idiopathic 22/73 (30.13%. Site: Penobulbar-25/73, bulbar-38/73, membranous-8/73 and long length-2/73. Suprapubic catheter was inserted preoperatively: 21/73 patients. Preputial / distal penile skin was used in all patients. Buccal mucosa was not used in any patient. Hospitalization was for four to five days. Catheter was removed after 21 days. All patients had their first endoscopic checkup after three months. Subsequently they were followed up by uroflometry. Routine imaging of urethra for follow-up was not carried out. Results: 63/73 (86.30% patients had satisfactory outcome not requiring any further treatment, 8/73 (10.95% developed anastomotic stricture (3/8-optical internal urethrotomy, 5/8 dilatation alone. 2/73 (2.75% developed external meatal stenosis. None had urinary fistula and required repeat urethroplasty. Follow-up ranged from three months to eight years. Conclusion: Dorsal onlay urethroplasty using preputial/distal penile skin is a satisfactory procedure. Preputial/distal penile skin is devoid of hair and fat and hence an ideal graft material. Even in circumscribed patients distal penile skin can be harvested. Long-term follow-up is required in judging results of patients with stricture urethra.

  1. Preputial skin free graft as dorsal onlay urethroplasty: Our experience of 73 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, Shivadeo S; Padhye, Abhijit S; Yadav, Pushkaraj B; Bhave, Ashish A

    2007-10-01

    To present the outcome of dorsal onlay urethroplasty in 73 patients for stricture urethra over a period of eight years. Seventy-three patients of stricture urethra have undergone dorsal onlay urethroplasty from July 1998 to February 2006. Age distribution: 14-58 years. Trauma 20/73 (27.39%), Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans 2/73 (2.73%), Iatrogenic 26/73(35.61%), Infection 3/73 (4.10%), Idiopathic 22/73 (30.13%). Site: Penobulbar-25/73, bulbar-38/73, membranous-8/73 and long length-2/73. Suprapubic catheter was inserted preoperatively: 21/73 patients. Preputial / distal penile skin was used in all patients. Buccal mucosa was not used in any patient. Hospitalization was for four to five days. Catheter was removed after 21 days. All patients had their first endoscopic checkup after three months. Subsequently they were followed up by uroflometry. Routine imaging of urethra for follow-up was not carried out. 63/73 (86.30%) patients had satisfactory outcome not requiring any further treatment, 8/73 (10.95%) developed anastomotic stricture (3/8-optical internal urethrotomy, 5/8 dilatation alone). 2/73 (2.75%) developed external meatal stenosis. None had urinary fistula and required repeat urethroplasty. Follow-up ranged from three months to eight years. Dorsal onlay urethroplasty using preputial/distal penile skin is a satisfactory procedure. Preputial/distal penile skin is devoid of hair and fat and hence an ideal graft material. Even in circumscribed patients distal penile skin can be harvested. Long-term follow-up is required in judging results of patients with stricture urethra.

  2. [Longitudinal preputial pedicled flap urethroplasty for chordee of Donnahoo type IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Shan, Wei; Yuan, Miao; Huang, Guizhen; Huang, Lugang

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of longitudinal preputial pedicled flap urethroplasty for chordee of Donnahoo IV type. Between June 1994 and October 2011, 30 patients with chordee (Donnahoo type IV) underwent longitudinal preputial pedicled flap urethroplasty. The patients' age ranged from 2 to 16 years (mean, 5.8 years). The morphology of the balanus-navicular fossa-external urethral orifice ranged normal; the penis length was 2.5-6.8 cm (mean, 4.3 cm); the penis bending angle was 35-70 degrees (mean, 40.1 degrees). Primary and secondary operation was 27 cases and 3 cases, respectively. The size of flap ranged from 1.5 cm x 1.3 cm to 4.0 cm x 2.0 cm. After correction, the penis length was 3.0-8.5 cm (mean, 6.6 cm); the penis bending angle was 0-10 degrees (mean, 1.2 degrees). All patients were followed up 6 months to 12 years (mean, 33 months). No recurrence, stabbing pain of the balanus, or foreign body sensation occurred during follow-up. Of them, 4 patients (13.33%) had urinary fistular, they had satisfactory results after the second operation; 2 patients (6.67%) had urethral stricture 1 month after operation, they also had satisfactory results after arethral dilatation. The other patients showed no scattering urinary flow and good direction without complication. Six patients had satisfactory sexual function after puberty without erection disorder, pain, or dyspareunia. Longitudinal preputial pedicled flap urethroplasty can achieve maximum utilization of prepuce and aesthetic and functional improvement with less complication, so it is a relatively ideal mean for treating chordee of Donnahoo type IV.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment alternatives for beef bulls with preputial prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, T R; McGrann, J M; Hooper, R N

    1997-10-01

    To develop an economic model for comparing cost-effectiveness of medical and surgical treatment versus replacement of beef bulls with preputial prolapse. Economic analysis. Estimates determined from medical records of bulls treated for preputial prolapse at our hospital and from information about treatment of bulls published elsewhere. Annual depreciation cost for treatment (ADC(T)) and replacement (ADC(R)) were calculated. Total investment for an injured bull equaled the sum of salvage value, maintenance cost, and expected cost of the treatment option under consideration. Total investment for a replacement bull was purchase price. Net present value of cost was calculated for each year of bull use. Sensitivity analyses were constructed to determine the value that would warrant treatment of an injured bull. The decision to treat was indicated when ADC(T) was less than ADC(R). In our example, it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. The ADC(R) was $97 less than ADC(T) for medical treatment ($365 vs $462) and $280 less than ADC(T) for surgical treatment ($365 vs $645). Likewise, net present value of cost values indicated that it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. Sensitivity analysis indicated treatment decisions were justified on the basis of replacement value or planned number of breeding seasons remaining for the bull. The model described here can be used by practitioners to provide an objective basis to guide decision making of owners who seek advice on whether to treat or replace bulls with preputial prolapse.

  4. Using skin and fascial sheath of preputial sac; A new technique for surgery for congenital buried penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreeprasad Patankar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital buried penis (CBP is a rare condition characterized by penis with normal length obscured under penopubic and penoscrotal skin and subcutaneous tissue. Though rare, this condition causes great parental anxiety because of abnormal shape and appearance of penis, dribbling of urine and poor hygiene. Abnormal distal attachment of fundiform ligament on penile shaft, large, redundant preputial sac, and severe paucity of nonpigmented penile skin are important anatomical factors responsible for CBP. We here describe a different approach for degloving of penis and achieving penile skin cover using skin and fascial sheath of preputial sac. This method is simple and easy to learn, teach and reproduce.

  5. Missing Mass Searches in Dimuon Events with CT-PPS

    CERN Document Server

    Mironova, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this summer student project the feasibility of missing mass searches with the CMS TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer was studied. Using a combination of CMS and CT-PPS data and Monte Carlo simulations, cuts to reduce the Drell Yan background were made and the expected signal was estimated.

  6. Oncology Care Measures – PPS-Exempt Cancer Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Prospective Payment System (PPS)-Exempt Cancer Hospital Quality Reporting (PCHQR) Program currently uses five oncology care measures. The resulting PPS-Exempt...

  7. Optimization of the tape placement process parameters for carbon–PPS composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Warnet, Laurent; Rietman, B.; Visser, Roy; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    The interrelation between process parameters, material properties and interlaminar bond strength is investigated for the laser assisted tape placement process. Unidirectionally carbon reinforced poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) tapes were welded onto carbon woven fabric reinforced PPS laminates. The

  8. Molecular orientation of individual LCP particles in injection-moulded PPS/LCP blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kestenbach H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarized light microscopy was used to investigate the presence of preferred molecular orientation in the LCP phase of PPS/LCP blends after injection moulding. Normal birefringence effects appeared to be complicated by artifacts due to sample preparation and by the complex nature of polarized light transmission through a multicomponent sample. It was found, however, that, during low-temperature cutting of optically transparent thin sections on a standard microtome, individual LCP particles could be separated from the PPS matrix, and their birefringence analyzed separately. Preferred orientation was detected only in LCP fibrils which dominated in skin regions, but not in droplet-shaped particles which had formed in core regions. Quantitative measurements indicated that the molecular orientation of the fibrils increased linearly with their length-to-diameter aspect ratios which ranged from 15 to 50. Even for the highest aspect ratios, however, the degree of orientation was always less than that which could easily be introduced into pure LCP thin-film samples by manual shearing.

  9. Vanishing auxiliary variables in PPS sampling - with applications in microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    Recently, non-uniform sampling has been suggested in microscopy to increase efficiency. More precisely, sampling proportional to size (PPS) has been introduced where the probability of sampling a unit in the population is proportional to the value of an auxiliary variable. Unfortunately, vanishing...... auxiliary variables are a common phenomenon in microscopy and, accordingly, part of the population is not accessible, using PPS sampling. We propose a modification of the design, for which an optimal solution can be found, using a model assisted approach. The optimal design has independent interest...... in sampling theory. We verify robustness of the new approach by numerical results, and we use real data to illustrate the applicability....

  10. Plutonium Protection System (PPS). Volume 2. Hardware description. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, D.S.

    1979-05-01

    The Plutonium Protection System (PPS) is an integrated safeguards system developed by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security. The system is designed to demonstrate and test concepts for the improved safeguarding of plutonium. Volume 2 of the PPS final report describes the hardware elements of the system. The major areas containing hardware elements are the vault, where plutonium is stored, the packaging room, where plutonium is packaged into Container Modules, the Security Operations Center, which controls movement of personnel, the Material Accountability Center, which maintains the system data base, and the Material Operations Center, which monitors the operating procedures in the system. References are made to documents in which details of the hardware items can be found

  11. First 50 pps Thomson scattering diagnostics in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehr, H.; Schramm, G.; Steuer, K.H.; Hirsch, K.; Salzmann, H.

    1981-12-01

    Electron temperature and density measurements by Thomson scattering were performed for the first time for the whole duration of a tokamak discharge. A 50 pps Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 μm was used in ASDEX in combination with Si avalanche photodiode detectors. Density calibration was done by rotational anti-Stokes Raman scattering from hydrogen. The system is used for measurements at electron densities of as low as 2 x 10 12 cm -3 . (orig.)

  12. A new timing detector for the CT-PPS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcidiacono, R. [INFN – Torino (Italy); Università del Piemonte Orientale (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    The CT-PPS detector will be installed close to the beam line on both sides of CMS, 200 m downstream the interaction point. This detector will measure forward scattered protons, allowing detailed studies of diffractive hadron physics and Central Exclusive Production. The main components of the CT-PPS detector are a silicon tracking system and a timing system. In this contribution we present the proposal of an innovative solution for the timing system, based on Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD). UFSD are a novel concept of silicon detectors potentially able to obtain the necessary time resolution (∼20 ps on the proton arrival time). The use of UFSD has also other attractive features as its material budget is small and the pixel geometries can be tailored to the precise physics distribution of protons. UFSD prototypes for CT-PPS have been designed by CNM (Barcelona) and FBK (Trento): we will present the status of the sensor productions and of the low-noise front-end electronics currently under development and test.

  13. Analytic study for physical protection system (PPS) in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho, E-mail: thw@snu.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The physical protection system (PPS) is investigated. • General NPPs are modeled in the study. • Possible terror cases, likelihood, and consequence are studied. • PPS is constructed by analytical methods. - Abstract: The nuclear safeguard is analyzed in the aspect of the physical protection system (PPS) in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The PPS is reviewed and its related terror scenarios are investigated. The PPS is developed using analytical methods. In the terror scenarios, there are 8 possible cases for the terror attacks to the NPPs. Then, the likelihood of terror is classified by the general terror incidents. The consequence of terror is classified by Design Basis Threat (DBT) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) scale. The physical protection method is suggested by defense-in-depth constraints and severe accident countermeasures. Finally, the advanced PPS is constructed, which could be used for the preparation for the possible terror attacks in the NPPs.

  14. Analytic study for physical protection system (PPS) in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The physical protection system (PPS) is investigated. • General NPPs are modeled in the study. • Possible terror cases, likelihood, and consequence are studied. • PPS is constructed by analytical methods. - Abstract: The nuclear safeguard is analyzed in the aspect of the physical protection system (PPS) in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The PPS is reviewed and its related terror scenarios are investigated. The PPS is developed using analytical methods. In the terror scenarios, there are 8 possible cases for the terror attacks to the NPPs. Then, the likelihood of terror is classified by the general terror incidents. The consequence of terror is classified by Design Basis Threat (DBT) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) scale. The physical protection method is suggested by defense-in-depth constraints and severe accident countermeasures. Finally, the advanced PPS is constructed, which could be used for the preparation for the possible terror attacks in the NPPs

  15. Ripple Effects of PPS on Nursing Homes: Swimming or Drowning in the Funding Stream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, James H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Of 189 nursing homes, 83 percent reported that Medicare's hospital Prospective Payment System (PPS) affected patient needs, 53 percent said it affected patients and services provided, and 25 percent said it affected referrals to hospitals. PPS effects depended on facility factors of size, Medicare certification, tax status, and on local market…

  16. Single-Staged Improved Tubularized Preputial/Penile Skin Flap Urethroplasty for Obliterated Anterior Urethral Stricture: Long-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jing-Dong; Xie, Hong; Fu, Qiang; Feng, Chao; Guo, Hui; Xu, Yue-Min

    2016-01-01

    To present an improved tubularized flap (ITF) technique and report the outcome of single-stage urethroplasty using preputial/penile skin flaps (PSFs) for the treatment of obliterative anterior urethral strictures (AUSs). From January 2000 to June 2012, 42 cases of obliterative AUS (3-14 cm, mean 6.38 cm) with urethral plate unsalvageable were treated using PSF-ITF urethroplasty including longitudinal skin flap, circular island flap, L-flap, Q-flap. Patients were divided into 3 groups: pendulous urethral stricture (Group A), bulbar urethral stricture (Group B) and panurethral strictures (Group C). Patients were followed up by uroflowmetry, urethrography and ureteroscope when necessary. The mean follow-up in these patients was 65 months (range 36 months-15 years). The primary success rates at 3-year follow-up were 75, 75 and 60% for Groups A, B and C, respectively. The overall success rates were 85, 83 and 70% with the remedial measure of a single visual internal urethrotomy at 3-year follow-up. A total 60% of the patients in the study completed more than 5 years of follow-up with no additional recurrence. Improved tubularized preputial/PSF urethroplasty with relatively high overall satisfaction is a novel technique for treatment of AUS when there is inadequate urethral plate or obliterative defects. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Prospective Payment System (PPS)-Exempt Cancer Hospital Quality Reporting (PCHQR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Prospective Payment System (PPS)-Exempt Cancer Hospital Quality Reporting (PCHQR) Program currently uses one clinical effectiveness measure—External Beam...

  18. Forecasting E > 50-MeV proton events with the proton prediction system (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Stephen W.; White, Stephen M.; Ling, Alan G.

    2017-11-01

    Forecasting solar energetic (E > 10-MeV) particle (SEP) events is an important element of space weather. While several models have been developed for use in forecasting such events, satellite operations are particularly vulnerable to higher-energy (≥50-MeV) SEP events. Here we validate one model, the proton prediction system (PPS), which extends to that energy range. We first develop a data base of E ≥ 50-MeV proton events >1.0 proton flux units (pfu) events observed on the GOES satellite over the period 1986-2016. We modify the PPS to forecast proton events at the reduced level of 1 pfu and run PPS for four different solar input parameters: (1) all ≥M5 solar X-ray flares; (2) all ≥200 sfu 8800-MHz bursts with associated ≥M5 flares; (3) all ≥500 sfu 8800-MHz bursts; and (4) all ≥5000 sfu 8800-MHz bursts. The validation contingency tables and skill scores are calculated for all groups and used as a guide to use of the PPS. We plot the false alarms and missed events as functions of solar source longitude, and argue that the longitude-dependence employed by PPS does not match modern observations. Use of the radio fluxes as the PPS driver tends to result in too many false alarms at the 500 sfu threshold, and misses more events than the soft X-ray predictor at the 5000 sfu threshold.

  19. The accuracy assessment of PPS in fixed beam proton therapy: isocentric rotation movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinping; Zeng Xianwen; Xu Wenling; Li Jiamin; Lv Mingming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the accuracy of isocentric rotation movement of Patient Positioning System (PPS) in fixed beam proton therapy. Methods: A 2 mm-diameter radioopaque sphere was positioned above the couch and was aligned to room iso-center (ISO). 11 PPS angles were selected to make isocentric rotation test respectively. The displacement of the sphere to ISO were measured and calculated by Digital Image Positioning System (DIPS) respectively when PPS reached each designed position. Totally four group measurements were repeated at different time. all data were collected and statistical analysis were performed. Results: The maximum shifts are (0.29 ± 0.05) mm, (0.21 ± 0.04) mm and (-0.21 ± 0.04) mm on X, Y, Z axes at - 110 degree PPS position, the absolute displacement of the sphere to ISO is (0.41 ± 0.07) mm(1SD). The minimum shifts are (-0.03 ± 0.05) mm, (0.05 ± 0.05) mm and (0.00 ± 0.00) mm on three principle axes at 30 degree PPS position, the absolute displacement of the sphere to ISO is (0.05 ± 0.06) mm. Conclusion: The isocentric rotation movement is the linchpin to realize multi-angle isocentric irradiation in fixed beamproton therapy. It is a complicated combined movement including PPS rotation and PPS translations. Since the high demand in the of precision of patient positioning, the accuracy of this combined movement played important role in proton therapy. In our tests, all shifts are less than 0.5 mm, can reach the requirement of positioning accuracy in proton therapy. (authors)

  20. Long-term stability of the Leksell Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ patient positioning system (PPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.; Bhatnagar, J. P.; Xu, Y.; Huq, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the long-term mechanical stability and accuracy of the patient positioning system (PPS) of the Leksell Gamma Knife ® Perfexion™ (LGK PFX). Methods: The mechanical stability of the PPS of the LGK PFX was evaluated using measurements obtained between September 2007 and June 2011. Three methods were employed to measure the deviation of the coincidence of the radiological focus point (RFP) and the PPS calibration center point (CCP). In the first method, the onsite diode test tool with single diode detector was used together with the 4 mm collimator on a daily basis. In the second method, a service diode test tool with three diode detectors was used biannually at the time of the routine preventive maintenance. The test performed with the service diode test tool measured the deviations for all three collimators 4, 8, and 16 mm and also for three different positions of the PPS. The third method employed the conventional film pin-prick method. This test was performed annually for the 4 mm collimator at the time of the routine annual QA. To estimate the effect of the patient weight on the performance of the PPS, the focus precision tests were also conducted with varying weights on the PPS using a set of lead bricks. Results: The average deviations measured from the 641 daily focus precision tests were 0.1 ± 0.1, 0.0 ± 0.0, and 0.0 ± 0.0 mm, respectively, for the 4 mm collimator in the X (left/right of the patient), Y (anterior/posterior of the patient), and Z (superior/inferior of the patient) directions. The average of the total radial deviations as measured during ten semiannual measurements with the service diode test tool were 0.070 ± 0.029, 0.060 ± 0.022, and 0.103 ± 0.028 mm, respectively for the central, long, and short diodes for the 4 mm collimator. Similarly, the average total radial deviations measured during the semiannual measurements for the 4, 8, and 16 mm collimators and using the central diode were 0.070 ± 0.029, 0.097 ± 0

  1. Development and Integration of the CT-PPS Fast Simulation in the CMS Software

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca De Souza, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    CT-PPS (CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer) is a joint project of the CMS and TOTEM collaborations with the goal of studying central exclusive production (CEP) in proton-proton collisions. A simplified simulation and reconstruction code for CT-PPS has been implemented in the CMS fast simulation package FastSim. Protons scattered at very low polar angles are propagated along the LHC beamlines from the generated vertex to the detectors by means of the beam transport package Hector. The rec...

  2. Multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization of PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, Udo; Meinhart, Anton; Winkler, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structures of two truncated variants of the transcription factor PpsR from R. sphaeroides are presented that enabled the phasing of a triple PAS domain construct. Together, these structures reveal the importance of α-helical PAS extensions for multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization and function. Per–ARNT–Sim (PAS) domains are essential modules of many multi-domain signalling proteins that mediate protein interaction and/or sense environmental stimuli. Frequently, multiple PAS domains are present within single polypeptide chains, where their interplay is required for protein function. Although many isolated PAS domain structures have been reported over the last decades, only a few structures of multi-PAS proteins are known. Therefore, the molecular mechanism of multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization and function is poorly understood. The transcription factor PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is such a multi-PAS domain protein that, in addition to its three PAS domains, contains a glutamine-rich linker and a C-terminal helix–turn–helix DNA-binding motif. Here, crystal structures of two N-terminally and C-terminally truncated PpsR variants that comprise a single (PpsR Q-PAS1 ) and two (PpsR N-Q-PAS1 ) PAS domains, respectively, are presented and the multi-step strategy required for the phasing of a triple PAS domain construct (PpsR ΔHTH ) is illustrated. While parts of the biologically relevant dimerization interface can already be observed in the two shorter constructs, the PpsR ΔHTH structure reveals how three PAS domains enable the formation of multiple oligomeric states (dimer, tetramer and octamer), highlighting that not only the PAS cores but also their α-helical extensions are essential for protein oligomerization. The results demonstrate that the long helical glutamine-rich linker of PpsR results from a direct fusion of the N-cap of the PAS1 domain with the C-terminal extension of the N-domain that plays an important

  3. Forecasting E > 50-MeV Proton Events with the Proton Prediction System (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; White, S. M.; Ling, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events is an important element of space weather. While several models have been developed for use in forecasting such events, satellite operations are particularly vulnerable to higher-energy (> 50 MeV) SEP events. Here we validate one model, the proton prediction system (PPS), which extends to that energy range. We first develop a data base of E > 50-MeV proton events > 1.0 proton flux units (pfu) events observed on the GOES satellite over the period 1986 to 2016. We modify the PPS to forecast proton events at the reduced level of 1 pfu and run PPS for four different solar input parameters: (1) all > M5 solar X-ray flares; (2) all > 200 sfu 8800-MHz bursts with associated > M5 flares; (3) all > 500 sfu 8800-MHz bursts; and (4) all > 5000 sfu 8800-MHz bursts. For X-ray flare inputs the forecasted event peak intensities and fluences are compared with observed values. The validation contingency tables and skill scores are calculated for all groups and used as a guide to use of the PPS. We plot the false alarms and missed events as functions of solar source longitude.

  4. Simulating policy options for psychiatric care in general hospitals under Medicare's PPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, M P; Mitchell, J B; Rosenbach, M L

    1988-11-01

    Psychiatric hospitals and certain distinct part psychiatric units of general hospitals are currently exempt from diagnosis related group (DRG)-based payment under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS), in large part due to concern about the degree to which such payment would match historical costs for these facilities. This communication simulates DRG-based payments for psychiatric admissions to general hospitals under the PPS and also under a modified version of the PPS. Two major types of modifications are made: (1) an increase in the role of outlier payments and (2) a restructuring of the DRG classification to allow for a difference in the basic payment rate, depending on whether or not care is provided in a facility that is currently exempt. When compared with cost data from just before the start of the PPS, the simulation results show the degree to which these hypothetical modifications will decrease the systematic risk of general hospitals with exempt units from receiving payments that fall short of costs.

  5. On the problems of PPS sampling in multi-character surveys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, which is on the problems of PPS sampling in multi-character surveys, compares the efficiency of some estimators used in PPSWR sampling for multiple characteristics. From a superpopulation model, we computed the expected variances of the different estimators for each of the first two finite populations ...

  6. Validation of a French version of the pure procrastination scale (PPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Rochat, Lucien; Gay, Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-08-01

    Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon that affects everyone's day-to-day life and interferes with the clinical treatment of several psychopathological states. To assess this construct, Steel (2010) developed the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS), a short scale intended to capture the general notion of dysfunctional delay. The aim of the current study was to present a French version of this questionnaire. To this end, the 12 items of the PPS were translated into French and data were collected from an online survey in a sample of 245 French-speaking individuals from the general population. The results revealed that one item had problematic face validity; it was therefore removed. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses performed on the resulting 11-item version of the French PPS indicated that the scale was composed of two factors ("voluntary delay" and "observed delay") depending on a common, higher-order construct ("general procrastination"). Good internal consistency and test-retest reliability were found. External validity was supported by specific relationships with measures of personality traits, impulsivity, and subjective well-being. The French PPS therefore presents satisfactory psychometric properties and may be considered a reliable and valid instrument for research, teaching and clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and Integration of the CT-PPS Fast Simulation in the CMS Software

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca De Souza, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    CT-PPS (CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer) is a joint project of the CMS and TOTEM collaborations with the goal of studying central exclusive production (CEP) in proton-proton collisions. A simplified simulation and reconstruction code for CT-PPS has been implemented in the CMS fast simulation package FastSim. Protons scattered at very low polar angles are propagated along the LHC beamlines from the generated vertex to the detectors by means of the beam transport package Hector. The reconstructed proton tracks are obtained from the simulated hits in the tracking detectors and are used to determine the proton kinematics at the vertex. The timing information is added to the tracks.

  8. The software testing of PPS for shin Ulchin nuclear power plant units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Pa; Park, Cheol Lak; Cho, Chang Hui; Sohn, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min

    2012-01-01

    The testing of software (S/W) is the process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions to evaluate the features of the software items. This paper introduces the S/W testing of Plant Protection System (PPS), as a safety system which actuate Reactor Trip (RT) and Engineered Safety Features (ESF) for Shin Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SUN 1 and 2)

  9. Creep behaviour of a short-fibre C/PPS composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fíla, T.; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Kytýř, Daniel; Hos, J.; Šleichrt, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2016), s. 413-417 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03010209 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : creep * short fibre composite * C/PPS * Findley’s model * DIC Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016 http://mit.imt.si/Revija/izvodi/mit163/fila.pdf

  10. IMPLEMENTASI PENDEKATANLEAN SIX SIGMAUNTUK PENINGKATAN MUTU LULUSAN (STUDI PADA PPS. MMP UKSW SALATIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meylani Aljeinie Tijow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the implementation of Lean Six Sigma in this study is to improve the graduates’ quality of PPs. MMP UKSW. Although PPs. MMP UKSW has an A accreditation, there are some graduates that graduated through a long study period that exceed the ideal standart. The method that used is DMAIC methodology (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improvement, Control with the quality indicator based on accreditation assessment of master degree. The data is collected by FGD (Focus Group Discussion and analyzed by fishbone diagram and 5Whys. The result showed that beside the length of study period, the main problem of graduates’ quality of PPs. MMP UKSW is the lack of alumnis’ participation. The root problem of study period is focused on how the student are wasting the time to wait writing the proposal or thesis, while the root problems for alumnis’ participation is because of their busy job. Based on those findings, there are 7 strategies for institution to improve the quality of graduates.

  11. Spray-coating process in preparing PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Weng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of a liquid-floated rotor micro-gyroscope, the resistance of the moving interface between the rotor and the floating liquid must be reduced. Hydrophobic treatment can reduce the frictional resistance between such interfaces, therefore we proposed a method to prepare a poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE-poly-phenylene sulphide (PPS composite super-hydrophobic coating, based on a spraying process. This method can quickly prepare a continuous, uniform PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic surface on a 2J85 material. This method can be divided into three steps, namely: pre-treatment; chemical etching; and spraying. The total time for this is around three hours. When the PTFE concentration is 4%, the average contact angle of the hydrophobic coating surface is 158°. If silicon dioxide nanoparticles are added, this can further improve the adhesion and mechanical strength of the super-hydrophobic composite coating. The maximum average contact angle can reach as high as 164° when the mass fraction of PTFE, PPS and silicon dioxide is 1:1:1.

  12. Spray-coating process in preparing PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rui; Zhang, Haifeng; Liu, Xiaowei

    2014-03-01

    In order to improve the performance of a liquid-floated rotor micro-gyroscope, the resistance of the moving interface between the rotor and the floating liquid must be reduced. Hydrophobic treatment can reduce the frictional resistance between such interfaces, therefore we proposed a method to prepare a poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-poly-phenylene sulphide (PPS) composite super-hydrophobic coating, based on a spraying process. This method can quickly prepare a continuous, uniform PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic surface on a 2J85 material. This method can be divided into three steps, namely: pre-treatment; chemical etching; and spraying. The total time for this is around three hours. When the PTFE concentration is 4%, the average contact angle of the hydrophobic coating surface is 158°. If silicon dioxide nanoparticles are added, this can further improve the adhesion and mechanical strength of the super-hydrophobic composite coating. The maximum average contact angle can reach as high as 164° when the mass fraction of PTFE, PPS and silicon dioxide is 1:1:1.

  13. Effects of Covalent Functionalization of MWCNTs on the Thermal Properties and Non-Isothermal Crystallization Behaviors of PPS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myounguk Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a PPS/MWCNTs composite was prepared with poly(phenylene sulfide (PPS, as well as pristine and covalent functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs via melt-blending techniques. Moreover, the dispersion of the MWCNTs on the PPS matrix was improved by covalent functionalization as can be seen from a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM images. The thermal properties of the PPS/MWCNTs composites were characterized using a thermal conductivity analyzer, and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. To analyze the crystallization behavior of polymers under conditions similar with those in industry, the non-isothermal crystallization behaviors of the PPS/MWCNTs composites were confirmed using various kinetic equations, such as the modified Avrami equation and Avrami-Ozawa combined equation. The crystallization rate of PPS/1 wt % pristine MWCNTs composite (PPSP1 was faster because of the intrinsic nucleation effect of the MWCNTs. However, the crystallization rates of the composites containing covalently-functionalized MWCNTs were slower than PPSP1 because of the destruction of the MWCNTs graphitic structure via covalent functionalization. Furthermore, the activation energies calculated by Kissinger’s method were consistently decreased by covalent functionalization.

  14. Computer network data communication controller for the Plutonium Protection System (PPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.S.

    1978-10-01

    Systems which employ several computers for distributed processing must provide communication links between the computers to effectively utilize their capacity. The technique of using a central network controller to supervise and route messages on a multicomputer digital communications net has certain economic and performance advantages over alternative implementations. Conceptually, the number of stations (computers) which can be accommodated by such a controller is unlimited, but practical considerations dictate a maximum of about 12 to 15. A Data Network Controller (DNC) has been designed around a M6800 microprocessor for use in the Plutonium Protection System (PPS) demonstration facilities

  15. High voltage nanosecond generator with pulse repetition rate of 1,000 p.p.s.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubanov, V P; Korovin, S D; Stepchenko, A S [High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A compact high voltage nanosecond generator is described with a pulse repetition rate up to 1000 p.p.s. The generator includes a 30-Ohm coaxial forming line charged by a built-in Tesla transformer with a high coupling coefficient, and a high voltage (N{sub 2}) gas gap switch with gas blowing between the electrodes. The maximum forming line charge voltage is 450 kV, the pulse duration is about 4 ns, and its amplitude for a matched load is up to 200 kV. (author). 3 figs., 9 refs.

