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Sample records for prepubertal urinary estrogen

  1. Role for endogenous estrogen in prepubertal Sertoli cell maturation.

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    Kao, Eddy; Villalon, Rosalina; Ribeiro, Salustiano; Berger, Trish

    2012-11-01

    Reducing prepubertal endogenous estrogens led to increased numbers of Sertoli cells and the associated increased testicular size and testicular sperm production capacity in boars. The increased number of Sertoli cells might be due to a longer time for proliferation; delayed differentiation of Sertoli cells during suppressed endogenous estrogens would be consistent with this hypothesized, prolonged proliferation interval. This study used immunohistochemical detection of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of immature Sertoli cells, and of CDKN1B, a cell cycle inhibitor associated with more mature Sertoli cells, to determine if suppressing endogenous estrogens detectably delayed "differentiation" of porcine Sertoli cells. Testes were from littermate pairs of boars previously treated with Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, or vehicle, from the first week of age until tissue collection at 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 months of age. Four animals were examined at each age following Letrozole treatment and their corresponding littermates evaluated following treatment with vehicle. Amount of AMH protein in Sertoli cells decreased with age of boar and could not be detected at 6 months of age. The AMH labeling was greater in the Letrozole-treated boars compared with littermate vehicle controls at 4 months of age (P=0.03). The percentage of CDKN1B-labeled Sertoli cells apparently increased with age through 5 months of age. At 4 and 5 months of age, the mean percentage of CDKN1B-labeled Sertoli cells was less in the Letrozole-treated animals than in the vehicle control animals (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continual inhibition of aromatase (and concomitatant reduced estrogen synthesis) causes a delay in Sertoli cell maturation in boars.

  2. EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS IN THE CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM CHANGE IN PREPUBERTAL AND AGED MICE

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    Charitidi, K.; Frisina, R. D.; Vasilyeva, O. N.; Zhu, X.; Canlon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens are important in the development, maintenance and physiology of the CNS. Several studies have shown their effects on the processing of hearing in both males and females, and these effects, in part, are thought to result from regulation of the transcription of genes via their classical estrogen receptor (ER) pathway. In order to understand the spatiotemporal changes that occur with age, we have studied the expression of ERs in the central auditory pathway in prepubertal and aged CBA mice with immunohistochemistry. In prepubertal mice a clear dichotomy was noted between the expression of ERα and ERβ. ERβ-positive neurons were found in the metencephalon whereas the majority of ERα was found in mesencephalon, diencephalon or the telencephalon. In the aged animals a different pattern of ER expression was found in terms of location and overall intensity. These age-induced changes in the expression pattern were generally not uniform, suggesting that region-specific mechanisms regulate the ERs’ age-related expression. Neither the prepubertal nor the aged animals showed sex differences in any auditory structure. Our results demonstrate different age-dependent spatial and temporal changes in the pattern of expression of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that each ER type may be involved in distinct roles across the central auditory pathway in different periods of maturation. PMID:20736049

  3. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1......), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  4. A Case of Distal Vaginal Agenesis Presenting with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Pyuria in a Prepubertal Girl.

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    Dural, Ozlem; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Yasa, Cenk; Bastu, Ercan; Eren, Hulya; Yuksel, Bahar; Celik, Serdal; Akhan, Suleyman Engin

    2017-02-01

    Isolated distal vaginal agenesis is a rare anomaly and mostly becomes symptomatic after menarche. We describe an unusual presentation of this anomaly in a prepubertal girl. An 11-year-old prepubertal girl presented with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyuria, and right-sided renal agenesis. The findings of perineal inspection, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a distal vaginal agenesis with pyometrocolpos. Discharging pyometrocolpos with dissection of the atretic portion and a pull-through vaginoplasty were performed. A cystoscopy showed no sign of a vesicovaginal or uterine fistula. This rare presentation of distal vaginal agenesis reminds us that congenital malformations of the female genital tract should be considered in patients with congenital anomalies of the urinary system and/or recurrent urinary tract infection, even during the prepubertal period. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How should we treat prepubertal labial adhesions? Retrospective comparison of topical treatments: estrogen only, betamethasone only, and combination estrogen and betamethasone.

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    Eroğlu, Egemen; Yip, Marcus; Oktar, Tayfun; Kayiran, Sinan Mahir; Mocan, Hilal

    2011-12-01

    Labial adhesion is a common finding in prepubertal girls. Traditionally, topical estrogen cream application has been the choice of conservative treatment, however, topical betamethasone treatment has also recently been employed with some success. In this retrospective study, we analysed 131 children with labial adhesions. Eleven of 71 (15.4%) patients were treated successfully with topical estrogen cream only, and 5 of 32 (15.6%) patients were treated successfully with betamethasone cream only. We successfully treated 5 of 28 (28.5%) patients with a combination of estrogen and betamethasone creams. The mean time of treatment for each regimen of therapy was 4 weeks. There was no significance between the single-therapy estrogen and single-therapy betamethasone groups (P = 1.00), between single-therapy estrogen and the combination therapy (P = .16), and the single therapy betamethasone to combination therapy (P = .35) groups. There was also no significant difference between combination estrogen and betamethasone therapy and the combined data of the single therapies (relative risk 1.85; 95% confidence interval 0.89-3.89; P =.11). For the treatment of prepubertal labial adhesions, topical estrogen and betamethasone creams were found to have similar success rates, with limited satisfactory results. The combination therapy was mildly more efficacious than each of the single therapies but was not found to be statistically significant. Surgical separation is recommended if conservative treatment fails. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  6. Urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and subsequent risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.

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    Eliassen, A Heather; Spiegelman, Donna; Xu, Xia; Keefer, Larry K; Veenstra, Timothy D; Barbieri, Robert L; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G

    2012-02-01

    Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolism are hypothesized to be associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk but evidence is limited. We examined 15 urinary estrogens/estrogen metabolites and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). From 1996 to 1999, urine was collected from 18,521 women during the mid-luteal menstrual phase. Breast cancer cases (N = 247) diagnosed between collection and June 2005 were matched to two controls each (N = 485). Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and adjusted for creatinine level. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Higher urinary estrone and estradiol levels were strongly significantly associated with lower risk (top vs. bottom quartile RR: estrone = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.88; estradiol = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.86). Generally inverse, although nonsignificant, patterns also were observed with 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathway estrogen metabolites. Inverse associations generally were not observed with 16-pathway estrogen metabolites and a significant positive association was observed with 17-epiestriol (top vs. bottom quartile RR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.08-2.81; P(trend) = 0.01). In addition, there was a significant increased risk with higher 16-pathway/parent estrogen metabolite ratio (comparable RR = 1.61; 95% CI, 0.99-2.62; P(trend) = 0.04). Other pathway ratios were not significantly associated with risk except parent estrogen metabolites/non-parent estrogen metabolites (comparable RR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96; P(trend) = 0.03). These data suggest that most mid-luteal urinary estrogen metabolite concentrations are not positively associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. The inverse associations with parent estrogen metabolites and the parent estrogen metabolite/non-parent estrogen metabolite ratio

  7. Effects of infantile/prepubertal chronic estrogen treatment and chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine on developing cholinergic nerves of the rat uterus.

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    Richeri, Analía; Viettro, Lorena; Chávez-Genaro, Rebeca; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Cowen, Timothy; Brauer, M Mónica

    2002-06-01

    The innervation of the uterus is remarkable in that it exhibits physiological changes in response to altered levels in the circulating levels of sex hormones. Previous studies by our group showed that chronic administration of estrogen to rats during the infantile/prepubertal period provoked, at 28 days of age, an almost complete loss of norepinephrine-labeled sympathetic nerves, similar to that observed in late pregnancy. It is not known, however, whether early exposure to estrogen affects uterine cholinergic nerves. Similarly, it is not known to what extent development and estrogen-induced responses in the uterine cholinergic innervation are affected by the absence of sympathetic nerves. To address this question, in this study we analyzed the effects of infantile/prepubertal chronic estrogen treatment, chronic chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine, and combined sympathectomy and chronic estrogen treatment on developing cholinergic nerves of the rat uterus. Cholinergic nerves were visualized using a combination of acetylcholinesterase histochemistry and the immunohistochemical demonstration of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). After chronic estrogen treatment, a well-developed plexus of cholinergic nerves was observed in the uterus. Quantitative studies showed that chronic exposure to estrogen induced contrasting responses in uterine cholinergic nerves, increasing the density of large and medium-sized nerve bundles and reducing the intercept density of fine fibers providing myometrial and perivascular innervation. Estrogen-induced changes in the uterine cholinergic innervation did not appear to result from the absence/impairment of sympathetic nerves, because sympathectomy did not mimic the effects produced by estrogen. Estrogen-induced responses in parasympathetic nerves are discussed, considering the direct effects of estrogen on neurons and on changes in neuron-target interactions.

  8. Di(n-butyl phthalate has no effect on the rat prepubertal testis despite its estrogenic activity in vitro

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    Jerzy Długoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP on the rat’s prepubertal testis. Male Wistar rats were given daily subcutaneous injections with DBP (20 or 200 μg or a vehicle from the 5th to the 15th postnatal day (pd. On the 16th pd, the rats were euthanized, and the testes were dissected, weighed, and paraffin embedded. The blood was collected to determine the serum levels of testosterone (T, estradiol (E and FSH. The following parameters were assessed in the testis sections: diameter and length of seminiferous tubules (st, numbers of spermatogonia A + intermediate + B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene + zygotene + pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. An estrogenicity in vitro test was performed by means of a transgenic yeast strain expressing human estrogen receptor alpha. At both doses, DBP had no influence on testis and seminal vesicle weight, st diameter and length, number of germ and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. DBP did not change E, T or FSH serum levels. The in vitro yeast screen showed that DBP was a weak estrogenic compound, approximately six to seven orders of magnitude less potent than 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, exposure of a rat to DBP in doses 100 or 1,000-fold higher than a Tolerable Daily Intake for humans had no effect on its testicular development. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 685–689

  9. Induction of spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rat testes irrespective of testicular steroidogenesis: a possible estrogenic effect of di(n-butyl) phthalate.

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    Alam, Mohammad Shah; Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Zhu, Xiao Bo; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Sone, Hideko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kurohmaru, Masamichi

    2010-02-01

    Although di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), a suspected endocrine disruptor, induces testicular atrophy in prepubertal male rats, whether it exerts estrogenic activity in vivo remains a matter of debate. In the present study, we explored the estrogenic potency of DBP using 3-week-old male rats, and then examined the relationship between estrogen-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis and testicular steroidogenesis. Daily exposure to DBP for 7 days caused testicular atrophy due to loss of spermatogenic cells, whereas testicular steroidogenesis was almost the same with the control values. A single exposure of DBP decreased testicular steroidogenesis in addition to decreasing the level of serum LH at 3 h after DBP treatment, with an extremely high incidence of apoptotic spermatogenic cells at 6 h after administration. To elucidate the estrogenic activity of DBP, we carried out an inhibition study using pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) in a model of spermatogenic cell apoptosis induced by DBP or estradial-3-benzoate (EB). Although both the DBP- and EB-treated groups showed a significant increase in spermatogenic cell apoptosis, ICI pretreatment significantly decreased the number of apoptotic spermatogenic cells in these two groups. In contrast, testicular steroidogenesis and serum FSH were significantly reduced in all the treated groups, even in the DBP+ICI and EB+ICI groups. Taken together, these findings led us to conclude that estrogenic compounds such as DBP and EB induce spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rats, probably by activating estrogen receptors in testis, and that reduction in testicular steroidogenic function induced by estrogenic compounds is not associated with spermatogenic cell apoptosis.

  10. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level.

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    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel; Monteau, Fabrice; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2007-03-14

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born, prepubertal children). In this context, we decided to focus our attention on steroid hormones as they are the most potent endocrine disrupters. Our general goal is to investigate whether the steroid intake through food may represent a risk for prepubertal children, from an endocrine disruption point of view, especially with regard to the corresponding endogenous production level in this target population. As a starting point, it was estimated that a (re)-evaluation of the endogenous production of natural estrogens for this population was necessary, on the basis of a very sensitive and specific confirmatory measurement technique (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry). Thus, a new ultra-sensitive approach for steroid trace measurement in biological samples was developed, which was mainly based on a specific derivatisation (pentafluorobenzyl derivative) and negative chemical ionisation (NCI). Preliminary results obtained by applying this method on plasma samples from healthy prepubertal children demonstrated that estradiol endogenous level in prepubertal children is unsurprisingly very low. Estrone was determined in almost all samples at concentration in the 2-70 ng L(-1) range while 17alpha and 17beta estradiol were quantified in only few samples at concentrations ranging from 2 to 6 ng L(-1). Exogenous contributions of estrogens will therefore constitute a relatively higher proportion of sex hormone activity in the immature child.

  11. Caffeine, coffee and tea intake and urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women

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    Sisti, Julia S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Gu, Fangyi; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Rosner, Bernard; Xu, Xia; Ziegler, Regina; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found weak inverse associations between breast cancer and caffeine and coffee intake, possibly mediated through their effects on sex hormones. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify levels of 15 individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among 587 premenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study II with mid-luteal phase urine samples and caffeine, coffee and/or tea intakes from self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to estimate geometric means of individual EM, pathways and ratios by intake categories, and P-values for tests of linear trend. Results Compared to women in the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption, those in the top quartile had higher urinary concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (28% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 16-epiestriol (13% difference; P-trend=0.04), and a decreased parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathway ratio (P-trend=0.03). Coffee intake was associated with higher 2-catechols, including 2-hydroxyestradiol (57% difference, ≥4 cups/day vs. ≤6 cups/week; P-trend=0.001) and 2-hydroxyestrone (52% difference; P-trend=0.001), and several ratio measures. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with 2-pathway metabolism, but women in the highest (vs. lowest) category of intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1–3 cups/month) had significantly lower levels of two 16-pathway metabolites, estriol (25% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 17-epiestriol (48% difference; Ptrend=0.0004). Tea intake was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (52% difference; Ptrend=0.01). Conclusion Caffeine and coffee intake were both associated with profiles of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Impact Consumption of caffeine and coffee may alter patterns of premenopausal estrogen metabolism. PMID:26063478

  12. Estrogen therapy in older patients with recurrent urinary tract infections: a review.

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    Rozenberg, S; Pastijn, A; Gevers, R; Murillo, D

    2004-01-01

    Although urogenital complaints, such as recurrent lower urinary tract infections (UTI), and dysuria, are commonly encountered in elderly women, few women have participated in randomized studies of estrogen therapy for this condition. This is a paradox in view of the often cited beneficial effect of estrogen in reducing the incidence of UTI. Present evidence documents that in postmenopausal women, hormone replacement therapy using topical estrogen normalizes the vaginal flora and greatly reduces the risk of vaginal atrophy. Similarly, vaginal estrogen administration seems to be effective for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI).

  13. Comparison of metabolic ratios of urinary estrogens between benign and malignant thyroid tumors in postmenopausal women

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    2013-01-01

    Background Estrogen metabolism may be associated with the pathophysiological development of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods To evaluate the differential estrogen metabolism between benign and malignant PTCs, estrogen profiling by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was applied to urine samples from postmenopausal patients with 9 benign tumors and 18 malignant stage I and III/IV PTCs. Results The urinary concentration of 2-methoxyestradiol was significantly lower in the stage I malignant patients (3.5-fold; P 3.5-fold difference; P estrogen metabolism could provide potential biomarkers. The devised profiles could be useful for differentiating malignant thyroid carcinomas from benign adenomas in postmenopausal women. PMID:24156385

  14. Body size in relation to urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among premenopausal women during the luteal phase.

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    Xie, Jing; Eliassen, A Heather; Xu, Xia; Matthews, Charles E; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen metabolism profiles may play an important role in the relationship between body size and breast carcinogenesis. Previously, we observed inverse associations between current body mass index (BMI) and plasma levels of parent estrogens (estrone and estradiol) among premenopausal women during both follicular and luteal phases. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study II, we assessed whether height, current BMI, and BMI at age 18 were associated with the urinary concentrations of 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites (jointly referred to as EM) measured during the luteal phase among 603 premenopausal women. We observed inverse associations with total EM for height (P (trend) = 0.01) and current BMI (P (trend) = 0.01), but not BMI at age 18 (P (trend) = 0.26). Six EMs were 18-27% lower in women with a height 68+ versus ≤62 in., primarily in the methylated catechol pathway (P (trend) = 0.04). Eight EMs were 18-50% lower in women with a BMI of 30+ versus estrogen metabolism profiles in premenopausal women. Further studies with timed urine and blood collections are required to confirm and extend our findings.

  15. Urinary estrogen metabolites and self-reported infertility in women infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

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    Júlio Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in 76 countries, that afflicts more than 240 million people. The impact of schistosomiasis on infertility may be underestimated according to recent literature. Extracts of Schistosoma haematobium include estrogen-like metabolites termed catechol-estrogens that down regulate estrogen receptors alpha and beta in estrogen responsive cells. In addition, schistosome derived catechol-estrogens induce genotoxicity that result in estrogen-DNA adducts. These catechol estrogens and the catechol-estrogen-DNA adducts can be isolated from sera of people infected with S. haematobium. The aim of this study was to study infertility in females infected with S. haematobium and its association with the presence of schistosome-derived catechol-estrogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken of female residents of a region in Bengo province, Angola, endemic for schistosomiasis haematobia. Ninety-three women and girls, aged from two (parents interviewed to 94 years were interviewed on present and previous urinary, urogenital and gynecological symptoms and complaints. Urine was collected from the participants for egg-based parasitological assessment of schistosome infection, and for liquid chromatography diode array detection electron spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/UV-DAD/ESI-MSn to investigate estrogen metabolites in the urine. Novel estrogen-like metabolites, potentially of schistosome origin, were detected in the urine of participants who were positive for eggs of S. haematobium, but not detected in urines negative for S. haematobium eggs. The catechol-estrogens/ DNA adducts were significantly associated with schistosomiasis (OR 3.35; 95% CI 2.32-4.84; P≤0.001. In addition, presence of these metabolites was positively associated with infertility (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.13-16.70; P≤0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Estrogen metabolites occur widely in diverse

  16. Urinary estrogen metabolites and self-reported infertility in women infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

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    Santos, Júlio; Gouveia, Maria João; Vale, Nuno; Delgado, Maria de Lurdes; Gonçalves, Ana; da Silva, José M Teixeira; Oliveira, Cristiano; Xavier, Pedro; Gomes, Paula; Santos, Lúcio L; Lopes, Carlos; Barros, Alberto; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Brindley, Paul J; da Costa, José M Correia; Sousa, Mário; Botelho, Mónica C

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in 76 countries, that afflicts more than 240 million people. The impact of schistosomiasis on infertility may be underestimated according to recent literature. Extracts of Schistosoma haematobium include estrogen-like metabolites termed catechol-estrogens that down regulate estrogen receptors alpha and beta in estrogen responsive cells. In addition, schistosome derived catechol-estrogens induce genotoxicity that result in estrogen-DNA adducts. These catechol estrogens and the catechol-estrogen-DNA adducts can be isolated from sera of people infected with S. haematobium. The aim of this study was to study infertility in females infected with S. haematobium and its association with the presence of schistosome-derived catechol-estrogens. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of female residents of a region in Bengo province, Angola, endemic for schistosomiasis haematobia. Ninety-three women and girls, aged from two (parents interviewed) to 94 years were interviewed on present and previous urinary, urogenital and gynecological symptoms and complaints. Urine was collected from the participants for egg-based parasitological assessment of schistosome infection, and for liquid chromatography diode array detection electron spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/UV-DAD/ESI-MSn) to investigate estrogen metabolites in the urine. Novel estrogen-like metabolites, potentially of schistosome origin, were detected in the urine of participants who were positive for eggs of S. haematobium, but not detected in urines negative for S. haematobium eggs. The catechol-estrogens/ DNA adducts were significantly associated with schistosomiasis (OR 3.35; 95% CI 2.32-4.84; P≤0.001). In addition, presence of these metabolites was positively associated with infertility (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.13-16.70; P≤0.05). Estrogen metabolites occur widely in diverse metabolic pathways. In view of the statistically significant association between

  17. Effect of diet on fecal and urinary estrogenic activity.

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    Tucker, H A; Knowlton, K F; Meyer, M T; Khunjar, W O; Love, N G

    2010-05-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified estrogens from animal feeding operations as a major environmental concern, but few data are available to quantify the excretion of estrogenic compounds by dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to quantify variation in estrogenic activity in feces and urine due to increased dietary inclusion of phytoestrogens. Ten Holstein heifers were assigned to 2 groups balanced for age and days pregnant; groups were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a 2-period crossover design. Dietary treatments consisted of grass hay or red clover hay, and necessary supplements. Total collection allowed for sampling of feed refusals, feces, and urine during the last 4 d of each period. Feces and urine samples were pooled by heifer and period, and base extracts were analyzed for estrogenic activity (estrogen equivalents) using the yeast estrogen screen bioassay. Feces and urine samples collected from 5 heifers were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify excretion of 7 phytoestrogenic compounds. Excretion of 17-beta estradiol equivalents in urine was higher and tended to be higher in feces for heifers fed red clover hay (84.4 and 120.2 mg/d for feces and urine, respectively) compared with those fed grass hay (57.4 and 35.6 mg/d). Analysis by LC-MS/MS indicated greater fecal excretion of equol, genistein, daidzein, coumestrol, and formononetin by heifers fed red clover hay (1634, 29.9, 96.3, 27.8, and 163 mg/d, respectively) than heifers fed grass hay (340, 3.0, 46.2, 8.8, and 18.3 mg/d, respectively). Diet had no effect on fecal biochanin A or 2-carbethoxy-5, 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone. Four phytoestrogens were detected in urine (2-carbethoxy-5, 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone, daidzein, equol, and formononetin) and their excretion was not affected by diet. Identifying sources of variation in estrogenic activity of manure will aid in the

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise on urinary estrogens and progestagens in pre and postmenopausal women.

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    Robles Gil, María Concepción; Timón, R; Toribio, A F; Muñoz, D; Maynar, J I; Caballero, M J; Maynar, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of 6 months of aerobic exercise on urinary excretion of female steroid hormones in pre and postmenopausal women and to check the basal values of urinary steroid. To this end, 20 premenopausal (age 45.56 ± 4.06 years) and 20 postmenopausal (age 52.27 ± 3.80 years) women, all sedentary, were studied before and after a supervised 6-month exercise training program (at 60-70% of maximal heart rate, 60 min/day, 3 days/week), based on aerobic dance. The exercise included standing on one leg, squatting, walking, and touching their heels. Before and after the program, anthropometric data and VO(2max) were measured and urine samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/Q-MS). Both, pre and postmenopausal women, improved their VO(2max) after the aerobic exercise program. Regarding the urinary steroids, on the one hand, important differences were observed between urinary estrogens and progestagens in pre and postmenopausal women in basal values. Estrone (P exercise program did not affect postmenopausal women in the same way as premenopausal women. After the exercise program, no changes in urinary steroid levels were observed in premenopausal women. However, the aerobic exercise program caused an increase in urinary excretion of pregnanediol (P < 0.05) and pregnanetriol (P < 0.05) in postmenopausal women.

  19. Effect of estrogens on urinary /sup 15/N balance in girls

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    Zachmann, M.; Kempken, B.; Prader, A. (Zurich Univ. (Switzerland))

    1984-08-01

    While the anabolic and growth-promoting effects of testosterone are known to be important for pubertal growth in boys, the role of estrogens (E) in the female spurt is less certain. Adrenal androgens have been considered to be more important than ovarian E. To study the anabolic effects of E, there has been carried out a pilot study in 9 girls aged 11 to 15 years. Before and 6 days after the start of E treatment, urinary /sup 15/N balance studies were performed, using /sup 15/NH/sub 4/Cl.

  20. Urinary excretion rates of natural estrogens and androgens from humans, and their occurrence and fate in the environment: a review.

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    Liu, Ze-Hua; Kanjo, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2009-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are pollutants with estrogenic or androgenic activities at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. For sewage of municipal wastewater treatment plants in cities, one of the most important sources of EDCs are natural estrogens and natural androgens (NEAs) excreted from humans. Therefore, estrogenic/androgenic potencies or relative binding affinity of the NEAs were first outlined from different sources, and data of urinary excretion rates of NEAs were summarized. To evaluate their estrogenic activities, their excretion rates of estrogen equivalent (EEQ) or testosterone (T) equivalent (TEQ) were also calculated. Based on our summary, the total excretion rates of EEQ by estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) only accounted for 66-82% of the total excretion rate of EEQ among four different groups, and the other corresponding natural estrogens contributed 18-34%, which meant that some of the other natural estrogens may also exist in wastewater with high estrogenic activities. Based on the contribution ratio of individual androgens to the total excretion rate of TEQ, five out of 12 natural androgens, T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AD), 5beta-androstanediol (beta-ADL), and androstenediol (ANL) were evaluated as the priority natural androgens, which may exist in wastewater with high androgenic activities. Published data on occurrence and fate of the NEAs including natural estrogen conjugates in the environment were also summarized here.

  1. Constant expression of cyclooxygenase-2 gene in prostate and the lower urinary tract of estrogen-treated male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C; Strauss, L; Ristimäki, A; Streng, T; Santti, R

    2001-01-01

    Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (E. C. 1.14.99.1) in prostate and the lower urinary tract (LUT) of the neonatally estrogenized male rat has been studied by using a COX-2's PCR fragment of 724 nt spanning 3 introns and a 478nt internal standard for quantitative RT-PCR. The same fragment of 724 nt was used for RNA probe in Northern hybridization. Neonatal estrogenization (10 microg/day of diethylstilbestrol on days 1-5) had no effect on COX-2 expression in prostatic urethra, prostatic lobes, or bladder. Acute estrogen treatment of castrated animals did not induce COX-2 expression, either. In addition the differential expression of basal level of COX-2 in the different lobes of prostate in normal rat was demonstrated. Our results suggest a constant expression of COX-2 gene in prostate and the lower urinary tract of the neonatally estrogenized (neoDES) rats. The present study indicates that the increased expression of COX-2 is probably not essential for the estrogen-driven development of stromal inflammation or hyperplastic and dysplastic alterations in the prostate of neoDES rats.

  2. Urinary profiles of luteinizing hormone, estrogen and progestagen during the estrous and gestational periods in giant pandas (Ailuropda melanoleuca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kailai; Yie, Shangmian; Zhang, Zhihe; Wang, Juan; Cai, Zhigang; Luo, Li; Liu, Yuliang; Wang, Hairui; Huang, He; Wang, Chengdong; Huang, Xiangming; Lan, Jingchao; Hou, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is one of the main pituitary hormones that regulate ovulation, however its role has not been studied in giant panda. In this study, we developed an ELISA method for the detection of panda urinary LH. We analyzed urinary hormones of 24 female pandas during 36 breeding periods, we found females could easily be impregnated if the first mating occurred within 10 hours after LH peak. We also found the patterns of the ratios of urinary LH and progestagen in pandas that bred and successfully gave birth were significantly different from those that bred but failed to give birth. These data was the first to provide the urinary LH profiles during the estrous and gestational periods in pandas, and demonstrated that the appearance of the urinary LH peak indicated the timing of ovulation. The LH detection together with estrogen analysis makes the window for successful mating narrower than previously reported. Moreover, detection of urinary LH and progestagen can be used to discriminate between pregnancies and pseudopregnancies/miscarriages in the species. Thus, our findings suggest that LH not only plays a critical role in regulating ovulation but also plays an important role in maintaining pregnancy in the giant panda. PMID:28091600

  3. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Derek V; Lipson, Natasha; Korach, Kenneth S; Bloch, Clifford A

    2007-02-01

    Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.

  4. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, Mette

    1980-01-01

    Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean c...

  5. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born......, especially with regard to the corresponding endogenous production level in this target population. As a starting point, it was estimated that a (re)-evaluation of the endogenous production of natural estrogens for this population was necessary, on the basis of a very sensitive and specific confirmatory...

  6. A novel GC-MS method in urinary estrogen analysis from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Kwang Joon; Moon, Myeong Hee; Chung, Bong Chul; Choi, Man Ho

    2011-08-01

    Estrogen metabolites play important roles in the development of female-related disorders and homeostasis of the bone. To improve detectability, a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was conducted with two-phase extractive ethoxycarbonlyation (EOC) and subsequent pentafluoropropionyl (PFP) derivatization was introduced. The resulting samples were separated through a high-temperature MXT-1 column within an 8 min run and were detected in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The optimized analytical conditions led to good separation with a symmetric peak shape for 19 estrogens as their EOC-PFP derivatives. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was from 0.02 to ∼0.1 ng/ml for most estrogens analyzed, except for 2-hydroxyestriol (0.5 ng/ml). The devised method was found to be linear (r² > 0.995) in the range from the LOQ to 40 ng/ml, whereas the precision (% CV) and accuracy (% bias) ranged from 1.4 to 10.5% and from 91.4 to 108.5%, respectively. The good sensitivity and selectivity of this method even allowed quantification of the estrogen metabolites in urine samples obtained from the postmenopausal female patients with osteoporosis. The present technique can be useful for clinical diagnosis as well as to better understand the pathogenesis of estrogen-related disorders in low-level quantification.

  7. [EPIDIDYMO-ORCHITIS IN PREPUBERTAL CHILDREN--PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, SUGGESTED DIAGNOSIS ALGORITHM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halachmi, Sarel

    2015-12-01

    Gonadal inflammation (GI) is a common disease that may affect prepubertal boys. Neonates may suffer from bacterial infection due to congenital or aging processes affecting the urinary tract. This inflammatory process is also prevalent in prepubertal boys. However, in this group, the etiology, the needed imaging modalities and proper management have not yet been clearly defined. This manuscript will systematically review the various etiologies causing GI in pre-pubertal boys, discuss the proper imaging needed, and image interpretation and will provide treatment and follow-up recommendations.

  8. Major cardiac surgery induces an increase in sex steroids in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Matthias; d'Uscio, Claudia H; de Laffolie, Jan; Neuhaeuser, Christoph; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Thul, Josef; Schranz, Dietmar; Frey, Brigitte M

    2014-03-01

    While the neuroprotective benefits of estrogen and progesterone in critical illness are well established, the data regarding the effects of androgens are conflicting. Surgical repair of congenital heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but there are scant data regarding the postoperative metabolism of sex steroids in this setting. The objective of this prospective observational study was to compare the postoperative sex steroid patterns in pediatric patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (MCS) versus those undergoing less intensive non-cardiac surgery. Urinary excretion rates of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen metabolites (μg/mmol creatinine/m(2) body surface area) were determined in 24-h urine samples before and after surgery using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 29 children undergoing scheduled MCS and in 17 control children undergoing conventional non-cardiac surgery. Eight of the MCS patients had Down's syndrome. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the groups. Seven patients from the MCS group showed multi-organ dysfunction after surgery. Before surgery, the median concentrations of 17β-estradiol, pregnanediol, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were (control/MCS) 0.1/0.1 (NS), 12.4/11.3 (NS), 4.7/4.4 (NS), and 2.9/1.1 (p=0.02). Postoperatively, the median delta 17β-estradiol, delta pregnanediol, delta DHT, and delta DHEA were (control/MCS) 0.2/6.4 (p=0.0002), -3.2/23.4 (p=0.013), -0.6/3.7 (p=0.0004), and 0.5/4.2 (p=0.004). Postoperative changes did not differ according to sex. We conclude that MCS, but not less intensive non-cardiac surgery, induced a distinct postoperative increase in sex steroid levels. These findings suggest that sex steroids have a role in postoperative metabolism following MCS in prepubertal children.

  9. Sexual development of prepubertal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, H. de; Rademakers, J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of childhood sexuality are scarce and often focus on sexual abuse. In this review, an attempt is made to establish what is known, from empirical studies, about sexual behaviors (solitary and interpersonal) and feelings in pre-pubertal boys and girls. In addition, the research methods used wi

  10. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities......No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  11. Synergistic Effect of Vaginal Trauma and Ovariectomy in a Murine Model of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Upregulation of Urethral Nitric Oxide Synthases and Estrogen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Yi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying stress urinary incontinence (SUI are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the molecular alterations in mice urethras following vaginal trauma and ovariectomy (OVX. Twenty-four virgin female mice were equally distributed into four groups: noninstrumented control; vaginal distension (VD group; OVX group; and VD + OVX group. Changes in leak point pressures (LPPs, genital tract morphology, body weight gain, plasma 17β-estradiol level and expressions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and estrogen receptors (ERs—ERα and ERβ were analyzed. Three weeks after VD, the four groups differed significantly in genital size and body weight gain. Compared with the control group, the plasma estradiol levels were significantly decreased in the OVX and VD + OVX groups, and LPPs were significantly decreased in all three groups. nNOS, iNOS, and ERα expressions in the urethra were significantly increased in the VD and VD + OVX groups, whereas ERβ expression was significantly increased only in the VD + OVX group. These results show that SUI following vaginal trauma and OVX involves urethral upregulations of nNOS, iNOS, and ERs, suggesting that NO- and ER-mediated signaling might play a role in the synergistic effect of birth trauma and OVX-related SUI pathogenesis.

  12. The pelvic floor muscles: muscle thickness in healthy and urinary-incontinent women measured by perineal ultrasonography with reference to the effect of pelvic floor training. Estrogen receptor studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen

    1997-01-01

    depends on the structural components in the urethral wall, the position of the bladder neck and proximal urethra, the periurethral striated muscles, and the pelvic floor muscles. By means of pudendal blockade and simultaneous recordings of pressure and cross-sectional area in the urethra, it has been...... demonstrated that the striated periurethral muscles and the pelvic floor muscles are of paramount importance for the closure function. This emphasizes the importance of well-functioning pelvic floor muscles to obtain continence, and probably explains the rationale for the effect of pelvic floor training...... in treating urinary incontinence. This study presents a review of the literature on female urinary incontinence, continence mechanisms, pelvic floor muscles, and pelvic floor training. Furthermore, a review of the literature on estrogen receptors in the pelvic floor muscles is given. Perineal ultrasonography...

  13. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have...... important biological roles in prepubertal children....

  14. 外源性雌激素苯甲酸雌二醇对青春期前雄性大鼠生殖系统的影响%Influence of extrinsic estrogen estradiol benzoate on the reproductive system of prepubertal male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季加芬; 李会丽; 杨培培; 赵月华; 刘长云

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To observe the influence of extrinsic estrogen on the reproductive system of prepubertal male rats.[Methods] A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into high dose group,low dose group and control group.E2B was administered through gastric tube in male rats with 15 000 μg/kg,15μg/kg,0 μg/kg,dose respectively.One time every two days,after three weeks,normal breeding to ninth weeks,then put to death and draw materials,and measured corresponding index.[Results] Compared with control group,T concentration of low dose decreased(P<0.05),but FSH,LH and E2 concentration increased,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01).Four kinds of hormone of high dose changed more apparent(P<0.01).In two experimental group,the differences of T,FSH,LH and E2 concentration had statistical significances (P<0.05).The testicular reproductive small tube and AGD of two experimental group were both abnormal changed,but changes in high dose group were more obvious than those in low group.[Conclusion] EES can change the normal serum sex hormone levels and reproductive small tube of preadolescence male rats.%[目的]观察外源性雌激素对青春期前雄性大鼠生殖系统的影响. [方法]将45只大鼠随机分为用高、低剂量组和对照组,苯甲酸雌二醇(E2B)染毒剂量分别为15 000 μg/kg、15 μg/kg,0 μg/kg灌胃摄入,对照组给予同等体积玉米油,隔日1次,在分别作用3个周后正常饲养至生后9周,处死取材,测定相应指标. [结果] 与对照组相比,低剂量组睾酮(testosterone,T)浓度降低(P<0.05),卵泡刺激素(follicle-stimulating hormone,FSH)、黄体生成素(luteinizing hormone,LH)及雌二醇(estrodiol,E2)浓度升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).高剂量组4种激素水平改变更显著(P<0.01).另外,两实验组相比,T、FSH、LH及E2浓度的差异也有统计学意义(P<0.05).两实验组睾丸生殖小管、肛生殖距(AGD)均有异常改变,高剂量

  15. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Hegedus, L.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.;

    2009-01-01

    . DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound...... significantly associated with TV. Family history of thyroid disease and presence of incidental abnormal ultrasound findings were also positively associated with TV (P = 0.025 and 0.022, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of prepubertal Danish children, the GH/IGF-I-axis was positively correlated......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children...

  16. Prepubertal exposure to cow’s milk reduces susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Tina S.; Khan, Galam; Davis, Jennifer; Michels, Karin B; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Cow’s milk contains high levels of estrogens, progesterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), all of which are associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether prepubertal milk exposure affects mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were given either whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) on P...

  17. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  18. Segregated responses of mammary gland development and vaginal opening to prepubertal genistein exposure in Bscl2(-/-) female mice with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E; Chen, Weiqin; Dudley, Elizabeth A; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2015-07-01

    Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2-deficient (Bscl2(-/-)) mice recapitulate human BSCL2 disease with lipodystrophy. Bscl2-encoded seipin is detected in adipocytes and epithelium of mammary gland. Postnatal mammary gland growth spurt and vaginal opening signify pubertal onset in female mice. Bscl2(-/-) females have longer and dilated mammary gland ducts at 5-week old and delayed vaginal opening. Prepubertal exposure to 500ppm genistein diet increases mammary gland area and accelerates vaginal opening in both control and Bscl2(-/-) females. However, genistein treatment increases ductal length in control but not Bscl2(-/-) females. Neither prepubertal genistein treatment nor Bscl2-deficiency affects phospho-estrogen receptor α or progesterone receptor expression patterns in 5-week old mammary gland. Interestingly, Bscl2-deficiency specifically reduces estrogen receptor β expression in mammary gland ductal epithelium. In summary, Bscl2(-/-) females have accelerated postnatal mammary ductal development but delayed vaginal opening; they display segregated responses in mammary gland development and vaginal opening to prepubertal genistein treatment.

  19. Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Urinary Estrogen Metabolites and Their Genetic Determinants: A Study Within the Dutch "DOM" Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    methoxy metabolites of E1 and E2 2) examine relationship of polymorphic variants of genes encoding estrogen-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1 ...exhaustive catalog of polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP1B1 , CYP3A4 and COMT genes by searching the literature, and by DHPLC analysis. Complete... CYP1B1 , and CYP3A4. Furthermore, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is a key enzyme in the methoxylation of 2- and 4- hydroxyl groups, thus leading to

  20. Urinary growth hormone excretion as a screening test for growth hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.M.; Wood, P. J.; Williamson, S.; Betts, P. R.; Evans, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Overnight urinary growth hormone secretion was measured by an immunoradiometric assay incorporating commercially available reagents, in 41 normal prepubertal school-children from three age groups: 3-5 years, 6-7 years, and 9-10 years. There was no significant difference between the groups expressing the results as total microU/specimen and so they have been combined to provide a prepubertal reference range of 2.25-10.50 microU/night. Prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency who had...

  1. Prepubertal testicular tumors: Our 10 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular tumors in the pediatric population are distinct from those of the adults. In contrast to the prevalence data reported in tumor registries, several studies have shown that a majority of the prepubertal testis tumors are benign. We retrospectively analyzed a series of prepubertal testicular tumors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all testicular tumors at our institution was done from Jan 1999 to Dec 2008. Data relating to presentation, evaluation, and management were collected. Results: A total of 22 children with prepubertal testicular tumors were identified. The mean age at presentation was 4.6 years. Mature teratoma, epidermoid cysts, immature teratoma, and yolk sac tumor accounted for 49.94%, 13.62%, 9.08%, and 18.16%, respectively. All surgeries were successful with respect to cancer control and testicular preservation. Conclusions: Benign tumors formed the majority (72.64% of the tumors that were encountered, with yolk sac tumors (18.16% being a minority. Testicular preserving surgery appears to be a feasible option for benign tumors and is safe and efficacious in long-term follow-up.

  2. Evaluation of Follicular Synchronization Caused by Estrogen Administration and Its Reproductive Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bi; Shi, Yan; Gong, Xia; Yu, Lin; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Jian; Sun, Zhaogui

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10μg/gBW) leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation. PMID:26010950

  3. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G. M.; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  4. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G M; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  5. The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-12-01

    The female genital and lower urinary tracts share a common embryological origin, arising from the urogenital sinus and both are sensitive to the effects of the female sex steroid hormones throughout life. Estrogen is known to have an important role in the function of the lower urinary tract and estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the vagina, urethra, bladder and pelvic floor musculature. In addition estrogen deficiency occurring following the menopause is known to cause atrophic change and may be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms such as frequency, urgency, nocturia, urgency incontinence and recurrent infection. These may also co-exist with symptoms of urogenital atrophy such as dyspareunia, itching, vaginal burning and dryness. Epidemiological studies have implicated estrogen deficiency in the aetiology of lower urinary tract symptoms with 70% of women relating the onset of urinary incontinence to their final menstrual period. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the lower urinary tract and to review the current evidence regarding the role of systemic and vaginal estrogens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and urogenital atrophy.

  6. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto Erika K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrients, hormones and growth factors in dairy foods may stimulate growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, and raise the ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein, IGFBP-3. We conducted pilot studies in Mongolia and Massachusetts to test the extent to which milk intake raised somatotropic hormone concentrations in prepubertal children. Methods In Ulaanbaatar, we compared plasma levels before and after introducing 710 ml daily whole milk for a month among 46 10–11 year old schoolchildren. In a randomized cross-over study in Boston, we compared plasma hormone levels of 28 6–8 year old girls after one week of drinking 710 ml lowfat (2% milk with their hormone levels after one week of consuming a macronutrient substitute for milk. Results After a month of drinking whole milk, Mongolian children had higher mean plasma levels of IGF-I (p th percentile of GH levels (p = 0.005. After a week of drinking lowfat milk, Boston girls had small and non-significant increases in IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and GH. Conclusion Milk drinking may cause increases in somatotropic hormone levels of prepubertal girls and boys. The finding that milk intake may raise GH levels is novel, and suggests that nutrients or bioactive factors in milk may stimulate endogenous GH production.

  7. Prepubertal exposure to cow's milk reduces susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Khan, Galam; Davis, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk contains high levels of estrogens, progesterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), all of which are associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether prepubertal milk exposure affects mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either...... whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on PND 50. Milk exposure increased circulating E2 levels on PND 25 by 10-fold (p vaginal...... or apoptosis were seen. IGF-1 mRNA levels were reduced on PND 50 in the mammary glands of rats exposed to milk at puberty. Our results suggest that drinking milk before puberty reduces later risk of developing mammary cancer in rats. This might be mediated by a reduction in the number of TEBs and lower...

  8. Estradiol levels in prepubertal boys and girls--analytical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2004-01-01

    Increasing evidence points at an important function of low concentrations of estradiol (E2) in prepubertal boys and girls. E2 serum levels in prepubertal children are, however, often immeasurable in conventional E2 assays. This strongly hampers further investigation of the physiological relevance...... of analysis are examined and their applicability for evaluation of low E2 serum concentrations in children is estimated. Furthermore, available data on E2 levels in prepubertal boys and girls are evaluated and discussed, taking into consideration the limitations of the methods of analysis. In conclusion...