  16. Alignment of CT-PPS detectors in 2016, before TS2

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspar, J

    2017-01-01

    This note presents the first alignment of the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) using the data from before Technical Stop 2 (TS2), 2016. This new procedure involves two stages. In the first one, data from a special calibration fill are used. In this fill, both horizontal and vertical Roman Pots (RPs) were inserted very close to the beam. In the second stage, hit distributions from physics fills (with only horizontal RPs inserted) are matched to the previously aligned reference from the calibration fill. The alignment and optics calibration is verified by reconstructing consistent $\\xi$ spectra from different RPs and LHC fills.

  17. The fabrication, nano/micro-structure, heat- and wear-resistance of the superhydrophobic PPS/PTFE composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaiyuan; Zhao, Jingyan; Zhu, Youzhuang; Meng, Yang; Zhu, Yanji

    2013-07-15

    A simple engineering method was used to fabricate stability and wear-resistance of superhydrophobic PPS-based PPS/PTFE surfaces through nano/micro-structure design and modification of the lowest surface energy groups (-CF2-), which was inspired by the biomimic lotus leaves. The hydrophobic properties and wear-resistance of the coatings were measured by a contact angle meter and evaluated on a pin-on-disk friction and wear tester, respectively. Moreover, the surfaces of the PPS/PTFE composite coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis. Results showed that the highest contact angle of the PPS/PTFE surface, with papillae-like randomly distributed double-scale structure, could reach up to 162°. When 1 wt.% PDMS was added, the highest contact angle could hold is 172°. The coatings also retained superhydrophobicity, even under high temperature environment. The investigation also indicated that the coatings were not only superhydrophobic but also oleophobic behavior at room temperature, such as the crude oil, glycerol, and oil-water mixture. The PPS/45%PTFE coatings had more stable friction coefficient and excellent wear-resistance (331,407 cycles) compared with those with less than 45% of PTFE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of 700 pps high-duty-cycle line-type pulse modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, H.; Satoh, K.; Miura, A. [NIHON KOSHUHA Co., LTD., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The high-duty-cycle line-type pulse modulator has been developed to drive the 5.5 MW S-band klystron at the 700 pps maximum repetition-rate and the 14 {mu}sec flat-top pulse-width. To keep an enough recovery time to the thyratron-tube, the command charging scheme was adopted. To do this, a charging SCR-bank has been developed, which is capable of handling the peak charging current of 50 A. The system achieved the world wide highest average output-power of 205 kW. Two modulators have been installed in a new high-duty-cycle electron linear accelerator, which has been started its business operation in March 1996 as an electron-beam-sterilization facility. (J.P.N)

  19. Software V and V of PPS for Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheollak; Kang, Dongpa; Choe, Changhui; Sohn, Sedo; Beak, Seungmin

    2013-01-01

    Software V and V processes determine whether the development products of a given activity conform to the requirements of that activity and whether the software satisfies its intended use and user needs. This paper introduces the software V and V activities and tasks performed during the software development life cycle performed during the software development life cycle of the Plant Protection System (PPS) for Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SHN 1 and 2). The PPS generates signals to actuate Reactor Trip (RT) and Engineered Safety Features (ESF) whenever monitored processes exceed predetermined limits, and the PPS software is classified safety critical and an independent V and V is thus required according to regulations, code and standards. The software V and V efforts, sufficiently disciplined and rigorous, are quite essential to demonstrate that the software development process is of a high quality. The software V and V of PPS for SHN 1 and 2 has been accomplished successfully with systematic V and V procedures and methods established until test phase in compliance with related code and standards. In particular, the use of automated tools such as LDRA and DOORS greatly has contributed to an improvement of a software quality, and a reduction of a verification time and human errors

  20. Tribological behavior of the carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite coating under dry sliding and water lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Haiyan; Feng Zhizhong; Chen Jianmin; Zhou Huidi

    2006-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) composite coatings (the mass fraction of the carbon fiber varied from 1 to 5 wt%) were prepared by flame spraying. The microstructure and physical properties of the composite coating were studied. The friction and wear characteristics of the PPS coating and carbon fiber reinforced PPS composite coating under dry- and water-lubricated sliding against stainless steel were comparatively investigated using a block-ring tester. The composite coatings showed lower friction coefficient and higher wear rate than pure PPS coatings under dry sliding. Under water-lubricated condition, the composite coatings showed better wear resistance than under dry. Under water-lubricated condition the tribological behaviors of the 3 wt% carbon fiber reinforced composite coating also were investigated under different sliding speed and load. The result showed that the sliding speed had little effect on the tribological properties, but the load affected greatly on that of the composite coatings. The morphologies of the worn surfaces of the composite coatings and the counterpart steel were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) for compositional analysis

  1. Measuring Procrastination: Psychometric Properties of the Norwegian Versions of the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS) and the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartdal, Frode

    2017-01-01

    Procrastination has been defined in different ways. Two instruments--the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS) and the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS)--focus on a core problem in procrastination--the irrational delay of intended behavior. The present paper examined the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translations of these scales. In…

  2. Real-time synchronization of wireless sensor network by 1-PPS signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarini, Marco; Pieralisi, Marco; Isidori, Daniela; Concettoni, Enrico; Cristalli, Cristina; Fioravanti, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks with different nodes is desirable in a smart environment, because the network setting up and installation on preexisting structures can be done without a fixed cabled infrastructure. The flexibility of the monitoring system is fundamental where the use of a considerable quantity of cables could compromise the normal exercise, could affect the quality of acquired signal and finally increase the cost of the materials and installation. The network is composed of several intelligent "nodes", which acquires data from different kind of sensors, and then store or transmit them to a central elaboration unit. The synchronization of data acquisition is the core of the real-time wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper, we present a comparison between different methods proposed by literature for the real-time acquisition in a WSN and finally we present our solution based on 1-Pulse-Per-Second (1-PPS) signal generated by GPS systems. The sensor node developed is a small-embedded system based on ARM microcontroller that manages the acquisition, the timing and the post-processing of the data. The communications between the sensors and the master based on IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and managed by dedicated software. Finally, we present the preliminary results obtained on a 3 floor building simulator with the wireless sensors system developed.

  3. BAGEL4: a user-friendly web server to thoroughly mine RiPPs and bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heel, Auke J; de Jong, Anne; Song, Chunxu; Viel, Jakob H; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2018-05-21

    Interest in secondary metabolites such as RiPPs (ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides) is increasing worldwide. To facilitate the research in this field we have updated our mining web server. BAGEL4 is faster than its predecessor and is now fully independent from ORF-calling. Gene clusters of interest are discovered using the core-peptide database and/or through HMM motifs that are present in associated context genes. The databases used for mining have been updated and extended with literature references and links to UniProt and NCBI. Additionally, we have included automated promoter and terminator prediction and the option to upload RNA expression data, which can be displayed along with the identified clusters. Further improvements include the annotation of the context genes, which is now based on a fast blast against the prokaryote part of the UniRef90 database, and the improved web-BLAST feature that dynamically loads structural data such as internal cross-linking from UniProt. Overall BAGEL4 provides the user with more information through a user-friendly web-interface which simplifies data evaluation. BAGEL4 is freely accessible at http://bagel4.molgenrug.nl.

  4. Investigation on interlaminar shear strength properties of disc laser machined consolidated CF-PPS laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In consequence of an increased interest in using endless carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites (TPC, automated and highly productive processing technologies for cutting and trimming steps of consolidated materials are sought. In this paper, the influence on the thermal effect caused by laser cutting with respect to static strength properties of TPC based on a polyphenylene sulfide (PPS matrix is studied. For the cutting experiments, consolidated TPC laminates at varying thicknesses up to s = 3.1 mm and a disc laser emitting at a wavelength of λ = 1030 nm at a maximum output power of PL = 2 kW are used. For the first time, the resulting magnitude of the heat affected zone (HAZ at the cutting edge of the composite material is correlated with interlaminar shear strength tests. The results are compared to specimens prepared by milling and abrasive water jet cutting. Depending on the laminate thickness, the laser treated TPC samples show comparable properties to those of conventionally processed specimens. A reduced load bearing area, as a consequence of damaged fibre-matrix-adhesion due to laser impact, is identified as main factor for the reduction of interlaminar shear strengths for higher laminate thicknesses.

  5. Preparation and Properties of Superamphiphobic Wear-resistance PPS-based Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Huai-yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Superamphiphobic wear-resistance PPS-based coatings were prepared by a simple spraying method with a pore-forming reagent of NH4HCO3 and nano-filler of carbon nanotubes (CNTs.The surface morphology and the hydrophobicity,oleophobicity of the coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and contact angle meter.The wear-resistance of the coating was verified by sanding method with given load.The results indicate that a rough surface is obtained after pore-forming,and the porous structures in combination with the CNTs construct the special micro/nano-scale network structures.When the mass fraction of NH4HCO3 is 5%,the contact angles of the coating for water,glycerine and ethylene glycol are 162°,158° and 152°,showing superamphiphobic property.After polished 10000 times by abrasive paper,the coating shows slight friction marks and remains high hydrophobicity,exhibiting excellent wear-resistance.

  6. Down two steps: Are bilinguals delayed in the acquisition of recursively embedded PPs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pérez-Leroux

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines whether bilingual children are delayed in the ability to produce complex DPs. We elicited production of DPs containing two PP modifiers, in two conditions designed to tease apart the acquisition of an embedding rule from the acquisition of the recursivity of an embedding rule. In the recursive condition, one modifier PP was itself modified by an additional PP. In the non-recursive condition, both PPs sequentially modified the main noun. Participants were 71 English monolingual children and 35 bilinguals between the ages of four and six. The evidence suggested an overall difference between groups, however further analysis revealed that bilinguals differed from monolinguals only insofar as the onset of PP embedding. No specific additional bilingual delay arose from the recursive condition. This suggests that recursive embedding is a resilient domain in language acquisition and supports proposals that link morphosyntactic delays in bilingual children to domains of grammar that are heavily reliant on lexical learning, which would include learning the first instance of PP embedding. --- Original in English.   --- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/matraga.2017.28781

  7. LHC optics determination with proton tracks measured in the CT-PPS detectors in 2016, before TS2

    CERN Document Server

    Nemes, F

    2017-01-01

    Novel optics estimation methods have been developed for the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS), in order to determine the horizontal dispersion function $D_{x}$ and the orbit between IP5 and the Roman Pot detectors. The tools have been successfully applied at $\\sqrt{s} = $13 TeV collision energy and $\\beta^{*} = $0.4 m optics with $\\alpha = 370\\,\\mu$rad horizontal crossing angle (settings valid in 2016 before Technical Stop 2 - TS2).

  8. Effect of fiber-matrix adhesion on the creep behavior of CF/PPS composites: temperature and physical aging characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta Dias, M. H.; Jansen, K. M. B.; Luinge, J. W.; Bersee, H. E. N.; Benedictus, R.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of fiber-matrix adhesion on the linear viscoelastic creep behavior of `as received' and `surface modified' carbon fibers (AR-CF and SM-CF, respectively) reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite materials was investigated. Short-term tensile creep tests were performed on ±45° specimens under six different isothermal conditions, 40, 50, 60, 65, 70 and 75 °C. Physical aging effects were evaluated on both systems using the short-term test method established by Struik. The results showed that the shapes of the curves were affected neither by physical aging nor by the test temperature, allowing then superposition to be made. A unified model was proposed with a single physical aging and temperature-dependent shift factor, a_{T,te}. It was suggested that the surface treatment carried out in SM-CF/PPS had two major effects on the creep response of CF/PPS composites at a reference temperature of 40 °C: a lowering of the initial compliance of about 25 % and a slowing down of the creep response of about 1.1 decade.

  9. Exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to improve fatigue, daily activity performance and quality of life in Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: the protocol of the FACTS-2-PPS trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F.S.; Beelen, A.; Gerrits, K.H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Abma, T.A.; Visser, M.; Nollet, F.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of

  10. Análise do efeito higrotérmico no comportamento em fadiga de compósitos de PPS/fibras de carbono On the analysis of hygrothermal effect on fatigue behavior of PPS/carbon fiber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. M. de Faria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O contínuo crescimento na utilização de compósitos termoplásticos em componentes estruturais na indústria aeroespacial deve-se, primordialmente, à flexibilidade de projeto, excelência de suas propriedades mecânicas e baixa massa específica, aliadas aos elevados valores de resistência mecânica e rigidez e baixa incidência de corrosão, atendendo aos severos requisitos de desempenho quando em serviço dessas estruturas. Componentes com exigências estruturais, quando expostos a ambientes agressivos como elevada temperatura e umidade, podem ter suas propriedades mecânicas sensibilizadas por esses fatores ambientais, e devem ser cuidadosamente avaliados antes de serem colocados em serviço. Em função do que foi exposto este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para a avaliação do efeito higrotérmico na resistência à fadiga do compósito termoplástico PPS/fibras de carbono. Os materiais estudados foram cedidos pela empresa holandesa TenCate, fornecedora de laminados da Airbus e EMBRAER. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho mostram que compósitos de PPS/fibras de carbono apresentam um aumento nos valores de resistência à tração quando condicionados higrotermicamente, devido à plasticização desta matriz polimérica, aumentando, consecutivamente, sua tenacidade à fratura. Entretanto, a partir dos ensaios realizados, foi constatado que o condicionamento higrotérmico não alterou de forma significativa o comportamento de vida em fadiga dos laminados PPS-C.The continued growth in the use of polymer composites in structural components in the aerospace industry is due primarily to the design flexibility, excellent mechanical properties and low density, combined with the high values of mechanical strength and stiffness and low incidence of corrosion, with which these structures meet several performance requirements when in service. Components with structural requirements may have their mechanical properties affected when

  11. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation

  12. Positronium formation and hydrated positron reactions in H2O, D2O, 1.74 M PPS/H2O and 1.74 M PPS/D2O solutions of Cl−, Br− and I−

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Angular correlation of annihilation photons were measured for H2O, D2O, 1.74 M PPS/H2O and 1.74 M PPS/D2O solutions of Cl−, Br− and I−. The three components of the angular correlation spectra for D2O and H2O were nearly identical in shape. The positronium (Ps) yields for the H2O and D2O solutions...... before annihilation (lifetime 400 ps) was determined for the three halides in the four solvents. Simple kinetic equations (“trapping model”) with time dependent rate constant, solved analytically, could explain the [X−, e+] formation in H2O fairly well for concentrations below 0.03 M X−, if a diffusion...... controlled reaction with positron diffusion constant D = 5 × 10−5 cm2/s and reaction radius R = 1 nm were assumed. The three halides gave roughly identical [X−, e+] formation below 0.03 M X−. The difference between the four solutions could be explained partly only in terms of viscosity change for the model...

  13. Radical SAM Enzymes in the Biosynthesis of Ribosomally Synthesized and Post-translationally Modified Peptides (RiPPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhosna Benjdia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomally-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs are a large and diverse family of natural products. They possess interesting biological properties such as antibiotic or anticancer activities, making them attractive for therapeutic applications. In contrast to polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides, RiPPs derive from ribosomal peptides and are post-translationally modified by diverse enzyme families. Among them, the emerging superfamily of radical SAM enzymes has been shown to play a major role. These enzymes catalyze the formation of a wide range of post-translational modifications some of them having no counterparts in living systems or synthetic chemistry. The investigation of radical SAM enzymes has not only illuminated unprecedented strategies used by living systems to tailor peptides into complex natural products but has also allowed to uncover novel RiPP families. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on radical SAM enzymes catalyzing RiPP post-translational modifications and discuss their mechanisms and growing importance notably in the context of the human microbiota.

  14. Comparison of WDM/Pulse-Position-Modulation (WDM/PPM) with Code/Pulse-Position-Swapping (C/PPS) Based on Wavelength/Time Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2009-06-19

    Pulse position modulation (PPM) signaling is favored in intensity modulated/direct detection (IM/DD) systems that have average power limitations. Combining PPM with WDM over a fiber link (WDM/PPM) enables multiple accessing and increases the link's throughput. Electronic bandwidth and synchronization advantages are further gained by mapping the time slots of PPM onto a code space, or code/pulse-position-swapping (C/PPS). The property of multiple bits per symbol typical of PPM can be combined with multiple accessing by using wavelength/time [W/T] codes in C/PPS. This paper compares the performance of WDM/PPM and C/PPS for equal wavelengths and bandwidth.

  15. Efeito da degradação ambiental nas propriedades de cisalhamento de compósitos PPS/fibra de carbono Effect of environmental degradation on shear properties of PPS /carbon fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi P. Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os compósitos termoplásticos avançados são uma alternativa a compósitos termorrígidos em algumas aplicações aeronáuticas, devido a ganhos em propriedades. Dentre as matrizes termoplásticas, o PPS (poli sulfeto de fenileno destaca-se devido às suas características estruturais. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência do condicionamento ambiental sobre o comportamento de resistência ao cisalhamento de PPS / fibras de carbono. Por esta razão, amostras deste material foram condicionadas em solução salina, em banho higrotérmico e sob radiação UV. Após estes condicionamentos os corpos-de-prova foram avaliados quanto a sua resistência aos cisalhamentos interlaminar (ILSS e Iosipescu e os resultados obtidos foram comparados. Quando comparado ao valor de cisalhamento interlaminar obtido do compósito não-climatizado (58,4 ± 1,9 MPa, os valores de cisalhamento interlaminar ILSS decaíram em torno de 14 e 3%, respectivamente, após banho higrotérmico e banho salino. Sob condicionamento por radiação UV houve um decréscimo de 2% após exposição por 300 horas, 11% após 600 horas e 9% após 900 horas. Já o laminado ensaiado pelo método Iosipescu teve uma tensão de cisalhamento no plano de 109,2 ± 0,4 MPa. Com condicionamentos, teve um decréscimo de 6% após banho higrotérmico e 12% após banho salino. A exposição à radiação UV provocou na resistência de cisalhamento no plano um decaimento de 6% para o condicionamento de 300 horas, 10% para o condicionamento de 600 horas e 14% para o condicionamento por 900 horas.Advanced thermoplastic composites are an alternative to thermoset composites in many aeronautical applications owing to their superior properties. Among the thermoplastic matrix, PPS (poly phenylene sulfide stands out due to its structural characteristics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of environmental conditioning on the shear behavior of PPS / carbon fiber composites

  16. Capacity upgrade in short-reach optical fibre networks: simultaneous 4-PAM 20 Gbps data and polarization-modulated PPS clock signal using a single VCSEL carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoe, G. M.; Wassin, S.; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a four-level pulse amplitude modulation (4-PAM) format with a polarization-modulated pulse per second (PPS) clock signal using a single vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) carrier is for the first time experimentally demonstrated. We propose uncomplex alternative technique for increasing capacity and flexibility in short-reach optical communication links through multi-signal modulation onto a single VCSEL carrier. A 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal is directly modulated onto a single mode 10 GHz bandwidth VCSEL carrier at 1310 nm, therefore, doubling the network bit rate. Carrier spectral efficiency is further maximized by exploiting the inherent orthogonal polarization switching of the VCSEL carrier with changing bias in transmission of a PPS clock signal. We, therefore, simultaneously transmit a 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a polarization-based PPS clock signal using a single VCSEL carrier. It is the first time a signal VCSEL carrier is reported to simultaneously transmit a directly modulated 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a polarization-based PPS clock signal. We further demonstrate on the design of a software-defined digital signal processing (DSP)-assisted receiver as an alternative to costly receiver hardware. Experimental results show that a 3.21 km fibre transmission with simultaneous 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and polarization-based PPS clock signal introduced a penalty of 3.76 dB. The contribution of polarization-based PPS clock signal to this penalty was found out to be 0.41 dB. Simultaneous distribution of data and timing clock signals over shared network infrastructure significantly increases the aggregated data rate at different optical network units (ONUs), without costly investment.

  17. Validation of the Positive Parenting Scale (PPS for evaluating face-to-face and online parenting support programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Suárez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the study presenting the Online Parental Support Scale, as part of the evaluation of the ‘Positive Parent’ online program (http://educarenpositivo.es, this article describes the validation of a new scale that evaluates the principles of positive parenting in users of face-to-face and online parenting support programs. To validate the Positive Parenting Scale (PPS, 323 Spanish and Latin American parents participated, who were enrolled in the online program. To obtain the factor structure, we used exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM with oblimin rotation, and for confirmatory purposes we used as the estimation method the Weighted Least Squares Mean and Variance Adjusted with moving measurement window (WLSMW. We also performed a ROC analysis of rating and continuous diagnostic test results by means of area under the curve (AUC, and tested it by multivariate analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA. The main results showed an optimal factorization of the construct involving a four-factor model with adequate reliability: family involvement, affection and recognition, communication and stress management, and shared activities. Furthermore, discriminative capacity of the scale was proved depending on the levels of Internet experience and educational use of the Internet. The scale shows adequate psychometric properties and its content includes the key aspects of the exercise of positive parenting, which is very useful to evaluate the effectiveness of programs based on this approach.

  18. Skilled Nursing Facility PPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 4432(a) of the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 modified how payment is made for Medicare skilled nursing facility (SNF) services. Effective with cost...

  19. PPS Promoting Social Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    website: www.pss-comenius.eu foto, filmklip, lektionsplaner til fag (idræt,samfundsfag, matematik, engelsk) og til emner (konfliktløsning, selvværd, forhandling og kompromis) Materialet er et samarbejde under EU. samarbejdsparter er fra Italien, Polen Bulgarien, Storbritannien og Danmark. Website...

  20. Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility PPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 4421 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33), as amended by section 125 of the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act of...

  1. Home Health PPS - Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Abt Associates July 21, 2010 Analysis of 2000-2008 Home Health Case-mix Change Report estimates the extent to which the observed increases in average case-mix were...

  2. Home Health PPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under prospective payment, Medicare pays home health agencies (HHAs) a predetermined base payment. The payment is adjusted for the health condition and care needs of...

  3. Avaliação das propriedades dinâmico mecânicas e reológicas de compositos nanoestruturados de PPS/MWCNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as propriedades dinâmico mecânicas e a viscosidade de compósitos nanoestruturados de poli(sulfeto de fenileno (PPS reforçado com nanotubos de carbono de paredes múltiplas (MWCNT obtidos através da técnica de mistura em fusão. O módulo de armazenamento (E' e a temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg apresentaram aumentos de até 130% e 11 °C em relação ao PPS puro quando 2,0 m/m% do nanoreforço foi considerado. Além disso, para concentrações superiores a 1,0% em massa foi observado um aumento nos valores da viscosidade complexa (η*, o que sugere a formação de uma estrutura interconectada de nanotubos no interior da matriz polimérica.

  4. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  5. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  6. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  7. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  8. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  9. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  10. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  11. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  12. Researches on increasing compatibility between mixtures of PPS (poly-phenylene sulfide) and polyamide; Recherches en vue de la compatibilisation de melanges de polyamide et de polysulfure de phenylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagne, O.

    1997-01-08

    This work aims to increase the compatibility between PPS (Poly Phenylene Sulfide) and a Polyamide. In order to do so, a bloc co-polymer was synthesised by the coupling of telechelic oligomers of PPS and PA oligomers. These telechelic oligomers of PPS were synthesised in a single step which a synthesis was made possible were the nitrile and secondary amide functions. These oligomers were characterised by various techniques which lead to a rather good precision (difficult to achieve for insolubility reasons). These oligomers were then coupled with the polyamide oligomers. In order to do so, a new reaction was discovered between an aromatic nitrile and a secondary aliphatic amide. It was assessed both on model molecules and on oligomers. An original mechanism is proposed. Once the characterisation of these copolymers was made, various blends of PPS and PA were studied. At last, the incorporation of the block copolymers in the blend obtained by a twin screw extruder, lead to an improvement of the compatibility between the two polymers and in an increase of the resistance to crack propagation. (author) 314 refs.

  13. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  14. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  15. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  16. Relationships between molecular structure and kinetic and thermodynamic controls in lipid systems. Part II: Phase behavior and transformation paths of SSS, PSS and PPS saturated triacylglycerols--effect of chain length mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    The kinetic phase behavior and phase transformation paths of purified tristearoylglycerol (SSS), 3-palmitoyl-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol (PSS) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (PPS) were investigated in terms of polymorphism, crystallization and melting. The details of the phase transformation paths were obtained using the heating cycles of two sets of experiments: (a) cooling rate was varied and heating rate fixed and (b) cooling rate was fixed and heating rate varied. Kinetic effects were manifest in all measured properties, underscoring the complexity of the phase transformation paths for each TAG, and the intricate thermodynamics-molecular relationships. For the first time, XRD data obtained for SSS, PSS and PPS TAGs, cooled at rates higher than 0.5°C/min, suggested the formation of a transient structure similar to the so-called α(2)-phase which has been observed in mixed saturated-unsaturated TAGs quenched from the melt. The more stable phases (β' in PSS and PPS, and β in SSS) were only observed for cooling rates lower than 1.0°C/min. The kinetic and thermodynamic differences observed in the crystallization, structure and melting of SSS, PSS and PPS are proposed to be mainly due to the disturbances introduced at the "terrace" level via methyl-end group interactions, i.e., the missing of two or four CH(2) groups compared to SSS. The symmetrical SSS with a relatively flat "terrace" crystallizes preferably in the most stable β-form. Two missing CH(2) groups at the sn-1 position (PSS) introduces enough structural disturbances to promote the relative prevalence and persistence of the β'-phase, and four missing CH(2) groups at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions (PPS) is relatively too large of a disturbance and therefore favors the α-form. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Revealing Interactions between Human Resources, Quality of Life and Environmental Changes within Socially-oriented Observations : Results from the IPY PPS Arctic Project in the Russian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and

  18. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  19. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  20. Atrazine-induced reproductive tract alterations after transplacental and/or lactational exposure in male Long-Evans rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Jennifer L.; Enoch, Rolondo R.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies showed that early postnatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) delayed preputial separation (PPS) and increased incidence of prostate inflammation in adult Wistar rats. A cross-fostering paradigm was used in this study to determine if gestational exposure to ATR would also result in altered puberty and reproductive tissue effects in the male rat. Timed-pregnant Long-Evans (LE) rats were dosed by gavage on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or 1% methylcellulose (controls, C). On postnatal day (PND)1, half litters were cross-fostered, creating 4 treatment groups; C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (transplacental-milk as source, respectively). On PND4, male offspring in the ATR-ATR group weighed significantly less than the C-C males. ATR-ATR male pups had significantly delayed preputial separation (PPS). BWs at PPS for C-ATR and ATR-ATR males were reduced by 6% and 9%, respectively, from that of C-C. On PND120, lateral prostate weights of males in the ATR-ATR group were significantly increased over C-C. Histological examination of lateral and ventral prostates identified an increased distribution of inflammation in the lateral prostates of C-ATR males. By PND220, lateral prostate weights were significantly increased for ATR-C and ATR-ATR, but there were no significant changes in inflammation in either the lateral or ventral prostate. These results suggest that in LE rats, gestational ATR exposure delays PPS when male offspring suckle an ATR dam, but leads to increased lateral prostate weight via transplacental exposure alone. Inflammation present at PND120 does not increase in severity with time

  1. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  2. Avaliação dos comportamentos mecânico e térmico de laminados de PPS/fibra de carbono processados em autoclave sob diferentes ciclos de consolidação Evaluation of thermal and mechanical behaviors of PPS/carbon fiber laminates processed in autoclave under different consolidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, um dos processos mais utilizados para fabricação de componentes em termoplásticos estruturais é a moldagem por compressão a quente, porém restringindo-se na obtenção de peças de pequeno e médio porte. Tal restrição deve-se à limitação do tamanho das prensas utilizadas, principalmente pelo custo envolvido. Procurando ampliar a aplicação de compósitos termoplásticos, possibilitando a fabricação de peças maiores e com maior potencial de integração, pelo uso de infra-estrutura já disponível em processadores de compósitos, este trabalho aborda o processamento de laminados de poli(sulfeto de fenileno (PPS reforçado com fibra de carbono em autoclave, pelo uso de quatro diferentes ciclos de consolidação. Os laminados obtidos foram caracterizados por inspeção por ultrassom, análises de DSC para a determinação da cristalinidade e avaliação das propriedades mecânicas em flexão, compressão e cisalhamento interlaminar. Os resultados mostram que laminados obtidos com taxas de resfriamento mais lentas apresentam menor resistência e módulo em compressão, uma vez que o maior grau de cristalinidade (~30% promove maior fragilização da matriz polimérica.One of the most used processes to obtain structural thermoplastic parts is the hot compression molding, which is limited to small and medium size parts because of the size of the press used, mainly related to its cost. This has hampered a wide use of thermoplastic composites in structural applications. In order to extend the application of thermoplastic composites, but still using available infrastructure in composite manufacturers, in this work we investigate the processing of carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS in an autoclave, using four consolidation cycles. The processed laminates were characterized by ultrasound inspection, DSC analyses for the crystallinity determination and mechanical tests to evaluate the compression, flexure and

  3. Otimização da interface/interfase de compósitos termoplásticos de fibra de carbono/PPS pelo uso do poli(ácido âmico do tipo BTDA/DDS Optimization of the interface/interphase of carbon fiber/PPS thermoplastic composites using BTDA/DDS poly(amic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana B. Nohara

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho duas técnicas de manufatura de compósitos termoplásticos estruturais são investigadas: a de moldagem por compressão a quente convencional e a de pré-impregnação via suspensão polimérica. A primeira consiste na impregnação do reforço via polímero fundido; enquanto que a segunda faz uso de suspensões poliméricas aquosas, onde a impregnação do reforço ocorre pelo contato deste com a suspensão aquosa de partículas da matriz polimérica. Esta técnica combina a matriz polimérica em pó com um outro polímero formador da suspensão, um poli(ácido âmico - PAA, sendo que os dois polímeros são simultaneamente depositados sobre o reforço, durante a impregnação. Este mesmo PAA, em uma segunda fase do processo, é convertido termicamente em uma poliimida (PI podendo formar uma região de interfase entre o reforço e a matriz polimérica. Este trabalho tem como objetivo a síntese e a caracterização de um PAA, à base de BTDA/DDS, e a avaliação de sua influência na formação da região de interfase em compósitos de poli(sulfeto de fenileno (PPS/fibras de carbono. Resultados de DSC e TG mostram o sucesso da síntese do PAA e de sua conversão em PI, esta com estabilidade térmica até 396 °C. O compósito processado pela técnica de suspensão polimérica apresenta resistência ao cisalhamento interlaminar (56,3 MPa 12,6% superior ao compósito obtido por moldagem por compressão a quente convencional (50,0 MPa. Estes resultados são confirmados por análises das superfícies de fratura, que mostram que o uso do PAA melhora a interfase do PPS/fibra de carbono.In the present work two different manufacturing techniques of thermoplastic composites are investigated: the conventional hot compression molding and the aqueous suspension prepregging. The first one involves the impregnation of the reinforcement with molten polymer; while the second one uses aqueous polymeric suspensions, where the reinforcement

  4. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The steam-water separator connected downstream of a steam generator consists of a vertical centrifugal separator with swirl blades between two concentric pipes and a cyclone separator located above. The water separated in the cyclone separator is collected in the inner tube of the centrifugal separator which is closed at the bottom. This design allows the overall height of the separator to be reduced. (DG) [de

  5. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  6. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  7. New separation technique. Catalytically functionated separation membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgami, Tadashi [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1989-02-01

    This report introduces research examples, showing the fundamental principle of the membrane by separating the catalytically functionated separation membrane into enzyme fixing separation membrane, polymerized metal complex separation membrane and polymer catalyst separation membrane. This membrane can achieve both functions of separation and catalytic reaction simultaneously and has sufficient possibility to combine powerful functions. Enzyme fixing separation membrane is prepared by carrier combination method, bridging method or covering method and the enzyme fixing method with polymerized complex in which enzyme is controlled to prevent the activity lowering as much as possible and enzyme is fixed from an aqueous solution into polymer membrane. This membrane is applied to the continuous manufacturing of invert sugar from cane sugar and adsorption and removing of harmful substances from blood by utilizing both micro-capsuled urease and active carbon. Alginic acid-copper (II) complex membrane is used for the polymerized metal complex membrane and polystyrene sulfonate membrane is used for the polymer catalyst separation membrane. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  8. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  9. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  10. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  11. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  12. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  13. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  14. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  15. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  16. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  17. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  18. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  19. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  20. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  1. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how various approaches to modelling the separation margin a¤ect the ability of the Mortensen-Pissarides job matching model to explain key facts about the aggregate labor market. Allowing for realistic time variation in the separation rate, whether exogenous or endogenous, greatly in- creases the unemployment variability generated by the model. Speci…cations with exogenous separation rates, whether constant or time-varying, fail to pro- duce realistic volatility and prod...

  2. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  3. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  4. Entrainment separator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Leith, D.

    1976-01-01

    Clean and dust-loaded ACS entrainment separators mounted upstream of HEPA filters were exposed to a combination of fine water mist and steam at about 70 0 C from one to four hours. In every trial, the ACS entrainment separator prevented measurable deterioration of performance in the following HEPA filter. Droplet size-efficiency evaluation of the ACS entrainment separators showed that, within the accuracy of the measurements, they meet all service requirements and are fully equal to the best separator units available for service on pressurized water reactors

  5. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  6. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  7. Separation of ionic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 44 papers of which 19 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these is the use of solvent extraction or emulsion membrane extraction for separation of fission products, rare earth compounds and actinide compunds; the sorption of radionuclides; and the use of adsorbents and chelating agents in separation processes. (J.P.)

  8. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  9. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  10. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  11. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  12. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  13. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  14. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  15. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  16. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  17. Magnetic separations in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, L; Azevedo, A M; Roque, A C A; Aires-Barros, M R

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic separations are probably one of the most versatile separation processes in biotechnology as they are able to purify cells, viruses, proteins and nucleic acids directly from crude samples. The fast and gentle process in combination with its easy scale-up and automation provide unique advantages over other separation techniques. In the midst of this process are the magnetic adsorbents tailored for the envisioned target and whose complex synthesis spans over multiple fields of science. In this context, this article reviews both the synthesis and tailoring of magnetic adsorbents for bioseparations as well as their ultimate application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Separations by centrifugal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The technical information presented herein emphasizes the uniqueness of the centrifugal separations methodology and pertinent theory for various kinds of centrifugation. The topics are arranged according to gas, liquid, and solid phases, in the order of increasing densities. Much space is devoted to liquid centrifugation because of the importance of this technique in chemical and biological laboratories. Many separational and characterizational examples are illustrated in detail. The material has been divided into 7 chapters entitled: 1) Introduction, 2) Basic Theory of Centrifugation, 3) Gas Centrifuges, 4) Preparative Liquid Centrifuges, 5) Analytical Liquid Centrifuges, 6) Liquid Centrifuges in Practice, and 7) Mechanical Separations by Centrifuges. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each chapter except the introduction

  19. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  20. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  1. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND SPECTRO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four different fractions having colours yellow, grey, orange and ... Two different dyes vis a vis: methylene blue and malachite green dyes have been separated .... hydrogen carbonate of alkaline and alkaline earth metals in the samples.

  2. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  3. UWIS isotope separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtasiewicz, A. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Nuclear Physics Div., Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1995 the University of Warsaw Isotope Separator group has participated in the ISOL/IGISOL project at the Heavy Ion Cyclotron. This project consists in installation of an isotope separator (on line with cyclotron heavy ion beam) with a hot plasma ion source (ISOL system) and/or with an ion guide source (IGISOL system). In the report the short description of the present status of the project is presented. 2 figs, 10 refs.

  4. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  5. On separable Pauli equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhalij, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A 0 (t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field

  6. Influência da Espessura do Filme Polimérico Intermediário na Resistência Mecânica de Juntas Híbridas de Alumínio 2024-T3 e CF-PPS Produzidas por União Pontual por Fricção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália M. André

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A União Pontual por Fricção (FSpJ é uma técnica inovadora para união de estruturas híbridas metal-polímero e baseia-se na geração de calor por fricção. Juntas de alumínio 2024-T3 e compósito laminado de poli(sulfeto de fenileno com fibra de carbono (CF-PPS foram produzidas com filme intermediário de PPS. Duas espessuras de filme foram investigadas: 100 e 500 µm. Ensaios de cisalhamento sob tração demonstraram que as juntas com filmes de 100 µm são mais resistentes (2093 ± 180 N em relação às juntas com filme de 500 µm (708 ± 69 N. Adicionalmente, as superfícies de fratura das juntas revelaram áreas de união maiores para as juntas com filmes de 100 µm (53 ± 2 contra 40 ± 1 mm2. Para o filme mais fino, a extensão do amolecimento devido ao calor friccional é maior. Consequentemente, a baixa viscosidade atingida com a fusão do polímero favorece a molhabilidade das superfícies dos componentes da junta pelo PPS amolecido, resultando em melhor adesão entre as partes. Ademais, análises microestruturais demonstraram que a formação do cerne metálico e a interdifusão das moléculas de PPS entre compósito e filme também são favorecidas. Portanto, concluiu-se que a adição do filme mais fino produziu juntas mais resistentes.

  7. Use of Preputial Skin as Cutaneous Graft after Nevus Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D'Alessio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a four-year-old boy with a nevus covering all the plantar side of his second finger on the left foot. He was also affected by congenital phimosis. Surgical excision of the nevus was indicated, but the skin defect would have been too large to be directly closed. The foreskin was taken as a full-thickness skin graft to cover the cutaneous defect of the finger. The graft intake was favourable and provided a functional repair with good aesthetic characteristic.

  8. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  9. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 15 claims, 1 figure

  10. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The instant invention relates to an improved process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same element in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than non-excited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  11. Separable quadratic stochastic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozikov, U.A.; Nazir, S.

    2009-04-01

    We consider quadratic stochastic operators, which are separable as a product of two linear operators. Depending on properties of these linear operators we classify the set of the separable quadratic stochastic operators: first class of constant operators, second class of linear and third class of nonlinear (separable) quadratic stochastic operators. Since the properties of operators from the first and second classes are well known, we mainly study the properties of the operators of the third class. We describe some Lyapunov functions of the operators and apply them to study ω-limit sets of the trajectories generated by the operators. We also compare our results with known results of the theory of quadratic operators and give some open problems. (author)

  12. Immunoassay separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A method for effecting the immunoassay of a multiplicity of samples, each possibly containing an antigen or an antibody to be assayed, is discussed. Each sample is incubated with a solution containing a detectable antigen or antibody to form a multiplicity of mixtures, each mixture containing as components antigen-antibody, non-complexed antigen and non-complexed antibody. At least one of the components of the said mixture is separated by adsorption. There after, quantity of detectable antigen or antibody is detected in one of the non-adsorbed portions of the mixture. An improvement, compared to other techniques, is the continuous and sequential separation of at least one component, which is intended to be separated from each said multiplicity of mixtures

  13. 75 FR 4274 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    .... Reproductive toxicity (decreases in epididymal sperm counts and increased age at preputial separation in the F1..., reproductive effects (decreases in epididymal sperm counts and increased age at preputial separation in the F1... residues derived from average field trial residues for pome fruit, sugarcane, bushberry, Brassica leafy...

  14. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  15. Unity Through Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Hans B.

    This PhD thesis asks how we can conceptualize the current separation doctrine of religion and politics in a country like Denmark, where the structure of the established church and peoplehood overlap. In order to answer this question, Hans Bruun Dabelsteen maps the current discussion of secularism...... into the principle of treating everybody equally (with religious freedom, equality and Danish peoplehood as the most important principles adjacent to secularism). In a study of the historical roots of the separation doctrine and two current policy cases (same-sex marriage and reforms of church governance...

  16. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  17. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  18. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  19. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for separating a given material into two or more parts, in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in the said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase UF 6 by infrared photon absorption followed by selective reaction of said excited UF 6 with atomic chlorine, bromine, or iodine to form a product which may be separated by means known in the art

  20. SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.

  1. Radiation gradient isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for transporting, separating and storing charged particles, charged antiparticles and fully or partially ionized isotopes of any element comprising a laser beam generator, laser beam intensity profiler, a laser beam variable intensity attenuator, and means for injecting charged particles, charged antiparticles and ionized isotopes into the beam and extracting them from the system as required. The invention is particularly useful for channelling electrons and ions used for fuel pellet compression in inertial fusion systems, for separating the isotopes of elements and for the confinement of charged antiparticles and particle/antiparticle plasmas

  2. Organic separations with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of present and emerging applications of membrane technology for the separation and purification of organic materials. This technology is highly relevant for programs aimed at minimizing waste in processing and in the treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents. Application of membranes for organic separation is growing rapidly in the petrochemical industry to simplify processing and in the treatment of effluents, and it is expected that this technology will be useful in numerous other industries including the processing of nuclear waste materials

  3. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by selective dissociation of said excited molecules by the absorption of a single photon of visible or ultraviolet light. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 11 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  4. Long-Term Care Hospital PPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 (BBRA) (Pub. L. 106-113) and the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and...

  5. Hospital Outpatient PPS Partial Hospitalization Program LDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Partial Hospitalization Program LDS This file contains select claim level data and is derived from 2010 claims...

  6. Inpatient Psychiatric Prospective Payment System (IPF PPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains case level data for inpatient psychiatric stays and is derived from 2011 MEDPAR data file and the latest available provider specific file. The...

  7. Fathering After Marital Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Harry Finkelstein; Rosenthal, Kristine M.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with experiences of a group of separated or divorced fathers who chose to remain fully involved in the upbringing of their children. As they underwent transition from married parenthood to single fatherhood, these men learned that meeting demands of child care contributed to personal stability and growth. (Author)

  8. Isotope separator laoratory development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Significant improvements in the capability for collection of mass-separated ions are described. These improvements centered on the fabrication and installation of a more versatile collection-beam viewing system and the design, fabrication, installation and testing of a retardation lens. A summary description of this capability development is presented

  9. Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The dimensions of the separation of powers principle are explored through three lessons in the subject areas of U.S. history, U.S. government, and world history. In 1748, a French nobleman, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a book called "The Spirit of the Laws," in which he argued that there could be no liberty when all government power was…

  10. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  11. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  12. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi

    1996-01-01

    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  13. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, W.; Ehrfeld, U.

    1977-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium enrichment is not a principal problem of technological feasibility. Several processes exist for producing LWR fuel and the enrichment method can be selected in consideration of economical, environmental, and political aspects. To date, the gaseous diffusion process constitutes the major part of enrichment capacity. This process has been well demonstrated for over 30 years and, as a matter of fact, no major technological and economical progress is to be expected in the future. Because of their comparatively high development potential, the centrifuge and the separation nozzle method may become increasingly favorable in economics. The development of the centrifuge process which is superior by its low specific energy consumption aims at technological improvements. In the separation nozzle process which offers the advantage of a comparatively simple technology a further reduction of the specific energy consumption is to be expected because of the thermodynamically favorable separation mechanism of this process. Laser isotope separation methods are still on the laboratory scale, although large financial funds have been spent. (orig.) [de

  14. Oily Bilgewater Separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    11 3.3.4 Flotation ...Flocculation, • Flotation , and • Ultrafiltration . EPA evaluated the effectiveness of bilge separators by their ability to achieve low effluent oil...parameters, suspended solids), metals (arsenic, copper , cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc) and organics (benzene, chloroform

  15. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002 ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219061313500025

  16. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  17. The plasma centrifuge: A compact, low cost, stable isotope separator. Phase 2 final technical report, September 15, 1991 - September 14, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, W.

    1996-01-01

    Enriched stable isotopes are required for production of radionuclides as well as for research and diagnostic uses. Science Research Laboratory (SRL) has developed a plasma centrifuge for moderate throughput of enriched stable isotopes, such as 13 C, 17 O, 18 O, and 203 Tl, for medical as well as other applications. Dwindling isotope stocks have restricted the use of enriched isotopes and their associated labeled organic molecules in medical imaging to very few research facilities because of high costs of isotope separation. With the introduction of the plasma centrifuge separator, the cost per separated gram of even rarely occurring isotopes (≤ 1% natural abundance) is potentially many times lower than with other separation technologies (cryogenic distillation and calutrons). The centrifuge is a simple, robust, pulsed electrical discharge device that has successfully demonstrated isotope separation of small (mg) quantities of 26 Mg. Based on the results of the Phase 2 program, modest enhancements to the power supplies and cooling systems, a centrifuge separator will have high repetition rate (60 pps) and high duty cycle (60%) to produce in one month kilogram quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes. The centrifuge may be used in stand-alone operation or could be used as a high-throughput pre-separation stage with calutrons providing the final separation

  18. Separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Sauer, N.; Chamberlin, R.M.; Gottesfeld, S.; Mattes, B.R.; Li, D.Q.; Swanson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO 2 thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO 2 films in reaction with chlorophenol

  19. Separation of UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, M.M.

    1962-01-01

    This report deals with theoretical approach to separation process and describes the constructed separator with liquid medium. The separator was calibrated and tested with Al 3 O 3 and UO 2 . it has been concluded that it can be used for separation of powders with sufficient accuracy if the separation is performed for a longer period of time. The separated fractions were characterised by microscopic method and the UO 2 fraction additionally by sedimentation method

  20. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.; Rabinowitz, P.

    1979-01-01

    A method of separating the isotopes of an element is described, which comprises the steps of (i) subjecting molecules of a gaseous compound of the element simultaneously to two infrared radiations of different wavelengths, the first radiation having a wavelength which corresponds to an absorption band of the compound, which in turn corresponds to a mode of molecular motion in which there is participation by atoms of the element, and the second radiation having a power density greater than 10 6 watts per cm 2 , thereby exciting molecules of the compound in an isotopically selective manner, this step being conducted in such manner that the excited molecules either receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by unimolecular decomposition or receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by reaction with molecules of another gas present for that purpose; and (ii) separating and recovering converted molecules from unconverted molecules. (author)

  1. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emile, B.F.M.

    1983-11-01

    A process is claimed for isotopic separation applied to isotopes of elements that can be placed in at least a physicochemical form in which the isotopic atoms or the molecules containing these atoms can be easily displaced and for which there are selective radiations preferentially absorbed by the isotopes of a certain type or by the molecules containing them, said absorption substantially increasing the probability of ionization of said atoms or molecules relative to the atoms or molecules that did not absorb the radiation. The process consists of placing the isotopic mixture in such a form, subjecting it in a separation zone to selective radiations and to an electrical field that produces migration of positive ions toward the negative electrodes and negative ions toward the positive electrodes, and withdrawing from certain such zones the fractions thus enriched in certain isotopes

  2. High gradient magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prothero, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    In a process in which magnetic material is trapped in a filter disposed in a magnetic field, and is unloaded by passing a fluid through the filter in the absence of the initial magnetic field, the magnetic field is first reduced to an intermediate value to allow unloading of the more weakly magnetic particles, the more strongly magnetic particles being retained and subsequently unloaded by further reduction of the magnetic field. Stage by stage reduction of the magnetic field during unloading allows separation of different species from the mixture. As an example the method can be applied to the separation of uranium compounds from mine ores. The uranium compounds are magnetic, while most of the other constituents of the ore are non-magnetic. The starting material is a suspension of the ore. Water is used for unloading. The filter material in this case is stainless steel balls. (author)

  3. Materials separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This volume supplies information in 16 individual contributions on projects sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) with regard to the above mentioned topic, on the state of the art, on new technologies, and on international cooperation; two of the contributions have been recorded separately for the databases INIS and ENERGY. The contributions are supplemented by a survey of the projects sponsored and by a list of publications which have resulted from the sponsored projects. (EF) [de

  4. Laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re and Tc

  5. Laser isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re, and Tc. 9 claims, 1 drawing figure

  6. Eddy energy separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhutdinov, R.Kh.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An eddy energy separator is proposed which contains a chamber with nozzle input of compressed air and sleeves for cold and hot streams. In order to increase productivity, the chamber is cylindrical and the nozzle input is arranged along its axis. Coaxially to the input, there is an adaptor forming an annular channel with its end arranged in an angle to the axis of the chamber. The nozzle input and the adaptor are installed with the possibility of relative movement.

  7. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.

    1962-04-17

    A method of separating uranium oxides from PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and other actinide oxides is described. The oxide mixture is suspended in a fused salt melt and a chlorinating agent such as chlorine gas or phosgene is sparged through the suspension. Uranium oxides are selectively chlorinated and dissolve in the melt, which may then be filtered to remove the unchlorinated oxides of the other actinides. (AEC)

  8. Innovative Separations Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Tripp; N. Soelberg; R. Wigeland

    2011-05-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  9. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  10. Separation of gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the separation of a gaseous plasma mixture into components in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, comprising: a source for converting the gaseous mixture into a train of plasma packets; an open-ended vessel with a main section and at least one branch section, adapted to enclose along predetermined tracks the original plasma packets in the main section, and the separated plasma components in the branch sections; drive means for generating travelling magnetic waves along the predetermined tracks with the magnetic flux vector of the waves transverse to each of the tracks; and means for maintaining phase coherence between the plasma packets and the magnetic waves at a value needed for accelerating the components of the packets to different velocities and in such different directions that the plasma of each packet is divided into distinctly separate packets in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, and which plasma packets are collected from the branch sections of the vessels. (author)

  11. Innovative Separations Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Soelberg, N.; Wigeland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  12. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, A; Fujii, O; Nakamoto, H

    1970-03-09

    Counter currents in the rotary drum of a centrifugal gas separator are produced by providing, at either end of the drum in the vicinity of the circumferential and central positions, respectively, outflow and inflow holes with a communicating passage external to the drum there between whereby gaseous counter currents are caused to flow within the drum and travel through the passage which is provided with gas flow adjustment means. Furthermore, the space defined by the stationary portion of the passage and the rotor drum is additionally provided with a screw pump or throttling device at either its stationary side or drum side or both in order to produce a radially directed gas flow therewithin. A gas mixture is axially admitted into the drum while centrifugal force and a cooling element provided therebelow cause an increase in gas pressure along and a gaseous flow toward the wall member, whereupon the comparatively high pressured circumferentially distributed gas is extracted from the outlet holes, flows through the external gas passage and back into the lower pressured drum core through the inlet holes, thus producing the desired counter currents. The gases thus separated are withdrawn along axially provided discharge pipes. Accordingly, this invention permits heating elements which were formerly used to produce thermal convection currents to be disposed of and allows the length of the rotor drum to be more efficiently utilized to enhance separation efficiency.

  13. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Separation of contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiewicz, J.L.; Reymer, A.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Separating the contaminated parts from the non-contaminated parts from decommissioned nuclear facilities may strongly reduce the amount of contaminated concrete. The reduction in volume of the radioactive contaminated concrete is dependent on how much cementstone is in the concrete. This research program shows that the radioactive contamination is mostly in the cementstone. However the choice that the cementstone parts, (or better said the radioactive parts) are smaller than 1 mm may not always be true. Normally the cementstone takes about 30% of the total concrete volume. A separation procedure composed by a combination of milling and thermal shock has been assessed. Both the cold and hot thermal shock in combination with milling are not able to separate the cementstone from the larger aggregates completely. However, the cementstone from the concrete with a low nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination cold thermal shock/milling, while the cementstone from the concrete with a high nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination hot thermal shock/milling. After both methods a layer of cementstone was still visible on the aggregates. Washing followed by a nitric acid treatment removed each 2 wt% of cementstone

  15. Method of isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, R K

    1975-05-22

    Isotopes of a gaseous compound can be separated by multi-infrared photoabsorption which follows a selective dissociation of the excited molecules by single photon absorption of photons of visible or UV radiation. The process involves three steps. Firstly, the molecules to be separated are irradiated with a high-energy IR laser, whereby the molecules of the compound containing the lighter isotopes are preferably excited. They are then irradiated by a second laser with UV or visible light whose frequency of radiation brings the excited molecules into a form in which they can be separated from the non-excited molecules. The third step is the reformation of the substances according to known methods. A power density of at least 10/sup 4/ watt/cm/sup 2/ per torr gas pressure with an irradiation time of 10/sup -10/ to 5 x 10/sup -5/ seconds in the presence of a second gas with at least 5 times higher partial pressure is necessary for the IR radiation. The method may be used for UF/sub 6/ for which an example is given here.

  16. Development of Separation Materials Containing Palladium for Hydrogen Isotopes Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaojun; Luo Deli; Qian Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    Displacement chromatography (DC) is a ascendant technique for hydrogen isotopes separation. The performance of separation materials is a key factor to determine the separation effect of DC. At present,kinds of materials are researched, including palladium materials and non-palladium materials. It is hardly replaceable because of its excellent separation performance, although palladium is expensive. The theory of hydrogen isotopes separation using DC was introduced at a brief manner, while several palladium separation materials were expatiated in detail(Pd/K, Pd-Al 2 O 3 , Pd-Pt alloy). Development direction of separation materials for DC was forecasted elementarily. (authors)

  17. ITER isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busigin, A.; Sood, S.K.; Kveton, O.K.; Sherman, R.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1990-09-01

    This document presents the results of a study that examined the technical operating and economic viability of an alternative Isotope Separation System (ISS) design based on the distributed design concept. In the distributed design, the ISS is broken up into local independently operable subsystems matched to local processing requirements. The distributed design accepts the same feeds and produces essentially the same products as the reference design. The distributed design consists of two separate, independent subsystems. The first, called ISS-H, receives only protium-dominated streams and waste water from tritium extraction. It has two cryogenic distillation columns and can produce a 50 percent D, 50 percent T product since it lacks D/T separation capability. A final 80 percent T 2 concentration product can be obtained by blending the 50 percent T 2 stream from ISS-H with the more than 99 percent T 2 stream from the second subsystem, ISS-D. The second subsystem receives only deuterium-dominated feeds, which also contain some protium. ISS-D is as complex as the reference design, but smaller. Although each subsystem has some advantages, such as only two cryogenic distillation columns in ISS-H and better than 99 percent steady state T 2 product in ISS-D, the combined subsystems do not offer any real advantage compared to the reference IISS. The entire distributed ISS design has been simulated using Ontario Hydro's FLOSHEET steady state process simulator. Dynamic analysis has not been done for the distributed design. (10 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.)

  18. Method to separate isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, H.; Neuschuetz, D.

    1980-01-01

    An extraction by means of supercritical pure gases (e.g. CD 2 ) or gas mixtures is proposed to separate isotopes, especially H/D, Li-6/Li-7, and U-235/U-238, and water or benzol is used as entrainer. The extraction shall be carried out at pressure rates of about 350 bar above the critical pressure with the temperature being by up to 100 0 C above the critical temperature. A NaCl-solution and the change of the isotopic ratio Cl-35/Cl-37 are investigated for example purpose. (UWI) [de

  19. Why Recruits Separate Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  20. Separation of chemical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzepis, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Isotopic separation is accomplished by (1) a second photon irradiation step for selective ionization of a first isotopic species and (2) selective precipitation of a generally immiscible liquid from the saturating vapor phase on the ionized species. The first photon corresponds with a sharply defined spectral portion of the irradiation which exclusively excites the first species to a vibrational level. The second photon further excites this species to its ionization level. Selective precipitation is by coulombic attraction between the ionized species and the vapor. The procedure is applicable to any vapor phase ionizable material

  1. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  2. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Kaldor, A.

    1977-01-01

    In a method for the separation of isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , the UF 6 is subjected to ir radiation at a predetermined wavelength or set of wavelengths for less than 10 -3 sec in such a manner that at least 0.1% of the 235 UF 6 molecules absorb an energy of more than 2000 cm -1 . The excited UF 6 is then reacted with a gaseous reagent, F 2 , Cl 2 , or Br 2 , to produce a product which is then recovered by means known in the art

  3. Advanced Separations at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.C.

    1998-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams which are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials which must be treated to remove the radioactivity (Cs, Sr, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (polychlorinated biphenyls, cyanide, metal ions). This task provides test beds for ESP-developed separations materials and technologies using actual SRS waste streams. The work includes different SRS waste streams; high level waste solutions presently stored in underground tanks onsite, water recycled from the waste vitrification plant, and reactor basin water in excess facilities

  4. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  5. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A diffuser separator apparatus is described which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage. Each of said channels has an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports. At least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels is a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels is a different cross sectional area. Means are provided for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series. Also provided are a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area

  6. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, Sol; Young, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Description is given of method for separating a specific isotope from a mixture of isotopes of an actinide element present as MF 6 , wherein M is the actinide element. It comprises: preparing a feed gas mixture of MF 6 in a propellant gas; passing the feed gas mixture under pressure through an expansion nozzle while heating the mixture to about 600 0 C; releasing the heated gas mixture from the nozzle into an exhaust chamber having a reduced pressure, whereby a gas jet of MF 6 molecules, MF 6 molecular clusters and propellant gas molecules is formed, the MF 6 molecules having a translational energy of about 3 eV; converting the MF 6 molecules to MF 6 ions by passing the jet through a cross jet of electron donor atoms so that an electron transfer takes place between the MF 6 - molecules and the electron donor atoms whereby the jet is now quasi-neutral, containing negative MF 6 - ions and positive donor ions; passing the quasi-neutral jet through a radiofrequency mass filter tuned to separate the MF 6 ions containing the specific isotope from the MF 6 - ions of the other isotopes and neutralizing and collecting the MF 6 molecules of the specific isotope [fr

  7. Separation of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.G.

    1980-01-01

    A process for separating gaseous mixtures of molecules of different mass comprises the steps of: causing a rotational nozzle to eject a contiguous plurality of successive groups of molecules into an evacuated space, the groups mutually overlapping to form a continuous stream of the mixture in the form of an Archimedean spiral, allowing the molecules of each group of molecules to move in accordance with their thermal velocities for a predetermined period of time following ejection, thereby to allow each group of molecules to form a generally spherical configuration the outer portion of which will be enriched, in molecules of lighter mass, relative to the inner portion thereof, using a deflector means co-rotating with the rotating nozzle to deflect molecules, which have been allowed to move for the predetermined period of time in accordance with their thermal velocities, from at least one desired portion of the stream and using a stationary collector means to collect the deflected molecules. The process is described with reference to the separation of isotopes of uranium hexafluoride. (author)

  8. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.; Pontius, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes is described which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane

  9. Russian separation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A small contract signed in FY92 with the Khlopin Radium Institute marked the beginning of the Russian Separations program. Under this contract the Khlopin Radium Institute performed laboratory and dynamic hot-cell testing using cobalt dicarbollide technology on simulated radioactive wastes similar to those found at DOE sites in the United States. The current scope of investigation has been extended to identify prospective technologies for application to other United States needs. The Khlopin Radium Institute project served as a model for three other pilot scale technology development projects. The premise of the pilot scale projects is to enable Russian scientists to demonstrate their technology in the context of DOE needs, using Russian technical expertise has proven to be a cost-effective means of screening Russian technologies

  10. Nebulized therapy. SEPAR year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Casilda; Muñoz, Ana; Domenech, Adolfo

    2014-12-01

    Inhaled drugs are deposited directly in the respiratory tract. They therefore achieve higher concentrations with faster onset of action and fewer side effects than when used systemically. Nebulized drugs are mainly recommended for patients that require high doses of bronchodilators, when they need to inhale drugs that only exist in this form (antibiotics or dornase alfa) or when they are unable to use other inhalation devices. Technological development in recent years has led to new devices that optimize pulmonary deposits and reduce the time needed for treatment. In this review we focus solely on drugs currently used, or under investigation, for nebulization in adult patients; basically bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, antibiotics, antifungals, mucolytics and others such as anticoagulants, prostanoids and lidocaine. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Method of gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltner, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    In order to separate a mixture of gases having widely different partial pressures at a given temperature, a chamber is employed. A batch of gas mixture is passed into the chamber. The walls of the chamber are cooled by a refrigerant which passes through coils in heat exchange relationship with the walls. By this means the temperature of the chamber is cooled to a temperature (and held at such temperature until equilibrium is reached) at which all the components of the gas mixture have changed state, at least one being solidified and at least one liquefied. The liquid constituents are removed first. Then the chamber is warmed to facilitate removal of the previously solidified constituents. In an example, the gas mixture comprises nitrogen, argon, krypton and xenon, and the walls of the chamber are cooled by liquid nitrogen, the argon and nitrogen being liquefied and the xenon and krypton being solidified. (author)

  12. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon building so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered

  13. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-05-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon buildings so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered. (U.S.)

  14. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  15. Actinide separative chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.

    2004-01-01

    Actinide separative chemistry has focused very heavy work during the last decades. The main was nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: solvent extraction processes appeared quickly a suitable, an efficient way to recover major actinides (uranium and plutonium), and an extensive research, concerning both process chemistry and chemical engineering technologies, allowed the industrial development in this field. We can observe for about half a century a succession of Purex plants which, if based on the same initial discovery (i.e. the outstanding properties of a molecule, the famous TBP), present huge improvements at each step, for a large part due to an increased mastery of the mechanisms involved. And actinide separation should still focus R and D in the near future: there is a real, an important need for this, even if reprocessing may appear as a mature industry. We can present three main reasons for this. First, actinide recycling appear as a key-issue for future nuclear fuel cycles, both for waste management optimization and for conservation of natural resource; and the need concerns not only major actinide but also so-called minor ones, thus enlarging the scope of the investigation. Second, extraction processes are not well mastered at microscopic scale: there is a real, great lack in fundamental knowledge, useful or even necessary for process optimization (for instance, how to design the best extracting molecule, taken into account the several notifications and constraints, from selectivity to radiolytic resistivity?); and such a need for a real optimization is to be more accurate with the search of always cheaper, cleaner processes. And then, there is room too for exploratory research, on new concepts-perhaps for processing quite new fuels- which could appear attractive and justify further developments to be properly assessed: pyro-processes first, but also others, like chemistry in 'extreme' or 'unusual' conditions (supercritical solvents, sono-chemistry, could be

  16. Advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems

  17. Isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an isotope separation device comprising a system for converting into gaseous form a first and second isotope to be separated, a monochromatic excitation light source to excite the gaseous molecules of these two isotopes in a distinct manner, a first and second receiver to collect selectively the molecules of the first and second distinctly excited isotopes. The frequency FL of the excitation light is selected between a lower limit and a higher limit F2 + 1/2 LD, depending on the frequences F1 and F2 of two absorption lines near this first and second isotope. The difference DF between these two frequencies F1 and F2 is less than the Doppler width LD of each one of these lines and greater than the natural width LN of each of these two lines and also the width of line LR of the excitation light source. The probability that the molecules will be excited by this light depends on the direction of their displacement to a major and different extent for both isotopes. An ionising light source LI is set up to irradiate the seat of interaction between the excitation light and the gaseous molecules with an ionisation light able to ionise the excited molecules without ionising the molecules that are not excited. The receivers are able to collect selectively the ionised molecules. A sufficiently low gas pressure is selected for the distance between the place of interaction and the first receiver to be less than double the free mean travel of the molecules in the gas [fr

  18. Fundamentals of affinity cell separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lyons, Veronica; Pappas, Dimitri

    2018-03-01

    Cell separations using affinity methods continue to be an enabling science for a wide variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of affinity separation, including the competing forces for cell capture and elution, cell-surface interactions, and models for cell adhesion. Factors affecting separation performance such as bond affinity, contact area, and temperature are presented. We also discuss and demonstrate the effects of nonspecific binding on separation performance. Metrics for evaluating cell separations are presented, along with methods of comparing separation techniques for cell isolation using affinity capture. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Liquid-phase separation with the rotational particle separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van H.P.; Mondt, E.; Hendriks, A.J.A.M.; Verbeek, P.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the rotational particle separator (RPS) was introduced as a new technique for separating solid and/or liquid particles of 0.1 m and larger from gases. In this patented technique the principles of centrifugation are exploited to enhance separation of small-sized phases and particulate

  20. Particle separator at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    The beam separator under development at LAMPF for the EPICS channel (Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer) is described. The separator operates on the electrostatic crossed-field principle but has several unusual features. (U.S.)