  9. Betamethasone cream for the treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jeremy B; Sorensen, Carsten M; Wisner, Benjamin P; Furness, Peter D; Passamaneck, Michelle; Koyle, Martin A

    2006-12-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of 0.05% betamethasone cream for the treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 19 children with labial adhesions who were treated with betamethasone cream from 6/2001 to 3/2003. Children were treated with 1 to 3 courses of twice-daily 0.05% betamethasone cream for 4 to 6 weeks. Successful lysis of adhesions was assessed by clinical exam or parental phone contact and outcomes were defined as: (1) success--complete separation of labia, (2) partial success--greater than 75% separation, (3) progression to surgical lysis, and (4) lost to follow-up. Nineteen patients with an average age of 58 months (range 12 to 132 months) were treated. Four of the 19 patients had never been treated previously and 1 had been treated previously with surgical lysis of adhesions only. Fourteen of the 19 patients had been previously treated with conjugated estrogen (Premarin) cream. Two of these fourteen patients had also undergone surgical lysis of adhesions. Severity of adhesions ranged from 33% to 99% labial closure. Betamethasone cream was successful in treating 13/19 (68%) pre-pubertal labial adhesions. Eleven (85%) of these 13 patients had complete resolution of labial adhesions with 1 course of treatment, 1 (7.5%) had resolution with 2 courses of treatment and 1 (7.5%) had resolution with 3 courses of treatment. One patient had a partial success with 3 courses of betamethasone cream. Two (11%) patients underwent surgical lysis of adhesion after 1 and 2 courses of betamethasone cream respectively. Three (16%) patients were lost to follow-up. Average follow-up was 7 months (range 1-24 months). No adverse outcomes or untoward effects were noted in any of the patients treated. Betamethasone 0.05% cream appears to be a safe and effective treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions as primary therapy or in patients that have failed previous therapies and it may avoid the undesirable side effects of breast budding and

  10. Effects of zearalenone in prepubertal gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia C. Teixeira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Prepubertal gilts were fed with a diet containing zearalenone (ZEA in a concentration of 0.75 mg/kg for 21 days. The effects of this mycotoxin on morphologic aspects of the reproductive tract as well as on complete blood count (CBC, serum biochemistry analysis (SBA and humoral immune response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC were evaluated. There was a significant increase (P<0.05 on the reproductive tract weight, vulvar area, height of the epithelial cells of endometrial glands and uterine mucosa. These results showed the ability of this nonsteroidal mycotoxin in mimicking actions of 17β estradiol at the concentration of 0.75mg/kg. No changes in weight gain, CBC, SBA parameters and humoral response against SRBC were observed.

  11. 妊娠晚期雌、孕激素及其受体表达与压力性尿失禁的关系%Correlation of serum estrogen and progesterone levels and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors with stress urinary incontinence in late pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴氢凯; 毛笑园; 姜丽; 冯洁; 罗来敏; 惠宁

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究妊娠晚期血清雌、孕激素水平及盆底组织雌、孕激素受体表达与压力性尿失禁(SUI)的关系.方法 将阴道分娩的初产妇女71例分为SUI组(n=33)和非SUI组(n=38),于孕36~40周检测血清雌二醇(E2)、雌三醇(E3)、孕酮(P)水平.SUI组中的20例和非SUI组中的31例于胎儿娩出后,取会阴侧切口顶端最深部肌肉组织行病理组织学和超微结构观察,选取3例因外阴癌、直肠癌行手术治疗的女性非妊娠患者作为对照.采用免疫组织化学方法检测盆底组织雌激素受体(ER)和孕激素受体(PR)表达.结果 SUI组与非SUI组孕妇血清E2和E3水平比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);SUI组孕妇血清P的质量浓度小于非SUI组[(184.7±48.2)μg/L和(223.2±93.5)μg/L](P<0.05).病理组织学及超微结构观察均发现,妊娠晚期妇女会阴深部平滑肌细胞有不同程度的空泡变性,肌纤维变细,细胞间质水肿.非SUI组平滑肌细胞ER和PR的强阳性表达率均显著高于SUI组(P<0.05);盆底横纹肌细胞不表达ER和PR.结论 雌激素和孕激素对妊娠期盆底结构和功能均起到保护作用.%Objective To investigate the correlation of serum estrogen and progesterone levels and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in pelvic floor tissues with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in late pregnancy.Methods Seventy-one pregnant primiparas undergoing vaginal delivery were divided into SUI group ( n = 33) and non-SUI group ( n = 38), and serum levels of estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and progesterone (P) were detected at gestational week 36 to 40.Muscular tissue samples were obtained from the top of lateral incision of perineum from 20 cases in SUI group and 31 cases in non-SUI group after delivery, and pathohistological and ultrastructure observations were performed.Another 3 nonpregnant female patients with carcinoma of vulva or rectum cancer undergoing surgery were served as controls.The expression of

  12. Estrogenic activity of flavonoids in mice. The importance of estrogen receptor distribution, metabolism and bioavailability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke; Hossaini, A.; Svendsen, Gitte W.

    2000-01-01

    to subsequently encountered estrogens. Oral administration of equol, genistein, biochanin A and daidzein to 6-week-old female mice revealed a great variation in their systemic bioavailability. The urinary recovery of equol was thus over 90% of a single gavage administered dose, whereas the urinary recoveries...... of biochanin A, genistein and daidzein were 16, 11 and 3%, respectively. Most of the metabolites were either hydroxylated or dehydrogenated forms of the parent compounds. The in vitro estrogenic potency of some of the metabolites was greater than that of the parent compounds, whereas others were of similar...... or lower potency. Bioavailability, metabolism, the ability to alter ER alpha distribution in the uterus and the estrogenic potential of parent compound and metabolites may thus contribute to the differences in in vivo estrogenicity of dietary flavonoids....

  13. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  14. Mass spectrometry evidence for formation of estrogen-homocysteine conjugates: estrogens can regulate homocysteine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2013-12-01

    Homocysteine (HCys), a sulfur-containing amino acid, is formed during the metabolism of methionine. An imbalance between the rate of production and the use of HCys during methionine metabolism can result in an increase in the plasma and urinary levels of HCys. HCys has been shown to be toxic to vascular endothelial cells through several pathways. Many earlier clinical studies have revealed an association between plasma HCys and cardiovascular and other diseases. In contrast, estrogens are suggested to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. Several studies indicate that estrogen metabolites could be responsible for cardiovascular protection. It has been demonstrated that electrophilic estrogen quinones, E1(E2)-2,3-Q and E1(E2)-3,4-Q, can alkylate DNA as well as form conjugates with glutathione. I hypothesize that estrogen quinones generated in situ by oxidative enzymes, metal ions, or molecular oxygen can interact with HCys to form conjugates. This in turn could lower the levels of toxic HCys as well as quenching the reactive estrogen quinones, resulting in cardiovascular protective effects. To test the feasibility of a protective estrogen-HCys pathway, estrogen quinones were treated with HCys. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the assay mixture shows the formation of estrogen-HCys conjugates. Furthermore, incubation of catechol estrogens with myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the presence of HCys resulted in the formation of respective estrogen-HCys conjugates. The identities of estrogen-HCys conjugates in MPO assay extracts were confirmed by comparing them to pure synthesized estrogen-HCys standards. I propose that through conjugation estrogens could chemically regulate HCys levels; moreover these conjugates could be used as potential biomarkers in determining health.

  15. Estrogen effects on thyroid iodide uptake and thyroperoxidase activity in normal and ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lívia P; Barros, Inês A; Lisbôa, Patrícia C; Araújo, Renata L; Silva, Alba C M; Rosenthal, Doris; Ferreira, Andrea C F; Carvalho, Denise P

    2006-08-01

    Sex steroids interfere with the pituitary-thyroid axis function, although the reports have been controversial and no conclusive data is available. Some previous reports indicate that estradiol might also regulate thyroid function through a direct action on the thyrocytes. In this report, we examined the effects of low and high doses of estradiol administered to control and ovariectomized adult female rats and to pre-pubertal females. We demonstrate that estradiol administration to both intact adult and pre-pubertal females causes a significant increase in the relative thyroid weight. Serum T3 is significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats, and is normalized by estrogen replacement. Neither doses of estrogen produced a significant change in serum TSH and total T4 in ovariectomized, adult intact and pre-pubertal rats. The highest, supraphysiological, estradiol dose produced a significant increase in thyroid iodide uptake in ovariectomized and in pre-pubertal rats, but not in control adult females. Thyroperoxidase activity was significantly higher in intact adult rats treated with both estradiol doses and in ovariectomized rats treated with the highest estradiol dose. Since serum TSH levels were not significantly changed, we suggest a direct action of estradiol on the thyroid gland, which depends on the age and on the previous gonad status of the animal.

  16. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  17. Labial fusion: A rare cause of urinary retention in reproductive age woman and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğdu, Emre; Demirel, Cem; Tahaoğlu, Ali Emre; Özdemir, Arzu

    2017-01-01

    Labial fusion usually affects prepubertal girls and postmenopausal women, it may rarely occurs in reproductive years in the absence of predisposing factors such as vulvar infections, dermatitis, trauma, female circumcision and lichen sclerosis. Should be considered in differential diagnosis in the differential diagnosis of urinary retention even if the patient doesn’t have history of sexual intercourse. PMID:28270959

  18. Effect of stress hormone antagonists on ovarian follicular development in pre-pubertal rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalid Hamood Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of stress on pre-pubertal ovarian follicular development was studied. Fifteen day old female rats were administered under stress (exposed to maternal separation; 6 hours/day from post-natal day 15 to 21 for 7 days, and appropriate controls were maintained. The time of exposure was randomly changed every day during light phase (7AM to 7 PM of the day to avoid habituation. There was a significant decrease in serum estrogen levels on post-natal day 21 in stress group rats compared to controls indicating stress response in these rats. However, mean number of healthy follicles in all categories of follicles were significantly lower in stressed rats compared to controls. Concomitant with these changes, mean number of atreitic follicles showed an increase over control values in stressed rats. In contrast administration of Naltrexone (5μg NTX/rat/day, Mifepristone (1 μg MP/rat/day, FSH (10 IU FSH/rat/day with stressed the significant increases in the relative weight of ovary, uterus, fallopian tube, body weight and the mean number of healthy follicles in the ovary compared to the controls. In the ovary treatment of stressed did not affect primordial follicles. Primordial follicles were reduced in number significantly in the ovary of controls and treated groups when compared with the initial controls whereas there was no significant variation among the controls and the treated groups. The results indicate that stress dose not interfere with the progress of pre-pubertal follicular development. However, it causes increased loss of follicles by atretia.

  19. Effects of estrogen and tibolone on bladder histology and estrogen receptors in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin; LI Ya-zhen; MAO Zhuo; GU Pei; SHANG Ming

    2009-01-01

    Background Estrogen deficiency causes atrophic changes within the urogenital tract, and is associated with urinary symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of estrogen and tibolone on bladder histology, and the changes of estrogen receptor α and β (ERα and β) protein expression in the detrusor muscle.Methods Forty female rats were separated into four groups of ten each. They received a sham operation (Sham), ovariectomy (Ovx), ovariectomy plus estrogen replacement (Ovx+E), or ovariectomy plus tibolone treatment (Ovx+T). After 12 weeks each rat was anesthetized and the bladders were removed. The bladders' ultra structure, collagen fiber (CF) to smooth muscle(SM) ratio and ER subtypes were studied. Statistical analyses were performed using the one-way analysis of variance test.Results Ovx resulted in significant degeneration in bladder ultra structure; however, estrogen and tibolone reversed those changes. Ovx increased the CF/SM ratio, estrogen and tibolone resulted in an increase. Two estrogen receptors (ERs) were expressed in the bladder detrusor, with ERβ the main subtype. Ovx resulted in up-regulation of ERα and down-regulation of ERβ. With estrogen and tibolone treatment, ERβ showed a significant increase but ERα showed no significant difference compared with Ovx.Conclusions Estrogen deficiency deteriorates bladder ultra structure and histology. Supplementary estrogen can improve bladder function which may be due to inhibition of collagen hyperplasia and increased SM density. ERβ has an important role in mediating estrogen function in the bladder. Tibolone has a mild estrogenic action and has an effect on bladder function and structure to some degree.

  20. FEEDING GENISTEIN TO PREPUBERTAL GILTS STIMULATES THEIR MAMMARY DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possible role of dietary genistein on mammary development of prepubertal gilts was investigated. Forty-five gilts were fed one of three diets from 90 d of age until slaughter (day 183 ± 1). Diets were: without soya (CTL0, n=15); soya-based commercial (CTLS, n=15); and soya-based commercial with ...

  1. Methylphenidate-induced erections in a prepubertal child.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2013-02-01

    Methylphenidate is a medication used routinely in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We report a case of a prepubertal child who developed unwanted erections after commencing a response-adjusted dosing regimen of sustained release methylphenidate. Despite priapism being a rare adverse reaction associated with methylphenidate, physicians and parents need to be aware as it can have significant long-term complications.

  2. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia: a report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaren, I.A.; Schott, D.A.; Otten, B.J.; Kroese-Deutman, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia is defined as the presence of excessive breast tissue in males, which can appear unilateral or bilateral. Bilateral gynecomastia is frequently found in the neonatal period, early in puberty, and with increasing age. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endoc

  3. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of off-the-shelf hair and skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sharon L; Yang, Chun Z; Bittner, George D; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R; Baird, Donna D

    2015-05-01

    Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products.

  4. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of off-the-shelf hair and skin care products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sharon L.; Yang, Chun Z.; Bittner, George D.; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.; Baird, Donna D.

    2014-01-01

    Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products. PMID:24849798

  5. Phytoestrogens are partial estrogen agonists in the adult male mouse.

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, S; Santti, R; Salo, L; McLachlan, J A

    1995-01-01

    The intake, as well as serum and urinary concentrations, of phytoestrogens is high in countries where incidence of prostate cancer is low, suggesting a chemopreventive role for phytoestrogens. Their significance could be explained by the ability to antagonize the action of more potent endogenous estrogens in initiation or promotion of tumor formation. We have studied estrogenicity and antiestrogenicity of dietary soy and two phytoestrogens, coumestrol and daidzein, in our neoDES mouse model f...

  6. Association of Active and Sedentary Behaviors with Postmenopausal Estrogen Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal, Cher M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Matthews, Charles E.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Falk, Roni T.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity may reduce endogenous estrogens but few studies have assessed effects on estrogen metabolism and none have evaluated sedentary behavior in relation to estrogen metabolism. We assessed relationships between accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior and 15 urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among postmenopausal controls from a population-based breast cancer case-control study conducted in Poland (2000-2003). Methods Postmenopausal women (N=542) were ages 40 to 72 years and not currently using hormone therapy. Accelerometers, worn for seven days, were used to derive measures of average activity (counts/day) and sedentary behavior (estrogens. Geometric means of EM by tertiles of accelerometer-measures, adjusted for age and body mass, were computed using linear models. Results High activity was associated with lower levels of estrone and estradiol (p-trend=0.01) while increased sedentary time was positively associated with these parent estrogens (p-trend=0.04). Inverse associations were observed between high activity and 2-methoxyestradiol, 4-methoxyestradiol, 17-epiestriol and 16-epiestriol (p-trend=0.03). Sedentary time was positively associated with methylated catechols in the 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathways (p-trend≤0.04). Women in the highest tertile of activity had increased hydroxylation at the C-2, -4, and -16 sites relative to parent estrogens (p-trend≤0.02) while increased sedentary time was associated with a lower 16-pathway:parent estrogen ratio (p-trend=0.01). Conclusions Higher activity was associated with lower urinary estrogens, possibly through increased estrogen hydroxylation and subsequent metabolism, while sedentary behavior may reduce metabolism. PMID:26460631

  7. Prepubertal subchronic exposure to soy milk and glyphosate leads to endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Jessica; Moras, Patricia Bonamigo; Koeppe, Carina; Dallegrave, Eliane; Leal, Mirna Bainy; Rossato-Grando, Luciana Grazziotin

    2017-02-01

    Lactose intolerance is characterized by low or inexistent levels of lactase, and the main treatment consists of dietary changes, especially replacing dairy milk by soy milk. Soy contains phytoestrogens, substances with known estrogenic activity, besides, glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in soy crops, being frequently a residue in soy beans, bringing to a concern regarding the consumption of soy-based products, especially for children in breastfeeding period with lactose intolerance. This study evaluated the pubertal toxicity of a soy milk rich feeding (supplemented or not with glyphosate, doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg) during prepubertal period in male rats. Endocrine disruption was observed through decrease in testosterone levels, decrease in Sertoli cell number and increase in the percentage of degenerated Sertoli and Leydig cells in animals receiving soy milk supplemented with glyphosate (both doses) and in animals treated only with soy milk. Animals treated with soy milk with glyphosate (both doses) showed decrease spermatids number and increase of epididymal tail mass compared to control, and decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules compared to soy milk control group. Animals receiving soy milk supplemented with 100 mg/kg glyphosate showed decrease in round spermatids and increase in abnormal sperm morphology, compared to control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fecal microbial determinants of fecal and systemic estrogens and estrogen metabolites: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High systemic estrogen levels contribute to breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, whereas low levels contribute to osteoporosis risk. Except for obesity, determinants of non-ovarian systemic estrogen levels are undefined. We sought to identify members and functions of the intestinal microbial community associated with estrogen levels via enterohepatic recirculation. Methods Fifty-one epidemiologists at the National Institutes of Health, including 25 men, 7 postmenopausal women, and 19 premenopausal women, provided urine and aliquots of feces, using methods proven to yield accurate and reproducible results. Estradiol, estrone, 13 estrogen metabolites (EM, and their sum (total estrogens were quantified in urine and feces by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In feces, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase activities were determined by realtime kinetics, and microbiome diversity and taxonomy were estimated by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA amplicons. Pearson correlations were computed for each loge estrogen level, loge enzymatic activity level, and microbiome alpha diversity estimate. For the 55 taxa with mean relative abundance of at least 0.1%, ordinal levels were created [zero, low (below median of detected sequences, high] and compared to loge estrogens, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase enzymatic activity levels by linear regression. Significance was based on two-sided tests with α=0.05. Results In men and postmenopausal women, levels of total urinary estrogens (as well as most individual EM were very strongly and directly associated with all measures of fecal microbiome richness and alpha diversity (R≥0.50, P≤0.003. These non-ovarian systemic estrogens also were strongly and significantly associated with fecal Clostridia taxa, including non-Clostridiales and three genera in the Ruminococcaceae family (R=0.57−0.70, P=0.03−0.002. Estrone, but not other EM, in urine correlated significantly with

  9. Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Han Hsu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has been postulated as a contributor for lung cancer development and progression. We reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and prognostic implications of the estrogen receptors (ER in lung cancer, the effect and signaling pathway of estrogen on lung cancer, the hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer risk and survival, the mechanistic relationship between the ER and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and the relevant clinical trials combining the ER antagonist and the EGFR antagonist, to investigate the role of estrogen in lung cancer. Estrogen and its receptor have the potential to become a prognosticator and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. On the other hand, tobacco smoking aggravates the effect of estrogen and endocrine disruptive chemicals from the environment targeting ER may well contribute to the lung carcinogenesis. They have gradually become important issues in the course of preventive medicine.

  10. Follicular atresia in the prepubertal spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Gawron, Antoni

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to determine follicular atresia in the newborn and the prepubertal spiny mouse. We analyzed the processes of follicle loss using classical markers of apoptosis (TUNEL reaction, active caspase-3) and autophagy (Lamp1). Numerous small clear vacuoles and autophagosomes as well as strong Lamp1 staining were observed in dying oocytes of all follicle types, especially of the primordial and primary ones. Active caspase 3 and the TUNEL reaction were detected only in the granulosa cells of large secondary and antral follicles. The expression of apoptosis and autophagy markers was also changing during the prepubertal period. Western blot analysis indicated that at the moment of birth, females undergo an increased rate of follicular atresia mediated by autophagy, while apoptosis is the dominant form of ovarian atresia in consecutive postnatal days. On the basis of these observations, we concluded that apoptosis and autophagy are involved in follicular atresia and these processes are cell and developmental stage-specific.

  11. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rachid Khemakhem; Yosra Ben Ahmed; Said Jlidi; Faouzi Nouira; Faten Fdhila; Awatef Charieg; Sofiene Ghorbel; Sihem Barsaoui; Béji Chaouachi

    2013-01-01

    Background: To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in prepubertal children and the therapeutic resultants in an unselected population. Materials and Methods: Our hospital database was analyzed for testicular tumors from January 1995 to December 2010 concerning clinical presentation, treatment and therapeutic results. Results: Eight patients were operated on because of testicular tumors. In six cases (75%) the tumor was benign: benign teratoma (four cases), epidermoid cyst (one case) and...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Prepubertal Girls: Update and Current Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Resetkova, Nina; Hayashi, Masanori; Lisa A. Kolp; Christianson, Mindy S.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing rates of diagnosis of childhood cancers and the evolution of more effective treatment options resulting in prolonged life spans, fertility preservation counseling is an integral component of the discussion at the time of diagnosis of childhood cancers. The primary fertility preservation option that exists for prepubertal girls is ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Although ovarian tissue cryopreservation is still considered to be experimental in nature, live births have resulted...

  13. The pelvic floor muscles: muscle thickness in healthy and urinary-incontinent women measured by perineal ultrasonography with reference to the effect of pelvic floor training. Estrogen receptor studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen

    1997-01-01

    Maintenance of urinary continence is multifactorial and depends mainly on detrusor control and urethral closure function. The closure forces can be categorized as permanent closure forces active at rest, and adjunctive closure forces active during physical activities. The efficiency of these forc...

  14. 雌孕激素联合疗法与雌激素单独疗法对尿失禁患者的影响%Effects of Estrogen With and Without Progestin on Urinary Incontinence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan L. Hendrix; Barbara B. Cochrane; Ingrid E. Nygaard; 张继志

    2006-01-01

    背景:长期以来,人们坚信绝经期激素疗法除适用于减轻潮热、盗汗和阴道粘膜干燥外,还具有很多功效。该疗法常用于治疗尿失禁(urinary incontinence,UI)。

  15. Estrogen and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the use of estrogen in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Dosage levels, interactions with other factors, side effects, and the mechanism of estrogen action are discussed. (Author/MT)

  16. Learning strategy is influenced by trait anxiety and early rearing conditions in prepubertal male, but not prepubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Bromley-Dulfano, Sarah S; Marino, Sarah E; Stathopoulos, Nicholas G; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-09-01

    Rodents solve dual-solution tasks that require navigation to a goal by adopting either a hippocampus-dependent place strategy or a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy. A variety of factors, including biological sex and emotional status, influence the choice of learning strategy. In these experiments, we investigated the relationship between learning strategy and anxiety level in male and female rats prior to the onset of puberty, before the activational effects of gonadal hormones influence these processes. In the first experiment, prepubertal male rats categorized as high in trait anxiety at 26days of age exhibited a bias toward stimulus-response strategy at 28days of age, whereas age-matched females exhibited no preference in strategy regardless of anxiety level. In the second experiment, male and female rats were separated from their dams for either 15 or 180min per day during the first 2weeks of life and tested on a battery of anxiety and cognitive tasks between 25 and 29days of age. Prolonged maternal separations for 180min were associated with impaired spatial memory on a Y-maze task in both prepubertal males and females. Furthermore, prolonged maternal separations were linked to elevated anxiety and a bias for stimulus-response strategy in prepubertal males but not females. Alternatively, brief separations from dams for 15min were associated with intact spatial memory, lower levels of anxiety, and no preference for either learning strategy in both sexes. These results provide evidence of sex-specific effects of trait anxiety and early maternal separation on the choice of learning strategy used by prepubertal rodents.

  17. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive...... levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...... threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels....

  18. Preliminary report: effect of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone maturation and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, O; Hoshi, M; Kanazawa, S; Numata, M; Nakajima, D; Kanno, S; Negishi, M; Nishikura, K; Nitta, A; Imataka, M; Kuribayashi, T; Kano, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the independent physiological roles of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone growth, we compared the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal girls with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (n = 17) and girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n = 18). When BMD was analyzed according to chronologic age, no significant differences were found between CPP and CAH patients. However, when adjusted to bone age, BMD was statistically higher in CAH than in CPP subjects. This finding suggests that adrenal androgen, as well as estrogen, plays an important role in increasing BMD. Adrenal androgen may act on bone not only as androgen, but as estrogen after having been metabolized into an aromatized bone-active compound in peripheral tissues, such as bone and fat. Therefore, adrenal androgen may have a more important role in increasing BMD than previously realized.

  19. Effects of dexamethasone on estrogen- and pregnancy-induced plasticity in rat uterine sympathetic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchimano, P; Frías, A I; Richeri, A; Brauer, M M

    2007-12-01

    Estrogen and glucocorticoids are known to evoke opposing effects on the uterus. We analyzed the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on uterine sympathetic denervation elicited by short- and long-term exposure to estrogen of intact prepubertal rats. We also studied the effects of DEX on the physiological degeneration of uterine sympathetic nerves at term pregnancy. Changes in innervation were assessed quantitatively by using computer-assisted methods on uterine cryostat tissue sections stained for tyrosine hydroxylase. At 24 h following treatment of prepubertal rats (25 days of age) with 1 microg or 2.5 microg estrogen, marked increases in uterine size and reductions in the percentage nerve area were observed. Co-administration of DEX (4 mg/kg) attenuated both these short-term estrogen-induced effects. Treatment of 19-day-old rats with a single dose of 25 mug estrogen provoked, at 26 days of age, a 54% reduction in the total nerve area. This reduction was abolished by the co-administration of nine doses of DEX (0.5 mg/kg) at 18-26 days of age. Treatment of rats with the same regime of DEX alone increased the total nerve area by 46% of the control values. Studies of control pregnant rats revealed the unexpected presence of intrauterine nerve fibers at term. Treatment of pregnant rats with six doses of DEX (4 mg/kg) at 16-21 days of age had no effects on the density of uterine sympathetic nerves. These results suggest that DEX has growth-promoting effects on immature uterine sympathetic nerves and may antagonize the degenerative effects elicited by long-term exposure to estrogen.

  20. Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype from Pediatric Versus Psychiatric Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Rebecca; Geller, Barbara; Frazier, Jeanne; Beringer, Linda; Zimerman, Betsy; Klages, Tricia; Bolhofner, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics between subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype from pediatric versus psychiatric venues. Method: Subjects (N = 93) with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype were obtained through consecutive new case ascertainment from designated pediatric and…

  1. Non-invasive measurement of adrenal response after standardized exercise tests in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Appelhof, Maaike; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of adrenal response in healthy prepubertal children by standardized exercise tests. Methods: On separate occasions, healthy prepubertal children performed a submaximal cycling test, a maximal cycling test, and a 20-m shuttle-run test

  2. Estrogens, inflammation and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, April; Feher, Anita; McPhee, Lucy; Jessa, Ailya; Oh, Soojin; Einstein, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The effects of estrogens are pleiotropic, affecting multiple bodily systems. Changes from the body's natural fluctuating levels of estrogens, through surgical removal of the ovaries, natural menopause, or the administration of exogenous estrogens to menopausal women have been independently linked to an altered immune profile, and changes to cognitive processes. Here, we propose that inflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and cognitive decline. In order to determine what is known about this connection, we review the literature on the cognitive effects of decreased estrogens due to oophorectomy or natural menopause, decreased estrogens' role on inflammation--both peripherally and in the brain--and the relationship between inflammation and cognition. While this review demonstrates that much is unknown about the intersection between estrogens, cognition, inflammation, we propose that there is an important interaction between these literatures.

  3. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to restrict your activities and limit your social interactions Increase the risk of falls in older adults ... increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence include: Gender. Women are more likely to have stress incontinence. ...

  4. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Caffeine Decaffeinated tea and coffee Carbonated drinks Artificial sweeteners Corn syrup Foods that are high in spice, sugar or acid, especially citrus fruits Heart and blood pressure ... surgery. Artificial urinary sphincter. In men, a small, fluid-filled ...

  5. [Effect of the protein-free calf-blood-extract (Solcoseryl) on the excretion of estrogens in chronic placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herre, H D; Kyank, H; Adomssent, S; Wilken, H P

    1976-01-01

    In a double blind study the action of Solcoseryl was tested in 31 patients during late pregnancy with chronic placental insufficiency. Under treatment with Solcoseryl a significant increase in urinary estrogen excretion occurred in relation to the placebo-group.

  6. [Urogenital bleeding revealing urethral prolapse in a prepubertal girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballouhey, Q; Abbo, O; Sanson, S; Cochet, T; Galinier, P; Pienkowski, C

    2013-06-01

    Urethral prolapse is a complete eversion of the distal urethral mucosa through the external meatus. It occurs primarily in prepubertal, primarly Black girls. Its pathophysiology has not been clearly identified. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who came to the Emergency Department with a 1-day history of genital pain and "vaginal bleeding". Early recognition makes differential diagnosis with sexual abuse and staging allows prompt management under general anesthesic like prolapse reduction or surgical excision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Prepubertal vaginal discharge: Vaginoscopy to rule out foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Saniye; Karnak, İbrahim; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Çiftçi, Arbay Özden

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of all prepubertal patients who underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated by pediatricians prior to surgical consultation. Vaginoscopy is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. During the study period, 20 girls with persistent vaginal discharge with a mean age of 6.8 years (1-13 years) underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body. Six patients had bloody vaginal discharge and 4 had recurrent vaginal bleeding lasting for more than one month. Ten patients had purulent vaginal discharge lasting for 1-7 months. None of vaginal cultures revealed pathological bacteria or candida species. Preoperative imaging techniques revealed vaginal foreign body in one patient only. Vaginoscopy demonstrated vaginal foreign bodies in four patients. Foreign bodies were grass inflorescence, safety pin and undefined brownish particles (n=2), which may be pieces of toilet paper or feces. There was no complication related to vaginoscopy and removal of foreign body. Hymen integrity was preserved in all patients. Persistent or recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal girls should raise the suspect of vaginal foreign body. Continuous flow vaginoscopy is mandatory to detect and remove any vaginal foreign body. Early diagnosis would prevent complications secondary to long-standing foreign bodies.

  8. Chemosensory anxiety signals prime defensive behavior in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Busch, Anne; Hoenen, Matthias; Schaal, Benoist; Pause, Bettina M

    2017-05-01

    Chemosensory anxiety signals effectively prime motor responses related to withdrawal behavior, such as the startle reflex, in adult humans. As the reproductive status strongly affects the response to social chemosignals, the current study examined whether chemosensory anxiety signals would augment the startle response in prepubertal children as it does in adults. Using cotton pads, axillary sweat was collected from 28 men while waiting for an important oral examination (anxiety condition), and during ergometer training (sport control condition). Using a constant-flow olfactometer, sweat samples and pure cotton samples (cotton control) were presented to 10 prepubertal girls aged 9-13years (M=11.25, SD=1.25) for 3000ms during inhalation. White noise bursts of 102dB(A) served as startle probes, and startle responses were recorded via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle. The girls showed larger startle amplitudes to probes presented in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals as compared to a context of sport control sweat (panxiety signals prime defensive motor behavior. This effect appears unrelated to the odorous quality of anxiety sweat, but seems to reflect a specific preparedness to respond to the underlying social alarm signal. Thus, chemosensory communication supporting individual harm protection is independent of the reproductive status in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Khemakhem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in prepubertal children and the therapeutic resultants in an unselected population. Materials and Methods: Our hospital database was analyzed for testicular tumors from January 1995 to December 2010 concerning clinical presentation, treatment and therapeutic results. Results: Eight patients were operated on because of testicular tumors. In six cases (75% the tumor was benign: benign teratoma (four cases, epidermoid cyst (one case and immature teratoma (one case. Two patients (25% had a malignant tumour: yolk-sac tumour (two cases. All this children underwent surgery. Radical inguinal orchidectomy was performed in six cases and conservative surgery was performed in two cases. One patient has received adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up was uneventfully three years after primary surgery. Conclusion: In prepubertal children, most testicular tumours are benign. If tumour markers were negative testis-preserving surgery can be proposed, complete excision of the tumour should be ascertained. In the case of testicular teratoma, the possibility of contralateral tumour should be considered in the follow-up.

  10. Developmental potential of prepubertal mouse oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired synthesis of glutathione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Zhong Jiao

    Full Text Available Although oocytes from prepubertal animals are found less competent than oocytes from adults, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse oocyte model, this paper has tested the hypothesis that the developmental potential of prepubertal oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired potential for glutathione synthesis. Oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice, primed with or without eCG, were matured in vitro and assessed for glutathione synthesis potential, oxidative stress, Ca(2+ reserves, fertilization and in vitro development potential. In unprimed mice, abilities for glutathione synthesis, activation, male pronuclear formation, blastocyst formation, cortical granule migration and polyspermic block were all compromised significantly in prepubertal compared to adult oocytes. Cysteamine and cystine supplementation to maturation medium significantly promoted oocyte glutathione synthesis and blastocyst development but difference due to maternal age remained. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS levels increased, Ca(2+ storage decreased significantly in prepubertal oocytes. Levels of both catalytic and modifier subunits of the γ-glutamylcysteine ligase were significantly lower in prepubertal than in adult oocytes. Maternal eCG priming improved all the parameters and eliminated the age difference. Together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis by showing that prepubertal oocytes have a decreased ability to synthesize glutathione leading to an impaired potential to reduce ROS and to form male pronuclei and blastocysts. The resulting oxidative stress decreases the intracellular Ca(2+ store resulting in impaired activation at fertilization, and damages the microfilament network, which affects cortical granule redistribution leading to polyspermy.

  11. Reviewing the options for local estrogen treatment of vaginal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl SH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarah H Lindahl Sutter East Bay Medical Foundation, SEBMF – Diablo Division, Castro Valley, CA, USA Background: Vaginal atrophy is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, pain during sex, itching, irritation, burning, and discharge, as well as various urinary problems. Up to 45% of postmenopausal women may be affected, but it often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the current recommendations for treatment of vaginal atrophy, and current data on the effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies. Methods: Literature regarding vaginal atrophy (2007–2012 was retrieved from PubMed and summarized, with emphasis on data related to the treatment of vaginal atrophy with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Results: Published data support the effectiveness and endometrial safety of low-dose local estrogen therapies. These results further support the general recommendation by the North American Menopause Society that a progestogen is not needed for endometrial protection in patients using low-dose local vaginal estrogen. Benefits of long-term therapy for vaginal atrophy include sustained relief of symptoms as well as physiological improvements (eg, decreased vaginal pH and increased blood flow, epithelial thickness, secretions. Conclusion: Currently available local vaginal estrogen therapies are well tolerated and effective in relieving symptoms of vaginal atrophy. Recent data support the endometrial safety of low-dose regimens for up to 1 year. Keywords: menopause, estrogen, local estrogen therapy, vaginal atrophy

  12. Urinary catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incontinence. There is no tube placed inside the penis. Instead, a condom-like device is placed over the penis. A tube leads from this device to a ... too small Bladder spasms Constipation The wrong balloon size Urinary tract infections POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS Complications of catheter ...

  13. Enzymatic treatment of estrogens and estrogen glucuronide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takaaki Tanaka; Toshiyuki Tamura; Yuuichi Ishizaki; Akito Kawasaki; Tomokazu Kawase; Masahiro Teraguchi; Masayuki Taniguchi

    2009-01-01

    Natural and synthetic estrogens from sewage treatment systems are suspected to influence the reproductive health of the animals in the rivers.In this article we investigated the enzymatic treatment of three estrogens (estrone,17β-estradiol,and 17α-ethynyletstradiol) by a fungal laccase which oxidize phenolic compounds with dissolved oxygen.The elimination of the estrogenic activities by enzymatic oxidation was demonstrated by medaka vitellogenin assay.In addition,we developed an enzymatic treatment system comprised of β-D-glucuronidase and the laccase for 17β-estradiol 3-(β-D-glucuronide) degradation.The two enzymes eliminated 17β-estradiol 3-(β-D-glucuronide) and the intermediate,17β-estradiol,efficiently.

  14. Estrogen up-regulation of semaphorin 3F correlates with sympathetic denervation of the rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeri, Analía; Chalar, Cora; Martínez, Gaby; Greif, Gonzalo; Bianchimano, Paola; Brauer, M Mónica

    2011-10-28

    Current evidence indicates that rises in systemic levels of estrogen create in the uterus an inhibitory environment for sympathetic nerves. However, molecular insights of these changes are far from complete. We evaluated if semaphorin 3F mRNA, a sympathetic nerve repellent, was produced by the rat uterus and if its expression was modulated by estrogen. We also analyzed whether uterine nerves express the semaphorin 3F binding receptor, neuropilin-2. Uterine levels of semaphorin 3F mRNA were measured using real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in prepubertal rat controls and following chronic estrogen treatment. Localization of semaphorin 3F transcripts was determined by in situ hybridization and the expression of neuropilin-2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. These studies showed that: (1) chronic estrogen treatment led to a 5-fold induction of semaphorin 3F mRNA in the immature uterus; (2) estrogen provoked a tissue-specific induction of semaphorin 3F which was particularly localized in the connective tissue that borders muscle bundles and surrounds intrauterine blood vessels; (3) two major cell-types were recognized in the areas where transcripts were concentrated, fibroblast-like cells and infiltrating eosinophil leukocytes; and (4) some delicate nerve terminal profiles present in the estrogenized uterus were immunoreactive for neuropilin-2. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of semaphorin 3F/neuropilin-2 are consistent with a possible role of this guidance cue in the remodeling of uterine sympathetic innervation by estrogen. Though correlative in its nature, these data support a model whereby semaphorin 3F, in combination with other inhibitory molecules, converts the estrogenized myometrium to an inhospitable environment for sympathetic nerves.

  15. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. AIM: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. METHODS: Patients were...... treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature....... randomized to either 0.1 IU/kg (n = 18) or 0.2 IU/kg (n = 17) per day. GH treatment was interrupted for 12 mo after 2 y of treatment in prepubertal patients to study catch-down growth. Mean height SDS (HSDS) at start was -5.6 and -5.2 for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively, and mean age 7.3 and 6...

  16. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  17. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery.

  18. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  19. The Pattern of Ovarian Development in the Prepubertal Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    OpenAIRE

    TETSUKA, MASAFUMI; ASADA, Masatsugu; MOGOE, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; OHSUMI, Seiji; 手塚, 雅文; 福井, 豊

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the pre...

  20. Environmental Estrogens and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Retha R.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Jefferson, Wendy N.

    2009-01-01

    Many chemicals in the environment, in particular those with estrogenic activity, can disrupt the programming of endocrine signaling pathways that are established during development and result in adverse consequences that may not be apparent until much later in life. Most recently, obesity and diabetes join the growing list of adverse consequences that have been associated with developmental exposure to environmental estrogens during critical stages of differentiation. These diseases are quickly becoming significant public health issues and are fast reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. In this review, we summarize the literature from experimental animal studies documenting an association of environmental estrogens and the development of obesity, and further describe an animal model of exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) that has proven useful in studying mechanisms involved in abnormal programming of various differentiating estrogen- target tissues. Other examples of environmental estrogens including the phytoestrogen genistein and the environmental contaminant Bisphenol A are also discussed. Together, these data suggest new targets (i.e., adipocyte differentiation and molecular mechanisms involved in weight homeostasis) for abnormal programming by estrogenic chemicals, and provide evidence that support the scientific hypothesis termed “the developmental origins of adult disease”. The proposal of an association of environmental estrogens with obesity and diabetes expands the focus on the diseases from intervention/treatment to include prevention/avoidance of chemical modifiers especially during critical windows of development. PMID:19433252

  1. PRE-PUBERTAL CHILDREN AND EXERCISE IN HOT AND HUMID ENVIRONMENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade H. Sinclair

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of pre-pubertal children to regulate their body temperature under thermoneutral environments is similar to that of an adult albeit via differing routes. However, this ability is challenged when exposed to extreme environments. Thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubertal children differ from adults via adaptations that occur during growth and maturation and disadvantage children when exercising in hot and humid environments. When ambient temperatures exceed that of the skin, an influx of thermal energy from the environment increases thermal stress. When coupled with exercise, the increased thermal stress results in reduced physical performance and an increased risk of developing heat-related illness. Evidence suggesting the severity of heat-related illness is greater in pre-pubertal children than adults is inconclusive because age-related differences in thermoregulatory responses are attributed to either morphologic or functional changes. Additionally, the majority of research on pre-pubertal children exercising in the heat has been maturational or comparative studies with adults conducted in the near absence of convective cooling, complicating extrapolation to field-based environments. However, current consensus is that pre-pubertal children are disadvantaged when exercising in extreme temperatures and that care should be taken in preparing for and conducting sporting activities in hot and humid environments for pre-pubertal children

  2. Estrogen, schizophrenia and neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2006-07-01

    Women are relatively protected against schizophrenia. The illness has a similar rate in women and men, but it starts later in women and is less severe. It is tempting to attribute this to the neuroprotective effect of estrogen, but the story is not straightforward and contains many unknowns. Women begin their schizophrenia trajectory later in development compared with men and this probably accounts for their relatively superior prognosis. Estrogen agonists are potential therapeutic agents but need to be proven safe, and the timing of administration may be crucial. This article examines what is known about estrogen and the development of schizophrenia.

  3. Estrogen and Bazedoxifene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequent and stop and women may experience other symptoms and body changes). Estrogen and bazedoxifene tablets are also used to prevent osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ...

  4. Total dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids have modest effects on urinary sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total fat and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect breast cancer risk by altering estrogen metabolism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of differing total fat and omega-3 fatty acid content of diets on a panel of urinary estrogens and metabolites. A controlled, cross-ove...

  5. Candidate Gene Expression in Bos indicus Ovarian Tissues: Prepubertal and Postpubertal Heifers in Diestrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral; Fortes, Marina Rufino S.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Kelly, Matthew; Venus, Bronwyn; Kidd, Lisa; do Rego, João Paulo Arcelino; Edwards, Sophia; Boe-Hansen, Gry B.; Piper, Emily; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Moore, Stephen Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase). Six postpubertal (POST) heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six prepubertal (PRE) heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1, and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1, and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the downregulation of LHR and upregulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Upregulation of IGF1 expression prepuberty, compared to postpuberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r

  6. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  7. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of ... UTI spreads to your kidneys. Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to ...

  9. Androgens and estrogens in benign prostatic hyperplasia: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tristan M; Ricke, William A

    2011-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common clinical problems in urology. While the precise molecular etiology remains unclear, sex steroids have been implicated in the development and maintenance of BPH. Sufficient data exists linking androgens and androgen receptor pathways to BPH and use of androgen reducing compounds, such as 5α-reductase inhibitors which block the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone, are a component of the standard of care for men with LUTS attributed to an enlarged prostate. However, BPH is a multifactorial disease and not all men respond well to currently available treatments, suggesting factors other than androgens are involved. Testosterone, the primary circulating androgen in men, can also be metabolized via CYP19/aromatase into the potent estrogen, estradiol-17β. The prostate is an estrogen target tissue and estrogens directly and indirectly affect growth and differentiation of prostate. The precise role of endogenous and exogenous estrogens in directly affecting prostate growth and differentiation in the context of BPH is an understudied area. Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been shown to promote or inhibit prostate proliferation signifying potential roles in BPH. Recent research has demonstrated that estrogen receptor signaling pathways may be important in the development and maintenance of BPH and LUTS; however, new models are needed to genetically dissect estrogen regulated molecular mechanisms involved in BPH. More work is needed to identify estrogens and associated signaling pathways in BPH in order to target BPH with dietary and therapeutic SERMs.

  10. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  11. Effects of combined electromyostimulation and gymnastics training in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deley, Gaëlle; Cometti, Carole; Fatnassi, Anaïs; Paizis, Christos; Babault, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 6-week combined electromyostimulation (EMS) and gymnastic training program on muscle strength and vertical jump performance of prepubertal gymnasts. Sixteen young women gymnasts (age 12.4 ± 1.2 yrs) participated in this study, with 8 in the EMS group and the remaining 8 as controls. EMS was conducted on knee extensor muscles for 20 minutes 3 times a week during the first 3 weeks and once a week during the last 3 weeks. Gymnasts from both groups underwent similar gymnastics training 5-6 times a week. Isokinetic torque of the knee extensors was determined at different eccentric and concentric angular velocities ranging from -60 to +240° per second. Jumping ability was evaluated using squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), reactivity test, and 3 gymnastic-specific jumps. After the first 3 weeks of EMS, maximal voluntary torque was increased (+40.0 ± 10.0%, +35.3 ± 11.8%, and +50.6 ± 7.7% for -60, +60, and +240°s⁻¹, respectively; p gymnasts, a 6-week EMS program, combined with the daily gymnastic training, induced significant increases both in knee extensor muscle strength and nonspecific and some specific jump performances.