  1. Zirconium isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.H.; Lahoda, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the amount of zirconium 91 isotope in zirconium comprising: forming a first solution of (a) a first solvent, (b) a scavenger, and (c) a zirconium compound which is soluble in the first solvent and reacts with the scavenger when exposed to light of a wavelength of 220 to 600 nm; irradiating the first solution with light at the wavelength for a time sufficient to photoreact a disproportionate amount of the zirconium compound containing the zirconium 91 isotope with the scavenger to form a reaction product in the first solution; contacting the first solution, while effecting the irradiation, with a second solvent which is immiscible with the first solvent, which the second solvent is a preferential solvent for the reaction product relative to the first solvent, such that at least a portion of the reaction product is transferred to the second solvent to form a second solution; and separating the second solution from the first solution after the contacting

  2. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  3. Isotope separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.I.

    1983-01-01

    This application discloses a method for and an apparatus in which isotopes of an element in a compared are separated from each other while that compound, i.e., including a mixture of such isotopes, flows along a predetermined path. The apparatus includes a flow tube having a beginning and an end. The mixture of isotopes is introduced into the flow tube at a first introduction point between the beginning and the end thereof to flow the mixture toward the end thereof. A laser irradiates the flow tube dissociating compounds of a preselected one of said isotopes thereby converting the mixture in an isotopically selective manner. The dissociation products are removed from the tube at a first removal point between the first introduction point and the end. The dissociation product removed at the the first removal point are reconverted back into the comound thereby providing a first stage enriched compound. This first stage enriched compound is reintroduced into the flow tube at a second introduction point between the beginning thereof and the first introduction point. Further product is removed from the flow tube at a second removal point between the second introduction point and the first introduction point. The second introduction point is chosen so that the isotope composition of the first stage enriched compound is approximately the same as that of the compound in the flow tube

  4. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the isotope separation art and, more particularly, to a selectively photon-induced energy level transition of an isotopic molecule containing the isotope to be separated and a chemical reaction with a chemically reactive agent to provide a chemical compound containing atoms of the isotope desired. In particular a description is given of a method of laser isotope separation applied to the separation of 235 UF 6 from 238 UF 6 . (U.K.)

  5. Separation of a light additive gas by separation nozzle cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Bley, P.; Ehrfeld, W.; Fritz, W.; Steinhaus, H.

    1984-01-01

    Double-turn separation nozzles, in comparison with single-turn separation nozzles, offer much greater advantages in the separation of UF6 and H2 than in the separation of the U isotopes, for which the double-turn separation nozzles were conceived. By using a double-turn separation-nozzle stage as a preseparation stage in combination with a low-temperature separator, one can reduce the ratio of the buffer input stream to the product stream, in contrast with the solution used up to this time, with only a slight increase in cost of about an order of magnitude. The control program in the case of return feeding of the UF6 from the buffer and the danger of production losses connected with it are thereby correspondingly diminished. An example is given of the enrichment of 235U using the title facility with UF6. (orig./PW)

  6. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  7. Dielectrophoretic separation of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous isotopes are separated from a mixture in a vertically elongated chamber by subjecting the mixture to a nonuniform transverse electric field. Dielectrophoretic separation of the isotopes is effected, producing a transverse temperature gradient in the chamber, thereby enhancing the separation by convective countercurrent flow. In the example given, the process and apparatus are applied to the production of heavy water from steam

  8. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  9. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabicar, J.; Stamberg, K.; Katzer, J.

    1983-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes by the method of controlled distribution is claimed. A first phase is either a solution of isotopic components and a ligand (from 10 - 6 M to a saturated solution), or a gaseous mixture of isotopic components, or a gaseous mixture of isotopic components and an inert gas. The isotopes are in the starting mixture in molar ratio from 1:10 5 to 1:10 - 5 . The second phase is a solid sorbent such as styrene-divinylbenzene ion exchangers, or bio-sorbents on the basis of mycelium of lower fungi and sorbents on the basis of cellulose, or an extraction agent such as tributyl phosphate and trioctyl amine, if need be, kept by a carrier such as teflon, silica gel and cellulose. The two-phase system exhibits non-linear equilibrium isotherm for sorption and/or desorption or for extraction and/or re-extraction. After bringing both phases into contact the rate of transport of isotopic components from one phase into another is not equal. Retardation of isotopic exchange takes place by complexation of isotopes with ligands such as cabonate, sulphate, citrate, chloride and ethylenediamine tetraacetate ions, or by using sorbents and extraction agents with chelating functional groups such as carboxyl and hyroxyl groups, groups on the basis of phosphorus, nitrogen and sulphur and/or by operating in darkness, or in the light having wave length between 2.5x10 2 and 10 9 nm. The contact time is between 10 - 2 and 10 6 s, temperature between 10 2 and 10 3 K, the number of stirrer revolutions between 10 - 2 and 10 4 revolutions per s, flow rate at column arrangement between 10 - 6 and 10 - 1 m/s and the size of particles of sorbent between 10 - 6 and 10 - 2 m

  10. Advances in laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, I.P.; Bernhardt, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The physical and chemical concepts required to understand laser isotope separation are presented and discussed. The numerous successful demonstrations of separating isotopes using lasers are reviewed to 1983. Emphasis is placed on the separation of 235-U from 238-U by multi-step selective ioniation of uranium atomic vapor, and on the separation of D and H and of T from D, by pulsed infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation of fluoroform and chloroform, respectively, because they are among the most successful and important examples of laser isotope separation to date. 161 refs.; 7 figs

  11. Physical Separation in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical separation is pervasive in organizations, and has powerful effects on employee motivation and organizational behaviors. However, research shows that workplace separation is characterized by a variety of tradeoffs, tensions, and challenges that lead to both positive and negative outcomes....... We develop new theory on the nature, antecedents, and motivational implications of separation awareness - a psychological state in which people are aware of their physical separation from others—and proffer a model of the mechanisms that link separation and motivation. We distinguish between control...... and autonomy affirmation as psychological states that are triggered by physical separation in the workplace, and discuss individual and context specific moderators, as well as motivational implications of separation awareness. In doing so, we reconcile the seemingly contradicting findings that have been...

  12. Mathematical modelling of membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank

    This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate mathemat......This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate...... mathematical models, each with a different approach to membrane separation. The first model is a statistical model investigating the interplay between solute shape and the probability of entering the membrane. More specific the transition of solute particles from being spherical to becoming more elongated...

  13. Comparison of gas membrane separation cascades using conventional separation cell and two-unit separation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masayoshi; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ozaki, Osamu; Miyauchi, Terukatsu.

    1978-01-01

    The adoption of two-unit separation cells in radioactive rare gas membrane separation equipment enhances the separation factor, but increases the required membrane area and compressive power. An analytical economic evaluation was undertaken to compare the conventional separation cell with the two-unit separation cells, adopting as parameters the number of cascade stages, the membrane area and the operating power requirements. This paper describes the models used for evaluating the separation performance and the economics of cascade embodying these different concepts of separation cell taken up for study, and the results obtained for the individual concepts are mutually compared. It proved that, in respect of the number required of cascade stages, of operating power requirements and of the annual expenditure, better performance could always be expected of the two-unit separation cells as compared with the conventional separation cell, at least in the range of parameters adopted in this study. As regards the minimum membrane area, the conventional separation cell and the series-type separation cell yielded almost the same values, with the parallel-type separation cell falling somewhat behind. (auth.)

  14. Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes by Palladium Alloy Membranes Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.; Yifu, X.; Congxian, L.; Zhiyong, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Separation of hydrogen isotope with palladium alloy membranes is one of the promising methods for hydrogen isotope separation. It has several advantages, such as high separation efficiency, smaller tritium inventory, simple separation device, ect. Limited by the manufacture of membrane and cost of gas transportation pump, this method is still at the stage of conceptual study. The relationship between separation factors and temperatures, feed gas components, split ratios have not been researched in detail, and the calculated results of cascade separation have not been validated with experimental data. In this thesis, a palladium alloy membrane separator was designed to further study its separation performance between H 2 and D 2 . The separation factor of the single stage was affected by the temperature, the feed gas component, the split ratio and the gas flow rate, etc. The experimental results showed that the H 2 -D 2 separation factor decreased with the increasing of temperature. On the temperature from 573 K to 773 K, when the feed rate was 5 L/min, the separation factor of 66.2%H 2 - 33.8%D 2 decreased from 2.09 to 1.85 when the split ratio was 0.1 and from 1.74 to 1.52 when the split ratio was 0.2.The separation factor also decreased with the increasing of split ratio. At 573 K and the feed rate of 5 L/min, the separation factor of 15.0%H 2 and 85.0%D 2 decreased from 2.43 to 1.35 with the increasing of split ratio from 0.050 to 0.534,and for 66.2%H 2 -33.8%D 2 , the separation factor decreased from 2.87 to 1.30 with the increasing of split ratio from 0.050 to 0.688. When the separation factor was the biggest, the flow rate of feed gas was in a perfect value. To gain a best separation performance, perfect flow rate, lower temperature and reflux ratio should be chosen. (authors)

  15. Acromioclavicular joint separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Pandya, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department as a trauma activation after a motorcycle accident. The patient was the helmeted rider of a motorcycle traveling at an unknown speed when he lost control and was thrown off his vehicle. He denied loss of consciousness, nausea, or vomiting. The patient’s vital signs were stable and his only complaint was pain around his left shoulder. On exam, the patient had a prominent left clavicle without skin compromise. He had adequate range of motion in the left shoulder with moderate pain, and his left upper extremity was neurovascularly intact. Significant findings: Plain films of the left shoulder showed elevation of the left clavicle above the acromion. There was an increase in the acromioclavicular (AC and coracoclavicular (CC distances (increased joint distances marked with red and blue arrows, respectively. A normal AC joint measures 1-3 mm whereas a normal CC distance measures 11-13 mm.1 The injury was classified as a Rockwood type III AC joint separation. Discussion: The AC joint is a synovial joint between an oval facet on the acromion and a similar facet on the distal end of the clavicle. Horizontal stability is provided by the AC joint while axial stability is provided by the CC joint.2,3 AC joint injuries account for about 9%-12% of shoulder girdle injuries, and the most common mechanism is direct trauma.4,5 Initial evaluation with imaging includes plain films with three views: the anterior-posterior (AP view with the shoulder in internal and external rotation as well as an axillary, or scapula-Y view (sensitivity 40%, specificity 90% for all films.6,7 AC joint injuries are classified by the Rockwood system.8 Type I involves a sprain or incomplete tear of the AC ligaments with an intact CC ligament. The AC joint appears normal on X-ray, but can become widened with stress, achieved by having the patient hold a 10-15 pound weight from each

  16. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Meyer, Dirk C. [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Leipziger Str. 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Schilm, Jochen [Fraunhofer-Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Leisegang, Tilmann [Fraunhofer-Technologiezentrum Halbleitermaterialien THM, Am St.-Niclas-Schacht 13, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ('Energiewende') was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic

  17. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2014-06-01

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ("Energiewende") was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators

  18. Separation process using microchannel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Arora, Ravi [Dublin, OH; Qiu, Dongming [Bothell, WA; Lamont, Michael Jay [Hilliard, OH; Burwell, Deanna [Cleveland Heights, OH; Dritz, Terence Andrew [Worthington, OH; McDaniel, Jeffrey S [Columbus, OH; Rogers, Jr; William, A [Marysville, OH; Silva, Laura J [Dublin, OH; Weidert, Daniel J [Lewis Center, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Chadwell, G Bradley [Reynoldsburg, OH

    2009-03-24

    The disclosed invention relates to a process and apparatus for separating a first fluid from a fluid mixture comprising the first fluid. The process comprises: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator in contact with a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the first fluid is sorbed by the sorption medium, removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing first fluid from the sorption medium and removing desorbed first fluid from the microchannel separator. The process and apparatus are suitable for separating nitrogen or methane from a fluid mixture comprising nitrogen and methane. The process and apparatus may be used for rejecting nitrogen in the upgrading of sub-quality methane.

  19. Separable programming theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stefan M

    2001-01-01

    In this book, the author considers separable programming and, in particular, one of its important cases - convex separable programming Some general results are presented, techniques of approximating the separable problem by linear programming and dynamic programming are considered Convex separable programs subject to inequality equality constraint(s) and bounds on variables are also studied and iterative algorithms of polynomial complexity are proposed As an application, these algorithms are used in the implementation of stochastic quasigradient methods to some separable stochastic programs Numerical approximation with respect to I1 and I4 norms, as a convex separable nonsmooth unconstrained minimization problem, is considered as well Audience Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, mathematical programming operations research specialists

  20. Hereditary separability in Hausdorff continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider those Hausdorff continua S such that each separable subspace of S is hereditarily separable. Due to results of Ostaszewski and Rudin, respectively, all monotonically normal spaces and therefore all continuous Hausdorff images of ordered compacta also have this property. Our study focuses on the structure of such spaces that also possess one of various rim properties, with emphasis given to rim-separability. In so doing we obtain analogues of results of M. Tuncali and I. Loncar, respectively.

  1. Dielectrophoretic separation of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for the separation of gaseous isotopes by electrophoresis assisted by convective countercurrent flow and to an apparatus for use in the process. The invention is especially applicable to heavy water separation from steam; however, it is to be understood that the invention is broadly applicable to the separation of gaseous isotopes having different dipole moments and/or different molecular weights. (author)

  2. Centrifugal separation of mixture gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.S.; Chen, W.N.; Yin, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    An attempt for single centrifugal separation of mixtures with different molecular formula was presented in this paper. The mixtures of SF 6 and CCl 3 F, and SF 6 and CCl 4 were chosen as the processing gases, which were prepared in three mass ratios, 0.5, 0.8 and 0.2, respectively. The separating characteristics such as the overall separation factors and the variation of cuts were studied. (author)

  3. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P [Palo Alto, CA; Fulton, Donald A [Fairfield, CA

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  4. Heavy Water - Industrial Separation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.

    1984-01-01

    This monograph devoted to the heavy water production mainly presents the Romanian experience in the field which started in early sixties from the laboratory scale production and reached now the level of large scale industrial production at ROMAG-Drobeta, Romania. The book is structured in eleven chapters entitled: Overview, The main physical properties, Sources, Uses, Separation factor and equilibrium constant, Mathematical modelling of the separation process, Thermodynamical considerations on the isotope separation, Selection criteria for heavy water separation processes, Industrial installations for heavy water production, Prospects, Acknowledgements. 200 Figs., 90 Tabs., 135 Refs

  5. Process for separating radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigeru; Awada, Yoshihisa.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To efficiently and safely separate and recover raw gases such as krypton which requires radioactive attenuation by a long term storage. Structure: A mixture of krypton and xenon is separated by liquefaction from raw gases at a first distillation column, using latent heat of liquid nitrogen. The krypton and xenon mixture separated by liquefaction at the first distillation column is separated into krypton and xenon, by controlling operation pressure of a second distillation column at about 3 - 5 atm., using sensible heat of low temperature nitrogen gas discharged from a top of the first distillation column and a condenser. (Aizawa, K.)

  6. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  7. Fast Monaural Separation of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Dyrholm, Mads

    2003-01-01

    a Factorial Hidden Markov Model, with non-stationary assumptions on the source autocorrelations modelled through the Factorial Hidden Markov Model, leads to separation in the monaural case. By extending Hansens work we find that Roweis' assumptions are necessary for monaural speech separation. Furthermore we...

  8. Isotope separation using tunable lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snavely, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Various processes for laser isotope separation based upon the use of the spectroscopic isotope effect in atomic and molecular vapors are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon processes which are suitable for uranium enrichment. A demonstration process for the separation of uranium isotopes using selective photoionization is described. (U.S.)

  9. Isotope separations using chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leseticky, L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of chromatographic separations of compounds only differing in isotope composition. Isotope effects on physical properties which allow chromatographic separation (vapour tension, adsorption heat, partition coefficient) are very small, with the exception of the simplest molecules. Therefore, separation factors only assume the value of several per cent. From this ensues the necessity of using columns which are specially and very carefully prepared and have a separation efficiency of the order of 10 4 theoretical plates. Briefly discussed is liquid chromatography on ion exchangers which with a varied degree of success was used for separating simple inorganic compounds or ions. Ion exchange chromatography of amino acids labelled with tritium, and chromatography of tritium labelled steroids also provided only a certain degree of separation. A detailed analysis is presented of gas chromatography separation of various deuterium and tritium labelled low-molecular compounds, to which a number of studies has been devoted in the literature. Very promising is the method of complexation gas chromatography based on the reversible formation of a complex of the ligand (the compound being separated) and the compound of the (transition) metal as the steady-state phase. (author)

  10. Vision 2020: 2000 Separations Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Stephen [Center for Waster Reduction Technologies; Beaver, Earl [Practical Sustainability; Bryan, Paul [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Robinson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watson, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the results of four workshops on the technology barriers, research needs, and priorities of the chemical, agricultural, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries as they relate to separation technologies utilizing adsorbents, crystallization, distillation, extraction, membranes, separative reactors, ion exchange, bioseparations, and dilute solutions.

  11. Parental separation and pediatric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Sally; Carlsen, Kathrine; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer.......The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer....

  12. PBI treated polypropylene battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veryzwyvelt, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    A generalized procedure for fabricating the separator is described. Some of the desired properties considered in fabricating the separator material for nickel-cadmium cells were good mechanical strength, good chemical stability, good wettability to the electrolyte, high electrolyte retention, and gas passage.

  13. Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok

    2008-01-01

    Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  14. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  15. Cumulative and antagonistic effects of a mixture of the antiandrogens vinclozolin and iprodione in the pubertal male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Chad R; Lambright, Christy S; Cardon, Mary C; Furr, Johnathan; Rider, Cynthia V; Hartig, Phillip C; Wilson, Vickie S; Gray, Leon E

    2009-09-01

    Vinclozolin and iprodione are dicarboximide fungicides that display antiandrogenic effects in the male rat, which suggests that a mixture would lead to cumulative effects on androgen-sensitive end points. Iprodione is a steroid synthesis inhibitor, but androgen receptor antagonist activity, which is displayed by vinclozolin, has not been fully evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that iprodione binds to the human androgen receptor (IC(50) = 86.0 microM), reduces androgen-dependent gene expression, and reduces androgen-sensitive tissue weights in castrated male rats (Hershberger assay). Since vinclozolin and iprodione affect common targets in the pubertal male rat, we tested the hypothesis that a mixture would have cumulative antiandrogenic effects. An iprodione dose, that does not significantly affect androgen-dependent morphological end points, was combined with vinclozolin doses (2 x 5 factorial design). Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with vinclozolin at 0, 10, 30, 60, and 100 mg/kg/day with and without 50 mg iprodione/kg/day from postnatal day (PND) 23 to 55-57 (n = 8 per group). The age at puberty (preputial separation [PPS]), organ weights, serum hormones, and ex vivo testis steroid hormone production were measured. Vinclozolin delayed PPS, reduced androgen-sensitive organ weights, and increased serum testosterone. The addition of iprodione enhanced the vinclozolin inhibition of PPS (PND 47.5 vs.49.1; two-way ANOVA: iprodione main effect p = 0.0002). The dose response for several reproductive and nonreproductive organ weights was affected in a cumulative manner. In contrast, iprodione antagonized the vinclozolin-induced increase in serum testosterone. These results demonstrate that these fungicides interact on common targets in a tissue-specific manner when coadministered to the pubertal male rat.

  16. Pseudo-stationary separation materials for highly parallel separations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anup K.; Palmer, Christopher (University of Montana, Missoula, MT)

    2005-05-01

    Goal of this study was to develop and characterize novel polymeric materials as pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography. Fundamental studies have characterized the chromatographic selectivity of the materials as a function of chemical structure and molecular conformation. The selectivities of the polymers has been studied extensively, resulting in a large body of fundamental knowledge regarding the performance and selectivity of polymeric pseudostationary phases. Two polymers have also been used for amino acid and peptide separations, and with laser induced fluorescence detection. The polymers performed well for the separation of derivatized amino acids, and provided some significant differences in selectivity relative to a commonly used micellar pseudostationary phase. The polymers did not perform well for peptide separations. The polymers were compatible with laser induced fluorescence detection, indicating that they should also be compatible with chip-based separations.

  17. EFFICIENCY OF METAL SCRAP SEPARATION IN EDDY CURRENT SEPARATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Bedeković

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Eddy-current separation is most often method used for the recovery of non-ferrous metals (Al, Cu, Zn, Pb from solid wastes and also for separating non-ferrous metals from each other. The feed material comes to rotary drum and magnetic field by belt conveyer. The changing magnetic field induce eddy currents in conductive (metallic particles. Because interaction between this currents and the magnetic field electrodynamic forces will act on conductive particles. Therefore the trajectories of conductive particles will be different from the trajectories of the non-conductive ones. Separation is a result of the combined actions of several forces (electrodynamic, gravitational and frictional. The paper presents results of aluminium recovery from mixture of metallic particles in eddy current separator. Testing were conducted under field condition. Results shows that is possible achieve recovery of 99 % and concentrate quality of 89 % of aluminium (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Particle separations by electrophoretic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, N.E.; Petersen, S.L.; Ducatte, G.R.; Remcho, V.T.

    1996-03-01

    A new method for particle separations based on capillary electrophoresis has been developed and characterized. It uniquely separates particles according to their chemical nature. Separations have been demonstrated with chemically modified latex particles and with inorganic oxide and silicate particles. Separations have been shown both experimentally and theoretically to be essentially independent of particle size in the range of about 0.2 μm to 10 μm. The method has been applied to separations of U0 2 particles from environmental particulate material. For this, an integrated method was developed for capillary electrophoretic separation, collection of separated fractions, and determinations of U0 2 and environmental particles in each fraction. Experimental runs with the integrated method on mixtures of UO 2 particles and environmental particulate material demonstrated enrichment factors of 20 for UO 2 particles in respect to environmental particles in the U0 2 containing fractions. This enrichment factor reduces the costs and time for processing particulate samples by the lexan process by a factor of about 20

  19. Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    to facilitate real-time monitoring of the experiments. The set-up and experimental protocol are described in detail. Results are presented for ’active’ magnetic bead separators, where on-chip microfabricated electromagnets supply the magnetic field and field gradients necessary for magnetic bead separation....... It is shown conceptually how such a system can be applied for parallel biochemical processing in a microfluidic system. ’Passive’ magnetic separators are presented, where on-chip soft magnetic elements are magnetized by an external magnetic field and create strong magnetic fields and gradients inside...

  20. Isotopic separation by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, M.G.; Barre, Y.; Neige, R.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic exchange reaction and the isotopic separation factor are first recalled; the principles of ion chromatography applied to lithium isotope separation are then reviewed (displacement chromatography) and the process is modelled in the view of dimensioning and optimizing the industrial process; the various dimensioning parameters are the isotopic separation factor, the isotopic exchange kinetics and the material flow rate. Effects of the resin type and structure are presented. Dimensioning is also affected by physico-chemical and hydraulic parameters. Industrial implementation features are also discussed. 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs

  1. Separation parameters of gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    Early work on development of the gas centrifuge for separation of uranium isotopes has recently been reviewed. Several configurations were investigated. The preferred configuration eventually turned out to be a countercurrent centrifuge. In this form, an internal circulation is set up, and as a consequence, light isotope concentrates at one end of the centrifuge, heavy isotope at the other. In many ways the effect resembles the separation obtained in packed columns in the chemical and petroleum industries. It is the purpose of this paper to develop this analogy between countercurrent gas centrifuges and packed towers and to illustrate its usefulness in understanding the separation process in the centrifuge. 8 figures

  2. Methods for separation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of actinoids separation are reviewed, including precipitation, sublimation, paper chromatography and electrophoresis. Compounds typically used for co-precipitation of actinoid ions are listed. Ion-exchange methods considered include cation and ion exchange. Factors are described, which affect the efficiency of separation of transuranium elements in the same degrees of oxidation: complex-forming agents, temperature, ion-exchange resin, rate of elution, the size of the column, the influence of salts. Extraction of actinoid ions upon formation of solvate complexes, inner complex compounds and metal salts is discussed. Combining the advantages of ion exchange and extraction, the method of extraction chromatography can be widely used for separation of actinoids

  3. Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

  4. Magnetic separation for soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; deAguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.; Tolt, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology

  5. Photochemical separation and extraction device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yukio; Morimoto, Kyoichi.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device for separating neptunium and plutonium from highly radioactive liquid wastes, in which valance control by irradiation of UV rays and extraction operation by using an organic solvent can be conducted simultaneously in the same reaction vessel. Namely, a step of irradiating UV rays to the liquid in the reaction vessel to control the valence of predetermined materials and a step of separating the materials by conducting solvent-extraction while stirring with a solvent are conducted simultaneously or successively. Then, facilities for the separation method can be reduced and the operation steps can be simplified. (N.H.)

  6. High atomic weight isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    A continuously operating device is described which separates one isotopic species of a given element from a mixture. The given element is vaporized and formed into a neutral beam containing the isotopes desired to be separated. The plasma is accelerated through a laser beam which is formed by two separate lasers which operate in the continuous wave mode in which the beams are as nearly as possible in the same beam path. The two laser output beams excite and ionize the isotope of interest while leaving the remaining atoms unaffected. The ionized isotopes are then separated from the beam by an electrostatic deflection technique and the unaffected atoms continue on in their path and are directed to a recovery device

  7. Using Biomolecules to Separate Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolski, Jarrod

    Used nuclear fuel has traditionally been treated through chemical separations of the radionuclides for recycle or disposal. This research considers a biological approach to such separations based on a series of complex and interdependent interactions that occur naturally in the human body with plutonium. These biological interactions are mediated by the proteins serum transferrin and the transferrin receptor. Transferrin to plutonium in vivo and can deposit plutonium into cells after interacting with the transferrin receptor protein at the cell surface. Using cerium as a non-radioactive surrogate for plutonium, it was found that cerium(IV) required multiple synergistic anions to bind in the N-lobe of the bilobal transferrin protein, creating a conformation of the cerium-loaded protein that would be unable to interact with the transferrin receptor protein to achieve a separation. The behavior of cerium binding to transferrin has contributed to understanding how plutonium(IV)-transferrin interacts in vivo and in biological separations.

  8. FedScope Separations Cubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This raw data set provides the actual number of personnel actions ("Transfer-Outs" and "Separations from the Federal Service") that have taken place within a Fiscal...

  9. Hydrodynamic aspects of flotation separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleka Efrosyni N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation separation is mainly used for removing particulates from aqueous dispersions. It is widely used for ore beneficiation and recovering valuable materials. This paper reviews the hydrodynamics of flotation separations and comments on selected recent publications. Units are distinguished as cells of ideal and non-ideal flow. A brief introduction to hydrodynamics is included to explain an original study of the hybrid flotation-microfiltration cell, effective for heavy metal ion removal.

  10. Optics of mass separator I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The ion optics of an existing mass separator are documented. The elctrostatic and magnetic stages are analyzed theoretically, both separately and in combination, by paying particular attention to the ion trajectories, the linear and angular magnifications, and the dispersion. The possibility of converting the magnet into a tunable unit by means of current-carrying elements in the gap is demonstrated. The feasibility of correction coils constructed from printed circuit board is shown

  11. Optics of mass separator I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The ion optics of an existing mass separator are documented. The elctrostatic and magnetic stages are analyzed theoretically, both separately and in combination, by paying particular attention to the ion trajectories, the linear and angular magnifications, and the dispersion. The possibility of converting the magnet into a tunable unit by means of current-carrying elements in the gap is demonstrated. The feasibility of correction coils constructed from printed circuit board is shown.

  12. Laser separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for separating uranium isotopes are claimed. The method comprises the steps of irradiating a uranyl source material at a wavelength selective to a desired isotope and at an effective temperature for isotope spectral line splitting below about 77 deg.K., further irradiating the source material within the fluorescent lifetime of the source material to selectively photochemically reduce the excited isotopic species, and chemically separating the reduced isotope species from the remaining uranyl salt compound

  13. Development of Radiochemical Separation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eil Hee; Kim, K. W.; Yang, H. B. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    This project of the second phase was aimed at the development of basic unit technologies for advanced partitioning, and the application tests of pre-developed partitioning technologies for separation of actinides by using a simulated multi-component radioactive waste containing Am, Np, Tc, U and so on. The goals for recovery yield of TRU, and for purity of Tc are high than 99% and about 99%, respectively. The work scopes and contents were as follows. 1). For the development of basic unit technologies for advanced partitioning. 1. Development of technologies for co-removal of TRU and for mutual separation of U and TRU with a reduction-complexation reaction. 2. Development of extraction system for high-acidity co-separation of An(+3) and Ln(+3) and its radiolytic evaluation. 3. Synthesis of extractants for the selective separation of An(+3) and its relevant extraction system development. 4. Development of a hybrid system for the recovery of noble metals and its continuous separation tests. 5. Development of electrolytic system for the decompositions of N-NO3 and N-NH3 compounds to nitrogen gas. 2). For the application test of pre-developed partitioning technologies for the separation of actinide elements in a simulated multi-component solution equivalent to HLW level. 1. Co-separation of Tc, Np and U by a (TBP-TOA)/NDD system. 2. Mutual-separation of Am, Cm and RE elements by a (Zr-DEHPA)/NDD system. All results will be used as the fundamental data for the development of advanced partitioning process in the future.