  12. Dopamine action in prepubertal Nelore heifers growth hormone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Oliveira Santana Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of dopamine in the growth hormone secretion (GH during Nellore heifer’s sexual maturation. The animals were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: Sulpiride group (dopamine D2 antagonist, 0.59 mg/kg, S.C. and control group (saline solution S.C. at 8, 12 and 16 months of age. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for 10h after drug injection. Growth hormone was quantified by RIA, sensitivity (0.25 ng/mL and intra and inter-assay variation coefficients were 15% and 17%, respectively. GH concentration was higher in sulpiride group than control group at 8 mo (10.1 ± 0.38 ng/mL vs 4.3 ± 0.34 ng/mL; P 0.05 in total GH secretion area, total peak area and maximum peak amplitude. These results suggested an inhibitory dopamine effect on GH secretion in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers that decreases according to age.

  13. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.

  14. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it is asymptomatic. However, the risk factors associated with recurrent UTI in elderly women are not widely described. In a multivariate analysis it was found that urinary incontinence, a history of UTI before menopause, and nonsecretor status were strongly associated with recurrent UTI in young postmenopausal women. Another study described the incidence and risk factors of acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women. Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated patients and a lifetime history of urinary infection. Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the past month, kidney stones, and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline. Another important factor in postmenopausal women is the potential role that estrogen deficiency plays in the development of bacteriuria. There are at least two studies showing a beneficial effect of estrogen in the management of recurrent bacteriuria in elderly women. One of these studies showed that vaginal estrogen cream reduced vaginal pH from 5.5±0.7 to 3.6±1.0, restored lactobacillus, and decreased new episodes of UTI. Another study reported similar results using an estriol vaginal ring. However, contradictory results are found in the literature. For example, additional studies found that the use of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries was less effective than oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women. Two other studies also did not find any

  15. Estrogen supplements in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booher, D L

    1990-01-01

    The number of women aged 65 and older is expected to double by the year 2000, increasing the need for effective management of symptoms related to menopause. Contemporary management of menopause addresses the continuum of events associated with the effects of estrogen deprivation on quality and duration of life, including neuroendocrine changes, urogenital atrophy, sexual dysfunction, skin and hair changes, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. The risks and benefits of management strategies, including hormone replacement therapy, must be weighted carefully by both physician and patient. The use of estrogens and progestins, alterative compounds, dosages, routes of administration, and their advantages and disadvantages must be analyzed.

  16. Can balance training promote balance and strength in prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Maestrini, Lea; Zahner, Lukas; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of balance training (BT) followed by detraining on postural control, plantar flexor strength, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Thirty grade 1 school children participated in this study and were assigned to either an intervention class (INT, n = 15, age 6.7 ± 0.5 years) or a control class (n = 15, age 6.6 ± 0.5 years). The INT participated in 4 weeks of BT (3 per week) integrated in their physical education lessons. Pre, post, and follow-up tests included the measurements of postural sway on a balance platform, maximal torque and rate of force development of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, and jumping height on a force platform. The significance level was set at p training resulted in tendencies in terms of small to medium interaction effects yet not statistically significant improvements in postural sway (f = 0.14; p > 0.05), force production of the plantar flexors (f = 0.18; p> 0.05), and jumping height (f = 0.25; p> 0.05). Immaturity of the postural control system and deficits in attentional focus during practice of balance exercises could be responsible for the nonsignificant findings in this study. Thus, other training regimen (e.g., resistance training) should be applied alone or in combination with BT, which may have the potential to promote balance and strength in children.

  17. Feeding frequency and appetite in lean and obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Rinku; Tsalikian, Eva; Chenard, Catherine A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Sivitz, William I

    2011-03-01

    To determine the effect of feeding frequency on appetite in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) prepubertal children, we carried out a prospective, randomized interventional study of 18 NW and 17 OB children ages 6-10. Children received three or five feedings in random order on separate days. Total calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat composition on each day were equal. Two hours following the last feeding, children were offered ice cream ad lib. The major outcome variable was kilocalories ice cream consumed. A visual analog scale to assess fullness was also administered before consumption of ice cream. We observed that OB children consumed 73.0 ± 37.4 kcal more after five feedings than after three feedings whereas the NW children consumed 47.1 ± 27.8 kcal less. There was significant interaction between meal pattern and weight group indicating that this change in ice cream consumption differed significantly between groups (P = 0.014 by two-factor analysis). Ice cream intake/kg was less in OB compared to NW subjects (P = 0.012). Fullness ratings before ice cream did not differ by meal pattern or weight group. However, pre-ice cream fullness predicted ice cream intake in NW but not OB children. In summary, OB and NW children differed in appetite response to meal frequency. Our data suggest that: (i) satiety in OB children is related more to proximity of calories (larger supper) than to antecedent distribution of calories and; (ii) NW children may be more prone to restrict intake based on subjective fullness.

  18. Chordee without hypospadias: report of 79 Chinese prepubertal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yun-Man; Chen, Shao-Ji; Huang, Lu-Gang; Wang, Ming-He

    2007-01-01

    A series of Chinese prepubertal patients with congenital chordee without hypospadias is presented and the clinical data described. From July 1999 to September 2006, 79 boys with congenital chordee without hypospadias were treated in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China. The ages ranged from 21 months to 14 years, with a mean of 76.8 months (6.4 years). The patients were categorized according to structural defect into 4 groups, with the aid of intraoperative artificial erection. Group I included those with skin tethering (28 cases, 35.4%); group II, fascial chordee (22, 27.8%); group III, corporal disproportion (10, 12.7%); and group IV, urethral tethering (19, 24.1%). Chordee-related structural defect was considered the only criterion for classification, and urethral dysgenesis influenced the choice of surgical procedure. The chordee in group I patients was corrected with penile degloving; group II, release of dense fibrous tissue in addition; group III, dorsal-midline-plication-based correction; and group IV, longitudinal-island-flap-urethroplasty-based repair. At a mean follow-up of 14.8 months (range, 2 to 63), all patients had penile straightening except 1 group III patient with residual curvature that was managed upon reoperation. Glans dehiscence occurred in 1 group II patient who underwent a tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Urethrocutaneous fistula and urethral stricture were found in 2 group IV patients who underwent island flap urethroplasty. With the categorization based on structural defect, chordee without hypospadias may be managed well with minimized complications.

  19. Low serum leptin concentration in vegetarian prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Laskowska-Klita, T; Klemarczyk, W

    2004-01-01

    Vegetarian diet may play a positive role in reducing risk of several chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and some types of cancer. There are different vegetarian dietary patterns, some of which are nutritionally adequate for children, whereas other may lack some essential nutrients. Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue plays a key role in the control of body fat stores and energy expenditure. Higher leptin levels were observed in obese subjects and lower in anorectic patients. Recent studies support that diet may be a factor which influences leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of leptin, lipids and apolipoproteins in prepubertal children with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We examined 22 vegetarians and 13 omnivores in age 2-10 years. Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) and serum lipids were measured by enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods. Average daily dietary energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar for both groups of children. We observed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet. Vegetarians had lower total cholesterol and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than children on traditional mixed diet. There is no significant differences in triglyceride concentration between studied groups. The apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of omnivores. The serum concentration of leptin was lower in vegetarians (3.0 +/- 1.1 ng/mL) than in nonvegetarians (5.1 +/- 2.0 ng/mL) (p vegetarian diet may be accompanied by lower serum leptin concentration. Further studies on large group of children are needed for understanding this problem better.

  20. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  1. Mutation analysis of cathepsin C gene in a Chinese patient with pre-pubertal periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan; BAI Xiao-wen; SONG Shu-juan; GE Li-hong; CAO Cai-fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pre-pubertal periodontitis (PPP) is a rare and rapidly progressive form of early onset periodontitis resulting in premature tooth loss of primary and permanent dentitions. Mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC) gene have been found in patients with pre-pubertal periodontitis and Papillon-Lefevre syndrome which also characterized with severe periodontitis and palmoplantar hyperkera-tosis.1-3 To date, more than 40 mutations of CTSC gene have been identified in ethnically diverse people worldwide.4 However, there is no such genetic analysis in China. In the present study, we report the mutation analysis of a Chinese patient with PPP.

  2. Vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Hassager, C; Heegaard, Anne-Marie;

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and estrogen receptor (ER) genes in relation to biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum osteocalcin and urinary collagen type I degradation products (CrossLaps), and to study ER genotypes in relation to serum lipoproteins, blood...

  3. Urinary Exosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Dimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted into the extracellular space or body fluids when a multivesicular body (MVB fuses with the cell membrane. Interest in exosomes intensified after their description in antigen-presenting cells and the observation that they can significantly moderate immune responses in vivo. In the past few years, several groups have reported on the secretion of exosomes by almost all cell types in an organism. In addition to a common set of membrane and cytosolic molecules, exosomes harbor unique subsets of proteins, reflecting their cellular source. Major research efforts were put into their surprisingly various biological functions and in translating knowledge into clinical practice. Urine provides an exciting noninvasive alternative to blood or tissue samples as a potential source of disease biomarkers. Urinary exosomes (UE became the subject of serious studies just a few years ago. A recent large-scale proteomics-based study of normal UE revealed a myriad of proteins, including disease-related gene products. Thus, UE have valuable potential as a source of biomarkers for early detection of various types of diseases, monitoring the disease evolution and/or response to therapy. As a relatively new field of research, it still faces many challenges, but UE have already shown some straightforward potential.

  4. Menopause, estrogens and frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedergaard, Anders; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Christiansen, Claus

    2013-05-01

    The controversy surrounding the results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trials published a decade ago caused a significant decline in the use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy. However, these results have been vehemently contested and several lines of evidence suggest that in perimenopausal and non-obese women, estrogen therapy may indeed be of benefit. There is ample proof that menopause causes a loss of musculoskeletal tissue mass and quality, thereby causing a loss of health and quality of life. There is also solid evidence that hormone replacement therapy in itself prevents most of these effects in connective tissue in itself. Besides the independent, direct effects on the musculoskeletal tissues, estrogen deficiency also reduces the ability to adequately respond and adapt to external mechanical and metabolic stressors, e.g. exercise, which are otherwise the main stimuli that should maintain musculoskeletal integrity and metabolic function. Thus, normophysiological estrogen levels appear to exert a permissive effect on musculoskeletal adaptations to loading, thereby likely improving the outcome of rehabilitation following critical illness, musculoskeletal trauma or orthopedic surgical therapy. These effects add to the evidence supporting the use of estrogen therapy, particularly accelerated gain of functional capacity and independence following musculoskeletal disuse.

  5. Estrogen, inflammation, and platelet phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Hashimoto, Kazumori; Heit, John A; Owen, Whyte G

    2008-01-01

    Although exogenous estrogenic therapies increase the risk of thrombosis, the effects of estrogen on formed elements of blood are uncertain. This article examines the genomic and nongenomic actions of estrogen on platelet phenotype that may contribute to increased thrombotic risk. To determine aggregation, secretion, protein expression, and thrombin generation, platelets were collected from experimental animals of varying hormonal status and from women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Estrogen receptor beta predominates in circulating platelets. Estrogenic treatment in ovariectomized animals decreased platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion. However, acute exposure to 17beta-estradiol did not reverse decreases in platelet ATP secretion invoked by lipopolysaccharide. Thrombin generation was positively correlated to the number of circulating microvesicles expressing phosphatidylserine. Assessing the effect of estrogen treatments on blood platelets may lead to new ways of identifying women at risk for adverse thrombotic events with such therapies.

  6. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  7. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  8. The pattern of ovarian development in the prepubertal antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsuka, Masafumi; Asada, Masatsugu; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-08-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the prepubertal period, ovaries grew slowly and approximately doubled their weight. The morphologies of right and left ovaries were almost identical while the growth of the ovary appears to occur preferentially on the right side. The most striking morphological feature was numerous small antral follicles less than 5 mm in diameter found in ovaries of younger immature whales. The occurrence of these ovaries was highest in whales less than 6 m long and gradually decreased as body length increased. In larger whales, the occurrence of ovaries with a smaller number of follicles up to 10 mm and thick tunica albuginea increased. Thus, the ovary of the Antarctic minke whale experiences bursts of small follicular development during the early prepubertal period before becoming a more developed ovary with fewer but larger follicles, and thick tunica albuginea.

  9. Myoepithelial cell differentiation markers in prepubertal bovine mammary gland: Effect of ovariectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously reported that ovariectomy alters prepubertal development of mammary myoepithelial cells (MC), but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We therefore analyzed the expression of the myoepithelial differentiation markers a-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and the common acute ly...

  10. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Dysglycaemia and dyslipidaemia are common among pre-pubertal obese children. Insulin sensitivity indices based on OGTT are superior to fasting indices in identifying at risk children. OGTT should be included in assessing obese children with BMI > 2 SDS. DXA scanning has limited value for this purpose in clinical settings.

  11. The oral rehabilitation and 5 years follow up of a patient with prepubertal periodontitis- one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelal Seyfioglu Polat

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiologic, pathogenetic and host factors definition and classifications ofperiodontal diseases are done in many studies till nowadays. To regard these studiesprepubertal periodontitis is defined as early onset periodontitis.In our study it is aimed to present the treatment results of of apatient who isdiagnosed with prepubertal periodontitis, treated and followed up for five years.

  12. Adult Immunohistochemical Markers Fail to Detect Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Prepubertal Boys with Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina;

    2014-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. The condition is characterized by large germ cells with large nuclei with a hyperchromatic, coarse chromatin pattern, large prominent nucleoli and abundant pale cytoplasm. In prepubertal boys these cells are located c...

  13. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children with constitutional delay of growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dyanne A; Hofman, Paul L; Miles, Harriet L; Sato, Tim A; Billett, Nathalie E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prepubertal children with presumed constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) have enhanced insulin sensitivity and, therefore, insulin sensitivity is associated with later onset of puberty. Twenty-one prepubertal children with presumed CDGD and 23 prepubertal control children, underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and other markers of insulin, glucose, and growth regulation. Children in the CDGD group were shorter and leaner than control subjects. Children with presumed CDGD were 40% more insulin sensitive (17.0 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L] versus 12.1 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L]; P = .0006) and had reduced acute insulin response, thus maintaining euglycemia (216 mU/L versus 330 mU/L; P = .02) compared with control subjects. In addition, the CDGD group had lower serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels (3333 ng/mL versus 3775 ng/mL; P = .0004) and a trend toward lower serum insulin-like growth factor-II levels (794 ng/mL versus 911 ng/mL; P = .06). Prepubertal children with presumed CDGD have enhanced insulin sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity is associated with timing of puberty. It may signify long-term biological advantages with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanne Travers

    Full Text Available Testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only potential option for fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys exposed to gonadotoxic treatment. Completion of spermatogenesis after in vitro maturation is one of the future uses of harvested testicular tissue. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of fresh and frozen-thawed mouse pre-pubertal spermatogonial stem cells in an organ culture system. Pre-pubertal CD1 mouse fresh testes were cultured for 7 (D7, 9 (D9 and 11 (D11 days using an organ culture system. Basal medium was supplemented with different concentrations of retinol (Re or retinoic acid (RA alone or in combination. Seminiferous tubule morphology (tubule diameter, intra-tubular cell type, intra-tubular cell death and proliferation (PCNA antibody and testosterone level were assessed at D7, D9 and D11. Pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue were frozen after a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C and after thawing, were cultured for 9 days, using the culture medium preserving the best fresh tissue functionality. Retinoic acid at 10(-6M and retinol at 3.3.10(-7M, as well as retinol 10(-6M are favourable for seminiferous tubule growth, maintenance of intra-tubular cell proliferation and germ cell differentiation of fresh pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonia. Structural and functional integrity of frozen-thawed testicular tissue appeared to be well-preserved after soaking temperature at -8 °C, after 9 days of organotypic culture using 10(-6M retinol. RA and Re can control in vitro germ cell proliferation and differentiation. Re at a concentration of 10(-6M maintains intra-tubular cell proliferation and the ability of spermatogonia to initiate spermatogenesis in fresh and frozen pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue using a soaking temperature at -8 °C. Our data suggested a possible human application for in vitro maturation of cryopreserved pre-pubertal testicular

  15. Lower urinary tract symptoms after subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common after hysterectomy and increase after menopause. We aimed to compare subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy regarding LUTS, including urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes, 14 years after hysterectomy. Main results from...... prior to hysterectomy, local estrogen treatment, and body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2). High BMI was primarily associated with mixed UI (MUI) and urgency symptoms. Predictors of bothersome LUTS were UI and incomplete bladder emptying. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in the frequency of subjectively...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  17. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  18. The role of local estrogen therapy in the management of pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzur, T; Yohai, D; Weintraub, A Y

    2016-04-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common and bothersome problems that include a variety of conditions. These conditions greatly affect the performance of daily activities and social function such as work, traveling, physical exercise, sleep and sexual function. Aging is a well-known factor affecting the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract anatomy and function. It is clear that the pelvic organs and their surrounding muscular and connective tissue support are estrogen-responsive. Treatment of pelvic floor disorders requires significant health-care resources and their impact is likely to increase in the near future. This literature review aims to provide an overview of both research and clinical aspects of the pathophysiology of urogenital estrogen deficiency and the role of local estrogen therapy as part of the management strategy of different pelvic floor disorders. The safety and risk concerns regarding the use of local estrogen therapy are addressed as well.

  19. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  20. [Conservative therapy of female urinary incontinence--potential and effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcicka, L; Chmel, R; Novácková, M

    2005-01-01

    Non-surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence is not as effective as surgical methods but it is very successful in indicated cases. Rehabilitation of the pelvic floor muscles (Kegel exercises, vaginal cones, and electrostimulation of the pelvic floor muscles), drug treatment (alfa-mimetics, tricyclic antidepressives, estrogens, duloxetin), pessarotherapy and uretral obturator devices represent possibilities of conservative therapy of the stress incontinence. Conservative therapy is the method of choice in the treatment of urge incontinence. The most successful are anticholinergic drugs but they have very frequent serious side effects (dryness of the mucous membranes, accommodation disorders, constipation). Spasmolytics, estrogens and tricyclic antidepressives are the other popular used drugs. Life style modification, bladder training and electrostimulation represent very important parts of the conservative treatment. Effectiveness of the non-surgical treatment of both urge and stress urinary incontinence can not reach 100 percent but it helps very much in the quality of life improvement of incontinent women.

  1. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  3. Estrogenic effects from household stoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W Z; Chen, J; Rehmann, K; Schramm, K W; Kettrup

    2002-09-01

    With the application of a genetically modified yeast, estrogen receptor-activating compounds were detected in the soot and emission gas of a wood-burning household stove. The EC50 value of 17beta-estradiol was divided by the EC50 value of soot, and the obtained relative estrogenic value for raw soot was 2.37E-5, indicating that soot was about 100,000 times less estrogenic than 17beta-estradiol. Chemical analysis revealed that alkyl phenol, benzonic acid, and PAHs represented the major constituents in the most potent fractions of the soot. Along with PAHs, other constituents might also contribute to the estrogenicity of soot.

  4. Different roles of prepubertal and postpubertal germ cells and Sertoli cells in the regulation of serum inhibin B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the role of germ cells in the regulation of inhibin B secretion, serum inhibin B levels in prepubertal boys and adult men whom had a concurrent testicular biopsy showing either normal or impaired testicular function were compared. In addition, by immunohistochemistry the cellular...... localization of the two subunits of inhibin B (alpha and betaB) were examined in adult testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis, spermatogenic arrest, or Sertoli cell only tubules (SCO) as well as in normal testicular tissue from an infant and a prepubertal boy. Adult men with testicular biopsy showing...... SCO boys, inhibin B levels were undetectable as in the adult SCO men. Intense inhibin alpha-subunit immunostaining was evident in Sertoli cells in both prepubertal and adult testes. In the prepubertal testis, positive immunostaining for the betaB-subunit was observed in Sertoli cells. In the adult...

  5. Prepubertal vulval fibroma with a coincidental ectopic breast fibroadenoma: report of an unusual case with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Kana; Xi, Mingrong; Yang, Kaixuan; Liu, Hui

    2011-11-01

    Prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma of the vulva are two rare tumors, and they are very difficult to distinguish from other vulval masses, both clinically and pathologically. The complication of the two diseases is extremely rare. We report the case of an extremely large and progressively enlarging mass in the vulva of an 18-year-old Chinese girl. The mass was excised completely and pathologically diagnosed as a prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma. The patient was followed up for 10 months and no evidence of recurrence was observed. Prepubertal vulval fibroma and vulval ectopic breast fibroadenoma should be considered in their preoperative differential diagnosis of a vulval mass, especially in prepubertal girls. Pathologically, immunohistochemical staining for vimentin and CD34 is valuable for diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is effective and long-term follow up is necessary.

  6. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole;

    2015-01-01

    in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  7. The Effect of Low Monotonic Doses of Zearalenone on Selected Reproductive Tissues in Pre-Pubertal Female Dogs--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajęcka, Magdalena; Zielonka, Łukasz; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2015-11-19

    The growing interest in toxic substances combined with advancements in biological sciences has shed a new light on the problem of mycotoxins contaminating feeds and foods. An interdisciplinary approach was developed by identifying dose-response relationships in key research concepts, including the low dose theory of estrogen-like compounds, hormesis, NOAEL dose, compensatory response and/or food tolerance, and effects of exposure to undesirable substances. The above considerations increased the researchers' interest in risk evaluation, namely: (i) clinical symptoms associated with long-term, daily exposure to low doses of a toxic compound; and (ii) dysfunctions at cellular or tissue level that do not produce clinical symptoms. Research advancements facilitate the extrapolation of results and promote the use of novel tools for evaluating the risk of exposure, for example exposure to zearalenone in pre-pubertal female dogs. The arguments presented in this paper suggest that low doses of zearalenone in commercial feeds stimulate metabolic processes and increase weight gains. Those processes are accompanied by lower proliferation rates in the ovaries, neoangiogenesis and vasodilation in the ovaries and the uterus, changes in the steroid hormone profile, and changes in the activity of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. All of the above changes result from exogenous hyperestrogenizm.

  8. Effects of a moderate intensity exercise intervention on estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Charlotte; Lampe, Johanna W; Tworoger, Shelley S; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Bowen, Deborah; Irwin, Melinda L; Schwartz, Robert S; Rajan, Bharat K; Yasui, Yutaka; Potter, John D; McTiernan, Anne

    2004-05-01

    Physical activity has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk, potentially via hormonal pathways, and high urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OH E(1)) relative to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OH E(1)) also has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Studies suggest that body composition and exercise can influence estrogen metabolism. We determined the effects of a 12-month moderate intensity aerobic exercise intervention on urinary 2-OH E(1), 16alpha-OH E(1), and their ratio in overweight and obese, previously sedentary, postmenopausal women, ages 50-75 years. Women were randomized to a 12-month exercise intervention (n = 87) or stretching control group (n = 86); 170 completed the study. Urinary 2- and 16alpha-OH E(1) were measured in spot urines collected at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Body composition was measured at baseline and 12 months. Differences between exercisers and controls for excretion of estrogen metabolites were determined using general estimating equations. Further analyses assessed change in estrogen metabolites and their ratio by subgroups of change in body composition. Overall, there were no significant effects of the exercise intervention on 2-OH E(1), 16alpha-OH E(1), or their ratio (P > 0.05). There appeared to be an effect of change in intra-abdominal fat and adherence to the exercise intervention on change in the estrogen metabolites or their ratio. However, this did not reflect a potentially desirable change in estrogen metabolites associated with the exercise intervention. Thus, this 12-month moderate intensity exercise intervention did not significantly alter urinary excretion of 2-OH E(1), 16alpha-OH E(1), or their ratio in this population of women.

  9. Estrogenic compounds -endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inflammation, Sertoli-cell-only pattern, hypospadias, altered pituitary and thyroid gland functions are also observed, the available data are insufficient to deduce worldwide conclusions.

  10. Estrogen receptors in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, A

    1979-11-01

    On the basis of estrogen receptor assays, breast carcinomas are presently classified as estrogen-dependent tumors, which respond to endocrine therapy, and autonomous tumors, for which endocrine therapy is useless. This paper presents a short review of the biochemical principles of estrogen dependence, the procedures used to determine estrogen receptors, and the clinical applications of the findings of these assay procedures. Biobhemically, the estroogen dependence of normal breast cells is explained as a biochemical reaction occurring between the circulating estradiol and the breast cell, which occurs in 3 steps: 1) circulating estradiol penetrates the cellular membrane by passive diffusion, followed by 2) combining of estradiol with the estrogen-binding protein (estrophilin) and formation of an estrogen receptor complex which undergoes activation and translocation into the nucleus, to result in 3) the activated steroid receptor which combines with the nuclear charomatin and stimulates ribonucleic acid synthesis for the formation of estradiol binding proteins or estradiol receptors. The cytosol method of Wittliff et al. is described in brief and entails radioactive competitive analysis; the other available laboratory procedure is immunofluorescence of tumor sections. Quantification of estrogen receptor content can be used clinically to decide on ablative endocrine therapy, to determine the effectiveness of anti-estrogen administration, to determine the primary site of metastatic carcinoma, and as a screenng device.

  11. ESTROGEN IN THE LIMBIC SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Gert J.; Litwack, G

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that function as the primary female sex hormone. Estrogens not only have an important role in the regulation of the estrous or menstrual cycle but also control, for example, bone formation, the cardiovascular system, and cognitive functions. Estradiol (E2),

  12. Urinary phthalate monoesters and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Phthalates may act as an estrogen and are a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as endometriosis. We assessed the association between phthalate exposure and endometriosis in 166 consecutive women who presented at a university hospital for consultation regarding infertility. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine specimen prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis. They were then categorized by the severity of endometriosis as controls (stages 0-I) and cases (stages II-IV). Urinary concentrations of the phthalate metabolites monoethyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate were measured in 57 cases and 80 controls using high-performance liquid chromatography isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Adjusted odds ratios for endometriosis in relation to dichotomized individual phthalate metabolites (standardized for creatinine) were calculated. No significant association between endometriosis and any urinary creatinine-adjusted phthalate monoester was seen. Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for higher dichotomized MEHP by endometriosis was 1.57 (0.74-3.30). No monotonic trend was seen in urinary creatinine-adjusted concentration of phthalate metabolites by endometriosis stage (p = 0.23-0.90). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites are associated with the risk of endometriosis in infertile Japanese women.

  13. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile fibroadenoma comprises about 4% of the total fibroadenomas. The incidence of giant juvenile fibroadenomas is merely 0.5% of all the fibroadenomas. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas are extremely rare. We are presenting a case of giant juvenile fibroadenomas in an 11-year-old pre-pubertal girl. The diagnosis was made on fine-needle aspiration cytology which was confirmed on histopathology. As these tumors are mostly benign, breast-conserving surgery is done so that patient can lead a normal life without psychological trauma.-----------------------------------Cite this article as: Goyal S, Garg G, Narang S. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:020113.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.13

  14. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total......, dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...

  15. Klinefelter syndrome is a common cause for mental retardation of unknown etiology among prepubertal males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M M; Struthers, J L

    2002-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has not typically been associated with mental retardation (MR), however, in recent years a growing body of evidence suggested that KS boys often experience language deficits and academic difficulties. In this study, we screened DNA samples from 1205 patients originally referred for fragile X syndrome (FRAX) testing, because of MR of unknown etiology and detected 8 KS patients. A similar number of males in the same age group were found to have FRAX; 3 of them had a family history of FRAX. Based on these findings, KS might be the most common cause of MR of unknown etiology among prepubertal males. Because of the significant benefits of early recognition and treatment of KS, we emphasize the importance of cytogenetic testing of all prepubertal males with cognitive impairment even without dysmorphic features.

  16. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals.

  17. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Astrid Marie; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of gonadal function during maturation in girls and in adult women can be troublesome. With the recent advent of specific assays for the gonadal peptides inhibin A and inhibin B, it might be possible to achieve a clearer picture of events. We therefore determined serum levels...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  18. Myeloperoxidase Is an Early Biomarker of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk in Prepubertal Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Olza, Josune; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Leis, Rosaura; Bueno, Gloria; Martínez-Jiménez, Maria D.; Valle, Miguel; Cañete, Ramon; Tojo, Rafael; Moreno, Luis A.; Gil, Angel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objectives of the current study were to evaluate plasma MPO levels in prepubertal obese children and to determine whether MPO could be an early biomarker of inflammation and CVD risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective multicenter case-contr...

  19. Sex hormone binding globulin concentration as a prepubertal marker for hyperinsulinaemia in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, P; Donaldson, M.; WALLACE, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Overweight children become obese adults who are prone to develop the "metabolic syndrome" and premature coronary arterial disease (CAD).
AIMS—To assess whether sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a potential marker for hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance in prepubertal obese children.
METHODS—Twenty five obese children (body mass index (BMI) >2SD) who warranted investigation on clinical grounds were enrolled. Their insulin response to an oral glucose tolera...

  20. SCA-1 Labels a Subset of Estrogen-Responsive Bipotential Repopulating Cells within the CD24+ CD49fhi Mammary Stem Cell-Enriched Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve V. Dall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen stimulates breast development during puberty and mammary tumors in adulthood through estrogen receptor-α (ERα. These effects are proposed to occur via ERα+ luminal cells and not the mammary stem cells (MaSCs that are ERαneg. Since ERα+ luminal cells express stem cell antigen-1 (SCA-1, we sought to determine if SCA-1 could define an ERα+ subset of EpCAM+/CD24+/CD49fhi MaSCs. We show that the MaSC population has a distinct SCA-1+ population that is abundant in pre-pubertal mammary glands. The SCA-1+ MaSCs have less stem cell markers and less in vivo repopulating activity than their SCA-1neg counterparts. However, they express ERα and specifically enter the cell cycle at puberty. Using estrogen-deficient aromatase knockouts (ArKO, we showed that the SCA-1+ MaSC could be directly modulated by estrogen supplementation. Thus, SCA-1 enriches for an ERα+, estrogen-sensitive subpopulation within the CD24+/CD49fhi MaSC population that may be responsible for the hormonal sensitivity of the developing mammary gland.

  1. The female urinary microbiota, urinary health and common urinary disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and are cultivatable under appropriate conditions. Common clinical conditions, including urinary tract infection (UTI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), a common form of urinary incontinence (UI), may be usefully reconsidered to determine the role of the FUM. Knowledge of FUM characteristics may help advance prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions and other common lower urinary disorders in women. The FUM appears related to UTI and UUI in adult women. The specific role of the FUM remains to be clarified and requires significant additional work in describing FUM variability and resilience in health. Unique aspects of the FUM prompt re-evaluation of existing nomenclature to more appropriately define health and disease; the concept of dysbiosis may be useful for understanding the interaction of the FUM with other aspects of lower urinary tract physiology, including urothelial signaling. Clinicians, through their clinical laboratories, can adopt enhanced urine culture techniques that more fully describe the living microbes within the FUM. This additional information may provide clinicians and their patients an opportunity to impact clinical care without antibiotic use, if the FUM can be appropriately modified to improve treatment precision for UTI and UUI. PMID:28217699

  2. Implications of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathogenesis of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascietto, Cinzia; Giannini, Cosimo; D'Adamo, Ebe; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    There is a worsening high prevalence of global obesity. Special attention has been paid to the gut-endocrine system, represented by the regulators of appetite. In particular, it has been suggested that ghrelin ("hunger" peptide), and obestatin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) ("satiety" peptides) could play important roles in the pathogenesis of obesity. The aims of this study were to compare fasting plasma ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1 levels between obese and nonobese prepubertal children, and to assess their relations with fatness indexes and insulin resistance (IR). Fifty-two prepubertal obese children and 22 controls were enrolled. Fasting levels of gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1), glucose, and insulin were evaluated. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index. Analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlation. Obese prepubertal children and normal-weight controls had similar age distribution. Obese children were more insulin resistant when compared to controls (HOMA-IR: p obese children than in controls (p obese than normal-weight children (p obesity.

  3. Pre-pubertal males practising Taekwondo exhibit favourable postural and neuromuscular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlid, Mohamed Chedly; Maffulli, Nicola; Souissi, Nisar; Chelly, Mohamed Souheil; Paillard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The postural and neuromuscular performances in healthy children taekwondo (TKD) practitioners in comparison with control children were examined. Seventeen healthy pre-pubertal males undertaking only physical education at school (age: 11.88 ± 0.33 years) and 12 pre-pubertal male TKD practitioners (>3 years, 4 sessions a week) (age 11.66 ± 0.49 years) were recruited. Performances in the dynamic postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test -SEBT), vertical jump [squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)] and sprint running (distances: 5, 10, 20 and 30 m) tests were compared between the two groups. The performances of the TKD practitioners were better than those of the non-TKD active for the SEBT (for 14 of 16 conditions, p  0.05). TKD practice would stimulate sensory input and motor output of the postural system that would enhance its efficiency. In addition, the dynamic nature of TKD would develop the muscle power of the lower limbs. In our sample of healthy pre-pubertal males, TKD appears to improve postural and neuromuscular functions, but further research is required.

  4. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total...... focus on differential effects of dairy and meat protein on bone health during growth.......We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total......, dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...

  5. Uric acid, carotid intima-media thickness and body composition in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Díaz-Roldán, F; Osiniri, I; Riera-Pérez, E; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2016-10-01

    Increased uric acid is an independent biomarker for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents and adults. We investigated whether uric acid relates to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in prepubertal children, and whether body mass index (BMI) and preperitoneal fat modulate this association. 359 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children were stratified according to BMI categories (171 with BMI-SDS 50th centile). Uric acid levels, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), triacylglycerol (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), abdominal fat and cIMT (both by ultrasound) were assessed. Uric acid was associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, namely higher HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, BMI, waist, SBP, preperitoneal fat and cIMT (all P uric acid and cIMT (both P uric acid was preferentially related to cIMT in heavier children (β = 0.247, P uric acid is associated with cIMT in asymptomatic prepubertal children. Both higher BMI and preperitoneal fat aggravate the potential risk of atherosclerotic disease imposed by higher concentrations of uric acid. © 2015 World Obesity.

  6. Fat mass index performs best in monitoring management of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (pBMI. The agreement between the outcome detected by FMI and by %FM was high (kappa 0.701), but very low between the success detected by BMI and either FMI (kappa 0.231) or %FM (kappa 0.125). FMI achieved the best combination of ability and swiftness to identify reduction of adiposity during monitoring of weight management in prepubertal obese children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists in the Yeast Estrogen Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si; Bovee, Toine F H

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based bioassays can be used to predict the eventual biological activity of a substance on a living organism. In vitro reporter gene bioassays are based on recombinant vertebrate cell lines or yeast strains and especially the latter are easy-to-handle, cheap, and fast. Moreover, yeast cells do not express estrogen, androgen, progesterone or glucocorticoid receptors, and are thus powerful tools in the development of specific reporter gene systems that are devoid of crosstalk from other hormone pathways. This chapter describes our experience with an in-house developed RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay for testing estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, focusing on the applicability of the latter.

  8. Urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  9. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  10. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT–PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  12. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  13. Novel Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthje, Petra; Brauner, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections, especially in women and children, frequently treated with antibiotics. The alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is a global threat to future treatment of infections. Therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The innate immune system plays a fundamental role in protecting the urinary tract from infections. Antimicrobial peptides form an important part of the innate immunity. They are produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils and defend the urinary tract against invading bacteria. Since efficient resistance mechanisms have not evolved among bacterial pathogens, much effort has been put into exploring the role of antimicrobial peptides and possibilities to utilize them in clinical practice. Here, we describe the impact of antimicrobial peptides in the urinary tract and ways to enhance the production by hormones like vitamin D and estrogen. We also discuss the potential of medicinal herbs to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:26828523

  14. Novel Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Lüthje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections, especially in women and children, frequently treated with antibiotics. The alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is a global threat to future treatment of infections. Therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The innate immune system plays a fundamental role in protecting the urinary tract from infections. Antimicrobial peptides form an important part of the innate immunity. They are produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils and defend the urinary tract against invading bacteria. Since efficient resistance mechanisms have not evolved among bacterial pathogens, much effort has been put into exploring the role of antimicrobial peptides and possibilities to utilize them in clinical practice. Here, we describe the impact of antimicrobial peptides in the urinary tract and ways to enhance the production by hormones like vitamin D and estrogen. We also discuss the potential of medicinal herbs to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of urinary tract infections.

  15. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search ... Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is ...

  16. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  17. Oral supplementation of standardized extract of Withania somnifera protects against diabetes-induced testicular oxidative impairments in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara Nagaraj; Manjunath, Mallayya Jayawanth; Muralidhara

    2014-09-01

    Male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility are the common consequences of overt diabetes. Available evidence support oxidative stress to be the underlying mechanism for the manifestation of testicular complications during diabetes. In the present study, we assessed the attenuating effects of Withania somnifera root extract (WS) on diabetes-induced testicular oxidative disturbances in prepubertal rats. Four-week-old prepubertal rats were assigned into nondiabetic control, streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and STZ+WS supplemented (500 mg/kg b.w./d, oral, 15 days) groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (90 mg/kg b.w). Terminally, all animals were killed, and markers of oxidative stress were determined in the testis cytosol and mitochondrial fraction. Severe hyperglycemia and regression in testis size were apparent in diabetic rats. A decline in antioxidant defenses with subsequent elevation in the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was discernible in testis cytosol and mitochondria of diabetic prepubertal rats, which was significantly reversed by WS. However, there was partial restoration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in testis of diabetic prepubertal rats administered with WS. Taken together, data accrued suggest the potential of WS to improve diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in prepubertal rats.

  18. Fish populations surviving estrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Claus

    2014-02-10

    Among the most common pollutants that enter the environment after passing municipal wastewater treatment are estrogens, especially the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol that is used in oral contraceptives. Estrogens are potent endocrine disruptors at concentrations frequently observed in surface waters. However, new genetic analyses suggest that some fish populations can be self-sustaining even in heavily polluted waters. We now need to understand the basis of this tolerance.

  19. Estrogen Signaling in Metabolic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosário Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive evidence supporting the interference of inflammatory activation with metabolism. Obesity, mainly visceral obesity, is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state, triggered by metabolic surplus where specialized metabolic cells such as adipocytes activate cellular stress initiating and sustaining the inflammatory program. The increasing prevalence of obesity, resulting in increased cardiometabolic risk and precipitating illness such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, cirrhosis, and certain types of cancer, constitutes a good example of this association. The metabolic actions of estrogens have been studied extensively and there is also accumulating evidence that estrogens influence immune processes. However, the connection between these two fields of estrogen actions has been underacknowledged since little attention has been drawn towards the possible action of estrogens on the modulation of metabolism through their anti-inflammatory properties. In the present paper, we summarize knowledge on the modification inflammatory processes by estrogens with impact on metabolism and highlight major research questions on the field. Understanding the regulation of metabolic inflammation by estrogens may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies to the management of metabolic dysfunctions.

  20. Effect of energy deficiency on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlind, Kim C; Williams, Nancy I

    2007-07-01

    Physical activity has been associated with decreased breast cancer risk, potentially through changes in estrogen metabolism. Two-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1) have different biological properties, and the ratio of these metabolites (2/16) has been proposed to predict breast cancer risk. Diet and exercise have been found to influence estrogen metabolism, particularly when a state of negative energy balance is achieved. We sought to determine whether 4 months of moderate-intensity exercise coupled with calorie restriction would result in changes in urinary 2-OHE1, 16alpha-OHE1, or 2/16 in sedentary, premenopausal, eumenorrheic women. Average age was 31.5 yr, average body fat was 31.6%, and average BMI was 23.7. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured in 24 women during the baseline and for four intervention months in the midfollicular and midluteal phases. The intervention produced a significant drop in body fat (4.5%) and body weight (3.7 kg). Aerobic fitness increased significantly (26%; P effects of the diet and exercise intervention on 2-OHE1, 16alpha-OHE1, or 2/16. However, when divided into tertiles according to baseline 2/16, the intervention resulted in significant increases in 2/16 in women in the lowest tertile. Women in the lowest tertile (average 2/16 = 0.91) did not differ from the other tertiles in baseline estradiol concentrations, body fat, weight, fitness, or changes in these variables with the intervention. The data suggest that women at higher risk for developing breast cancer because of low 2/16 may reduce their risk by participating in lifestyle interventions such as exercise/calorie restriction.

  1. Comparative in vivo and in vitro analysis of possible estrogenic effects of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Pei-Li; Ehresman, David J; Rae, Jessica M Caverly; Chang, Shu-Ching; Frame, Steven R; Butenhoff, John L; Kennedy, Gerald L; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-04

    Previous studies suggested that perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) could activate the estrogen receptor (ER). The present study examined the hypothesis that PFOA can activate ER using an in vivo uterotrophic assay in CD-1 mice and an in vitro reporter assay. Pre-pubertal female CD-1 mice fed an estrogen-free diet from postnatal day (PND)14 through weaning on PND18 were administered 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, or 1mg/kg PFOA or 17β-estradiol (E2, 0.5mg/kg) from PND18-20. In contrast to E2, PFOA caused no changes in the relative uterine weight, the expression of ER target genes, or the morphology of the uterus/cervix and/or vagina on PND21. Treatment of a stable human cell line containing an ER-dependent luciferase reporter construct with a broad concentration range of PFOA caused no change in ER-dependent luciferase activity; whereas E2 caused a marked increase of ER-dependent luciferase activity. These data indicate that PFOA does not activate mouse or human ER.

  2. Developmental programming: contribution of prenatal androgen and estrogen to estradiol feedback systems and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Astapova, Olga I; Aizenberg, Esther F; Lee, James S; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess leads to neuroendocrine and periovulatory disruptions in the offspring culminating in progressive loss of cyclicity. It is unknown whether the mediary of these disruptions is androgen or estrogen, because testosterone can be aromatized to estrogen. Taking a reproductive life span approach of studying control, prenatal testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone-treated offspring, this study tested the hypothesis that disruptions in estradiol-negative but not -positive feedback effects are programmed by androgenic actions of testosterone and that these disruptions in turn will have an impact on the periovulatory hormonal dynamics. The approach was to test estradiol-negative and -positive feedback responses of all three groups of ovary-intact females during prepubertal age and then compare the periovulatory dynamics of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during the first breeding season. The findings show that estradiol-negative but not estradiol-positive feedback disruptions in prenatal testosterone-treated females are programmed by androgenic actions of prenatal testosterone excess and that follicular phase estradiol and gonadotropins surge disruptions during reproductive life are consistent with estrogenic programming. Additional studies carried out testing estradiol-positive feedback response over time found progressive deterioration of estradiol-positive feedback in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep until the time of puberty. Together, these findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which prenatal testosterone disrupts the reproductive axis. The findings may be of translational relevance since daughters of mothers with hyperandrogenism are at risk of increased exposure to androgens.

  3. The Relationship between Periodontopathy and Estrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shiguang; LI Dexiang

    2002-01-01

    Objecitve To discuss the relationship between peridontopathy and estrogen. Method We discussed the relationship between periodontopathy and increasing of estrogen, the relationship between peridontopoathy and deficiency of estrogen and the relationship between osteoprotegerin in osteoblasts and estrogen. Results When estrogen increased or decreased abnormally, osteoporosis could occur, which induced alveolar ridge resorption and alveolar bone atrophy. Then the teeth exfoliated.Teeth uncleanness facilitated periodontopathy. Conclusion No matter how young or old, keeping the relative balance of estrogen can protect gingiva and alveolar bone. At the same time, keeping teeth clean is also essential to prevent periodontopathy.

  4. Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksicek, R J

    1995-01-01

    A systematic survey of polycyclic phenols has been performed to identify members of this chemical group with estrogenic activity. Twelve compounds were found to be able to stimulate the transcriptional activity of the human estrogen receptor expressed in cultured cells by transient transfection. These natural estrogens belong to several distinct, but chemically related classes including chalcones, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones. Selected examples of estrogenic flavonoids were further analyzed to determine their biological potencies and their relative affinities for binding to the estrogen receptor. These data are interpreted with respect to the molecular structure of polycyclic phenols required for hormonal activity as nonsteroidal estrogens.