  14. Sea floor separation system; Havbunnsseparasjonssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatlo, Andreas; Skaranger, Jon

    1998-07-01

    This presentation describes work done by an alliance of Kongsberg Offshore a.s. (KOS) and Aker Maritime (AMA). The alliance comprises the development and delivery of seafloor separation systems. The alliance was established as an answer to the identified need of seafloor separation and processing in the oil industry. In several fields on the Norwegian shelf there is defined a potential need for seafloor separation and pumping. The same trend can be seen in international waters as well, especially on deeper waters. Calculation of the economic potential for the relevant applications is based on a large number of variables, including both OPEX and CAPEX assessments. In order to be able to identify and analyse this potential in a better way, KOS and AMA are developing a tool for cost-benefit evaluations of such a seafloor separation and pumping system. PROSERNAT (France) and ALSTOME (UK) are important subcontractors in the development of seafloor separation and pumping systems. PROSERNAT will supply the separation tank and internal arrangement, ALSTOME will supply the power electronics for the distribution of seafloor power distribution.

  15. Membrane manufacture for peptide separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli; Salazar Moya, Octavio Ruben; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes are key tools in biomedical applications such as hemodialysis, protein separations, in the food industry, and drinking water supply from seawater. Despite of the success in different separation processes, membrane manufacture itself is at risk, since the most used solvents are about to be banned in many countries due to environmental and health issues. We propose for the first time the preparation of polyethersulfone membranes based on dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DEP). We obtained a series of membranes tailored for separation of solutes with molecular weight of 30, 5, 1.3, and 1.25 kg mol-1 with respective water permeances of 140, 65, 30 and 20 Lm-2h-1bar-1. We demonstrate their superior efficiency in the separation of complex mixtures of peptides with molecular weights in the range of 800 to 3500 gmol-1. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation leading to the pore formation in the membranes were investigated. The rheology of the solutions and the morphology of the prepared membranes were examed and compared to those of polyethersulfone in organic solvents currently used for membrane manufacture.

  16. Additive property of separative power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Kanagawa, Akira

    1980-01-01

    A separative power of a separating element, whose heads and tails separation factors are α and β, is expressed by phi sub(b)(α, β) = [α(β - 1)1n α - (α - 1)1n β]/(αβ - 1) for the unit flow of the desired material and phi sub(a)(α, β) (= phi sub(b)(β, α)) for that of undesired material. The additive properties of the functions phi sub(b) and phi sub(a) were demonstrated by calculations of various types of ideal cascades, but the origin of the property is not obvious. The present study has furnished the mathematical basis of the additivity based on the special functional equation. First, for symmetric processes (α = β), the functional equation which describes the function representing the quality of separation f(α, α) concerning the desired material was obtained and solved to give the functional form of f(α, α). The result was extented to the function f(α, β) representing the quality of asymmetric separation (α not equal β). The derived function f(α, β) was demonstrated to be equal to phi sub(b)(α, β), and it was verified that functions phi sub(b)(α, β) and phi sub(a)(α, β) have the additive property in themselves. (author)

  17. Evaluating oil/water separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Four commercially available oil/water separators were tested at an oil refinery test facility. The separators were the Alfa-Laval OFPX 413 disk-stack centrifuge, the Conoco Vortoil hydrocyclone system, International Separation Technology's Intr-Septor 250, and a modified Flo Trend gravity separator. Each machine was tested against mixtures of salt water and crude oil, and mixtures of salt water and a water-in-oil emulsion. The impact on separator performance from simulated sea motion, and from the addition of emulsion breakers and debris to the influent, were also evaluated. The test equipment, instrumentation, analysis facilities, test plans, and procedures to conduct the tests are described, but test results are not reported. Recommendations for improved test procedures are included. The inability to accurately monitor flow rates was found to have the greatest negative impact on test performance and results. Aspects of the test program that worked well included the use of flexible and semi-rigid hoses for customizing the test setups, the use of modular and leased tanks, and the sea motion simulator swing table design. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Membrane manufacture for peptide separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2016-06-07

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes are key tools in biomedical applications such as hemodialysis, protein separations, in the food industry, and drinking water supply from seawater. Despite of the success in different separation processes, membrane manufacture itself is at risk, since the most used solvents are about to be banned in many countries due to environmental and health issues. We propose for the first time the preparation of polyethersulfone membranes based on dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DEP). We obtained a series of membranes tailored for separation of solutes with molecular weight of 30, 5, 1.3, and 1.25 kg mol-1 with respective water permeances of 140, 65, 30 and 20 Lm-2h-1bar-1. We demonstrate their superior efficiency in the separation of complex mixtures of peptides with molecular weights in the range of 800 to 3500 gmol-1. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation leading to the pore formation in the membranes were investigated. The rheology of the solutions and the morphology of the prepared membranes were examed and compared to those of polyethersulfone in organic solvents currently used for membrane manufacture.

  19. Electro/powder separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented to introduce the ELECTRO/POWDER process to the P/M Industry. The process effectively uses electrostatic forces to convey, sort, meter, and blend fine powders. The major advantages of this separating process consist of the processing of primary particles, low particle energy due to particle velocity control and the pattern of particle movement over the sieve (vertical oscillation of particles above the sieve aperture). The report briefly describes the forces involved in both mechanical and sieving devices, with major emphasis on the operating principles of this process. Sieve separation of particulates is basically the result of two physical separating processes which occur simultaneously or independently; separation (dispersion) of particulates from each other and the size separation by passage through fixed apertures. In order to accomplish this goal, mechanical sieving devices utilize various motions to induce shear forces between the sieve surface and the particulates, and between the particulates themselves. It is noted that the ELECTRO/POWDER process is making steady progress in becoming an industrial tool for sieving and feeding of fine particles. Its potential extends into both the blending and admixing of powders, either by incorporating two opposing feeders, one being charged with the opposite polarity or by modifying the ELECTRO/SIEVE to incorporate more than one input and a solid electrode to replace the sieve electrode

  20. Isotope separation method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are specified for separating a mixture of isotopes present in a compound, preferably a gaseous compound, into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes differ from the natural abundances of the isotopes in the compound. The invention particularly relates to carrying out a laser induced, isotopically selective conversion of gaseous molecules in such a manner as to achieve more than one stage of isotope separation along the length of the laser beam. As an example, the invention is applied to the separation of the isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , in which either the U-235 or U-238 isotope is selectively excited by means of irradiation from an infrared laser, and the selectively excited isotope converted into a product that can be recovered from UF 6 by one of a variety of methods that are described. (U.K.)

  1. Phosphazene membranes for gas separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2006-07-11

    A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("T.sub.g") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a T.sub.g ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]- . The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

  2. Microcellular foams via phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A study of wide variety of processes for making plastic foams shows that phase separation processes for polymers from solutions offers the most viable methods for obtaining rigid plastic foams which met the physical requirements for fusion target designs. Four general phase separation methods have been shown to give polymer foams with densities less than 0.1 g/cm 3 and cell sizes of 30μm or less. These methods involve the utilization of non-solvent, chemical or thermal cooling processes to achieve a controlled phase separation wherein either two distinct phases are obtained where the polymer phase is a continuous phase or two bicontinuous phases are obtained where both the polymer and solvent are interpenetrating, continuous, labyrinthine phases. Subsequent removal of the solvent gives the final foam structure

  3. Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility, Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwaraj, I.

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning of minor actinide from high level waste could have a substantial impact in lowering the radio toxicity associated with high level waste as well as it will reduce the burden on geological repository. In Indian context, the partitioned minor actinide could be routed into the fast breeder reactor systems scheduled for commissioning in the near period. The technological breakthrough in solvent development has catalyzed the partitioning programme in India, leading to the setting up and hot commissioning of the Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) at BARC, Tarapur. The engineering scale Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) has been retrofitted in an available radiological hot cell situated adjacent to the Advanced Vitrification Facility (AVS). This location advantage ensures an uninterrupted supply of high-level waste and facilitates the vitrification of the high-level waste after separation of minor actinides

  4. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements

  5. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-01-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  6. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  7. Separated Flow over Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Lewalle, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    The motion of the separation point on an airfoil under unsteady flow can affect its performance and longevity. Of interest is to understand and control the performance decrease in wind turbines subject to turbulent flow. We examine flow separation on an airfoil at a 19 degree angle of attack under unsteady flow conditions. We are using a DU-96-W180 airfoil of chord length 242 mm. The unsteadiness is generated by a cylinder with diameter 203 mm located 7 diameters upstream of the airfoil's leading edge. The data comes from twenty surface pressure sensors located on the top and bottom of the airfoil as well as on the upstream cylinder. Methods of analysis include Mexican hat transforms, Morlet wavelet transforms, power spectra, and various cross correlations. With this study I will explore how the differences of signals on the pressure and suction sides of an airfoil are related to the motion of the separation point.

  8. Separation processes, I: Azeotropic rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of two articles, the problems of azeotrope separation (part I and the design of separation units (part II were analyzed. The basic definition and equations of vapour-liquid equilibria for ideal and non-ideal systems, the importance of the activity coefficient calculation necessary for the analysis of non-ideal equilibrium systems, as well as theoretical aspects of azeotrope rectification and the determination of the optimal third component (modifier or azeotrope agent are presented in the first part.

  9. Separation process for boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, S D

    1975-06-12

    The method according to the invention is characterized by the steps of preparing a gaseous mixture of BCl/sub 3/ containing the isotopes of boron and oxygen as the extractor, irradiating that mixture in the tube of the separator device by means of P- or R-lines of a CO/sub 2/ laser for exciting the molecules containing a given isotope of boron, simultaneously irradiating the mixture with UV for photodissociating the excited BCl/sub 3/ molecules and separating BCl/sub 3/ from the reaction products of photodissociation and from oxygen. Such method is suitable for preparing boron used in nuclear reactors.

  10. PRESENTED AT NC SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGY MEETING IN RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NC ON 2/16/2006: PERIPUBERTAL PROCHLORAZ EXPOSURE STRONGLY INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION, BUT HAS WEAK EFFECTS ON PUBERTY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits steroidogenesis and acts as an androgen receptor antagonist. We hypothesized that pubertal exposure to prochloraz would delay preputial separation and development of reproductive organs. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed wit...

  11. PERIPUBERTAL PROCHLORAZ EXPOSURE STRONGLY INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION, BUT HAS WEAK EFFECTS ON PUBERTY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits steroidogenesis and acts as an androgen receptor antagonist. We hypothesized that pubertal exposure to prochloraz would delay preputial separation and development of reproductive organs. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed wit...

  12. Separation and purification of xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlea, C.S.

    1978-01-01

    Xenon is separated from a mixture of xenon and krypton by extractive distillation using carbon tetrafluoride as the partitioning agent. Krypton is flushed out of the distillation column with CF 4 in the gaseous overhead stream while purified xenon is recovered from the liquid bottoms. The distillation is conducted at about atmospheric pressure or at subatmospheric pressure

  13. Separation technology 2005; Separasjonsteknologi 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference comprises 13 presentations on the topics of separation technology aspects with emphasis on technology assessment. Some topics of particular interest are emulsion stabilization, sand technology and handling, water handling and reservoir injection, technical equipment and compression and pressure aspects.

  14. Chiral separations in capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vespalec, Radim; Boček, Petr

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 10 (2000), s. 3715-3753 ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031703; GA ČR GA203/99/0044; GA MŠk VS96021; GA MŠk VS97014 Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 21.244, year: 1999

  15. Constitutional Issues: Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Leslie; Burroughs, Wynell

    1987-01-01

    Using a copy of a February 1937 letter from the publisher of the Gannett newspapers as a discussion springboard, this article provides historical background and teaching suggestions for addressing the issue of the separation of powers through Franklin Roosevelt's attempt to 'pack' the Supreme Court. (JDH)

  16. Gas separation membranes current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Membrane-based gas separation systems are now widely accepted and employed as unit operation in industrial gas, chemical and allied industries. Following their successful commercialization in the late Seventies to recover hydrogen from ammonia purge gas streams, membrane-based systems have gained acceptance in a wide variety of applications

  17. Development of Separator for Soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.C.P.; Rijpma, P.J.; Owaa, J.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple and effective separator for soybeans was developed for small-scale farmers in Uganda, to clean the seeds from foreign material, chaff, broken beans etc. as demanded by local and world markets. It will help to avoid losses during post-harvest time and to reduce human drudgery of cleaning the

  18. Complete family of separability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, Andrew C.; Spedalieri, Federico M.; Parrilo, Pablo A.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a family of separability criteria that are based on the existence of extensions of a bipartite quantum state ρ to a larger number of parties satisfying certain symmetry properties. It can be easily shown that all separable states have the required extensions, so the nonexistence of such an extension for a particular state implies that the state is entangled. One of the main advantages of this approach is that searching for the extension can be cast as a convex optimization problem known as a semidefinite program. Whenever an extension does not exist, the dual optimization constructs an explicit entanglement witness for the particular state. These separability tests can be ordered in a hierarchical structure whose first step corresponds to the well-known positive partial transpose (Peres-Horodecki) criterion, and each test in the hierarchy is at least as powerful as the preceding one. This hierarchy is complete, in the sense that any entangled state is guaranteed to fail a test at some finite point in the hierarchy, thus showing it is entangled. The entanglement witnesses corresponding to each step of the hierarchy have well-defined and very interesting algebraic properties that, in turn, allow for a characterization of the interior of the set of positive maps. Coupled with some recent results on the computational complexity of the separability problem, which has been shown to be NP hard, this hierarchy of tests gives a complete and also computationally and theoretically appealing characterization of mixed bipartite entangled states

  19. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  20. Method for separating krypton isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for separating krypton isotopes utilizing low temperature selective infrared excitation of 85krypton difluoride in an isotopic compound mixture. Multiphoton ir excitation and uv excitation techniques are used, as well as cryogenic matrix isolation and inert buffer gas isolation techniques

  1. Separable metrics and radiating stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the junction condition relating the pressure to heat flux at the boundary of an accelerating and expanding spherically symmetric radiating star. We transform the junction condition to an ordinary differential equation by making a separability assumption on the metric functions in the space–time variables.

  2. Extractive separation of tellurium(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawali, S.B.; Shinde, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the extraction of tellurium (4) from hydrobromic acid media using 4-methyl-2-pentanol as an extractant. The method affords the determination of tellurium after its separation from Se, Au, Cu, Pb, Fe, Os, V and Al. (author)

  3. Working inside an electrostatic separator

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This type of separators with electrodes of a length of 2 m and a field of 100 kV/cm were still in use for secondary beams in the East Hall at the PS. Michel Zahnd is on foreground, left, and Pierre Simon on background, right.

  4. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, L.M.; Wilk, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  5. Storage and separation of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biloe, S.; Cagnon, B.; Goetz, V.; Guillot, A.; Mauran, S.; Mazet, N.; Menard, D.; Py, X.

    2005-01-01

    Various processes such as gas separation, gas storage (H 2 or CH 4 ) are known to be inhibited by intrinsic antagonistic material properties (texture, thermal conductivity, permeability). In the following document are gathered the last progress in adsorbent material elaboration and process engineering. (authors)

  6. Isotope separation by ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  7. Isotope separation by magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  8. Undergraduate Separations Utilizing Flash Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G.

    2000-02-01

    This article describes the procedures used to carry out four flash chromatography experiments: the isolation of the carotenes, chlorophylls and xanthophylls from a spinach extract; the separation of ß-carotene from tetraphenyl cyclopentadienone; the isolation of (+) and (-) carvone from caraway and spearmint oil; and the purification of benzil from benzoin. Apparatus used is nonbreakable, easy to use, and inexpensive.

  9. Magnetic separation for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A.; Tolt, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO 2 , U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS

  10. Separation of lanthanides through hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia M, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    With the objective of obtaining from an independent way to each one of the lanthanides 151 Pm, 161 Tb, 166 Ho and 177 Lu free of carrier and with high specific activities starting from the indirect irradiation via, it intends in this work to determine the viability of separation of the couples Nd/Pm, Dy/Ho, Gd/Tb and Yb/Lu, by means of ion exchange column chromatography, using hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorite like absorbent material in complexing media. It is important to mention that have registered separation studies among lanthanides of the heavy group with those of the slight group, using the same mass and, in comparison with this work, quantities different from the father were used and of the son, also, that the separation studies were carried out among neighboring lanthanides. In this investigation, it was determined the effect that its have the complexing media: KSCN, sodium tartrate, sodium citrate, EDTA and aluminon, their pH and concentration, in the adsorption of the lanthanides in both minerals, in order to determine the chromatographic conditions for separation of the couples Nd/Pm, Dy/Ho, Gd/Tb and Yb/Lu. The work consists of five chapters, in the first one they are presented a theoretical introduction of the characteristics more important of the lanthanides, the hydroxyapatite and the fluorite; in the second, it is deepened in the ion exchange, as well as the two techniques (XRD and High Vacuum Electron Microscopy) to make the characterization of LnCI 3 (Ln = Nd, Gd, Dy or Yb) synthesized. The third chapter, it describes the methodology continued in our experimental work; in the room, its are presented the obtained results of the static and dynamic method to determine the viability of separation of neighboring lanthanides; and finally, the five chapter shows the conclusions. In this study, it is concludes that the separation among neighboring lanthanides cannot be carried out in the minerals and used media; because practically these lanthanides

  11. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  12. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  13. Causal and causally separable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Giarmatzi, Christina

    2016-09-01

    The idea that events are equipped with a partial causal order is central to our understanding of physics in the tested regimes: given two pointlike events A and B, either A is in the causal past of B, B is in the causal past of A, or A and B are space-like separated. Operationally, the meaning of these order relations corresponds to constraints on the possible correlations between experiments performed in the vicinities of the respective events: if A is in the causal past of B, an experimenter at A could signal to an experimenter at B but not the other way around, while if A and B are space-like separated, no signaling is possible in either direction. In the context of a concrete physical theory, the correlations compatible with a given causal configuration may obey further constraints. For instance, space-like correlations in quantum mechanics arise from local measurements on joint quantum states, while time-like correlations are established via quantum channels. Similarly to other variables, however, the causal order of a set of events could be random, and little is understood about the constraints that causality implies in this case. A main difficulty concerns the fact that the order of events can now generally depend on the operations performed at the locations of these events, since, for instance, an operation at A could influence the order in which B and C occur in A’s future. So far, no formal theory of causality compatible with such dynamical causal order has been developed. Apart from being of fundamental interest in the context of inferring causal relations, such a theory is imperative for understanding recent suggestions that the causal order of events in quantum mechanics can be indefinite. Here, we develop such a theory in the general multipartite case. Starting from a background-independent definition of causality, we derive an iteratively formulated canonical decomposition of multipartite causal correlations. For a fixed number of settings and

  14. Causal and causally separable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Giarmatzi, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The idea that events are equipped with a partial causal order is central to our understanding of physics in the tested regimes: given two pointlike events A and B , either A is in the causal past of B , B is in the causal past of A , or A and B are space-like separated. Operationally, the meaning of these order relations corresponds to constraints on the possible correlations between experiments performed in the vicinities of the respective events: if A is in the causal past of B , an experimenter at A could signal to an experimenter at B but not the other way around, while if A and B are space-like separated, no signaling is possible in either direction. In the context of a concrete physical theory, the correlations compatible with a given causal configuration may obey further constraints. For instance, space-like correlations in quantum mechanics arise from local measurements on joint quantum states, while time-like correlations are established via quantum channels. Similarly to other variables, however, the causal order of a set of events could be random, and little is understood about the constraints that causality implies in this case. A main difficulty concerns the fact that the order of events can now generally depend on the operations performed at the locations of these events, since, for instance, an operation at A could influence the order in which B and C occur in A ’s future. So far, no formal theory of causality compatible with such dynamical causal order has been developed. Apart from being of fundamental interest in the context of inferring causal relations, such a theory is imperative for understanding recent suggestions that the causal order of events in quantum mechanics can be indefinite. Here, we develop such a theory in the general multipartite case. Starting from a background-independent definition of causality, we derive an iteratively formulated canonical decomposition of multipartite causal correlations. For a fixed number of settings and

  15. Chaotic attractors with separated scrolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouallegue, Kais

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new behavior of chaotic attractors with separated scrolls while combining Julia's process with Chua's attractor and Lorenz's attractor. The main motivation of this work is the ability to generate a set of separated scrolls with different behaviors, which in turn allows us to choose one or many scrolls combined with modulation (amplitude and frequency) for secure communication or synchronization. This set seems a new class of hyperchaos because each element of this set looks like a simple chaotic attractor with one positive Lyapunov exponent, so the cardinal of this set is greater than one. This new approach could be used to generate more general higher-dimensional hyperchaotic attractor for more potential application. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results

  16. Molecular separation method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for separating a gaseous mixture of chemically identical but physically different molecules based on their polarities. The gaseous mixture of molecules is introduced in discrete quantities into the proximal end of a porous glass molecular sieve. The molecular sieve is exposed to microwaves to excite the molecules to a higher energy state from a lower energy state, those having a higher dipole moment being excited more than those with a lower energy state. The temperature of the sieve kept cold by a flow of liquid nitrogen through a cooling jacket so that the heat generated by the molecules colliding with the material is transferred away from the material. The molecules thus alternate between a higher energy state and a lower one, with the portion of molecules having the higher dipole moment favored over the others. The former portion can then be extracted separately from the distal end of the molecular sieve. 2 figs

  17. Isotope separation by standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altshuler, S.

    1984-01-01

    The separation of isotopes is accomplished by scattering a beam of particles from a standing electromagnetic wave. The particles may consist of either atoms or molecules, the beam having in either case a desired isotope and at least one other. The particle beam is directed so as to impinge on the standing electromagnetic wave, which may be a light wave. The particles, that is, the atomic or molecular quantum-mechanical waves, see basically a diffraction grating corresponding to the troughs and peaks of the electromagnetic wave. The frequency of the standing electromagnetic wave substantially corresponds to an internal energy level-transition of the desired isotope. Accordingly, the desired isotope is spatially separated by being scattered or diffracted. (author)

  18. Assessment on separate effect tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.; Kukita, Y.; Renault, C.

    1985-01-01

    In the general frame of Cathare assessment this operation is aimed to qualify the set of constitutive laws by reconstitution of experimental tests. The experimental tests are selected following 2 objectives: to be able to qualify separately (as far as possible) the constitutive laws, and, to cover the entire parameter range which is of interest for safety studies. This selection has led to a set of 135 separate effect tests taken from 15 experimental facilities and which can be arranged in 3 main categories: Adiabatic flow tests, without significant external heat exchange; non adiabatic flow tests, in which external heating or cooling is applied to the test section but not being driven by wall heat exchange; and, heat transfer tests, in which wall heat transfer plays the dominant role

  19. Separating particles from a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.M.; Watson, J.H.P.; Williams, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for separating particles suspended in a liquid from the liquid, is described, in which a flow of the liquid is passed through a filter bed of ferromagnetic bodies which acts as a coarse filter to trap the larger particles in the flow. The filter bed is arranged within a truncated core between the poles of an electromagnet. To cleanse the bed and flush out the trapped particles a wash liquid is passed through the bed and the electromagnet is energised to levitate the bed to allow the wash liquid to remove the particles. The liquid flow from the coarse filter can be passed to a high gradient magnetic separator at which remaining small particles in the flow are filtered magnetically. (U.K.)

  20. Separation of uranium by biosorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volesky, B.; Tsezos, M.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to metal ion separation processes and more particularly to processes of extraction of specific ions of or containing heavy metals from waste liquids by means of biosorption. The invention is based upon the discovery that the biomass produced as the result of the growth of a certain carefully selected microbial genus, namely species of the genus Rhizopus, such as Rhizopus arihizus, has an outstanding ability for selective adsorption of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solution or suspension

  1. Separations innovative concepts: Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. (ed.)

    1988-05-01

    This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

  2. Method to blend separator powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  3. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 (micro)C 1 tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 (micro)C 1 /L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 (micro)C 1 /L to 0.07 (micro)C 1 /L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 (micro)C 1 /L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest

  4. Anisotropic membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1987-01-01

    A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7.degree.-25.degree. C. and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10.degree.-30.degree. C.

  5. Work control in separations facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The topic addressed in this technical review is the development and implementation of a work control program in one of the chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. This program will be used as a pilot for the Nuclear Materials Processing Division at the site. The SRS Work Control Pilot program is based on the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) good practices and guidelines for the conduct of maintenance and complies with SRS quality assurance and DOE orders on maintenance management. The program follows a ten-step process for control of maintenance and maintenance-related activities in a chemical separations facility. The program took the existing maintenance planning and scheduling system and upgraded it to comply with all INPO work control and related guidelines for histories, post-maintenance testing and scheduling. The development process of adapting a nuclear-related- based plan to a batch/continuous chemical separations plant was a challenge. There were many opportunities to develop improvements in performance while being creative and realistic in applying reactor maintenance technology to chemical plant maintenance. This pilot program for work control in a nonreactor nuclear facility will provide valuable information for applying a controlled maintenance process to a multiphase chemical operating plant environment

  6. Entanglement reactivation in separable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Combining two entanglement-breaking channels into a correlated-noise environment restores the distribution of entanglement. Surprisingly, this reactivation can be induced by the injection of separable correlations from the composite environment. In any dimension (finite or infinite), we can construct classically correlated ‘twirling’ environments which are entanglement-breaking in the transmission of single systems but entanglement-preserving when two systems are transmitted. Here entanglement is simply preserved by the existence of decoherence-free subspaces. Remarkably, even when such subspaces do not exist, a fraction of the input entanglement can still be distributed. This is found in separable Gaussian environments, where distillable entanglement is able to survive the two-mode transmission, despite being broken in any single-mode transmission by the strong thermal noise. In the Gaussian setting, entanglement restoration is a threshold process, occurring only after a critical amount of correlations has been injected. Such findings suggest new perspectives for distributing entanglement in realistic environments with extreme decoherence, identifying separable correlations and classical memory effects as physical resources for ‘breaking entanglement-breaking’. (paper)

  7. Analytical Analysis of Motion Separability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hadian Jazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion segmentation is an important task in computer vision and several practical approaches have already been developed. A common approach to motion segmentation is to use the optical flow and formulate the segmentation problem using a linear approximation of the brightness constancy constraints. Although there are numerous solutions to solve this problem and their accuracies and reliabilities have been studied, the exact definition of the segmentation problem, its theoretical feasibility and the conditions for successful motion segmentation are yet to be derived. This paper presents a simplified theoretical framework for the prediction of feasibility, of segmentation of a two-dimensional linear equation system. A statistical definition of a separable motion (structure is presented and a relatively straightforward criterion for predicting the separability of two different motions in this framework is derived. The applicability of the proposed criterion for prediction of the existence of multiple motions in practice is examined using both synthetic and real image sequences. The prescribed separability criterion is useful in designing computer vision applications as it is solely based on the amount of relative motion and the scale of measurement noise.

  8. The CEBAF RF separator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Arnold, G.; Fugitt, J.; Harwood, L.; Kazimi, R.; Lahti, G.; Mammosser, J.; Nelson, R.; Piller, C.; Turlington, L.

    1996-01-01

    The 4 GeV CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is arranged in a five-pass racetrack configuration, with two superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. The 1497 MHz continuous electron beam is composed of three interlaced variable-intensity 499 MHz beams that can be independently directed from any of the five passes to any of the three experimental halls. Beam extraction is made possible by a system of nine warm sub-harmonic separator cavities capable of delivering a 100 urad kick to any pass at a maximum machine energy of 6 GeV. Each separator cavity is a half-wavelength, two cell design with a high transverse shunt impedance and a small transverse dimension. The cavities are powered by 1 kW solid state amplifiers operating at 499 MHz. Cavity phase and gradient control are provided through a modified version of the same control module used for the CEBAF SRF cavity controls. The system has recently been tested while delivering beam to Hall C. In this paper we present a description of the RF separator system and recent test results with beam. (author)

  9. Center for Advanced Separation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, Rick

    2013-09-30

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation’s GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, CAST is now a five-university consortium – Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah and Montana Tech, - that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FE0000699, Center for Advanced Separation Technology. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in two broad areas: Advanced Pre-Combustion Clean Coal Technologies and Gas-Gas Separations. Distribution of funds is handled via competitive solicitation of research proposals through Site Coordinators at the five member universities. These were reviewed and the selected proposals were forwarded these to the DOE/NETL Project Officer for final review and approval. The successful projects are listed below by category, along with abstracts from their final reports.

  10. Separation vortices and pattern formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper examples are given of the importance of flow separation for fluid patterns at moderate Reynolds numbers—both in the stationary and in the time-dependent domain. In the case of circular hydraulic jumps, it has been shown recently that it is possible to generalise the Prandtl–Kármán–P...... results for the vortex patterns behind a flapping foil in a flowing soap film, which shows the interaction and competition between the vortices shed from the round leading edge (like the von Kármán vortex street) and those created at the sharp trailing edge....

  11. Materials for carbon dioxide separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingqing

    2014-10-01

    The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at room temperature have been investigated by comparing carbon nanotubes, fullerene, graphenes, graphite and granular activated carbons. It turned out that the amount of the micropore surface area was dominating the CO{sub 2} adsorption ability. Another promising class of materials for CO{sub 2} capture and separation are CaO derived from the eggshells. Two aspects were studied in present work: a new hybrid materials synthesized by doping the CaTiO{sub 3} and the relationship between physisorption and chemisorption properties of CaO-based materials.

  12. Laser assisted aerodynamic isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. van den

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the efficiency of conventional aerodynamic isotope seperation can be improved by two orders of magnitude with the aid of a relatively weak cw infrared laser which is used to induce isotopically selective condensation. Overall isotope enrichment factors in excess of 2 are obtained as compared to about 1.02 in the conventional seperation. Sulphur isotopes in SF 6 as well as Silicon isotopes in SiF 4 and Bromine isotopes in CF 3 Br are seperated on a laboratory scale. Infrared vibrational predissociation by itself and in combination with isotopically selective condensation are also shown to be effective new ways of isotope separation. (orig.) [de

  13. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF/sub 3/ gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF/sub 3/. Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF/sub 3/ solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references.

  14. Materials for carbon dioxide separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qingqing

    2014-01-01

    The CO 2 adsorption capacities at room temperature have been investigated by comparing carbon nanotubes, fullerene, graphenes, graphite and granular activated carbons. It turned out that the amount of the micropore surface area was dominating the CO 2 adsorption ability. Another promising class of materials for CO 2 capture and separation are CaO derived from the eggshells. Two aspects were studied in present work: a new hybrid materials synthesized by doping the CaTiO 3 and the relationship between physisorption and chemisorption properties of CaO-based materials.