  5. Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Felipe H; Jallad, Raquel S; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2016-11-01

    Despite recent advances in acromegaly treatment by surgery, drugs, and radiotherapy, hormonal control is still not achieved by some patients. The impairment of IGF-1 generation by estrogens in growth hormone deficient patients is well known. Patients on oral estrogens need higher growth hormone doses in order to achieve normal IGF-1 values. In the past, estrogens were one of the first drugs used to treat acromegaly. Nevertheless, due to the high doses used and the obvious side effects in male patients, this strategy was sidelined with the development of more specific drugs, as somatostatin receptor ligands and dopamine agonists. In the last 15 years, the antagonist of growth hormone receptor became available, making possible IGF-1 control of the majority of patients on this particular drug. However, due to its high cost, pegvisomant is still not available in many centers around the world. In this setting, the effect of estrogens and also of selective estrogen receptor modulators on IGF-1 control was reviewed, and proved to be an ancillary tool in the management of acromegaly. This review describes data concerning their efficacy and place in the treatment algorithm of acromegaly.

  6. Progressive perineal urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect in prepubertal children: The outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Chandra Pal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urethroplasty in pediatric patients is a challenging task. In this study, we have tried to assess the complexity and evaluate the outcome of progressive perineal anastomotic urethroplasty in prepubertal children. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data of all the prepubertal children who underwent progressive perineal urethroplasty between March 2009 and April 2014 were analyzed. Patients were evaluated with history, examination, essential laboratory investigations, retrograde urethrogram, and voiding cystourethrogram. Before subjecting the patients for definitive surgery, antegrade and retrograde endoscopic assessment was done. The surgery was performed by the transperineal route with the help of ×2.5 magnification. Patients were followed up with uroflowmetry for every 3 months in the 1 st year and for every 6 months in the subsequent years. Results: Mean age of the patients was 7.3 (range 5-11 years. Mean urethral distraction defect was 1.7 (range 1-2.5 cm. All the patients were successfully managed by the perineal approach. Crural separation was performed in all the patients while additional inferior pubectomy was required in six patients. Mean operating time was 298 (range 180-400 min. Mean blood loss was 174 (range 100-500 ml. One patient had the left calf hematoma in the immediate postoperative period. Seven out of nine (77.7% patients had successful urethroplasty. Two patients had failed urethroplasty who were successfully managed by redo-urethroplasty. Transient incontinence was observed in one patient. Erectile function could not be assessed in these patients. Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of progressive perineal urethroplasty by the perineal route in prepubertal children. An endoscopic assessment should be performed before the definitive surgery. Use of loupe helps in performing better anastomosis and hence yielding a better result.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Urinary Tract Infections Print A ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  8. Bacterial vaginosis in the context of lichen sclerosus in a prepubertal girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feito-Rodríguez, Marta; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Casas-Rivero, José; García-Rodríguez, Julio; de Lucas-Laguna, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus cause most vulvovaginal infections seen in prepubertal girls. Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age but is rare in children. Data are insufficient to suggest that bacterial vaginosis is an exclusively sexually transmitted disease. We report a 10-year-old girl with no history or suspicion of sexual abuse who developed bacterial vaginosis in the context of a lichen sclerosus being treated with tacrolimus ointment. Secondary bacterial infection in lichen sclerosus is uncommon. We speculate that the immunosuppressive effect of topical tacrolimus could have triggered the infection.

  9. Genital Involvement In Pre-Pubertal Pediatric Population: A Rare Aspect of Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurratul Ann Warsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that causes the loss of immune tolerance leading to bizarre inflammatory signals and disruption of mucosal barriers. Environmental triggers and interaction of genetic determinants also play an indispensible role. In this case report, we present a pre-pubertal girl with intermittent and refractory genital swelling. We emphasize that Crohn’s disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent, non-tender, erythematous and edematous lesions of the genital area. We conclude with future directions for diagnosing and managing vulvar Crohn’s disease in pediatric population.

  10. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  11. [Disruption of latent inhibition in adult rats after prepubertal dopamine terminals lesions in the ventral hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutova, L V; Kostiunina, N V; Red'kina, A V

    2010-05-01

    Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine on 32nd day after birth. Latent inhibition was measured in passive or active avoidance tasks when the rats received 20 and 100 pre-exposures of conditioned stimulus. Prepubertal and adult lesioned rats showed a deficit in the latent inhibition but not in the capacity to avoidance learning in presence of the conditioned stimulus novelty. Possible mechanism of the involvement of hippocampal dopaminergic terminals in attention inhibition to irrelevant information is considered.

  12. Urinary incontinence - collagen implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007373.htm Urinary incontinence - injectable implant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to ...

  13. Urinary Cadmium and Risk of Invasive Breast Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V; Shafer, Martin M; Bonner, Matthew R; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Manson, JoAnn E; Meliker, Jaymie R; Neuhouser, Marian L; Newcomb, Polly A

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium is a widespread heavy metal pollutant that may act as an exogenous estrogenic hormone. Environmental cadmium exposure has been associated with risk of breast cancer in retrospective studies. We prospectively assessed the relationship between cadmium exposure, evaluated by creatinine-normalized urinary cadmium concentration, and invasive breast cancer among 12,701 postmenopausal women aged ≥50 years in a Women's Health Initiative study of bone mineral density. After a median of 13.2 years of follow-up (1993-2010), 508 cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,050 comparison women were identified for a case-cohort analysis. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Risk of breast cancer was not associated with urinary cadmium parameterized either in quartiles (comparing highest quartile with lowest, hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval: 0.56, 1.14; P for trend = 0.20) or as a log-transformed continuous variable (per 2-fold higher urinary cadmium concentration, hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.03). We did not observe an association between urinary cadmium and breast cancer risk in any subgroup examined, including never smokers and women with body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) less than 25. Results were consistent in both estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposure is associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  14. Unbalanced estrogen metabolism in thyroid cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zahid, Muhammad; Goldner, Whitney; Beseler, Cheryl L; Rogan, Eleanor G; Cavalieri, Ercole L

    2013-01-01

    .... Greater exposure to estrogens may be a risk factor for thyroid cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in thyroid cancer, a spot urine sample was obtained from 40 women with thyroid cancer and 40 age‐matched controls. Thirty...

  15. Estrogenic endocrine disruptors: Molecular mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Ryoiti; Wada-Kiyama, Yuko

    2015-10-01

    A comprehensive summary of more than 450 estrogenic chemicals including estrogenic endocrine disruptors is provided here to understand the complex and profound impact of estrogen action. First, estrogenic chemicals are categorized by structure as well as their applications, usage and effects. Second, estrogenic signaling is examined by the molecular mechanism based on the receptors, signaling pathways, crosstalk/bypassing and autocrine/paracrine/homeostatic networks involved in the signaling. Third, evaluation of estrogen action is discussed by focusing on the technologies and protocols of the assays for assessing estrogenicity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of estrogen action is important to assess the action of endocrine disruptors and will be used for risk management based on pathway-based toxicity testing.

  16. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Estrogen-alone hormone therapy does not increase the risk ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerklund Johansen, Truls E.; Naber, Kurt G.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently acquired infections in the community, but also in hospitals and other health care institutions, causing a huge amount of antibiotic consumption. During the last decade we have seen significant changes in the field of urinary tract infections regarding causative pathogens and antibiotic treatment calling for an update of current trends. The worldwide increase of uropathogens resistant to former first line antibiotics, such as cotrim...

  18. [Recurrent urinary tract infection in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdevenito S, Juan Pablo

    2008-08-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (R-UTI) are common among women even though they generally have a normal urinary tract. Women with R-UTI have an increased susceptibility to vaginal colonization with uropathogens due to a greater propensity for them to adhere to their epithelial cells. Risk factors include frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide use, first UTI at an early age and maternal history of UTI. Prevention of recurrences can be done with low-dose continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis or with post-coital antimicrobial prophylaxis, a method that may be more efficient and acceptable. Estrogen replacement therapy using a vaginal administration in postmenopausal women is also effective in preventing R-UTI. The vaginal vaccine only diminishes percentage of women with Escherichia coli UTI. The oral vaccine reduces R-UTI with inferior results than antimicrobial prophylaxis; Cranberry intake shows some evidence in favor, although further trials are needed. Finally R-UTI can also be effectively managed with self-start antimicrobial therapy.

  19. Urinary tract infections in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T

    2001-08-01

    The elderly population is now increasing in the world. A higher incidence of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection (UTI) is observed in elderly patients, in both long-term care facilities and at home. The management of elderly patients with UTI is increasing in clinical significance. Almost all of UTI in the elderly is complicated UTI. Control of the underlying diseases in the urinary tract is quite important in the management of UTIs in elderly patients. For pyelonephritis, switch therapy using aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporines, or penicillins are selections of choice. The recommended duration of treatment for patients with pyelonephritis is 14 days. Seven to 10 days of treatment using fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is recommended for the treatment of elderly patients with symptomatic cystitis. Although asymptomatic bacteriuria is quite common in the elderly population, antibiotic treatment has no benefit for such patients. Intravaginal estrogen replacement is one of choice for the prevention of recurrent UTIs in postmenopausal women.

  20. Selectively targeting estrogen receptors for cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanle, Erin K.; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens regulate growth and development through the action of two distinct estrogen receptors (ERs), ER alpha and ER beta, which mediate proliferation and differentiation of cells. For decades, ER alpha mediated estrogen signaling has been therapeutically targeted to treat breast cancer, most nota

  1. Metabolic and reproductive parameters in prepubertal gilts after omega-3 supplementation in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F; Cheuiche, Z M G; Rizzoto, G; Santos, M Q; Schuch, M S; Flach, M J; Gasperin, B G; Bianchi, I; Lucia, T

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids may benefit reproductive performance of female swine. This study evaluated metabolic and reproductive parameters of prepubertal finishing gilts fed with fish oil as a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids (6.88g/d) (n=12) over a period of 45 d. Gilts in the control group were fed soybean oil (n=13). Body weight and backfat were determined at 15-d intervals. Serum levels of leptin, IGF-1, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at the beginning (D0) and at the end of the period (D45). Immunolabeling intensity for leptin and its receptor (ObRb) was assessed in oocytes of preantral follicles. Gilts fed omega-3 presented slightly heavier uteri (P=0.09) than control gilts, but there was no effect on body weight and backfat (P>0.05). Cholesterol serum levels tended to be lower at D45 for omega-3 supplemented gilts than for controls (P=0.06). Triglycerides and IGF-1 serum levels were lower at D45 than at D0 for control gilts (P0.05), but were greater at D45 than at D0 in both treatments (POmega-3 supplementation was associated with reduced serum cholesterol level and more intense staining for leptin in oocytes of prepubertal gilts, which suggests some involvement on triggering puberty.

  2. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  3. Ganglionic adrenergic action modulates ovarian steroids and nitric oxide in prepubertal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2006-08-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary system of prepubertal rats. The coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system was incubated in Krebs Ringer-bicarbonate buffer in presence of adrenergic agents in the ganglionic compartment. The accumulation of progesterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. Norepinephrine in coeliac ganglion inhibited the liberation of progesterone and increased androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in ovary. The addition of alpha and beta adrenergic antagonists also showed different responses in the liberation of the substances mentioned before, which, from a physiological point of view, reveals the presence of adrenergic receptors in coeliac ganglion. In relation to propranolol, it does not revert the effect of noradrenaline on the liberation of progesterone, which leads us to think that it might also have a "per se" effect on the ganglion, responsible for the ovarian response observed for progesterone. Finally, we can conclude that the ganglionic adrenergic action via SON participates on the regulation of the prepubertal ovary in one of two ways: either increasing the NO, a gaseous neurotransmitter with cytostatic characteristics, to favour the immature follicles to remain dormant or increasing the liberation of androstenedione and oestradiol, the steroids necessary for the beginning of the near first estral cycle.

  4. Genome-Wide Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue from Obese Prepubertal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción M. Aguilera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genes expressed in adipose tissue (AT is key to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and to developing treatments for this condition. Our objective was to compare the gene expression in visceral AT (VAT between obese and normal-weight prepubertal children. A total of fifteen obese and sixteen normal-weight children undergoing abdominal elective surgery were selected. RNA was extracted from VAT biopsies. Microarray experiments were independently performed for each sample (six obese and five normal-weight samples. Validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR was performed on an additional 10 obese and 10 normal-weight VAT samples. Of 1276 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, 245 were more than two-fold higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. As validated by qPCR, expression was upregulated in genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism (CES1, NPRR3 and BHMT2, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix regulation (TNMD and NQO1, adipogenesis (CRYAB and AFF1 and inflammation (ANXA1; by contrast, only CALCRL gene expression was confirmed to be downregulated. In conclusion, this study in prepubertal children demonstrates the up- and down-regulation of genes that encode molecules that were previously proposed to influence the pathogenesis of adulthood obesity, as well as previously unreported dysregulated genes that may be candidate genes in the aetiology of obesity.

  5. Transportation decreases the pulse frequency of growth hormone in the blood of prepubertal male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokawa, Hiroya; Noguchi, Koutarou; Hajiri, Yuuki; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Fujii, Youichi

    2013-01-01

    Both the mean concentration and the pulse pattern of growth hormone (GH) in the blood are important for the metabolism and body growth of calves. Transportation is reported to decrease blood GH concentrations in prepubertal male calves. However, the effect of transportation on GH pulsatility remains unknown. Because transportation is important in moving these calves from calf-production farms to markets or fattening farms, we tested whether transportation decreases their GH pulse frequency. Five calves were subjected to transportation by trucking (transport group), while five were left in their shed (non-transport group). Both groups were subsequently subjected to frequent blood sampling at 15-min intervals for 5 h. In the transport group, the cortisol concentrations increased in the first hour (P transport group. During the 5-hour study period, the transport group displayed a similar mean GH concentration relative to the non-transport group, but displayed a delayed first GH pulse, and a lower number of GH pulses than the non-transport group (P transportation is suggested to decrease GH pulse frequency under abnormal cortisol states, presumably suppressing metabolism and body growth in prepubertal male calves.

  6. Changes in body composition and growth pattern after adenotonsillectomy in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koycu, Alper; Aydin, Erdinc; Tulgar Kinik, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis are associated with growth interruption during childhood, while adenotonsillectomy has been associated with growth improvement and increased body mass index (BMI). However, no reported study has investigated the effect of adenotonsillectomy on the proportion of body muscle and fat mass. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy on body muscle and fat composition in prepubertal children. Thirty prepubertal children (22 boys, 8 girls; 3-9 years of age) were followed up for 6 months after adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy. Twenty-eight age-matched healthy children (12 boys, 16 girls) were followed for the same period, as controls. Data on dietary habits and physical activity were obtained from parent-completed questionnaires at baseline and 6 months. Height and weight z-scores, the amount and percentage of body fat and muscle mass, BMI z-scores, relative BMI and basal metabolic rate were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery with bioelectrical impedance analysis. After 6 months, body muscle mass and basal metabolic rate scores were significantly higher than at baseline in both groups (P0.05). The number of overweight and obese children did not change significantly in either group (Pchildren. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar; de Dios, Olaya; Jois, Asha; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Gorgojo, Lydia; Martín-Moreno, José M; Soriano-Guillen, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2017-03-02

    The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (-0.132, p hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  8. Tonic control of kisspeptin release in prepubertal monkeys: implications to the mechanism of puberty onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Joseph R; Keen, Kim L; Guerriero, Kathryn A; Terasawa, Ei

    2012-07-01

    Previously we have shown that a reduction in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibition is critical for the mechanism initiating puberty onset because chronic infusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, significantly increased GnRH release and accelerated the timing of menarche and first ovulation in female rhesus monkeys. Because previous studies in our laboratory indicate that in prepubertal female monkeys, kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus is low, whereas kisspeptin-10 can stimulate GnRH release, we hypothesized that a low level of kisspeptin release prior to puberty onset is due to tonic GABA inhibition. To test this hypothesis we examined the effects of bicuculline infusion on kisspeptin release using a microdialysis method. We found that bicuculline at 1 μM dramatically stimulates kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus of prepubertal monkeys but had little effect on kisspeptin release in midpubertal monkeys. We further examined whether bicuculline-induced GnRH release is blocked by the presence of the kisspeptin antagonist, peptide 234. We found that inhibition of kisspeptin signaling blocked the bicuculline-induced stimulation of GnRH release, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons may relay inhibitory GABA signals to GnRH neurons. This implies that a reduction in tonic GABA inhibition of GnRH release is, at least in part, mediated through kisspeptin neurons.

  9. Estrogenic activity of natural and synthetic estrogens in human breast cancer cells in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Zava, D T; Blen, M; Duwe, G

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the estrogenic activity of various environmental pollutants (xenobiotics), in particular the xenoestrogen o,p-DDT, and compared their effects with those of endogenous estrogens, phytoestrogens, and mycoestrogens on estrogen receptor binding capacity, induction of estrogen end products, and activation of cell proliferation in estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells in monolayer culture. We also quantified the levels of phytoestrogens in extracts of some common foods, herbs...

  10. In Vivo Imaging of Activated Estrogen Receptors in Utero by Estrogens and Bisphenol A

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmen, Josephine G.; Arends, Roel J.; van der Saag, Paul T.; van der Burg, Bart

    2004-01-01

    Environmental estrogens are of particular concern when exposure occurs during embryonic development. Although there are good models to study estrogenic activity of chemicals in adult animals, developmental exposure is much more difficult to test. The weak estrogenic activity of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) in embryos is controversial. We have recently generated transgenic mice that carry a reporter construct with estrogen-responsive elements coupled to luciferase. We show that...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and

  12. Controlled Study of Encopresis and Enuresis in Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar-I Disorder Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Tricia; Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca; Bolhofner, Kristine; Zimerman, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of encopresis/enuresis, relationship between maternal hostility and encopresis, parent-child concordance of reporting encopresis/enuresis, and familial aggregation of enuresis in subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar-I disorder phenotype (PEA-BP), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  13. Controlled Study of Encopresis and Enuresis in Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar-I Disorder Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Tricia; Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca; Bolhofner, Kristine; Zimerman, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of encopresis/enuresis, relationship between maternal hostility and encopresis, parent-child concordance of reporting encopresis/enuresis, and familial aggregation of enuresis in subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar-I disorder phenotype (PEA-BP), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  14. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children...

  15. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  16. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  17. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-02-06

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.

  18. Urinary p75ECD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepheard, Stephanie R.; Wuu, Joanne; Cardoso, Michell; Wiklendt, Luke; Dinning, Phil G.; Chataway, Tim; Schultz, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate urinary neurotrophin receptor p75 extracellular domain (p75ECD) levels as disease progression and prognostic biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: The population in this study comprised 45 healthy controls and 54 people with ALS, 31 of whom were sampled longitudinally. Urinary p75ECD was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay and validation included intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation, effect of circadian rhythm, and stability over time at room temperature, 4°C, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Longitudinal changes in urinary p75ECD were examined by mixed model analysis, and the prognostic value of baseline p75ECD was explored by survival analysis. Results: Confirming our previous findings, p75ECD was higher in patients with ALS (5.6 ± 2.2 ng/mg creatinine) compared to controls (3.6 ± 1.4 ng/mg creatinine, p analysis, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, p = 0.0035), rate of disease progression from onset to baseline (HR 4.4, p survival. Conclusions: The assay for urinary p75ECD is analytically robust and shows promise as an ALS biomarker with prognostic, disease progression, and potential pharmacodynamic application. Baseline urinary p75ECD provides prognostic information and is currently the only biological fluid–based biomarker of disease progression. PMID:28228570

  19. Parabens as Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Bishop, Amber M.; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens. Widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with paraben exposure. Objectives Assessing human exposure to parabens usually involves measuring in urine the conjugated or free species of parabens or their metabolites. In animals, parabens are mostly hydrolyzed to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and excreted in the urine as conjugates. Still, monitoring urinary concentrations of p-hydroxybenzoic acid is not necessarily the best way to assess exposure to parabens. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid is a nonspecific biomarker, and the varying estrogenic bioactivities of parabens require specific biomarkers. Therefore, we evaluated the use of free and conjugated parent parabens as new biomarkers for human exposure to these compounds. Results We measured the urinary concentrations of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, butyl (n- and iso-), and benzyl parabens in a demographically diverse group of 100 anonymous adults. We detected methyl and n-propyl parabens at the highest median concentrations (43.9 ng/mL and 9.05 ng/mL, respectively) in nearly all (> 96%) of the samples. We also detected other parabens in more than half of the samples (ethyl, 58%; butyl, 69%). Most important, however, we found that parabens in urine appear predominantly in their conjugated forms. Conclusions The results, demonstrating the presence of urinary conjugates of parabens in humans, suggest that such conjugated parabens could be used as exposure biomarkers. Additionally, the fact that conjugates appear to be the main urinary products of parabens may be important for risk assessment. PMID:17185273

  20. Estrogen mediation of hormone responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Robert R; Francois, Michelle; Castracane, V Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The roles of estrogens extend from the regulation of reproduction to other functions involved in control of metabolism, fluid balance, as well as gastrointestinal, lung, and brain function, with a strong effect on other hormones that subsequently alter the physiology of multiple tissues. As such, alteration of endogenous estrogens across the menstrual cycle, or from oral contraception and estrogen replacement therapy, can affect these tissues. Due to the important effects that estrogens have on different tissues, there are many investigations concerning the effects of a human estrogenic environment on endocrine responses to exercise. The following review will describe the consequences of varying estrogen levels on pituitary, adrenal, gonadal, and endocrine function, followed by discussion of the outcomes of different estrogen levels on endocrine tissues in response to exercise, problems encountered for interpretation of findings, and recommended direction for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unbalanced estrogen metabolism in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Muhammad; Goldner, Whitney; Beseler, Cheryl L; Rogan, Eleanor G; Cavalieri, Ercole L

    2013-12-01

    Well-differentiated thyroid cancer most frequently occurs in premenopausal women. Greater exposure to estrogens may be a risk factor for thyroid cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in thyroid cancer, a spot urine sample was obtained from 40 women with thyroid cancer and 40 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates significantly differed between cases and controls (p estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in thyroid cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts might play a role in the initiation of thyroid cancer. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  2. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  3. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  4. The response to estrogen deprivation on cartilage collagen degradation markers; CTX-II is unique compared to other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine; Sondergaard, Lene;

    2009-01-01

    rats receiving estrogen or not. Levels of PIIANP, a marker of type II collagen synthesis, were also measured in rats. Rat knee cartilage was analyzed for immunoreactivity of CTX-II and PIIANP and for type II collagen expression. RESULTS: As expected, urinary levels of CTX-II are significantly increased......ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The urinary level of type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to estrogen holds true for other type...... II collagen turnover markers known to be affected in osteoarthritis, and whether it relates to its presence in specific areas of cartilage tissue. METHODS: The type II collagen degradation markers CTX-II and Helix-II were measured in body fluids of pre- and postmenopausal women and of ovariectomized...

  5. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  6. Gonadal function is associated with cardiometabolic health in pre-pubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S; Lahlou, N; Bardsley, M; Temple, M-C; Kowal, K; Pyle, L; Zeitler, P; Ross, J

    2016-11-01

    The most common sex chromosome aneuploidy, Klinefelter syndrome (KS), is associated with primary gonadal failure and increased morbidity and mortality from cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. Children with KS also have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. To assess the relationship of gonadal and cardiometabolic function in children with KS, we evaluated serum hormones [gonadotropins, inhibin B (INHB), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), total testosterone (TT)], and features of MetS (waist circumference, fasting lipid panel, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure) in 93 pre-pubertal boys with KS age 4-12 years (mean 7.7 ± 2.5 years). The cohort was grouped by age and tanner stage, and biomarkers were compared to normal ranges. A total of 80% of this pre-pubertal cohort had ≥1 feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 11% had ≥3 features of MetS. Risk of MetS was independent of age and body mass index. Sertoli cell dysfunction was common with 18% having an INHB below the normal range. A low INHB was associated with higher FBG, triglycerides, LDL, and lower HDL (p < 0.05). An INHB <50 ng/dL yielded a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 79% for having ≥3 features of MetS. INHB and AMH positively correlated with each other (p < 0.001), and high AMH was protective of MetS. TT was below the lower limit of normal in 49% of subjects, with mean values significantly lower than expected (3.3 ng/dL vs. 4.9 ng/dL, p < 0.0001), however, no convincing relationship between TT and MetS was seen. In conclusion, gonadal and cardiometabolic dysfunction are prevalent in pre-pubertal boys with KS. Although the relationship of testosterone deficiency and MetS is well-known, this study is the first to report an association between impaired Sertoli cell function and cardiometabolic risk.

  7. Impact of the FITKids physical activity intervention on adiposity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Pontifex, Matthew B; Castelli, Darla M; Donovan, Sharon M; Evans, Ellen M; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of a 9-month physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity among prepubertal children. Prepubertal children (8- to 9-year-olds, N = 220, 103 girls) were randomly assigned to a 9-month physical activity intervention or a control group. The intervention provided 70 minutes (5 days/week) of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max percentile) and dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry measured cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity, respectively. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed to assess baseline and follow-up cardiorespiratory fitness, percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage central fat mass (%CFM), and estimated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area. The intervention group increased in cardiorespiratory fitness (5.4th percentile; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 8.9) and decreased in %FM (-0.7%; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.4) and %CFM (-1.3%; 95% CI, -1.9 to -0.7). Reductions in %FM were evident for both nonoverweight (-0.62%; 95% CI, -1.07 to -0.17) and overweight or obese (-0.86%; 95% CI,-1.46 to -0.25) intervention participants. Conversely, the control group displayed no change in cardiorespiratory fitness while exhibiting increases in %FM (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.7), %CFM (0.6; 95% CI, 0.1 to 1.1), and VAT area (3.0 cm(2); 95% CI, 1.6 to 4.4). Nonoverweight control participants increased in %FM (0.52%; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.91), and their overweight and obese counterparts increased in VAT (4.76 cm(2); 95% CI, 1.90 to 7.63). The physical activity intervention improved cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced %FM, and prevented accumulation of %CFM among prepubertal children with varying adiposity levels. These findings provide support for daily physical activity recommendations to prevent excess fat mass accumulation in childhood.

  8. Reliability of treadmill measures and criteria to determine VO2max in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Colon, R; Hunter, G R; Mayo, M S; Aldridge, R A; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L

    2000-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the reliability of measuring treadmill exercise economy (VO2submax) and the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in prepubertal girls tested twice, 6 wk apart. We also wanted to examine the percentage of young girls who were able to reach the criteria for achieving VO2max and to describe methods that would allow a high proportion of young children to achieve criteria for reaching a true VO2max. We studied 61 normal-weight, prepubertal girls with a mean (+/- SD) age 7.3+/-1.3 yr (range 4.8 to 10.3 yr). VO2submax was determined while walking for 4 min at 2.5 mph with 0% grade. VO2max was measured during a progressive, all-out, continuous treadmill test using standardized procedures and criteria. Heart rate (HR) was measured using a Polar monitor. Respiratory rate (RR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), ventilation (V), and VO2 were measured using a Sensormedics metabolic monitor. There were no significant differences between visits I and 2 in mean HR, RR, RER, V, VO2submax (421 vs 422 mL x min(-1), respectively), and VO2max (1036 vs 1049 mL x min(-1), respectively). Intra-individual coefficients of variation (CV) between visits 1 and 2 for submaximal tests were: HR = 5.1%, RR = 12.4%, RER = 7.2%, V = 12.5%, and VO2 = 12.4%. Intra-individual CVs for the maximum tests were: HRmax = 2.1%, RRmax = 10.8%, RERmax = 5.3%, Vmax = 11.7%, and VO2max = 7.5%. A high proportion of the girls reached criteria for VO2max [RER> 1.00, HR>85% of age predicted maximum, and plateauing of VO2max] in both visits: 99% reached one of three criteria, 92% reached two of three criteria, and 70% reached all three criteria. Twenty girls [mean age 7.2+/-1.2 yr] reached at least two criteria in both visits, whereas 32 girls [mean (+/- SD) age 8.6+/-1.0 yr] reached three criteria in both visits. Exercise measurements using treadmill testing were reliable in healthy, normal-weight, prepubertal girls. Older girls when compared to the younger girls were able

  9. 青春期前痤疮的研究进展%Prepubertal acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 张国毅; 尹跃平

    2015-01-01

    青春期前痤疮是儿童期痤疮的一种,多发生于7岁以后青春期体征出现以前,表现为以粉刺样损害为主的皮损.其发病主要与青春期发育初期肾上腺功能初现引起的雄激素分泌增高有关,痤疮丙酸杆菌感染及高雄激素血症在痤疮发病中也有重要作用.青春期前痤疮的严重程度影响青春期痤疮的发展,在诊疗时需仔细询问病史及家族史.并做相应的实验室检查以排除其他疾病影响引起高雄激素血症性痤疮.在治疗时根据患儿年龄、皮损数量选择合适的治疗方法,治疗方案尽量简单.%Prepubertal acne,a kind of childhood acne,usually occurs from 7 years of age to the emergence of puberty signs in children.Comedo-like lesions are the main presentation of prepubertal acne.Its pathogenesis is mainly associated with increased secretion of androgen caused by adrenarche in early puberty.Furthermore,Propionibacterium acne infection and hyperandrogenism also play important roles in the occurrence of acne.The severity of prepubertal acne can affect the development of acne,thus careful inquiry of medical history and family history is suggested for the diagnosis and treatment of acne.Also,relevant laboratory examinations are needed to exclude hyperandrogenism-associated acne caused by other diseases.Therapeutic strategies should be selected according to patients' age and the number of skin lesions,and be as simple as possible.

  10. Lactose intolerance: lack of evidence for short stature or vitamin D deficiency in prepubertal children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Setty-Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI are unclear. AIMS: To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. HYPOTHESES: LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19 were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21. INCLUSION CRITERIA: prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts, diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in 25(OHD between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29. Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85(th percentile vs. overweight/obese (BMI ≥85(th percentile, the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OHD level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025, and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004. Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53, while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049, and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28. MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. CONCLUSION: Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children.

  11. [Complications of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Fekak, H; Rabii, R; el Moussasoui, A; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    Urinary stones is a frequent disease whose renal complications can engage both functional and vital prognosis. We report 769 complicated cases observed 10 years. The diagnosis was made by intravenous urography and ultrasonography. 607 cases were mechanical complications, 582 hydronephrosis, 25 anuria, 262 were infectious complications, 82 chronic pyelonephritis, 60 pyonephrosis, 10 perinephric abscess. Treatment included adapted antibiotic therapy, ureteral catheter in case of anuria ; surgical extraction of the stone nephrectomy was performed in 100 patients. Results were generally good. 9 patients had endstage chronic renal failure. The high frequency of urinary stone complications is due to the fact that most patients consult late. The diagnosis must obviously be made.

  12. Paraganglioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are tumors of chromaffin tissue originating from the sympathetic innervations of the urinary bladder wall and are extremely rare. Being functional, in most of the cases they are recognized by their characteristic presentation of hypertensive crisis and postmicturition syncope. A silent presentation of a bladder paraganglioma is very unusual but quite dangerous as they are easily misdiagnosed and adequate peri-operative attention is not provided. Here, we are presenting one such silent paraganglioma in adult women who presented with only a single episode of hematuria and severe hypertensive crisis occur during its trans-urethral resection.

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urethra. Wear cotton underwear. Nylon underwear traps moisture near your body, especially when it's hot outside. Bacteria love to grow in warm, moist places. ... Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You'll also want to stay away from foods and drinks that contain caffeine , such as cola ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ready to pee, you relax a set of muscles at the bottom of your bladder. That lets ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... send the urine sample to a lab for testing. If it turns out you have a bladder ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  1. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  2. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  3. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneaki Kenzaka; Ken Kato; Akihito Kitao; Koki Kosami; Kensuke Minami; Shinsuke Yahata; Miho Fukui; Masanobu Okayama

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection ...

  4. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  5. Estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Muehlfelder, Melanie; Pelzer, Theo

    2013-05-01

    The cardiovascular system of a premenopausal woman is prepared to adapt to the challenges of increased cardiac output and work load that accompany pregnancy. Thus, it is tempting to speculate whether enhanced adaptability of the female cardiovascular system might be advantageous under conditions that promote cardiovascular disease. In support of this concept, 17β-estradiol as the major female sex hormone has been shown to confer protective cardiovascular effects in experimental studies. Mechanistically, these have been partially linked to the prevention and protection against oxidative stress. Current evidence indicates that estrogens attenuate oxidative stress at two levels: first, by preventing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, second, by scavenging ROS in the myocardium and in the vasculature. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on current concepts on conditions and mechanisms by which estrogens protect the cardiovascular system against ROS-mediated cellular injury.

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main ... to the bladder. When it's empty, your bladder is about the same size as an empty balloon. ...

  7. Estrogen Therapy Rescues Advanced Heart Failure via Estrogen Receptor Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Iorga, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy, defined as an enlargement of the ventricles, is often triggered when the heart is subjected to hemodynamic stress from physiological stimuli such as pregnancy, or from pathological stimuli such as pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy or pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular hypertrophy. Physiological hypertrophy is beneficial and adaptive, while pathological hypertrophy is maladaptive and detrimental. Estrogen treatment prior to the onset of p...

  8. Do attachment representations predict depression and anxiety in psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents.

  9. Generalized aggressive periodontitis in prepubertal age: description and comparison of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piergallini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is a rare form of periodontal disease and it can involve both the deciduous dentition and the permanent one. It causes a rapid loss of periodontal attachment. The paper aims to describe two cases of severe generalized prepubertal periodontitis: the first child doesn’t suffer from neither systemic diseases nor alteration of functionality of polymorphonuclear and periodontal disease involved both his deciduous dentition and the first permanent molars. The second child had a deficiency of functionality of polymorphonuclear but periodontal disease involved only primary dentition thanks to his immediate improvement of home dental hygiene. This comparison shows the importance of early diagnosis and especially of optimal dental oral hygiene. Infant healthcare professionals, as pediatric dentists and pediatricians, should have the necessary knowledge for early and correct diagnosis and clinical management of disease.

  10. The value of positive Oct3/4 and D2-40 immunohistochemical expression in prediction of germ cell neoplasia in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen-Linde, Erik; Kvist, Kolja; Cortes, Dina;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. Adult germ cell cancer immunohistochemical markers fail to detect ITGCN in prepubertal boys with congenital cryptorchidism, because positive immunohistochemistry is commonly seen below 18 months old...

  11. Mitochondria: Target organelles for estrogen action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Chmielewska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens belong to a group of sex hormones, which have been shown to act in multidirectional way. Estrogenic effects are mediated by two types of intracellular receptors: estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 and estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2. There are two basic mechanisms of estrogen action: 1 classical-genomic, in which the ligand-receptor complex acts as a transcriptional factor and 2 a nongenomic one, which is still not fully understood, but has been seen to lead to distinct biological effects, depending on tissue and ligand type. It is postulated that nongenomic effects may be associated with membrane signaling and the presence of classical nuclear receptors within the cell membrane. Estrogens act in a multidirectional way also within cell organelles. It is assumed that there is a mechanism which manages the migration of ESR into the mitochondrial membrane, wherein the exogenous estrogen affect the morphology of mitochondria. Estrogen, through its receptor, can directly modulate mitochondrial gene expression. Moreover, by regulating the level of reactive oxygen species, estrogens affect the biology of mitochondria. The considerations presented in this paper indicate the pleiotropic effects of estrogens, which represent a multidirectional pathway of signal transduction.

  12. The role of environmental estrogens and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chighizola, Cecilia; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of autoimmune diseases has significantly increased over the recent years. It has been proposed that this epidemiological evidence could be in part attributable to environmental estrogens, compounds that display estrogen-like activity and are ubiquitously present in the environment. Environmental estrogens can be found in a wide variety of foods: phytoestrogens occur in plants such as clover and soy, while mycoestrogens are food contaminants produced by fungi. Meat, eggs and dairy products from animals given exogenous hormones contain relatively high concentration of estrogens. Among xenoestrogens, industrial estrogens are synthetic chemicals produced for specific purposes (pesticides, plastics, surfactants and detergents) while metalloestrogens are found in heavy metals. Estrogens can be also administered through medications (contraceptive pill, hormone replacement therapy, genistein, cimetidine, creams). There is a considerable burden of evidence in vitro and in animal models that these compounds may exert immunotoxic effects. However, to date there is no convincing data that exposure to environmental estrogens can be regarded as a risk for human health. In particular, there is no consensus whether prolonged exposure to relatively low concentrations of different estrogenic chemicals can affect the human immune system and induce clinically evident diseases in real-life scenario. Moreover, the effects on human health of the synergistic interactions between natural, medical, dietary and environmental estrogens have not been fully elucidated yet. Here we provide an extensive review of the in vivo and in vitro effects of environmental estrogens on the immune system, focusing on the evidences of association between exposure and autoimmune disorders.

  13. Triclosan causes spontaneous abortion accompanied by decline of estrogen sulfotransferase activity in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaojiao; Feng, Xuejiao; Chang, Fei; Chen, Minjian; Xia, Yankai; Chen, Ling

    2015-12-15

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial agent, is identified in serum and urine of humans. Here, we show that the level of urinary TCS in 28.3% patients who had spontaneous abortion in mid-gestation were increased by 11.3-fold (high-TCS) compared with normal pregnancies. Oral administration of TCS (10 mg/kg/day) in mice (TCS mice) caused an equivalent urinary TCS level as those in the high-TCS abortion patients. The TCS-exposure from gestation day (GD) 5.5 caused dose-dependently fetal death during GD12.5-16.5 with decline of live fetal weight. GD15.5 TCS mice appeared placental thrombus and tissue necrosis with enhancement of platelet aggregation. The levels of placenta and plasma estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) mRNA and protein in TCS mice or high-TCS abortion patients were not altered, but their EST activities were significantly reduced compared to controls. Although the levels of serum estrogen (E2) in TCS mice and high-TCS abortion patients had no difference from controls, their ratio of sulfo-conjugated E2 and unconjugated E2 was reduced. The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI-182,780 prevented the enhanced platelet aggregation and placental thrombosis and attenuated the fetal death in TCS mice. The findings indicate that TCS-exposure might cause spontaneous abortion probably through inhibition of EST activity to produce placental thrombosis.

  14. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0.......0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u...... in nanograms per gram creatinine did not diminish the observed variation and blunted the pubertal increase in u-GH excretion. In conclusion, (1) u-GH excretion depends significantly on age, sex and pubertal maturation as does the day/night ratio of u-GH excretion. (2) The interindividual variation in u...

  15. Targeted Radiotherapy of Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan Rajagopalan

    2006-08-31

    The overall objectives of the proposal were to develop estrogen receptor (ER) binding small molecule radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radiotherapy of ER positive (ER+) tumors. In particular, this proposal focused on embedding a {sup 186,188}Re or a {sup 32}P radionuclide into an estrogen steroidal framework by isosteric substitution such that the resulting structure is topologically similar to the estrogen (estrogen mimic). The estrogen mimic molecules expected to bind to the ER and exhibit biodistribution akin to that of native estrogen due to structural mimicry. It is anticipated that the {sup 186,188}Re- or a {sup 32}P-containing estrogen mimics will be useful for targeted molecular radiotherapy of ER+ tumors. It is well established that the in vivo target tissue uptake of estrogen like steroidal molecules is related to the binding of the steroids to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG is important in the uptake of estrogens and testosterone in target tissues by SHBG receptors on the cell surface. However, hitherto the design of estrogen like small molecule radiopharmaceuticals was focused on optimizing ER binding characteristics without emphasis on SHBG binding properties. Consequently, even the molecules with good ER affinity in vitro, performed poorly in biodistribution studies. Based on molecular modeling studies the proposal focused on developing estrogen mimics 1-3 which were topologically similar to native estrogens, and form hydrogen bonds in ER and SHBG in the same manner as those of native estrogens. To this end the technical objectives of the proposal focused on synthesizing the rhenium-estrone and estradiol mimics 1 and 2 respectively, and phosphorous estradiol mimic 3 and to assess their stability and in vitro binding characteristics to ER and SHBG.

  16. Targeted Radiotherapy of Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan Rajagopalan

    2006-08-31

    The overall objectives of the proposal were to develop estrogen receptor (ER) binding small molecule radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radiotherapy of ER positive (ER+) tumors. In particular, this proposal focused on embedding a {sup 186,188}Re or a {sup 32}P radionuclide into an estrogen steroidal framework by isosteric substitution such that the resulting structure is topologically similar to the estrogen (estrogen mimic). The estrogen mimic molecules expected to bind to the ER and exhibit biodistribution akin to that of native estrogen due to structural mimicry. It is anticipated that the {sup 186,188}Re- or a {sup 32}P-containing estrogen mimics will be useful for targeted molecular radiotherapy of ER+ tumors. It is well established that the in vivo target tissue uptake of estrogen like steroidal molecules is related to the binding of the steroids to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG is important in the uptake of estrogens and testosterone in target tissues by SHBG receptors on the cell surface. However, hitherto the design of estrogen like small molecule radiopharmaceuticals was focused on optimizing ER binding characteristics without emphasis on SHBG binding properties. Consequently, even the molecules with good ER affinity in vitro, performed poorly in biodistribution studies. Based on molecular modeling studies the proposal focused on developing estrogen mimics 1-3 which were topologically similar to native estrogens, and form hydrogen bonds in ER and SHBG in the same manner as those of native estrogens. To this end the technical objectives of the proposal focused on synthesizing the rhenium-estrone and estradiol mimics 1 and 2 respectively, and phosphorous estradiol mimic 3 and to assess their stability and in vitro binding characteristics to ER and SHBG.

  17. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  19. The effects of resistance exercise training on body composition and strength in obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberga, Angela S; Farnesi, Biagina-Carla; Lafleche, Angele; Legault, Laurent; Komorowski, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effects of resistance exercise training on body composition and muscular strength in obese prepubertal children. Study participants, who were between the ages of 8 and 12 years, met Tanner I (stage) criteria, had a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex, were randomized to either high-repetition, moderate-intensity resistance training (n = 12) or to the non-intervention control group (n = 7) for 12 weeks. Exercise training was performed twice a week for 75 minutes per session. Body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and muscular strength was evaluated using a 1-repetition-maximum test. Exercise-group participants attended 98% of the 24 total sessions and showed a significant increase in body weight (57.6± 13.5 vs 59.6± 14.1 kg), height (144.9± 9 vs 146.6± 10.4 cm), lean body mass (32.6± 6.8 vs 34.0± 7.0 kg), lean body mass index (lean body mass in kg/height2; 15.3± 1.6 vs 15.6± 1.5 kg/m2), arm strength (28.4± 5.8 vs 31.2± 6.0 kg), and leg strength (89.4± 31.7 vs 113.4± 34 2 kg) from baseline measures (P strength. When the changes in participant body composition and muscular strength were compared between the exercise and control groups, significant differences were found in leg lean mass and leg strength (P training increases leg lean mass and leg strength in obese prepubertal youth and may have a positive effect on overall physical activity and health.

  20. Stunting delays maturation of triceps surae mechanical properties and motor performance in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Maria das Graças; Souza, Thaysa O L; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal; Xavier, Luciana C C; Ferraz, Karla M; Osório, Mônica M; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Lambertz, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition can lead to possible irreversible consequences in the development of muscle function and some of them are yet poorly characterized. The present study evaluated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae and motor performance in stunted (S) and eutrophic (E) prepubertal children (9 years ± 6 months). Height-for-age ratio was used as indicator of stunting due to early malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization. Torque was determined by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and musculotendinous (MT) stiffness was achieved through quick-release tests to obtain MT stiffness index (SI(MT)) and passive stiffness (K (p)) from linear MT stiffness-torque relationships. Percutaneous supramaximal electrically elicited contractions determined twitch torque (Pt) and electromechanical delay (EMD). Motor performance was evaluated by balance test. S group presented significantly lower MVC and a trend of lower Pt values indicating lower capacities to develop force under voluntary or induced conditions. Significantly higher SI(MT) and EMD values were observed, while K (p) and motor performance in balance were significantly lower. Higher SI(MT) values have been reported previously in youngest prepubertal children, indicating that immature activation capacities can mask MT stiffness assessment during voluntary contractions, taking into consideration the higher EMD values as a measure of muscle stiffness contribution. Lower K (p) may indicate a delay in the maturation of tendinous tissue in S group, influencing motor performance in balance. The present study shows that malnutrition leads to adaptation of intrinsic MT elastic properties, but depends on the level of the observed structure.