  15. Stable isotopes - separation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this review, methods used for the separation of stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 34 S) will be described. The synthesis of labelled compounds, techniques for detection and assay, and areas of application will also be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen; to date, sulphur isotopes have only assumed a minor role. The field of deuterium chemistry is too extensive for adequate treatment; it will therefore be essentially excluded. (author)

  16. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF 3 gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF 3 . Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF 3 solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references

  17. Status and prospects of isotope separation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safutin, V.D.; Verbin, Yu.V.; Tolstoj, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The stages of the separation industry in the USSR and Russia are demonstrated. The current status of the separation industry and state of the equipment of the isotope separation plants are noted. The developed program for the modernization of the uranium isotope separation involves the production of perspective gas centrifuges, the improvements in the works of gas centrifuge plants and construction materials [ru

  18. Relaxation phenomena in dense gas separation membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias

    1993-01-01

    Solution-diffusion membranes are widely used for the separation of gaseous and liquid mixtures. The separation of air (O2/N2), landfill gas (CH4/CO2) and purge gas streams (NH3/H2) in the ammonia synthesis are examples for state-of-the-art membrane gas separation processes. For the separation of

  19. Separations and safeguards model integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Research and development of advanced reprocessing plant designs can greatly benefit from the development of a reprocessing plant model capable of transient solvent extraction chemistry. This type of model can be used to optimize the operations of a plant as well as the designs for safeguards, security, and safety. Previous work has integrated a transient solvent extraction simulation module, based on the Solvent Extraction Process Having Interaction Solutes (SEPHIS) code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The goal of this work was to strengthen the integration by linking more variables between the two codes. The results from this integrated model show expected operational performance through plant transients. Additionally, ORIGEN source term files were integrated into the SSPM to provide concentrations, radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and thermal power data for various spent fuels. This data was used to generate measurement blocks that can determine the radioactivity, neutron emission rate, or thermal power of any stream or vessel in the plant model. This work examined how the code could be expanded to integrate other separation steps and benchmark the results to other data. Recommendations for future work will be presented.

  20. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferable substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. The laser beam comprises pi-pulses of a selected wavelength which excite unexcited molecules, or cause stimulated emission of excited molecules of one of the isotopes. Excitation caused by first direction pi-pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning pi-pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement is accomplished by a large number of pi-pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam

  1. CO{sub 2} separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakuta, Toshikatu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The climate change induced by CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases is probably the most serious environmental threat that mankind has ever experienced. Nowadays fossil fuels occupy the majority of the world commercial energy supply. Most nations will be dependent on fossil fuels even in the first half of the next century. Around 30 % of CO{sub 2} in the world is emitted from thermal power plants. Recovering CO{sub 2} from energy conversion processes and storing it outside the atmosphere is a promising option for the mitigation of global warming. CO{sub 2} fixation and storage include CO{sub 2} disposal into oceans and underground, and utilization of CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} separation process will be used in any CO{sub 2} storage system, and is estimated to consume almost half the energy of the total system. Research and development of highly efficient CO{sub 2} separation process is most important from the viewpoint of practical application of CO{sub 2} fixation system.

  2. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferably substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. Because the molecules in the beam occupy various degenerate energy levels, if the laser beam comprises chirped pulses comprising selected wavelengths, the laser beam will very efficiently excite substantially all unexcited molecules and will cause stimulated emission of substantially all excited molecules of a selected one of the isotopes in the beam which such pulses encounter. Excitation caused by first direction chirped pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning chirped pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement of essentially all the molecules containing the one isotope is accomplished by a large number of chirped pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam

  3. Separation of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-01-01

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor σ, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e 2σ , and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e σ . Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/ω pe , which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if σ becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R ⊙ =7×10 10 cm is about e 23 times larger, so when σ≳23, two lines separated by c/ω pe at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, σ, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  4. SEPARATION OF HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholser, L.B.; Barton, C.J. Sr.; Ramsey, J.W.

    1960-05-31

    The separation of hafnium impurities from zirconium can be accomplished by means of organic solvent extraction. The hafnium-containing zirconium feed material is dissolved in an aqueous chloride solution and the resulting solution is contacted with an organic hexone phase, with at least one of the phases containing thiocyanate. The hafnium is extracted into the organic phase while zirconium remains in the aqueous phase. Further recovery of zirconium is effected by stripping the onganic phase with a hydrochloric acid solution and commingling the resulting strip solution with the aqueous feed solution. Hexone is recovered and recycled by means of scrubbing the onganic phase with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the hafnium, and thiocyanate is recovered and recycled by means of neutralizing the effluent streams to obtain ammonium thiocyanate.

  5. Separated type nuclear superheating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hida, Kazuki.

    1993-01-01

    In a separated type nuclear superheating reactor, fuel assemblies used in a reactor core comprise fuel rods made of nuclear fuel materials and moderator rods made of solid moderating materials such as hydrogenated zirconium. Since the moderating rods are fixed or made detachable, high energy neutrons generated from the fuel rods are moderated by the moderating rods to promote fission reaction of the fuel rods. Saturated steams supplied from the BWR type reactor by the fission energy are converted to high temperature superheated steams while passing through a steam channel disposed between the fuel rods and the moderating rods and supplied to a turbine. Since water is not used but solid moderating materials sealed in a cladding tube are used as moderation materials, isolation between superheated steams and water as moderators is not necessary. Further, since leakage of heat is reduced to improve a heat efficiency, the structure of the reactor core is simplified and fuel exchange is facilitated. (N.H.)

  6. A Building Connecting Separated Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    Producing something for general use involves the designers' anticipation of the use of the object. Personal as well as professional experience is involved in the design anticipations of the process. Using an object means exploring it as a concrete arrangement for our everyday conduct of life....... in no systematic sequence. This, among other things, separates design and use, which is worth investigating in order to understand the problems involved in connecting the design of a house and analyzing the experience of a user. We undertook a preliminary investigation of how a dormitory for visiting students from...... with students from other dormitories, and connect with the Danes from other sections of the building isolating themselves. The janitor was surprised at the supposed function of the washing machines. Since other dormitories at the campus did not provide washing machines, the ones at the house investigated were...

  7. Waste classifying and separation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, Hiroki.

    1997-01-01

    A flexible plastic bags containing solid wastes of indefinite shape is broken and the wastes are classified. The bag cutting-portion of the device has an ultrasonic-type or a heater-type cutting means, and the cutting means moves in parallel with the transferring direction of the plastic bags. A classification portion separates and discriminates the plastic bag from the contents and conducts classification while rotating a classification table. Accordingly, the plastic bag containing solids of indefinite shape can be broken and classification can be conducted efficiently and reliably. The device of the present invention has a simple structure which requires small installation space and enables easy maintenance. (T.M.)

  8. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources from...... the recorded mixtures, or at least to segregate a particular source. Furthermore, it may be useful to identify the mixing process itself to reveal information about the physical mixing system. In some simple mixing models each recording consists of a sum of differently weighted source signals. However, in many...... real-world applications, such as in acoustics, the mixing process is more complex. In such systems, the mixtures are weighted and delayed, and each source contributes to the sum with multiple delays corresponding to the multiple paths by which an acoustic signal propagates to a microphone...

  9. Separation and retention of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    Caustic and mercuric nitrate scrubbers have been used for iodine recovery from process offgas, but they exhibit low decontamination factors for organic iodide removal and produce liquid wastes that are unsuitable for final storage. The Iodox process gives high decontamination factors for both organic iodides and elemental iodine. The liquid waste can be evaporated to a solid or concentrated and fixed in cement. Efficient separation and retention of gaseous iodine species can be obtained with silver-loaded adsorbents. The waste is a dry solid easily handled and stored. Adsorbents containing cheaper metals appear to have lower iodine-loading capacities and may be unsuitable for bulk iodine removal from process offgas because of the large amounts of solid waste that would be generated. A potential method for regenerationg and recycling silver-loaded adsorbents is being evaluated. In conjunction with the regeneration, lead-exchanged zeolite is used as a secondary adsorbent for the final fixation and storage of the iodine

  10. Electromagnetic Separator of a Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, Vladimir V.; Nezovibat'ko, Yuriy N.; Poklipach, Grigoriy S.; Shvets, Oleg M.; Taran, Valeriy S.; Tereshin, Vladimir I.

    2006-01-01

    Simple freestanding 90 deg. filter is used for obtaining the metallic vacuum coatings. As the source of metallic plasma adapted standard cathode vaporizer on the installation ''Bulat 6''. Plasma flow from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral (solenoid). The solenoid outlet from the side of cathode find under the floating potential. The second solenoid outlet was connected to the autonomous power supply. Solenoid was prepared with the wide interval of the coil winding and with the turning to 90 degrees. Therefore, drifting charged of particle can freely depart from the interior of solenoid outside. The glow of the turned flow of plasma is observed during the supplying to the cathode and the solenoid. Flow is separation from the coils and is extended along the axis of solenoid. In this case over the solenoid flow the current 20-90 A, the voltage of solenoid relative to vessel (earth) + 15 V. We assume, that this device ensures radial electric field relative to the basic nucleus of the plasma (diameter of the nucleus of plasma column it is commensurate with the diameter of cathode) and the current of solenoid creates the longitudinal magnetic field (estimated order 20 oersted). Magnetic field strength is sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it is very small for the ions and the charged microdroplets. The carried out experiments on the application of coatings on the dielectric substrate with the use of aluminum and titanium cathodes showed the effectiveness of the work of this separator. Coatings without the drops are obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement. The reflective properties of the metallic films (Ti,Al) on the glass samples were measured

  11. Some thoughts on separation control strategies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flow separation generally leads to increased energy losses, instability and so ... Separation control strategy often refers to a clever (or intelligent) fluid ... bubble will have a certain influence, directly or indirectly, on the development of the shear.

  12. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R.

    1996-01-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects

  13. Isotope separation by rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoli, C.

    1982-02-01

    A steady-state model of a fully ionized plasma column in a concentric cylindrical electrodes structures is proposed to study the plasma separation properties of its singly ionized ionic species, composed of two isotopes of the element. In this model (a one-fluid model) rotation is imparted to the plasma column through the J (vector) x B (vector) interaction. Radial pressure balance is mainly between the radial component of the J (vector) x B (vector) force and the pressure gradient plus centrifugal force and the azimutal component of the J (vector) x B (vector) force is balanced purely by viscous force. A pressure tensor 31 describes the viscoys effect and the heat balance provides an equation for temperature. A uranium gas with is two main isotopes (U 235 and U 238 ) was used for the ionic component of the plasma. The computing code to solve the resulting, system of equations in tems of density, temperature, and velocity as functions of the radial independent variable was set up to yield solutions satisfying null velocity conditions on both boundaries (inner and outer electrodes). (M.A.F.) [pt

  14. Centrifugal separator cascade connected in zigzag manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Tsunetoshi; Inoue, Yoshiya; Oya, Akio; Nagakura, Masaaki.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To effectively accommodate centrifugal separators of the entire cascade within the available space in a plant by freely selecting perpendicular direction of connection of the centrifugal separator. Structure: Centrifugal separators are connected in zigzag fashion by using a single header for each stage so that in a rectangular shape the entire cascade is arranged. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Separation unit for uranium isotopes etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The task of the invention - improving the efficiency of a uranium isotope separation unit with a rotor as separation chamber by improving its flow characteristics - is solved by a central-axial gas conduction system with radial branches which leads the media into the separation chambers or out of these. (UWI) [de

  16. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  17. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  18. Laterally and longitudinally dispersive recoil mass separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Principles of laterally dispersive and time-of-flight mass separators are outlined. Special emphasis is given to separators for very energetic recoils for which electrostatic fields would be technologically impossible. The principle of energy isochronous time-of-flight mass separators is shown to be applicable to storage rings. (orig.)

  19. RESTRUCTURING INDONESIAN RAILWAY – INTEGRATION OR SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utut Widyanto

    2013-05-01

    The study found that the separation model is still the best approach for restructuring Indonesian railway but if looking at the Indonesian railway current condition with its problem of backlog assets it would be better that the separation approach is used in the development of railway in other islands. Keywords: Restructuration, separation, funds, operator.

  20. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  1. FCC riser quick separation system: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The riser reactor is the key unit in the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC process. As the FCC feedstocks become heavier, the product mixture of oil, gas and catalysts must be separated immediately at the outlet of the riser to avoid excessive coking. The quick separation system is the core equipment in the FCC unit. China University of Petroleum (Beijing has developed many kinds of separation system including the fender-stripping cyclone and circulating-stripping cyclone systems, which can increase the separation efficiency and reduce the pressure drop remarkably. For the inner riser system, a vortex quick separation system has been developed. It contains a vortex quick separator and an isolated shell. In order to reduce the separation time, a new type of separator called the short residence time separator system was developed. It can further reduce the separation time to less than 1 s. In this paper, the corresponding design principles, structure and industrial application of these different kinds of separation systems are reviewed. A system that can simultaneously realize quick oil gas separation, quick oil gas extraction and quick pre-stripping of catalysts at the end of the riser is the trend in the future.

  2. Gas isotope separation method using plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, K.; Takagi, K.; Fukvi, R.

    1988-03-01

    A high frequency electric field is applied to a plasma sheet with a frequency equal to the cyclotronic frequency of the ions to be separated. Because of resonance the cyclotronic radius of the isotope has increased and the electric charge is eliminated by collision with a separator and the isotope is separated in neutral particles [fr

  3. Prediction of hospital failure: a post-PPS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, L R; Oswald, S L; Jahera, J S

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of discriminant analysis to provide accurate predictions of hospital failure. Using data from the period following the introduction of the Prospective Payment System, we developed discriminant functions for each of two hospital ownership categories: not-for-profit and proprietary. The resulting discriminant models contain six and seven variables, respectively. For each ownership category, the variables represent four major aspects of financial health (liquidity, leverage, profitability, and efficiency) plus county marketshare and length of stay. The proportion of closed hospitals misclassified as open one year before closure does not exceed 0.05 for either ownership type. Our results show that discriminant functions based on a small set of financial and nonfinancial variables provide the capability to predict hospital failure reliably for both not-for-profit and proprietary hospitals.

  4. Patient Survey (PCH - HCAHPS) PPS-exempt Cancer Hospital - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...

  5. The CT-PPS project detector hardware and operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Ravera, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer allows extending the LHC physics program by measuring protons in the very forward regions of CMS. Tracking and timing detectors have been installed along the beam pipe at $\\sim 210$~m from the CMS interaction point on both sides of the LHC tunnel. The tracking system consists of a station of silicon strip detectors and one of silicon pixel detectors on each side. The latter is composed of six planes of 3D silicon pixel sensors bump-bonded to the PSI46dig ROC developed for the CMS Phase I Pixel Tracker upgrade. A track resolution of $\\sim 10$~$\\mu$m is obtained. The future goal is to replace the present strip stations with pixel ones in order to ensure better multi-track reconstruction. Each timing station is made of three planes of diamond detectors and one plane equipped with an Ultra-Fast Silicon Detector (UFSD). A timing resolution of a few tens of picoseconds can be achieved with the present detector; a large R\\&D effort is ongoing to reach the $10$~ps targ...

  6. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  7. Radiochemical separation of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Mukhtarov, A.; Nurbaeva, D.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Cadmium-109 has a half-life of 461.9 days and decays by electron capture to 109 Ag with the emission of 88 keV γ-ray (3.79%) along with the characteristic X-ray from the K level of Ag, with energy of 22.5 keV. This radionuclide has found widespread use as a photon source in x-ray fluorescence analysis devices employed in industry for numerous applications such as the direct determination of gold in ores, the analysis of metals and identification of steels. Other applications range from its use as an electron source for measurement of densities of air-pollution samples, to tracer studies in mushrooms and mice and rats. In the nuclear medicine field there is growing interest in employing 109 Cd in a 109 Cd/ 109mA g generator, as an alternative to other biomedical generators of ultra short-lived gamma emitters. There are several methods for the production of 109 Cd in literature: 1. Bombardment of silver cyclotron target via 109 Ag(d,2n) 109 Cd reaction with 16 MeV deuterons. 2. Bombardment of natural silver target via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction with 14 MeV protons. 3. Proton bombardment of natural indium target with 96 MeV protons. 4. Irradiation of enriched 107 Ag target in high-flux nuclear reactor at neutron flux 2x10 15 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 107 Ag(n,γ) 108 Ag → 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. 5. Irradiation of enriched 108 Cd target in nuclear reactor at neutron flux 1x10 14 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. The production of 109 Cd with proton beam via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction is ideal for the cyclotron U-150, since it is not required the change of the regime for the machine functioning. Because of its relatively long half-life the time required for separation is also not an important factor, but its use as an X-ray source requires a very high radiochemical purity. In the present work we studied two methods for separation of 109 Cd from model solution of silver targets. First method is based on precipitation of silver as

  8. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS: psychometric properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Méndez

    Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  9. Basic separative power of multi-component isotopes separation in a gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hongmin; Lei, Zengguang; Zhuge, Fu

    2008-01-01

    On condition that the overall separation factor per unit exists in centrifuge for multi-component isotopes separation, the relations between separative power of each component and molecular weight have been investigated in the paper while the value function and the separative power of binary-component separation are adopted. The separative power of each component is proportional to the square of the molecular weight difference between its molecular weight and the average molecular weight of other remnant components. In addition, these relations are independent on the number of the components and feed concentrations. The basic separative power and related expressions, suggested in the paper, can be used for estimating the separative power of each component and analyzing the separation characteristics. The most valuable application of the basic separative power is to evaluate the separative capacity of centrifuge for multi-component isotopes. (author)

  10. Effect of geometric parameters of liquid-gas separator units on phase separation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Songping; Chen, Xueqing; Chen, Ying [Guangdong University of Technology, Seoul (China); Yang, Zhen [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-07-15

    Five liquid-gas separator units were designed and constructed based on a new concept of a validated high-performance condenser. Each separator unit consists of two united T-junctions and an apertured baffle. The separator units have different header diameters or different baffles with different diameters of the liquid-gas separation hole. The phase separation characteristics of the units were investigated at inlet air superficial velocities from 1.0m/s to 33.0m/s and water superficial velocities from 0.0015 m/s to 0..50 m/s. The experimental results showed that the liquid height, liquid flow rate through the separation hole, and liquid separation efficiency increased with increased header diameter and decreased diameter of the separation hole. The geometric structures of the separator units affected the phase separation characteristics by influencing the liquid height in the header and the liquid flow rate through the separation hole.

  11. Requirements for PPS due to the energy turn; Neue Anforderungen an die PPS in Folge der Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kals, Johannes [Hochschule Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The transition to renewable energies leads to volatile energy prices for electricity. Production management, procurement and disposition have to review and develop their toolbox to practice a demand side management. Business intelligence can play a key role to process the data stream coming in from smart meters in order to support the new methods.

  12. Genetic algorithm based separation cascade optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendra, A.K.; Sanyal, A.; Gouthaman, G.; Bera, T.K.

    2008-01-01

    The conventional separation cascade design procedure does not give an optimum design because of squaring-off, variation of flow rates and separation factor of the element with respect to stage location. Multi-component isotope separation further complicates the design procedure. Cascade design can be stated as a constrained multi-objective optimization. Cascade's expectation from the separating element is multi-objective i.e. overall separation factor, cut, optimum feed and separative power. Decision maker may aspire for more comprehensive multi-objective goals where optimization of cascade is coupled with the exploration of separating element optimization vector space. In real life there are many issues which make it important to understand the decision maker's perception of cost-quality-speed trade-off and consistency of preferences. Genetic algorithm (GA) is one such evolutionary technique that can be used for cascade design optimization. This paper addresses various issues involved in the GA based multi-objective optimization of the separation cascade. Reference point based optimization methodology with GA based Pareto optimality concept for separation cascade was found pragmatic and promising. This method should be explored, tested, examined and further developed for binary as well as multi-component separations. (author)

  13. Enhanced separation of rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herbst, R. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Soderstrom, M. D. [Cytec Solvay Group, Tempe, AZ (United States); Jakovljevic, B. [Cytec Solvay Group, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Industrial rare earth separation processes utilize PC88A, a phosphonic acid ligand, for solvent extraction separations. The separation factors of the individual rare earths, the equipment requirements, and chemical usage for these flowsheets are well characterized. Alternative ligands such as Cyanex® 572 and the associated flowsheets are being investigated at the pilot scale level to determine if significant improvements to the current separation processes can be realized. These improvements are identified as higher separation factors, reduced stage requirements, or reduced chemical consumption. Any of these improvements can significantly affect the costs associated with these challenging separation proccesses. A mid/heavy rare earth element (REE) separations flowsheet was developed and tested for each ligand in a 30 stage mixer-settler circuit to compare the separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572. The ligand-metal complex strength of Cyanex® 572 provides efficient extraction of REE while significantly reducing the strip acid requirements. Reductions in chemical consumption have a significant impact on process economics for REE separations. Partitioning results summarized Table 1 indicate that Cyanex® 572 offers the same separation performance as PC88A while reducing acid consumption by 30% in the strip section for the mid/heavy REE separation. Flowsheet Effluent Compositions PC88A Cyanex® 572 Raffinate Mid REE Heavy REE 99.40% 0.60% 99.40% 0.60% Rich Mid REE Heavy REE 2.20% 97.80% 0.80% 99.20% Liquor Strip Acid Required 3.4 M 2.3 M Table 1 – Flowsheet results comparing separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572 for a mid/heavy REE separation.

  14. On the problems of separation work unit for the laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijun

    2008-01-01

    The concept of separation power or separation work, which is widely used in Uranium isotope separation industry is introduced historically for the weak separating machine and so-called 'ideal cascade'. Therefore, when this concept is applied to a laser isotope separation facility, which is deeply different from a cascade in structure and in mechanism of separation, some confusions may occur. By comparison the costs of SWU of laser isotope separation facility and an ideal cascade we come to a conclusion: the concept of separation work is not applicable for laser isotope separation. In order to compare the economics of laser isotope separation technique with diffusion or centrifugation techniques an equivalent cost of SWU is suggested in this paper. (author)

  15. Separation of short-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Tadaharu; Ohyoshi, Emiko; Ohyoshi, Akira; Kiso, Yoshiyuki; Shinagawa, Mutsuaki.

    1976-01-01

    A rbief review is presented on the various methods of separation available for both gaseous and liquid states, for the separation of short-lived fission products formed by binary fission of neutron irradiated uranium. The means available for gaseous state are the hot atom reaction, the hydride method and on-line mass separation. For liquid state, use can be made of precipitation, ionic or atomic exchange, solvent extraction and paper electrophoresis. Particular reference is made to electrophoretic separation of ions produced by fission in aqueous solution of uranium. The principle of electrophoretic separation and the procedures for separating the element of interest from the other fission products are outlined, with reference made to the results obtained with the method by the present authors. The elements in question are alkalines, alkaline earths, rare earths, halogens, selenium and

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Nonstationary Separation Processes in Gas Centrifuge Cascade for Separation of Multicomponent Isotope Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of development of the mathematical model of nonstationary separation processes occurring in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. This model was used for the calculation parameters of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of germanium isotopes. Comparison of obtained values with results of other authors revealed that developed mathematical model is adequate to describe nonstationary separation processes in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures.

  17. ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING METAL CATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khym, J.X.

    1959-03-10

    The chromatographic separation of fission product cations is discussed. By use of this method a mixture of metal cations containing Zr, Cb, Ce, Y, Ba, and Sr may be separated from one another. Mentioned as preferred exchange adsorbents are resins containing free sulfonic acid groups. Various eluants, such as tartaric acid, HCl, and citric acid, used at various acidities, are employed to effect the selective elution and separation of the various fission product cations.

  18. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  19. Simultaneous Multiple-Location Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, David (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of controlling a shear layer for a fluid dynamic body introduces first periodic disturbances into the fluid medium at a first flow separation location. Simultaneously, second periodic disturbances are introduced into the fluid medium at a second flow separation location. A phase difference between the first and second periodic disturbances is adjusted to control flow separation of the shear layer as the fluid medium moves over the fluid dynamic body.

  20. Amalgam-chromatographic separation of magnesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinskij, G.D.; Levkin, A.V.; Ivanov, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Separation of magnesium isotopes within Mg(Hg)-MgI 2 system (in dimethylformamide) is conducted under amalgam-chromatographic conditions. Separation maximal degree, that is (1.09), for 24 Mg and 26 Mg and separation coefficient (α = 1.0089±0.006) are determined. Light isotopes are found to concentrate in the amalgam. Technique of thermal conversion of flows within amalgam-dimethylformamide system is suggested on the basis of reversible reaction of Ca-Mg element exchange

  1. Separation of the constituents of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betrand, M F

    1938-12-06

    A process is disclosed of separating, by means of dense aqueous solutions, the constituents of coal, isolated by preliminary crushing from each other and/or from barren and carbonaceous shales, comprising the addition to the washing water before treatment or during any stage of the preparation of the coal before separation, or to the dense separating solution of agents improving the wetting of the coal by water.

  2. Method and apparatus for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope separation is achieved between species A and B having an absorption resonance separated by an isotopic shift by selectively exciting a portion of species A using a tunable photon source of narrow emission line with and subsequently causing collisions with an optically excited third species to selectively ionize the excited portion of species A. When ionized, species A is easily separated by any technique, using its ionized condition to distinguish it from species B. 18 claims, 3 drawing figures

  3. Method for separating gaseous mixtures of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neimann, H.J.; Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.

    1976-01-01

    A gaseous mixture of isotopes is separated by laser excitation of the isotope mixture with a narrow band of wavelengths, molecularly exciting mainly the isotope to be separated and thereby promoting its reaction with its chemical partner which is excited in a separate chamber. The excited isotopes and the chemical partner are mixed, perhaps in a reaction chamber to which the two excited components are conducted by very short conduits. The improvement of this method is the physical separation of the isotope mixture and its partner during excitation. The reaction between HCl and the mixture of 238 UF 6 and 235 UF 6 is discussed

  4. Separation science and technology: an ORNL perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruett, D.J.

    1986-05-01

    This report was prepared as a summary of a fourfold effort: (1) to examine schemes for defining and categorizing the field of separation science and technology; (2) to review several of the major categories of separation techniques in order to determine the most recent developments and future research needs; (3) to consider selected problems and programs that require advances in separation science and technology as a part of their solution; and (4) to propose suggestions for new directions in separation research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

  5. Experimental study of stable isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingsheng Zhou; Chuntong Ying; Yuguang Nie

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some results of investigation into a gas centrifuge and gas centrifuge cascade. The chemical compounds of osmium - OsO 4 , tungsten - WF 6 and xenon were chosen for centrifugal separation, and the centrifugal technology for the separation of osmium, tungsten and xenon were developed. The separation factors for molar mass differences, γ 0 , were obtained for OsO 4 , Xe, WF 6 in a single gas centrifuge. The separation by gas centrifuge cascade has been done and some results of the investigation are shown. High abundance of 186 W (>90 %), 129 Xe (>65 %) and 192 Os (>99 %) was produced using the short cascade [ru

  6. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  7. Summary of the separations breakout group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Separations Breakout Group reviewed the wide spectrum of separations technologies available for application to ADTT systems. Separations processes play a key role in areas associated with preparation of feed materials for introduction into ADTT, removal of fission products and other transmutation byproducts that build into the fuel during operation, and in the preparation of wastes ({open_quotes}polishing{close_quotes}) for discharge from ADTT systems so as to meet appropriate waste disposal criteria. General separations technologies addressed by the group included aqueous, fluoride salt, and chloride salt approaches.

  8. Flow-induced separation in wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc; Srinivasan, Chiranth; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V

    2015-03-01

    One of the defining characteristics of turbulence is its ability to promote mixing. We present here a case where the opposite happens-simulation results indicate that particles can separate near the wall of a turbulent channel flow, when they have sufficiently different Schmidt numbers without use of any other means. The physical mechanism of the separation is understood when the interplay between convection and diffusion, as expressed by their characteristic time scales, is considered, leading to the determination of the necessary conditions for a successful separation between particles. Practical applications of these results can be found when very small particles need to be separated or removed from a fluid.

  9. Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    .... The committee examines the currently used "once-through" fuel cycle versus different alternatives of separations and transmutation technology systems, by which hazardous radionuclides are converted...

  10. Separation of nitrogen isotopes by laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, Y; Noguchi, Y; Yamanaka, C [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1976-06-01

    The separation experiment on nitrogen isotopes by laser light was made. First, the nitrogen isotopes of /sup 14/N and /sup 15/N in NH/sub 3/ molecules were separated by CO/sub 2/ laser and UV light. The separation factor and the enrichment factor were calculated. It was shown that their pressure dependence was in good agreement with the measured values. The separation factor of about 2% was obtained with UV light of 10/sup 6/W/cm/sup 2/.

  11. The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.L.; Gephart, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESPIP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The ESPIP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESPIP supports applied R ampersand D leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Examples of current ESPIP-funded separations technologies are described here

  12. Cyclical subnormal separation in A-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarfi, M.U.

    1995-12-01

    Three main results, concerning A-groups in respect of cyclical subnormal separation as defined in, are presented. It is shown in theorem A that any A-group that is generated by elements of prime order and satisfying the cyclical subnormal separation conditions is metabelian. The two other main results give necessary and sufficient conditions for A-groups, that are split extensions of certain abelian p-groups by a metabelian p'-group, to satisfy the cyclical subnormal separation condition. There is also a result which shows that A-groups with elementary abelian Sylow subgroups are cyclically separated as defined. (author). 7 refs

  13. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ceramic gas separation membranes can provide very high separation factors if the pore size is sufficiently small to separate gas molecules by molecular sieving and if oversized pores are adequately limited. Ceramic membranes typically have some pores that are substantially larger than the mean pore size and that should be regarded as defects. To assess the effects of such defects on the performance of ceramic membranes, a simple mathematical model has been developed to describe flow through a gas separation membrane that has a primary mode of flow through very small pores but that has a secondary mode of flow through undesirably large pores. This model permits separation factors to be calculated for a specified gas pair as a function of the molecular weights and molecular diameters of the gases, the membrane pore diameter, and the diameter and number of defects. This model will be described, and key results from the model will be presented. The separation factors of the authors membranes continue to be determined using a permeance test system that measures flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275{degrees}C. A primary goal of this project for FY 1996 is to develop a mixed gas separation system for measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at higher temperatures. Performance criteria have been established for the planned mixed gas separation system and design of the system has been completed. The test system is designed to measure the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600{degrees}C and pressures up to 100 psi by separating the constituents of a gas mixture containing hydrogen. The system will accommodate the authors typical experimental membrane that is tubular and has a diameter of about 9 mm and a length of about 23 cm. The design of the new test system and its expected performance will be discussed.

  14. Mars Atmospheric Capture and Gas Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Gibson, Tracy; Devor, Robert; Captain, James

    2011-01-01

    The Mars atmospheric capture and gas separation project is selecting, developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Trace gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure C02 to processing elements. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and should be captured as welL To achieve these goals, highly efficient gas separation processes will be required. These gas separation techniques are also required across various areas within the ISRU project to support various consumable production processes. The development of innovative gas separation techniques will evaluate the current state-of-the-art for the gas separation required, with the objective to demonstrate and develop light-weight, low-power methods for gas separation. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from un-reacted carbon oxides (C02- CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, (3) carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction, and (4) helium from hydrogen or oxygen from a propellant scavenging process. Potential technologies for the separations include freezers, selective membranes, selective solvents, polymeric sorbents, zeolites, and new technologies. This paper and presentation will summarize the results of an extensive literature review and laboratory evaluations of candidate technologies for the capture and separation of C02 and other relevant gases.

  15. Method and equipment of separation of gaseous and vaporous materials, particularly isotopes, with separation nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.W.; Eisenbeiss, G.; Ehrfeld, W.