  1. The asymmetry of pectoralis muscles is greater in male prepubertal than in professional tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Dorado, Cecilia; Idoate, Fernando; González-Henríquez, Juan J; Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-10-01

    It is generally accepted that preadolescents have a limited capacity to develop muscle hypertrophy in response to exercise compared with older populations; however, studies are scarce and conflicting. The main aim of the present study was to assess if playing tennis is associated with the hypertrophy of dominant pectoralis muscles (PM) in professional (PRO) and in prepubescent tennis players (PRE). A secondary aim was to assess if the degree of asymmetry of PM is greater in PRO than PRE. The volume of PM of both sides was determined using magnetic resonance imaging in 8 male PRO (21.9 years), 6 male PRE (11 years, Tanner 1-2) and 12 male non-active controls (6 adults: 23.5 years; and 6 prepubescents: 10.7 years, Tanner 1-2). PRO and PRE had 15 and 30% greater volume, respectively, in the dominant than in the contralateral PM (P < .01). No significant side-to-side differences in PM volume were observed in the non-active controls (3%, P = .34 in adults and 5%, P = .17 in children). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry in PM volume was greater in PRE than in PRO (P < .05). In conclusion, tennis practice is associated with marked hypertrophy of dominant PM in tennis players, even at prepubertal age, whilst non-active age-matched control subjects display similar volumes in both sides. The larger asymmetry observed in PRE than in PRO may indicate a greater relative loading in the children or increased contralateral hypertrophy in the professionals. This study demonstrates that prepubertal children respond with marked hypertrophy to loading by tennis.

  2. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Li-Shi; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zeng-Ming; Zhao, Jun; Peng, Shuang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of the present study

  3. Induction of ovulation and ovarian characteristics of prepubertal gilts treated with human chorionicgonadotropin or kisspeptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of its similar structure and function to luteinizing hormone (LH, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG has conventionally been used as the main hormone to induce estrus and ovulation in sows. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the neuropeptide kisspeptin is associated with pituitary LH release in different mammalian species, including swine. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether kisspeptin-10 combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG could be an efficient method to induce ovulation in prepubertal gilts. Thirty 5-month-old gilts weighing 78.0 ± 8.4 kg were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received 750 IU eCG, while groups 4 and 5 received saline solution. After 72 hours, the animals received 380 nmol kisspeptin-10 (group 2, 500 IU hCG (groups 3 and 4, or saline (groups 1 and 5. The treatments were applied by a single intramuscular injection. The animals were slaughtered 7 days later and ovulation was confirmed by the presence of corpora lutea in the recovered ovaries. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher exact tests. The number of gilts that ovulated was similar in groups 2 and 3. This number was higher in group 5 (P<0.01 and in groups 1 and 4 (P=0.08. The weight or size of the ovaries was not influenced by the treatments, although the number of ovulations was higher in groups 2 and 3 (P<0.01. These results suggest that kisspeptin-10 and hCG have similar biological activity to induce ovulation in prepubertal gilts.

  4. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  5. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  6. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    10.1 Kidney function2004116 Measurement of urinary neutral endopeptid-ase and its significance in diagnosing renal tubular injury. ZHANG Zhi (张智), et al. Div Nephrol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Nephrol 2003; 19(6) :392-396.

  7. Reoperation for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    on a nationwide population. STUDY DESIGN: We used the Danish National Patient Registry to identify women who had surgery for urinary incontinence from 1998 through 2007 and the outcome was a reoperation within 5 years. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the rate of reoperation for 6 types of surgery...

  8. Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, James J; Hehn, Laura E; Klein, David A

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, including healthy women with normal genitourinary anatomy. Recurrent UTI is typically defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months. The same species that caused previous infections is typically responsible for recurrences. In premenopausal women, sexual intercourse three or more times per week, spermicide use, new or multiple sex partners, and having a UTI before 15 years of age are established risk factors. In postmenopausal women, risk is primarily increased by sequelae of lower estrogen levels. Episodes of recurrent UTI are typically characterized by dysuria and urinary frequency or hesitancy. Findings from the history or physical examination that suggest complicated infection or another disease process warrant additional evaluation. At least one symptomatic episode should be verified by urine culture to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment. Imaging is rarely warranted. Short courses of antibiotics are as effective as longer courses. Patient-initiated treatment lowers the cost of diagnosis, number of physician visits, and number of symptomatic days compared with physician-initiated treatment. It also reduces antibiotic exposure compared with antibiotic prophylaxis. Antibiotic prophylaxis effectively limits UTI recurrence but increases the risk of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects. Cranberry products may reduce recurrent UTIs in premenopausal women, but are less effective than antibiotic prophylaxis, and data are conflicting. Optimal dosing is unknown. Postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis may benefit from topical estrogen therapy.

  9. Estrogen turns down "the AIRE".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhru, Pearl; Su, Maureen A

    2016-04-01

    Genetic alterations are known drivers of autoimmune disease; however, there is a much higher incidence of autoimmunity in women, implicating sex-specific factors in disease development. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene contributes to the maintenance of central tolerance, and complete loss of AIRE function results in the development of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1. In this issue of the JCI, Dragin and colleagues demonstrate that AIRE expression is downregulated in females as the result of estrogen-mediated alterations at the AIRE promoter. The association between estrogen and reduction of AIRE may at least partially account for the elevated incidence of autoimmune disease in women and has potential implications for sex hormone therapy.

  10. Holographic QSAR of environmental estrogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiaodong; XIAO; Qianfen; CUI; Shihai; LIU; Shushen

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that some man-made and naturally occurring chemicals related to the environment have the potential to interrupt normal functioning of the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife. These chemicals, termed EDCs (Endocrine disrupting Chemicals), pose serious threats to the reproductive capability of humans and wildlife. Because of the structural diversity and various types, development of structure-based rapid screening methodologies is important and necessary for the assessment of the environmental pollutants. In this paper molecular hologram based QSAR models were developed with the combinatory application of partial least square (PLS) regression for a large diverse set of 105 environmental estrogens. Quantitatively predictive models were developed based on only molecular structures, which can be used for the accurate prediction of estrogenicity to rapidly screen potential environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  11. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Estrogen Metabolism in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alma J.; Phipps, William R.; Thomas, William; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Kurzer, Mindy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is well accepted that exercise can decrease breast cancer risk. Limited clinical evidence suggests that this risk could be mediated through changes in estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Our objective was to investigate the effects of exercise on premenopausal estrogen metabolism pertinent to breast cancer risk. Methods Sedentary, healthy, young eumenorrheic women were randomized into an intervention of 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise 5 times a week for approximately 16 weeks (n = 212), or into a usual-lifestyle sedentary control group (n = 179). Urinary levels of estrogens (estrone [E1], estradiol, and estriol) and nine estrogen metabolites were measured at baseline and at study end by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The ratios of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16α-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1/16α-OHE1) and 2-OHE1 to 4-hydroxyestrone (2- OHE1/4-OHE1) were also calculated. Results The exercise intervention resulted in significant increases in aerobic fitness and lean body mass, and a significant decrease in percent body fat. For exercisers who completed the study (n = 165), 2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 increased significantly (P = 0.043), while E1 decreased significantly (P = 0.030) in control participants (n = 153). The change from baseline in 2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 was significantly different between groups (P = 0.045), even after adjustment for baseline values. Conclusions The exercise intervention resulted in a significant increase in the 2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 ratio, but no differences in other estrogen metabolites or ratios. Impact Our results suggest that changes in premenopausal estrogen metabolism may be a mechanism by which increased physical activity lowers breast cancer risk. PMID:23652373

  12. Estrogens and the intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Agius, J; Muscat-Baron, Y; Brincat, M P

    2009-09-01

    Intervertebral discs are an integral part of the vertebral column. It has been shown that menopause has a negative effect on bone and on intervertebral discs. Estrogen has a beneficial effect of preserving the health of collagen-containing tissues, including the intervertebral disc. The intervertebral disc allows for mobility of the spine, and maintains a uniform stress distribution of the area of the vertebral endplates. Also, the disc influences spinal height. The disc tissue is adapted for this biomechanical function. The function of the spine is impaired if there is a loss of disc tissue. Narrowing of the disc space due to degeneration of intervertebral discs is associated with a significantly increased risk of vertebral fractures. Estrogen should be seen as the first-choice therapy for bones and other collagen-rich tissues, such as intervertebral discs, because it maintains homeostasis of the bone-remodelling unit. Unlike bisphosphonates, estrogen is unique in its ability to regenerate bone collagen after its disintegration, apart from suppressing osteoclastic activity. Besides, there is insufficient data on deterioration in bone qualities and micro-cracks in patients on long-term bisphosphonates.

  13. Distinct Effects of Estrogen on Mouse Maternal Behavior: The Contribution of Estrogen Synthesis in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen surge following progesterone withdrawal at parturition plays an important role in initiating maternal behavior in various rodent species. Systemic estrogen treatment shortens the latency to onset of maternal behavior in nulliparous female rats that have not experienced parturition. In contrast, nulliparous laboratory mice show rapid onset of maternal behavior without estrogen treatment, and the role of estrogen still remains unclear. Here the effect of systemic estrogen treatment (for 2 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) after progesterone withdrawal was examined on maternal behavior of C57BL/6 mice. This estrogen regimen led to different effects on nursing, pup retrieval, and nest building behaviors. Latency to nursing was shortened by estrogen treatment within 2 h. Moreover, pup retrieval and nest building were decreased. mRNA expression was also investigated for estrogen receptor α (ERα) and for genes involved in regulating maternal behavior, specifically, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor in the medial amygdala (MeA) and medial preoptic area (MPOA). Estrogen treatment led to decreased ERα mRNA in both regions. Although OTR mRNA was increased in the MeA, OTR and vasopressin receptor mRNA were reduced in the MPOA, showing region-dependent transcription regulation. To determine the mechanisms for the actions of estrogen treatment, the contribution of estrogen synthesis in the brain was examined. Blockade of estrogen synthesis in the brain by systemic letrozole treatment in ovariectomized mice interfered with pup retrieval and nest building but not nursing behavior, indicating different contributions of estrogen synthesis to maternal behavior. Furthermore, letrozole treatment led to an increase in ERα mRNA in the MeA but not in the MPOA, suggesting that involvement of estrogen synthesis is brain region dependent. Altogether, these results suggest that region-dependent estrogen synthesis leads to differential transcriptional activation due

  14. Binding of Estrogenic Compounds to Recombinant Estrogen Receptor-α: Application to Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pillon, Arnaud; Boussioux, Anne-Marie; Escande, Aurélie; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Gomez, Elena; Fenet, Hélène; Ruff, Marc; Moras, Dino; Vignon, Françoise; Duchesne, Marie-Josèphe; Casellas, Claude; Nicolas, Jean-Claude; Balaguer, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Estrogenic activity in environmental samples could be mediated through a wide variety of compounds and by various mechanisms. High-affinity compounds for estrogen receptors (ERs), such as natural or synthetic estrogens, as well as low-affinity compounds such as alkylphenols, phthalates, and polychlorinated biphenyls are present in water and sediment samples. Furthermore, compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which do not bind ERs, modulate estrogen activity by means of the aryl ...

  15. Binding of estrogenic compounds to recombinant estrogen receptor-alpha: application to environmental analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pillon, Arnaud; Boussioux, Anne-Marie; Escande, Aurélie; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Gomez, Elena; Fenet, Hélène; Ruff, Marc; Moras, Dino; Vignon, Françoise; Duchesne, Marie-Josèphe; Casellas, Claude; Nicolas, Jean-Claude; Balaguer, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Estrogenic activity in environmental samples could be mediated through a wide variety of compounds and by various mechanisms. High-affinity compounds for estrogen receptors (ERs), such as natural or synthetic estrogens, as well as low-affinity compounds such as alkylphenols, phthalates, and polychlorinated biphenyls are present in water and sediment samples. Furthermore, compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which do not bind ERs, modulate estrogen activi...

  16. Estrogen : molecular mechanisms of antidiabetic action

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qahtani, Saad Misfer

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is multifactorial and hormones play an essential role in its development. Estrogen loss in postmenopausal women has been linked to several features of metabolic syndrome, while estrogen replacement therapy reverses these pathological and metabolic features. However, estrogen replacement therapy is associated with adverse effects including breast cancer and coagulopathy. Therefore, identification of the molecular mechanisms of estrogen’s beneficial effect...

  17. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational...

  18. Transcriptome analyses identify five transcription factors differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of post- versus prepubertal Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Nguyen, L T; Weller, M M D C A; Cánovas, A; Islas-Trejo, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Thomas, M G; Medrano, J F; Moore, S S

    2016-09-01

    Puberty onset is a developmental process influenced by genetic determinants, environment, and nutrition. Mutations and regulatory gene networks constitute the molecular basis for the genetic determinants of puberty onset. The emerging knowledge of these genetic determinants presents opportunities for innovation in the breeding of early pubertal cattle. This paper presents new data on hypothalamic gene expression related to puberty in (Brahman) in age- and weight-matched heifers. Six postpubertal heifers were compared with 6 prepubertal heifers using whole-genome RNA sequencing methodology for quantification of global gene expression in the hypothalamus. Five transcription factors (TF) with potential regulatory roles in the hypothalamus were identified in this experiment: , , , , and . These TF genes were significantly differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of postpubertal versus prepubertal heifers and were also identified as significant according to the applied regulatory impact factor metric ( Brahman). Knowledge of key mutations involved in genetic traits is an advantage for genomic prediction because it can increase its accuracy.

  19. Elevated energy expenditure and reduced energy intake in obese prepubertal children: paradox of poor dietary reliability in obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Schutz, Y; Zaffanello, M; Piccoli, R; Pinelli, L

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of two common methods used to assess energy intake. A 3-day weighed dietary record and a dietary history were collected and compared with the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) assessed by the heart rate method in a group of 12 obese and 12 nonobese prepubertal children (mean age 9.3 +/- 1.1 years vs 9.3 +/- 0.4 years). The TEE value was higher in obese than in nonobese children (9.89 +/- 1.08 vs 8.13 +/- 1.39 MJ/day; p obese children (7.06 +/- 0.98 MJ/day; p obese children (8.37 +/- 1.35 MJ/day, p obese children underreport food intake and that the dietary record and the diet history are not valid means of assessing energy intake in obese prepubertal children.

  20. [Epidemiology of urinary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rais, H; Rabii, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemiological profile of urinary stones based on one thousand cases observed in our institution over a 10-year period. The mean age of the patients was 45 years and two-thirds of patients were males. The kidney was the commonest site of stones, in 57.8% of cases. The stone was radiopaque in 86.4% of cases and was a staghorn calculus in 12.2% of cases. An associated renal malformation was observed in 10.4% of cases. Urinary stones is therefore a common disease, essentially observed in a young population and characterized by recurrence. It therefore constitutes a public health problem and prevention consists of detecting recurrences and treating stone-inducing factors.

  1. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  2. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI is dened any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra relax thus releasing urine from the body. Incontinence occurs if bladder muscles suddenly contract or sphincter muscles are not strong enough to contain urine. The diagnosis of geriatric urinary incontinence includes evaluation for overow incontinence, functional incontinence and stress incontinence. The treatment goal should be realistic and aim to improve the patient's functional status and quality of life. Best treatment outcomes can only be achieved by a holistic treatment approach.

  3. Serum inhibin B, FSH, LH and testosterone levels before and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that cryptorchidism is associated with degenerative changes in both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The gonadal peptide hormone inhibin B reflects Sertoli cell function. Low inhibin B levels are found in a large portion of formerly cryptorchid men who show compromised...... seminiferous tubule function. It is not known if inhibin B can be used to demonstrate early damage of seminiferous tubules in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism....

  4. Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on the physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undertaking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8 and 9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (S; n = 11). Both groups performed an identical soccer-training program, whereas the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer-specific training. The 15-m sprint time (seconds), countermovement jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IE), and Sit and Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3), and 26 weeks (posttest) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks, significant improvements were found in the CMJ (6.72%; effect size [ES] = 0.37), Yo-Yo IE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in the C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15-m sprint time and CMJ (r = -0.77) and Yo-Yo IE (r = -0.77) in the S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  5. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded....

  6. Zearalenone enhances reproductive tract development, but does not alter skeletal muscle signaling in prepubertal gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zearalenone is a potent mycotoxin that has estrogenic properties. In vitro results indicate that zearalenone metabolites are capable of down-regulating proteins associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt) and cellular proliferation (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK) in muscl...

  7. Zearalenone Increases Reproductive Tract Development, but not Skeletal Muscle Signaling in Prepubertal Gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zearalenone (zea) is a potent mycotoxin that has estrogenic properties. In vitro results indicate that zea metabolites are capable of down-regulating proteins associated with protein synthesis (mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR) and cellular proliferation (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ER...

  8. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  9. Effect of oocyte selection, estradiol and antioxidant treatment on in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal Boer goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of improved procedures for in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal goats has applications for in vitro embryo production and accompanying strategies for genetic improvement. The objective of described studies was to determine the effects of oocyte grade, in vitro maturation time, antioxidant supplementation and concentrations of estradiol in the maturation medium on in vitro maturation of oocytes harvested from 1-6 mm follicles present on the ovaries (obtained from an abattoir of 1-6 month-old prepubertal Boer goats. Rates of progression to metaphase II were greater for grade 1 oocytes (>3 compact layers of cumulus cells and evenly granulated cytoplasm than grade 2 oocytes (in vitro maturation in the presence of high concentrations of estradiol (10 and 100 mg/mL on progression to metaphase II was observed, and no effect was observed in response to 1 mg/mL estradiol treatment as compared with control. Results suggest that oocyte selection and beta-mercaptoethanol supplementation can positively influence progression to metaphase II of oocytes harvested from ovaries of prepubertal goats, whereas high concentrations of estradiol are inhibitory to in vitro maturation.

  10. The effect of exercise and estrogen on osteoprotegerin in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sarah L; Scheid, Jennifer L; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of exercise are widely recognized, however physically active women can develop exercise associated menstrual cycle disturbances such as amenorrhea (i.e., estrogen deficiency) secondary to a chronic energy deficiency. To assess the effects of exercise status and estrogen deficiency on osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its relationship to bone resorption in premenopausal exercising women. Cross-sectional study of serum OPG, urinary c-telopeptides (uCTX), urinary estrone 3-glucuronide (E1G), urinary pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (PdG) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured on multiple occasions in 67 women. Volunteers were retrospectively grouped: 1) sedentary menstruating group (SedMen n=8), 2) exercising menstruating group (ExMen, n=36), and 3) exercising amenorrheic group (ExAmen, n=23). One-way ANOVAs were performed, and LSD post-hoc tests were performed when differences were detected. Subjects were similar with respect to age (24.2+/-1.0 years), weight (57.8+/-1.7 kg), and height (164.3+/-1.3 cm) (p>0.05). ExMen and ExAmen groups were more aerobically fit (p=0.003) and had less body fat (p=0.002) than the SedMen group. Resting energy expenditure/fat free mass was lowest (p=0.001) in the ExAmen groups. Mean E1G across the measurement period (peffect of exercise, and that suppressed OPG may play a role in the etiology of increased bone resorption observed in exercising women with chronic estrogen deficiency secondary to hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  11. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  12. Parabens inhibit human skin estrogen sulfotransferase activity: possible link to paraben estrogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusakiewicz, Jeffery J; Harville, Heather M; Zhang, Yanhua; Ackermann, Chrisita; Voorman, Richard L

    2007-04-11

    Parabens (p-hydroxybenzoate esters) are a group of widely used preservatives in topically applied cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Parabens display weak associations with the estrogen receptors in vitro or in cell based models, but do exhibit estrogenic effects in animal models. It is our hypothesis that parabens exert their estrogenic effects, in part, by elevating levels of estrogens through inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferases (SULTs) in skin. We report here the results of a structure-activity-relationship of parabens as inhibitors of estrogen sulfation in human skin cytosolic fractions and normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Similar to reports of paraben estrogenicity and estrogen receptor affinity, the potency of SULT inhibition increased as the paraben ester chain length increased. Butylparaben was found to be the most potent of the parabens in skin cytosol, yielding an IC(50) value of 37+/-5 microM. Butylparaben blocked the skin cytosol sulfation of estradiol and estrone, but not the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone. The parabens were also tested as inhibitors of SULT activity in a cellular system, with normal human epidermal keratinocytes. The potency of butylparaben increased three-fold in these cells relative to the IC(50) value from skin cytosol. Overall, these results suggest chronic topical application of parabens may lead to prolonged estrogenic effects in skin as a result of inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase activity. Accordingly, the skin anti-aging benefits of many topical cosmetics and pharmaceuticals could be derived, in part, from the estrogenicity of parabens.

  13. Identification of estrogenic/anti-estrogenic compounds in diesel exhaust particulate extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Keiko; Toriba, Akira; Chung, Sang Woon; Kizu, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2007-11-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate extract (DEPE) was obtained from diesel exhaust particulates with Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane. After separating DEPE into 11 fractions by liquid-liquid extraction, the neutral fraction (N) showed anti-estrogenic activity and the weak acid (phenol) fraction (WA(P)) showed estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities by a yeast two-hybrid assay system expressing human estrogen receptor alpha. Both fractions were thoroughly fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. In the WA(P) fraction, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol and 2,6-dimethyl-4-nitrophenol were identified by LC-MS/MS as estrogenic compounds. This is the first study to identify 2,6-dimethyl-4-nitrophenol in DEPE and the first study to show that it is an estrogenic compound. In the N fraction, 1-hydroxypyrene was also identified by LC-MS/MS as an anti-estrogenic compound.

  14. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  15. Estrogenic Potentials of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2017-09-25

    Estrogen, a steroid hormone, is associated with several human activities, including environmental, industrial, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical fields. In this review paper, estrogenic activity associated with traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is discussed first by focusing on the assays needed to detect estrogenic activity (animal test, cell assay, ligand-binding assay, protein assay, reporter-gene assay, transcription assay and yeast two-hybrid assay), and then, their sources, the nature of activities (estrogenic or anti-estrogenic, or other types), and pathways/functions, along with the assay used to detect the activity, which is followed by a summary of effective chemicals found in or associated with TCM. Applications of estrogens in TCM are then discussed by a comprehensive search of the literature, which include basic study/pathway analysis, cell functions, diseases/symptoms and medicine/supplements. Discrepancies and conflicting cases about estrogenicity of TCM among assays or between TCM and their effective chemicals, are focused on to enlarge estrogenic potentials of TCM by referring to omic knowledge such as transcriptome, proteome, glycome, chemome, cellome, ligandome, interactome and effectome.

  16. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, E; Stopper, H

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Because some other bioflavonoids are known to have estrogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine the estrogenic activity of the anthocyanine aglycones. Binding affinity to the estrogen receptor-alpha was 10,000- to 20,000-fold lower than that of the endogenous estrogen estradiol. In the estrogen receptor-positive cell line MCF-7, the anthocyanidins induced expression of a reporter gene. The tested anthocyanidins showed estrogen-inducible cell proliferation in two cell lines (MCF-7 and BG-1), but not in the receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The phytoestrogen-induced cell proliferation could be blocked by addition of the receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Combination treatments with the endogenous estrogen estradiol resulted in a reduction of estradiol-induced cell proliferation. Overall, the tested anthocyanidins exert estrogenic activity, which might play a role in altering the development of hormone-dependent adverse effects.

  17. Use of vaginal estrogen in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Goukasian, Irina; Lidegaard, Oejvind

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We know little about the use of vaginal estrogen in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. We aimed to assess the prevalence of vaginal estrogen use in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide cross-sectional study of all Danish women aged 40-79 years,...

  18. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  19. Estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1975-01-01

    The estrogen potencies of 9 oral contraceptive pills, Enovid-E, Enovid-5, Ovulen, Demulen, Norinyl+80, Norinyl+50, Ovral, Norlestrin 1 mg. and Norlestrin 2.5 mg., were determined by bioassay. Relative estrogen potency was determined by analysis of variance. Enovid-5, the most estrogenic compound, had a potency of 4.88 compared to ethinyl estradiol, 50 mcg. equal 1.00; Ovral, the least estrogenic compound, had a potency of 0.81, a sixfold difference. Estrogen potencies at a fractional dose of 0.00155 correlate with reports of the incidence of minor side effects and thromboembolic disease. The effect of progestins on estrogen potency was purely additive (norgestrel and norethynodrel), purely antagonistic, or additive at low concentrations and antagonistic at high concentrations (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate). These results suggest that pills with a greater margin of safety might be developed by utilizing greater ratios of progestin to estrogen. In addition, differences in relative estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills may be used as a basis for better clinical selection.

  20. Effects of resistance training on tendon mechanical properties and rapid force production in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C M; Korff, T; Fath, F; Blazevich, A J

    2014-08-01

    Children develop lower levels of muscle force, and at slower rates, than adults. Although strength training in children is expected to reduce this differential, a synchronous adaptation in the tendon must be achieved to ensure forces continue to be transmitted to the skeleton with efficiency while minimizing the risk of strain-related tendon injury. We hypothesized that resistance training (RT) would alter tendon mechanical properties in children concomitantly with changes in force production characteristics. Twenty prepubertal children (age 8.9 ± 0.3 yr) were equally divided into control (nontraining) and experimental (training) groups. The training group completed a 10-wk RT intervention consisting of 2-3 sets of 8-15 plantar flexion contractions performed twice weekly on a recumbent calf-raise machine. Achilles tendon properties (cross-sectional area, elongation, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus), electromechanical delay (EMD; time between the onset of muscle activity and force), rate of force development (RFD; slope of the force-time curve), and rate of electromyographic (EMG) increase (REI; slope of the EMG time curve) were measured before and after RT. Tendon stiffness and Young's modulus increased significantly after RT in the experimental group only (∼29% and ∼25%, respectively); all other tendon properties were not significantly altered, although there were mean decreases in both peak tendon strain and strain at a given force level (14% and 24%, respectively; not significant) which may have implications for tendon injury risk and muscle fiber mechanics. A decrease of ∼13% in EMD was found after RT for the experimental group, which paralleled the increase in tendon stiffness (r = -0.59); however, RFD and REI were unchanged. The present data show that the Achilles tendon adapts to RT in prepubertal children and is paralleled by a change in EMD, although the magnitude of this change did not appear to be sufficient to influence RFD. These

  1. Minireview: osteoprotective action of estrogens is mediated by osteoclastic estrogen receptor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yuuki; Kondoh, Shino; Kouzmenko, Alexander; Kato, Shigeaki

    2010-05-01

    The osteoprotective action of estrogen in women has drawn considerable attention because estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis became one of the most widely spread diseases in developed countries. In men, the significance of estrogen action for bone health maintenance is also apparent from the osteoporotic phenotype seen in male patients with genetically impaired estrogen signaling. Severe bone loss and high bone turnover, including typical osteofeatures seen in postmenopausal women, can also be recapitulated in rodents after ovariectomy. However, the expected osteoporotic phenotype is not observed in female mice deficient in estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha or -beta or both, even though the degenerative defects are clearly seen in other estrogen target tissues together with up-regulated levels of circulating testosterone. It has also been reported that estrogens may attenuate bone remodeling by cell autonomous suppressive effects on osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Hence, the effects of estrogens in bone appear to be complex, and the molecular role of bone estrogen receptors in osteoprotective estrogen action remains unclear. Instead, it has been proposed that estrogens indirectly control bone remodeling. For example, the enhanced production of cytokines under estrogen deficiency induces bone resorption through stimulation of osteoclastogenesis. However, the osteoporotic phenotype without systemic defects has been recapitulated in female (but not in male) mice by osteoclast-specific ablation of the ERalpha, proving that bone cells represent direct targets for estrogen action. An aberrant accumulation of mature osteoclasts in these female mutants indicates that in females, the inhibitory action of estrogens on bone resorption is mediated by the osteoclastic ERalpha through the shortened lifespan of osteoclasts.

  2. Biological sex influences learning strategy preference and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Hodges, Kelly S; Fawcett-Patel, Jessica M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-04-01

    According to the theory of multiple memory systems, specific brain regions interact to determine how the locations of goals are learned when rodents navigate a spatial environment. A number of factors influence the type of strategy used by rodents to remember the location of a given goal in space, including the biological sex of the learner. We recently found that prior to puberty male rats preferred a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy over a hippocampus-dependent place strategy when solving a dual-solution task, while age-matched females showed no strategy preference. Because the cholinergic system has been implicated in learning strategy and is known to be sexually dimorphic prior to puberty, we explored the relationship between learning strategy and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal males and female rats. We confirmed our previous finding that at 28 days of age a significantly higher proportion of prepubertal males preferred a stimulus-response learning strategy than a place strategy to solve a dual-solution visible platform water maze task. Equal proportions of prepubertal females preferred stimulus-response or place strategies. Profiles of muscarinic receptor binding as assessed by autoradiography varied according to strategy preference. Regardless of biological sex, prepubertal rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy exhibited lower ratios of muscarinic receptor binding in the hippocampus relative to the dorsolateral striatum compared to rats that preferred place strategy. Importantly, much of the variance in this ratio was related to differences in the ventral hippocampus to a greater extent than the dorsal hippocampus. The ratios of muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus relative to the basolateral amygdala also were lower in rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy over place strategy. Results confirm that learning strategy preference varies with biological sex in prepubertal rats with males

  3. Gonadal and nongonadal mechanisms contribute to the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion in the female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C R; deRidder, C M; Plant, T M

    1995-07-01

    The present study reexamined the role of the ovary in determining the prepubertal hiatus of gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Day- and nighttime blood samples were obtained weekly from neonatally (7-10 days of age) ovariectomized and intact monkeys from birth until 3 yr of age. In the intact monkeys, plasma FSH levels increased during the first month of life, remained elevated until approximately 3 months of age, and then decreased to become undetectable by 7 months of age. Thereafter, plasma FSH remained undetectable until approximately 19 months of age, at which time it again increased to detectable concentrations. In animals ovariectomized as neonates, the developmental pattern in FSH secretion was similar to that in intact animals, but, quantitatively, mean plasma FSH concentrations in the agonadal females were greater than those in the intact control group at all times. Circulating daytime LH concentrations in intact animals were generally below the sensitivity of the assay during the neonatal and prepubertal phases of development, but after 27 months of age, this plasma hormone was measurable on occasion. In neonatally ovariectomized monkeys, daytime LH was elevated during the first month of life, undetectable between 2-20 months of age, and then rose into the adult range by the end of the study. Nocturnal plasma FSH and LH concentrations in agonadal monkeys were generally greater than those during the day at all stages of development. Of particular note was the finding that during the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion, when daytime LH levels were mostly immeasurable, nighttime levels of this gonadotropin were consistently elevated. The hypersecretion of gonadotropin during prepubertal development in agonadal animals also occurred when ovariectomy was performed at 61-62 weeks of age. These findings demonstrate that in the female monkey, the open loop activity of the GnRH pulse generator during juvenile development is only partially

  4. Estrogens and Stem Cells in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela eZane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries highlight the emerging role of estrogens in the initiation and progression of different malignancies through their interaction with stem cell compartment. Estrogens play a relevant role especially for those tumors bearing a gender disparity in incidence and aggressiveness, as occurs for most thyroid diseases. Although several experimental lines suggest that estrogens promote thyroid cell proliferation and invasion, their precise contribution in stem cell compartment still remains unclear. This review underlines the interplay between hormones and thyroid function, which could help to complete the puzzle of gender discrepancy in thyroid malignancies. Defining the association between estrogen receptors’ status and signaling pathways by which estrogens exert their effects on thyroid cells is a potential tool that provides important insights in pathogenetic mechanisms of thyroid tumors.

  5. Estrogens and Stem Cells in Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Mariangela; Catalano, Veronica; Scavo, Emanuela; Bonanno, Marco; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Todaro, Matilde; Stassi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries highlight the emerging role of estrogens in the initiation and progression of different malignancies through their interaction with stem cell (SC) compartment. Estrogens play a relevant role especially for those tumors bearing a gender disparity in incidence and aggressiveness, as occurs for most thyroid diseases. Although several experimental lines suggest that estrogens promote thyroid cell proliferation and invasion, their precise contribution in SC compartment still remains unclear. This review underlines the interplay between hormones and thyroid function, which could help to complete the puzzle of gender discrepancy in thyroid malignancies. Defining the association between estrogen receptors’ status and signaling pathways by which estrogens exert their effects on thyroid cells is a potential tool that provides important insights in pathogenetic mechanisms of thyroid tumors. PMID:25120531

  6. Raloxifene: a selective estrogen receptor modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J A; Da Camara, C C; Early, J E

    1999-09-15

    Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that produces both estrogen-agonistic effects on bone and lipid metabolism and estrogen-antagonistic effects on uterine endometrium and breast tissue. Because of its tissue selectivity, raloxifene may have fewer side effects than are typically observed with estrogen therapy. The most common adverse effects of raloxifene are hot flushes and leg cramps. The drug is also associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events. The beneficial estrogenic activities of raloxifene include a lowering of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and an augmentation of bone mineral density. Raloxifene has been labeled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of osteoporosis. However, its effects on fracture risk and its ability to protect against cardiovascular disease have yet to be determined. Studies are also being conducted to determine its impact on breast and endometrial cancer reduction.

  7. The effects of estrogen in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koellhoffer, Edward C; McCullough, Louise D

    2013-08-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and the most common cause of long-term disability in the USA. Women have a lower incidence of stroke compared with men throughout most of the lifespan which has been ascribed to protective effects of gonadal steroids, most notably estrogen. Due to the lower stroke incidence observed in pre-menopausal women and robust preclinical evidence of neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of estrogen, researchers have focused on the potential benefits of hormones to reduce ischemic brain injury. However, as women age, they are disproportionately affected by stroke, coincident with the loss of estrogen with menopause. The risk of stroke in elderly women exceeds that of men and it is clear that in some settings estrogen can have pro-inflammatory effects. This review will focus on estrogen and inflammation and its interaction with aging.

  8. Urinary bisphenol a levels in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Erdem; Aşçı, Ali; Erkekoğlu, Pınar; Akçurin, Sema; Gümüşel, Belma Koçer; Bircan, Iffet

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical, particularly used to harden plastics. BPA is thought to have negative health effects on both laboratory animals and humans. Consider ing the decline in age of onset of puberty noted in recent years, particularly among girls, the importance of BPA as an estrogenic endocrine disruptor has increased. In this study, we aimed to determine urinary BPA levels in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Non-obese girls newly diagnosed with ICPP (n=28, age 4-8 years) constituted the study group. The control group consisted of 25 healthy age-matched girls with no history of ICPP or any other endocrine disorder. Urinary BPA levels were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the ICPP group, urinary BPA levels were significantly higher compared to the control group [median 8.34 (0.84-67.35) μg/g creatinine and 1.62 (0.3-25.79) μg/g creatinine, respectively (OR=8.68, 95% CI:2.03-32.72, p=0.001)]. There was no marked correlation between urinary BPA levels and body mass index in either group. In the ICPP group, no significant correlations were found between urinary BPA levels and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the urinary BPA levels in Turkish girls with ICPP. Our results indicate that the estrogenic effects of BPA may be an etiologic factor in ICPP.

  9. Barriers to effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with local estrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne ReiterMid-County Health Center, Largo, FL, USAAbstract: Vaginal atrophy is a common condition among postmenopausal women, among whom many exhibit both vulvovaginal symptoms (eg, dryness, irritation, itching, and pain with intercourse and urinary symptoms (eg, increased frequency, urgency, incontinence, urinary tract infections, and dysuria. Unfortunately, few women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy report seeking treatment from a health care provider. The goal of this article is to examine reasons why patients and health care providers do not engage in discourse regarding this important topic. It is important to initiate conversations with postmenopausal women and counsel them on both why the changes occur and potential treatment options.Keywords: local estrogen therapy, vaginal atrophy, barriers, postmenopausal women

  10. Gender’s Effect on a School-Based Intervention in the Prepubertal Growth Spurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Children aged 10-11 years pass through a dynamic developmental period marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of gender on a school-based intervention in the prepubertal growth spurt. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls, fifth and sixth grade students from an urban public elementary school in Portugal (10.8 ± 0.4 years, were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: a strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls, and an endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls; and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls; no training program. Training program for the two experimental groups was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. Compared with the values at the beginning of the protocol, both strength and endurance training programs produced significant improvements (p 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.16, Power= 0.29 and aerobic (p> 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.05, Power= 0.28 capacity. The results of the present study should be taken into consideration in order to optimize strength training school-based programs.

  11. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  12. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis for evaluating zinc supplementation in prepubertal and healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of abnormal nutritional status has increased in children and adolescents. Nutritional assessment is important for monitoring the health and nutritional status. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA combines changes in tissue hydration and structure and body composition that can be assessed. Objectives: The objective of this study was to use BIVA to evaluate nutritional status in 60 prepubertal children, aged between 8 and 9 years, supplemented with zinc, to detect possible changes in body composition. Design: We performed a randomized, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into the control group (CG; sorbitol 10%, n=29 or the experimental group (EG; 10 mg Zn/day, n=31, and the duration of the experiment was 3 months. Anthropometric assessments were performed for all of the children. Results: The body mass index-for-age increased after oral zinc supplementation in the EG (p=0.005. BIVA indicated that the CG demonstrated a tendency for dehydration and decreased soft tissue and the EG demonstrated a tendency for increased soft tissue, primarily the fat-free mass. After analyses of BIVA ellipses, we observed that this method could detect improvements in body composition in healthy children supplemented with zinc. Conclusions: These results suggest that BIVA could be an auxiliary method for studying a small population undergoing zinc intervention.

  13. Otolaryngologic findings in prepubertal obese children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Caixêta, Juliana Alves; Saramago, Alex Martins; Moreira, Gustavo Antonio; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate otolaryngologic findings in obese prepubertal children with sleep-disordered breathing. We prospectively evaluated 29 obese children referred by pediatric endocrinologist, complaining of snoring and without a history of nasal surgery or removal of the palatine tonsils and/or adenoids. Patients underwent ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, endoscopy, measurements of weight, height, calculation of body mass index (BMI), assessment of BMI z-score and polysomnography, from which were divided into two groups: those with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (nine children) and those with primary snoring (20 children). Then we proceeded to the statistical analysis of the data collected. The groups did not differ in age, gender, weight, height, BMI and BMI z-score. Among the findings of the ENT examination, the adenoid size was the only one that differed between the groups (p = 0.01). The evaluation of the adenoid size is an important in obese children with symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing and is related to the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Prepubertal social subjugation and anabolic androgenic steroid-induced aggression in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, R L; McGinnis, M Y

    2008-08-01

    Abused children are more prone to abuse drugs, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), as teenagers and display violence as adults. AAS use has been linked with elevated aggression. Thus, exposure to child abuse and AAS may potentiate aggression. A social subjugation paradigm was used as an animal model of childhood abuse to determine whether prior subjugation increases AAS-induced aggression in male rats. Prepubertal gonadally intact male rats were exposed to social subjugation, a novel cage experience, or remained undisturbed in their home cages. Experimental males were socially subjugated by being placed in the home cage of an adult male. At puberty, both subjugated and nonsubjugated rats were injected with either the AAS testosterone or vehicle. AAS treatment continued for 5 weeks. Aggression was measured during the last week of AAS exposure. AAS was then discontinued. Aggression was again tested 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. Aggression was tested under three conditions: (i) physical provocation of the experimental male; (ii) provocation of the intruder male; and (iii) without provocation. Both AAS-treated males and socially subjugated males displayed significantly more aggression than did controls. Elevated aggression by subjugated males was still present 17 weeks after social subjugation. AAS males also showed increased aggression 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. However, exposure to both social subjugation and AAS had no long-term effects on aggression. The results of the present study indicate that social subjugation may have lasting consequences on the expression of adaptive social behaviours.

  15. Body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness in prepubertal children in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsec, Jurij; Fosnaric, Samo

    2009-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze overweight and obesity in children on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF). The sample included 5613 children, aged 6 to12 years (X = 9.23; SD = 1.69) from Slovenia. Children were classified as non-overweight, overweight and obese according to age and sex specific BMI cut-off points. The results show that 18.3% of boys and 18.5% of girls are overweight and 6.5% of boys and 6.7% of girls are obese. The correlation between BMI and TSF in boys (r = 0.785) and girls (r = 0.783) are almost equal. Body weight has a lower correlation with TSF in boys (r = 0.691) and in girls (r = 0.631). The chi2 test show that there is a significant difference (p < 0.001) in TSF according to weight status. The results show that TSF and weight status of prepubertal children are closely related and that the criterion for the determination of weight status on the basis of BMI is well defined.

  16. Marked elevation of adrenal steroids, especially androgens, in saliva of prepubertal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Hill, Martin; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Namysłowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Autism is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral manifestations, but its biomarkers are not well defined. A strong gender bias typifying autism (it is 4-5 times more prevalent in males) suggests involvement of steroid hormones in autism pathobiology. In order to evaluate the potential roles of such hormones in autism, we compared the salivary levels of 22 steroids in prepubertal autistic male and female children from two age groups (3-4 and 7-9 years old) with those in healthy controls. The steroids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed that autistic children had significantly higher salivary concentrations of many steroid hormones (both C21 and C19) than control children. These anomalies were more prominent in older autistic children and in boys. The levels of androgens (androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone and their polar conjugates) were especially increased, indicative of precocious adrenarche and predictive of early puberty. The concentrations of the steroid precursor, pregnenolone, and of several pregnanolones were also higher in autistic than in healthy children, but cortisol levels were not different. Some steroids, whose levels are raised in autism (allopregnanolone, androsterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate conjugates) are neuroactive and modulate GABA, glutamate, and opioid neurotransmission, affecting brain development and functioning. These steroids may contribute to autism pathobiology and symptoms such as elevated anxiety, sleep disturbances, sensory deficits, and stereotypies among others. We suggest that salivary levels of selected steroids may serve as biomarkers of autism pathology useful for monitoring the progress of therapy.

  17. Perceptions of self, mother and family and behavior of prepubertal depressed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Gothelf, A; Yoeli-Bligh, N; Gilboa-Schechtman, E; Benaroya-Milshtein, N; Apter, A

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the perceptions of self, mother and family of prepubertal children and to determine if the perceptions of children with depression and their behavior towards their mothers are different from children with anxiety disorders and nonpsychiatric controls. Children (aged 7-13 years) with major depressive disorder (n=30), anxiety disorders (n=37) and nonpsychiatric controls (n=32) underwent structured psychiatric evaluations and completed questionnaires on their perceptions of themselves and their relations with their mothers and families. The child-mother dyad was observed during structured interactions. Self-perceptions of depressed children were significantly more negative than those of children with anxiety and controls. Depression severity negatively correlated with the child's self-perception and positively correlated with perceptions of the mother as being more rejecting, controlling, less accepting and less allowing autonomy, and of the family as being less cohesive. Depression severity was also positively associated with the child's hostile attitude towards the mother during the interactions. Our findings of greater negative perceptions of self, mother and family in depressed children compared to children with anxiety disorders and nonpsychiatric children suggest that approaches specifically addressing negative perceptions and targeting familial relationships could be especially effective for treating young children with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  19. Female sexual maturation and reproduction after prepubertal exposure to estrogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals: a review of rodent and human data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, G; Toppari, J; Parent, A-S; Bourguignon, J-P

    2006-07-25

    Natural hormones and some synthetic chemicals spread into our surrounding environment share the capacity to interact with hormone action and metabolism. Exposure to such compounds can cause a variety of developmental and reproductive detrimental abnormalities in wildlife species and, potentially, in human. Many experimental and epidemiological data have reported that exposure of the developing fetus or neonate to environmentally relevant concentrations of some among these endocrine disrupters induces morphological, biochemical and/or physiological disorders in brain and reproductive organs, by interfering with the hormone actions. The impact of such exposures on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and subsequent sexual maturation is the subject of the present review. We will highlight epidemiological human studies and the effects of early exposure during gestational, perinatal or postnatal life in female rodents.