    1975-01-01

    The invention improves on the already known separation nozzle method by the two following steps: 1) The partial flows produced within the cascade with various shares of additional gas are introduced into the separating nozzle systems in such a manner that with regard to the additional gas, a molar fraction gradient is created which is in the opposite direction to the gradient created by the separation process. 2) The partial flows produced within the cascade with various compositions of the mixture of substances to be separated are introduced into the separating nozzle systems in such a manner that regarding the substances to be separated, a molar fraction gradient is created which is in the same direction as the molar fraction gradient formed by the separation process. Both measures can be separately applied or in combination with one another; flowsheets of the invented cascade circuits and separating nozzle systems are given. (GG/LH) [de

  16. Mothers' Mobility after Separation : Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Marjolijn; de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  17. Evaluation of blind signal separation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schobben, D.W.E.; Torkkola, K.; Smaragdis, P.

    1999-01-01

    Recently many new Blind Signal Separation BSS algorithms have been introduced Authors evaluate the performance of their algorithms in various ways Among these are speech recognition rates plots of separated signals plots of cascaded mixingunmixing impulse responses and signal to noise ratios Clearly

  18. 9 CFR 3.109 - Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.109 Separation. Marine mammals, whenever known to be... in the same enclosure. Marine mammals must not be housed near other animals that cause them... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation. 3.109 Section 3.109...

  19. Separations Science Data Base: an abstractor's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Michelson, D.C.

    1981-07-01

    The Separations Science Data Base, designed specifically for the retrieval of information needed in chemical separations problems (i.e., how to perform a given separation under given conditions), is described. The procedure for entering records into the data base is given. The initial entries are concerned primarily with liquid-liquid extraction and liquid-solid ion exchange methods for metal ions and salts; however, the data base is constructed so that almost any separations process can be accommodated. Each record is indexed with information provided under the following fields: author; title; publication source; date of publication; organization performing and/or sponsoring the work; brief abstract of the work; abstract number if the work has been so referenced, and/or abstractor's initials; type of separation system used (e.g., flotation); specific or generic name of the separation agent used (e.g., acetylacetone); list of substances separated (e.g., gold, copper); qualitative description of the supporting medium or matrix containing the substances before separation (e.g., nitrate); type of literature where the article was printed (e.g., book); and type of information that the article contains. Each of these fields may be searched independently of the others (or in combination), and the last six fields contain specific key words that are listed on the input form. Definitions are provided for the 39 information terms

  20. Laser isotope separation studies in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Takashi; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1986-01-01

    For uranium enrichment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been studying atomic vapor laser isotope separation since 1976, in addition to such separation methods as gas diffusion, chemical exchange and gas-dynamic techniques. Studies carried out to date in JAERI is briefly summarized in the first part of the report. Then, some major separation techniques which have been studied in JAERI are outlined, and typical results obtained are presented. A large part is devoted to the multiple-photon photoionization technique, which is commonly known as the atomic laser isotope separation method for uranium enrichment. It has such advantages as 1) very high spectral selectivity for the relevant isotope and 2) highly improved photoionizing effect by means of two- and three-step resonance photoionization processes. Here, the atomic laser isotope separation method is discussed in detail with respect to the evaporation process, energy levels, photoionization, selectivity, photoionization schemes, ion recovery, separation in macroscopic amounts, and separation of trace amounts of isotopes. Typical observed and claculated results related to these subjects are shown. In addition, the report briefly describes some other separation processes including laser induced chemical reaction, multiple photo-dissociation, multiple-photo excitation and UV dissociation, laser induced thermal diffusion, and laser centrifugation. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Apparatus for separating solids from a liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus and a method for separating a material stream consisting of several materials. The materials to be separated have different densities or density ranges, so that the material of the highest density can be discharged through a screen of the apparatus, while the

  2. Mothers' Mobility after Separation: Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Merz, E.-M.

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  3. Hydrodynamic blood plasma separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The separation of red blood cells from plasma flowing in microchannels is possible by biophysical effects such as the Zweifach–Fung bifurcation law. In the present study, daughter channels are placed alongside a main channel such that cells and plasma are collected separately. The device is aimed...

  4. Fabrication of Separator Demonstration Facility process vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberst, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The process vessel system is the central element in the Separator Development Facility (SDF). It houses the two major process components, i.e., the laser-beam folding optics and the separators pods. This major subsystem is the critical-path procurement for the SDF project. Details of the vaious parts of the process vessel are given

  5. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  6. New aspects of uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.; Mueller, G.

    1979-01-01

    The need of 235 U enrichment capacity is discussed on the basis of the requirements for nuclear power in the next 10 ... 20 years. In this connection, the performance of gas diffusion, of the gas centrifuge and of the separation nozzle method are compared with each other, and an evaluation of the optical methods of isotope separation is given. (author)

  7. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical

  8. CO2 capture by Condensed Rotational Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthum, van R.J.; Kemenade, van H.P.; Brouwers, J.J.H.; Golombok, M.

    2010-01-01

    Condensed Rotational Separation (CRS) technology is a patented method to upgrade gas mixtures. A novel application is thecapture of CO2 from coal-combustion fired power stations: Condensed Contaminant Centrifugal Separation in Coal Combustion(C5sep). CRS involves partial condensation of a gas

  9. Collection shield for ion separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, K.L.; Pugh, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The ion separation electrodes in isotope separation apparatus are provided with removable collection shields to collect neutral particles which would normally pass through the ionization region. A preferred collection shield comprises a u-shaped section for clipping onto the leading edge of an electrode and a pair of flanges projecting substantially perpendicular to the clipping section for collecting neutral particles

  10. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and

  11. Safeguards implications of laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, T.F.; Taylor, K.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and emphasise the safeguards and relevant features of atomic vapour laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS), and to consider the issues that must be addressed before a safeguards approach at a commercial AVLIS or MLIS facility can be implemented. (Author)

  12. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When a new store is integrated with an aircraft, it is necessary to verify that it separates safely for all possible release and emergency jettison scenarios. A large number of store separation analyses are required to comply with this requirement...

  13. Magnetic separations: From steel plants to biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafer T. Yavuz; Arjun Prakash; J.T. Mayo; Vicki L. Colvin [Rice University, Houston, TX (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2009-05-15

    Magnetic separations have for decades been essential processes in diverse industries ranging from steel production to coal desulfurization. In such settings magnetic fields are used in continuous flow processes as filters to remove magnetic impurities. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) has found even broader use in wastewater treatment and food processing. Batch scale magnetic separations are also relevant in industry, particularly biotechnology where fixed magnetic separators are used to purify complex mixtures for protein isolation, cell separation, drug delivery, and biocatalysis. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts behind magnetic separations and summarize a few examples of its large scale application. HGMS systems and batch systems for magnetic separations have been developed largely in parallel by different communities. However, in this work we compare and contrast each approach so that investigators can approach both key areas. Finally, we discuss how new advances in magnetic materials, particularly on the nanoscale, as well as magnetic filter design offer new opportunities for industries that have challenging separation problems.

  14. Rapid ion-exchange separations of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of studying short-lived actinide nuclides, three methods for rapid ion exchange separation of actinide elements with mineral acid-alcohol mixed media were developed: anion exchange with nitric acid-methyl alcohol mixed media to separate the transplutonium and rare earth elements from target material, U or Pu and Al catcher foils; anion exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media to separate Am+Cm, Bk and Cf+Fm from the target, catcher foils and major fission products; and cation exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media and with concentrated hydrochloric acid to separate the transplutonium elements as a group from the rare earths after eliminating the large amounts of U, Al, Cu, Fe etc. The methods enable one to perform rapid and effective separation at elevated temperature (90 deg C) and immediate source preparation for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author) 47 refs.; 10 figs

  15. Dry separation technology of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tadashi

    1999-01-01

    The separation principle of transuranic elements (TRU) by a dry method, the separation technique of TRU from a high level waste solution and a dry recycle technology of LWR and FBR fuel cycle are explained. The dry method used molten salt and liquid metal. TRU and the rare earth elements in the molten salt (LiCl-KCl, LiCl-KCl/Cd and LiCl-KCl/Bi system) were separated by two methods such as the electrolytic refining and the reduction-extraction method. The former method separated 98% U, Np and Pu, but low Am. The latter method was able to separate more than 99.9% Np and Pu and 99.7% Am. (S.Y.)

  16. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  17. Polymer membranes as separators for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubzda, Bronisław; Szmaja, Aleksandra; Ozimek, Mariusz; Mazurkiewicz, Sławomir

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the studies described was to examine the influence of low-energy plasma modification of polyamide and polypropylene polymer nonwoven fabrics on the usable properties of supercapacitors when using these fabrics as the separator material. To achieve this goal the following investigations were carried out: testing the time required for electrolyte saturation of separators and the conductivity of the electrolyte contained in the separator, as well as electrochemical examinations of supercapacitor models in which the modified fabric separators were used. The tests conducted fully confirm the usability of this modification for cleaning the surface and improving the wettability of separators by the electrolyte, which in turn results in a significant decrease of the internal resistance of the supercapacitor, thus increasing the usable power of the device.

  18. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christoph J.; Geiger, Sigrid; Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m2 mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  19. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christoph J., E-mail: Christoph.Weber@freudenberg-nw.com; Geiger, Sigrid, E-mail: Christoph.Weber@freudenberg-nw.com [Freudenberg Vliesstoffe SE and Co KG, 69465 Weinheim (Germany); Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael [Freudenberg Forschungsdienste SE and Co KG, 69465 Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m{sup 2} mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  20. Computational simulation of the blood separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gruttola, Sandro; Boomsma, Kevin; Poulikakos, Dimos; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a computational fluid dynamics model capable of simulating the quasitransient process of apheresis. To this end a Lagrangian-Eulerian model has been developed which tracks the blood particles within a delineated two-dimensional flow domain. Within the Eulerian method, the fluid flow conservation equations within the separator are solved. Taking the calculated values of the flow field and using a Lagrangian method, the displacement of the blood particles is calculated. Thus, the local blood density within the separator at a given time step is known. Subsequently, the flow field in the separator is recalculated. This process continues until a quasisteady behavior is reached. The simulations show good agreement with experimental results. They shows a complete separation of plasma and red blood cells, as well as nearly complete separation of red blood cells and platelets. The white blood cells build clusters in the low concentrate cell bed.

  1. Hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Nobuo; Mitsui, Jin

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope separation in fusion fuel cycle and tritium recovery from heavy water reactor are very important, and therefore the early establishment of these separation techniques are desired. The cryogenic distillation method in particular is promising for the separation of hydrogen isotope and the recovery of high concentrated tritium. The studies of hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation method have been carried out by using the experimental apparatus made for the first time in Japan. The separation of three components (H 2 -HD-D 2 ) under total reflux conditions was got by using the packing tower of 500 mm height. It was confirmed that the Height Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) was 20 - 30 mm for the vapor's line velocity of 20 - 80 mm/s. (author)

  2. Dual magnetic separator for TRIμP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, G.P.A.; Dermois, O.C.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Harakeh, M.N.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Sohani, M.; Traykov, E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The TRIμP facility, under construction at KVI, requires the production and separation of short-lived and rare isotopes. Direct reactions, fragmentation and fusion-evaporation reactions in normal and inverse kinematics are foreseen to produce nuclides of interest with a variety of heavy-ion beams from the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. For this purpose, we have designed, constructed and commissioned a versatile magnetic separator that allows efficient injection into an ion catcher, i.e., gas-filled stopper/cooler or thermal ionizer, from which a low energy radioactive beam will be extracted. The separator performance was tested with the production and clean separation of 21 Na ions, where a beam purity of 99.5% could be achieved. For fusion-evaporation products, some of the features of its operation as a gas-filled recoil separator were tested

  3. High mass isotope separation process and arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules by either photon-induced pure rovibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope

  4. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, K.D.; Fain, D.E.; James, D.L.; Powell, L.E.; Raj, T.; Roettger, G.E.; Sutton, T.G. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The separative performance of the authors` ceramic membranes has been determined in the past using a permeance test system that measured flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275 C. From these data, the separation factor was determined for a particular gas pair from the ratio of the pure gas specific flows. An important project goal this year has been to build a Mixed Gas Separation System (MGSS) for measuring the separation efficiencies of membranes at higher temperatures and using mixed gases. The MGSS test system has been built, and initial operation has been achieved. The MGSS is capable of measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600 C and pressures up to 100 psi using a binary gas mixture such as hydrogen/methane. The mixed gas is fed into a tubular membrane at pressures up to 100 psi, and the membrane separates the feed gas mixture into a permeate stream and a raffinate stream. The test membrane is sealed in a stainless steel holder that is mounted in a split tube furnace to permit membrane separations to be evaluated at temperatures up to 600 C. The compositions of the three gas streams are measured by a gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors. The test system also measures the temperatures and pressures of all three gas streams as well as the flow rate of the feed stream. These data taken over a range of flows and pressures permit the separation efficiency to be determined as a function of the operating conditions. A mathematical model of the separation has been developed that permits the data to be reduced and the separation factor for the membrane to be determined.

  5. Centrifugal separator. [for production of enriched U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, J; Fujita, S I

    1970-02-25

    In a centrifugal separator of the concurrent flow through type, a rotating member having an inner and outer cylinder with an air gap therebetween is supported within a frame. A mixture to be separated is supplied to the interior of the inner cylinder through a hollow shaft inserted coaxially within the rotatable portion of a driving apparatus, with one end of the rotatable portion attached to the common inlet end cap of the cylinders which are thereby rotated. There are provided holes at the upper end of the inner cylinder through which the mixture enters the air gap to undergo separation, with the thus separated lighter component entering a separate chamber at the lower end of the inner cylinder through holes provided therein to thereafter be discharged from the outlet end thereof, while the heavier component is discharged from the outlet end of the outer cylinder through holes provided therein. The separated gases then enter their respective chambers within the frame for final removal where they are isolated from each other by sealing means to prevent remixture. Efficiency is heightened and, since no other complicated means are necessary for dividing and removing the separated components, the structure of the present centrifuge can be simplified and reduced in size.

  6. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  7. Gas separation techniques in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, Hideaki; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ohno, Masayoshi

    1983-01-01

    The literatures concerning the gas separation techniques which are applied to the waste gases generated from nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, uranium enrichment and the instrumentation of nuclear facilities are reviewed. The gas permeability and gas separation performance of membranes are discussed in terms of rare gas separation. The investigation into the change of the gas permeability and mechanical properties of membranes with exposure to radiation is reported. The theoretical investigation of the separating cells used for the separation of rare gas and the development of various separating cells are described, and the theoretical and experimental investigations concerning rare gas separation using cascades are described. The application of membrane method to nuclear facilities is explained showing the examples of uranium enrichment, the treatment of waste gases from nuclear reactor buildings and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, the monitoring of low level β-emitters in stacks, the detection of failed fuels and the detection of water leak in fast breeder reactors. (Yoshitake, I.)

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Nonstationary Separation Processes in Gas Centrifuge Cascade for Separation of Multicomponent Isotope Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Alexey; Ushakov Anton; Sovach Victor

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of development of the mathematical model of nonstationary separation processes occurring in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. This model was used for the calculation parameters of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of germanium isotopes. Comparison of obtained values with results of other authors revealed that developed mathematical model is adequate to describe nonstationary separation processes in gas centrifuge casca...

  9. Perceived Parental Styles and Adult Separation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başbuğ, Sezin; Cesur, Gizem; Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül

    2017-01-01

    The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions OBJECTIVE: This study primarily aimed to determine whether perceived parental styles and interpersonal cognitive distortions are predictors of adult separation anxiety. Further, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of interpersonal cognitive distortions in the relationship between perceived over-permissive/boundless parental styles and adult separation anxiety in university students. This study included 444 university students (281 female (63,3%) and 163 male (36,7%) with a mean age of sample 21,02 years (SS = 1,70). The Demographic Information Form, Young Parenting Inventory, Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale, and Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire were used. The regression analyses revealed that the age of the participants and their percieved controlling/shaping father parenting style negatively predicted adult separation anxiety, while percieved over-permissive/boundless mother parenting style, exploitative/abusive and overprotective/anxious father parenting styles and the subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale positively predicted adult separation anxiety. As hypothesized, data from this study reveal that subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale play a full mediating role in the relationship between over-permissive/boundless parenting styles and adult separation anxiety. Results indicate that the perceived over-permissive/boundless parenting style positively predicts adult separation anxiety symptoms by distorting interpersonal cognitions. Furthermore, the over-permissive parenting style and lack of boundaries and/or discipline lead to similar adverse effects as do authoritarian and normative parenting. To our knowledge, there are very few studies investigating adult separation anxiety symptoms in Turkey. Therefore, our current study provides practical information to mental health professionals regarding adult separation anxiety symptoms, which

  10. Installation of an isotope separator in Debrecen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacsi, Z.; Gulyas, J.; Vitez, A.; Csige, L.; Krasznahorkay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An isotope separator named OSIRIS was decommissioned in Studsvik, Sweden last July. Researchers there offered this equipment to us for dismantling and moving it over to ATOMKI in Debrecen for installation at the cyclotron lab and save and use it in nuclear physics and other sciences where stable and radioactive isotopes are used extensively for fundamental and applied research. Since the separator was used to separate radioactive isotopes, the ion source with its beam extracting, shaping, and transporting accessories, as well as the lining inside the bending magnet, furthermore the beam diagnostic and shaping elements in the 'switchyard' part of the separator had to stay in Studsvik because of the high radioactive contamination. In order to operate this equipment, first we have to design and manufacture these parts together with a new endstation for the collection and handling of the separated isotopes. Parallel with the installation, we also concentrate on different applications of an isotope separator, including separation of stable isotopes for labelling special compounds used in many branches of sciences, medical care, and industry, and on studying single ion implantation possibilities, as well as on the production of special targets for nuclear physics research. First we want to separate stable isotopes, and then, when we overcome all technical pitfalls, we will consider using this equipment to separate radioactive isotopes as well. Our intention is to have this equipment available to anyone at ATOMKI and elsewhere interested in using its capabilities in their own research fields. Consequently, all comments, suggestion, and ideas are welcome now and continuously, since the design and manufacture of parts can then be oriented by taking into account all the suggestions as much as possible. (author)

  11. Rotational particle separator: A new method for separating fine particles and mist from gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.

    1996-01-01

    An account is given of the patented technique of the rotational particle separator for separating solid and liquid particles of diameter 0.1 µm and larger from gases. Attention is focused on the working principle, fluid mechanical constraints, particle design, separation performance, power

  12. Rotational particle separator: A new method for separating fine particles and mists from gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.

    1996-01-01

    An account is given of the patented technique of the rotational particle separator for separating solid and liquid particles of diameter 0.1 µm and larger from gases. Attention is focussed on the working principle, fluid mechanical constraints, practical designs, separation performance, power

  13. Uranium-isotope enrichment: application bounds of the separative power and separation work concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.

    1981-05-01

    The aim of this paper is a critical re-examination of the concepts of separative power, separation work and value function in order to understand if their extension to the new enrichment processes such as Laser Isotope Separation is possible.

  14. Post-separation families: Residential arrangements and everyday life of separated parents and their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation is about post-separation families, their residential arrangements and the organization and practising of their everyday post-separation (family) life. Divorce and separation are common life events in most Western countries. In the Netherlands, 30% of all children under age 18

  15. Phase separator safety valve blow-off.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2006-01-01

    The fast discharge of the CMS solenoid leads to a pressure rise in the phase separator. On August 28th, a fast discharge was triggered at a current level of 19.1 kA. The pressure in the phase separator increased up to the set pressure of the safety valve and some helium was discharged. In consequence of this and prevoious similar observations the liquid helium level in the phase separator has been reduced from 60% to 50% and later to 45% in order to reduce the helium inventory in the magnet.

  16. Microfluidic high gradient magnetic cell separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David W.; Riehn, Robert; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2006-04-01

    Separation of blood cells by native susceptibility and by the selective attachment of magnetic beads has recently been demonstrated on microfluidic devices. We discuss the basic principles of how forces are generated via the magnetic susceptibility of an object and how microfluidics can be combined with micron-scale magnetic field gradients to greatly enhance in principle the fractionating power of magnetic fields. We discuss our efforts and those of others to build practical microfluidic devices for the magnetic separation of blood cells. We also discuss our attempts to integrate magnetic separation with other microfluidic features for developing handheld medical diagnostic tools.

  17. Separation of Particles in Channels Rotary Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyatikov Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the separation of particles in channels with different relative length. It is shown that the intensity of turbulence at the inlet section of the channel varies considerably in its length. The dependence of the turbulence damping along the channel expressing by fraction of the distance is shown. The ratio of the particle separation efficiency out the gas flow in the rotor channel is defined. The values of particle separation efficiency in the channel for the angle α=π/4 in turbulent aerosol flow is shows, including without mixing the particles.

  18. Facility to separate water and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loesel, G.

    1977-01-01

    The water/steam mixture from the pressure vessel e.g. of a BWR is separated by means of centrifugal separators untilizing the natural separation of steam. The steam is supplied to a steam drying vessel and the water to a water collecting tank. These vessels may be combined to a common vessel or connected through additional pipes. From the water collecting tank, arranged below the steam dryer, a feedwater pipe runs back to the pressure vessel. By construction out of individual components cleaning, decontamination, and operating control are essentially simplified. (RW) 891 RW [de

  19. NASA Armstrong's Approach to Store Separation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuff, Chris; Bui, Trong

    2015-01-01

    Presentation will an overview of NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities and how they have been applied recently. Objective of the presentation is to brief Generation Orbit and other potential partners on NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities. It will include discussions on the use of NAVSEP and Cart3D, as well as some Python scripting work to perform the analysis, and a short overview of this methodology applied to the Towed Glider Air Launch System. Collaboration with potential customers in this area could lead to funding for the further development of a store separation capability at NASA Armstrong, which would boost the portfolio of engineering expertise at the center.

  20. Laser separation of isotopes of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Laser isotope separation technique is explained and various methods based on the technique are discussed in detail. Requirements of any laser isotope separation method to be acceptable for the production of heavy water are mentioned and economic viability of this process for heavy water production is examined. Investigations carried out to use this technique for deuterium separation using methanol, formaldehyde, propynal, 2,2,-dichloro-1-1-1,-trifluoroethane (Freon 123), polyvinyl chloride and fluoroform-d are reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  1. Wet separation processes as method to separate limestone and oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurme, Martin; Karu, Veiko

    2015-04-01

    Biggest oil shale industry is located in Estonia. Oil shale usage is mainly for electricity generation, shale oil generation and cement production. All these processes need certain quality oil shale. Oil shale seam have interlayer limestone layers. To use oil shale in production, it is needed to separate oil shale and limestone. A key challenge is find separation process when we can get the best quality for all product types. In oil shale separation typically has been used heavy media separation process. There are tested also different types of separation processes before: wet separation, pneumatic separation. Now oil shale industry moves more to oil production and this needs innovation methods for separation to ensure fuel quality and the changes in quality. The pilot unit test with Allmineral ALLJIG have pointed out that the suitable new innovation way for oil shale separation can be wet separation with gravity, where material by pulsating water forming layers of grains according to their density and subsequently separates the heavy material (limestone) from the stratified material (oil shale)bed. Main aim of this research is to find the suitable separation process for oil shale, that the products have highest quality. The expected results can be used also for developing separation processes for phosphorite rock or all others, where traditional separation processes doesn't work property. This research is part of the study Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  2. Lunar Soil Particle Separator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  3. Lunar Soil Particle Separator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  4. Residential mobility and migration of the separated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Ham

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation is known to have a disruptive effect on the housing careers of those involved, mainly because a decrease in resources causes (temporary downward moves on the housing ladder. Little is known about the geographies of the residential mobility behaviour of the separated. Applying a hazard analysis to retrospective life-course data for the Netherlands, we investigate three hypotheses: individuals who experienced separation move more often than do steady singles and people in intact couple relationships, they are less likely to move over long distances, and they move more often to cities than people in intact couple relationships. The results show that separation leads to an increase in mobility, to moves over short distance for men with children, and to a prevalence of the city as a destination of moves.

  5. Separation and spectrophotometric determination of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczenko, Z.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a useful text intended as a reference for the laboratory that is either involved in spectrophotometric analysis or requires separations prior to analysis by any method. It attempts to cover a diverse series of topics in fewer than 700 pages. Part I of the book covers general topics such as separation schemes (solvent extraction, precipitation, volatility, ion exchange), principles and instrumentation used for spectrophotometry, and color reagents in only 119 pages. Entire books have been written on each of those subjects. The author must therefore resort to extensive referencing to cover each subject adequately. Part II, Methods for Separation and Determination of Individual Elements, discusses all elements - both nonmetals and metals and major procedures for the separation and spectrophotometric determination of each element are adequately covered

  6. Distributed systems design using separable communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capel, A.C.; Yan, G.

    1980-01-01

    One of the promises of distributed systems is the ability to design each process function largely independently of the others, and in many cases locate the resulting hardware in close proximity to the application. The communications architecture for such systems should be approached in the same way, using separable communications facilities to meet individual sets of requirements while at the same time reducing the interactions between functions. Where complete physical separation is not feasible and hardware resource sharing is required, the protocols should be designed emphasizing the logical separation of communication paths. This paper discusses the different types of communications for process control applictions and the parameters which need to be characterized in designing separable communications for distributed systems. (auth)

  7. Selective Photoinitiated Electrophoretic Separator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA Johnson Space Center needs for gas separation and collection technology for lunar in-situ resource utilization, Physical Optics Corporation (POC)...

  8. Method for improved gas-solids separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, C.L.; He, B.X.

    1990-11-13

    Methods are disclosed for the removal of particulate solids from a gas stream at high separation efficiency, including the removal of submicron size particles. The apparatus includes a cyclone separator type of device which contains an axially mounted perforated cylindrical hollow rotor. The rotor is rotated at high velocity in the same direction as the flow of an input particle-laden gas stream to thereby cause enhanced separation of particulate matter from the gas stream in the cylindrical annular space between the rotor and the sidewall of the cyclone vessel. Substantially particle-free gas passes through the perforated surface of the spinning rotor and into the hollow rotor, from where it is discharged out of the top of the apparatus. Separated particulates are removed from the bottom of the vessel. 4 figs.

  9. Radiochemistry and radiochemical separations. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    1999-01-01

    A current bibliography for years 1993-1996 with 159 references was compiled on radiochemistry and radiochemical separations based on the INIS Atomindex. The references are arranged in alphabetical order of first authors. (N.T.)

  10. The CP 1 type separators-superheaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, G.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the functionnement of the separators superheaters in the first French 900 MW PWR units (Fessenhein 1-2 and Bugey 2-3-4-5) and in the program CP 1 units: localization of the separators superheaters, design, tests and choice of the materials, description of the separators superheaters (shells, separators, superheater bundles, internal lagging, purging tank and condensate stank, steam line equipments); study of the various operation modes (nominals, transients, malfunctions, conservation during shutdowns) and the in service behaviour of the components; study of the modifications on the CP 1 equipments and their behaviour; description of the measures, tests and on site controls (controls during planned shutdowns and controls during service) [fr

  11. Separation of water through gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boch Andersen, Torben; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrate is normally recognized as a troublemaker in the oil and gas industry. However, gas hydrate has some interesting possibilities when used in connection with separation of water. Nordic Sugar has investigated the possibility of using gas hydrates for concentration of sugar juice. The goal...... of the project was to formulate an alternative separation concept, which can replace the traditional water evaporation process in the sugar production. Work with the separation concept showed that gas hydrates can be used for water separation. The process is not suitable for sugar production because of large...... volumes and the needs for high pressure. The process could be interesting for concentration of heat sensitive, high value products...

  12. Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to isotope separation employing isotopically selective vibrational excitation and vibration-translation reactions of the excited particles. Uranium enrichment, using uranium hexafluoride, is a particular embodiment. (U.K.)

  13. Separation of calcium isotopes with cryptand complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumann, K.G.; Schiefer, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    The calcium isotope separation in the liquid-liquid extraction system H 2 O/CHCl 3 is investigated using and cryptands for complex formation as well as without complexing agent. An extraction procedure is used which allows the transfer of larger amounts of calcium in the H 2 O phase. Without complexing agent in the extraction system, enrichment of the lighter calcium isotopes is already evident in the CHCl 3 phase which is just the same as when using cryptand. In the case of cryptand as a complexing agent, the isotope separation is higher. The separation factor is calculated to be a = 1 + epsilon = 1.011 for 40 Ca/ 48 Ca without complexing agent or with cryptand and a = 1.015 in the system with cryptand. For 40 Ca/ 44 Ca the epsilon-value is smaller by nearly a factor of two. These separation factors are the highest which are determined in chemical systems for calcium isotopes. (orig.)

  14. A steam separator-superheater apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androw, Jean; Bessouat, Roger; Peyrelongue, J.-P.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a separator-superheater apparatus comprising an outer enclosure containing a separating-unit and a steam superheating unit according to the main patent. The present addition relates to an improvement in that apparatus, characterized in that the separating unit and the superheating unit, mounted in two distinct portions of the outer enclosure, are divided into the same number of sub-units of each unit being identical and operating in parallel, and in that to each separator sub-unit is associated a superheater sub-unit, said sub-units being mounted in series and located in one in the other of the enclosure two portions, respectively. This can be applied to the treatment of the exhaust steam of a turbine high pressure body, prior to re-injecting said steam into the low pressure body [fr

  15. A ''master key'' to chemical separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, Ch.; Hill, C.

    2002-01-01

    One of the keys to sorting nuclear waste is extracting minor actinides - the most troublesome long-lived elements - from the flow of waste by separating them from lanthanides, which have very similar chemical properties to actinides, for possible transmutation into shorter-lived elements. Thanks to a European initiative coordinated by CEA, this key is now available: its name is Sanex. There now remains to develop tough, straightforward industrial processes to integrate it into a new nuclear waste management approach by 2005. Sanex joins the Diamex process, used for the combined separation of lanthanides and minor actinides from fission products. A third process, Sesame, designed to separate americium, completes the list of available separation processes. (authors)

  16. Isotope separation in crossed-jet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, R.J.; Anderson, J.B.

    1978-11-01

    The separation of isotopes in crossed-jet systems was investigated with Monte Carlo calculations of the separation effects for jets of Ne/Ar and /sup 235/UF/sub 6///sup 238/UF/sub 6/ mixtures entering a hydrogen stream. For the ideal condition of uniform stream velocities at zero temperature, the separation factor ..cap alpha.. was found to be 16.0 for Ne/Ar and 1.17 for /sup 235/UF/sub 6///sup 238/UF/sub 6/. For less ideal but more practical conditions, Monte Carlo calculations of the complete crossed-jet systems gave separation factors as high as 3.3 for Ne/Ar and ..cap alpha.. = 1.046 - 1.078 for /sup 235/UF/sub 6///sup 238/UF/sub 6/.

  17. Possible application of laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delionback, L.M.

    1975-05-01

    The laser isotope separation process is described and its special economic features discussed. These features are its low cost electric power operation, capital investment costs, and the costs of process materials. (Author)

  18. Separation of Dalbergia stevensonii from Dalbergia tucurensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheal C. Wiemann; Flavio Ruffinatto

    2012-01-01

    Belize is home to two commercially important species of Dalbergia, D. stevensonii and D. tucurensis, whose overall appearance and wood anatomy are similar. D. stevensonii is protected from commercial harvesting, whereas D. tucurensis is not. Therefore, reliable methods for separating...

  19. Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator (LDS) is proposed in response to TA 6.1: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Habitation Systems. The LDS...

  20. Separability criteria for genuine multiparticle entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guhne, O.; Seevinck, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304847399

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to derive separability criteria for different classes of multiparticle entanglement, especially genuine multiparticle entanglement. The resulting criteria are necessary and sufficient for certain families of states. This, for example, completely solves the problem of classifying

  1. Separability Criteria for Genuine Multiparticle Entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guehne, O.; Seevinck, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to derive separability criteria for different classes of multiparticle entanglement, especially genuine multiparticle entanglement. The resulting criteria are necessary and sufficient for certain families of states. This, for example, completely solves the problem of classifying

  2. Store Separations From a Supersonic Cone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simko, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    ... analyses of supersonic store separations. Also included in this research is a study of supersonic base pressure profiles, near-wake velocity profiles, wind tunnel shock interactions and force/moment studies on a conical store and parent vehicle...

  3. Towards Formal Verification of a Separation Microkernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Andrew; Sanan, David; Hinchey, Mike

    2013-08-01

    The best approach to verifying an IMA separation kernel is to use a (fixed) time-space partitioning kernel with a multiple independent levels of separation (MILS) architecture. We describe an activity that explores the cost and feasibility of doing a formal verification of such a kernel to the Common Criteria (CC) levels mandated by the Separation Kernel Protection Profile (SKPP). We are developing a Reference Specification of such a kernel, and are using higher-order logic (HOL) to construct formal models of this specification and key separation properties. We then plan to do a dry run of part of a formal proof of those properties using the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  4. Separation, identification and quantification of photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty one photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids and degradation products) from the seaweeds, Codium dwarkense, (Chlorophyta), , Laurencia obtusa , (Rhodophyta) and , Lobophora variegata, (Phaeophyta), were separated in a single-step procedure by reversed phase high-performance liquid ...

  5. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  6. Blind speech separation system for humanoid robot with FastICA for audio filtering and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharto, Widodo; Santoso Gunawan, Alexander Agung

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, there are many developments in building intelligent humanoid robot, mainly in order to handle voice and image. In this research, we propose blind speech separation system using FastICA for audio filtering and separation that can be used in education or entertainment. Our main problem is to separate the multi speech sources and also to filter irrelevant noises. After speech separation step, the results will be integrated with our previous speech and face recognition system which is based on Bioloid GP robot and Raspberry Pi 2 as controller. The experimental results show the accuracy of our blind speech separation system is about 88% in command and query recognition cases.

  7. Chiral recognition in separation science: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Gerhard K E

    2013-01-01

    Chiral recognition phenomena play an important role in nature as well as analytical separation sciences. In separation sciences such as chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, enantiospecific interactions between the enantiomers of an analyte and the chiral selector are required in order to observe enantioseparations. Due to the large structural variety of chiral selectors applied, different mechanisms and structural features contribute to the chiral recognition process. This chapter briefly illustrates the current models of the enantiospecific recognition on the structural basics of various chiral selectors.

  8. Method and device for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The method works with a converted Q machine. The plasma containing the isotopes to be separated is crossed by a magnetic field running in the direction of the plasma column. More energy is transfered to the chosen isotope by oscillating magnetic and/or electric fields or by sound waves by using the specific resonance frequency for the selected isotope. The isotopes thus heated to different extents can be separated according to various methods given in the patent claims. (GG) [de

  9. Selective oxoanion separation using a tripodal ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A.; Rajbanshi, Arbin

    2016-02-16

    The present invention relates to urea-functionalized crystalline capsules self-assembled by sodium or potassium cation coordination and by hydrogen-bonding water bridges to selectively encapsulate tetrahedral divalent oxoanions from highly competitive aqueous alkaline solutions and methods using this system for selective anion separations from industrial solutions. The method involves competitive crystallizations using a tripodal tris(urea) functionalized ligand and, in particular, provides a viable approach to sulfate separation from nuclear wastes.

  10. Superconducting RF separator for Omega Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows an Nb-deflector for the superconducting RF separator ready for installation in its cryostat (visible at the back). Each deflector was about 3 m long. L. Husson and P. Skacel (Karlsruhe) stand on the left, A. Scharding (CERN) stands on the right. This particle separator, the result of a collaboration between the Gesellshaft für Kernforschung, Karlsruhe, and CERN was installed in the S1 beam line to Omega spectrometer. (See Annual Report 1977.)

  11. Laser photochemical separation of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes of hydrogen utilizing isotopically selective photodissociation of organic acid is disclosed. Specifically acetic or formic acid containing compounds of deuterated nd hydrogenated acid is irradiated by radiation having a wavelength in the infrared spectrum between 9.2 to 10.8 microns to produce deuterium hydroxide and deuterium hydride respectively. Maintaining the acid at an elevated temperature significantly improves the yield of isotope separation

  12. Qubit-qutrit separability-probability ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    Paralleling our recent computationally intensive (quasi-Monte Carlo) work for the case N=4 (e-print quant-ph/0308037), we undertake the task for N=6 of computing to high numerical accuracy, the formulas of Sommers and Zyczkowski (e-print quant-ph/0304041) for the (N 2 -1)-dimensional volume and (N 2 -2)-dimensional hyperarea of the (separable and nonseparable) NxN density matrices, based on the Bures (minimal monotone) metric--and also their analogous formulas (e-print quant-ph/0302197) for the (nonmonotone) flat Hilbert-Schmidt metric. With the same seven 10 9 well-distributed ('low-discrepancy') sample points, we estimate the unknown volumes and hyperareas based on five additional (monotone) metrics of interest, including the Kubo-Mori and Wigner-Yanase. Further, we estimate all of these seven volume and seven hyperarea (unknown) quantities when restricted to the separable density matrices. The ratios of separable volumes (hyperareas) to separable plus nonseparable volumes (hyperareas) yield estimates of the separability probabilities of generically rank-6 (rank-5) density matrices. The (rank-6) separability probabilities obtained based on the 35-dimensional volumes appear to be--independently of the metric (each of the seven inducing Haar measure) employed--twice as large as those (rank-5 ones) based on the 34-dimensional hyperareas. (An additional estimate--33.9982--of the ratio of the rank-6 Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability to the rank-4 one is quite clearly close to integral too.) The doubling relationship also appears to hold for the N=4 case for the Hilbert-Schmidt metric, but not the others. We fit simple exact formulas to our estimates of the Hilbert-Schmidt separable volumes and hyperareas in both the N=4 and N=6 cases

  13. Method for separation and enrichment of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihana, H.; Miyamatsu, T.

    1977-01-01

    Boron or uranium isotopes can be chemically separated and enriched with high speed and with high separating efficiency by using weakly basic anion exchange fibers having a diameter of not more than 100 μ, an aspect ratio of at least 5 and an exchange capacity of at least 2 meq/g-dry fiber, which are packed in a column at a specific volume of 2.0 to 20.0 ml/g-dry fiber

  14. New processes for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstrum, P.R.; Levin, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the status and prospects for processes other than gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge, and separation nozzle for uranium isotope separation is presented. The incentive for the development of these processes is the increasing requirements for enriched uranium as fuel for nuclear power plants and the potential for reducing the high costs of enrichment. The latest nuclear power projections are converted to uranium enrichment requirements. The size and timing of the market for new enrichment processes are then determined by subtracting the existing and planned uranium enrichment capacities. It is estimated that to supply this market would require the construction of a large new enrichment plant of 9,000,000 SWU per year capacity, costing about $3 billion each (in 1976 dollars) about every year till the year 2000. A very comprehensive review of uranium isotope separation processes was made in 1971 by the Uranium Isotope Separation Review Ad Hoc Committee of the USAEC. Many of the processes discussed in that review are of little current interest. However, because of new approaches or remaining uncertainties about potential, there is considerable effort or continuing interest in a number of alternative processes. The status and prospects for attaining the requirements for competitive economics are presented for these processes, which include laser, chemical exchange, aerodynamic other than separation nozzle, and plasma processes. A qualitative summary comparison of these processes is made with the gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge, and separation nozzle processes. In order to complete the overview of new processes for uranium isotope separation, a generic program schedule of typical steps beyond the basic process determination which are required, such as subsystem, module, pilot plant, and finally plant construction, before large-scale production can be attained is presented. Also the present value savings through the year 2000 is shown for various

  15. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.; Harrington, R.A.; Quadrel, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities

  16. Space shuttle booster separation motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The separation characteristics of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are introduced along with the system level requirements for the booster separation motors (BSMs). These system requirements are then translated into specific motor requirements that control the design of the BSM. Each motor component is discussed including its geometry, material selection, and fabrication process. Also discussed is the propellant selection, grain design, and performance capabilities of the motor. The upcoming test program to develop and qualify the motor is outlined.

  17. A NOVEL CO2 SEPARATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Copeland; Gokhan Alptekin; Mike Cesario; Steven Gebhard; Yevgenia Gershanovich

    1999-01-01

    Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current CO{sub 2} separation systems is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity.

  18. SEPARATIONS AND WASTE FORMS CAMPAIGN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Todd, Terry A.; Peterson, Mary E.

    2012-11-26

    This Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Implementation Plan provides summary level detail describing how the Campaign will achieve the objectives set-forth by the Fuel Cycle Reasearch and Development (FCRD) Program. This implementation plan will be maintained as a living document and will be updated as needed in response to changes or progress in separations and waste forms research and the FCRD Program priorities.

  19. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and the rest of the domestic wastewater (grey water). Different characteristics of wastewater streams facilitate recovery of energy, nutrients and fresh water. To ensure agricultural or ecological reuse ...

  20. Trends in Supersonic Separator design development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altam Rami Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic separator is a new technology with applications in hydrocarbon dew pointing and gas dehydration which can be used to condensate and separate water and heavy hydrocarbons from natural gas. Many researchers have studied the design, performance and efficiency, economic viability, and industrial applications of these separators. The purpose of this paper is to succinctly review recent progress in the design and application of supersonic separators and their limitations. This review has found that while several aspects of this study are well studied, considerable gaps within the published literature still exists in the areas such as turndown flexibility which is a critical requirement to cater for variation of mass flow and since almost all the available designs have a fixed geometry and therefore cannot be considered suitable for variable mass flow rate, which is a common situation in actual site. Hence, the focus needs to be more on designing a flexible geometry that can maintain a high separation efficiency regardless of inlet conditions and mass flow variations. This review is focusing only on the design and application of the supersonic separators without going through the experimental facilities, industrial platform, pilot plants as well as theoretical, analytical, and numerical modelling.

  1. Gas separation using porous cement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqi; Gaggl, Maria; Gluth, Gregor J G; Behrendt, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Gas separation is a key issue in various industrial fields. Hydrogen has the potential for application in clean fuel technologies. Therefore, the separation and purification of hydrogen is an important research subject. CO2 capture and storage have important roles in "green chemistry". As an effective clean technology, gas separation using inorganic membranes has attracted much attention in the last several decades. Membrane processes have many applications in the field of gas separation. Cement is one type of inorganic material, with the advantages of a lower cost and a longer lifespan. An experimental setup has been created and improved to measure twenty different cement membranes. The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of gas molecule properties on the material transport and to explore the influence of operating conditions and membrane composition on separation efficiency. The influences of the above parameters are determined, the best conditions and membrane type are found, it is shown that cementitious material has the ability to separate gas mixtures, and the gas transport mechanism is studied.

  2. Polymer solution phase separation: Microgravity simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Lawrence C.; Sutter, James K.

    1989-01-01

    In many multicomponent systems, a transition from a single phase of uniform composition to a multiphase state with separated regions of different composition can be induced by changes in temperature and shear. The density difference between the phase and thermal and/or shear gradients within the system results in buoyancy driven convection. These differences affect kinetics of the phase separation if the system has a sufficiently low viscosity. This investigation presents more preliminary developments of a theoretical model in order to describe effects of the buoyancy driven convection in phase separation kinetics. Polymer solutions were employed as model systems because of the ease with which density differences can be systematically varied and because of the importance of phase separation in the processing and properties of polymeric materials. The results indicate that the kinetics of the phase separation can be performed viscometrically using laser light scattering as a principle means of following the process quantitatively. Isopycnic polymer solutions were used to determine the viscosity and density difference limits for polymer phase separation.

  3. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T. R.; McInteer, B. B.; Montoya, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of these isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separation of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S vs. 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produced separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . 8 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T.R.; McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of theses isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separations of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S and 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produces separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . (author). 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  5. Microbubble Distillation for Ethanol-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Al-yaqoobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a novel approach for separating ethanol-water mixture by microbubble distillation technology was investigated. Traditional distillation processes require large amounts of energy to raise the liquid to its boiling point to effect removal of volatile components. The concept of microbubble distillation by comparison is to heat the gas phase rather than the liquid phase to achieve separation. The removal of ethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths was taken as a case of study. Consequently the results were then compared with those which could be obtained under equilibrium conditions expected in an “ideal” distillation unit. Microbubble distillation has achieved vapour compositions higher than that which could be obtained under traditional equilibrium conditions. The separation was achieved at liquid temperature significantly less than the boiling point of the mixture. In addition, it was observed that the separation efficiency of the microbubble distillation could be increased by raising the injected air temperature, while the temperature of the liquid mixture increased only moderately. The separation efficiency of microbubble distillation was compared with that of pervaporation for the recovery of bioethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths. The technology could be controlled to give high separation and energy efficiency. This could contribute to improving commercial viability of biofuel production and other coproducts of biorefinery processing.

  6. Development and evaluation of separation elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, R.R.R.; Rocha, Z.

    1990-01-01

    For industrial testing of the uranium enrichment technology by the jet nozzle process, it is being erected in Resende the 'First Cascade' (FC) and it was built the Separation Element Plant (FES). For the development, optimization and quality control of the separation elements produced by FES, it was set up in CDTN a laboratorial infrastructure. As part of it, it was designed, built and assembled the Separation Slit Testing Equipment (ITRS), with several components developed and constructed in CDTN. The tests are being carried out in ITRS with the objective of adjusting the machine tools of FES used in the line production of the separation elements. From the satisfactory results obtained with these tests, FES will start the production of separation tubes to be installed in FC. The objective of this paper is to describe the operation and evaluation tests in ITRS, as well as to present their contribution to the development and quality control of the separation elements produced in FES. (author) [pt

  7. Rare earth separations by selective borate crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xuemiao; Wang, Yaxing; Bai, Xiaojing; Wang, Yumin; Chen, Lanhua; Xiao, Chengliang; Diwu, Juan; Du, Shiyu; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wang, Shuao

    2017-03-01

    Lanthanides possess similar chemical properties rendering their separation from one another a challenge of fundamental chemical and global importance given their incorporation into many advanced technologies. New separation strategies combining green chemistry with low cost and high efficiency remain highly desirable. We demonstrate that the subtle bonding differences among trivalent lanthanides can be amplified during the crystallization of borates, providing chemical recognition of specific lanthanides that originates from Ln3+ coordination alterations, borate polymerization diversity and soft ligand coordination selectivity. Six distinct phases are obtained under identical reaction conditions across lanthanide series, further leading to an efficient and cost-effective separation strategy via selective crystallization. As proof of concept, Nd/Sm and Nd/Dy are used as binary models to demonstrate solid/aqueous and solid/solid separation processes. Controlling the reaction kinetics gives rise to enhanced separation efficiency of Nd/Sm system and a one-step quantitative separation of Nd/Dy with the aid of selective density-based flotation.

  8. Metal ion separations using reactive membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    A membrane is a barrier between two phases. If one component of a mixture moves through the membrane faster than another mixture component, a separation can be accomplished. Membranes are used commercially for many applications including gas separations, water purification, particle filtration, and macromolecule separations (Abelson). There are two points to note concerning this definition. First, a membrane is defined based on its function, not the material used to make the membrane. Secondly, a membrane separation is a rate process. The separation is accomplished by a driving force, not by equilibrium between phases. Liquids that are immiscible with the feed and product streams can also be used as membrane materials. Different solutes will have different solubilities and diffusion coefficients in a liquid. The product of the diffusivity and the solubility is known as the permeability coefficient, which is proportional to the solute flux. Differences in permeability coefficient will produce a separation between solutes at constant driving force. Because the diffusion coefficients in liquids are typically orders of magnitude higher than in polymers, a larger flux can be obtained. Further enhancements can be accomplished by adding a nonvolatile complexation agent to the liquid membrane. One can then have either coupled or facilitated transport of metal ions through a liquid membrane. The author describes two implementations of this concept, one involving a liquid membrane supported on a microporous membrane, and the other an emulsion liquid membrane, where separation occurs to internal receiving phases. Applications and costing studies for this technology are reviewed, and a brief summary of some of the problems with liquid membranes is presented

  9. Optimization of the radio lanthanides separation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera T, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    At present, cancer is a major cause of mortality in our country, therefore, its prevention, diagnosis and treatment are vital to health systems. The cancer treatment and other diseases, from monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or amino macro aggregates marked with beta particle emitting radionuclides, is a highly promising field. The radioactive lanthanides: Pm, Tb, Ho, and Lu are beta emitters, which possess nuclear and chemical properties, which have shown their feasibility as radioisotopes of radiotherapeutic use. However, these radioisotopes are not available commercially in this connection, the Research Laboratory of Radioactive Materials of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, has developed the methodology of production of these radioisotopes and based on this work is designed, constructed and installed the radio lanthanides separation device for the radioisotopes production routinely. This device is part of the cell, , which has and auxiliary air service, an extraction system and is protected with a 10 cm of lead shielding. The radio lanthanides separation device is manual and easy to handle. The main function of this equipment is the radio lanthanides separation from extractive chromatography through packed columns with a commercial resin (Ln SPS) and coated on the top and bottom by fiberglass. The radio lanthanides separation device comprises a main carrousel where the separation columns and elution containers are mounted. It also has a system of open irradiation vials, carrier samples for columns and glassware. This paper presents a detailed description of the radio lanthanides separation device and its management, which allows the radioisotopes production Pm, Tb, Ho, and Lu from the separation of its parents Nd, Dy, Gd, and Yb respectively. (Author)

  10. Stable isotope separation by thermal diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Thermal diffusion in both gaseous and liquid phase has been subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, especially after the invention of K. Clusius and G. Dickel of the thermal diffusion column, sixty three years ago. This paper gives a brief overview of the most important research and developments performed during the time at the National Institute for Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technology (ITIM) at Cluj - Napoca, Romania in the field of separation of stable isotopes by thermal diffusion. An retrospective analysis of the research and results concerning isotope separation by thermal diffusion entails the following conclusions: - thermal diffusion is an adequate method for hydrogen isotope separation (deuterium and tritium) and for noble gas isotope separation (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe); - thermal diffusion is attractive also for 13 C enrichment using methane as raw material for separation, when annual yields of up to 100 g are envisaged; - lately, the thermal diffusion appears to be chosen as a final enrichment step for 17 O. An obvious advantage of this method is its non-specificity, i.e. the implied equipment can be utilized for isotope separation of other chemical elements too. Having in view the low investment costs for thermal diffusion cascades the method appears economically attractive for obtaining low-scale, laboratory isotope production. The paper has the following content: 1. The principle of method; 2. The method's application; 3. Research in the field of thermal diffusion at ITIM; 4. Thermal diffusion cascades for N, C, Ne, Ar and Kr isotope separation; 5. Conclusion

  11. Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, C. M.; Keller, K.; Fuchs, B.

    2005-07-01

    DuPont is developing an entirely new method of solid-liquid filtration involving the use of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients. The new hybrid process, entitled Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation (MESLS), is designed to improve the de-watering kinetics and reduce the residual moisture content of solid particulates mechanically separated from liquid slurries. Gravitation, pressure, temperature, centrifugation, and fluid dynamics have dictated traditional solid-liquid separation for the past 50 years. The introduction of an external field (i.e. the magnetic field) offers the promise to manipulate particle behavior in an entirely new manner, which leads to increased process efficiency. Traditional solid-liquid separation typically consists of two primary steps. The first is a mechanical step in which the solid particulate is separated from the liquid using e.g. gas pressure through a filter membrane, centrifugation, etc. The second step is a thermal drying process, which is required due to imperfect mechanical separation. The thermal drying process is over 100-200 times less energy efficient than the mechanical step. Since enormous volumes of materials are processed each year, more efficient mechanical solid-liquid separations can be leveraged into dramatic reductions in overall energy consumption by reducing downstream drying requirements have a tremendous impact on energy consumption. Using DuPont's MESLS process, initial test results showed four very important effects of the magnetic field on the solid-liquid filtration process: 1) reduction of the time to reach gas breakthrough, 2) less loss of solid into the filtrate, 3) reduction of the (solids) residual moisture content, and 4) acceleration of the de-watering kinetics. These test results and their potential impact on future commercial solid-liquid filtration is discussed. New applications can be found in mining, chemical and bioprocesses.

  12. Technical feasibility of advanced separation; Faisabilite technique de la separation poussee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostaing, Ch

    2004-07-01

    Advanced separation aims at reducing the amount and toxicity of high-level and long lived radioactive wastes. The Purex process has been retained as a reference way for the recovery of the most radio-toxic elements: neptunium, technetium and iodine. Complementary solvent extraction processes have to be developed for the separation of americium, curium and cesium from the high activity effluent of the spent fuel reprocessing treatment. Researches have been carried out with the aim of demonstrating the scientifical and technical feasibility of advanced separation of minor actinides and long lived fission products from spent fuels. The scientifical feasibility was demonstrated at the end of 2001. The technical feasibility works started in the beginning of 2002. Many results have been obtained which are presented and summarized in this document: approach followed, processes retained for the technical feasibility (An/Ln and Am/Cm separation), processes retained for further validation at the new shielded Purex installation, technical feasibility of Purex adaptation to Np separation, technical feasibility of Diamex (first step: (An+Ln)/other fission products) separation), technical feasibility of Sanex process (second step: An(III)/Ln(III) separation), technical feasibility of Am(III)/Cm(III) separation, cesium separation, iodine separation, technical-economical evaluation, conclusions and perspectives, facilities and apparatuses used for the experiments. (J.S.)

  13. The gas filled separator as a separation method to detect transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninov, V.

    1992-08-01

    The mass spectrometer NASE (NAchSEparator) built as a post-separator and located behind the velocity filter SHIP at the GSI in Darmstadt, was taken into operation as a gas-filled separator, and its separation properties for fusion products from heavy ion reactions were studied. Chapter 2 describes the principle of separation in a gas-filled magnet. The technical specifications of the separator, the detectors and the setup of detection electronics are outlined in chapter 3. The studies of separation properties are described in chapter 4, and chapter 5 deals with preliminary applications of the gas-filled separator to detect isotopes poor in neutrons, with an atomic number Z = 92, 93. Chapter 6 is concerned with preliminary tests to detect heavy nuclei with an atomic number Z > = 100 by means of light radiation and actinide targets. The experimental results of comparative measurements between the velocity filter SHIP and the gas-filled separator are pointed out in chapter 7, and future application possibilities of gas-filled separators for synthesis of heaviest nuclei through asymmetric reactions are discussed. (orig./BBR) [de

  14. Influence of throttling of the heavy fraction on the uranium isotope separation in the separation nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, P.; Ehrfeld, W.; Heiden, U.

    1978-04-01

    In a separation nozzle cascade for enrichment of U-235 the cut of the separation elements is adjusted by throttling the heavy fraction. This control process influences directly the flow properties in the nozzle and may noticeably change its separation characteristics. This paper deals with an experimental investigation of the throttling effect on the separation and control characteristics of the separation nozzle operated with a H 2 /UF 6 mixture. In consideration of the extremely small characteristic dimensions of commercial separation nozzle elements the influence of manufacturing tolerances on the characteristics of the throttled nozzle was analysed in detail. It appears, that the elementary effect of isotope separation increases by throttling of the heavy fraction up to 5% without changing the optimum operating conditions. This increase of the elementary effect is not only obtained for separation nozzles with zero tolerances but also for separation nozzles having finite tolerances of the skimmer position. Tolerances of the nozzle width, however, become increasingly detrimental, when the heavy fraction is throttled. Regarding the control characteristics of the separation nozzle it was found out, that the UF 6 -cut of the throttled nozzle reacts more sensitively to alterations of the operating pressures and less sensitively to alterations of the UF 6 -concentration of the process gas mixture. (orig.) [de

  15. Systematic analysis of aircraft separation requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rachelle Lea

    2005-12-01

    Minimum separation standards are necessary for safety in the air traffic control system. At the same time, minimum separation standards constrain the flow of air traffic and cause delays that translate to millions of dollars in fuel costs. Two necessary separation standards are defined. Then, practical methods for calculating the minimum required size of these separation standards are presented. First, the protected zone is considered. The protected zone represents a region around a given aircraft that no other aircraft should penetrate for the safety of both aircraft. It defines minimum separation requirements. Three major components of the protected zone and their interplays are identified: a vortex region, a safety buffer region, and a state-uncertainty region. A systematic procedure is devised for the analysis of the state-uncertainty region. In particular, models of trajectory controls are developed that can be used to represent different modes of pilot and/or autopilot controls, such as path feedback and non-path feedback. Composite protected zones under various conditions are estimated, and effective ways to reduce sizes of protected zones for advanced air traffic management are examined. In order to maintain minimum separation standards between two aircraft, proper avoidance maneuvers must be initiated before their relative separation reaches the minimum separation due to aircraft dynamics, controller and pilot response delays, etc. The concept of the required action threshold is presented. It is defined as the advanced time for which the conflict resolution process must begin in order to maintain minimum separation requirements. Five main segments in the process of conflict resolution are identified, discussed, and modeled: state information acquisition, comprehension and decision, communication, pilot response, and aircraft maneuver. Each of the five segments is modeled via a time constant. Time estimates for the first four segments are obtained from

  16. Particle acceleration at a reconnecting magnetic separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, J.; Neukirch, T.; Parnell, C. E.; Eradat Oskoui, S.

    2015-02-01

    Context. While the exact acceleration mechanism of energetic particles during solar flares is (as yet) unknown, magnetic reconnection plays a key role both in the release of stored magnetic energy of the solar corona and the magnetic restructuring during a flare. Recent work has shown that special field lines, called separators, are common sites of reconnection in 3D numerical experiments. To date, 3D separator reconnection sites have received little attention as particle accelerators. Aims: We investigate the effectiveness of separator reconnection as a particle acceleration mechanism for electrons and protons. Methods: We study the particle acceleration using a relativistic guiding-centre particle code in a time-dependent kinematic model of magnetic reconnection at a separator. Results: The effect upon particle behaviour of initial position, pitch angle, and initial kinetic energy are examined in detail, both for specific (single) particle examples and for large distributions of initial conditions. The separator reconnection model contains several free parameters, and we study the effect of changing these parameters upon particle acceleration, in particular in view of the final particle energy ranges that agree with observed energy spectra.

  17. Physical stage of photosynthesis charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, A. G.; Shuvalov, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    An analytical review is given concerning the biophysical aspects of light-driven primary charge separation in photosynthesis reaction centers (RCs) which are special pigment-protein complexes residing in a cell membrane. The primary (physical) stage of charge separation occurs in the pico- and femtosecond ranges and consists of transferring an electron along the active A-branch of pigments. The review presents vast factual material on both the general issues of primary photosynthesis and some more specific topics, including (1) the role of the inactive B-branch of pigments, (2) the effect of the protein environment on the charge separation, and (3) the participation of monomeric bacteriochlorophyll BA in primary electron acceptance. It is shown that the electron transfer and stabilization are strongly influenced by crystallographic water and tyrosine M210 molecules from the nearest environment of BA. A linkage between collective nuclear motions and electron transfer upon charge separation is demonstrated. The nature of the high quantum efficiency of primary charge separation reactions is discussed.

  18. Regional integrated system of separated collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markuskova, I.

    2008-01-01

    Since 2002 Palarikovo manages and ensures Regional integrated system of separated collection. In the present time 28 villages of the region are associated in Association of villages for sustainable treatment of municipal wastes with settlement in Palarikovo. In accordance with hierarchy of goals of national strategy in the field of treatment of municipal wastes the key aims of activity are centred on economical and sustainable treatment of municipal wastes, which consist in reduction of quantity and harmfulness of municipal wastes by destruction by unloading or combustion. The steps for achievement of this aim consist in (1) prevention of formation of wastes, (2) using of usable subjects (establishing of centre for repeated using in Regional collecting court), (3) by rigorous realisation of recycling program - by collection of separated commodities with a view to mainly material recycling as well as composting program. By starting of integrated regional system of separated collection were integrated 18 villages with 24,000 inhabitants into common separated collection. In the present time this association has 28 members (villages of the region) with total population 55,904. Operating of the Regional integrated system of separated collection in Palarikovo is reviewed

  19. Separation surgery for total vertical craniopagus twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Keith Y C

    2004-08-01

    A pair of conjoined twins aged 11 months underwent investigations, followed by surgical separation in Singapore General Hospital in April 2001. They were joined at the skull vertex and facing in opposite directions. Radiological investigations including cerebral angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomographic scans were performed, leading to the diagnosis of total vertical craniopagus. There were two separate brains, with separate arterial circulations, but with a common superior sagittal sinus. Tissue expanders were inserted in the subgaleal space for 6 months of scalp expansion prior to surgery. Pre-operative planning involved the use of virtual reality equipment and life-sized polymer models of the conjoined skulls and brains. Surgical separation of the twins was achieved after approximately 100 h of operating time, using intraoperative image guidance, microsurgical techniques and intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Reconstruction of the dura, calvarium and scalp was performed with artificial dura, absorbable plates and split skin grafts. Postoperative complications included focal cortical infarction, meningitis, and hydrocephalus. Despite these complications, the twins recovered satisfactorily and were discharged to their home country within 6 months. The 3-month outcome was minor disability in one twin and severe developmental delays in the other. Separation surgery is possible for complex cranially-conjoined twins but requires detailed planning and extensive surgical management.

  20. Separators/reheaters for nuclear turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignard, S.

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years, the Nuclear Department of Stein Industrie has implemented a broad development programme for the design of superheating separators for nuclear power plant turbines. These units separate the water in the steam leaving the high-pressure section, and superheat the dry steam before expansion in the medium - and low - pressure sections. Thorough research, confirmed by tests, was conducted in different areas, and especially on problems of water and steam separation, and heat transfers in the tube bundle(s) required to superheat the steam. Special systems were designed to avoid processes detrimental to the operation of the units, such as vibrations, erosion/corrosion etc. Experimental feedback on the superheating separators of 900 MW nuclear power plants helped to substantiate the assumptions made for the thermal and hydraulic calculations, as well as the optimizations carried out on the different functions. These results confirmed the industrial application of the design methods to other superheating separators intended for 1300 MW nuclear power plants and for export [fr