  20. Estrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are allergic to aspirin or tartrazine (a food color additive). Ask your pharmacist or check the manufacturer's patient ... this medication.If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  1. Urinary incontinence: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, K L; Steidle, C P; Letizia, T M

    1995-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a widely prevalent problem that affects people of all ages and levels of physical health, both in healthcare settings and in the community. Contributing to the problem are that many practitioners remain uneducated about this condition, individuals are often too ashamed or embarrassed to seek professional help, and there are significant variations in diagnostic and treatment practices. Five types of UI are stress, urge, overflow, functional and manufactured incontinence. Stress, urge and overflow are caused by factors within the urinary tract and will be concentrated on in this article. To diagnose UI a three-part assessment should be conducted, including the patient history, physical examination, and urinalysis. A behavioral program should be designed which incorporates identification and education for both patient and clinician. Treatment options include pelvic floor exercises (Kegel), vaginal cones, bladder training (retraining), habit training (timed voiding), electrostimulation and biofeedback, clean intermittent catheterization, indwelling catheters, medications, collagen injections, surgery, and absorption products. Most patients can be helped dramatically or cured with the appropriate treatment.

  2. Urinary markers in bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrooman, O.P.; Witjes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many markers for the detection of bladder cancers have been tested. Almost all urinary markers reported are better than cytology with regard to sensitivity, but they score lower in specificity. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most important urinary biomarkers studied and

  3. Estrogen and ischemic heart disease in females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević-Gajić Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although ischemic heart disease (IHD develops in both genders under the influence of the same risk factors, it is much less frequent among female population, which is mostly assigned to favorable effects of estrogen. Objective: Since latest investigations have pointed to higher incidence of disease in female population, the objective of our study was to examine the relation between estrogen and other clinical and biochemical parameters significant for its manifestation. Method: The relation between estrogen levels and frequency of obesity, diabetes, hypertension as well as the levels of total, HDL, LDL i VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, Lp(a, apoprotein A i B i PAI-1 was analyzed in 50 (25 pre- and postmenopausal patients, treated due to IHD in the Health Center, Krusevac, in 2002 year. Results: Low concentration of estrogen was found in 22 (44% patients. In addition, frequency of diabetes, obesity and risky levels of high atherogenic lipid fractions (total and LDL cholesterol, Lp(a, apoprotein B was insignificantly higher, whereas the concentrations of PAI 1, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were lower, with significant correlation between estrogen level and PAI-1 (T=0.32, p<0.05. Conclusion: Despite all past investigations, numerous questions related to high incidence of IHD among premenopausal women, have remained open - whether it occurs as a consequence of reduced estrogen synthesis, lower expression of estrogen receptors, their modified function or maybe concomitant influence of other risk factors, not necessarily connected with sex, that eliminate protective effects of this hormone.

  4. Estrogen receptor beta treats Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Tian; Jia Fan; Yang Zhao; Sheng Bi; Lihui Si; Qun Liu

    2013-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that estrogen receptor β can attenuate the cytotoxic effect of amyloid β protein on PC12 cells through the Akt pathway without estrogen stimulation. In this study, we aimed to observe the effect of estrogen receptor β in Alzheimer's disease rat models established by intraventricular injection of amyloid β protein. Estrogen receptor β lentiviral particles delivered via intraventricular injection increased Akt content in the hippocampus, decreased interleukin-1β mRNA, tumor necrosis factor α mRNA and amyloid β protein levels in the hippocampus, and improved the learning and memory capacities in Alzheimer's disease rats. Estrogen receptor β short hairpin RNA lentiviral particles delivered via intraventricular injection had none of the above impacts on Alzheimer's disease rats. These experimental findings indicate that estrogen receptor β, independent from estrogen, can reduce inflammatory reactions and amyloid β deposition in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease rats, and improve learning and memory capacities. This effect may be mediated through activation of the Akt pathway.

  5. Post-operative urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  6. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  7. Suppression of the inflammatory response in experimental arthritis is mediated via estrogen receptor alpha but not estrogen receptor beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulos, John; Vijn, Peter; van Doorn, Cindy; Hofstra, Claudia L.; Veening-Griffioen, Desiree; de Graaf, Jan; Dijcks, Fred A.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The immune modulatory role of estrogens in inflammation is complex. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of estrogens have been described. Estrogens bind both estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and beta. The contribution of ER alpha and ER beta to ER-mediated immune modulation was studied

  8. Estrogen and thyroid diseases: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yihan; Li, Jian; Li, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Most of thyroid diseases show female predilection, especially autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and thyroid cancer (TC). We give an updated brief review here, focusing on estrogen, estrogen receptor (ER) and AITD as well as TC. Estrogen can regulate the functions of nearly all immunocyte subsets, which may contribute to the development of AITD. However, there was still lack of direct studies on ER subtype-specific effects on AITD. Recently, the local expression of ER subtypes and their individual mediated actions in the pathogenesis of TC have already received much attention. ERα activation seems to exacerbate the development of TC, while wild-type ERβ (ERβ1) plays a protective role against TC.

  9. Effects of Estrogens and Estrogenic Disrupting Compounds on Fish Mineralized Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia I. S. Pinto; Estêvão, Maria D.; Power, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens play well-recognized roles in reproduction across vertebrates, but also intervene in a wide range of other physiological processes, including mineral homeostasis. Classical actions are triggered when estrogens bind and activate intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), regulating the transcription of responsive genes, but rapid non-genomic actions initiated by binding to plasma membrane receptors were recently described. A wide range of structurally diverse compounds from natural and ...

  10. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of 23 commercial textile dyes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bazin, Ingrid; Ibn Hadj Hassine, Aziza; Haj Hamouda, Yosra; Mnif, Wissem; Bartegi, Ahgleb; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel; De Waard, Michel; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The presence of dyes in wastewater effluent of textile industry is well documented. In contrast, the endocrine disrupting effects of these dyes and wastewater effluent have been poorly investigated. Herein, we studied twenty-three commercial dyes, usually used in the textile industry, and extracts of blue jean textile wastewater samples were evaluated for their agonistic and antagonistic estrogen activity. Total estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities were measured u...

  11. Impact of environmental estrogens on Yfish considering the diversity of estrogen signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, Helmut; Casanova-Nakayama, Ayako; Kase, Robert; Tyler, Charles R

    2013-09-15

    Research on endocrine disruption in fish has been dominated by studies on estrogen-active compounds which act as mimics of the natural estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), and generally exert their biological actions by binding to and activation of estrogen receptors (ERs). Estrogens play central roles in reproductive physiology and regulate (female) sexual differentiation. In line with this, most adverse effects reported for fish exposed to environmental estrogens relate to sexual differentiation and reproduction. E2, however, utilizes a variety of signaling mechanisms, has multifaceted functions and targets, and therefore the toxicological and ecological effects of environmental estrogens in fish will extend beyond those associated with the reproduction. This review first describes the diversity of estrogen receptor signaling in fish, including both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms, and receptor crosstalk. It then considers the range of non-reproductive physiological processes in fish that are known to be responsive to estrogens, including sensory systems, the brain, the immune system, growth, specifically through the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor system, and osmoregulation. The diversity in estrogen responses between fish species is then addressed, framed within evolutionary and ecological contexts, and we make assessments on their relevance for toxicological sensitivity as well as ecological vulnerability. The diversity of estrogen actions raises questions whether current risk assessment strategies, which focus on reproductive endpoints, and a few model fish species only, are protective of the wider potential health effects of estrogens. Available - although limited - evidence nevertheless suggests that quantitative environmental threshold concentrations for environmental protection derived from reproductive tests with model fish species are protective for non-reproductive effects as well. The diversity of actions of estrogens across divergent

  12. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection as a Precipitant of Thyroid Storm in a Previously Undiagnosed Case of Graves' Disease in a Prepubertal Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton RWilliam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is less common in prepubertal than pubertal children, and initial presentation with thyroid storm is rare. We report an 11-year-old prepubertal Hispanic girl who presented with a one-day history of respiratory distress, fever, and dysphagia. She had exophthalmos, a diffuse bilateral goiter and was agitated, tachycardic, and hypertensive. Nasal swab was positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. She was diagnosed with thyroid storm and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. While infection is a known precipitant of thyroid storm and RSV is a common pediatric infection, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RSV infection apparently precipitating thyroid storm in a prepubertal child.

  13. Sweating responses to isometric hand-grip exercise and forearm muscle metaboreflex in prepubertal children and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Kai, Seiko; Nakajima, Michi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Gerrett, Nicola; Kondo, Narihiko; Inoue, Yoshimitsu

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-thermal factors (e.g. muscle metaboreflex) contribute to the sweating response during exercise. Although it is well recognized that the sweating responses caused by core temperature elevation in prepubertal children and the elderly are attenuated compared with young adults, it is unknown whether non-thermal sweating is also attenuated in these populations. What is the main finding and its importance? The non-thermal sweating response during isometric hand-grip exercise and isolated muscle metaboreflex were attenuated in prepubertal children compared with young adults in a non-uniform manner over the body, but only during the muscle metaboreflex in the elderly. This may explain the maturation- and ageing-related decline of sweating during exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate sweating responses to isometric hand-grip (IH) exercise and muscle metaboreflex in prepubertal children and the elderly. In hot conditions (ambient temperature, 35°C; relative humidity, 45%), 13 healthy young adults, 10 prepubertal children and 10 elderly subjects (aged 20.4 ± 1.2, 11.4 ± 0.5 and 63.5 ± 3.1 years, respectively) repeated a three hand-grip exercise protocol that consisted of 1 min IH exercise at 15, 30 or 45% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by 2 min postexercise forearm occlusion. Local sweat rates (SRs) on the forehead, chest, forearm, thigh and palm were continuously measured (ventilated capsule method). The forehead SR in prepubertal children during IH exercise at 45% MVC was significantly lower than that of young adults (0.26 ± 0.22 and 0.08 ± 0.15 mg cm(-2)  min(-1) for young adults and children, respectively; P elderly at any exercise intensities. The SR on the chest (0.22 ± 0.22 and -0.01 ± 0.05 mg cm(-2)  min(-1) for young adults and children, respectively), forearm (0.14 ± 0.12 and 0.03 ± 0.04 mg cm(-2)  min(-1) ) and thigh (0.13 ± 0.10 and 0

  14. Effects of environmental estrogenic chemicals on AP1 mediated transcription with estrogen receptors alpha and beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Nariaki; Honda, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2004-01-01

    There has been much discussion concerning endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected of exerting adverse effects in both wildlife and humans. Since the majority of these compounds are estrogenic, a large number of in vitro tests for estrogenic characteristics have been developed for screening purpose. One reliable and widely used method is the reporter gene assay employing estrogen receptors (ERs) and a reporter gene with a cis-acting estrogen responsive element (ERE). Other elements such as AP1 also mediate estrogenic signals and the manner of response could be quite different from that of ERE. Since this has yet to be explored, the ER mediated AP1 activity in response to a series of environmental estrogens was investigated in comparison with ERE findings. All the compounds exhibited estrogenic properties with ERE-luc and their AP1 responses were quite similar. These was one exception, however, p,p'-DDT (1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) did not exert any AP1-luc activity, while it appeared to be estrogenic at 10(-7) to 10(-5)M with the ERE action. None of the compounds demonstrated ER beta:AP1 activity. These data suggest that significant differences can occur in responses through the two estrogen pathways depending on environmental chemicals.

  15. In vivo imaging of activated estrogen receptors in utero by estrogens and bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, Josephine G; Arends, Roel J; van der Saag, Paul T; van der Burg, Bart

    2004-11-01

    Environmental estrogens are of particular concern when exposure occurs during embryonic development. Although there are good models to study estrogenic activity of chemicals in adult animals, developmental exposure is much more difficult to test. The weak estrogenic activity of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) in embryos is controversial. We have recently generated transgenic mice that carry a reporter construct with estrogen-responsive elements coupled to luciferase. We show that, using this in vivo model in combination with the IVIS imaging system, activation of estrogen receptors (ERs) by maternally applied BPA and other estrogens can be detected in living embryos in utero. Eight hours after exposure to 1 mg/kg BPA, ER transactivation could be significantly induced in the embryos. This was more potent than would be estimated from in vitro assays, although its intrinsic activity is still lower than that of diethylstilbestrol and 17beta-estradiol dipropionate. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the estrogenic potency of BPA estimated using in vitro assays might underestimate its estrogenic potential in embryos.

  16. Metformin treatment to reduce central adiposity after prenatal growth restraint: a placebo-controlled pilot study in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Marta; Bassols, Judit; López-Bermejo, Abel; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2015-11-01

    Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) who experience rapid postnatal catch-up in weight are at risk for central adiposity and hyperinsulinemia. To study the effects of prepubertal metformin intervention over 24 months on the body composition and endocrine-metabolic profile of catch-up SGA children. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study including 23 post-catch-up non-obese prepubertal SGA children [age, 7.7 yr; body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) >50th and 75th for age]. Patients were randomized to receive either placebo or metformin (425 mg/d) for 24 months. Clinical, biochemical [IGF-I, glucose, insulin, lipids, androgens, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and high-molecular-weight (HMW)-adiponectin] and imaging [body composition (absorptiometry and MRI; carotid intima-media thickness (ultrasonography)] variables were assessed at baseline, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. After 24 months, metformin-treated children were leaner, had higher SHBG levels, and less total and abdominal fat than placebo-treated children (all p ≤ 0.05). Longitudinal analyses showed that metformin had a significant effect on anthropometric (weight, BMI, and waist) and biochemical variables [glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides] (all p ≤ 0.05); and in total and abdominal fat (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02). Prepubertal intervention with metformin reduces central adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in non-obese catch-up SGA children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Does soaking temperature during controlled slow freezing of pre-pubertal mouse testes influence course of in vitro spermatogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Brahim; Dumont, Ludovic; Milazzo, Jean-Pierre; Rondanino, Christine; Bironneau, Amandine; Wils, Julien; Rives, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    The banking of testicular tissue before highly gonadotoxic treatment is a prerequisite for the preservation of fertility in pre-pubertal boys not yet producing sperm. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the impact of a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C on the ability of frozen-thawed mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to generate haploid germ cells after in vitro maturation. Testes of 6.5-day-old post-partum CD-1 mice were cryopreserved by using a controlled slow freezing protocol with soaking at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C. Frozen-thawed pre-pubertal testicular tissues were cultured in vitro on agarose gel for 30 days. Histological evaluations were performed and flagellated late spermatids were counted after mechanical dissection of the cultured tissues. The differentiation of frozen SSCs into elongated spermatids was more efficient after treatment at -9 °C than at -7 °C and -8 °C. After dissection, flagellated late spermatids were observed by using Shorr staining. The number of flagellated late spermatids was significantly decreased after slow freezing when compared with a fresh tissue control. Therefore, the soaking temperature during slow freezing of pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue might positively influence the course of in vitro spermatogenesis. Our slow freezing protocol with a soaking temperature at -9 °C was the optimal condition in terms of the achievement of in vitro spermatogenesis with a higher production of elongated spermatids, although the effectiveness of the maturation process was reduced compared with the fresh tissue control.

  18. Construction of a Bacterial Assay for Estrogen Detection Based on an Estrogen-Sensitive Intein ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Rubing; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain DIER was constructed for estrogen detection by inserting an estrogen-sensitive intein (VMAER intein) into the specific site of the constitutively expressed chromosomal lacZ gene. This VMAER intein was generated by replacing the endonuclease region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VMA intein with the estrogen binding region of the human estrogen receptor α (hERα). When there were estrogens or analogs, the splicing of the VMAER intein was induced to produce the mature Lac...

  19. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...... controls. Urinary orosomucoid was measured using a particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM) were measured using ELISA. Endothelial function measured as vasodilatory capacity...... of the brachial artery and echocardiography were done in all participants. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and increased UOER had subclinically increased serum orosomucoid (pprotein (CRP) (p

  20. [Nosocomial urinary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butreau-Lemaire, M; Botto, H

    1997-09-01

    The concept of nosocomial urinary tract infection now corresponds to a precise definition. It is generally related to bladder catheterization, constitutes the most frequent form of nosocomial infection (30 to 50% of infections), and represents the third most frequent portal of entry of bacteraemia. The organism most frequently isolated is Escherichia coli; but the flora is changing and the ecological distribution is continually modified. Despite their usually benign nature, these nosocomial infections can nevertheless influence hospital mortality; they increase the hospital stay by an average of 2.5 days and their treatment represents a large share of the antibiotic budget. Prevention of these infections is therefore essential, with particular emphasis on simple and universally accessible measures: very precise indications for vesical catheterization, use of closed circuit drainage, maximal asepsis when handling catheters, after washing the hands.

  1. Managing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  2. Estrogen May Influence Women's Depression Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167353.html Estrogen May Influence Women's Depression Risk Early menstruation, more frequent periods seem to ... reproductive years may have a lower risk of depression, a new study finds. Previous research has suggested ...

  3. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen sulfotransferas

  4. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen sulfotransferas

  5. Phenolics from Phaleria nisidai with Estrogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitalong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of P. nisidai leaves yielded a benzophenone rhamnoside , iriflophenone 2-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1 in addition to g enkwanin 5-O-β-D-primeveroside (2 and mangiferin (3. The isolated compounds as well as the derived aglycones of 1 and 2 assigned as compounds 4 and 5, respectively, were tested for their estrogenic activity on ERα using an estrogen receptor competitive binding screen. Compounds 1 , 4 and 5 showed almost the same binding ability to ERα with IC 50 of 630 µM, 700 µM and 800 µM, respectively. Virtual docking with ERα revealed that compound 1, 4 and 5 strongly hydrogen bond with amino acids Glu353, Arg349, Gly521 and His524, in the estrogen receptor ligand binding domain, similar to that of mammalian estrogen 17β-estradiol.

  6. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made by the body. Estrogen reduces feelings of warmth in the upper body and periods of sweating ... and the laboratory. You should have a complete physical exam, including blood pressure measurements, breast and pelvic ...

  7. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen

  8. Bioinformatics analysis of estrogen-responsive genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Adam E.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone that plays critical roles in a myriad of intracellular pathways. The expression of many genes is regulated through the steroid hormone receptors ESR1 and ESR2. These bind to DNA and modulate the expression of target genes. Identification of estrogen target genes is greatly facilitated by the use of transcriptomic methods, such as RNA-seq and expression microarrays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). Combining transcriptomic and ChIP-seq data enables a distinction to be drawn between direct and indirect estrogen target genes. This chapter will discuss some methods of identifying estrogen target genes that do not require any expertise in programming languages or complex bioinformatics. PMID:26585125

  9. Sexually dimorphic innate immunological responses of pre-pubertal Brahman cattle following an intravenous lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jeffery A; Burdick Sanchez, Nicole C; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Ballou, Michael A; Dailey, Jeffery W; Caldwell, Lisa C; Vann, Rhonda C; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D

    2015-08-15

    This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic immunological responses following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and five male (bulls) Brahman calves (average age=253 ± 19.9 and 288 ± 47.9 days; average body weight=194 ± 11 kg and 247 ± 19 kg for heifers and bulls, respectively) were challenged with LPS (0.25 μg LPS/kg body weight). Following administration of LPS, all cattle displayed increased sickness behavior beginning at 0.5h, with heifers on average displaying less sickness behavior than bulls. A febrile response was observed in all animals following LPS administration, with a maximum response observed from 4 to 5.5h. The average rectal temperature response was greater in heifers than bulls. In all cattle there were elevated serum concentrations of cortisol from 0.5 to 8h, TNF-α from 1 to 2.5h, IL-6 from 2 to 8h, and IFN-γ from 2.5 to 7h after LPS challenge. Additionally, serum concentrations of TNF-α were greater in heifers than bulls from 1.5 to 2h after the LPS challenge. Concentrations of IFN-γ were also greater on average in bulls than heifers. Leukopenia occurred from 1 to 8h, with a decreased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for the first 5h among all calves. These data demonstrate the existence of a sexually dimorphic acute-phase response in pre-pubertal Brahman calves. Specifically, heifers may have a more robust acute response to LPS challenge, even though bulls display more signs of sickness. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Sex-dependent consequences of pre-pubertal gonadectomy: Social behavior, stress and ethanol responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption can be enhanced or moderated by sensitivity to its aversive and appetitive properties, including positive social outcomes. These differences emerge post-pubertally, suggesting a potential role of gonadal hormones. To determine the role of gonadal hormones in sensitivity to the social impairing and social context-related attenuations in the aversive effects of ethanol, prepubertal male and female rats were gonadectomized (GX) or sham (SH) operated on postnatal day (P) 25, or left non-manipulated (NM). In adulthood (P70), rats were restrained for 90 min prior to challenge with 0.0 or 1.0 g/kg ethanol and social interaction (SI) testing. At P77, groups of 4 same-sex littermates from the same surgical condition were given access to a supersaccharin (SS) solution (3% sucrose, 0.125% saccharin), followed by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.0, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Intakes of SS were examined 24h later for expression of conditioned taste aversions. Acute stress prior to SI testing increased frequency of play fighting in both sexes, whereas there were no GX effects on this measure, social investigation nor contact. GX, however, decreased baseline social preference (a social anxiety-like effect) in males, while inducing anxiolytic-like increases in baseline social preference in females. The social drinking test revealed that females developed ethanol conditioned taste aversions at a lower dose relative to males, regardless of surgical condition. These findings suggest a potential role for gonadal hormones in moderating social-anxiety like behaviors but not sensitivity to the social impairing effects of ethanol or ethanol's aversive consequences in a social context.

  11. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gallai, Beatrice; Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years), and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years). The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI) skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC). No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725), gender (P = 0.886), z-body mass index (P = 0.149), or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient) (P = 0.163). The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M-ABC evaluation and in pathologic performance on VMI Total Task compared to controls (P VMI Visual Task (P = 0.793), and VMI Motor Task (P = 0.213). Our findings pinpointed that PMNE should not be considered as a voiding disorder alone and, consequently, the children affected should be referred to specific rehabilitative programs that aim to improve motor coordination and visuomotor integration.

  12. Effect of thoracic arthrodesis in prepubertal New Zealand white rabbits on cardio-pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Canavese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This experimental study was aimed at evaluating the type of cardiac and pulmonary involvement, in relation to changes of the thoracic spine and cage in prepubertal rabbits with nondeformed spine following dorsal arthrodesis. The hypothesis was that T1-T12 arthrodesis modified thoracic dimensions, but would not modify cardiopulmonary function once skeletal maturity was reached. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 16 female New Zealand White (NZW rabbits. Nine rabbits were subjected to T1-T12 dorsal arthrodesis while seven were sham-operated. Echocardiographic images were obtained at 12 months after surgery and parameters for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were assessed. One week before echocardiographic examination, blood samples were withdrawn from the animals′ central artery of the left ear to obtain blood gas values. One week after echocardiographic assessment, a thoracic CT scan was performed under general anesthesia. Chest depth (CD and width (CW, thoracic kyphosis (ThK and sternal length (StL were measured; thoracic index (ThI, expressed as CD/CW ratio. All subjects were euthanized after the CT scan. Heart and lungs were subsequently removed to measure weight and volume. Results: The values for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were found to be uniformly and significantly higher, compared to those reported in anesthetized rabbits. CD, ThK, and StL were considerably lower in operated rabbits, as compared to the ones that were sham-operated. Similarly, the ThI was lower in operated rabbits than in sham-operated ones. Conclusion: Irregularities in thoracic cage growth resulting from thoracic spine arthrodesis did not alter blood and echocardiographic parameters in NZW rabbits.

  13. Objective Identification of Prepubertal Female Singers and Non-singers by Singing Power Ratio Using Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M; Geetha, Y V; Darshan, Y S

    2017-03-01

    The field of music is increasingly gaining scope and attracting researchers from varied fields in terms of improvising the art of voice modulation in singing. There has been a lot of competition, and young budding singers are emerging with more talent. This study is aimed to develop software to differentiate a prepubertal voice as that of a singer or a non-singer using an objective tool-singing power ratio (SPR)-as an objective measure to quantify the resonant voice quality. Recordings of singing and phonation were obtained from 30 singers and 30 non-singer girls (8-10 years). Three professional singers perceptually evaluated all samples using a rating scale and categorized them as singers or non-singers. Using Matlab, a program was developed to automatically calculate the SPR of a particular sample and classify it into either of two groups based on the normative values of SPR developed manually. Positive correlation for SPR of phonation or singing was found between perceptual and manual ratings, and objective values of SPR. Software could automatically give the SPR values for samples that are fed and could further differentiate them as singer or non-singer. Researchers need not depend on professional singers or musicians for the judgment of voice for research purposes. This software uses an objective tool, which serves as an instrument to judge singing talent using singing and phonation samples of children. Also, it can be used as a first line of judgment in any singing audition process, which could ease the work of professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  14. Prepubertal chronic stress and ketamine administration to rats as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Edward; Raphaeli, Shani; Avital, Avi

    2013-11-01

    Increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, has been associated with higher levels of stress. In the early development of the central nervous system, changes in function of glutamatergic N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors can possibly result in the development of psychosis, cognitive impairment and emotional dysfunction in adulthood. Thus, in this study we examined the behavioural consequences of the exposure of male rats to chronic stress (postnatal days 30-60) and ketamine administration (postnatal days 41-45); both during a sensitive developmental time window. We found that the locomotor activity of both ketamine and ketamine+chronic stress groups was significantly higher compared with that of the control rats. In contrast, the locomotor activity of the chronic stress group was significantly lower compared with all other groups. Examining anhedonia in the sucrose preference test we found a significantly decreased sucrose intake in both ketamine+chronic stress and the chronic stress groups compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in sucrose intake between the control and the ketamine group. The object recognition test revealed that the attention to the novel object was significantly impaired in the ketamine+chronic stress group. Similarly, the ketamine+chronic stress group showed the poorest learning ability in the eight-arm radial maze, starting on the 8th day. Finally, throughout the different pre-pulse intensities, the ketamine+chronic stress group showed impaired PPI compared with all other groups. The results indicate that the combination of prepubertal onset of chronic stress and ketamine may serve as a valid novel animal model for schizophrenia-like symptoms.

  15. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity.

  16. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  17. The Val432Leu polymorphism of the CYP1B1 gene is associated with differences in estrogen metabolism and bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Nicola; Rini, Giovam Battista; Serber, Daniel; Giri, Tusar; Yarramaneni, Jayasree; Bucchieri, Salvatore; Camarda, Lawrence; Di Fede, Gaetana; Camarda, Marcello Rosolino; Jain, Sudahansu; Mumm, Steven; Armamento-Villareal, Reina

    2009-03-01

    Polymorphisms of the CYP450 genes that encode for the enzymes that metabolize estrogen are linked to hormone-related cancers. We investigated the impact of two polymorphisms of the CYP1B1 gene previously reported to be associated with hormone-related disorders on estrogen metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD), another hormone-dependent condition, in women from different ethnic backgrounds. Four hundred sixty-eight postmenopausal Caucasian women, 220 from St. Louis, MO, USA (mean age=63.5+/-0.53 years) and 248 from Palermo, Italy (mean age=72.9+/-0.44 years) participated in the study. Measurements of urinary estrogen metabolites by enzyme-linked immunoassay, serum estradiol by ultrasensitive radioimmnunoassay, and serum sex hormone-binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay were performed only in the American women, while BMD by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and genotyping by pyrosequencing were performed in both American and Italian women. Differences in the levels of metabolites, free estradiol index and BMD were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Analysis among the American participants for the Valine432Leucine polymorphism showed that, compared to women with the Val/Val genotype, women with the Leu allele (Val/Leu and Leu/Leu) had significantly higher log-transformed values of total urinary estrogen metabolite (ng/mg-creatinine) levels (1.23+/-0.04, 1.35+/-0.02, and 1.34+/-0.03; p=0.03), and significantly lower BMD (gm/cm(2)) in the lumbar spine (1.009+/-0.02, 0.955+/-0.01 and 0.931+/-0.02; p=0.03) and the femoral neck (0.748+/-0.02, 0.717+/-0.01 and 0.693+/-001, p=0.03) for the Val/Val, Val/Leu and Leu/Leu genotypes respectively. There were no significant differences in the urinary metabolites and BMD in the different genotypes for the Alanine119Serine polymorphism among the American women. Meanwhile, a separate analysis among the Italian women revealed no significant differences in BMD among the different genotypes for the two polymorphisms

  18. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    fat and low vegetables , in particular low in cruciferous , and obesity may increase estrogen metabolism towards 16a hydroxylation. This preferential...and Prostate Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paola C. Muti, M.D., M.S. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: State University of New York Amherst, New York...DATES COVERED October 1999 Annual (I Oct 98 - 30 Sep 99) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk DAMD17-98-l

  19. Tamoxifen in the rat prevents estrogen-deficiency bone loss elicited with the LHRH agonist buserelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, A; Gold, E; Feng, W

    1992-08-01

    In young women chronic use of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists such as buserelin to treat endometriosis leads to estrogen-deficiency bone loss. Tamoxifen citrate is an estrogen agonist/antagonist which protects the skeleton from osteopenia when ovarian hormones are depleted. The present study was undertaken to determine whether tamoxifen citrate (20 mg/kg body wt/week s.c.) could prevent the osteopenic effect of buserelin (25 micrograms/kg body wt/day s.c.). Four groups of rats with 45Ca-labelled bones were studied for 4 weeks: group A--placebo controls; group B--buserelin; Group C--tamoxifen; group D--buserelin+tamoxifen. Bone resorption was monitored by measuring the urinary excretion of 45Ca and hydroxyproline. Interestingly buserelin lowered both blood 17 beta-estradiol values and uterine weights in the presence and absence of tamoxifen. However, tamoxifen slowed bone breakdown and inhibited the bone-thinning effects of buserelin. Total body calcium values (mg; means +/- S.D.) were: 2227 +/- 137; 1926 +/- 124; 2233 +/- 94 and 2268 +/- 163, in groups A to D respectively. Osteopenia was thus present only in group B (P less than 0.001). Because tamoxifen inhibits estrogen-deficiency bone loss in buserelin-treated rats without depressing the hypoestrogenic actions of this LHRH-agonist, we suggest that use of tamoxifen to protect the skeleton during LHRH-agonist therapy in young women should be explored. Tamoxifen citrate might also help to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  20. Estrogen biosynthesis and action in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia eThalhammer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is still the deadliest of all gynecologic malignancies in women worldwide. This is attributed to two main features of these tumors, namely, i a diagnosis at an advanced tumor stage, and, ii the rapid onset of resistance to standard chemotherapy after an initial successful therapy with platin- and taxol-derivatives. Therefore, novel targets for an early diagnosis and better treatment options for these tumors are urgently needed. Epidemiological data show that induction and biology of ovarian cancer is related to life-time estrogen exposure. Also experimental data reveal that ovarian cancer cells share a number of estrogen regulated pathways with other hormone-dependent cancers, e.g. breast and endometrial cancer. However, ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease and the subtypes are quite different with respect to mutations, origins, behaviours, markers and prognosis and respond differently to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, a characterization of ovarian cancer subtypes may lead to better treatment options for the various subtypes and in particular for the most frequently observed high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. For this intention, further studies on estrogen-related pathways and estrogen formation in ovarian cancer cells are warranted. The review gives an overview on ovarian cancer subtypes and explains the role of estrogen in ovarian cancer. Furthermore, enzymes active to synthesize and metabolize estrogens are described and strategies to target these pathways are discussed.

  1. The molecular, cellular and clinical consequences of targeting the estrogen receptor following estrogen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping; Maximov, Philipp Y; Curpan, Ramona F; Abderrahman, Balkees; Jordan, V Craig

    2015-12-15

    During the past 20 years our understanding of the control of breast tumor development, growth and survival has changed dramatically. The once long forgotten application of high dose synthetic estrogen therapy as the first chemical therapy to treat any cancer has been resurrected, refined and reinvented as the new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis. High dose estrogen therapy was cast aside once tamoxifen, from its origins as a failed "morning after pill", was reinvented as the first targeted therapy to treat any cancer. The current understanding of the mechanism of estrogen-induced apoptosis is described as a consequence of acquired resistance to long term antihormone therapy in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. The ER signal transduction pathway remains a target for therapy in breast cancer despite "antiestrogen" resistance, but becomes a regulator of resistance. Multiple mechanisms of resistance come into play: Selective ER modulator (SERM) stimulated growth, growth factor/ER crosstalk, estrogen-induced apoptosis and mutations of ER. But it is with the science of estrogen-induced apoptosis that the next innovation in women's health will be developed. Recent evidence suggests that the glucocorticoid properties of medroxyprogesterone acetate blunt estrogen-induced apoptosis in estrogen deprived breast cancer cell populations. As a result breast cancer develops during long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A new synthetic progestin with estrogen-like properties, such as the 19 nortestosterone derivatives used in oral contraceptives, will continue to protect the uterus from unopposed estrogen stimulation but at the same time, reinforce apoptosis in vulnerable populations of nascent breast cancer cells.

  2. The Pediatric Urinary Tract and Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    The pediatric urinary tract often is assessed with medical imaging. Consequently, it is essential for medical imaging professionals to have a fundamental understanding of pediatric anatomy, physiology, and common pathology of the urinary tract to provide optimal patient care. This article provides an overview of fetal development, pediatric urinary anatomy and physiology, and common diseases and conditions of the pediatric urinary tract.

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids for Teens Kids Home How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Recipes & Cooking ... that leads from your bladder out of your body. Ahhh! That feels better. continue Urinary Tract Troubles ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ahhh! That feels better. continue Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  6. Candida Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John F. Fisher; Kevin Kavanagh; Jack D. Sobel; Carol A. Kauffman; Cheryl A. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system...

  7. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN ADULTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Uncomplicated UTI describes infection where the urinary tract is entirely nor- mal. ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers from urine in ..... which can lead to preterm labour, pre- maturity and ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, et al. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science. 2003; ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888- ...

  10. Effects of estrogens and estrogenic disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Patricia I S; Estêvão, Maria D; Power, Deborah M

    2014-08-15

    Estrogens play well-recognized roles in reproduction across vertebrates, but also intervene in a wide range of other physiological processes, including mineral homeostasis. Classical actions are triggered when estrogens bind and activate intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), regulating the transcription of responsive genes, but rapid non-genomic actions initiated by binding to plasma membrane receptors were recently described. A wide range of structurally diverse compounds from natural and anthropogenic sources have been shown to interact with and disrupt the normal functions of the estrogen system, and fish are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these compounds are frequently discharged or run-off into waterways. The effect of estrogen disruptors in fish has mainly been assessed in relation to reproductive endpoints, and relatively little attention has been given to other disruptive actions. This review will overview the actions of estrogens in fish, including ER isoforms, their expression, structure and mechanisms of action. The estrogen functions will be considered in relation to mineral homeostasis and actions on mineralized tissues. The impact of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues will be reviewed, and the potential adverse outcomes of exposure to such compounds will be discussed. Current lacunae in knowledge are highlighted along with future research priorities.

  11. Estrogenic effect of the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 on endogenous estrogen receptor alpha and beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrim, Cândida Z; Amado, Francisco L; Helguero, Luisa A

    2011-03-01

    Estrogens are key regulators in mammary development and breast cancer and their effects are mediated by estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ). These two receptors are ligand activated transcription factors that bind to regulatory regions in the DNA known as estrogen responsive elements (EREs). ERα and ERβ activation is subject to modulation by phosphorylation and p42/p44 MAP kinases are the best characterized ER modifying kinases. Using a reporter gene (3X-ERE-TATA-luciferase) to measure activation of endogenous ERs, we found that MEK1 inhibitor PD98059, used in concentrations insufficient to inhibit MEK1 activation of p42/p44 MAP kinases, exerted estrogenic effects on the reporter gene and on the ERE-regulated RIP 140 protein. Such estrogenic effects were observed in mammary epithelial HC11 cells and occur on unliganded ERα and ligand activated ERβ. Additionally, concentrations of PD98059 able to inhibit p42/p44 phosphorylation were not estrogenic. Further, inhibition of p42 MAP kinase expression with siRNAs also resulted in loss of PD98059 estrogenic effect. In summary, PD98059 in concentrations below the inhibitory for MEK1, exerts estrogenic effects in HC11 mammary epithelial cells.

  12. Effects of Estrogens and Estrogenic Disrupting Compounds on Fish Mineralized Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. S. Pinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens play well-recognized roles in reproduction across vertebrates, but also intervene in a wide range of other physiological processes, including mineral homeostasis. Classical actions are triggered when estrogens bind and activate intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs, regulating the transcription of responsive genes, but rapid non-genomic actions initiated by binding to plasma membrane receptors were recently described. A wide range of structurally diverse compounds from natural and anthropogenic sources have been shown to interact with and disrupt the normal functions of the estrogen system, and fish are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these compounds are frequently discharged or run-off into waterways. The effect of estrogen disruptors in fish has mainly been assessed in relation to reproductive endpoints, and relatively little attention has been given to other disruptive actions. This review will overview the actions of estrogens in fish, including ER isoforms, their expression, structure and mechanisms of action. The estrogen functions will be considered in relation to mineral homeostasis and actions on mineralized tissues. The impact of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues will be reviewed, and the potential adverse outcomes of exposure to such compounds will be discussed. Current lacunae in knowledge are highlighted along with future research priorities.

  13. Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators regulate gene and protein expression in the mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark-Kappeler, Connie J; Martin, Douglas S; Eyster, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen has both beneficial and detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) exhibit partial estrogen agonist/antagonist activity in estrogen target tissues. Gene targets of estrogen and SERMs in the vasculature are not well-known. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that estrogens (ethinyl estradiol, estradiol benzoate, and equilin) and SERMs (tamoxifen and raloxifene) cause differential gene and protein expression in the vasculature. DNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR were used to investigate gene expression in the mesenteric arteries of estrogen and SERM treated ovariectomized rats. The genes shown to be differentially expressed included stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), secreted frizzled related protein-4 (SFRP-4), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), phospholipase A2 group 1B (PLA2-G1B), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Western blot further confirmed the differential expression of sEH, SFRP-4, FAS, and SCD protein. These results reveal that estrogens and SERMs cause differential gene and protein expression in the mesenteric artery. Consequently, the use of these agents may be associated with a unique profile of functional and structural changes in the mesenteric arterial circulation.

  14. Lack of effect on sexual behaviour or the development of testicular function after removal of olfactory bulbs in prepubertal boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, W D; Baldwin, B A

    1980-01-01

    Bilateral olfactory bulb ablation was carried out surgically on 8 prepubertal Large White boars when they were 10-12 weeks of age. Between 26 weeks and slaughter at 47-49 weeks of age, androgen was determined in peripheral blood plasma of bulbectomized and unoperated control animals. The pigs were exposed to oestrous female pigs to observe mating behaviour, and to alien boars to observe aggressive behaviour. Saliva produced during behaviour tests was extracted with diethyl ether and levels of the pheromonal 16-androstene steroids in the extracts were determined by a colorimetric assay. After slaughter the testes, accessory organs and submaxillary glands were weighed, and pices of tissue together with olfactory epithelium were processed for light microscopy; fructose and zinc were determined in the seminal vesicles. The results showed that, contrary to findings in some rodents, prepubertal bilateral bulbectomy in the male pig had no significant effect on mating or aggressive behaviour, or testicular function in so far as complete spermatogenesis was present and normal levels of androgen and pheromone were maintained together with the integrity of the accessory organs. However, in keeping with findings in other species, the height of the olfactory epithelium was generally reduced in the bulbectomized pigs.

  15. Rib overgrowth may be a contributing factor for pectus excavatum: Evaluation of prepubertal patients younger than 10years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Hwan; Kim, Tae Hoon; Haam, Seok Jin; Lee, Sungsoo

    2015-11-01

    We compared the costal cartilage and rib length between prepubertal patients with symmetric pectus excavatum and age- and sex-matched controls without anterior chest wall depression to evaluate if rib overgrowth is a contributing factor for pectus excavatum The sample included 18 prepubertal patients ribs and costal cartilage were measured using three-dimensional volume-rendered computed tomography and curved multiplanar reformatting techniques. The rib and costal cartilage lengths, total combined rib and costal cartilage length, and costal index ([length of cartilage/length of rib]×100 [%]) at the fourth to sixth levels were compared between the groups. The rib lengths in the patient group were significantly longer than in the control group for the 6th right rib and 4th, 5th, and 6th left ribs. The costal cartilage lengths and costal indices were not different between two groups. In patients with symmetric pectus excavatum aged ribs were longer than those of controls, suggesting that abnormal rib overgrowth may be a contributing factor responsible for pectus excavatum rather than cartilage overgrowth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Active immunization against GnRH in ovine (Ovis aries: testicular morphometry, histopathology and endocrine responses in prepubertal ram lambs

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    Gutierrez-Reinoso MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research was to assess the effects of an active immunization against GnRH on male reproductive function as an alternative to surgical sterilization evaluating testicular morphometry, histopathological alterations and plasma gonadotropin levels in prepubertal ram lambs. Dorper ram lambs (age= 2 months; control group, n= 5; treatment group, n=15 were immunised by using an anti-GnRH vaccine (two administrations spaced 15d developed by linking a GnRH homologous molecule to tetanus toxoid (clostridial toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as coadjuvant. To determine the effectiveness of the vaccination protocol, testicular morphometry was evaluated (length, width, mean volume and total volume together with histopathological alterations in testicular tissue samples (seminiferous tubule diameters, spermatogonia per testis and sperm presence and endocrine responses (ELISA from blood samples (FSH, LH, testosterone and cortisol plasma levels. Morphometric parameters (testicular length, width and volume were significantly reduced in vaccinated animals with respect to the control group (p0.05. In conclusion, prepubertal active immunization against GnRH led to marked differences on testes morphometry and activity in ovine species, however, it did not affect endocrine levels nor spermatogenesis in all individuals studied showing a partial vaccination effect in some of them. Thus, taking into account the heterogeneous dysfunctional responses obtained, different vaccination assays and strategies should be tested before active immunization against GnRH is considered as a viable alternative to conventional surgical sterilization.

  17. Management of developing skeletal class III malocclusion in a prepubertal girl with prognathic mandible in late mixed dentition

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    Satinder Pal Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of skeletal Class III patients at younger age is highly unpredictable. The patient may respond well to the treatment or may show excessive mandibular growth during growth spurt which may require orthognathic surgery later on. If not treated at earlier stages of life, the condition may worsen with time. This case report will present the comprehensive orthodontic management of a 9-year-old prepubertal girl in late mixed dentition with prognathic mandible. Chin cup therapy was started and continued for 3 years. After chin cup therapy, maxillary and mandibular dentition were bonded with standard edgewise appliance. After leveling and alignment, Class III elastics were started. Fixed orthodontic treatment was completed in 3 years. At the end, good Class I molar and canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite were achieved. The total treatment time of orthopedic and orthodontic correction was 6 years, 2 months. The patient revealed the same Class I molar and canine relationship after 6 years of treatment. Redirection of mandibular growth pattern from hyperdivergent to normodivergent advocates the use of chin cup as a viable treatment regimen for the management of prognathic mandible in prepubertal patients.

  18. The estrogen receptor of the gastropod Nucella lapillus: Modulation following exposure to an estrogenic effluent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, L. Filipe C. [CIIMAR, Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Studies, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: filipe.castro@ciimar.up.pt; Melo, C. [CIIMAR, Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Studies, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Guillot, R.; Mendes, I.; Queiros, S.; Lima, D. [CIIMAR, Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Reis-Henriques, M.A. [CIIMAR, Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS, Instituto Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Largo Professor Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Santos, M.M. [CIIMAR, Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: santos@ciimar.up.pt

    2007-10-30

    The molecular targets of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals have been studied in detail in vertebrates. The lack of basic endocrine knowledge impairs similar approaches for invertebrates. Evidence indicates that the signalling pathways of invertebrates may also be a target of estrogenic chemicals (ECs). In fact, the exposure to effluents containing ECs has been reported to impact mollusc reproduction. Despite the reported estrogen independence of the mollusc nuclear estrogen receptor (ER), its role in EC-induced toxicity has not been investigated in vivo. Therefore, we have cloned the ER of the gastropod Nucella lapillus and evaluated the effects of a mixture of estrogenic chemicals (sewage effluent) on its expression in the ovary. Here, we show that the exposure to a raw domestic/industrial effluent, impact ER expression with a simultaneous reproductive maturation. These results highlight the need to further investigate the role of ER on the reproductive process in prosobranch gastropods and whether this signalling pathway is prone to disruption by ECs.

  19. Urethral dysfunction in female mice with estrogen receptor β deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hsiang Chen

    Full Text Available Estrogen has various regulatory functions in the growth, development, and differentiation of the female urogenital system. This study investigated the roles of ERβ in stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Wild-type (ERβ(+/+ and knockout (ERβ(-/- female mice were generated (aged 6-8 weeks, n = 6 and urethral function and protein expression were measured. Leak point pressures (LPP and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP were assessed in mice under urethane anesthesia. After the measurements, the urethras were removed for proteomic analysis using label-free quantitative proteomics by nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. The interaction between these proteins was further analysed using MetaCore. Lastly, Western blot was used to confirm the candidate proteins. Compared with the ERβ(+/+ group, the LPP and MUCP values of the ERβ(-/- group were significantly decreased. Additionally, we identified 85 differentially expressed proteins in the urethra of ERβ(-/- female mice; 57 proteins were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated. The majority of the ERβ knockout-modified proteins were involved in cell-matrix adhesion, metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, nuclear receptor translational regelation, and muscle contraction and development. Western blot confirmed the up-regulation of myosin and collagen in urethra. By contrast, elastin was down-regulated in the ERβ(-/- mice. This study is the first study to estimate protein expression changes in urethras from ERβ(-/- female mice. These changes could be related to the molecular mechanism of ERβ in SUI.

  20. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  1. Effect of vaginal estrogen on pessary use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Sybil G.; Armstrong, Katherine; Modest, Anna M.; Hacker, Michele R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Many providers recommend concurrent estrogen therapy with pessary use to limit complications; however, limited data exist to support this practice. We hypothesized that vaginal estrogen supplementation decreases incidence of pessary-related complications and discontinuation. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent a pessary fitting from 1 January 2007 through 1 September 2013 at one institution; participants were identified by billing code and were eligible if they were post-menopausal and had at least 3 months of pessary use and 6 months of follow-up. All tests were two sided, and P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Data from 199 women were included; 134 used vaginal estrogen and 65 did not. Women who used vaginal estrogen had a longer median follow-up time (29.5 months) compared with women who did not (15.4 months) and were more likely to have at least one pessary check (98.5 % vs 86.2 %, P < 0.001). Those in the estrogen group were less likely to discontinue using their pessary (30.6 % vs 58.5 %, P < 0.001) and less likely to develop increased vaginal discharge than women who did not [hazard ratio (HR) 0.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.17–0.58]. Vaginal estrogen was not protective against erosions (HR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.54–1.6) or vaginal bleeding (HR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.36–1.7). Conclusions Women who used vaginal estrogen exhibited a higher incidence of continued pessary use and lower incidence of increased vaginal discharge than women who did not. PMID:26992727

  2. Estrogenic compounds, estrogen receptors and vascular cell signaling in the aging blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Dia A; Khalil, Raouf A

    2009-01-01

    The cardiovascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) remain controversial. The earlier clinical observations that cardiovascular disease (CVD) was less common in MHT users compared to non-users suggested cardiovascular benefits of MHT. Also, experimental studies have identified estrogen receptors ERalpha, ERbeta and GPR30, which mediate genomic or non-genomic effects in vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, and extracellular matrix (ECM). However, data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs), most notably the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, have challenged the cardiovascular benefits and highlighted adverse cardiovascular events with MHT. The discrepancies have been attributed to the design of RCTs, the subjects' advanced age and preexisting CVD, and the form of estrogen used. The discrepancies may also stem from age-related changes in vascular ER amount, distribution, integrity, and post-receptor signaling pathways as well as structural changes in the vasculature. Age-related changes in other sex hormones such as testosterone may also alter the hormonal environment and influence the cardiovascular effects of estrogen. Investigating the chemical properties, structure-activity relationship and pharmacology of natural and synthetic estrogens should improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT. Further characterization of phytoestrogens, selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and specific ER agonists may provide substitutes to conventional MHT. Conditions with excess or low estrogen levels such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Turner syndrome may provide insight into the development and regulation of ER and the mechanisms of aberrant estrogen-ER interactions. The lessons learned from previous RCTs have led to more directed studies such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Careful design of experimental models and RCTs, coupled with the development of specific ER modulators, hold the promise of improving the actions of

  3. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring.

  4. The role of estrogens at men. Part 1. General and developmental endocrinology, physiology and pathophysiology of estrogens at men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens (female sex hormones are important sex hormones for women and men, although traditionally the problems associated with impaired synthesis and metabolism of estrogens are considered, especially in relation to the female population. However, presented an overview allows for a different look at the role and significance of estrogens for men. In the first part of the literature review highlights issues of general endocrinology and age of estrogens and the results of clinical and experimental studies, reflecting the physiological functionsof estrogens and pathophysiologic consequences of violations of the synthesis and metabolism of estrogens in male organism.

  5. Stress induced alterations in pre-pubertal ovarian follicular development in rat

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    Yajurvedi H.N.

    2011-12-01

    receptor antagonist prevents pre-pubertal ovarian stress response.

  6. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Giuseppina Patriciello,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy Background: Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. Methods: The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years, and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years. The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC. Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725, gender (P = 0.886, z-body mass index (P = 0.149, or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient (P = 0.163. The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M

  7. The Sertoli cell hormones inhibin-B and anti Müllerian hormone have different patterns of secretion in prepubertal cryptorchid boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Hutson, John M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESES: The Sertoli-cells produce inhibin-B and Anti-Müllerian-Hormone (AMH). Much is still unknown about these hormones in prepubertal cryptorchids. The Sertoli-cells are mandatory for germ cell development. The aim of the study was to investigate if there are differences in s...

  8. UPF2, a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factor, is required for prepubertal Sertoli cell development and male fertility by ensuring fidelity of the transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jianqiang; Tang, Chong; Yuan, Shuiqiao

    2015-01-01

    SCs and germ cells during prepubertal testicular development. RNA-Seq and bioinformatic analyses revealed impaired transcriptomic homeostasis in SC-specific Upf2 knockout testes, characterized by an accumulation of PTC-containing transcripts and the transcriptome-wide dysregulation of genes encoding...

  9. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  10. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  11. Diagnosis, treatment and registration of urinary tract infections in geriatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Lüneborg-Nielsen, Margrethe

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriuria (> or = 10(5) CFU/ml) is a very common phenomenon in elderly people, occurring twice as frequently in women than in men. There are symptomatic and asymptomatic types of bacteriuria. Risk factors include: a decrease in the estrogen level in women after the menopause, catheterisation......, urinary bladder dysfunction, hypertrophy of the prostate gland, diabetes, neurological illnesses. The diagnosis of bacteriuria is based on quantitative urine culture (positive result--> or = 10(5) CFU/ml bacteriae). The most frequent pathogens are: E. coli, enterococci, staphylococci, Pseudomonas...

  12. Bioassays for estrogenic activity: development and validation of estrogen receptor (ERalpha/ERbeta) and breast cancer proliferation bioassays to measure serum estrogenic activity in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Lee, L; Gong, Y; Shen, P; Wong, S P; Wise, Stephen D; Yong, E L

    2009-02-01

    Standard estrogenic prodrugs such as estradiol valerate (E2V) and increasingly popular phytoestrogen formulations are commonly prescribed to improve menopausal health. These drugs are metabolized to numerous bioactive compounds, known or unknown, which may exert combinatorial estrogenic effects in vivo. The aim of this study is to develop and validate estrogen receptor (ER) alpha/ERbeta reporter gene and MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation bioassays to quantify serum estrogenic activities in a clinical trial setting. We measured changes in serum estrogenicity following ingestion of E2V and compared this to mass spectrometric measurements of its bioactive metabolites, estrone and 17beta-stradiol. ERalpha bioactivity of the 192 serum samples correlated well (R = 79%) with 17beta-estradiol levels, and adding estrone improved R to 0.83 (likelihood ratio test, P estrogenic activity and that these assays suggest that the Epimedium formulation tested is unlikely to exert significant estrogenic effects in humans.

  13. Estrogenicity of glabridin in Ishikawa cells.

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    Melissa Su Wei Poh

    Full Text Available Glabridin is an isoflavan from licorice root, which is a common component of herbal remedies used for treatment of menopausal symptoms. Past studies have shown that glabridin resulted in favorable outcome similar to 17β-estradiol (17β-E2, suggesting a possible role as an estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. This study aims to evaluate the estrogenic effect of glabridin in an in-vitro endometrial cell line -Ishikawa cells via alkaline phosphatase (ALP assay and ER-α-SRC-1-co-activator assay. Its effect on cell proliferation was also evaluated using Thiazoyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The results showed that glabridin activated the ER-α-SRC-1-co-activator complex and displayed a dose-dependent increase in estrogenic activity supporting its use as an ERT. However, glabridin also induced an increase in cell proliferation. When glabridin was treated together with 17β-E2, synergistic estrogenic effect was observed with a slight decrease in cell proliferation as compared to treatment by 17β-E2 alone. This suggest that the combination might be better suited for providing high estrogenic effects with lower incidences of endometrial cancer that is associated with 17β-E2.

  14. La incontinencia urinaria Urinary incontinence

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    J. E. Robles

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La incontinencia urinaria, entendida como cualquier pérdida involuntaria de orina, constituye un problema médico y social importante. Puede clasificarse en incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo, incontinencia urinaria de urgencia e incontinencia urinaria mixta, principalmente. Las proporciones de estos tres tipos principales de incontinencia urinaria son difíciles de establecer y varían notablemente según las fuentes, pero, podrían estar en torno a 40, 33 y 20%, respectivamente. Su diagnóstico requiere una correcta historia clínica y exploración física, junto con algunas exploraciones complementarias. El primer escalón terapéutico lo constituyen las medidas higiénico-dietéticas y las técnicas de modificación de la conducta. El tratamiento farmacológico es específico para cada tipo de incontinencia urinaria, utilizándose anticolinérgicos e inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina. Por último, las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas tienen su papel ante el fracaso de los tratamientos conservadores o frente a incontinencia urinaria severa.Urinary incontinence, understood as any involuntary loss of urine, constitutes an important medical and social problem. It can be classified as stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. The proportions of these three types of urinary incontinence are difficult to establish and vary notably between sources, but they might be about 40, 33 and 20% respectively. Its diagnosis requires a correct clinical history and physical exploration, together with some complementary explorations. The first therapeutic step consists of hygienic-dietary measures and behaviour modification techniques. Pharmacological treatment is specific for each type of urinary incontinence, using anticholinergics and inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Finally, different surgical techniques have a role in cases where conservative treatments fail or when dealing with severe urinary

  15. Effect of estrogen on iron metabolism in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Xu, Man-Man; Wang, Jun; Xie, Jun-Xia

    2016-10-25

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone produced mainly by the ovaries. It combines with the nuclear receptors to exert the biological effects influencing the metabolism of body. Elevated levels of estrogen are often associated with altered iron levels in mammals. Furthermore, the findings of estrogen response element (ERE) have demonstrated that estrogen affects iron metabolism directly in peripheral tissues. In this review, we will briefly summarize the effect of estrogen on iron metabolism in mammals, and discuss recent progress in the mechanisms of estrogen on some iron related proteins in order to provide guidance for clinical use of estrogen. Estrogen and iron metabolism are closely related, but the exact regulatory mechanisms still need further exploration.

  16. Relationship between body mass index and adiposity in prepubertal children: ethnic and geographic comparisons between New York City and Jinan City (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navder, Khursheed P.; He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Thornton, John; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is often used as a surrogate estimate of percent body fat in epidemiological studies. This study tested the hypothesis that BMI is representative of body fatness independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and geographic location in prepubertal children. The study sample included a total of 605 prepubertal children (275 girls and 330 boys) of which 247 were Chinese from Jinan, Shandong, Mainland China, and 358 children were from various ethnic backgrounds in New York City (NYC): 121 Caucasians, 94 African Americans, and 143 Asians (Chinese and Korean). In this cross-sectional study, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify total body fat (TBF) and percent body fat (PBF). Prepubertal status was assessed by the criteria of Tanner. Multiple regression models were developed with TBF and PBF as the dependent variables and BMI, age, sex, and ethnicity as independent variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI alone explained 85% and 69% of between-subject variance for TBF and PBF, respectively. Sex was a significant contributor to the models (P < 0.001) with girls having higher TBF and PBF than boys. Ethnicity and geographic location were significant contributors to the model (P < 0.0001) with Asians (Jinan and NYC Asians) having higher PBF than all non-Asian groups (P < 0.0001), and Jinan Asians having higher TBF and PBF than NYC-Asians. Among prepubertal children, for the same BMI, Asians have significantly higher PBF compared with African Americans and Caucasians. Caution is warranted when applying BMI across sex and ethnic prepubertal groups. PMID:19541740

  17. Survey of estrogenic activity in fish feed by yeast estrogen-screen assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeru; Kobayashi, Makito; Moriwaki, Toshihisa; Kawai, Shin'ichiro; Watabe, Shugo

    2004-10-01

    Fishes have been used as laboratory animal for research of estrogenic endocrine disrupters by many researchers. However, much less attention was paid to the possibility that compounds with estrogenic activity are present in fish diets. In order to examine this possibility, we measured the estrogenic activity in commercial fish feed by in vitro yeast estrogen-screen (YES) assay based on the binding ability of tested compounds to estrogen receptors. Estrogenic activity was detected in all the commercial fish feed examined (0.2-6.2 ng estradiol equivalent/g fish feed), some phytoestrogens (genistein, formononetin, equol and coumestrol; relative activity to estradiol, 8.6 x 10(-6)-1.1 x 10(-4) by giving a value of 1.0 to estradiol) and some androgens (testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone; relative activity to estradiol, 3.0 x 10(-6)-1.2 x 10(-4)). Therefore, it is possible that these compounds could affect the results of in vivo estrogen assay, such as vitellogenin production in male fish, especially when fish are fed commercial feed.

  18. Novel Promising Estrogenic Receptor Modulators: Cytotoxic and Estrogenic Activity of Benzanilides and Dithiobenzanilides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinska, Malgorzata; Giron, Maria-Dolores; Piotrowska, Hanna; Lisiak, Natalia; Granig, Walter H; Lopez-Jaramillo, Francisco-Javier; Salto, Rafael; Murias, Marek; Erker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of 27 benzanilides and dithiobenzanilides built on a stilbene scaffold and possessing various functional groups in aromatic rings previously described for their spasmolytic properties was assayed on three human cancer cell lines (A549 -lung adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 estrogen dependent breast adenocarcinoma and MDA-MB-231 estrogen independent breast adenocarcinoma) and 2 non-tumorigenic cell lines (CCD39Lu-lung fibroblasts, MCF-12A - breast epithelial). Three compounds (6, 15 and 18) showed selective antiproliferative activity against estrogen dependent MCF-7 cancer cells and their estrogenic activity was further confirmed in MCF-7 transfected with an estrogen receptor reporter plasmid and in HEK239 cells over-expressing the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Compound 18 is especially interesting as a potential candidate for therapy since it is highly toxic and selective towards estrogen dependent MCF7 cell lines (IC50 = 5.07 μM versus more than 100 μM for MDA-MB-231) and almost innocuous for normal breast cells (IC50 = 91.46 μM for MCF-12A). Docking studies have shown that compound 18 interacts with the receptor in the same cavity as estradiol although the extra aromatic ring is involved in additional binding interactions with residue W383. The role of W383 and the extended binding mode were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis.

  19. Functional associations between two estrogen receptors, environmental estrogens, and sexual disruption in the roach (Rutilus rutilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Lange, Anke; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Rie; Paull, Gregory C; Cahill, Laura L; Jobling, Susan; Tyler, Charles R; Iguchi, Taisen

    2007-05-01

    Wild male roach (Rutilus rutilus) living in U.K. rivers contaminated with estrogenic effluents from wastewater treatment works show feminized responses and have a reduced reproductive capability, but the chemical causation of sexual disruption in the roach has not been established. Feminized responses were induced in male roach exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, EE2 (up to 4 ng/ L), during early life (from fertilization to 84 days posthatch, dph), and these effects were signaled by altered patterns of expression of two cloned roach estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha. and ERbeta, in the brain and gonad/ liver. Transactivation assays were developed for both roach ER subtypes and the estrogenic potencies of steroidal estrogens differed markedly at the different ER subtypes. EE2 was by far the most potent chemical, and estrone (E1, the most prevalent environmental steroid in wastewater discharges) was equipotent with estradiol (E2) in activating the ERs. Comparison of the EC50 values for the compounds tested showed that ERbeta was 3-21-fold more sensitive to natural steroidal estrogens and 54-fold more sensitive to EE2 as compared to ERalpha. These findings add substantial support to the hypothesis that steroidal estrogens play a significant role in the induction of intersex in roach populations in U.K. rivers and that the molecular approach described could be usefully applied to understand interspecies sensitivity to xenoestrogens.

  20. Determination of estrogens and estrogenic activities in water from three rivers in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaifeng Rao; Bingli Lei; Na Li; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies on estrogenic disrupting compounds (EDCs) occurrence and identification of main responsible compounds in river water discharged into the sea are of significance.In the present research,we screened estrogenic activities of 10 river water samples from 3 main rivers discharged into Bohai Sea in Tianjin using a recombinant two-hybrid yeast assay and chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.All sample extracts induced significant estrogenic activity,with 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ)of raw water ranging from 5.72 to 59.06 ng/L.Six most concerned EDCs in the river water samples including estrone,17β-estradiol,17α-ethinylestradiol,estriol,diethylstilbestrol and estradiol valerate were determined,with their concentrations up to 50.70,31.40,24.40,37.20,2.56,and 8.47 ng/L,respectively.Through causality analysis by comparing the EEQ values of yeast assay and chemical analysis,17α-ethinylestradiol and 17ββ-estradiol were identified as the main contributors to the estrogenic effects of the river samples,accounting for the whole estrogenic activities (62.99% to 185.66%),and estrogen antagonistic compounds might presented in the heavy polluted water samples.The proposed approach using both chemical analysis and bioassay could be used for identification and evaluation of the estrogenic activity of EDCs in river water.

  1. Transient ovarian testosterone and androstenedione hypersecretion: a cause of virilization or premature pubarche in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muritano, M; Zachmann, M; Manella, B; Briner, J; Prader, A

    1987-01-01

    In 2 girls with signs of androgen overproduction, the usual causes were excluded. Patient 1 (3.6 years) presented with hypertrophy of the clitoris, patient 2 (7.8 years) with pubic and axillary hair. Urinary steroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and estradiol were normal, but testosterone and androstenedione elevated in both cases. Echography showed polycystic ovaries. Testosterone and androstenedione returned to normal after laparotomy and removal of ovarian cysts in patient 1, and spontaneously in patient 2, in whom puberty started later appropriately for bone age.

  2. [URINARY DISCOMFORTS IN PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V

    2015-01-01

    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment.

  3. Estrogen receptors and function in the male reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Lazari, Maria de Fatima Magalhaes [UNIFESP; Lucas, Thais Fabiana Gameiro [UNIFESP; Yasuhara, Fabiana [UNIFESP; Gomes, Gisele Renata de Oliveira [UNIFESP; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Royer, Carine [UNIFESP; Fernandes, Sheilla Alessandra Ferreira [UNIFESP; Porto, Catarina Segreti [UNIFESP

    2009-01-01

    A substantial advance in our understanding on the estrogen signaling occurred in the last decade. Estrogens interact with two receptors, ESR1 and ESR2, also known as ERα and ERβ, respectively. ESR1 and ESR2 belong to the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. In addition to the well established transcriptional effects, estrogens can mediate rapid signaling, triggered within seconds or minutes. These rapid effects can be mediated by ESRs or the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GP...

  4. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of 23 commercial textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Ingrid; Ibn Hadj Hassine, Aziza; Haj Hamouda, Yosra; Mnif, Wissem; Bartegi, Ahgleb; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel; De Waard, Michel; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    The presence of dyes in wastewater effluent of textile industry is well documented. In contrast, the endocrine disrupting effects of these dyes and wastewater effluent have been poorly investigated. Herein, we studied twenty-three commercial dyes, usually used in the textile industry, and extracts of blue jean textile wastewater samples were evaluated for their agonistic and antagonistic estrogen activity. Total estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities were measured using the Yeast Estrogen Screen bioassay (YES) that evaluates estrogen receptor binding-dependent transcriptional and translational activities. The estrogenic potencies of the dyes and wastewater samples were evaluated by dose-response curves and compared to the dose-response curve of 17β-estradiol (E2), the reference compound. The dose-dependent anti-estrogenic activities of the dyes and wastewater samples were normalized to the known antagonistic effect of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) on the induction of the lac Z reporter gene by E2. About half azo textile dyes have anti-estrogenic activity with the most active being Blue HFRL. Most azo dyes however have no or weak estrogenic activity. E2/dye or E2/waste water ER competitive binding assays show activity of Blue HFRL, benzopurpurine 4B, Everzol Navy Blue FBN, direct red 89 BNL 200% and waste water samples indicating a mechanism of action common to E2. Our results indicate that several textile dyes are potential endocrine disrupting agents. The presence of some of these dyes in textile industry wastewater may thus impact the aquatic ecosystem.

  5. Phytoestrogens: Plant-derived Estrogenic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Konar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is a hormone, which is produced in ovary and testis; however, it has many biological effects besides the reproductive system. Phytoestrogens are the compounds, which have estrogen-like structure and activities, taking place in structure of various edible plants at different levels and in different compositions. These compounds attracted notice after the first quarter of 20th century upon they had been associated with infertility seen in some of animals fed with alfalfa, and these compounds have been identified in human-derived biological samples and its effects on health have been taken under study in the recent 30 years. These materials have especially antioxidant role in plants while they have activities in animals and humans as estrogen agonist and antagonists. Based on their chemical structure, they may be gathered under especially isoflavon and lignan groups while some of members of coumestan and stilbene groups are also identified as phytoestrogenic compound.

  6. Estrogen inhibits Dlk1/FA1 production: A potential mechanism for estrogen effects on bone turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Srinivasan, Bhuma;

    2011-01-01

    We have recently identified delta-like 1/fetal antigen 1 (Dlk1/FA1) as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to mediate bone loss under estrogen deficiency in mice. In this report, we investigated the effects of estrogen (E) deficiency and E replacement on serum (s) levels of Dlk1/FA1 (s...... estrogen-replacement therapy (ERT, n = 166). s-Dlk1/FA1 and s-CTX were elevated in postmenopausal E-deficient women compared with premenopausal E-replete women (both p ...

  7. Effect of estrogenic compounds (estrogen or phytoestrogens) combined with exercise on bone and muscle mass in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M

    2008-02-01

    Exercise has a beneficial effect on bone, possibly by stimulating estrogen receptor alpha. Because estrogen up-regulates this receptor, estrogen therapy combined with exercise training may be optimal for increasing bone mineral density. Studies combining estrogen therapy and exercise training in postmenopausal women show mixed results, but indicate that the combination of interventions may be more effective for increasing bone mass than either intervention alone. Plant-like estrogens (i.e phytoestrogens such as soy isoflavones) may act as weak estrogen agonists or antagonists, have small beneficial effects on bone, and may interact with exercise for increasing bone mineral density. Phytoestrogen derived from flaxseed (flax lignans) has not been evaluated as extensively as soy isoflavones and thus its effect on bone is difficult to determine. Estrogen or soy isoflavones given to postmenopausal women results in a small increase in lean tissue mass that may be mediated through estrogen receptor alpha on muscle or through decreased inflammation.

  8. Inflammatory adipokines, high molecular weight adiponectin, and insulin resistance: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Murdolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR measures in prepubertal childhood. METHODOLOGY: We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr, included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46, 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28 and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70. Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW-, increased progressively (p<0.0001 from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001 HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05 IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1 than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively, leptin or inflammatory markers (positively correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R(2 0.378; p<0.01. Adjustment for age, BMI(z-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R(2 0.513; p<0.01. Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were

  9. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. The immunologic effects of estrogen on psoriasis: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Danesh, B.S.

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Increased estrogen production in pregnancy is associated with decreased Th1 and Th17 cytokine production. While estrogen may be responsible for some of these immune shifts resulting in disease improvement, there remains no definitive evidence to prove the hypothesis that estrogen is responsible for such improvement.

  11. Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphisms and postmenopausal breast cancer risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladd, AM Gonzalez-Zuloet; Vasquez, A.A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Siemes, C.; Hofman, A.; Stricker, B.H.; Pols, H.A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) is a mediator of estrogen response in the breast. The most studied variants in this gene are the PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms, which have been associated to lower sensitivity to estrogen. We evaluated whether these polymorphisms were associated with bre

  12. Estrogen receptor α polymorphisms and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. González-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela); A.A. Vásquez (Arias); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); C. Siemes (Claire); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) is a mediator of estrogen response in the breast. The most studied variants in this gene are the PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms, which have been associated to lower sensitivity to estrogen. We evaluated whether these polymorphisms were associa

  13. Estrogen Abolishes Latent Inhibition in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrey, Barbara S.; Ben-Shahar, Osnat M.; Brake, Wayne G.

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen is frequently prescribed as a method of birth control and as hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women with varied effects on cognition. Here the effects of estrogen on attention were examined using the latent inhibition (LI) behavioral paradigm. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were given either estrogen benzoate (EB, 10 or…

  14. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  15. CERAPP: Collaborative estrogen receptor activity prediction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER......). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. oBjectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project...

  16. Estrogen and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Sayeh; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross L; Kato, Ikuko; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Johnson, Karen C; Young, Alicia; Rodabough, Rebecca; Hubbell, F Allan; Mahinbakht, Ali; Simon, Michael S

    2015-09-15

    The preponderance of observational studies describe an association between the use of estrogen alone and a lower incidence of colorectal cancer. In contrast, no difference in the incidence of colorectal cancer was seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized, placebo-controlled trial with estrogen alone after a mean intervention of 7.1 years and cumulative follow-up of 13.2 years. This study extends these findings by providing detailed analyses of the effects of estrogen alone on the histology, grade, and stage of colorectal cancer, relevant subgroups, and deaths from and after colorectal cancer. The WHI study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. Participants were assigned to conjugated equine estrogen at 0.625 mg/d (n = 5279) or a matching placebo (n = 5409). Rates of colorectal cancer diagnoses and deaths from and after colorectal cancer were assessed throughout the study. Colorectal cancer rates in the estrogen-alone and placebo groups were comparable: 0.14% and 0.12% per year, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.58; P = .43). Bowel screening examinations were comparable between the 2 groups throughout the study. The grade, stage, and location of colorectal cancer did not differ between the randomization groups. There were more colorectal cancer deaths in the estrogen-alone group (34 [0.05%] vs 24 [0.03%]; HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.86-2.46; P = .16), but the difference was not statistically significant. The colorectal cancer incidence was higher for participants with a history of colon polyp removal in the estrogen-alone group (0.23% vs 0.02%; HR, 13.47; nominal 95% CI, 1.76-103.0; P colorectal cancer or deaths from or after colorectal cancer. A possibly higher risk of colorectal cancer in women with prior colon polyp removal who use estrogen alone requires confirmation. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. Dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on estrogen among women at high risk for breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; Williams, Nancy I; Kontos, Despina; Domchek, Susan; Morales, Knashawn H; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Grant, Lorita L; DiGiovanni, Laura; Salvatore, Domenick; Fenderson, Desire'; Schnall, Mitchell; Galantino, Mary Lou; Stopfer, Jill; Kurzer, Mindy S; Wu, Shandong; Adelman, Jessica; Brown, Justin C; Good, Jerene

    2015-11-01

    Medical and surgical interventions for elevated breast cancer risk (e.g., BRCA1/2 mutation, family history) focus on reducing estrogen exposure. Women at elevated risk may be interested in less aggressive approaches to risk reduction. For example, exercise might reduce estrogen, yet has fewer serious side effects and less negative impact than surgery or hormonal medications. Randomized controlled trial. Increased risk defined by risk prediction models or BRCA mutation status. Eligibility: Age 18-50, eumenorrheic, non-smokers, and body mass index (BMI) between 21 and 50 kg/m(2). 139 were randomized. Treadmill exercise: 150 or 300 min/week, five menstrual cycles. Control group maintained exercise estrogen. Secondary measures: urinary progesterone, quantitative digitized breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging background parenchymal enhancement. Mean age 34 years, mean BMI 26.8 kg/m(2). A linear dose-response relationship was observed such that every 100 min of exercise is associated with 3.6 % lower follicular phase estrogen AUC (linear trend test, p = 0.03). No changes in luteal phase estrogen or progesterone levels. There was also a dose-response effect noted: for every 100 min of exercise, there was a 9.7 % decrease in background parenchymal enhancement as measured by imaging (linear trend test, p = 0.009). Linear dose-response effect observed to reduce follicular phase estrogen exposure measured via urine and hormone sensitive breast tissue as measured by imaging. Future research should explore maintenance of effects and extent to which findings are repeatable in lower risk women. Given the high benefit to risk ratio, clinicians can inform young women at increased risk that exercise may blunt estrogen exposure while considering whether to try other preventive therapies.

  18. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    12.1 Kidney function2007244 Short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. JIANG suhua(蒋素华), et al. Dept Nephrol, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Nephrol 2007;23(4):246-250. Objective To investigate short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods Rat model of renal IR was established by clamping both pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion. Blood sample and kidneys were collected at indicated times. Serum creatinine levels, mortality and histological change were observed throughout the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe tubular ultra-structure. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Masson trichome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Extensive proximal tubular necrosis, functional impairment and high mortality (32%, 8/25) were found in the early phase after renal IR injury, accompanied by a small number of apoptotic cells. Patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis was obvious at 5th and 10th week postischemia in correlation with renal hypertrophy and increased urinary output. Moreover, the expression of a-SMA and TGF-β1 increased significantly at first, 5th and 10th week in the kidneys of IR group compared to sham-operated group. The expression mentioned above was localized mainly in the injured tubulointerstitium, consistent with the distribution of renal fibrosis. Conclusion Severe renal IR injury may lead to acute tubular necrosis, functional disorder and high mortality in short term. The initial structural injury in the kidney is irreversible and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the final outcome. Increased myofibrolasts (s-SMA positive) and

  19. [Proteomic analysis of urinary exosomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Aki

    2014-07-01

    Exosomes are 40-100-nm membrane vesicles secreted into the extracellular space by various types of cell in many biological fluids, including serum, saliva, breast milk, amniotic fluid, and urine. Exosomes, which contain several key proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs, were considered as an alternative secretion pathway. In addition, recent findings suggest that the exosome itself is a functional biomolecule involved in intracellular communication; thus, its components can be transferred to recipient cells by fusion, changing the function of the target cell. Recently, urinary exosomes have attracted much attention because some of their proteins have been identified as biomarkers related to certain physiological events and disease-related metabolism of the kidney. This review provides an overview of urinary exosomes, including methods of isolation and associated problems, and focuses on urinary exosomes as protein biomarker sources involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes.

  20. Estrogens in the daily diet: in vitro analysis indicates that estrogenic activity is omnipresent in foodstuff and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Maximilian; Oehlmann, Jörg; Wagner, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Food is a main source of exposure to endocrine active compounds, many of which have been linked to adverse health effects. Phytoestrogens, especially from soy, are the major dietary source of estrogenicity. However, foodstuff contains a variety of estrogen-like compounds that might not be detected analytically. To assess the total estrogenic activity of foodstuff, we employed the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES). We analyzed 18 food samples and five milk-based infant formulas. Soy-based products contained potent estrogenicity of 100-1500ng estradiol equivalents per kilogram (EEQ/kg). The estrogenicity in soy-free products was far lower (10-40ng EEQ/kg). We also detected significant estrogenic activity in three infant formulas (14-22ng EEQ/kg). Furthermore, we found soy lecithin to be strongly estrogenic. It might, therefore, be a major contributor to total estrogenicity. We conclude that dietary estrogens are omnipresent and not limited to soy-based food. In an exposure assessment we calculated a total dietary intake of 27.5 and 34.0ng EEQ/d for adults and 1.46ng EEQ/d for infants. While the dietary exposure to estrogenic activity is lower than previously estimated, our results demonstrate that many food types are a source of unidentified estrogen-like compounds still awaiting toxicological evaluation.

  1. Molecular analysis of human endometrium: Short-term tibolone signaling differs significantly from estrogen and estrogen + progestagen signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hanifi-Moghaddam (Payman); B. Boers-Sijmons (Bianca); A.H.A. Klaassens (Anet); F.H. van Wijk (Heidy); M.A. den Bakker (Michael); M.C. Ott; G.L. Shipley; H.A.M. Verheul (Herman); H.J. Kloosterboer (Helenius); C.W. Burger (Curt); L.J. Blok (Leen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTibolone, a tissue-selective compound with a combination of estrogenic, progestagenic, and androgenic properties, is used as an alternative for estrogen or estrogen plus progesterone hormone therapy for the treatment of symptoms associated with menopause and osteoporosis. The current stu

  2. Estrogenic pyrethroid pesticides regulate expression of estrogen receptor transcripts in mouse Sertoli cells differently from 17beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J S; Thomson, B M; Lang, C N; Sin, F Y T; Podivinsky, E

    2010-01-01

    Studies suggested that exposure to agricultural pesticides may affect male fertility. Pyrethroids are widely used pesticides due to their insecticidal potency and low mammalian toxicity. A recombinant yeast assay system incorporating the human alpha-estrogen receptor was used to analyze the estrogenicity of a range of readily available pyrethroid pesticides. The commercial product Ripcord Plus showed estrogenic activity by this assay. To determine whether pyrethroid compounds might exert an effect on male fertility, mouse Sertoli cells were exposed in vitro to the endogenous estrogen, 17beta-estradiol, and selected estrogenic pyrethroids. Following exposure, transcript levels of the alpha- and beta-estrogen receptors were assessed. Exposure of Sertoli cells to the pyrethroid compounds, both at high and at low published serum concentrations, affected the expression of the two estrogen receptors; however, the influence on estrogen receptor gene expression was different from the effect from exposure to 17beta-estradiol. These results from our model systems suggest that (1) estrogenic pyrethroid pesticides affect the estrogen receptors, and therefore potentially the endocrine system, in a different manner from that of endogenous estrogen, and (2) should cells in the male testes be exposed to pyrethroid pesticides, male fertility may be affected through molecular mechanisms involving estrogen receptors.

  3. Effect of combining in vitro estrogenicity data with kinetic characteristics of estrogenic compounds on the in vivo predictive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, A.; Brand, W.; Murk, A.J.; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, M.; Heringa, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of increasing the utility of in vitro assays for toxicological risk assessment, a method was developed to calculate in vivo estrogenic potencies from in vitro estrogenic potencies of compounds by taking into account systemic availability. In vitro estrogenic potencies of three

  4. Effect of combining in vitro estrogenicity data with kinetic characteristics of estrogenic compounds on the in vivo predictive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, A.; Brand, W.; Murk, A.J.; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, M.; Heringa, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of increasing the utility of in vitro assays for toxicological risk assessment, a method was developed to calculate in vivo estrogenic potencies from in vitro estrogenic potencies of compounds by taking into account systemic availability. In vitro estrogenic potencies of three

  5. Effect of combining in vitro estrogenicity data with kinetic characteristics of estrogenic compounds on the invivo predictive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, A.; Brand, W.; Murk, A.J.; Wezel, van A.P.; Schriks, M.; Heringa, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of increasing the utility of in vitro assays for toxicological risk assessment, a method was developed to calculate in vivo estrogenic potencies from in vitro estrogenic potencies of compounds by taking into account systemic availability. In vitro estrogenic potencies of three

  6. Urinary tract infections in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan B. Cohn

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  8. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, L C; Ramin, S M

    2001-09-01

    Urinary tract infections are relatively common in pregnancy and may result in significant morbidity for the pregnant woman and fetus. The authors recommend that all pregnant women be screened for the presence of bacteriuria at their first prenatal visit. Failure to treat bacteriuria during pregnancy may result in as many as 25% of women experiencing acute pyelonephritis. Women with acute pyelonephritis may sustain significant complications, such as preterm labor, transient renal failure, ARDS, sepsis and shock, and hematologic abnormalities. Pregnant women with urinary tract infections should be followed up closely after treatment because as many as one third will experience a recurrence.

  9. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  10. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

  11. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help with my urinary incontinence? What are Kegel exercises? What can I do when I want ... tape Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Self catheterization - ...

  12. Testicular biopsy and cryopreservation for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome: a pro/con debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Inge; Oates, Robert; De Schepper, Jean; Tournaye, Herman

    2016-02-01

    In about one-half of adult Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients, spermatozoa can be retrieved by means of testicular biopsy (TESE). Given the expected increase in the number of diagnosed KS patients owing to the use of noninvasive prenatal testing, the probable questions of young KS patients and their parents regarding future fertility, and the fact that widespread apoptosis of spermatogonia occurs at onset of puberty, an attempt to increase the retrieval rates at TESE above those found in adult KS men by undertaking preservation techniques peripubertally has been initiated. To date, however, only a limited number of KS adolescents have been examined, demonstrating no increases in the chances of finding sperm. Furthermore, spermatogonial stem cell and testicular tissue freezing techniques, as well as in vitro maturation strategies, require further validation. Given these controversies, banking testicular tissue from prepubertal KS boys should be performed only in a research framework.

  13. Improved compliance and patient satisfaction with estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women previously treated with another local estrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkin MJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mary Jane Minkin,1 Ricardo Maamari,2 Suzanne Reiter31Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Menopause, Temple Medical Center, New Haven, CT, 2Hormone Therapy, Novo Nordisk Inc, Princeton, NJ, 3Mid-County Health Center, Largo, FL, USAAbstract: Up to half of all postmenopausal women will experience changes in the genitourinary tract induced by the hypoestrogenic state, collectively known as vaginal atrophy. Vaginally administered local estrogen therapy (LET is the standard of care for symptoms of vaginal atrophy that do not respond to nonhormonal interventions. Several LET formulations are available, and choice of therapy is based largely on patient needs and preferences. This online survey of postmenopausal LET users was conducted to investigate reasons for switching to vaginal estradiol tablets from other formulations and to evaluate factors associated with patient preference for and compliance with use of LET. Data was analyzed from 73 respondents currently using estradiol vaginal tablets who have previously used the estradiol vaginal ring, estradiol vaginal cream, and/or conjugated estrogen vaginal cream. Patients in this survey rated vaginal symptoms of vaginal atrophy as being more bothersome than urinary symptoms. Respondents preferred their current treatment with the vaginal tablet to their previous treatment with a cream or ring. The preference for tablets over creams was mainly related to formulation and application rather than to any perceived safety issues. Tablets were perceived as efficacious, convenient, and neat to apply. The study participants also reported a longer duration of tablet use compared with creams or rings, and greater compliance with vaginal tablets than with vaginal cream. This study provides new insights into reasons for patient noncompliance with estrogen cream or ring therapy that can be used to maximize patient adherence with LET.Keywords: vaginal atrophy, local estrogen therapy, estradiol, vaginal ring, vaginal tablet

  14. Influence of the informal primary caretaker on glycemic control among prepubertal pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Nallely Zurita-Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1, the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. Patients, materials, and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire, family functionality (family APGAR, support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale, and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The patients' median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06-151.9, p = 0.001. While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (β 0.991, 95% CI 0.238-1.743, p = 0.011 and stress (β 1.918, 95% CI 1.10-2.736, p = 0.001 in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (β 1.256, 95% CI 0.336-2.177, p = 0.008 were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. Conclusions: Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients.

  15. A one-year exercise intervention program in pre-pubertal girls does not influence hip structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlborg Henrik G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that a one-year school-based exercise intervention program influences the accrual of bone mineral in pre-pubertal girls. This report aims to evaluate if also hip structure is affected, as geometry independent of bone mineral influences fracture risk. Methods Fifty-three girls aged 7 – 9 years were included in a curriculum-based exercise intervention program comprising 40 minutes of general physical activity per school day (200 minutes/week. Fifty healthy age-matched girls who participated in the general Swedish physical education curriculum (60 minutes/week served as controls. The hip was scanned by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and the hip structural analysis (HSA software was applied to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC, areal bone mineral density (aBMD, periosteal and endosteal diameter, cortical thickness, cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI, section modulus (Z and cross-sectional area (CSA of the femoral neck (FN. Annual changes were compared. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA. Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate associations between activity level and annual changes in FN. All children remained at Tanner stage 1 throughout the study. Results No between-group differences were found during the 12 months study period for changes in the FN variables. The total duration of exercise during the year was not correlated with the changes in the FN traits. Conclusion Evaluated by the DXA technique and the HSA software, a general one-year school-based exercise program for 7–9-year-old pre-pubertal girls seems not to influence the structure of the hip.

  16. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.......In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results....

  17. Role of Estrogens on Human Male Reproductive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenzo Rochira; Lucia Zirilli; Bruno Madeo; Antonio Balestrieri; Cesare Carani; Antonio R. M. Granata

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on estrogen role on human male physiology. Biological estrogen actions on male reproductive system are summarized with particular regard to the effects of congenital estrogen deprivation in men. The effects of estrogen on spermatogenesis, hormonal secretion and gonadotropin feedback and on sexual behavior are discussed. It is remarked that the role of estrogens in male reproduction is a very recent acquisition in reproductive endocrinology, but it promises new future fields of research to be investigated as well as the possible disclosure of new strategies in clinical practice.

  18. Estrogenicity profile and estrogenic compounds determined in river sediments by chemical analysis, ELISA and yeast assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Luigi; Benfenati, Emilio; van Cauwenberge, Anne; Eidem, Janne K; Erratico, Claudio; Goksøyr, Anders; Kloas, Werner; Maggioni, Silvia; Mandich, Alberta; Urbatzka, Ralph

    2008-10-01

    An effects-directed strategy was applied to bed sediments of a polluted tributary in order to isolate and identify the major estrogenic chemicals it discharges into the River Po, the principal Italian watercourse. Sediment extract was concentrated by solid phase extraction and then fractioned into 10 fractions by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Estrogenic activity of whole extract and fractions were determined using a recombinant yeast assay containing the human estrogen receptor (YES). The 10 fractions and whole extract were analysed for target compounds, e.g. estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP), bisphenol A (BPA), using both liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The YES assay determined high estrogenic activity in whole sediment (15.6 ng/g EE2 equivalents), and positive results for fractions nr 1, 2, 6, 7 and 8. E1, E3 and NP were the main estrogenic chemicals, however, other unidentified compounds contributed to sediment estrogenicity, particularly for polar fractions nr 1 and 2. A GC-MS screening performed in scan mode identified other potential contributors such as phthalates (DBP, BBP), and OP isomers. A next sampling campaign extended to other tributaries and receiving stretches of the River Po confirmed E1, E3 and NP as major estrogenic chemicals potentially threatening other sites of the main river. In general, target compound ELISAs have been shown to be suitable tools for a rapid screening of wide areas or large numbers of environmental samples for estrogenic risk. The potential for interferences suggests however to use cautiously the concentration values obtained from some of the immunoassays.

  19. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject's age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assaying estrogenicity by quantitating the expression levels of endogenous estrogen-regulated genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, M.; Vendelbo, B; Skakkebaek, N. E.; Leffers, H

    2000-01-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that humans and wildlife species may experience adverse health consequences from exposure to environmental chemicals that interact with the endocrine system. Reliable short-term assays are needed to identify hormone-disrupting chemicals. In this study we demonstrate that the estrogenic activity of a chemical can be evaluated by assaying induction or repression of endogenous estrogen-regulated "marker genes" in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. We included four mark...

  1. [Experimental sialadenitis in castrated rats administered estrogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M M; Rins de David, M L; Gendelman, H

    1989-01-01

    Salivary glands are dependent on sexual hormones. The aim of the present work is to study the behavior of inflammatory response induced in animals that were castrated and injected with estrogens. Male adult wistar castrated rats (60-90 days) were used. A phlogogen pellet (zinc-oxide-turpentine essence) was placed between their sublingual and submaxillary glands and they were daily injected with 5 units of estrogen. The rats were killed after 8 and 12 days of treatment; submandibular pack was weighed, dissected and fixed in phormol Ph7 for its morphohistochemical study. Phlogogen pellet breaks out an acute inflammatory response that appears attenuated in castrated animals. Such character is enhanced when estrogens are used, disappearing ductal ectasis, becoming evident a granulation tissue of strange body in phagocytic activity and in contact with the pellet. As a consequence its follows that estrogen administration in castrated animals attenuates acute inflammatory response broken out by phlogogen pellet, determining characters with tendency to chronicity and giant cells differentiation of strange body.

  2. The androgen receptor and estrogen receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterkamp, H.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) and the estrogen receptors (ER) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) family. These NRs are distinguished from the other transcription factors by their ability to control gene expression upon ligand binding (steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, fatty acids,

  3. Estrogen and its role in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwahl, Michael; Nicula, Diana

    2014-10-01

    Proliferative thyroid diseases are more prevalent in females than in males. Upon the onset of puberty, the incidence of thyroid cancer increases in females only and declines again after menopause. Estrogen is a potent growth factor both for benign and malignant thyroid cells that may explain the sex difference in the prevalence of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. It exerts its growth-promoting effect through a classical genomic and a non-genomic pathway, mediated via a membrane-bound estrogen receptor. This receptor is linked to the tyrosine kinase signaling pathways MAPK and PI3K. In papillary thyroid carcinomas, these pathways may be activated either by a chromosomal rearrangement of the tyrosine receptor kinase TRKA, by RET/PTC genes, or by a BRAF mutation and, in addition, in females they may be stimulated by high levels of estrogen. Furthermore, estrogen is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis and metastasis that are critical for the outcome of thyroid cancer. In contrast to other carcinomas, however, detailed knowledge on this regulation is still missing for thyroid cancer. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. [Pharmacodynamics of synthetic estrogens. Review article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo-Aranda, I; Cortés-Gallegos, V

    1990-10-01

    Some details about the function of natural and synthetical hormonas are reviewed, particularly estrogens as ethynyl estradiol and its 3, Methyl ether (mestranol); its peripheral concentration vs tissular hormonal contents, a relationship of biological importance as the first step in its hormonal action and the cummulative local effects that could explain some intra and extracellular phenomena.

  5. [Pharmacodynamics of synthetic estrogens. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo-Aranda, I; Cortés-Gallegos, V

    1990-10-01

    Some details about the function of natural and synthetical hormonas are reviewed, particularly estrogens as ethynyl estradiol and its 3, Methyl ether (mestranol); its peripheral concentration vs tissular hormonal contents, a relationship of biological importance as the first step in its hormonal action and the cumulative local effects that could explain some intra and extracellular phenomena.

  6. Xeno-estrogenic compounds in precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Beeltje, H.; Delft, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The exposure to some chemicals can lead to hormone disrupting effects. Presently, much attention is focused on so-called xeno-estrogens, synthetic compounds that interact with hormone receptors causing a number of reactions that eventually lead to effects related to reproduction and development. The

  7. Estrogen receptors in human vaginal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, M.A.H.M.; Poortman, J.; Agema, A.R.; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of specific estrogen receptors could be demonstrated in vaginal tissue, obtained during operation from 38 women, age 27–75 yr. In 23 premenopausal women the receptor concentration in the vaginal tissue varied between 12 and 91 fmol/mg protein, no significant difference in the receptor

  8. Modulation of mammary gland development in prepubertal male rats exposed to genistein and methoxychlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Li; Sar, Madhabananda; Bartolucci, Erika J; McIntyre, Barry S; Sriperumbudur, Rajagopal

    2002-04-01

    The estrogenic isoflavone genistein is a common dietary component that has been shown to affect reproductive development in experimental animals at high doses. The objective of the present study was to examine interactions of genistein and the hormonally active pesticide methoxychlor on mammary gland development in juvenile rats. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a soy- and alfalfa-free diet containing different combinations of genistein (300 and 800 ppm) and methoxychlor (800 ppm). Rats were fed these diets starting on gestation day (GD)1 and continuing through pregnancy and lactation until postnatal day (PND) 22, when the pups were killed. Inguinal mammary glands from both female and male pups were processed as whole-mount preparations for morphometric analysis. The total glandular area and the numbers of branch points, lateral buds, and terminal end buds in the male rats were found to be significantly greater in the groups exposed to methoxychlor than those exposed to genistein only. These effects were not observed in the female rats. In the male rats, methoxychlor had the most prominent effect on elongating the glandular ducts, while genistein enhanced the ductile branching. The 2 compounds in combination promoted the development of alveolar-lobular structure, an effect not observed with either compound alone. Immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen revealed a high percentage of immunopositive cells in the mammary epithelia of the males exposed to methoxychlor and genistein (800 ppm) compared to the controls. While no significant changes in serum levels of mammotrophic hormones were detected, increased immunostaining for insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, and progesterone receptor in the genistein + methoxychlor group suggested that local factors involved in regulating mammary growth may have played a role in propagating the endocrine effects of these two compounds. These results indicated that the mammary

  9. Best practices in urinary catheter care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Rebecca; Kazer, Meredith Wallace

    2010-06-01

    Urinary catheterization is a common healthcare intervention used to manage urinary dysfunction that poses serious associated risks and complications. This article discusses methods of urinary catheterization and their indications, catheter-associated complications, and assessment and management strategies that home healthcare practitioners can employ to ensure best patient outcomes and minimize complications.

  10. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children can have many faces. It can present with incontinenece for urine, urinary tract infections or even constipation or loosing stools. All kinds of factors influencing the function of the pelvic floor muscle tension can have an impact on the lower urinary trac

  11. Clinical Observation on Electroacupuncture Against Urinary Incontinence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文洁; 胡昌东; 王洁茹; 洪珏

    2009-01-01

    @@ Urinary incontinence is a common problem, usually classified as stress incontinence or urge incontinence[1]. With the development of medical science, people have got more and more profound knowledge towards urinary incontinence. We treated urinary incontinence with electroacupuncture since 2006, and now reported it as follows.

  12. 3D-QSAR and docking studies of estrogen compounds based on estrogen receptor β

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XuShu; WANG XiaoDong; LUO Si; JI Li; QIN Liang; LI Rong; SUN Cheng; WANG LianSheng

    2009-01-01

    Close attention has been paid to estrogen compounds because these chemicals may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife.Estrogen receptor (ER) exists as two subtypes,ERo and ERβ.The difference in amino acids sequence of the binding sites of ERo and ERβ might lead to a result that some synthetic estrogens and naturally occurring steroidal ligands have different relative affinities and binding modes for ERa and ERβ.In this investigation,comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) was performed on 50 estrogen compounds binding ERβ to find out the structural relationship with the activities.We also compared two alignment schemes employed in CoMSIA analysis,namely,atom-fit and receptor-based alignment,with respect to the predictive capability of their respective models for structurally diverse data sets.The model with the significant correlation and the best predictive power (R2=0.961,q2LOO=0.671,Rp2red=0.722) was achieved.The CoMSIA and docking results revealed the structural features related to an activity and provided an insight into molecular mechanisms of estrogenic activities for estrogen compounds.

  13. 3D-QSAR and docking studies of estrogen compounds based on estrogen receptor β

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Close attention has been paid to estrogen compounds because these chemicals may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. Estrogen receptor (ER) exists as two subtypes, ERα and ERβ. The difference in amino acids sequence of the binding sites of ERα and ERβ might lead to a result that some synthetic estrogens and naturally occurring steroidal ligands have different relative affinities and binding modes for ERα and ERβ. In this investigation, comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) was performed on 50 estrogen compounds binding ERβ to find out the structural relationship with the activities. We also compared two alignment schemes employed in CoMSIA analy-sis, namely, atom-fit and receptor-based alignment, with respect to the predictive capability of their respective models for structurally diverse data sets. The model with the significant correlation and the best predictive power (R2=0.961, qL 2OO=0.671, RP 2red=0.722) was achieved. The CoMSIA and docking results revealed the structural features related to an activity and provided an insight into molecular mechanisms of estrogenic activities for estrogen compounds.

  14. Estrogens, estrogen receptors, and female cognitive aging: the impact of timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jill M

    2013-02-01

    Estrogens have been shown to be protective agents against neurodegeneration and associated cognitive decline in aging females. However, clinical data have been equivocal as to the benefits to the brain and cognition of estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women. One factor that is proposed to be critical in determining the efficacy of hormone therapy is the timing of its initiation. The critical period or window of opportunity hypothesis proposes that following long-term ovarian hormone deprivation, the brain and cognition become insensitive to exogenously administered estrogens. In contrast, if estrogens are administered during a critical period near the time of cessation of ovarian function, they will exert beneficial effects. The focus of the current review is the examination of evidence from rodent models investigating the critical period hypothesis. A growing body of experimental data indicates that beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (estradiol) on cognition and on cholinergic function and hippocampal plasticity, both of which have been linked to the ability of estradiol to exert beneficial effects on cognition, are attenuated if estradiol is administered following a period of long-term ovarian hormone deprivation. Further, emerging data implicate loss of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the brain resulting from long-term hormone deprivation as a basis for the existence of the critical period. A unifying model is proposed by which the presence or absence of estrogens during a critical period following the cessation of ovarian function permanently alters the system resulting in decreased or increased risk, respectively, of neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.

  15. Combining docking and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (COMSIA) to predict estrogen activity and probe molecular mechanisms of estrogen activity for estrogen compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XuShu; WANG XiaoDong; JI Li; LI Rong; SUN Cheng; WANG LianSheng

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen compounds are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking natural hormones,and such compounds may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. Close attention has been paid to the prediction and molecular mechanisms of estrogen activity for estrogen compounds. In this article, estrogen receptor a subtype (Era) -based comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (COMSIA) was performed on 44 estrogen compounds with structural diversity to find out the structural relationship with the activity and to predict the activity. The model with the significant correlation and the best predictive power (R2 = 0.965, (Q2LOO = 0.599, R2pred = 0.825) was achieved. The COMSIA and docking results revealed the structural features for estrogen activity and key amino acid residues in binding pocket, and provided an insight into the interaction between the ligands and these amino acid residues.

  16. Estrogen and its role in gastrointestinal health and disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: While the concept of a role of estrogen in gastrointestinal (in particular, colonic) malignancy has generated excitement in recent years, no review has examined the role of this potent and omnipresent steroid hormone in physiological states or its contribution to the development of benign pathological processes. Understanding these effects (and mechanisms therein) may provide a platform for a deeper understanding of more complex disease processes. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database and the search terms were "estrogen," "estrogen AND gastrointestinal tract," "estrogen AND colon," "estrogen AND esophagus," "estrogen AND small intestine," "estrogen AND stomach," "estrogen AND gallbladder," and "estrogen AND motility." Bibliographies of extracted studies were further cross-referenced. In all, 136 full-text articles were selected for review. A logical organ-based approach was taken to enable extraction of data of clinical relevance and meaningful interpretation thereof. Insight is provided into the hypotheses, theories, controversies, and contradictions generated over the last five decades by extensive investigation of estrogen in human, animal, and cell models using techniques as diverse as autoradiographic studies of baboons to human population analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Effects from esophagus through to the colon and rectum are summarized in this first concise collection of data pertaining to estrogenic actions in gastrointestinal health and disease. Mechanisms of these actions are discussed where possible. Undoubtedly, this hormone exerts many actions yet to be elucidated, and its potential therapeutic applications remain, as yet, largely unexplored.

  17. Estrogen receptors and cell proliferation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, D R; Fanelli, M A

    1997-10-01

    Most of the actions of estrogens on the normal and abnormal mammary cells are mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs), including control of cell proliferation; however, there are also alternative pathways of estrogen action not involving ERs. Estrogens control several genes and proteins that induce the cells to enter the cell cycle (protooncogenes, growth factors); estrogens also act on proteins directly involved in the control of the cell cycle (cyclins), and moreover, estrogens stimulate the response of negative cell cycle regulators (p53, BRCA1). The next challenge for researchers is elucidating the integration of the interrelationships of the complex pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation. This brief review focuses on the mechanisms of estrogen action to control cell proliferation and the clinical implications in breast cancer. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:313-321). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  18. Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Baki ÇİFTCİ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-α due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

  19. Estrogen, male dominance and esophageal adenocarcinoma: Is there a link?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqi Yang; Olga A Sukocheva; Damian J Hussey; David I Watson

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a cancer with poor prognosis, and its incidence has risen sharply over recent decades. Obesity is a major risk factor for developing this cancer and there is a clear male gender bias in the incidence that cannot be fully explained by known risk factors. It is possible that a difference in the expression of estrogen, or its signaling axes, may contribute to this gender bias. We undertook a comprehensive literature search and analyzed the available data regarding estrogen and estrogen receptor expression, and the possible sex-specific links with esophageal adenocarcinoma development. Potentially relevant associations between visceral vs subcutaneous fat deposition and estrogen expression, and the effect of crosstalk between estrogen and leptin signaling were identified. We also found limited studies suggesting a role for estrogen receptor β expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma development. The current literature supports speculation on an etiological role for estrogen in the male gender bias in esophageal adenocarcinoma, but further studies are required.

  20. KEEPS: The Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, S M; Brinton, E A; Cedars, M; Lobo, R; Manson, J E; Merriam, G R; Miller, V M; Naftolin, F; Santoro, N

    2005-03-01

    Observational studies have indicated that hormone therapy given at or after menopause is linked to substantial reduction in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Recent findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial, however, indicate that combined estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy, as well as estrogen-alone hormone therapy (given to women without a uterus), is ineffective in preventing the new onset of cardiac events in previously healthy late menopausal women. Further, the secondary prevention trial, the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), also failed to demonstrate any benefit of initiation of hormone therapy in women with established coronary heart disease. In light of these results, a hypothesis has arisen that early initiation of hormone therapy, in women who are at the inception of their menopause, will delay the onset of subclinical cardiovascular disease in women. The rationale that earlier intervention than that performed in the WHI and HERS trials will provide cardiovascular benefit to women is the driving force behind the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study, or KEEPS. KEEPS is a multicenter, 5-year clinical trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of 0.45 mg of conjugated equine estrogens, 50 microg weekly transdermal estradiol (both in combination with cyclic oral, micronized progesterone, 200 mg for 12 days each month), and placebo in preventing progression of carotid intimal medial thickness and the accrual of coronary calcium in women aged 42-58 years who are within 36 months of their final menstrual period. A total of 720 women are planned to be enrolled in 2005, with an anticipated close-out of the trial in 2010. This overview summarizes the recruitment and methodology of the KEEPS trial.

  1. Estrogens and male reproduction: a new concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carreau

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian testis serves two main functions: production of spermatozoa and synthesis of steroids; among them estrogens are the end products obtained from the irreversible transformation of androgens by a microsomal enzymatic complex named aromatase. The aromatase is encoded by a single gene (cyp19 in humans which contains 18 exons, 9 of them being translated. In rats, the aromatase activity is mainly located in Sertoli cells of immature rats and then in Leydig cells of adult rats. We have demonstrated that germ cells represent an important source of estrogens: the amount of P450arom transcript is 3-fold higher in pachytene spermatocytes compared to gonocytes or round spermatids; conversely, aromatase activity is more intense in haploid cells. Male germ cells of mice, bank voles, bears, and monkeys express aromatase. In humans, we have shown the presence of a biologically active aromatase and of estrogen receptors (alpha and ß in ejaculated spermatozoa and in immature germ cells in addition to Leydig cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the amount of P450arom transcripts is 30% lower in immotile than in motile spermatozoa. Alterations of spermatogenesis in terms of number and motility of spermatozoa have been described in men genetically deficient in aromatase. These last observations, together with our data showing a significant decrease of aromatase in immotile spermatozoa, suggest that aromatase could be involved in the acquisition of sperm motility. Thus, taking into account the widespread localization of aromatase and estrogen receptors in testicular cells, it is obvious that, besides gonadotrophins and androgens, estrogens produced locally should be considered to be physiologically relevant hormones involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.

  2. New Selective Estrogen and Androgen Receptor Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review The present review focuses on the most significant recent findings regarding selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SERMs, which interact with estrogen receptor (ER)-α and ER-β in multiple tissues, continue to generate clinical interest in potential applications in as many disorders as the tissues in which the two known receptors are found. SARMs have been demonstrated to have fewer clinical applications to date, but continue to be investigated for use in multiple disorders in which androgen receptor (AR) modulation is likely to be important. Both types of compounds hold great promise for therapeutic use in multiple hormonal disorders involving tissue-specific effects mediated by estrogen or androgen receptors. Recent Findings While SERMs have been available for clinical use for 50 years, recent investigation has focused on large randomized clinical trials for newer indications of older agents, or smaller clinical trials of newer agents with improved clinical activity and reduced side effects in specific tissues. In particular, the large, prospective, randomized, controlled, multi-year STAR and RUTH clinical trials have recently shown interesting similarities and differences between tamoxifen and raloxifene in estrogen-responsive tissues. Lasofoxifene and arzoxifene are two newer SERMs that have recently been demonstrated to improve bone mineral density and lower serum cholesterol values compared to older SERMs in smaller clinical trials. SARMs are a newer category of drug still being investigated mostly at the basic and preclinical level, with fewer clinical trials available for review. SARMs are currently being investigated mostly for use in prostate cancer at different stages, but hold promise for multiple other applications. Summary Recent clinical trials indicate that selective estrogen receptor modulators are useful in treatment of disorders of bone and mineral metabolism and

  3. ESTROGEN RECEPTORS OF HAIRS BLACKS AND WHITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laswati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is termed as same as degenerative process, in which all part of tissue organs retarted the microstructure either macrostructure, forming and function even the colour, including black hair change to white hair. Several researchers have been recommended that estrogen hormone be able ease black to white hair, but hormone without any presenting of receptor won’t be work properly. The main aim of this study were to determine amount of estrogen receptor contents in famales and males black and white hairs included the microscopically structure. Method: Twelve females and males there were 50 -56 years old each pairs black and white head hairs were plucked along with follicles. This estrogen receptors analyzed using radioreceptor binding assay there were 5mm eah hair follices including the root cutted and each pair put its in 2 ml glass tube already filled in with 500 µl 125I-estradiol and incubated in 37oC for 3 hrs. Following times were over the tube flushed twice carefully the hair won’t be flushed. Then count by putting in the gamma counter chamber for 1 minute each. The values that shown in the monitor as CPM (count per minute, recorded as receptor of estradiol. Results: Mean (±SD sum estrogen receptor in females black and white hairs were 479.3 ± 37.5 and 387.7 ± 33.0, but significantly decreased in male black hair was 316.9±17.8 and 274.0 ± 19.8. All those pairs significantly different either female black and white hairs or male black and white hair and also significantly different among groups. Conclusion: The lowest estrogen receptors recorded in male white hairs and microstructure decreasing of melanin contents.

  4. Congenital Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-10

    Oct 10, 2007 ... 1110-5704 179-187. Review Arllele Role of Urinary Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of .... plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in rats subjected to ..... Chemical characterization and biological properties. J.Biol.Chem. 1990 ...

  5. [Conservative treatment of urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soljanik, I; Schorsch, I; Stanislaus, P; Bauer, R; Mayer, M; Hocaoglu, Y; Becker, A; May, F

    2007-09-20

    Urinary incontinence can be treated with medicinal products in addition to active pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation. A local hormone therapy should be first discussed with the gynaecologist. The active substance duloxetine has been used for a few years for treating stress incontinence. Several older and newer active substances are available for treating irritable bladder and stress incontinence.

  6. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  7. Indiana continent catheterizable urinary reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, O A; Aranguren, G; Campos-Juanatey, F

    2014-01-01

    Radical pelvic surgery requires continent or incontinent urinary diversion. There are many techniques, but the orthotopic neobladder is the most used. A continent catheterizable urinary reservoir is sometimes a good alternative when this derivation is not possible or not indicated. This paper has aimed to present our experience with the Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir. The series is made up of 85 patients, 66 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 56 years (31-77 years). Variables analyzed were operating time, estimated blood loss, transfusion rate, hospital stay and peri-operatory complications. The main indication in 49 cases was resolution of complications related to the treatment of cervical cancer. Average operation time was 110.5 minutes (range 80-130 minutes). Mean blood loss was 450 cc (100-1000 cc). Immediate postoperative complications, all of which were treated medically, occurred in 16 patients (18.85%). One patient suffered anastomotic leakage. Hospital stay was 19 days (range 5-60 days) and there was no mortality in the series. Late complications occurred in 26 patients (32%), these being ureteral anastomotic stenosis in 11 cases, cutaneous stoma stenosis in 9 cases and reservoir stones in 6 cases. The Indiana continent catheterizable urinary reservoir is a valid option for the treatment of both urological and gynecological malignancies as well as for the management of pelvic morbidity related to the treatment of pelvic cancers. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. The balance of estrogen metabolites in breast cancer and the ways of its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A clear relationship is now found between the activity of estrogen metabolites and the development of tumors in estrogen-dependent tissues. Many international and Russian studies could identify a number of compounds involved in the regulation of estrogen metabolites. Indole-3-carbinol is one of these compounds that correct a ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1 to 16-OHE1. It is a phytonutrient that is contained in Cruciferous vegetables and has antitumor activity. Our investigations used highly purified indole-3-carbinol (Indinol. The ability to identify the role of metabolic syndrome, by applying the current methodological approaches, allowed us to study the effect of highly purified indole-3-carbinol on the level of expression of estrogen metabolites and to attempt to expand views on procedures to prevent and treat breast tumors. Materials and methods. A total of 136 women were comprehensively examined; of them 44 patients formed a group of those with morphologically verified hormone-independent breast cancer (BC and 42 patients were a group of those with hormone-dependent BC. A control group included 50 women without signs of breast disease. In all the patients, body mass index was calculated; the ratio of urinary estrogen metabolites (2-ОНЕ1/16α-ОНЕ1 was quantified; and biopsy specimens and operative material were histologically and immunohistologically studied. Results. The BC patients were noted to have the high expression of 16α-OHE1 and the low values of 2-OHE1 (ratio, 0.42 as compared to the control group (2.09, which was an important component of metabolic syndrome. The BC patients had the high level of concomitant endocrine metabolic disturbances with the high body mass index, which reflected the clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Indinol used to treat both hormone-dependent and hormone-independent BC showed an antimetabolic effect that was most pronounced 6 months later. Conclusion. Thus, early correction

  9. Genomic imprinting effects on cognitive and social abilities in prepubertal girls with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Jean-François; Hong, David S; Hallmayer, Joachim; Reiss, Allan L

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the cognitive and social manifestations associated with Turner syndrome (TS) might be influenced by epigenetic factors in the form of genomic imprinting. However, due to small and heterogeneous samples, inconsistent results have emerged from these studies. The objective of this prospective study was to establish the impact of genomic imprinting on neurocognitive abilities and social functioning in young girls with TS. An extensive battery of neuropsychological assessments was administered to 65 children with TS who had never been exposed to estrogen treatment, 24 of whom had an X-chromosome from paternal origin (Xpat) and 41 from maternal origin (Xmat). The Wechsler scales of intelligence, the Motor-Free Visual Spatial test-3, the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Ability, and the attention/executive domain of the NEPSY were used to assess cognitive abilities. Social functioning was assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2. Results showed that although individuals with Xpat obtained lower scores than their counterparts with Xmat on most cognitive and social measures, only the Perceptual Reasoning Index of the intelligence scale yielded significant differences after correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, these results suggest that although some aspects of the neuropsychological profile of TS may be influenced by epigenetic factors, the sociocognitive phenotype associated with the disorder is not modulated by genomic imprinting.

  10. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  11. Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates estrogen facilitation of baroreflex heart rate responses in conscious mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamidimukkala, Jaya; Xue, Baojian; Newton, Leslie G; Lubahn, Dennis B; Hay, Meredith

    2005-03-01

    Estrogen facilitates baroreflex heart rate responses evoked by intravenous infusion of ANG II and phenylephrine (PE) in ovariectomized female mice. The present study aims to identify the estrogen receptor subtype involved in mediating these effects of estrogen. Baroreflex responses to PE, ANG II, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were tested in intact and ovariectomized estrogen receptor-alpha knockout (ERalphaKO) with (OvxE+) or without (OvxE-) estrogen replacement. Wild-type (WT) females homozygous for the ERalpha(+/+) were used as controls. Basal mean arterial pressures (MAP) and heart rates were comparable in all the groups except the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ mice. This group had significantly smaller resting MAP, suggesting an effect of estrogen on resting vascular tone possibly mediated by the ERbeta subtype. Unlike the WT females, estrogen did not facilitate baroreflex heart rate responses to either PE or ANG II in the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ mice. The slope of the line relating baroreflex heart rate decreases with increases in MAP evoked by PE was comparable in ERalphaKO-OvxE- (-6.97 +/- 1.4 beats.min(-1).mmHg(-1)) and ERalphaKO-OvxE+ (-6.18 +/- 1.3) mice. Likewise, the slope of the baroreflex bradycardic responses to ANG II was similar in ERalphaKO-OvxE- (-3.87 +/- 0.5) and ERalphaKO-OvxE+(-2.60 +/- 0.5) females. Data suggest that estrogen facilitation of baroreflex responses to PE and ANG II is predominantly mediated by ERalpha subtype. A second important observation in the present study is that the slope of ANG II-induced baroreflex bradycardia is significantly blunted compared with PE in the intact as well as the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ females. We have previously reported that this ANG II-mediated blunting of cardiac baroreflexes is observed only in WT males and not in ovariectomized WT females independent of their estrogen replacement status. The present data suggest that in females lacking ERalpha, ANG II causes blunting of cardiac baroreflexes similar to males and may be

  12. Activation of estrogen response elements is mediated both via estrogen and muscle contractions in rat skeletal muscle myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiik, A.; Hellsten, Ylva; Berthelson, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the activation of estrogen response elements (EREs) by estrogen and muscle contractions in rat myotubes in culture and to assess whether the activation is dependent on the estrogen receptors (ERs). In addition, the effect of estrogen and contraction...... increased (P estrogen and attenuated (P estrogen-induced transactivation is mediated via ERs, the effect of muscle contraction...... is ER independent. The muscle contraction-induced transactivation of ERE and increase in ERbeta mRNA were instead found to be MAP kinase (MAPK) dependent. This study demonstrates for the first time that muscle contractions have a similar functional effect as estrogen in skeletal muscle myotubes, causing...

  13. [Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, Carlos; Méndez, Santiago; Salinas, Jesús

    2016-11-18

    Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients has a multifactorial aetiology and is not a uniform clinical condition. Changes due to physiological ageing as well as comorbidity and polypharmacy, can produce several dynamic conditions such as urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Lower urinary tract symptoms increase with age in both sexes and are a major problem in older patients due to their medical and psychosocial consequences. For these reasons, in assessing urinary dysfunction in older patients, we should consider external circumstances such as polypharmacy, poor mobility, affective and cognitive disorders and also accessibility to housing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)], E-mail: moiwasak@gan2.res.ncc.go.jp; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko [Research Center for Occupational Poisoning, Tokyo Rosai Hospital, Japan Labour Health and Welfare Organization, 4-13-21 Omoriminami, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0013 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2008-09-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  15. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-09-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) microg/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference=0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend=0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  16. Urine and serum biomonitoring of exposure to environmental estrogens II: Soy isoflavones and zearalenone in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Stefanie C; Churchwell, Mona I; Doerge, Daniel R; Teeguarden, Justin G

    2016-09-01

    Urine and serum biomonitoring was used to measure internal exposure to selected dietary estrogens in a cohort of 30 pregnant women. Exposure was measured over a period comprising one-half day in the field (6 h) and one day in a clinic (24 h). Biomonitoring of the dietary phytoestrogens genistein (GEN), daidzein (DDZ) and equol (EQ), as well as the mycoestrogen, zearalenone (ZEN) and its congeners, was conducted using UPLC-MS/MS. Biomonitoring revealed evidence of internal exposure to naturally occurring dietary estrogens during pregnancy. Urinary concentrations of total GEN, DDZ and EQ were similar to levels reported for general adult U.S. Measurable concentrations of total (parent and metabolites) GEN, DDZ and EQ were present in 240, 207 and 2 of 270 serum samples, respectively. Six out of 30 subjects had measurable concentrations of unconjugated GEN and/or DDZ in serum between 0.6 and 7.1 nM. Urine to serum total isoflavone ratios for GEN, DDZ and EQ were 13, 47, and 180, respectively. ZEN and its reductive metabolite, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), were present in pregnant women (11 out of 30 subjects) as conjugates at levels near the limit of quantification. The average total urinary concentration was 0.10 μg/L for ZEN and 0.11 μg/L for α-ZEL. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Yeast Estrogen Screen Assay as a Tool for Detecting Estrogenic Activity in Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Bistan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water has become a major concern worldwide, since they negatively affect wildlife and humans. Therefore, these substances should be effectively removed from effluents before they are discharged into surface water to prevent pollution of groundwater, which can be a source of drinking water. Furthermore, an efficient control of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater based on biological and analytical techniques is required. In this study, a yeast estrogen screen (YES bioassay has been introduced and optimized with the aim to assess potential estrogenic activity of waters. First, assay duration, concentration of added substrate to the assay medium and wavelength used to measure the absorbance of the substrate were estimated. Several compounds, such as 17-β-estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, genisteine, hydrocortisone, dieldrin, atrazine, methoxychlor, testosterone and progesterone were used to verify its specificity and sensitivity. The optimized YES assay was sensitive and responded specifically to the selected estrogenic and nonestrogenic compounds in aqueous samples. Potential estrogenicity of influent and effluent samples of two wastewater treatment plants was assessed after the samples had been concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE procedure using Oasis® HLB cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Up to 90 % of relative estrogenic activity was detected in concentrated samples of influents to wastewater treatment plants and estrogenic activity was still present in the concentrated effluent samples. We found that the introduced YES assay is a suitable screening tool for monitoring the potential estrogenicity of effluents that are discharged into surface water.

  18. Ultra-low-dose vaginal estrogen tablets for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J A; Maamari, R V

    2013-08-01

    Vaginal atrophy is a common chronic condition affecting up to 57% of postmenopausal women. The decrease in estrogen following cessation of menses can lead to bothersome symptoms that include vaginal dryness and irritation, pain and burning during urination (dysuria), urinary tract infections, and pain (dyspareunia) and bleeding during sexual activities. These symptoms can be safely and effectively managed with the use of local estrogen therapy, which reduces the risks associated with long-term systemic hormone therapy. The ultra-low-dose 10 μg estradiol vaginal tablet is the lowest approved dose available and has an annual estradiol exposure of only 1.14 mg. Its development addresses recommendations from regulatory agencies and women's health societies regarding the use of the lowest hormonal dose. The 10 μg vaginal tablet displays minimal estradiol absorption, causes no increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma, and provides significant symptom relief. The clinical evidence presented here may offer greater reassurance to health-care professionals and postmenopausal women that vaginal atrophy can be treated safely and effectively.

  19. Physiological and pharmacological effects of estrogens in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, G; Heuson, J C

    1979-12-19

    Focus here is on the mechanism of action of both estrogens and antiestrogens at the tumor cell levels in breast cancer. The interactions of estrogens and their antagonists are emphasized and analyzed in terms of current and potential clinical applications to breast cancer treatment. This review deals with these interrelationships at the molecular levels, not just with general aspects of endocrine interrelationships. The article is divided into 8 main parts: 1) an introduction, which reviews historical understanding of receptor technology and significances; 2) main properties of estrogens and estrogen receptors; 3) the influence of estrogens and antiestrogens on growth of experimental mammary tumor systems; 4) the suppression of or administration of estrogens for treatment of advanced human breast cancer; 5) estrogen receptivity of mammary tumors; 6) progress in treatment of advanced breast cancer derived from studies on the mode of action of estrogens; 7) the prognostic significance of estrogens and estrogenic receptivity (the estriol theory); and 8) concluding remarks on the future paths of receptor research.

  20. Estrogen Deficiency and the Origin of Obesity during Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lizcano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones strongly influence body fat distribution and adipocyte differentiation. Estrogens and testosterone differentially affect adipocyte physiology, but the importance of estrogens in the development of metabolic diseases during menopause is disputed. Estrogens and estrogen receptors regulate various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism. Disturbances of this metabolic signal lead to the development of metabolic syndrome and a higher cardiovascular risk in women. The absence of estrogens is a clue factor in the onset of cardiovascular disease during the menopausal period, which is characterized by lipid profile variations and predominant abdominal fat accumulation. However, influence of the absence of these hormones and its relationship to higher obesity in women during menopause are not clear. This systematic review discusses of the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors in adipocyte differentiation, and its control by the central nervous systemn and the possible role of estrogen-like compounds and endocrine disruptors chemicals are discussed. Finally, the interaction between the decrease in estrogen secretion and the prevalence of obesity in menopausal women is examined. We will consider if the absence of estrogens have a significant effect of obesity in menopausal women.

  1. Signaling by estrogens and tamoxifen in the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Susanne C J P; Santegoets, Lindy A M; Hanifi-Moghaddam, Payman; Burger, Curt W; Blok, Leen J

    2008-04-01

    Tamoxifen is used as adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal breast cancer patients. The mechanism of action of tamoxifen in breast cancer patients is that tamoxifen inhibits growth of cancer cells by competitive antagonism for estrogens at the estrogen receptor (ER). In the endometrium, tamoxifen has an effect that varies with the ambient concentration of estrogen: in premenopausal women (high estrogen levels), tamoxifen displays an estrogen-antagonistic effect, while in postmenopausal women (low estrogen levels), tamoxifen displays an estrogen-agonistic mode of action. Here, using microarray technology we have compared estrogen signaling with tamoxifen signaling in the human endometrium. It was observed that on the one hand tamoxifen-treatment results in modulation of expression of specific genes (370 genes) and on the other hand tamoxifen-treatment results in modulation of a set of genes which are also regulated by estrogen treatment (142 genes). Upon focusing on regulation of proliferation, we found that tamoxifen-induced endometrial proliferation is largely accomplished by using the same set of genes as are regulated by estradiol. So, as far as regulation of proliferation goes, tamoxifen seems to act as estrogen agonist. Furthermore, tamoxifen-specific gene regulation may explain why tamoxifen-induced endometrial tumors behave more aggressively than sporadic endometrial tumors.

  2. Extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Radwa; Oakley, Oliver; Kim, Heehyen; Jin, Jooyoung; Ko, CheMyong Jay

    2016-09-01

    Estrogens are the key hormones regulating the development and function of reproductive organs in all vertebrates. Recent evidence indicates that estrogens play important roles in the immune system, cancer development, and other critical biological processes related to human well-being. Obviously, the gonads (ovary and testis) are the primary sites of estrogen synthesis, but estrogens synthesized in extra- gonadal sites play an equally important role in controlling biological activities. Understanding non-gonadal sites of estrogen synthesis and function is crucial and will lead to therapeutic interventions targeting estrogen signaling in disease prevention and treatment. Developing a rationale targeting strategy remains challenging because knowledge of extra-gonadal biosynthesis of estrogens, and the mechanism by which estrogen activity is exerted, is very limited. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries of extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and their local functions and discuss the significance of the most recent novel discovery of intestinal estrogen biosynthesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 488-496].

  3. Estrogen replacement therapy and cardioprotection: mechanisms and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T.R. Subbiah

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and case-controlled studies suggest that estrogen replacement therapy might be beneficial in terms of primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD. This beneficial effect of estrogens was initially considered to be due to the reduction of low density lipoproteins (LDL and to increases in high density lipoproteins (HDL. Recent studies have shown that estrogens protect against oxidative stress and decrease LDL oxidation. Estrogens have direct effects on the arterial tissue and modulate vascular reactivity through nitric oxide and prostaglandin synthesis. While many of the effects of estrogen on vascular tissue are believed to be mediated by estrogen receptors alpha and ß, there is evidence for `immediate non-genomic' effects. The role of HDL in interacting with 17ß-estradiol including its esterification and transfer of esterified estrogens to LDL is beginning to be elucidated. Despite the suggested positive effects of estrogens, two recent placebo-controlled clinical trials in women with CHD did not detect any beneficial effects on overall coronary events with estrogen therapy. In fact, there was an increase in CHD events in some women. Mutations in thrombogenic genes (factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutation, etc. in a subset of women may play a role in this unexpected finding. Thus, the cardioprotective effect of estrogens appears to be more complicated than originally thought and requires more research.

  4. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

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    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  5. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

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    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON modulate progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing (LH hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion.

  6. Artificial urinary sphincters for male stress urinary incontinence: current perspectives

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    Cordon BH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Billy H Cordon,1 Nirmish Singla,1 Ajay K Singla2 1Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 2Department of Urology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH, USA Abstract: The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS, which has evolved over many years, has become a safe and reliable treatment for stress urinary incontinence and is currently the gold standard. After 4 decades of existence, there is substantial experience with the AUS. Today AUS is most commonly placed for postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence. Only a small proportion of urologists routinely place AUS. In a survey in 2005, only 4% of urologists were considered high-volume AUS implanters, performing >20 per year. Globally, ~11,500 AUSs are placed annually. Over 400 articles have been published regarding the outcomes of AUS, with a wide variance in success rates ranging from 61% to 100%. Generally speaking, the AUS has good long-term outcomes, with social continence rates of ~79% and high patient satisfaction usually between 80% and 90%. Despite good outcomes, a substantial proportion of patients, generally ~25%, will require revision surgery, with the rate of revision increasing with time. Complications requiring revision include infection, urethral atrophy, erosion, and mechanical failure. Most infections are gram-positive skin flora. Urethral atrophy and erosion lie on a spectrum resulting from the same problem, constant urethral compression. However, these two complications are managed differently. Mechanical failure is usually a late complication occurring on average later than infection, atrophy, or erosions. Various techniques may be used during revisions, including cuff relocation, downsizing, transcorporal cuff placement, or tandem cuff placement. Patient satisfaction does not appear to be affected by the need for revision as long as continence is restored. Additionally, AUS following prior sling surgery has comparable

  7. Sensing Estrogen with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Kim, Byung Kun; Im, Ji-Eun; Choi, Han Nim; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Cho, Seong In

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application feasibility of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in measuring estrogen (17β-estradiol) in gas phase. The present biosensor gives a linear response (R2 = 0.999) for 17β-estradiol vapor concentration from 3.7 ng/L to 3.7 × 10−4 ng/L with a limit of detection (3.7 × 10−4 ng/L). The results show that the fabricated biosensor demonstrates better detection limit of 17β-estradiol in gas phase than the previous report with GC-MS method. This estrogen biosensor has many potential applications for on-site detection of a variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the gas phase.

  8. Sensing Estrogen with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the application feasibility of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS in measuring estrogen (17β-estradiol in gas phase. The present biosensor gives a linear response (R2=0.999 for 17β-estradiol vapor concentration from 3.7 ng/L to 3.7 × 10−4 ng/L with a limit of detection (3.7 × 10−4 ng/L. The results show that the fabricated biosensor demonstrates better detection limit of 17β-estradiol in gas phase than the previous report with GC-MS method. This estrogen biosensor has many potential applications for on-site detection of a variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs in the gas phase.

  9. Delay in post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement negates estrogen-induced augmentation of post-exercise muscle satellite cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Gary; Iqbal, Sobia; Hubbard, Andrew; Hamilton, Victoria; Bombardier, Eric; Tiidus, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of a delay in post-ovariectomy replacement of 17β-estradiol (estrogen) on the post-exercise proliferation of muscle satellite cells. Nine-week-old, ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64) were distributed among 8 groups based on estrogen status (0.25 mg estrogen pellet or sham), exercise status (90 min run at 17 m·min(-1) and a grade of -13.5° or unexercised), and estrogen replacement ("proximal", estrogen replacement within 2 weeks; or "delayed", estrogen replacement at 11 weeks following ovariectomy). Significant increases in satellite cells were found in the soleus and white gastrocnemius muscle (immunofluorescent colocalization of nuclei with Pax7) 72 h following eccentric exercise (p exercised groups. Proximal E2 replacement resulted in a further augmentation of muscle satellite cells in exercised rats (p estrogen replacement group. Expression of PI3K was unaltered and phosphorylation of Akt relative to total Akt increased following estrogen supplementation and exercise. Exercise alone did not alter the expression levels of Akt. An 11 week delay in post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement negated the augmenting influence seen with proximal (2 week delay) post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement on post-exercise muscle satellite cell proliferation. This effect appears to be independent of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

  10. [Urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellig, E; Apfelbeck, M; Straub, J; Karl, A; Tritschler, S; Stief, C G; Riccabona, M

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys. There are different approaches to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux in different countries. The commonly used standard approach in Germany is voiding cystourethrography. In the case of reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy should be performed additionally to exclude renal scarring (bottom-up approach).

  11. Curriculum integration of urinary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WANG; Li WANG; Wen-xie XU

    2015-01-01

    As the organ-system oriented integration of medical education has been carried out in many domestic medical schools for years,an urgent need of discussions on various problems of integrated medical education emerges.This paper reviews the urinary integrated educational work in Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine(SJTU-MS)and introduces the contents of the integrated curriculum of urinary system.We focus on whether we should apply the single cycle integration mode or dual cycle mode,and compare the vocational medical education and elite medical education,and demonstrate the importance of inter-system integration and the ideal integrated textbooks.Multifarious teaching methods and other issues are also mentioned.The future development of integrated medical education is prospected positively.

  12. Simple cyst of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure.

  13. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.

  14. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, A B

    2001-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequently seen 'medical' complications in pregnancy. The pioneering work of Edward Kass discovered that 6% of pregnant women had asymptomatic bacteriuria associated with increased prematurity and perinatal mortality compared to women with sterile urine. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy has become routine. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria as well as the associated complications described by Kass in 1962 are higher compared to most data collected in the 1980s and late 1990s in different populations in various parts of the world. Other factors such as vaginal colonization have been recognized as important contributors to preterm labour. The value of screening for bacteriuria has to be re-addressed considering methods, significance and costs. Treatment of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is critically reviewed.

  15. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who...... prevalence in 1987 of episodes of stress and urge urinary incontinence; prevalence of menopause and exposure to childbirth, gynecologic surgery, cystitis and obesity as indicated by body mass index more than 29; prevalence relative risks, as indicated by odds ratio of UI conditional on menopause and other...... the year of final menstruation. The findings suggest perimenopausal processes rather than the menopause in general to be responsible for an increased risk of developing UI. The elevation of UI prevalence in the perimenopause may reflect the adjustment of the female continence mechanism to function...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Evan B.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1). Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance req...

  17. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

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    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  18. Effects of estrogens and bladder inflammation on mitogen-activated protein kinases in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia from adult female rats

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    Keast Janet R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition associated with bladder inflammation and, like a number of other chronic pain states, symptoms associated with interstitial cystitis are more common in females and fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if estrogens could directly modulate signalling pathways within bladder sensory neurons, such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. These signalling pathways have been implicated in neuronal plasticity underlying development of inflammatory somatic pain but have not been as extensively investigated in visceral nociceptors. We have focused on lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons projecting to pelvic viscera (L1, L2, L6, S1 of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and performed both in vitro and in vivo manipulations to compare the effects of short- and long-term changes in estrogen levels on MAPK expression and activation. We have also investigated if prolonged estrogen deprivation influences the effects of lower urinary tract inflammation on MAPK signalling. Results In studies of isolated DRG neurons in short-term (overnight culture, we found that estradiol and estrogen receptor (ER agonists rapidly stimulated ER-dependent p38 phosphorylation relative to total p38. Examination of DRGs following chronic estrogen deprivation in vivo (ovariectomy showed a parallel increase in total and phosphorylated p38 (relative to β-tubulin. We also observed an increase in ERK1 phosphorylation (relative to total ERK1, but no change in ERK1 expression (relative to β-tubulin. We observed no change in ERK2 expression or phosphorylation. Although ovariectomy increased the level of phosphorylated ERK1 (vs. total ERK1, cyclophosphamide-induced lower urinary tract inflammation did not cause a net increase of either ERK1 or ERK2, or their phosphorylation. Inflammation did, however, cause an increase in p38

  19. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

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    T. V. Margieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection. 

  20. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, A; Levancini, M

    2001-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.